Useful formulas:-1. Cutting force 2. Stripping force 3. Flat blank length 4.

Correction factor for flat blank length 5. Pre-form for full circle forming 6. Number of drawing process 7. Draw clearance 8. Number of draw reduction 9. Draw reduction percentage 10. Area of flat ring 11. Area of Cylinder 12. Area of fillet 13. Area of invert fillet 14. Area of hemisphere 15. Area of spherical ring & dish

F= A x Tß
Cutting force
F = Cutting force S = Material thickness L = Total cutting length A = L x S = Shear area

Tß = Shear strength Note : Shear strength = 80% of tensile strength

P= ( L x S x Tß ) / 10
Stripping force
P = Stripping force S = Material thickness L = Total cutting length A = L x S = Shear area

Tß = Shear strength

L = a + ( R + q x s/2 )( Pi x ° / 180)
L = Flat blank length a, b = Length of legs R = Bend radius q = Correction factor ( refer to table below ) ° = Bend angle Pi = 3.1416
Correction factor q Ratio R : s

5.0 3.0 2.0 1.2 0.8 0.5 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5

Correction factor

Correction factor

R = Bend radius
S = Material thickness

E = ( D + s ) 0.707 C = ( D + s ) 1.414

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