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1 The Geometry and Algebra of Vectors Vectors in the Plane A vector is a directed line segment that corresponds to a displacement from one point A to another point B. Notation:
−→

• A vector from A to B is denoted AB.

• A: initial point / tail

• B: terminal point / head
−→

• AB= v alternatively.

1

we −→ can construct a vector a =OA. • NB: Order is important: a b = b a • Two vectors are equal if they have the same length and the same direction i. b are called the components of the vectors. y = 2. b) in the plane.e. 2 .• To every point A = (a. x y = −1 2 means x = −1. called a position vector −→ This is • a =OA= a (column vector) b • a =OA= a b (row vector) −→ • The individual coordinates a.

• The vector OO= 0 is called the zero 0 vector and is denoted by 0. 2 • Let A = (0. −→ • A vector is said to be in standard position if its initial point is at the origin.1) • Draw a = −3 in standard position in R2. 2). −→ Find AB and redraw it in the standard position. . −1): Draw position vectors to A and B. Examples (Example 1. B = (2.

v2 cv = c v1 cv1 = v2 cv2 Vector subtraction A special case of a scalar multiple is (−1)v.New Vectors from Old Vector Addition .Head-to-Tail Rule / Parallelogram Rule u v Given vectors u = 1 and v = 1 u2 v2 u+v = u1 + v1 u2 + v2 Scalar multiplication v Given v = 1 and a real number c. Given u and v u − v = u + (−v) 3 . called the negative of v. written −v.

3) −3 4 and b = . If a =   2 4   If c = 2. b − a.Examples (Example 1. compute and draw −2 −1 a + b. 2 4 .2. 1 c and −2c. compute and draw 2c. 1.

cun   5 .  .e. un vn u1 + v1 u + v    u + v =  2 .   . v2.Vectors in Rn Rn is deﬁned to be the set of all ordered ntuples of real numbers written as row or column vectors. .  . 2 . i.  and v =  . un + vn       and cu1 cu    cu =  . vn] or v1 v   2  .   . · · · . vn  u1 v1 u  v   2   If u =  .   . 2   .2  then  . v ∈ Rn is of the form  [v1.  .

Then 1. v and w be vectors in Rn and let c and d be scalars. u + (−u) = 0 5. 1u = u Distributivity Distributivity 6 .Let u. (u+v)+w = u+(v +w) 3. (c + d)u = cu + du 7. u + v = v + u Commutativity Associativity 2. c(du) = (cd)u 8. c(u + v) = cu + cv 6. u + 0 = u 4.

b and x be vectors in Rn.5) Let a. Solve for x in terms of a and b if x + 2a − b = 3(x + a) − 2(2a − b) 7 .Examples (Example 1.

. .6. v 2. c2. .Linear combinations of vectors A vector v is a linear combination of vectors v 1. ck are called the coeﬃcients of the linear combination. . c2. v k if there are scalars c1. Example (Example 1. ck such that v = c1v 1 + c2v 2 + · · · + ck v k . . c1. .7) 0 3 Find w = as a linear combination of u = 2 1 and v = −1 1 8 . . . . . . . 1.

1 + 1 + 1 = 1. m − 1} is called the integers modulo m. 5. 2 9 . 6} 3 + 4 = 0. 3. where addition and multiplication are performed as usual. 1 1 A binary vector of length n will be denoted Zn. but calculated as the remainder when divided by m. .  . 1. For example in Z7 = {0. 1. 3. but calculated as the remainder when divided by 2. where addition and multiplication are performed as usual. 1} is called the integers modulo 2. . 5 + 4 = 2. 4. 2. 2. For example 1 + 0 = 1. A binary vector is a vector with components   0 1   from Z2 = {0. 3 · 4 = 5.Binary Vectors and Modular Arithmetic The set Z2 = {0. For example 1 0 0 . . 1}. . 1 + 1 = 0. In general the set Zm = {0.

In general an m-ary vector of length n represents a vector of length n with components from Zm. and is denoted by Zn m .

8 .14) • Calculate in Z2: 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 • What is 23456 equivalent to in Z2? • Calculate in Z4: 2 · 3 + 1 • For Z4 calculate: 2 1 2 0 + 2 1 0 2 3 • Solve for x over Z7: 2x = 3 10 .1.Example (Example 1.

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