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Title no. 96-S60


Design for Punching Shear Strength with ACI 318-95
by Amin Ghali and Sami Megally
Brittle punching failure of flat plates can occur due to the transfer of shearing forces and unbalanced moments between slabs and columns. Design of connections of columns to flat plates to insure safety against punching failure is presented. This paper covers the design procedure in most practical situations, including interior, edge, and corner columns; prestressed and nonprestressed slabs; slabs with openings; and slabs with shear reinforcement. The ACI 318-95 Building Code requirements are adhered to where applicable. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the design procedure. Seismic design considerations are not discussed in this paper.
Keywords: columns (supports); connections; flat concrete plates; prestressed concrete; punching shear; raft foundations; reinforced concrete; shear strength; slabs; structural design.

INTRODUCTION The punching shear resistance of concrete flat plates frequently needs to be increased by the provision of drop panels or by shear reinforcement. The latter solution is more acceptable architecturally, and is often more economical. This paper gives the details of punching shear design of flat plates without drop panels, with or without shear reinforcement. Requirements of the ACI 318-951 Building Code for design of slabs against punching are reviewed. The design steps are presented, adhering to the code requirements when they apply. Most conditions that occur in practice are considered for slabs with or without prestressing, including slabs with openings in the column vicinity. Interior, edge, and corner column-slab connections subjected to shear and moment transfer are considered. The design steps are demonstrated by computed examples. This paper presents a complete design procedure for punching shear. Reference is made to an available computer program that can be used for the design. When drop panels are used, the design procedure for flat plates applies with an additional provision that is also discussed. The ACI 318-951 Building Code allows the use of shear heads, in the form of steel I- or channel-shaped sections, as shear reinforcement in slabs. Because at present this type is rarely used, it will not be discussed here. The two most common types of shear reinforcement are shown in Fig. 1. To save space in this paper, the arrangements of the reinforcement with the two types are shown in a single top view in Fig. 1(a). Fig. 1(b) and (c) are a pictorial view and a cross section showing, respectively, details of conventional stirrups and stud shear reinforcement (SSR). The vertical legs of the stirrups or the stems of the studs intersect the shear cracks and prevent their widening (Fig. 2). Because the intersection can occur at any section of the stirrup leg or the stud stem, the leg or the stem should be as long as possible and must be anchored as closely as possible to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab (observing the cover requirements for corrosion and fire protection). Effective anchorage is essential to develop the yield strength of the shear reinforcement of both types. With stirrups ACI Structural Journal/July-August 1999

Fig. 1—Types of shear reinforcement considered: (a) shear reinforcements (top view); (b) stirrups; and (c) stud shear reinforcement alternate details (Section A-A). [Fig. 1(b)], the anchorage is provided by hooks, bends, and the longitudinal flexural reinforcing bar lodged at the corners. Before the force in a stirrup leg reaches its yield strength, the concrete inside the hooks or bends crushes or
ACI Structural Journal, V. 96, No. 4, July-August 1999. Received October 13, 1997, and reviewed under Institute publication policies. Copyright © 1999, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, including the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors. Pertinent discussion including author’s closure, if any, will be published in the May-June 2000 ACI Structural Journal if the discussion is received by January 1, 2000.


In Fig. In absence of shear reinforcement. and (c) corner column.+ --------------. the design is based on research. The Canadian Standard CSA-A23.+ 2⎞ f c′ ⎝ bo ⎠ (4) (5) ACI Structural Journal/July-August 1999 . 3. His research interests include structural analysis. Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs. enough to insure that the full yield strength of the stud can be developed with negligible slip of the anchorage. For these situations. respectively 1 γ v = 1 – ------------------------------2 b 1 + -. γvx and γvy are fractions of the moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the x and y axes. However. 3—Critical sections for two-way shear in slabs at d/2 from column face: (a) interior column. and seismic design of reinforced concrete structures. ACI 318R-951 emphasizes that stirrups can be used. splits. Thus. (b) edge column. Canada.). y) are coordinates of the point at which vu is maximum and J is a property of critical section “analogous to polar moment of inertia.⎞ f c′ ⎝ β c⎠ αs d v n = v c = ⎛ -------. The size of the anchor heads must be large 540 (3) ACI 318-951 defines b1 and b2. x and y are replaced by x and y if they are principal axes. The code does not give an equation for γv for critical sections having shapes other than a closed rectangle. the force Vu . He is a member of ACI Committees 373. and requires that the stirrups be closed and enclose a longitudinal bar at each corner [Fig. in this figure and others in this paper. and 435. For this reason. and moments Mux and Muy . provided they are well-anchored. He received his PhD from the University of Calgary in 1998 and his BSc from Ain-Shams University. φ is the strength-reduction factor (φ = 0.” Figure 3 indicates the positive directions of x and y axes. 3(a). and 421.3-942 does not permit use of stirrups as shear reinforcement in slabs thinner than 300 mm (12 in. (x. particularly in thin slabs. b1 and b2 are respectively equal to (c1 + d) and (c2 + d). the finite element method. in 1988. thus preventing development of the full strength of the stirrup. units) 4v n = v c = ⎛ 2 + ---. vu is the maximum shear stress caused by the transfer of a factored shearing force Vu and bending moments Mux and Muy between the slab and column and acting at critical section centroid Fig. Experiments show that this can be achieved with anchor heads of area nine to 10 times the cross-sectional area of the stud. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE This paper outlines the steps of design for punching shear strength in accordance with ACI 318-95. the arrows represent the directions of force and moments exerted by the column on the slab. ACI member Sami Megally is a postdoctoral associate in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Calgary. d is the distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension reinforcement. respectively. 2—Interception of cracks by vertical shear reinforcement. The SSR relies on mechanical anchorage by heads at both ends of the stem or by a head at one end and a steel strip welded to several studs. The steel strip holds the studs in a vertical position and insures the appropriate spacing between them until the concrete is cast. Circular Concrete Structures Prestressed with Circumferential Tendons. 1(b)]. as widths of shear critical section measured in direction of the span for which moment is determined and perpendicular to it.ACI member Amin Ghali is a professor of civil engineering at the University of Calgary.85). Deflection of Concrete Building Structures. causing slip. the code requires that the nominal shear stress of nonprestressed slabs be the smallest of (using lb and in. the code does not cover all situations encountered in practice. the subscripts x and y refer to centroidal axes in directions of both spans. and Joint ACI-ASCE Committees 343. ACI 318-95 Code requirements ACI 318-951 requires that at a critical section at d/2 from column face (Fig. Alberta. γ vy M uy V u γ vx M ux v u = ------.+ ---------------y -x bo d Jx Jy (2) where bo is length of perimeter of shear critical section. Concrete Bridge Design.1 ⁄ b 2 3 Fig. when calculating γvy for the rectangular critical section shown in Fig. Egypt. 3) vu ≤ φvn (1) where vn is the nominal shear stress.

1 of ACI 318-95 allows for prestressed members. Other provisions for prestressed slabs and slabs with openings in the column vicinity will be discussed in the following sections. (b) fc′ shall not be taken greater than 5000 psi.0. (10) may be neglected or Vp reduced to account for the inaccuracy that can occur in the execution of the tendon profile.75h but not to exceed 24 in. Optional values for fraction γv for moment transfer by shear ACI 318-951 introduced for the first time Section 13. fyv is specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. as shown in Fig. For an interior column or an edge column [Fig.5]. Eq. The symbol γf is the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure. Shear reinforcement must be extended for a sufficient distance until the critical section outside the shear-reinforced zone (Fig. (4) to (6) only if the following conditions are satisfied: (a) no portion of the cross section of the column shall be closer than four times the slab thickness to a discontinuous edge. αs = 30 for edge columns. it is difficult to control the slope of tendon profile at the point it crosses a critical section.5 and [(αs d/bo) + 1. s to reach 0.5. (b) edge column. and (c) fpc in each direction shall not be less than 125 psi nor be taken greater than 500 psi. (3). For a corner column [Fig. 3(c)] or for an edge column [Fig. αs = 40 for interior columns. (10) can replace Eq.75d. For all slab-column connections. which permits the option of reducing γv from the value given by Eq. respectively. and s is spacing of shear reinforcement.3. where Vc = vc bo d.3.375ρb .75φVc for a corner or edge column. the last term in Eq. (1) with vn = vc = 2 f c′ .25γv by Eq. It is considered here that this limit is excessive in slabs. fpc is average value of fpc in two vertical slab sections in perpendicular directions.25).5φVc or 0. In thin slabs. (3) is allowed only when ρ ≤ 0. and increasing γf by the same amount of reduction. 4—Critical sections for two-way shear in slabs at d/2 from outermost peripheral line of shear reinforcement: (a) interior column. This is because the difference between d and h is more important in slabs than in beams and cracks could bypass the shear reinforcement.4φVc . (4) to (6). and αs = 20 for corner columns. γv can be reduced to (1.4. and it is recommended that the spacing should not exceed 0. spacing of shear reinforcement. Av is area of shear reinforcement within a distance s. with fpc being the compressive stress at section centroid after allowance for all prestress losses. ACI Structural Journal/July-August 1999 . with vc given by Eq. ACI 318-951 replaces Eq.5. The effect of openings is taken into account by considering part of shear critical section to be ineffective. provided that Vu ≤ 0. where h is overall thickness of member. in absence of Muy]. βc is ratio of long side to short side of column. and βp is the smaller of 3. Thus. the coefficient γv can be reduced to zero provided that Vu ≤ 0.5d. 3(b).. Section 11. fc′ is specified concrete compressive strength. Slabs with openings ACI 318-951 requires that effect of openings on punching shear resistance of a slab-column connection must be considered when openings are located at a distance less than 10 times the slab thickness from the column or when openings are located within the column strip. and (c) corner column. the optional reduction of γv below the value given by Eq. When vu > φvn . for practical considerations. in absence of Mux]. Prestressed slabs For prestressed slabs with no shear reinforcement. 2. The upper limit for s is 0. The ineffective part is that part of the critical section perimeter that is enclosed by straight lines projecting from the column centroid and tangent to the boundaries of the openings (Example 3). slab thickness must be increased or shear reinforcement provided. vn is to be calculated using the same equations as for nonprestressed slabs. 3(b). ACI 318-951 expresses the nominal shear stress as v n = v c + v s ≤ 6 f c′ v c = 2 f c′ A v f yv v s = ------------bo s (7) (8) (9) where vs is nominal shear stress provided by shear reinforcement. (4) to (6) by v n = v c = β p f c′ + 0.3f pc + V p ⁄ b o d (10) Fig. where ρ is the ratio of nonpre541 where Vp is the vertical component of all effective prestress forces crossing the critical section. (3) . 4) satisfies Eq. Within the shear-reinforced zone.v n = v c = 4 f c′ (6) where vc is the nominal shear stress provided by concrete. When shear reinforcement is used.

the difference (Jy – Iy). and ρb is the value of ρ producing balanced strain conditions. 5(b) and (c). and the mechanical anchors at the stud ends insure that the yield strength is available at all sections of the stem. The authors recommend the orthogonal rather than the radial arrangement of stud rails. justified by tests. stressed tension reinforcement in the slab. This enables use of thinner slabs.8-13 ACI 421. the maximum distance g between the steel strips. This is because with the radial arrangement of stud rails. 1(a)]. 1(b)] should satisfy the requirement g ≤ 2d. or because stirrups are less effective than shear studs. the distance g between stirrup legs [Fig. The same approach is adopted in the remainder of the paper. 5(c)] in the vicinity of circular columns. In the direction parallel to the column faces. at a charge equal to the cost of reproduction plus handling at time of request. ACI 421.1R9214 recommends that. (b) orthogonal arrangement at circular columns. 5—Stud shear reinforcement arrangement: (a) rectangular columns.1R-9214 considers a vertical branch of a stirrup to be less effective than a stud in controlling shear cracks because the stud stem is straight over its full length while the ends of the stirrup branch are curved. which is equal to the second term in Eq.5. in presence of shear studs. ACI 318-95 and its commentary define J as an “analogous to polar moment of inertia” and do ACI Structural Journal/July-August 1999 542 . Stud rails can be arranged in two orthogonal directions [Fig.3 unsafe.* Allowable values for nominal shear stress and spacing of stud shear reinforcement Because of the superiority of anchorage of the SSR. (7)] can be as high as 8 f c′ . shear studs placed in the forms in their appropriate design locations are more likely to interfere with the bars of the flexural reinforcement mesh.3942 allows. does not exceed 3 percent of Iy . a value of vc 1-1/2 times the allowable value when stirrups are employed. Eq. a more restrictive limit should apply. The authors consider Section 13. 2) The upper limits for so and s can be based on the value of vu at the critical section at d/2 from column face so ≤ 0.1) (11. It can be verified that with the column sizes and slab thicknesses used in practice. and (c) radial arrangement at circular columns. For the same reasons.5d when v u ⁄ φ ≤ 6 f c′ (11.3.75d when v u ⁄ φ ≤ 6 f c′ so ≤ 0. This limitation is to insure that the studs confine the concrete and prevent widening of shear cracks over the perimeter of the critical section. 3(a).3 Additional experimental data4-7 for interior columns giving further justification of this opinion are given in Appendix A. (14).2) Arrangement of shear reinforcement Figure 5(a) shows the typical arrangement of stud shear reinforcement at rectangular columns. 5(b)] or radial directions [Fig. this is not the case with a vertical branch of a stirrup. Each group of studs on a line perpendicular to the column face are welded to a steel strip or spaced in a steel trough [Fig. where it will be kept permanently on file. (7) and (8) will be replaced by v n = v c + v s ≤ 8 f c′ with v c = 3 f c′ (13) (12) Fig. The code commentary equation may be written in the form Jy = Iy + d 3(c1 + d)/6 (14) * The Appendix is available in xerographic or similar form from ACI headquarters.where so is the distance between first peripheral line of studs and column face. ACI 421. where Iy is the second moment of area of the critical section about the y axis. The distance g between stud rails in the vicinity of circular columns should not exceed 2d as shown in Fig. Thus.5d and s ≤ 0. 1(c)]. or troughs.1R-9214 suggests the following deviations from ACI 318 when SSR is used: 1) The nominal shear stress vn resisted by concrete and shear reinforcement [Eq.35d and s ≤ 0. in a direction parallel to the column face. be less than 2d. the Canadian Standard CSA-A23. instead of 6 f c′ . when SSR is used. they should be placed in rows parallel to the column [Fig. Parameter J The Code Commentary ACI 318R-951 gives an equation for the parameter J when the shear critical section has the rectangular shape shown in Fig. When stirrups are used. The justifications are given in the discussion of the code.

Problems arise15 when the empirical Eq. the critical section for edge and corner columns has three or two sides. 4). Use of this equation avoids the ambiguity in calculating the parameter J.when --. Outside the shear-reinforced zone. the component Vu combined with γvx Mux and γvy Muy are not in equilibrium with the shear stress in the critical section. at d/2 from column faces. has the shape of the perimeter of a closed rectangle.( l x ⁄ l y ) – 0. Similar design problems may arise when employing Eq. respectively.Fig. and for all columns when the slab has nonsymmetric openings. allowed by ACI 318-95 for critical sections having the shape of a closed rectangle. respectively [Fig. In these cases. (3) for edge columns. (2) by the critical section area’s second moments Ix and Iy about the centroidal principal axes x and y.2. not give equations for J when the critical section has shapes other than rectangular. Replacing Jx and Jy in Eq. 6—Equations for γv applicable for critical sections at d/2 from column face and outside shear-reinforced zone.2 3 At corner columns γvx = 0. (3) does not apply for all cases and for all critical sections. The vertical shear stress vu calculated by Eq. At the same location. it may be more convenient to calculate the shear stress at 543 . γ vy = 0 (19) 2 ly 1 + -. (16) (18) (16) (17) This equation applies when the critical section has any shape. (2) has a vertical resultant component equal to Vu . whose sides are not all parallel to a column face (Fig. (3). At interior columns 1 γ vx = 1 – ---------------------------2 1 + -. gives linearly varying stress vu .l x ⁄ l y 3 At edge columns γvx = same as Eq. (3) adopted by ACI 318-95 is satisfactory for interior columns where the critical section. In other words. respectively. but has moment components slightly smaller than γvx Mux and γvy Muy .16 Inclined axes The shear critical sections for corner columns. 3(b) and (c)]. 6). They gave the following equations for γv to ACI Structural Journal/July-August 1999 lx 1 γ vy = 1 – ---------------------------------------------.+ ---------------y -x bo d Ix Iy (15) cover all cases and all shapes of the critical section encountered in design (Fig. the equation for the shear stress vu at any point of the critical section becomes γ vy M uy V u γ vx M ux v u = ------. have principal axes x and y inclined to the column faces. whose resultants exactly satisfy equilibrium. (19) (20) (21) where lx and ly are projections of the critical section on principal axes x and y. which has no known meaning in mechanics. the critical section follows the perimeter of a closed or open polygon.4 γvy = same as Eq. With this replacement. Elgabry and Ghali16 showed by numerous finite element analyses that Eq.+ --------------.< 0. is employed for corner columns. Coefficient γv Numerous experiments have shown that the empirical Eq.l y ⁄ l x 3 1 γ vy = 1 – ---------------------------2 1 + -. The safety of design using the above equations has been verified using published experimental results.

and (b) use of Eq. (22) reduces to Eq. I x = i=1 ∑ m I xi . (34) and (35). when they are principal. It is required to determine whether d is sufficient for safety against punching without the use of shear reinforcement and if not. (xA . MuxO. Mux . I xy = xy da ∫ where da is elemental area of the critical section. 7—Transformation of moments: (a) use of Eq. In general. 7.( y A + y B + y A y B ) 3 Fig. (15). 3(c)]. 3. The first critical section to be considered is at d/2 from the column face. the positive sign convention is indicated in Fig. θ = 0. I y = ∫x –2 da . design the necessary shear reinforcement. Ix . d ( l ) AB 2 2 ( I y ) AB = --------------. I y = i=1 ∑ Iyi m (26) where m is the total number of segments.⎟ x bo d ⎝ I I – I 2 ⎠ ⎝ I I – I2 ⎠ x y xy x y xy where d is effective depth. ACI Structural Journal/July-August 1999 . The values of Ix y . (23) and (24). yB) are the coordinates of the segment ends A and B. Appropriate signs for the force and moments must be used. d ( l ) AB ( I xy ) AB = --------------. the periphery of shear critical section is composed of straight segments. A typical straight segment AB is shown in Fig. and Muy at the centroid of the critical section considered [Fig.Fig.⎟ y + ⎜ -----------------------------. 7(a)] Mx = γvx Mux cosθ + γvx Muysinθ My = –γvx Mux sinθ + γvy Muycosθ Ix = (23) (24) (25) The positive sign convention for θ is indicated in Fig. and Eq. The symbols MuxO and MuyO are the unbalanced moments at the column centroid. and i refers to the i-th segment. M uy = M uyO + V u x O (32) ∫y –2 da . The angle θ between the principal x axis and the x axis is given by tan2θ = –2Ixy/(Ix – Iy) (31) (22) where Mx and My are statical equivalents of γvx Mux and γvy Muy given by [Fig. Design steps The data required for design of slab-column connections are: d. When working with nonprincipal axes x. 3(a) and (b)]. c1. Vu . x ≡ x. and Iy may be calculated by ( l ) AB = [ ( x B – x A ) + ( y B – y A ) ] 544 2 2 1⁄2 (27) where xO and yO are coordinates of the column centroid. The steps of design when x and y are principal axes are: Step 1—Replace Vu . 3(a) and (b) or 4(a) and (b)] M ux = M uxO + V u y O . Ix y = 0.( 2x A y A + 2x B y B + x A y B + x B y A ) 6 d ( l ) AB 2 2 ( I x ) AB = --------------. MuxO. y) referring to centroidal but nonprincipal axes using the following equation to replace Eq.( x A + x B + x A x B ) 3 (28) (29) (30) points with coordinates (x. and MuyO by their statical equivalents Vu . 8—i-th segment of shear critical section. y [Fig. c2. yA) and (xB . 8. Ix . MuyO. and Iy of the critical section may be determined by summation of the contributions of straight segments I xy = i=1 ∑ m I xyi . But. y ≡ y. its contributions to Ix y .+ ⎜ -----------------------------. and fc′ [Fig. the given moments will be MuxO and MuyO and Steps 1 and 2 of the design given below will be changed. The equations presented in this section apply when the x and y axes are principal or not. (2) ⎛ M y I x – M x I xy⎞ V u ⎛ M x I y – M y I xy⎞ v u = ------.

The following data are valid for all the columns considered here: c1 = 12 in. Ix = 669. Step 3—If vu ≤ φvn [given by Eq..0. Calculate vu by Eq.+ 3 87 ( 5. no shear reinforcement is required. (12). vc = 190 psi [Eq. 9. so ≤ 0. Mux = 400 kip-in. (16) and (17)].25 in.. and MuyO by their statical equivalents Vu. Step 4—Select Av and s such that Eq. When vn < vu/φ ≤ vn limit .1) in.9. (24).2. vu/φ = 345 psi < 6 f c ′ (= 379 psi). concrete cover = 0. Mux and Muy at the centroid of the critical section considered [Fig.. and (22) to calculate vu .386 [Fig. s ≤ 0. Example 1: Interior column (Fig..5 × 10 545 3 3 3 3 3 where xO and yO are coordinates of the column centroid. (15)] 0.. vu < φvn (= 297 psi). (23). γvx = 0. 6. 4). The program designs stud shear reinforcement when shear reinforcement is required. respectively. γvy = 0. Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for a critical section at d/2 outside the outermost peripheral line of shear reinforcement (Fig.+ 3 208.17 which follows the above mentioned procedure.. (16) and (17)].356 [Fig. STDESIGN. d must be increased. Computer program STDESIGN An available computer program. Revision of Steps 1 and 2 when nonprincipal axes are used Step 1 revised—Replace Vu. 3(c) or 4(c)] M ux = M uxO + V u y O . Av = 1. determine γvx and γvy .0.= 293 psi 3 28. d = 7 . 35.9) [Eq. Iy = 575.75d. ACI Structural Journal/July-August 1999 . 7(b)] M ux = M ux cos θ – M uy sin θ M uy = M ux sin θ + M uy cos θ (34) (35) Using the appropriate equation for γv selected from Fig.5 × 103 in. and Muy = 250 kip-in. 6 or Eq. (13). [Eq.9 in. normal weight concrete is used.356 ( 250 × 10 ) ( 8.. (12)]. if not. shear reinforcement is adequate. γvy = 0.9 ) v u = ---------------------. 9—Arrangement of shear studs in vicinity of interior column in Example 1.. vu > φvn (= 215 psi). DESIGN EXAMPLES This section of the paper demonstrates the design procedure mentioned earlier by means of numerical examples of connection of a flat plate with interior and edge rectangular columns. MuxO = 400 kip-in. Iy = 28.4.4. Step 5—Properties of critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs: bo = 208. where vn limit = 6 f c ′ or 8 f c ′ when stirrups or studs are used as shear reinforcement. (6)]. If vu ≤ 2φ f c′ . fyv = 50 ksi.Step 2—Using the applicable equation for γv selected from Fig. Apply Eq.104 in.5 = 5. c2 = 20 in. MuxO. M uy = M uyO + V u x O (33) Fig. (4) to (6)].. When conventional stirrups are used. can be employed for punching shear design to reduce the time consumed by designers. vn is determined using Eq.75 .445 ( 400 × 10 ) ( 12. It is usable on IBM compatible microcomputers. γvx = 0. 6. (1) is satisfied.1 × 103 in. 9) Given: Vu = 110 kips.68 × 103 in. s = 4 in..415. Step 5—Extend the shear reinforcement zone by increasing the number of peripheral lines of studs. The maximum shear stress is at (7. vs = 159 psi [Eq. (13)]. Step 4—Select 3/8-in. Step 2 revised—Transform Mux and Muy to their statical equivalents Mux and Muy in directions of principal axes [Fig.75 ) 50. extension of shear reinforcement is sufficient.+ --------------------------------------------------------.445. 6 or Eq. 12. slab thickness = 7 in.2. (15). Select so = 2.75 in.5d. Step 2—Properties of the critical section at d/2 from column face: bo = 87 in. If (vu /φ) > vn limit .9 ) -----------------------------------------------------. (9)]. vn = 190 + 159 = 349 psi < 8 f c ′ (= 506 psi) [Eq. (15)] 110 × 10 .415 ( 400 × 10 ) ( 35.75 ) 669. flexural reinforcement bar diameter = 1/2 in. f c′ = 4000 psi.20 × 103 in. Step 1—Vu = 110 kips.68 × 10 Step 3—vn = 253 psi [Eq. (7) to (9). The maximum shear stress is at the point (8.0. use Eq. diameter studs with the arrangement shown in Fig. extend the shear reinforcement farther away from column and repeat Steps 1 and 2 until this requirement is satisfied.20 × 10 0.. Ix = 50. go to Step 4. When stud shear reinforcement is used. and (9).+ --------------------------------------------------------.4. MuyO = 250 kip-in. shear reinforcement is required. determine γvx and γvy ..9 ( 5.4.1 ) 110 × 10 v u = ---------------------------. stud shear reinforcement is used with diameter 3/8 in.75 in.

vs = 174 psi [Eq.83 × 103 in. vc = 190 psi [Eq. (19)]. (9)]. 10). 9). vu > φvn (= 215 psi). [Eq.1 ) v u = ---------------------------.0. 10) Given: Vu = 60 kips.5 in. shear reinforcement is adequate. vu/φ = 316 psi < 6 f c ′ (= 379 psi).+ -----------------------------------------------------..9) in. (13)].0. (19)]. (6)]. shear reinforcement is required. (15)] 0. 6 or Eq. 11—Interior column with opening in its vicinity in Example 3: (a) effective critical section at d/2 from column face. vn = 190 + 174 = 364 psi < 8 f c ′ (= 506 psi) [Eq. Step 2—Properties of the critical section at d/2 from column face: bo = 55.83 × 10 ) 3 = 107 psi < 2φ f c′ ( = 108 psi ) This indicates that the extension of the shear-reinforced zone is adequate (Fig.-diameter studs with the arrangement shown in Fig.278 ( – 87 × 10 ) ( – 21. MuxO = 0. Step 4—Select 3/8-in. Mux = 0.5d. MuyO = 250 kip-in..75 ) ( 64. Statical equivalent forces at critical section centroid are: Vu = 60 kips.Fig. s = 4 in. and (b) arrangement of shear studs and effective critical section outside shear-reinforced zone. Step 1—The above forces act at column centroid O whose coordinates are (-4.278 [Fig.0) in.386 ( 250 × 10 ) ( 7.75 ) 7.1 ( 5. Example 2: Edge column (Fig.= 269 psi 3 55. The maximum shear stress is at (4. [Eq. Statical equivalent forces at critical section centroid are: Vu = 60 kips. The maximum shear stress is at (–21.= 101 psi < 2φ f c′ ( = 108 psi ) 3 575. 0.1. 12. Select so = 2.1 in. Muy = -87 kip-in. Iy = 7. Muy = 527 kip-in. 11) Given Vu = 110 kips.291 [Fig. 546 3 3 3 Fig. Iy = 64. 10—Arrangement of shear studs in vicinity of edge column in Example 2. Mux = 0. γvy = 0. so ≤ 0.0 ) 60 × 10 v u = ------------------------.1. The coordinates of column centroid O are (–15.2..4.291 ( 527 × 10 ) ( 4. MuxO = 400 kip-in. MuyO = 820 kip-in.1) in. γvy = 0... Av = 0. 10.2 ) -----------------------------------------------------. 0. (15)] 3 60 × 10 . vu < φvn (= 309 psi). 31.+ -----------------------------------------------------------3 105.0) in. (12)].75d.25 in. Example 3: Interior column near slab opening (Fig.544 × 103 in.9.4. 6 or Eq. 0. ACI Structural Journal/July-August 1999 . s ≤ 0.5 ( 5.1 × 10 This indicates that the extension of the shear-reinforced zone is adequate (Fig.544 × 10 Step 3—vn = 253 psi [Eq. Step 5—Properties of critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of studs: bo = 105.773 in.

Muy = 166 kip-in. shear reinforcement is required.992 .36 × 103 in. (34) and (35)]: Mux = 278 kip-in. (22)] 110 × 10 ) v u = ------------------------. this practice is not recommended by the authors. 11(b)].36 ) – 40.) [Eq. Ix y = –3.4.3 in.+ 128 ( 23.. The punching design is based on a critical section at d/2 outside the shear capital with the nominal shear stress vn given by Eq. Recent experiments18 show that the punching failure with this type of capitals can be extremely brittle. (12)]. ACI Structural Journal/July-August 1999 3 Fig.67 ( 23. vc = 190 psi [Eq.5d. The maximum shear stress is at the point (7.2 kipin. 12—Drop panels and shear capitals.-diameter studs with the arrangement shown in Fig.7 in. at d1/2 from column face and at d2/2 outside the drop panel. It differs from drop panel in the plan dimensions. (33)]..6 in.75d.. Plan dimensions are selected so that Eq.8. and 28.992 ) + ----------------------------------------------------------------.7.992 ) 2 40. (15) and vn = vc = 2 f c ′ .( 7. Slabs with drop panels and shear capitals A common solution used in practice to augment the punching shear strength of slab-column connections is to increase the slab thickness around the columns. 13(a) represents the arrangement of 547 . vu < φvn (= 315 psi).104 in.67 ( 23. The projections of critical section on principal axes x and y are 73. Iy = 23. respectively. Eq.67 × 103 in. The coordinates of column centroid are (–3.. Statical equivalent forces at critical section centroid are: Vu = 110 kip.5 in. 12(a)].25 in. and Muy = –168 kip-in. The shear capital is commonly small in size and is provided with no reinforcement other than the vertical bars of the column. Step 2—Properties of the critical section at d/2 from column face: bo = 76.7 ) = 302 psi 2 46. and 78.2. s ≤ 0.99 × 103 in. the maximum shear stress vu = 98 psi < 2φ f c′ (= 108 psi).7 kip-in. Step 5—Properties of the critical section at d/2 from the outermost peripheral line of shear studs: bo = 204. two critical sections must be investigated for punching shear strength.369.. [Eq. Eq. This indicates that the extension of the shear-reinforced zone is adequate [Fig. –2. therefore.392. γvy = 0. and in walls subjected to concentrated horizontal forces (e. where d1 and d2 are effective depths of the slab inside and outside the drop panel. The parts of these moments transferred by eccentricity of shear: γvx Mux = 120 kip-in.4. and My = 40.. Circular columns The punching shear design steps described earlier in this paper are applicable for connections of slabs with circular columns.7 ( 46. –0. s = 4 in. Ix y = -80.67 ) – 128 ( – 3.6 × 103 in.992 ) Step 3—vn = 253 psi [Eq.408.g. (4) to (6). 13—Arrangement of shear studs in raft foundations and walls. The circular column cross section is replaced by a square section so that the critical section at d/2 from the square column face will have the same perimeter length as for the critical section for the circular column.4.. 12 in. so ≤ 0. (16) and (17) give: γvx = 0..432. (16) and (17) give: γvx = 0.7 ( – 3.9) in. vs = 180 psi [Eq..0 × 103 in. Mux = 301 kip-in. Statical equivalent forces at critical section centroid are: Vu = 110 kips.6 ( 5. Iy = 635. Av = 1.Fig. Select so = 2.. 2.36 ) – ( – 3. Fig. respectively. Ix = 843.36 ) – ( – 3. Transform Mux and Muy to principal directions [Eq. vn = 190 + 180 = 370 psi < 8 f c′ (= 506 psi) [Eq. 11(b). Transform these moments to the x and y directions [Eq.75 ) 46.992 × 103 in. Step 1—The above forces act at column centroid O whose coordinates are (–1. this can be achieved by use of drop panels [Fig.7 in. Muy = 118 kip-in. (23) and (24)]: Mx = 128 kip-in.7 in. and γvy Muy = 61. (6)].4 The projections of critical section on principal axes x and y are 21. respectively. offshore structures).4.( 12 ) ----------------------------------------------------------------76.. The two critical sections are checked following the design steps mentioned earlier. When drop panels are used. Following the same procedure as for the critical section at d/2 from column face. vu/φ = 355 psi < 6 f c′ (= 379 psi).4. Figure 12(b) shows what is known in practice as shear capital. Step 4—Select 3/8-in.2) in. Ix = 46. shear reinforcement is adequate. footings. γvy = 0. (9)]. Mux = 158 kip-in. vu > φvn (= 215 psi). Other applications of stud shear reinforcement Stud shear reinforcement can be used and designed using the above equations to resist punching in raft foundations. (13)]. (1) is satisfied at the critical section outside the drop panel with vu determined by Eq.

Ghali. 17. should ideally be equal to the wall thickness minus the sum of the specified cover at the two wall faces. A. “Experimental Study of SlabColumn Connections.3-94).. at d/2 from column face.. Sept. and Ghali.” American Concrete Institute. 626-638. c2 = dimensions of column measured in two span directions d = effective depth of slab = effective depths of slab inside and outside drop panel. 5. Farmington Hills. 102. and Megally. Canada. MuyO.. No. H. 1993. 433-442. 1991.” ACI Structural Journal. 5. 191-198. 1(c). 82. Ghali. at column centroid s = spacing between peripheral lines of shear reinforcement = spacing between first peripheral line of shear reinforcement so and column face = nominal shear stress provided by concrete in presence of vc 548 ACI Structural Journal/July-August 1999 . “Shear Strength of Prestressed Concrete Edge Slab-Column Connections with and without Stud Shear Reinforcement. A. 11. and Durrani. No. Apr.. A. Alberta.-Dec.. July 1995. CONCLUSIONS A complete design procedure for slab-column connections against punching shear is presented. Wey. 4. b1 measured in direction of span for which moments are determined = width of critical section for shear.. Berlin. pp.” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 89. d2 respectively fc′ = specified compressive strength of concrete fpc = compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for all prestress losses) at centroid of cross section resisting externally applied loads = specified yield strength of shear reinforcement fyv g = spacing between stirrup vertical branches or shear studs in direction parallel to column face h = slab thickness = second moments of area of critical section about principal I x . 7. at d/2 from column face. 16. H. No.-Feb. x and y.-Apr.-Apr. pp. 3. psi Av = = = = = = 25.083 f c ′ . Muy = factored unbalanced moments transferred between slab and column about nonprincipal axes x and y. June 1998. J. A. 4. Nov.” American Concrete Institute. V. 1.356 kN-m 6. 1981. S.” ACI Structural Journal. pp. ST12... 3. pp. pp. Thus. and Dilger. 1.-Oct. y factor which adjusts vc for support type ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load or reaction area constant used to compute vc in prestressed slabs fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear at slab-column connections angle of inclination of principal axes x and y with respect to centroidal axes x.. and Ghali. 18. b2 measured in direction perpendicular to b1 bo = length of perimeter of critical section c1. 1996. 53-57. Islam. 1992. and Shatila. A.. W. No. Department of Civil Engineering. 93. 10. 89. No. 9. 76. University of Calgary. V. 6. V. 1989.shear studs in the vicinity of a column in a raft foundation. Design examples are presented. pp. 17. Computer Program STDESIGN. Farmington Hills. A. Equations based on research are used in the design procedure of practical design situations not covered by the ACI 318-95 Code. pp. 2. A. 1987. pp.-Feb.. respectively. the studs are mechanically anchored by heads at the top and by a steel strip at the bottom similar to Fig.. 6. respectively. MPa NOTATION = cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement on line parallel to perimeter of column = width of critical section for shear. pp. Mich. 1994. V. Figure 13(b) shows arrangement of shear studs with respect to other reinforcement in a wall.. S. 1 ft 1 kip 1 ft-kip 1 psi f c ′ .. V. Iy axes x and y. Robertson. Mar. and Moehle.. “Stud Shear Reinforcement for Flat Concrete Plates. 11 pp.89 × 10-3 MPa 0. V. P. S. and Ghali. “Tests on Concrete Slab-Column Connections with Stud Shear Reinforcement Subjected to Shear-Moment Transfer. The design can be simplified by use of an available computer program.. 676-683. pp. at critical section centroid MuxO .” ACI Structural Journal.. 16. vn vs vu Vc Vp Vu x.= factored unbalanced moments transferred between slab and MuxO . No. ACI Committee 421. Canadian Standards Association. V. S. Dilger. respectively. Jan. 13.4 mm 0. A. 14.. Hammill. J. 77-82. and Durrani.. and Ghali.-Dec. 5. M. y αs βc βp γv θ ρ ρb φ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = shear reinforcement nominal shear stress of critical section nominal shear stress provided by shear reinforcement maximum shear stress at critical section due to applied forces pure shear capacity of slab-column connection with no shear reinforcement vertical component of effective prestress forces crossing critical section applied shearing force at failure coordinates of point of maximum shear stress in critical section with respect to centroidal principal axes x and y coordinates of point of maximum shear stress in critical section with respect to centroidal nonprincipal axes x. ACI Committee 318.” Dec. 6.” Proceedings. 93. y.. 1985.” ACI Structural Journal. Mar. 107.. The figure can represent a vertical or a horizontal section. MuyO column about axes x.Oct. “Shear Reinforcement for Concrete Slabs. This design procedure satisfies the requirements of the ACI 318-95 Building Code. No. and Ghali. 549-568. 2403-2420. ASCE. Iy = second moments of area of critical section about axes x and y. including the heads. “Tests on Slab-Column Connections with Shear and Unbalanced Flexure. 37-45.” ASCE Journal of Structural Division. at critical section centroid Mux . 1992. Dilger. Pan. “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-95) and Commentary. V. d1. “Connection of Flat Plates to Edge Columns. No. 1995.. “Design of Concrete Structures (CSA-A23. Brampton. Ghali. H.. respectively. J. A. No. respectively ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions strength reduction factor = 0. E. pp. Decon. 15.. W. A. A. 2. Elgabry. 1976. 682-691. pp. 199 pp. “Discussion of Proposed Revisions to Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-89) (Revised 1992) and Commentary (ACI 318R-89) (Revised 1992). 84. V. Megally. 2. A. Muy = factored unbalanced moments transferred between slab and column about principal axes x and y. N. 8. D. Mar.” Beton-und Stahlbetonbau. 1981. “Seismic Response of Interior SlabColumn Connections with Shear Capitals. No.” ACI Structural Journal. 1995). 76. 468 pp. A. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was funded by a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada that is gratefully acknowledged. “Strength of Flat Slabs Reinforced with Stud Rails in the Vicinity of the Supports (Zum Tragverhalten von Flachdecken mit Dubelliesten—Bewchruing im Auflogerbereich).. No. 369 pp.. “Moment Transfer by Shear in SlabColumn Connections. Ontario. R.. P. “Punching Shear Resistance of Concrete Slabs to Gravity and Earthquake Forces. ly = projections of critical section on principal axes x and y. 100-104. 1996. Jan. H. “Gravity Load Effect on Seismic Behavior of Interior Slab-Column Connections. y x. “Transfer of Moments between Columns and Slabs: Proposed Code Revisions.” ACI Structural Journal.. the overall length of the studs.1R92). 1981. and Park. I. 187-196. A.” PhD dissertation. No. H. A. It is to be noted that the studs have double heads situated in the same plane as the outermost flexural reinforcement. Dec. y. Andrä. A.” ACI Structural Journal. pp. 12. CONVERSION FACTORS 1 in.. and V.” ACI Structural Journal. 88. A.85 REFERENCES 1. Elgabry. Nov. Mortin. “Shear Reinforcement for Slabs (ACI 421. Mar.448 kN 1. 89. pp. 807-819.” Concrete International. respectively Ix y = product of inertia of area of critical section about axes x and y J = property of shear critical section defined by ACI 318-95 Code as “analogous to the polar moment of inertia” lx . 7. V. Sept. Mokhtar. V. 56-61. (revised by N. No. V. A.. respectively I x .3048 m 4. 6. Elgabry. 1992. J. Mux . W. 3. V. Mich. Canada.

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