SUBMISSION ON

E- Governance

SUB-IT for Management e-MBA (Insurance) MET INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES

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SUBMITTED BY
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DIPEEKA THIKEKAR KHUSHBOO SIPANI PRACHI RATHOD PRIYA MALI 0829

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CONTENTS
Sr No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Particulars Meaning Purpose Mission and Objectives E-governance Architecture Origins in India Value of IT in e-governance National e-governance Plan e-governance market e-governance initiatives E-readiness Perspective- WebCITI –e governance project (Case Study) Recommendation by National Knowledge Commission Conclusion Page No. 4 5 5 6 7 9 10 10 11 14 16 20 24
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MEANING
E-Governance —the use of IT to improve the ability of government to address the needs of society. It includes the publishing of policy and program related information to transact with citizens. It extends beyond provision of on-line services and covers the use of IT for strategic planning and reaching development goals of the government E-Governance is the public sector’s use of information and communication technologies with the aim of improving information and service delivery, encouraging citizen participation in the decision-making process and making government more accountable, transparent and effective. E-Governance involves new styles of leadership, new ways of debating and deciding policy and investment, new ways of accessing education, new ways of listening to citizens and new ways of organizing and delivering information and services. E-governance may be understood as the performance of this governance via the electronic medium in order to facilitate an efficient, speedy and transparent process of disseminating information to the public, and other agencies, and for performing government administration activities. E-governance is generally considered as a wider concept than e-government, since it can bring about a change in the way how citizens relate to governments and to each other. E-governance can bring forth new concepts of citizenship, both in terms of citizen needs and responsibilities. Its objective is to engage, enable and empower the citizen.

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PURPOSE
The purpose of implementing e-governance is to enhance good governance. Good governance is generally characterized by participation, transparency and accountability. The recent advances in communication technologies and the Internet provide opportunities to transform the relationship between governments and citizens in a new way, thus contributing to the achievement of good governance goals. The use of information technology can increase the broad involvement of citizens in the process of governance at all levels by providing the possibility of on-line discussion groups and by enhancing the rapid development and effectiveness of pressure groups. Advantages for the government involve that the government may provide better service in terms of time, making governance more efficient and more effective. In addition, the transaction costs can be lowered and government services become more accessible.

MISSION AND OBJECTIVES
With the sole mission of bringing district administration closer to the common people thus offering efficient and effective services,E governance is evolved with the following objectives. To provide a friendly, affordable, speedier and efficient interface between the government and the public. To ensure greater transparency, efficiency, objectivity, accountability and speed that can help tackle most of the maladies of the government by providing efficient services to the public. To provide responsive and transparent services to the citizens of the state. To provide cost effective service and at the same time improving the quality of service. To provide a single window for government services at district level.
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E-Governance Architecture

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ORIGINS IN INDIA
E-governance originated in India during the seventies with a focus on in- house government applications in the areas of defence, economic monitoring, planning and the deployment of ICT to manage data intensive functions related to elections, census, tax administration etc. The efforts of the National Informatics Center (NIC) to connect all the district headquarters during the eighties was a watershed. From the early nineties, e-governance has seen the use of IT for wider sectoral applications with policy emphasis on reaching out to rural areas and taking in greater inputs from NGOs and private sector as well. There has been an increasing involvement of international donor agencies such as DfID, G-8, UNDP, WB under the framework of egovernance for development. While the emphasis has been primarily on automation and computerization, state endeavours to use IT include forays into connectivity, networking, setting up systems for processing information and delivering services. At a micro level, this has ranged from IT automation in individual departments, electronic file handling, access to entitlements, public grievance systems, service delivery for high volume routine transactions such as payment of bills, tax dues to meeting poverty alleviation goals through the promotion of entrepreneurial models and provision of market information. The thrust has varied across initiatives, with some focusing on enabling the citizen-state interface for various government services, and others focusing on bettering livelihoods. 1. e-Governance in Indian State Governments e- Governance is a key initiative of some of largest Indian States including Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Delhi. Karnataka's Bhoomi project that computerized land records has been one of the most successful eGovernance initiatives in the country. Skelta sees huge opportunities in Indian states for the following reasons:
1. Right to Information Act The RTI is being increasingly resorted to as a means of

getting information.
2. Multi-lingual Requirements Skelta DMS-for Paperless Processes is possibly the only

DMS solution that can effectively cater to multi-lingual requirements of Indian eGovernance initiatives.
3. Funding e-Governance is being increasingly mandated by global funding agencies such

as World Bank and IMF for funded projects.
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2. e-Governance in the Central Government departments in India Besides the above reasons, Central departments have been at the forefront of eGovernance and electronic document management for the following reasons:
1. Improving revenue generation e-Governance reduces the scope for corruption and

collusion and improves revenue collections.
2. Budgetary constraints With the introduction of zero-based budgeting in the eighties,

Indian departments are forced to not just cut costs but provide justification for continuation of budgetary support.

“E-GOVERNANCE DEMANDS FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES IN THE WAY GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENTS WORK. REENGINEERING AND MODERNISING PROCESSES ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF ANY EGOVERNANCE PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION.” -By S Ramadorai- CEO and MD TATA Consultancy Services (Article published in Economic times (Monday 30 th June 2008)

The value of IT in governance
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State and central governments have realised the benefits of IT. Four deployments that highlight the benefits of e-governance in ensuring productivity are detailed by Atanu Kumar Das The GRAMSAT project The Government of India decided to connect different blocks across Orissa under the ambit of a project called GRAMSAT. To do this it enlisted the aid of the Indian Research Space Organisation (ISRO). The National Informatics Centre (NIC) was assigned the responsibility of setting up a VSAT network in 350 blocks of the state. After making a thorough technical and commercial evaluation, NIC shortlisted Hughes Technology as the supplier of the VSAT solution for the state-wide block level network. The principal applications include the Internet, development information network (DIN) and the national resource information system (NRIS). The goal was to eradicate illiteracy in the rural belt. Hughes Escorts Communications was given the responsibility for rolling out the entire network including the installation, commissioning and implementation of the hub and remote sites. A dedicated hub was established at NIC, Delhi, to cater to the needs of the project. The hub is operational on a 7 metre Ku Band antenna with Hughes DirecWAY platform at the baseband level. The present outroute and inroute configurations are 8 and 4 Mbps (aggregate) respectively. The remote sites have DirecWAY 6000 series two-way broadband VSAT system with 1.2 metre Ku Band antenna and 1 watt Radio Frequency Transmitter. The network has been successfully implemented on the DirecWAY platform that offers various modulation and coding schemes as well as several types of inroute access methods to give optimum performance for different applications while minimising the required inroute bandwidth. It also supports several QoS and performance enhancement features such as spoofing, prioritisation, compression and packet filtering.

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NATIONAL E-GOVERNANCE PLAN
The Government of India has launched the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) with the intent to support the growth of e-governance within the country. The Plan envisages creation of right environments to implement G2G,G2B,G2E and G2C services. To ensure Interoperability among e-Governance applications, Government of India has setup an Institutional mechanism for formulation of Standards through collaborative efforts of stakeholders like Department of Information Technology(DIT), National Informatics Centre (NIC), Standardization Testing and Quality Certification( STQC), other Government departments, Academia, Technology Experts, Domain Experts, Industry, BIS, NGOs etc. In this process there is a provision of formal Public review also. The e-Governance Standards portal ( http://egovstandards.gov.in ) provides a platform for password protected sharing of ideas, knowledge, and draft documents among the members of various committees involved in standards formulation process. It also has a provision for web publishing of draft documents for review comments by the closed user group and the Public.

The e-Governance market
The Economic Times recently reported that the government in India is emerging as the fourth largest vertical spender on information technology after the telecom, manufacturing and banking and finance industries. According to Gartner estimates, the Indian government has spent around 1 billion USD on information technology in 2002. This includes the expenditure of the Central and state governments on hardware, software, telecommunication equipment, telecommunication services, and IT services, but excludes salary costs of IT staff. In fact, the governments accounted for 9 per cent of the total IT spend in India for the year 2002, and in five years that is estimated to go up to 15 per cent. Though e-government is still in its infancy, over 20 states/union territories already have an IT policy in place. In terms of basic computerization, police departments, treasury, land records, irrigation and justice are seen as having the maximum potential.

The Opportunity
The e-governance spend in India is estimated to have spurted by 60% to $480 million in 03-04 from $ 300 million in 02-03. India’s National e-governance Action Plan (NEGAP) has identified 22 projects to be implemented over the next three to four years by both central and state governments . National Institute of Smart Government (NISG) CEO J Satyanarayan told ET: “The Rs. 350 crore MCA 21 is perhaps the largest project in the e-governance domain. Growth in e-governance projects will be characterized by clusters of small projects, customization of
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broad models like eSeva and focus on sectors like lands records management, tax returns filing and e-procurement. Nasscom estimates that in the next five years, state governments in India will spend close to Rs. 15,000 crores on computerising their operations. The pressure to be IT-savvy is not only to keep with times, but comes from a more pragmatic dimension; loans to governments from multilaterals have now become more or less contingent upon a proper treasury management system which translates into a computerised system that will tell lending institutions what has happened to the money that it has lent. Currently, India’s manual treasury systems don’t permit this with the kind of transparency required. For governments, the more overt motivation to shift from manual processes to IT-enabled processes may be increased efficiency in administration and service delivery, but this shift can be conceived as a worthwhile investment with potential for returns. As is evident in the celebrated case of Saukaryam (Vishakapatnam, AP), computerization and more efficient backend processes can actually imply revenues for governments. Saukaryam is self-sustaining and does not require government funding. More importantly, the real spin-off is in the enhanced image of the government as being citizen-friendly. Some E-governance Initiatives State/Union Initiatives covering departmental automation, user charge collection, Territory delivery of policy/programme information and delivery of entitlements Andhra Pradesh e-Seva, CARD, VOICE, MPHS, FAST, e-Cops, AP online—One-stop-shop on the Internet, Saukaryam, Online Transaction processing Bihar Sales Tax Administration Management Information Chattisgarh Chhattisgarh Infotech Promotion Society, Treasury office, e-linking project Delhi Automatic Vehicle Tracking System, Computerisation of website of RCS office, Electronic Clearance System, Management Information System for Education etc Goa Dharani Project Gujarat Mahiti Shakti, request for Government documents online, Form book online, G R book online, census online, tender notice. Haryana Nai Disha Himachal Lok Mitra Pradesh Karnataka Bhoomi, Khajane, Kaveri
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Kerala

e-Srinkhala, RDNet, Fast, Reliable, Instant, Efficient Network for the Disbursement of Services (FRIENDS) Madhya Gyandoot, Gram Sampark, Smart Card in Transport Department, Pradesh Computerization MP State Agricultural Marketing Board (Mandi Board) etc Maharashtra SETU, Online Complaint Management System—Mumbai Rajasthan Jan Mitra, RajSWIFT, Lokmitra, RajNIDHI Tamil Nadu Rasi Maiyams–Kanchipuram; Application forms related to public utility, tender notices and display North-Eastern States Arunachal Community Information Center. Forms available on Pradesh, Manipur, the Meghalaya website under schemes related to Meghalaya, Mizoram & social welfare, food civil supplies and consumer affairs, housing transport Nagaland etc. Even as e-governance signifies a business opportunity for industry and a strategy for the government, from a citizen perspective, there exists an overarching concern. Not how much can be spent, but what could be achieved is really the moot point. Setting up MIS may be an important and necessary exercise but very often cost-benefit analysis is not done and public money is used up in avenues that are not meaningful. A classic example is of buying hardware (like colour laser printers) far in excess of requirements or buying computers without a clear training plan for staff. There are larger implications of the absence of visioning. Without a clear vision, huge investments in the name of e-governance may not really contribute to improve the quality of life of citizens despite huge potential. MIS systems like DACNET of the Ministry of Agriculture have received flak for being no more than tools to control agricultural development activities rather than act as a facilitative platform for informing multiple stakeholders about how agriculture can be developed in India and supporting them in improving productivity and participating in markets, including global markets. Without clear vision, huge investments in the name of e-gov may not really contribute to improve the quality of life of citizens, despite there being huge potential in this
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How have states in India measured up?
Thanks to e-savvy Chief Ministers like Chandrababu Naidu and S.M. Krishna, e-governance has become the buzzword for political success and the key enabler to facilitate reforms. However, a cursory glance at the e-governance map reveals a highly skewed profile. In benchmarking state initiatives, three independent frameworks of analysis seem possible. These frameworks have been presented as possible ways to look at governments’ progress and are exploratory. • • • Assessing the e-readiness of states Assessing the stated commitment through IT policy and actual application by governments of IT tools toward reaching development goals Applying the lens of good governance – the cornerstones of equity, accountability, transparency, participation, responsiveness, strategic vision, and rule of law - to what is happening on the ground.

E-readiness
The deployment of IT for furthering the priorities and goals of governance is dependent on many factors. There are many constraints on realising the presumed potential uses of IT and these reflect the readiness of governments to appropriate IT for pursuing development. Among the most obvious and critical is the connectivity factor.
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State/Union Territory Andaman & Nicobar (UT) Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chandigarh (UT) Chhattisgarh Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT) Daman & Diu (UT) Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Lakshadweep (UT) Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Pondicherry (UT) Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttaranchal West Bengal

Official Website http://andaman.nic.in/ http://www.aponline.gov.in/apportal/index.asp http://arunachalpradesh.nic.in/govt.htm http://assamgovt.nic.in/ http://bihar.nic.in/ http://chandigarh.nic.in/ http://chhattisgarh.nic.in/ http://goidirectory.nic.in/dadra.htm http://daman.nic.in/ http://delhigovt.nic.in/newdelhi/index.html http://goagovt.nic.in/ http://www.gujaratindia.com/index.htm http://haryana.nic.in/ http://himachal.nic.in/ http://jammukashmir.nic.in/ http://jharkhand.nic.in/ http://www.kar.nic.in/govt http://www.kerala.gov.in/ http://lakshadweep.nic.in/ http://www.mpgovt.nic.in/ http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/ http://manipur.nic.in/ http://meghalaya.nic.in/ http://mizoram.nic.in/ http://nagaland.nic.in/ http://orissagov.nic.in/ http://pondicherry.nic.in/ http://punjabgovt.nic.in/ http://www.rajasthan.gov.in/ http://sikkim.nic.in/ http://www.tn.gov.in/ http://tripura.nic.in/ http://www.upgov.nic.in/ http://www.uttaranchalassembly.org/government.html http://www.wbgov.com/e-gov/IntroJpgNew.htm
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PERSPECTIVE
Introduction of E-Governance is the key to making information technology (IT) relevant to ordinary citizens. E-Governance is a culture, which changes how citizens relate to governments as much as it changes how citizens relate to each other. It brings forth re-definition of needs and responsibilities. Though computerization introduced successfully by NIC in different sectors in the districts has yielded fruitful results, the concept of introducing E-Governance to implement citizen-IT based applications in the district is the next logical step. WebCITI (Web based Citizen-IT Interface) is an E-Governance project for building citizen-IT interface for services offered by district administration at Fatehgarh Sahib in Punjab as a pilot project. Sponsored by the Department of Information Technology (DoIT) [Earlier MIT (Ministry of Information Technology)], WebCITI provides web based interface to citizens seeking services from district administration. These include issuance of certificates such as death/birth, caste, rural area etc; licenses such as arms license, permission for conferences/rallies etc and benefits from socioeconomic schemes. The Project has been appropriately funded by Govt of Punjab and has been executed through NICSI/NIC-Punjab State Unit. Department of Information Systems & Administrative Reforms (DISAR), Govt of Punjab is the nodal office involved in WebCITI. WebCITI has been augmented with DialCITI (Dialup based Citizen-IT Interface) to provide status as well as procedural information through telephone. It further extends the cause of providing efficient, transparent & quick information to the citizens. One can have information on any services or status of his case or application on phone. DialCITI was necessitated by the fact that Internet has not yet penetrated the villages. However, the phone access is available at this level.One can also find information about various schemes and procedures, status of one’s application etc. through web Interface available through select intranet counters at developmental block / revenue tehsil and kiosks. The set of software developed can be implemented as stand-alone versions as well as on client/server.It facilitates the citizens in interacting with the government. Application Areas The following key services are available in WebCITI. These have been identified on the basis of interactions required by citizens with the district administration. Property Registration Information System Module (PRISM) Web based Information Dissemination System for the Public Arms License Peshi (Court) Branch of Deputy commissioner
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Financial Assistance Schemes of the State Govt Old Age Pension Financial Assistance to Widows and Destitute Women Financial Assistance to Dependent Children Financial Assistance to Disabled Person Issue of Rural Area certificates Issue of Caste certificates Issue of Domicile certificates Issuance of Death & Birth Certificate Record and Copying Branch Freedom Fighter Information - Issuance of Bus Passes Issuance of Licenses to Cinema Halls, Video Parlours & Guest Houses Character Verification for New Recruitment Succession Certificate for Legal Heirs Certificate to Handicapped persons Permission for Loud Speaker, Rallies, Conference Issuance of Marriageability Certificate Prohibitory Order regarding Liquor, Meat Shop, Processions, imposition of Sec144, Curfew etc

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Highlights MIT sponsored; Also funded by Punjab Govt Members from MIT, IT department-Govt of Punjab, district administration, NICSI & NIC Punjab to review the project Technical Execution by NICSI and NIC Punjab State Unit| Dialup connectivity from Tehsils / Blocks / Villages to district servers Use existing databases as verification of identity of citizen and property Query through Interactive Voice Response System | LAN in Mini Secretariat Public Information Kiosk in the City Local language (Gurumukhi)
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Making information on Schemes, Forms, Procedures available from remote locations and on Internet Workflow like systems instead of input/output to facilitate tracking of progress Elimination of verification and on the spot issue of certificates Use of Citizen ID to provide unique identification Linkages with Land Records, Census, BPL, Licenses, Ration Cards, Death and Birth database Salient Features Single window system On Line verification On the spot delivery, wherever possible Information/Status on Intranet/ Web Generation of internal notes & verification forms to minimize delay Based on Highly specific parametres to facilitate future changes Business rules in database rather than hard-coded Provision for entry of old records Local Language (Gurumukhi) Computerized acceptance-cum-fees receipt for Applications Generation of Identity Card/ Passes/ Permissions/ Licenses /Certificates User administration for each module Audit of critical activities MIS Reports Technologies Used All the modules of WebCITI have been developed using Visual Basic with SqlServer at the backend. The web components are hosted on Apache web server and use Java Servlets. Impact The project was triggered by successful implementation of PRISM (Property Registration Information System Module) in the sub-registrar offices, which is a living example of how to deploy simple innovative ideas using IT tools to automate the procedures and enforcing rules to avoid scope of misuse and at the same time provide better services to the citizens. On the other hand it resulted in big jump in revenue collection. Such a large-scale acceptance created scope for marching ahead to cover more govt services for e-governance. All the modules adhere to
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single window concept in workflow and provide unique application identification. Currently the access points are at Fateh Garh Sahib-intranet and once data builds up, it will be thrown open to public through web. In the words of Sh Nirmal Jit Singh Kalsi, IAS, Director cum Secy(IT), Govt of Punjab, "The main emphasis of WebCITI is on web enabled citizen centric services coupled with the necessary administrative reforms. For the first time the State Government decided to provide the government services on the basis of authentication through a Citizen Data bases to be created on the basis of a house to house survey. The attempt is to bring the services closer to common people ...."

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RECOMMENDATIONS ON E-GOVERNANCE by NATIONAL KNOWLEDGE COMMISSION
After a series of discussions and reviews of various e-governance efforts at the Centre and State levels, the National Knowledge Commission formed a special group, under the chairmanship of Nandan Nilekani, to study e-governance. The report of this group was discussed at the Planning Commission and presented to the Minister for communications and information technology and the Minister’s staff. Thereafter, several discussions were held with other stakeholders including the Administrative Reform Commission. Based on these discussions we are convinced that e-governance is more about an opportunity for administrative reforms than merely about electronics and information technology and infrastructure. We are pleased to submit our recommendations on e-governance which broadly relate to Processes & Standards, Infrastructure and Organization as follows: 1. Government process reengineering before any computerization— At present the egovernance efforts are primarily based on computerizing age-old processes left behind by British Raj and compounded by a plethora of new layers and silos by Indian bureaucracy, each working within departmental boundaries and pet-priorities. As a result we are computerizing cumbersome processes and hence not commensurately benefiting from it. Simply digitizing the existing government processes merely adds an additional layer of expense, complexity, delay and confusion. In our judgment, now is a unique opportunity in the history of India to leave behind the British Raj and reengineer and modernize Government processes to build a new India of the 21century. Hence it is essential that we first redesign the government processes keeping the citizen at the centre, providing hassle-free enablement of citizens, businesses, producers and consumers, replacing the old mistrust and control regime from the British Raj. This redesigning of government processes will drastically reduce the numbers and duration of successive steps required to obtain services. It will also provide traceable records; enable enforcement of individual performance, accountability, efficiency, productivity as well as transparency of policies and processes. 2. 10 to 20 Important Processes and Services — To make an immediate impact on citizens it is critical to identify and simplify important processes and services, say 10 to 20 to begin with, which are currently cumbersome, bureaucratic and prone to unnecessary delays and even corruption. These processes can be simplified and made available as web-based services. Initially, these services could include birth certificate, death certificate, proof of residence, ration/ ID cards, etc. Other processes can be
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added over a period of time. This approach will require each state to implement these processes in concert and learn from each other.

3. Common Standards— At present various state governments are doing their own thing to selectively computerize their processes and provide e-governance. Many of these programmes are vendor driven and not scalable. It is critical to develop and enforce citizen/business entitlement standards uniformly over all states and central ministries and functions, spanning from voting, taxes, certificates, financial products, lawenforcement and welfare for individuals, properties of land, institutions, businesses etc. These standards should not be hardware-centric and vendor dependent but should enable easy participation by any State, Panchayat Institution, business, NGO or citizen,whenever they decide. These standards, templates and data formats must be designed carefully by teams of experts drawn from government, IT companies, academia, R & D institutions and users/stakeholders who understand latest trends, technology, software, user interfaces and interoperability requirements. We recommend these new standards be followed by all state governments. At the same time, we are conscious of the need to incorporate some of the standards followed by state governments. 4. Best Practices and Lessons from the Past— A great deal of work has already been done in various central ministries and in state governments. The key is to learn from these and design best practices that are affordable and applicable nationwide to ensure ease of use and interoperability. We note that the government’s own offices, laboratories, directorates etc., have immense amount of useful and relevant data (e.g.seven centres of the National Bureau of Soil Science and Land Use Planning NBSSLUP), which needs to be digitized and made publicly accessible for use and analysis. This requires making the data collected by one agency, available across all agencies as well as the public, subject to their sensitivity to national security. 5.National Infrastructure— It is important to provide nationwide secure broadband infrastructure and associated hardware, software and hosting facilities with easy access at all levels. This infrastructure should be based on user-pays principle and Public- Private partnership in investments and mutual accountability and efficiency. This infrastructure creation should be led by the central government to enforce a high level of security, uniformity and standards at every interface, regardless of state language, culture, legacy and financial health. 6. Web-based Services— To enforce standards and to keep the governance uniformly responsive and transparent, it is recommended that state governments use templates created by the central government to offer
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localised data and services in Indian languages. In this model, the private sector can invest in creation of accessinfrastructure and building relevant business models for user-fee collection and its sharing across all stakeholders, to ensure sustainability and adaptation for future needs. This also implies that all public institutions will make sure that all public data is available on the web.

7. Open Source Software — Because of the enormous size and scope of the egovernance effort in India and because of the availability of globally recognized software talent of Indians, we must actively encourage wherever possible open source software implementations and open standards. This will allow us to have cost-effective solutions and help develop open software products and standards. It will also help improve scaling up as well as minimize delays caused by repeat tendering. 8. Specialist CITO (chief information technology officer)— Each state and major central government departments must create an empowered chief information technology officer, with relevant expertise and skills in the domain subject and IT usage. These posts must be filled on open recruitment and draw the best and the brightest from India’s technologically qualified talent. These officers should be paid market salary and have a three year contract with the government, renewal of which will be dependent on performance . 9. New National Programmes— As government plans to spend hundreds of thousands of crores on Bharat Nirman, rural employment guarantee scheme, urban development initiatives etc., it is recommended that we mandate that each of these programmes begin with well engineered e-governance implementation and web-interface that ensures speedy delivery, productivity and efficiency. It is recommended to invest 1 to 2 percent of the national program budget in establishing new processes and associated e-governance infrastructure to improve delivery and reduce leakages. 10. Focused Organization— For national e-governance to succeed it is critical to create an appropriate central organization with structures that can operate in mission mode, with full autonomy and accountability. It is recommended that we create an organization with a CEO, with board members drawn from IT industry and government to redesign processes and procedures, to represent multiplicity of stakeholders and diversity in domain expertise, and to drive the national e-governance plan with facilitation from the CIT Ministry. The task of this organization shall include but not be limited to; a) Administrative reforms related to process reengineering b) Providing and maintaining common national ICT infrastructure for egovernance:
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c) Providing leadership and framework for implementation with immediate focus on selected mission mode projects ; and d) Providing neutral consulting framework and standards for e- governance with the help of CITOs We need to reengineer our processes first, to change our basic governance pattern for simplicity, transparency, productivity and efficiency, select 10 to 20 important services that make a critical difference, offer web-based services, develop common standards and deploy common platform/infrastructure for e-governance to make it citizencentric. As a next step we recommend focusing on the organizational issues related to reengineering government processes with strong committed leadership, autonomy, flexibility, clarity of purpose, predefined deliverables, measurable milestones and periodic monitoring in order to implement national e-governance programme within 3 to 5 years.

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CONCLUSION
For e-governance to succeed in India , the most important change that needs to take place within government i.e. at the central ,state and municipal level-is not an understanding of technology or an ability to leverage it or even the need to reinvent the government processes and systems. It is all about changing mindsets. For e-governance to make a tangible difference to the lives of the millions of un-served and under-served in our country ,the government has to switch from a mindset of procurement where technology is seen as input to one where it is focused on outcomes and services. Therefore, use of technology in government has to be less about ordering PCs and servers but rather what one can do with them in terms of making government more efficient. What is required at this stage in India’s government sector is a strategic shift from the commodity-based IT approach to a mature solution or service based approach. The government sector need to start procuring IT services rather than procuring hardware and softwares. Within this new approach, the IT related needs of government organization are addressed in conjunction with an IT partner, and after a through consultation process. This Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) model for managed services enables government to concentrate on core, mission critical value-adding activities while moving technology-related requirement to IT professionals(IT Partner)

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

WEBSITES 1) http://www.egovindia.org/ 2) http://egovstandards.gov.in/ 3) http://www.expresscomputeronline.com/20050131/egovernance01.shtml 4) http://dqindia.ciol.com/content/top_stories/103101501.asp From Newspapers-Articles Economic Times Mumbai-6th April 2006. Economic Times Mumbai-30th June 2008.

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