The Divine Name in Ante-Nicene Christology Author(s): Charles A. Gieschen Source: Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 57, No.

2 (May, 2003), pp. 115-158 Published by: BRILL Stable URL: . Accessed: 22/02/2011 06:29
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One single name is not uttered in the world, the name that the Father gave to the Son, the name above all things: the name of the Father.' Most discussions of early Christology focus on the multiple titles or names that were given to Jesus of Nazareth in the years following his baptism in the Jordan River.2 This confession from the Gospel of Philip (ca. late second century) evinces the conviction that the Son was given and now shares the "one single name" of the Father. In light of all the names/tides ascribed to Jesus, what is "the name of the Father" that he gave to the Son? What is the name that "is not uttered in the world" and is "above all things"? m' ("YHWH").3 It is the sacred Tetragrammaton: the Gospelof Philip asserts that everything has a "secret name" Although which reveals its true nature, the basic Christological confession that the Son shares the Divine Name of the Father should not be dismissed as esoteric Gnostic teaching that has no relationship to Christology of the New Testament. It actually reads very much like a petition of the farewell prayer in the Gospel of John: "Holy Father, protect them in your name that you have given to me" (17.11).4 The roots of these similar Christological confessions stretch back to earlier Second Temple Period Jewish reflections on the Divine Name and the theophanic figure(s) who possess it.5 Since the
Gospelof Philip II.54.5-8. A similar, and much longer, account of this Divine Name Christology is found in the Gospelof Truth1.38.7-40.29; see below. 2 A fine (rev. ed.; of example is Oscar Cullmann, The Christology the New Testament trans. Shirley C. Guthrie and Charles A.M. Hall; Philadelphia: Westminster, 1963). 3 This conclusion is based upon substantial evidence that the Tetragrammaton was viewed as the most important name of God and was so sacred that, with few exceptions, it was not uttered; see evidence below. 4 Gilles Quispel recognized the importance of this Name Christology in John several decades ago; see "Het Johannesevangelie en de Gnosis", NedTTs 11 (1956/57) 173-202. 5 For example, the Angel of YHWH (Exod 23.20-21), Yahoel (Apoc. Ab. 10.3-8), the Son of Man (I En. 48.2), the Word (Philo, Conf. 146); see discussion in Part II below. ? Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2003 Also available online - Viiliae Christianae 57,2 115-158





Divine Name was highly honored and treated with great reverence by Jews of this period, the Tetragrammaton was not explicitly written out in texts expressing the divine identity of Christ (i.e., "Jesus possesses the name YHWH"), but is alluded to by mention of a name (i.e., 'Jesus was given the Father's name").6 Because these references to the Divine Name that Jesus possesses are allusions and often shrouded with mystery, the importance of the Divine Name in the confession of the identity of Christ has often been overlooked or understated by scholars of early Christology.7 This study will demonstrate that several of the references or allusions to the "name" of Jesus in early Christian literature, primarily several NT texts, are signifying thatJesus possesses the Divine Name, namely the Tetragrammaton.8 Furthermore, this evidence will show that the Divine Name was a significant aspect in the expression of early understandings of the identity of Jesus among Jewish Christians, certainly more significant than many scholarly discussions of early Christology acknowledge. After briefly discussing recent research of this subject, this study will review the primary antecedents of this aspect of early Christology and then present representative evidence of the use of the Divine Name in the expression of Christology before 325 CE, especially in the first century. I. Recent Study of the Divine Name in Early Christology The primary area where interpreters have long acknowledged some relationship between Jesus and the Divine Name is in explanations of why the frequent title icDptos ("Lord") is ascribed to Christ in the NT.9 One typical basis for asserting a relationship is the fact that many translators of the

' Concerningthe use of the Divine Name in this period, see Sean M. McDonough,
Rev. 1:4 in its Hellenistic EarlyJewish Setting and THWH at Patmos: (WUNT II. 107; Tubingen:

Mohr Siebeck, 1999) 58-122. McDonough concludesthat it was spoken only in the Temple precincts(by the High Priest on the Day of Atonementand possiblyalso in the daily blessing); also Hans Beitenhard,"tvojoa",T7DVT see 5:268-269. 7 This is confirmed perusingvolumesin early Christology; see discussion Part in by I below. 8 This thesis originatesfrom my previousresearchthat is publishedin Angelomorphic
Antecedents Early Evidence(AGJU 42; Leiden, Cologne: Brill, 1998). The and Christology:

presentstudy furtherdevelopsevidencescatteredthroughoutthat volume.
" For example, Christopher M. Tuckett, Christology theNew Testament: and Jesus and His

Earliest Followers Westminster John Knox, 2001) 19-22. (Louisville:



Hebrew Scriptures into Greek rendered 7mr' with Ki6ptoS.'lAlthough there were other ways that the Tetragrammaton was rendered in some Greek manuscripts, Albert Pietersma has demonstrated that the widespread practice of translating the Tetragrammaton with icVpto; was in place before the time of Philo and the NT.1 The confession KiCpto; 'TIaoir Xptcrxo6('Jesus Christ is Lord"), therefore, can be seen to reflect Jewish identification of Jesus with YHWH.'2 Opinions vary on the significance of this identification, with many scholars being quick to qualify the divinity implied in this confession. Reginald H. Fuller, for example, states: This does not mean however that the distinction between Jesus and God is blurred, or that Jesus was by now regarded as a divine being in an ontologidenical sense. All that the LXX usage opens up at this stage is a functional tity between the exalted Kyrios and the Yahweh-Kyriosof the Old Testament and LXX.'3 The conclusion that the Klcpto; confession was founded on Jewish identification ofJesus with YHWH has not gone unchallenged. Early in the twentieth century Wilhelm Bousset argued that this tite and confession was adapted by Christians like Paul outside of Palestine under influence from Hellenistic understandings of Kipto; and c{ptot.'1 The life of Bousset's problematic

"0For example,ReginaldFuller,TheFoundations (New Christology York: ofNewTestament CharlesScribner's Sons, 1965) 67-68. De A or " "Kyrios Tetragram: RenewedQuestfor the OriginalSeptuagint", Septuaginta: on Wevers his sixth-fifth Studies Honour John William in birthday AlbertPietersmaand (ed. of BenbenPublications, Ontario: ClaudeCox;Mississaug, 1984)85-101;see alsoMcDonough, as 60-61. The reverencegiven the Tetragrammaton the Divine Name YHWHat Patmos, of in Hebrew impactedearlyJewish Christians writingand pronunciation other nomina Sacra theGreek in in see sacra early manuscripts; A.H.R.E. Paap,Nomina of Papyri theFirst Deductions A.D.: and FiveCenturies TheSources Some 8; Lugduno-Batava Leiden: (Papyrologica Brill, 1959). 12 This assertionis widely understoodas the foundational confessionor "creed"of see the early Christians; esp. Rom 10.9, Phil 2.11 and 1 Cor 12.3 (cf. John 20.28). 68. I3 Foundations NT Christology, Although Fuller is much more reasonablethan of model"for understandsome on this matter,his statementreflectsthe "developmental had a "funcCan we reallysay that the earliest Jewish Christians ing early Christology. tional" identity that did not blur the distinctionbetweenJesus and God? If Jesus is given the Divine Name and worshipped,then the lines betweenJesus and God have blurred,there is divine identity, even though some distinctionbetween God (Father) and Lord (Son) is maintained. 14 Kyrios Christos Abingdon,1970).The firstGerman (trans. Steely;5th ed.; Nashville: J. edition was publishedin 1913.

vigorouslychallengedthis position by citing Jewish evidence in arguing that "worship of the present exaltedLord had takenplace alreadyamong the Aramaic-speaking Palestinian followers of Jesus.118 CHARLES A. (ed. The Semitic Background of the New Testament (Eerdmans: Grand Rapids. GIESCHEN proposal was extended after a version of it received endorsementby Rudolf Bultmann. 18 Old TestamentYahwehTexts in Paul's Christology (WUNT 11. Kenneth Grobel. An Introduction New Testament (New York: Paulist. 17 "The Semitic Background of the New Testament Kyrios-Title". Fuller. Martin Hengel laments the ongoing popularity of Bousset's theory and argues against it."'6It was not untilJoseph Fitzmyer'sstudy of the Kcupto. to 1988). Foundations JT Christology. 1951 and 1955) 1:52. Brown. Christology and 1994). 237. of of in James D.designationfor the identification of Jesus with YHWH: "Once he was given the 'name which is above every name'. however. New York: Charles of (2 Scribner's Sons. See also the critique of Larry Hurtado. 203. '9 of Christology the JT. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. usually fades fast after one reads beyond the importanticupto. tions at all could be set for the transfer of divine attributes to him.among others. TS 40 (1979) 306-317. Christology the Historyof Jewish-Hellenistic esp. Dunn.'7 The significant research of David Capes on the use of OT YHWH texts in Paul's Christology has sealed the fate of the Bousset theory. OneLord:Early Christian Devotion Ancient and Jewish Monotheism (Philadelphia: Fortress. 1988) 24-35. Raymond E. "New Testament Christology: A Critique of Bousset's Influence". and his One God.title. 1976) 77-83. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. 135). trans. in Christology Context:The Earliest ChristianResponseto Jesus (Philadelphia: Westminster.'8 Cullmann expressesthe profound significanceof the IcVpto.G. Geburtstag G. title that the tide finally turned decisively against Bousset's theory. and Tuckett. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.15 Oscar Cullmann. 20 Examples include: Cullmann. 1997) 115-142. . Christology theNT. see The Son of God: The Originof and Religion(Philadelphia: Fortress. 1989).20 Although the omission of any furtherdiscussionof the Divine Name in volumes on early Christology can be attributed to the large amount of other Christological source material.47.Adonai. Christology theJNT. This is a revised and expanded version of "Der semistische Hintergrund des neutestamentlichen Kyriostitels"."'9 Discussion of the Divine Name in early Christology. Christology the Making:A New Testament Inquiryinto the Originsof the Doctrineof the Incarnation (2nd ed. then no limitaKyrios).. Marinus de Jonge. n. Strecker. Cullmann especially points to the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic prayer Mapava Oa ("Our Lord. in zum Neutestamenliche fir Jesus Christus Historieund Theologie: Festschrift Hans Conzelmann 60. 1992). Come!") as support for the worship of Jesus as "Lord" on Palestinian soil. 1975) 267-298. see 195-237. neverthelesslimited attention to this aspect of Christology " The Theology theNew Testament vols. of I' Christology the NT.. God's own name ('Lord'.

In spite of its brevity. 1970) 41-46. The influence of Quispel and Danielou can be seen in Richard Longenecker's treatment of "the Name" in his work on Jewish Christology.James Dunn has acknowledged the need to give more attention to the contribution of angelomorphic traditions. of . including the newly discovered Nag Hammadi literature. It was Jean Danielou.largely due to seeing Jewish traditions His about the Divine Name in Johannine and Valentinian Christology. possibly due voice.21Treatment of other early Christian testimony that Jesus possesses the Divine Name is so infrequent that representativescholarshipfrom the past century can be quickly reviewed. see also "John and Jewish Christianity". John. so also Alan Segal offered valuable research concerning how later rabbinic texts can help in understandingthe Divine Name(s) in 21 See the preface to the second edition of Christology the Making.22 heeded by NT scholarship. 1972) 137-155. 24 The Christology EarlyJewish Christianity (Grand Rapids: Baker. Quispel's influence is documented in several footnotes. 22 'Het Johannesevangelie en de Gnosis'.23 strates the use of the Divine Name for expressing Christology. xxvi. yet he downplays the value of his own assessment by reasserting that such traditions were not part of "the highroad for developing christological thought" until the Book of Revelation at the end of the first century. Acts. who brought more attention to the Divine Name as an importantaspect of early Christologythroughhis discussionof angelomorphic traditions in the first volume of his synthetic trilogy on early The intriguingevidence presentedby Danielou demonChristiantheology. however. influenced by Quispel.esp. Angelomorphic Christolology. Charlesworth. For fur15 ther discussion of the term "angelomorphic". Philadelphia: Westminster.24Even as Quispel read some of the NT evidence about the Divine Name in light of later Christian literature. J. especially in the second and third centuries. and 27-28. John and Qumran(ed. was not widely to the domination of German scholarship and the broad scope of his research that spanned much literature beyond the NT corpus. of esp. J. Gilles Quispel was among the first who gave attention to other evidence for this aspect of early Christology. 147-163. and James. 1964). London: Chapman.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 119 is essential because of the evidence in NT texts.H. NedTTs 11 (1956/57) 173-202. he calls attention to the importanceof the Divine Name in the Christology of Matthew. see Gieschen. Baker. 23 The Theology Jewish Christianiy(trans. which include traditions about possession of the Divine Name.

as antecedents of material found in the Shepherd Hermas concernof ing "the name". through his research in Jewish apocalyptic literature and its relationship to later Jewish mysticism. "Philo and the Rabbis on the Names of God". (2nd Age York: Crossroad. see Christ Christian in 22. Early Christianity Gnosticism Reports Leiden: Brill 1977). See also N. 2' Even though he mentions that this Divine Name Christology exists before the Pauline and Johannine writings. much less present evidence of its existence prior to these writings.2. who pushed the subject of the relationship between Jesus and the Divine Name to greater prominence in discussions of early Christology through the publication of his revised dissertation and several articles during the last two decades of the twentieth century. traced the development of exalted angel traditions.120 CHARLES A. One: the Christ Christian in Tradition. see esp. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. Universitatsverlag Freiburg Schweiz and Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Gottingen. . John Bowden. 1985).27 He points to the "Shem-theology of the later books of the Old Testament". a student of Quispel.A. Tradition. GIESCHEN used by Philo and early Christians. 1975) 41. Fossum. Although the jury is still 25 TwoPowers Heaven: in About and Rabbinic (SJLA25. He also mentions the significance of name theTradition. TheImage theInvisible Essays theInfluence Jewish God: of of Mysticismon Early Christology (NTOA 30. Dahl and Alan F.29 It was Jarl E.26 One of the features of the traditions that he set forth as important for early Christology is possession of the Divine Name. JSJ 9 (1978) 1-28. Segal. 2( 27 A See esp. Fossum. TheOpen in and Heaven: Study ApocalypticJudaism EarlyChristianity of (New Volume From Apostolic to Chalcedon rev. and the essays on collectedin Jarl E. 205-217.30The strength of Fossum's work is the grounding of his research in ancient Jewish and Samaritan literature with the tracing of traditions through the NT into various documents of Christianity and Judaism during the first few centuries of the Common Era. trans. the interest in the name given to the Son of Man in 1 Enoch 48. he does very little to demonstrate its presence in either of these parts of the NT. 28 Christin Christian 41-42. Samaritan JewishConcepts Intermediation and :" TheNameof GodandtheAngel theLord: of of and the Originof Gnosticism (WUNT 36.. Aloys Grillmeier notes the importance of "a pre-Pauline and pre-Johannine 'name-christology"' during his discussion of second-centuryJewish Christianity in the first of his magisterial volumes on Christology. and some material in Philo. in his longer discussion of the Christos ology briefly angelostradition.28 His discussion appears to be founded upon Danielou and does not advance anything new. 1982) 94-113. see 53. Atlanta: John Knox.25 Christopher Rowland. 1995). ed. for application of his research to NT Christology.

esp. is a focus on Jesus' possession of the Divine Name. however. van der Horst.14.22).see n.36 Unlike Elohim and the many other titles or names used to identify God in the OT. featurein severalof these angelomorphic is traditions the possession the Divine Name. and 217-233.16. 37 K. 38.32 He sees evidence of this in Phil 2. 6 above. 32 . 9. Rom 10. morphic Christology. 1995) 1711-1730. 22. is somewhat limited. Heb 1. of Monotheism Christology theNew Testament and in GodCrucfied: (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.33 Sean McDonough.20-21 and related texts). 170-176. YHWH was understood to be the personal name of God.4 as evidence ofJewish reflection on the Divine Name. "Yahweh". Antecedents the Use of the Divine Name in Early Christology of The witness concerning the Divine Name in the OT is the foundation for the assertion that mention of "the name" by early Jewish Christians would be understood as a reference to the Tetragrammaton. 35 THWH at Patmos. Karel of van der Toorn. and the frequent mention of "calling on the name of the Lord" (Acts 2. 40-42. which calls upon scholars to move beyond functional or ontic presentations of Christology. My own work as a student of Fossum focused more narrowly on the pre-150 CE use of angelomorphic traditions in Christology. probably because of its broad focus beyond the NT and its use of a very wide range of literary evidence. Dictionagy Deitiesand Demonsof the Bible (eds.2. 34. Cologne.34.4. Bob Becking.17-21.35 II. Angelo70-78.34 His application of this research to early Christology. van der Toorn. 36 For a more extensive discussion. 1 Cor 1. has made a very significant contribution to study of the Divine Name with his thorough treatment of "the One who is. who was. Name of God. and who is to come" in Rev 1.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 121 out.see also Gieschen. Fossum's work has not received as widespread reception among NT scholars as it deserves. 126-128.9. see Fossum. with significant attention given to use of the Divine Name Angel tradition (Exod 23.31 One aspect of Richard Bauckham's important discussion of "Divine Identity Christology". 1998) 33 God Crucfied. much of it dating from the post-NT period. Boston: Brill. 34 YHWH at Patmos. Pieter W.9-13.37 The meaning of the Tetragrammaton has been shrouded in mystery that has probably 31 My indebtedness to Fossum is apparent in Angelomorphic One recurrent Christology. and 2 Tim 2. Leiden. one of Bauckham's students.

however. 's.20).39 One of the places where this is made very clear is when YHWH promises Moses that he will send "an angel" before Israel on their journey from Sinai: [Exod 23. 3" Even when there is not an overt reference to the Divine Name (e. the question about the name of the visible manifestation of YHWH is asked in several OT theophanies (e. fL '_:t mni]. yet one cannot see YHWH and live (Exod 33. see below. I send an angel in front of you [['. [21] Be attentive to him and listen to his voice. . then how could Jewish Christians who link this name to the man confessed the Shema' Jesus Christ? The OT traditions that are significant antecedents of this phenomenon are the texts where the Divine Name is the possession of the visible image of YHWH in various theophanies.20-22 communicatesthe identity of this "angel"especiallythrough noting his possession of the Divine Name. [22] But if you listen attentivelyto his voice and do all that I say.. "my name is in 38 eyco Usuallytranslated"I am who I am. then I will be an enemy to your enemies and an adversaryto your adversaries. Exod 23. Exod 23. so is he" (1 Sam 25.g. several Psalms offer praise to both YHWH and his Name (e." The LXX translation eitt b65v ("I am the One who is") is important for the translation of divine disclosure statements in the LXX which are used in the Christology of John. The status and authority of the various theophanic forms of YHWH is usually expressedin the descriptionof his appearance.. This maxim applies also to the Divine Name: "For as is his name. YHWH says. do not rebel against him. for example. The need for some distinctionbetween YHWH and his visible form arises from the paradox that YHWH appears in some form on many occasions.4.S ~.38 iTR It is clear. for he will not pardon your transgression. GIESCHEN only added to the reverence surrounding it.2022). and the explanation that YHWH gives in Exodus 3. such as lI_r ("angel"or "messenger") this text.17-18). 103.1).122 CHARLES A. that the enigmatic Divine Name was regardedas much more than a few letters or a particular sound.g.20] Behold. A delicate distinction between YHWH and his visible form is often expressedin theophanic texts in by the use of another title.25). or actions.Therefore. the intimate connection between a person and his name meant that the Divine Name could not be separated from the reality it represented.Judges 13.14 does little to clear the fog: 1'. If the Divine Name is not usually separated from the reality of YHWH in first century Jewish theology. to guard you on the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared..words.Ps 68..g.for my nameis in him [i'o:pM Qt :].

Isa 30.g. and the Word of YHWH. TDNVT 5:269.10). 1934) 1-58. For furtherdiscussionof these traditions.esp.e. the Glory of YHWH. Atlanta:ScholarsPress.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 123 him. and Tryggve Mettinger.. of esp.Angelomorphic Christology. Angelomorphic 41 See Name God.Name God. Angelomorphic 44 H.see Gieschen. 51-123. 42 See im Gottes AltenTestament (BZAW64.rC7 is often used in rabbinic literature as a substitute for the Tetragrammaton rather than 'iR.TheDethronement Lund:CWK Gleerup.21-22). Outof theMidstof Fire: in Presence Deuteronomy (SBLDS 151. 1982) 129-132. 45 See Fossum.27 and Prov 18."6vogla"." This text testifies that a figure that has some independence from YHWH can still share in his being through the possession of the Divine If Name (i. 124-186.86.45 A significant 4( Exodus23:20-22is a very significant text among the so-called"Angelof the Lord" traditionsbecause of this overt mention of the possessionof the Divine Name. Christology. of .44 Second Temple Jewish literature evinces considerable interest in the Divine Name and the theophanic figure who possesses it.D. 43 Gerhardvon Rad. Wilson defendsDeuteronomy's presentation a tangibledivine presenceconveyed by the Name dwellingin the temple. Studies in Deuteronomy (trans.see Gieschen. the texts themselves depict the Name as a theophanic form who manifested the presence of YHWH in a manner similar to the Angel of YHWH. and Jeremiah.4' This phenomenon is not limited to isolated OT texts that mention YHWH appearing as an angel.see Ian Wilson.London:SCM. for a defense of hypostasisnomenclature.Nameund Wort in Studies of Sabaoth: Toepelmann.see Outof theMidstof Fire.see 36-45.. Fossum. Most that texts that referto the Angel of the Lord figuredepict him as a brief manifestation from God. The divine identity of this "angel" is further communicated by mention that he has the authority to absolve and speak as YHWH (23. a divine hypostasis). Another example of a divine hypostasisin the OT possessing the Divine Name is CD ("the Name") or 7l7-ml ("the Name of YHWH") who dwelt in the temple as mentioned especially in Deuteronomy. and Gieschen. Theologies Divine summaryof researchon Name theology. 199-217. 239-338. Grether.42 Contrary to Gerhard von Rad's modern abstraction of this Name theology as a "theologicallysublime idea" that "is replacing the old crude idea of Jahweh's presence". is indistinguishable 51-69. For furof ther discussionof the interrelationship these theophanic traditions. 1995) 1-15.For a and theShem Kabod (ConBOT 18. the so-called Deuteronomistic History. Christology. Giessen: esp. 1953) of 39. 0. he can be understood to be YHWH in a visible form.40 this "angel" has the name YHWH in him. Beitenhard. Furthermore. Stalker.43 These traditionsmay have contributedto biblical writersusing "the Name" as the subject of divine actions in other OT texts (e.

7. 63. 61. The "Lord of the Spirits" title is a reflectionof nlWD m' (Isa 6. 8.2] At that hour. 13. Especially crucial for this discussion is the depiction of this Son of Man as a preexistent being (42.7. 67.1.see n.7. 46. 43.14) before creation: [48.29). the Before-Time. 47. Isaac in OTP 1. see: 38.13.35. testifies to the cosmogenic power ascribed to the Divine Name as it describes Isaac calling his sons to swear an oath by the name that is responsible for all creation: [36. " For example. 48b. 69. 14. 48. 9. TheNew Testament Essays Honor Bo Riecke in Age: of (ed. 39. contain further vivid testimony to the cosmogenic power of the Divine Name.4.4.7. the presence by of the Lord of the Spirits. imme- 4"Althoughthe relationship with Daniel 7 is obvious.4. that Son of Man was named thename. by sharing the divine throne (51. who is also known as "the Lord of the Spirits". Jubilees.7) who possessed the "hidden name" (69. 10. the "Son of Man" in 1 Enoch 37-71 is closely identified with "the Ancient of Days". . 9. 3.46 Similar to Daniel 7. "Two UnusualNomina Dei i in the Second Vision of Enoch".2. 55. 3. 41.8).7. 47 This translation the of Ethiopicis that of E. he was named the by namein the presence of the Lord of the Spirits. but incorporates his literalrendering"namedby the name"in place of "wasgiven a name".26 and the "one like a son of man" in Daniel 7.8.2. even the very word that God spoke to bring the world into existence (Ps 124.3. 45. see MatthewBlack. GIESCHEN aspect of the understanding of the Divine Name in this literature is an emphasis on its power. but here this name is also the possession of a distinct theophanic figure: the "Son of Man" who reflects "the man" of Ezekiel 1.3.48 Furthermore.2. 11. a second century BCE Jewish text. certainly Jewish and usually dated to the first century CE. 50.7] And now I will make you swear by the great oath-because there is not an oath which is greater than it. 53.2.1).3).47 There is no doubt that "the name" by which the Son of Man "was named" is the Divine Name because there are numerous references to "the name of the Lord of the Spirits" throughout the Similitudes. 62. 2.124 CHARLES A. This name is not another word among the myriad of words in the human language.6. [3] even before the creation of the sun and the moon.7. The Similitudes of 1 Enoch. before the creation of the stars.26 is made clear in this unmistakableallusion:"whosecountenancehad the appearanceof a man" (46. by theglorious honored greatand and and and and name which created heaven and earth and everysplendid amazing mighty thing together-that you will fear and worship him. but is the most powerful word of the world. the genealogicalrelationship of this Son of Man to the Glory of YHWH in Ezek 1.

. 1984) 1. [23] And there are kept the storehouses of the thunder-pealsand the flashes of the lightning. [21] And through that oath the stars complete their course.14-15)introducesthe verses that describethis name as the source of creation(69. and glorify (him) with all their power. [22] And likewise with regard to the waters.49 What is especially surprising is that a Jewish group who venerated Enoch could then have identified this preexistent Son of Man with the man Enoch as is done in 1 Enoch 71..53-59. [24] And all those who give thanks and praise before the Lord of the Spirits. and their sustenance is in all (their) thanksgiving. and they answer him from eternity to eternity. to their winds. and there are kept the storehouses of the hail and of the hoar-frost. The Book Enoch 1 Enoch or of of (SVTP 7.and the storehousesof the rain and of the dew.for the time of its wrath he placed for it the sand as a barrier. [18] And through that oath the sea was created and its foundations.and the storehousesof the storm-cloud. the Divine Name]: Through his oath the firmament and the heavens were suspended before the world was created and forever. 1985). [19] And through that oath are the depths made firm and abide and do not move from their place from eternity to eternity. [25] And this oath is binding upon them. and do not deviate from their ordinance from eternity to eternity. GA: Mercer. and it does not pass beyond its boundary from creation of the world to eternity.e.14): [16] And these are the secrets of this oath [i. Macon. and he calls them by their names. and to all spirits and their course from all regions of spirits.they will praise and glorify and extol the Name of the Lord of the Spirits for ever and ever. . and they will keep to their paths. And their course will not be spoiled. for the creation of the world and unto eternity.16-26). [17] And through it the earth was founded upon the waters. and from the secret recesses of the mountains comes sweet water.2 vols. And by it they will be kept. WilliamWeinrich. 49 This is the translation Matthew Black. 1 Enoch 69 elaborately ascribes the creation and its sustenance to this "powerful and strong" oath (69. Althoughthere is clear testimonythat this name is possessedbefore creationby the Son of Man. Leiden:Brill.27). [20] And through that oath the sun and the moon complete their course. it should be noted that an enigmaticdiscussionabout the Evil One revealingthis name to Michael and placing it in his hand (69.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 125 diately preceding the dramatic revelation of this hidden name of the Son of Man to the saints (69.

through mediation my Inffable of Name. (God) writing "the letters by which heaven and earth were created" upon a crown (13. 101-102." [10." The overt reference to Exod 23. Angelomorphic Christology. His significance in this document is augmented by an elaborate physical Ab. is another strikingexample of the powerfulDivine Name possessed by a theophanic figure:51 [10. . "Go. Philo of Alexandria. one of the second-generation Tannaim 3 Enochcontains an account that depicts "the Holy One" (120-140 CE). OpenHeaven. B) recordsthe contrasting 5"3 Enoch title. Fossum.126 CHARLES A. on the firmament.26-28 (Apoc. Angelomorphic Christology.310. description that identifies him with the Glory of Ezek one of the 70 "divine names". as it is written.consecrate this man for me and strengthen him against his shake. 1 See further: Rowland.21 demonstratesthe ongoing influence of this tradition:Metatron is depicted as the theophanic angel who possesses the Divine Name that is responsiblefor all creation and is even called "the Lesser YHWH". 11. and 142-144. "thelesser in the presence of his whole household in the height. 318-321.writing in the first half of the first century CE. GIESCHEN A similartraditionis found in 3 Enoch. Gieschen. Gieschen. a Power the through medium Namein me.3] And while I was still face down on the ground.50 The depiction of Yahoel in the Apocalypse Abraham. 52 See 137-142. esp. fifth or sixth century CE Jewish a mystical text preservedin Hebrew that purportsto be a record of the mystical ascent visions of Rabbi Ishmael.1) that he places upon Metatron: THWH" [lopnm'] [12. Another important depiction of a named angel that possesses the Divine Name is Israel in the extant fragmentsof the Prayer Joseph. I heard the voice the speaking.2-3). "My nameis in him.5] He set it upon my head and he called me.20-22 who 48. Name of God. "the GreaterYHWH"." of his Ineffable This undeniable identification of Yahoel with the angel who bears the Divine Name is made even more obvious with his twice-theophoricname.8] "I am Yahoel and I was called so by him who causes those with me on the seventh expanse. also evinces considerableinterestin the theophanic angel of Exod 23. of usually dated to the late first century CE. see OTP 1.52 This of is "the firstbornof every living thing" who "tabernaclesamong men" angel as the man Jacob.1 (Rec. Yahoel of the same name.

First. there is clear recognition of the significance of YHWH as the personal and primary name of God that was understood to be inseparable from the reality of God. but also his identity 52a See Gieschen.the Word[b X6yo. Second. III. This terse overview of Israelite and Jewish traditions.'52 and "Word" are related: [Conf. even the word that brought the world into existence and sustains it. there is evidence that the Divine Name is a potent reality. there is testimony that this Name was also the possession of YHWH's visible image. cf. therefore. Important in this is not only his resurrection and enthronement. who holds the eldership among the angels. let him press to take his place under God's First-born.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 127 possesses the Divine Name and even uses him as the foundation of his Note especiallyhow closely "Name" teaching about 6 X6yos("theWord"). theNameof God.14-16. And many names are his for he is called: the Beginning. Word(of God) 'd [ovova Oeo0 Kai 6yo]. aoo X66yos ("your all-powerful Word") in the first-century BCE Wisdom of Solomon (18. First Century Evidenceof the Divine Name in Christology In order for Jews to confess that Jesus is Lord and worship him. Other pre-Christian Jewish evidence of this includes the identification of the theophanic Angel of YHWH who speaks to Moses from the burning bush in Exod 3. Third. an archangel as it were. 1 Chron 21. Christology. such as the divine hypostasis who is identified as the Angel of YHWH or the Name of YHWH in the OT. and 'the One that sees'. 146] But if there be any as yet unfit to be called a son of God.]. the Man after His Image. Israel. Finally. . Angelomorphic 107-112.15-16). they needed to identify him fully within the reality of YHWH.4 as eio. establishes several things that are foundational for understanding the Christian evidence. namely Nor should it be assumed that this identification of the Divine Name angel traditions of the OT as the Word is the invention of Philo under the influence of hellenistic philosophy. in spite of the diversity of names and titles for God in the OT. X6oyos ("Divine Word") by Ezekiel the Tragedian in the second century BCE (Exdgoge9699) and the identification of the Destroying Angel of the Tenth Plague as 6 7cavtco&vvaloS. the Divine Name Angel tradition provides some influence on figures in later Jewish literature like the Word and Wisdom.

which is yours in ChristJesus. YHWH. GIESCHEN with YHWH before the incarnation. Angelomorphic Christology. The Gospel of Matthew.9). The Pauline Epistles The Pauline Epistles clearly identify Jesus within the reality of YHWH in a variety of ways. Although it is often very difficult to chart direct influence of some of the above texts in early Christian literature. 315-346. the Christ. God's Angel. being born in the likeness of men.]. the Son of God. even death on a cross. the Glory of God. the Firstborn. The unmistakable reference to the Divine Name in this hymn is widely recognized by interpreters: "the name that is above every other name" (2.53 Another significant way that this divine identity is expressed was to confess that Christ possesses the Divine Name. The Epistle to the Hebrews. [9] Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him thenamethatis aboveevery name [6ti Kicab oe6 a6'TOvtCep6i)ooev KaXieapioaao aUx(&TO ovoua TO bixp cnavovoula]. including identifying him as the Lord. in heaven and on earth and under the earth [pva Ev T(o6v6Olax c 'Irjooi nav y6vui Kcan. The genitive relationship in to 6v6o'axt 'Irooi ("the name of Jesus") " For further discussion of many of these aspects of Pauline Christology. and the Beginning. [11] and every tongue confess that Jesus is Lord to the glory of God the Father [Kcai x&caa yX. he humbled himself and became obedient to death. though he was in the form of God. [8] And after being found in human form. the Destroyer. The prominent hymn of Philippians 2 is the primary text where this is proclaimed: [5] Have this mind among yourselves. The Book of Revelation. 860av 0eoO iacTp6. [6] who.ooa etoLooyurOnttal otX K}idptoS 'IGoov. . and the Acts of the Apostles. the Image of the Invisible God. see Gieschen. the Wisdom and Power of God.128 CHARLES A. These Divine Name traditions provide a basis for understanding the type of traditions that helped Jews express the divine identity of Jesus after his death and exaltation within a faithful confession of the one God.gri nopavi[ov cKai nRtye[iv Kai KraCOXOoviov]. XptoxoS Ei. the Form of God. the Heavenly Man. nevertheless they provide evidence of traditions that were in the literary and theological milieu of the first century. The Johannine Literature. [10] in order that at the nameof Jesus every knee should bow. This evidence will be presented with limited comments under six categories: The Pauline Epistles. [7] but emptied himself taking on the form of a servant. did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped.

which he had always had and never lost. Since he had expressed his equality with God in a human life of obedient service to God. enthronement) of the Son by the Father and the bestowal of his Divine Name upon the Son. Wanamaker.6-11: Son of God or Adam Chris"Philippians example.e.6).11). is not fair to what is confessed in the first half of the hymn.. example. This is the way in which the one and only in exegesisof Dunn. 54 For . his exercise of divine sovereigntyalso does not compete with his Father'sdeity. is not a matter of gaining or regaining equality with God. Exercisingthe unique divine sovereignty.and MarkusBockmuehl. the Tetragrammaton. esp.55 First.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 129 is best understood as expressing simple possession: "the name that Jesus possesses".10-11 a is clear: Everykneeshouldbow at the name of Jesus [becauseJesus' name is YHWH]. VC 37 (1983) 260-287.A. Everytongue shouldconfess that Jesus is Lord [becauseJesus is truly YHWH]. and therefore 9) it qualified him to exercise the unique divine sovereignty over all things. The conclusion that the "name that Jesus possesses" is the Divine Name is collaborated by the resulting universal worship that climaxes in the confession: "Jesus Christ is Lord" (2. the wider context makes the divine identity of the Son beforehis exaltation apparent by stating that he was originally in the "form of God" (2.C. however.54 Such a conclusion. ChristologytheMaking. Bauckham eloquently expresses the significance of this action: was This radical self-renunciation his way of expressingand enacting his equal(v ity with God.56 The Divine Name is not bestowed upon this "form of God". Fossum has demonstrated that the historical background for "the form of God" is to be found in Jewish traditions about the Glory. Because this hymn clearly proclaims the divine identity of the crucified Son based upon the exaltation (i. as has been demonstrated by numerous interpreters. but redounds to the glory of his Father (v 11).VNTS (1987) 179-193.26.2:6): 33 tology". the heavenly throne of God. His exaltation to the highest position. The parallel structure and logic of 2. but upon him who took on the "form of a servant" and humbled himself unto death. Variations on a Theme of Jewish Mysticism". he bears the unique divine name. the radiant "likeness of a man" in Ezek 1.see the Adam Christology 114-121. some have argued that the Son possessed neither the Divine Name nor divine identity until afterhis exaltation. "The Formof God (Phil. JTS 48 (1997) 1-23. 55For 2. 264-265. but of acquiring the function of implementing the eschatologicalsovereigntyof God. and receives the worship of the whole creation. 56 "Jewish-Christian Christology and Jewish Mysticism".

'Only in YHWH. 56-61.20). becomes a public acknowledgement of the divine identity of the crucified servant.57 The bestowal of the Divine Name after the exaltation. The conclusion that the reader is led to draw is quite obvious: If Christ is enthroned in the heavenly places "above every name that is named". see McDonough. GIESCHEN God reveals his identity to his whole creation and is acknowledged as God by his whole creation.. shows that he fully identifies the YHWH who is speaking here with the exalted Son.11. see Martin Hengel. (" For the significance of enthronement "at his right hand".23b-24a)..130 CHARLES A.. only in this age. the significance of this hymn cannot be appreciated without noticing that Paul draws on a portion of Isaiah 45. God Crucified. r' See Capes. 58. see Bauckham. OT YHWH Texts. 'are righteousnessand strength' (45.GodCrucified.] [20] which he accomplished in Christ when he raised him from the dead and made him sit at his right hand in the heavenly places. but also in that which is to come. and aboveevery not that is named[ntavxos 6v6opaToS ovoauxCog!vou]. then he must be enthroned on the divine throne and possess the unique Divine Name that is not "named" by humans. Concerning the speaking of the Divine Name. Studies in Early Christology (Edinburgh: T&T Clark. of 56-61. The epistle presents the unparalleled cosmic status of Christ that results from his resurrection and enthronement: [18] that you know [.58 Second.15-23. and every tongue will swear. Paul's application of this OT YHWH text to Christ. God Crucified. The revelation of Christ's true name is part of Paul's Missionary task (Rom 15.. This allusion comes from a very monotheistic portion of Isaiah where YHWH declares: To me every knee will bow. [21] far name above all rule and authority and power and dominion.' it shall be said of me.60 This aspect of Christology also plays a role in the soteriology set forth in the Pauline epistles. . therefore. 157-160. YHWH at Patmos. and Bauckham. both here and in Rom 14.9 Another text that shows the influence of the Divine Name tradition upon Pauline Christology is Ephesians 1.] the riches of his glorious inheritance in the saints [. as many interpreters have noted.58-122. 1995) 119-225. This is especially clear in Romans 10 where Paul emphasizes the confession "Jesus is Lord" as the essence of 57 5) For discussion the importantallusionto Isaiah 53.

13. you were justified in thename Xpitoxo] and in of the LordJesus Christ[?v Tr 6v6ogat Toi icupioo 'ITaooi the Spirit of our God" (6. Judges 13. several Jewish texts speak of the Divine Name as the hidden or secret name. As noted above. Jos.11-16.ta icupio' the Lord will be saved' [rIa. av eVclcaKearlat Christ'spossession of "the [Divine] name of the Lord" ooTioexaat]" (10. yap o.17. Gos.i il [13] He is dressed in a robe dipped Tx in blood and his nameis calledthe Wordof God [Kiccrklxat ovoouaaitxo 6 TO X6Iyo.11. Asen.29. and Gos Phil.13). 1. "' For a more complete discussion. 'every one who calls upon the name of x6 ovo. As in John 17 where Jesus states that he revealed his (hidden) name . The assertion that the name written on him "no one except he himself knows" is hyperbolic "insider" language. Pr.7-40.12).61This text presents Christ as the possessor of a mysterious name that only he knows: no except himself knows on he written himthat one [12b]He has a name 6voga [EiXov ov yeypagg. cf. you were sanctified. and then quotes Joel 2. v5oaoafio xT6 'ITooi iv )iv] and you in him. that "the same one is Lord of all" (10. 15.62 Support for interpreting the mysterious name in 252-256. since Revelation states the saints are sealed with the name of Christ and bear it on their foreheads. This is probably not a baptismal formula.5.14." iV Kvpiovilgiov TheBookof Revelation The significance of the Divine Name for the Christology of Revelation is very apparent in the description of Christ as the rider on the white horse in Rev 19. The view that the singular Divine Name is the essence of baptism is probably reflected in Eph. but as the nameinvoked by means of the formula..vov O S O avo5r6e]. 7hom.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 131 saving faith (10.12. but it does reflect that a singular "name" is invoked in baptism and that name belongs to Christ. Angelomorphic Christology. 0eoi].32 [MT 3. is implicitfrom the immediatecontext and is explicitlystatedin 1 Corinthians: "But you were washed.9). Jos.2.29. 54. "word" should not be understood as the wordsof the baptismal formula. Gos Truth38. see: Gen 32. 10).iv bpriigat]".26 where it states that Christ cleansed the church by "the washing of water withtheword[tr The XourTp TOz iS6aTO. 5. The understanding that the baptized believer is given and bears the Divine Name appears to be expressed in 2 Thess 1. 1 En 69.5]: "For. 62 For example.12 where the congregation is encouraged to be worthy of God's call: "in order that thenameof ourLord 6voJlaTxo Jesus be glorified in you [iit0o. see Gieschen.

7" This understanding Jesus possessesthe Divine Name is also affirmed the that by sharingof divine titles that are closely relatedto the Divine Name betweenChristand God (the Father).132 CHARLESA. 36.Revelation (Columbus: 152.14). 1993) 30-35. Kx heaven. Lenski. b5For LutheranBook Concern.63 The understanding that Christ is called "the Word of God" here because he possesses the Divine Name responsible for creation is substantiated by the observation that the "faithful and true witness" (19. I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God.14-25 and Isaiah 63.see the Shepherd Henmas. is the same name possessed by the Son. of especiallySim9. never will he go out of it.see Richard Bauckham. 1935) 66For the Church as a manifestation the of Holy Spirit. On the basis of these texts.C.12 as the Divine Name is found in the other references to the name(s) of God in Revelation: [3. the saints have one name on their foreheads: the Divine Name. but the throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it. .12] He who conquers.12 as the Divine Name is found in the next sentence where John notes that the (known) name of the rider is "the Word of God" (19. Wis 18.64 Further support for interpreting the mysterious name of Rev 19. and my own new name [Tx 6voa6 gO TO Cavov].and thenameof the cityof my God[Tb ovocaxit n6ohke TO O9eou the new Jerusalem that comes down from my God out of gLou].1-14. GIESCHEN 19. [22.1] Then I looked.14) is earlier given the title "the Beginning [&api] of God's Creation" (3.H. 3. n. it is sometimes asserted that the saints receive three names. "3See esp. see R.66 Therefore.1.67 to his disciples(see discussion below). [14.65 A much simpler answer to the puzzling portraits painted here is to see that the name of God the Father and the name of the new Jerusalem. on Mount Zion stood the Lamb. and behold. they will see his will face. and his name[T6 ovolia aCXTOi] be on their foreheads. 64 Gieschen. and his servantswill worship him.13). and I will write on him the nameof my God [TO 6vo.The Climax Prophecy: Studies theBookof in of Revelation (Edinburgh: T&T Clark.uaTO)0Eo goou].the enlightenedreaderof Revelationis expected to know this secret name that only Christknows.1.4] There will no more be anything accursed. example. 255 Angelomorphic Christology. and with him a hundred and forty-fourthousand who had his name and his Father's name aoxTOiKacibTO voua ToV JiatpbOS [Tb ovorux aWTcoi]written on their foreheads.11. The discussion of antecedents above demonstrated that "the Word" or "the Word of God" was a title sometimes given to the theophanic angel who possesses the Divine Name. 'ApXisignifies"source". who is the tangible manifestation of the Holy Spirit.

. Gundry. it functioned as a mark of YHWH's 8 See Danielou.which is also the name of the last letter of the alphabet. SBLSP 33 (1994) 662-678. who entered the Holy of Holies on TomKippur. The Hebrew word for the "mark" in this text is f1l.22-25 (cf. Num 16. till we have sealed [oappayiacoo?v] serthe vants of our God upon their foreheads.41-50). This Name gives them protection during earthly tribulations and assures them of their heavenly inheritance.27). attached to the turban worn on his forehead (Exod 28:36-38). see also the sealof ing with the Divine Name in.69 The scene that supports the identification of the writing of the Divine Name on the forehead with baptism is the sealing of the saints depicted in Revelation 7: [2] Then I saw another angel ascend from the rising of the sun. The protection of the priestly garb. and Margaret Barker.3 and 3. Theology Jewish Christianity. [3] saying. 2000) 159-163.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 133 When are the saints given this Divine Name? The imagery of these texts is grounded in the writing. and he called with a loud voice to the four angels who had been given power to harm earth and sea. since the Glory was to return from the East (Ezek 43:1-2). As the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet. 154-157.8. and imparting of the Divine Name during the baptismal rite.1 and 22. of and theApocavlpse The PaschalLiturgy (Richmond: John Knox.. "Do not harm the earth or the sea or the trees.the Shepherd Hermas and the Odes of Solomonbelow. TheRevelation of Jesus Christ(Edinburgh: T&T Clark. John 6. and Massey H. This Name was understood as a critical element of his garb that protected the High Priest as he came into the presence of YHWH.68Although Revelation 3. Some of the background the significance the Divine of for of Name as a protectingagent has its originin the High Priesttraditions ancientIsrael. both 14. speaking. "9 See Rev 2.4 imply that the Name was written on the saints before the final eschatological events and certainly before they entered heaven. Through a vision the prophet sees YHWH command a man in white linen and his six associates to mark the faithful of Jerusalem and then carry out a Passover-style purge of all the unfaithful who do not bear YHWH's mark. see R. ShepherdJr. "Angelomorphic Christology in Revelation". 1960) 90.12 speaks about the writing of the Name as a future reality. For identification of this "angel" as Christ. bore the Divine Name The High Priest. The mark placed upon the faithful remnant's foreheads for visibility was probably the Hebrew letter taw.70 The historical background of this sealing imagery is found in Ezekiel 9. from the punishing presence of YHWH is especially vivid in the description of Aaron's intervention on behalf of Israel as reported in Wis 18. 70 The "angel" who ascends "from the rising of the sun with the seal of the living God" appears to be a depiction of the angelomorphic Glory. with the seal of the living God. including the Divine Name. The seal of the living God is the Divine Name (cf.

A (Alpha) and Q (Omega).74 This is confirmed by the fact that the contrasting markof the Beast is none other than the name of the Beast: "so that no one can buy or sell unless he has the mark. .6-9. It is also clear that already by the late second century this sealing with the Name in the baptismal rite came to be understood as the marking of the cross upon the baptismal initiate. that is. Danielou details evidence of the sign of the cross as the Sphragis ("seal") in the early church fathers. The most recognizable example of a letter of the alphabet used to identify YHWH is found within Revelation in the use of the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. Sol. Selectain Ezechielem MPG XIII. The Theology the Book of Revelation of (Cambridge: CUP. 21. the role accorded to the Divine Name in the baptismal praxis described in Revelation indicates that this name was not a peripheral subject for the Christians who received this apocalypse. Archaeology the of VT. 228. the name of the beast or the number of its name" (Rev 13.73 The imagery from Ezekiel 9 is the pattern that is used in both depicting and recording the vision of the sealing of the righteous in Revelation 7. like the one at Qumran. of of 75 See 9. 15.6.17. it is not insignificant that in ancient Hebrew script and even in the first century CE a Hebrew taw looked like two crossed lines.75Furthermore. 74 Danielou. 1993) 25-28. Archaeology the NT. Origen. see The Bible and the Liturgy (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.17).12). it is probable that the baptismal rite included a mark or seal that not only represented God's ownership. this mark was to be a protecting sign or seal that shielded its bearer from the purge of the unrighteous. see Richard Bauckham. see also the discussion of the Odes Solomon and Shepherd Hermasbelow. of Theology Jewish Christianiy. 1956) 54-69.6 and 48.8. cf. understood themselves to be the elect spoken of in Ezekiel who bore the mark of YHWH. 1. of 73 For example. 22. Based upon the three texts from Revelation cited above that mention "the name" on the forehead.329-331. 224. but central to both their Christology and soteriology. Furthermore. see also Finegan.71 Like the blood on the Israelite door posts during the night of the Tenth Plague. for both God and Christ (1. either like + or like X. 1978) 220-260. 72 Finegan.11-14 and Pss. 800-801. but was regarded as shorthand for the Divine Name that was spoken and imparted in baptism. CD 19.72 There is limited pre-Christian evidence that some Jewish groups.13. Isa 44.134 CHARLES A. 71 See The Jack Finegan. GIESCHEN ownership because it was considered shorthand for his Name. TheArchaeology theNew Testament: Life of esus and theBeginning of the Early Church of (Princeton: Princeton University Press.

For Christ's possession of the Divine Name as a "seal"..and you do not receive me. cf.Angelomorphic 77 For example.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 135 TheJohannine Literature Some scholars have noted that the Gospel of John evinces significant interest in the name that Jesus possesses.77 This gospel depicts Jesus as the embodiment of the Divine Name of the Father. 6oaao6v aoo) Tb ovota]" (12.uov]. who receive glory from one another and do not seek the Glory that comes from the only God? "I have come in my Father'sname"is often interpreted as asserting thatJesus has come by and with the authority of the Father. Although there is certainly a relationship between "name" and "authority". In light of the use of the verb acppayito with the Divine Name in early baptismal texts. .2-3 and HermasSim. The gospel depicts Jesus demonstrating what his true name is by what he says and especially by what he does: "The works that I do in my Father'sname.27 that emphasizes preexistence ("Son of Man"). cf. [44] How can you believe.76 The Gospel unambiguously asserts that Jesus shares the name of the Father: name[?y&) ?iT|Xl. StudyingJohn (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1994) 61-79. 14.2-3).6-7). Imageof theInvisible 270-293.10-11). God.3-4. This personal identification of the Name as Jesus is supported by the parallel 76 For further discussion of the Divine Name in the Christology of John.16. John's prologue indibaptism (e.109-133.g. glorify your Name [itdrxp. 9. In light of this and the use of a title in John 6.11. they bear witness to me" (10. Rev 7. This is not simply a pious prayer that God's name be glorified through Christ's sacrifice.28). 70 above. This indicates that he can simply be identified as "the Name". if another comes in his own name. Clement of Alexandria. it is possible that the possession of the Divine Name is also behind Jesus' claim in John that God the Father "sealed" [eoppadyioev] the Son of Man (6.43] I have come in myFather's . Excerpta Theodoto cates that the Son as the Word/Name existed before creation and "became flesh" (1. this statement signifies a more intimate connection: Jesus has come as the one who possesses and shows forth the Divine Name. see n.27).25b. Although there is some evidence in Gnosticism for the understanding that Jesus was sealed with the Divine Name at his ex 22. to the extent that Jesus can even pray "Father.14). Christology. Fossum. this verse probably reflects the understanding that the Son was sealed with the Divine Name before creation (John 17.0aev TXov6oaut xo5 naxrp6o [5. 1 En 48. and Gieschen. it is the identification of Jesus as the one who possesses the Divine Name. see: John Ashton. him you will receive. much like the visible manifestations of YHWH in Deuteronomy andJeremiah mentioned above.

[26] I made your nameknown to them and will continue to make it known. the giving of the Divine Name is probably also understood to have taken place before creation. Quispel argues that these verses refer to the Divine Name that was hidden. Williams.79 Second. I protected them in your namethat you have given me. 7). the Divine Name that was revealed to the 78 The between this Divine Name traditionand the prominentSon of relationship Man sayings in John can be understood in light of traditions like those in 1 Enoch 3771 discussed above. is also known as "Your [the Father's] Name". I am He: The Literature of 'Ani (WUNT II. Several conclusions can be drawn from these petitions. the repeated use of the personal pronoun makes it evident that the name discussed here is the Divine Name of the Father. to whom this prayer is directed. as we are one.136 CHARLES A. see Bauckham. Angelomorphic 271-280. The Gospel of John most clearly presents Jesus as the possessor of the Divine Name in the prayer of Jesus at the close of the farewell discourse (John 17): [6a] I revealedyourname[ool) rb ovojia] to those you gave me from the world. God Crucified. It is apparent that this gospel challenges some of the Jewish understandings of the Son of Man figure in its portrait of Jesus. Based upon the testimony in this prayer that the Son received the Father's Glory before the foundation of the world (17.24). known to his disciples. see 'John and Jewish Christianity". in order that they be one.23). GIESCHEN announcement that comes shortly before this prayer: "The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified" (12. Tiibingen: Interpretation Hu' in JewishandEarlyChristian Mohr Siebeck. see Catrin H.80 Third. "0 This conclusion is also based upon the identification of the preexistent Word as the Divine Name in both the prologue and the farewell prayer. Fourth.85. Christology. see discussion below and Gieschen. The "Son of Man". 63-79. 148-155. First.113. . While I was with them. but has been revealed byJesus. the Divine Name was given to the Son (17.1 lb). 7' Most commentators argue that here "name" denotes the "revealed character and nature of God" rather than the Divine as a title-indeed the only title-of Jesus in 3 John: "For they departed on behalf of the Name [b{iep yap toi 6v6xoLraTog ?f0XOov] and have accepted nothing from the heathen" (v. that is normally a hidden mystery in this world. 2000) 280 n. protect them in your namethat you have given me. [llb] Holy Father. therefore.78 That "Your Name" could be understood in this way by the intended readers of this gospel is apparent from the use of obovo. Jesus has made the Divine Name.

The o6yoS Christology of the prologue is widely recognized (1. 9. Knowing the true name of Christ is the source of "life" according to the thematic conclusion of the gospel: "in order that. going to the Father.41.16. you have life in his name"(20.1.18). 14. the one who believes in me will also do the works that I do. 16. I will do it. This idea is also expressed in the reaction of the disciples to Jesus' sign at Cana: "Many believed in his name" (2.. This power of the Divine Name for the one who believes in the true identity of Jesus (that he is YHWH) is a subject that is explained several times earlier in the farewell discourse (14. than in angelomorphic traditions where the theophanic figure who possesses . 15. because you believe.12] Amen.21). if you ask anything in my name[yv Ti o6v6oLati rou]. but specifically believing in his name (i.26). [13] Whatever you ask in my name[yv To 6v6pOLai I will do it. 21. This certainly does not refer to using the personal name "Jesus" as some kind of theurgic formula.13). The prominence of Divine Name Christology in John is further accentuated by seeing its relationship with X6yo. Here is but one representativeexample: [14.12] But to all who received him. Conversely. who believe his name[Toi tIct'rE')ouotIV ei TOb ovojra atuov].23). he is identified as being within the mystery of YHWH. cf.31). 16. amen. a theme that is also found in Acts (5. This power is especially reassuring to the disciples because earlier in the farewell discourseJesus gives some emphasis to how much they will suffer "on account of my name" (15. I say to you.23-24. but asking in the confession that Jesus' true name is YHWH.16. a word of power. because I am iio]. because he has not believed the name of the only begotten Son of God" (3. 1 but its source is often sought solely in Wisdom tradition rather John 1. his true identity as YHWH in the flesh). he gives power to become children of God. In light ofJesus having the Divine Name of the Father as discussed above. Already in the prologue.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 137 disciples by Jesus has protecting power (17.12-13. 15. and greater works than these will he do. "believe in his name" here should be understood as trusting that Jesus possesses the Divine Name and.7). thus. It is noteworthy that the focus is not only believing in Jesus.1lb).26. this bold assertion is made: in [1. that the Father be glorified in the Son. the lack of belief that Jesus possesses the Divine Name brings eschatological judgment: "he who does not believe is conin demned already.e. ("Word") theology in the gospel. Testimony to the vital importance of knowing the name possessed by the Son is frequent in John.

14). John 14:23-24 does not fit neatly into the puzzle because it shifts between k6yo. Based upon the reciprocal relationship between Word and Name in the prologue. Image Beginning of the InvisibleGod. For a corrective. "In the was the Name: Onomanology as the Key to Johannine Christology". one does find 6kyo..7). see Fossum.(Word = Divine Name) and pfljaxta (words = teachings) in John 5:38-47 and 17:6-7 (cf.82In the polemical dialogue of chapter 5. and has the Divine Name revealed). the referent of "his Word" in 5. to continue this theme in some way in the body of the narrative.. including in this immediate context (5. keeping "my Word [Name]" could be understood as key to keeping "my words [teachings]". 163-250.47) uses a plural form of pbla--not X6yos-to refer to "words"in the sense of "teachings":"But if you do not believe his [Moses'] writings. and X6yog (sg. how will you believe my words [IX6xToi.43). 8.37b-38a] ? O1K Ev iVtv ESEZX ever seen.. however. . Although one does not find further examples of 6 Xoyo. It is important to notice that the X6yostradition is found in the gospel beyond the prologue. 1 John 2. and the prominence of Name theology elsewhere in John as discussed above. 82 Support for this theory is found in the shift between 6Syo.3) as well as Jewish evidence linking creation to the Divine Name. otherwise they would not be rejectingJesus (in whom one hears YHWH. sees YHWH.nor his imagehave you [5. and 17.138 CHARLES A. pjTi'aottv ?" 7toTeDe?ExE] This technical usage of koyos is especially dense in the polemical dialogue of John 8: in 8' See Dunn.).It is much more natural to expect this gospel. in the singular form modified by a personal pronoun in chapters 5. toi0.81In light of the prominent focus of the prologue on the Word's involvement in creation (1. with its dominant prologue on "the Word". despite scholarlyopinions to the contrary.).38 should be interpreted to be "his Name" rather than "his communication or teaching" (cf.). 60yot(pl. (sg. Jesus states: Neitherhis voice have you ever heard. The sense of the sentence is this: These Jews have obviously never heard the voice of YHWH nor seen the image of YHWH nor had the name of YHWH in them. GIESCHEN the Divine Name is called "the Word" or "the Word of God". Christology the Making. Even here. there is a firm foundation for the conclusion that the Divine Name is central to John's understandingof 6bKyo. 109-133. 15. and his Word Tcv k6&yov ao6toi you do not have abiding in you [Kai xivovxa]. The technical understandhere as "name" is confirmed in part by the observation that ing of 6oyos the immediate context (5.

. including this chapter. The identity of Jesus is a central question throughout the gospel. and I in you" (15.6 abe. Understanding 8. will surely not see death unto the ages. therefore. The sayings here about "my Word". xefivrre?v a6Tyqo are truly my disciples and you will know the truth. can be better understood if their referent is interpreted as Jesus' "name" rather than his "teaching". Now they know that every[7] keptyour Word[cKa( M6yovoou) have given me is from you.. you [31] If you abide in my Word['Eav b)tei. XOyov TOv [51] Amen..your Gilles Quispel is partly responsible for the understanding concerning Name and Word in John that has been set forth above due to his intriguing suggestion that one expects to read 17.. xOv p6bv he Soyov xTplflon]. and they have xTv TeTipcKav].naxa]that you thing you gave to me I have given to them.4). This reciprocal relationship between Word and Name in John is woven tightly together in the prayer of John 17 at the close of the farewell discourse. "If you confessed my Word/Name to be the Divine Name.31 in the sense of "abide in my Name" fits better with the organic and personal union described later with the same verb (Laevo): "Abide in me. is Word truth [b X6yo. ?v do you not understandmy speech [tia xi rtiv Xaklav Tilv4elv oD [43] Why yItvOxKceT]? Because you are not able to hear my Word [6xt oi w6vaooeaKcoletv xOv O6v]. and . They were yours.. and you gave them to me.6 as: "I revealed your Name. this approach enables one to make sense of John 8. "keeps my Word" in 8. [17] Sanctifythem in the truth.51 fits better with the soteriology of the rest of the gospel if understood in the sense of "confesses my name". a prayer that returns the reader to the central themes of the prologue: to oou [6] I revealedyour Name ['Ecpavepoo&a Tx ovoCoa] those you gave me from the world.&XiOert ontv]. yet you are seeking to kill me. you would receive and understand my speech as the speaking of YHWH"). it is belief "in his name" that brings life. Furthermore. God/the Father] and I keep his Word[KcaiTOV X6yov a'zxo xTInp6]..e. [8] for the words [ra p'l. Amen. [14] I have given them your Word[rov Xoyov ooo].. if anyone keeps my Word[a&vXt. For example.6 rboq oD Xopei1 bitv].. and the world hated them.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 139 V x' Xz 4i4]. because my Word finds no place in you d[xt 6 X6yo. I say to you. and the truth will free you. rather than in the sense of "obeys my teaching". As demonstrated earlier. [37] I know that you are seed of Abraham.43: "Why do you not understand my speech?Because you are not able to hear my Word" (i.e. [55] But I know him [i.

"Glorifyyour Name"." Judas.g. I tell you.6) to the plural Tx pRbazaa(17. "eyo ?Ei1t. So if you are looking for let these men go. you believe that eyo ei1i." they stepped back and fell to the ground. "Whom are you looking for?" And they said.24] "You [theJews] will die in yours sins unless you believe that eyco eigt. The seven absolute sayings are important for this study.140 CHARLES functionsas the equivalentof iyco eiit 6 'dv. &ycfeiti{. his statement in 17.McMasterDivinity School.The divine identitythat is implicitin the other sayingsis explicitin 8." [8.because in this case eiIt is not a copula." [18. however. 'Jesus of Nazareth.] the truth")." [8.e.H.. even though it is vital to see that they function with the seven predicate nominative sayings and the seven signs to paint a powerful portrait of Jesus' identity. of 125-126. 25 June 2001).17 could be understood as a self-reference: "Your Word [ is not translated the list above in order to show the congruenceof these texts as a in group. Furthermore.see also Fossum. was standing with them. and "I am"). Hamilton.ytoeipLt sayings.4"-8] "Whom are you looking for?"They answered."84 This review of John's rich reflections on the Divine Name must also address the ." [8.58] "Amen. Strictlyspeakingiyco eigt in 8.7) in consecutive sentences. "ycd ei'it. GIESCHEN they have kept your Name.58.19] "I tell you this now [Judas' betrayal]. in light of Jesus' earlier claim in 14. Although iycoeiigt is often translated in variousways dependingon context (e. before Abraham was. Bingham Colloquiumin New Testament.6yov(17. "I told you 'yco eit1. who betrayed him. 8) Richard in and Christology the Gospel of John" (paper Bauckham."I am he"."83That the author intends the reader to understand "Word" here in the sense of "Name" is confirmed by the careful switch from the singular Txv A. so that when it does occur. Jesus as the hypostasized Divine Name] is truth." [6. "It is I". do not be afraid. "Jesus of Nazareth." me." Jesus replied..Image theInvisible God..the one who is speaking to you. WhenJesus said to them."Jesus answered. before it occurs. Again he asked them. . then you will realize that ey?o?Eit. Ontario Canada.see above.58 is distinctfrom other sayings. 83 137-155. amen. "JohnandJewish Christianity"."Monotheism presentedat the H.6 ("I am [. but I speak these things as the Father instructed me. 84 This is similarto in Jesus' self-reference the prayerof John 12.20] But he said to them [the disciples in the boat].28. and that I do nothing on my own.85 These absolute sayings are: [4.26] Jesus said to her [the Samaritan woman].28] "When you have lifted up the Son of Man. In fact.. " ycoeigt." [13. "yc? eipt.

.7. through whom he also created the universe. it is probablethat the latterat least alludes Jesus as possessor &yd of the Divine Name (6. thereby.Understanding of 171-176. especially in Isaiah.Nameof God. whom he appointed heir of all things. but is also the agent of creation: [2] In these days he [God] has spoken to us by a son. 8. confirms much of the past research asserting that the backgroundfor the absoluteJohannine sayingsis to be found in these statebetween ments.See also discussion "three 141-147. Isa 41. 48.12.Image theInvisible of Clarendon theFourth Press.86 Williams. 10. 48.18) yT e4iCuYo eitt1 (Isa 43. 89Bauckham.I amHe.25. why does one cause the Jews who heard it to reach for stones (8.14: Ti7S TR il7: T i am the One who is") is rendered 76 eitit dv ("I am the One who ("I If is").25. 88 Becauseof the obviousrelationship betweenthe absoluteand predicatenominative to eigt sayingsin John.5. Jesus identified with YHWH.THWHat Patmos. McDonough.25. n. There are nine divine disclosure state'A ments in the MT and seven in the LXX: Ai.88The message they convey is bold: Jesus' seven self-declarationsare a complete revelain tion of the same YHWH who made the self-declarations the OT. 46. Gospel John Ashton. 14. 41. Fossum. 9. 51.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 141 Catrin William'simpressivetreatmentof OT divine disclosurestatements. 9.4.6).and esp.cautiouslysteersclear of the relationship the LXX translation of these disclosure statements and the LXX translaof tion of the explanation the Divine Name in Exod 3. 13.125-126. fully The Epistleto theHebrews The memorable opening chapter of Hebrews presents the Son as the creator of the universe.l 'R '3.127-129. although the Eky ?eiit formula in John should not be understood as the Divine Name thatJesus is said to have been given (17. [3] who.11. This relationshiphas been demonstratedby previous scholarship.10.1). The Gospel of John has seven absolute hyto eigt sayings.12) and y?7 eiigt (Deut 32."Monotheism in and Christology the Gospel of John". but in the last occurance in Gethsemaneit is reiteratedtwo additionaltimes (for a total of nine).1991) (Oxford: God.6) -nil 'it$ '?i (Isa 43. 43. Williams. 255-303. 151. (Deut 32.4. neverthelessthese absolute sayings are very closely related to it and function as a way of indicating that Jesus is the possessor of the Divine Name.however. being 86 CatrinH. The Son is not only present at creation.6. 14. 11. 45.89 is. 10.4.12). 51. 46. 87 For example Fossum.39. esp. names"in the Thomas literaturebelow.39) W1n (Isa 41.59) and another cause his arresting party to fall to the ground (18.87 these absolute ?y?oeijtL sayingswere not closely related to the Divine Name. 43. 15.12.6)? Therefore. cf.

(1.10. Wisdom tradition need not be the only.2 proclaims that God created the universe through the Son.25-26.4 and 13.8.22).91 This is further supported by the OT quotations of Hebrews 1 in which the Son is identified as 6 0e6." The conclusion that this "word of power" sustaining creation is the powerful Divine Name is supported by the overt reference in 1.142 CHARLES A. Angelomorphic Christology. especially considering the etymology of names like Michael ("who is like God").fi.4 to "a name" that is above those of angels." In this same context Wisdom is said to be "the Fashioner of all things" (Wis 7." This may not appear very significant at first glance because the reference to "brethren" is the crucial reason the quotation is used. The importance of the confession of the true name of God in worship is probably the idea being communicated in 13.6) and idpte (1. DDD 1065-1072.15: "Through him [Jesus] then "0 See I Enoch 69 and 3 Enoch 12-13. This conclusion is founded upon the observation that the description of Christ as "the radiance of the Glory" in 1. see also Gieschen. Wisdom tradition is often seen as the background for this description of Jesus. the author may also be using Psalm 22 to communicate that Jesus is the revelation of the Divine Name.15. where Wisdom is said to be "a pure emanation of the Glory of the Almighty" and "a radiance of eternal light. The Divine Name is the only name that fits such a lofty description. he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high. GIESCHEN the radiance of the Glory and the exact imprint of his [the Glory's] very perTe CaXVTa tpi pgixat son. in the midst of the congregation I will praise you. however. uvajgc. 1. Ps 102. 294-303.25). In the author's effort to clearly distinguish between Christ and created angels he uses angelomorphic traditions. [4] because he became as much 6voega] is superior to the angels as a name he had obtained [cKEKCXrpovO6Kgcev more excellent than theirs. nor the primary. sustaining all things by his wordof power[q(ppcOv xT& x.( aiuxoi)]. . source for this epistle's depiction of Christ as the creator.90 After Heb 1. Ps 45. "1Michael Mach. Even more noteworthy is the quotation of the messianic Psalm 22 in Heb 2.3 indicates that this universe is sustained by "his [the Son's] word of power. including the tradition of a theophanic figure who possesses the Divine Name that was used in creation.12 where the author understands the Son saying to the Father: "I will proclaim your name to my brethren.2 proclaims the Son to be the agent of creation. even as Heb 1. in light of 1.2 may be a development of Wis 7. "Michael".When he had made purificationfor sins.

For theWord God X6'yos ?Oeo]is livingand of [12] [6 TOo thanany two-edged to of active.[13] Namely. the author is calling to mind the Destroyer Angel traditions such as are visible in "the All Powerful Word" depicted in Wis 18.sharper sword. One of the underlying ideas motivating the author's use of the kX6yo tradition may be the relationship of this tradition with a creative "word of power" (1.11-16 (cf.and discerning thoughtsand intentions the of spirit.but all creatures is are bareand laid open to his eyes.yoS tradition in Hebrews 4.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 143 let us continually offer up a sacrifice of praise to God. See W.4): the Divine Name.14-16 or "the Word of God" in Rev 19.93The common conclusion is that the relationshipbetween "the name" and the tides that follow should be interpreted as a genitive that functions epexegetically:the name thatis For a more detailed defense of this interpretation. Christology. that is the fruit of v TZ his azrxo]. there is limited understanding of what is meant by the singular "name" [6 ovouia].684-686.who for us is theWord i6iv v6 k6yoq].. to instead offer a sacrifice of praise to God and central to that praise is the confession that Jesus possesses the Divine Name and is called "God" and "Lord"." The referlips thatareconfessing name[6goXoyo{vTow 6v6Otazt ent of azrxo is probably God. Angelomorphic 311-314. Davies and Dale creature hiddenbeforehim.19. (3 .12-13. TheGospel to According St. 93 92 T&T Edinburgh: Clark. v [7pb6. the heart.9-10): striveto enter that rest.3) that is "a name" more excellent than those of all created angels (1.36-38). 1 Cor 10.1997)III.This certainly fits with the characterizationof Jesus as the heavenly High Priest that dominates this book since one of the key aspects of the earthly high priest's garb was the wearing of the Divine Name on his turban (Exod 28.piercing the division souland of joints and marrow. The exhortation probably encourages these Christians. The Gospel Matthew of In spite of the frequent use and longstanding importance of the baptismal formula in Matt 28. that no one fall by the same [11] Let us therefore sortof disobedience. The identification of Christ as the possessor of the Divine Name in Hebrews finds some additional support in the author's use of the X6. see Gieschen. Matthew vols.D. who are tempted to return to the cultic life of Judaism.92 Although often misinterpreted and mistranslated as a description of the "written"word of God. Allison.

Lenski states that the baptismal formula is "God's full name". they are still referring to baptism in the Divine Name that Jesus possesses.Isaac. This understandingof "the name" in Matthew 28.19 as the Divine Name. Son. and beyond the enigmatic the i'7Tt 'CfT TU71`. the revelation of the Divine Name is taken beyond "the God of Abraham. see Matthew(Columbus: Lutheran Book Concern.38. The challenging part of this formula for a Jew is that the singular Divine Name is also possessed by the Son and the Holy Spirit. anchors the reality of the Son and Holy Spirit in YHWH who had revealed himself over centuries of time. 10. 1932) 1156. . If the Matthean formula were treated with the reverence of the Divine Name because it was understood to be the full revelation of that name. This may be the reason for the sole appearance of the Matthean formula on the lips of Jesus when he gave the mandate for baptism.H. especially in the history of Israel. 95 Bauckham. andJacob". then it was probably spoken only in the context of worship and not trotted out in public discourse. Furthermore.17). with this understanding in mind. one can see that the phrases in Acts may have even functioned as "safe" references to the sacred formula. YHWH. one God of Israel. What is this name? As a Jew who was writing for Jewish followers of Jesus. and the Holy Spirit.95 This understanding helps in explaining other phrases associated with baptism in the NT. 8. With the baptismal formula. is henceforth confessed to be the Father.144 CHARLES A. and Holy Spirit. whether oral or written. 9"'For example: Acts 2. the Son. Son. this author would certainly understand the name of the Father to be the Divine Name. Both the varied form of these phrases and the lack of evidence of their use in second-century Christianity as baptismal formulae point to the priority of the Matthean formula. 94 For example. Matt 28. therefore. If the Son and the Holy Spirit can be identified with the sacred and revered name YHWH. then the Jew can worship the Son and Holy Spirit together with the Father as YHWH (cf. 75-77. and Holy Spirit. It is probable that the reverence that Jewish Christians accorded the Divine Name was also accorded to the persons/titles that were linked with this name.94 first step towards clarifyingthe identity of "the name" is to observe that the genitive of the baptismal formula could simply be expressing possession: the name that is possessed the by Father. R.C. God Crucified. and 19:5. see discussion below. however. GIESCHEN A Father.16.48.96 These phrases are not references to baptism in a different name.

he who is illuminated is washed. he raves with a hopeless madness.. 24.17). 99The parallelaccountsare different. but this petition takes on further meaning for the disciple who believes the Son possesses the Divine Name and this Name that is given in baptism now dwells in him. and has repented of his sins.1. Mark 13.9. in its critique of the way the wealthy are being accorded attention at the expense of the poor.22. (10.who through the prophets foretold all things about Jesus. This is an obvious reference to the Divine Name. name "Jesus".because they who learn these things are illuminated in their understandings. and he who leads to the laver the person that is to be washed calling him by this name alone. but they do parallelthe use of this phrasein the eschatological discourse(Matt 24. . also testifies to the extreme reverence given to the baptismal formula and affirms that the name given in baptism is the unspoken Divine Name: [Apol. And in thename who was crucifiedunder ofjesus Christ. writing in the middle of the second century CE. On another occasion Jesus warns his followers about the demands that discipleship places on other human relationships with these words: ot "And you will be hated by all on account of my name [Kai ieTeo6e gtLaoo0GD cf.14). Jesus exhorts his disciples in Matt 19.1983) of 77-78.9).29).13. This understanding of the baptismal formula also helps in understanding other references to the "Name" in Matthean discussions about discipleship. Luke 21.9). reflects the respect accorded to the name given in baptism: "Is it not they who blaspheme the noble Name that was invoked over you?"97Justin Martyr. 98Not in Mark or Luke. Pontius Pilate.29 to leave every- itou]". this shouldbe understood as the Divine Name possessedby Jesus.Mark has "for my sake and for the gospel" while Luke has "for the sake of the kingdomof God" (18. but the confession-especially among hostile Jews-that Jesus possesses the Divine Name and his followers have been given this Divine Name in baptism.and if anyone dare the to say that there is a name.7. and in the nameof the Holy Spirit. Jesus teaches his disciples to pray: "Father [. their new life is bound 97James 2. For no onecan utter nameof theinffableGod. And this washing is called illumination.99 SinceJesus' name is the Divine thing "for my Name [xoi 6v6oax6og Name and they are given this Name in baptism. Scaer. See also the anointingof the sick with oil "in the Name of the Lord"(James 5.JamestheApostle Faith(St. The Epistle of James.29). see David P.61] There is pronounced over him who chooses to be born again. In light of the testimonyof the Jerusalemchurchin Acts.] hallowed be your Name" (6.. thenameof GodtheFather Lordof the universe.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 145 There is evidence to support this proposal.98 The problem is not the DT6onavTcov &ia T ovojia ot v]" (10. Louis:Concordia.

The closing words of Matthew's gospel may have inspired such an understanding. Son. The relationshipbetween the Name and baptism is especially helpful in understandingparts of Matthew 18: "Whoever receives one such child in my Name receives me" (18.146 CHARLES A. there YHWH is present.'00 When a child is received in this manner.After the command to baptize in the Divine Name.125-156. Therefore. This is a reference to the Christian congregation assembled and invoking the Divine Name given them in baptism and shared by the Father.1). and Holy Spirit. TheActs of theApostles Most of the evidence concerning the Divine Name is found in the early part of Acts.. and the Father." in "" A similar prayer is found in Apostolic Constitutions 7. This understandingis stated in the same context of Matthew: "For where two or three are gathered in my Name. and we beheld his Glory". (2 ..20). Judea. there am I in the midst of them" (18. Recueil LucienCerfaux vols. GIESCHEN to this Divine Name that they bear.. O Holy Father. Jesus-through the dwelling of the Divine Name-is received (cf. but primarily a reference to receiving children through the use of the Divine Name in baptism. obviously. but it states that the Name dwells "among us" (not "in us").]" (10.1-2.14: "The Word [who possesses the Divine Name] became flesh and tabernacled among us.26. and Samaria (Acts 1:8). 1954) 2. These prayers express a continuation in baptism and eucharist of the incarational theology expressed in John 1. Even as the Name dwelt in the temple of is a reference to the Divine Name possessed by Jesus that is also possessed by the Father and the Holy Spirit..102References to "the ""'This conclusion is also clear from what follows in 18. and the Holy Spirit.. This under"We standing is reflected in the eucharistic prayer found in the Didache: thanks to you..?10 The "Holy Name" is. Jesus says: "I will be with you always. where they gather.]. even to the end of the ages. "La premiere communaute chr6tienne a Jerusalem". this is not only an encouragement to be nice to children. the "Divine Name". Gemblaux: Duculot. for your Holy Name that you made give to tabernacle in our hearts [. This is not a referenceto the personal name "Jesus". probably because this portion of Acts is dealing with the mission in Jerusalem.." Because the Divine Name is given and dwelling among the baptized. now the Name dwells in the baptized.40).6: "but whoever causes one of theselittle ones who believe me to sin [. none of their past life should stand in the way of hallowing it. 10. 102 See Lucien Cerfaux. the Son is present.5).

declares: "God has made him. rather than the more general "calls". the Holy Spirit is poured out. indicates that the referent of K6ptosin the Joel 2. 22. 22. for further study of the Joel 2.5]: "And it shall be that whoever invokes the nameof the Lordwill be saved i tio eintlcaXearat ovo.104 When the Divine Name possessed by Jesus is invoked in baptism. AsJoseph Fitzmyer states: "For Luke the 'name of Jesus' connotes the real and effective representationof Jesus himself. sins are forgiven.32 [MT 3. 'Into the Name of the LordJesus'.38). .ualcpiou oaokiaerat]" (2. therefore.48). 1996) 103-140.] invoking his name"). but the Name of Jesus mediates his presence on earth via the Holy Spirit. The Name theology of Acts is established in Peter's Pentecost speech (Acts 2. When the people ask Peter what they should do.32 [3.16). heal by this name. It is clear that these are not variant baptismal formulae. in turn. "in the Name of the Lord" (8. New York: Doubleday. 10. therefore.7). quotation. Peter speaks of Jesus enthroned in heaven. and "in the Name of the Lord Jesus" (19:5). This.14-36).. 05 The Acts of the Apostles(AB 31. a&v use of Psalms 16 and 110 in Peter's speech establishesthe referentof icptog in these psalms to be Christ. is probably reflecting his sources rather than creating a Name theology for these accounts. It is vital to see the relationship between Peter's quotation of Joel and his exhortation that follows: Peter sees Joel's prophecy concerning the Spirit fulfilled in baptism where the Divine Name is invoked (cf.16. 1997).32 [3.38. but appear to be short ways of referring to the sacred Matthean formula (see esp."'05 103 It is preferable to translate etlcaXa1cixta as "invokes" in order to emphasize the ritual use. see Carl Judson Davis. Peter. people who are baptized through the invocation of the Divine Name are given this name.21).16: "be baptized [. Baptismin the Early Church (Edinburgh: T&T Clark.5] quotation is understood to be Jesus.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 147 Name" would have been more readily understood in an Aramaic-speaking context of Jews and Samaritans. and the person is saved.Luke.. especially through the quotation of Joel 2. see Lars Hartman.'03The [eiora naq'S. both Lord and Christ [Kciptovaxtbv Kai Xptoxov]"(2:36). For a contrary opinion. and suffer on account of this name. Peter tells them: "Repent and be baptized Tin every one of you in the name of esus Christ [?i o 6v6 axt 'Ihooi Xpatoo)] for the forgiveness of your sins and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit" (2. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. this Jesus whom you crucified. If someone has the Divine Name possessed by Jesus. 1998) 266. then he has the reality that cannot be separated from that name. 1)4 The Divine Name invoked in baptism in Acts is identified in several ways: "in the Name of Jesus Christ" (2. Therefore.5] Themes. James 2. The Name and Way of the Lord:Old Testament New Testament Christology (JSNTSup 129. bear this name.

et7Ka:ogugevou. for he is a chosen instrumentof mine to bearmy name[Txopa3aoadoat ovogda xT gou] before the Gentiles and kings and sons of Israel. 5.14. [16] for I have shown him how much he must sufferon account myname[binTp o6v6ojax6t. [14] and here he had name[navTac.17-18.17-21. Sim. 21. and 5.148 CHARLES A.1317). Although the dimensions of the debate are very difficult to reconstruct. about suffering the Name are used by Ignatiusof Antioch for expressions 1. TOo6vodr ooxu]."[15] But the Lord said to him. "Lord.7. 8.12).2. 5i owO TUvoa lg&." Toi sou of The identification of Christ as not only possessing the Divine Name. 5. but as the hypostasis of the Name is explicit in 5.5 and 10. see discussionbelow.12). 16.3.26. especially its whole sacrificial system for forgiveness and its complete control on the invocation of the Divine Name. In light of the early confession 'Jesus is Lord" and evidence that the Divine Name is the secret name of Christ that can only be spoken in heaven. rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer dishonor on behalf of the Name [irnep to o6v6ouatoS dLctlaorivat]" (cf.27-42) and Saul's plans to arrest those in Damascus who invoked the name of Jesus (9. appears to have angered those associated with the temple cult.1) and the Shepherd Hennas of (Vis.13). but note 19. This challenging context is also reflected in the visionary appearance of the Lord to Ananias in Acts 9: [13] But Ananias answered. 7. "'6For example.18. authority from the chief priests to bind all who invokeyour Tzo.'06 This would have threatened the temple cult. 21. 26. cf. 17. 9. as seen by the three arrests of the apostles (4.13.107 Isa.9. Peter boldly declares to his aggressors: "And there is salvation in no one else. for neitheris there anothername under heaven that has been given among men by which it is necessary for us to be saved [ovi& yap ovodr aEOTV epO TV Tov v ovov To6 ?~ v9pav t(ot.1-3.]" (4.9).38) and healing (3.41: "Then they left the presence of the council.1-3). (Ephesians 3. it appears that Peter is claiming that the only name that could be invoked on earth for salvation is the name possessed by Jesus of Nazareth. as well as preaching about the name (4.28. 4. how much evil he has done to your saints at Jerusalem.9. I have heard from many about this man. "Go. GIESCHEN Why is "the name" often at the center of the controversy in the early chapters of Acts? Luke opens the window to an inter-Jewish debate concerning the Divine Name that existed in Jerusalem in the years after the death and resurrection of Jesus.28.F ?v .30.1.Ascen. the invocation of the Divine Name in baptism (2. 15. 19.1. ma0eiv]. 16. 107 Similar . 9. cf.6.16.

Theology Jewish Christianity. from ignorance to the knowledge of thegloryof his name.22 (cf.2] We.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 149 IV. through whom he [the Creator] called us from darkness to light. will be innocent of this sin. with the shift from the third person to a direct second person address to the Father in 59. It is. KTcieXo.3 also comes an apparent Christological title.1] Let us. through his beloved servantJesus Christ. Philo Conf.1 and Prov 8. Istanbul: 163. but also look at second. Later Christological traditions. [58. Fossum.21. with earnest prayer and supplication.4] While we render obedience to your almighty and most excellent name. Both of these draw upon the work of Quispel. and hope on: most name. therefore. that leads to the identification of Christ as the Name in this document.18. trust in.. know. "9 Wisdom'sspeech from Prov 1. Name of God. ovo4a jov)].22. only limited representative examples will be surveyed here for the sake of supporting the thesis of this study. appears to reflect an understanding of Christ as "the Name" of the Father whom the readers are called to obey. and Danielou.14 (il apxii AT KiaOetogO Oeoi) and the more generaltitle "the Beginning"(Col 1.that the Creator of the universe may keep intact the specified number of his elect throughoutthe whole world. are usually founded upon earlier traditions.and third-century fields of Christian literature in order to better understand the sprouting blossoms of first century Christology. cf. the "Source of All Creation". and will ask. Because other scholars have done extensive treatments of this evidence. NT scholars often commit the methodological error of not using later literary tradition to understand early tradition.obey his [theFather's] holyandglorious thereby escaping the threats which were spoken by Wisdom long ago against those who disobey.1).8 See esp. [60. Wis 6.3-7.'08 1 Clement Clement of Rome. Although the referent of the name seems ambiguous here.see Gnostic (2 NederlandsHistorisch-Archaeologisch Instituut. Second ThirdCentugy and Evidence theDivineNamein Christology of In a cautious desire to avoid reading a highly developed Christology back into the first century. John 1.[3] to hope on your name. of Studies vols. trusting in his mostholy and majestic 109 name. the sourceof all creation[r6 apXeyovov Eacrl. To 146). 7. however.10 1471. however. .23-33is quotedimmediately priorin 1 Clem "0This title originatedwith Gen 1. 57. therefore. This is very similarto Christ'stitle in Rev 3. [59.1974/1975). that we may dwell safely. writing to the Corinthians at the end of the first century. imperative that NT scholars not only examine Second Temple Jewish literature as the seedbed for traditions used to express the identity of Christ.

and Ascensionof Isaiah".Angelomorphic 229-244.TheJewishRootsof Christological on Monotheism: from theSt.and GladysS." [9. An aspect of the angelomorphic Christology in the Ascension of Isaiah is the identification of Christ as a possessor of a secret or unknown name. James R.112 The conclusion that this "unknown" name is the Divine Name is further substantiated by three other pieces of evidence. YHWHat Patmos.5] "And the one who turned to you. and his chosen can no heaven learnhis name. "Martyrdom 114 This is similarto Rev 19. Stuckenbruck.12-13 where Christ has an unknownname. Davila. the LORD Christ." Christ is depicted as possessing a hidden name that is not heard on earth. 9. CareyC. but the .7).150 The Ascension of Isaiah CHARLES A. but they are directed by the power of the seventh heaven. of "Worshipand Monotheismin the Ascension Isaiah".whosenameis unknown. Lewis.157 notes.OTP 2.18. Newman. this is your LORD. 10. dwells. but who in turn show their subordination to the Great Glory by together venerating him (9.'1 "' See Gieschen.14) since the Ethiopic term used here is the same one used to translate the Tetragrammaton."' Christ and the Holy Spirit are presented as two divine persons in angelic form who are worshipped alongside "the Great Glory" (8.40).27-42).5.14. but you cannot hearhis nameuntil you have come up from this body. the LORD. where and the Onewho is not named One. Leiden: Brill. Andrews Conference theHistorical of Papers Origins the Worship of Jesus(ed. 9. 112 McDonough. Two texts evince this phenomenon: said [8. JSJSup63. who is to be called in the world Jesus. possession of the Divine Name may be reflected in the designation "the LORD" that is given to both the Father and Christ in this document (4. 1999) 70-89. much like the traditions in John 17 and Revelation 19 discussed above. First. which is an allusion to the widespread Jewish practice of not speaking the Divine Name. The Temple was destroyedin 70 CE before this document was written. see also Loren T.7] And he [the angelus interpres] to me [Isaiah].5. "3 Michael Knibb. 10. "From the sixth heaven upwards there are no longer those on the left. the Ascension of Isaiah carefully distinguishes between this "unknown" name and the name "Jesus": the latter is a designation applied to Christ only during his earthly state (9. Christology. 58-122. nor is there a throne place in the middle."3 Second. but the speakingof the Divine Name within its precinctscould have been seen as speakingthe name in heaven even when the Temple was standingbecauseit was viewed as heaven on earth. GIESCHEN One of the intriguing features of this early second-centuryJewish Christian apocalypse is its angelomorphic Christology and Pneumatology.

his glory was not like the glory of the angels which I always used to see."5 This angel indicates that he has a hidden name: [7. and an office. such that I cannot describe the glory of this angel. dated between the late-first to the third century.see also Stuckenbruck. Tiibingen: Georg Kretschmar.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 151 Third. "Who are you? And whatisyour name? And where are you taking me up? For strength had been given to me that I might speak with him. then you will understand who I am. Mohr Siebeck. Although it cannot be determined that the author of Odes actually knew and was influenced by Revelation.13).g.'7 In spite of the fact that the Matthean baptismal formula is clearly known by the author (23.for you have to return into this body. that evince reflections on the Divine Name that are closely related to those discussed above concerning baptism in the Book of Revelation. "Worship Monotheism". ."6 The Odes of Solomon There are also several hymns in the Jewish-Christian Odes of Solomon.2] When I prophesied in accordance with the message which you have heard. This same tradition is found earlier in Ascensionof Isaiah concerning the angel who guides Isaiah's vision. 17 Fossum. but my name will you not know.. [4] And he said to me. Angelomorphic Christology.2021) is certainly the background for this "unknown" name of the angelomorphic Christ. but he had great glory. and 86-89. Name of God. [3] And I saw when he took hold of me by my hand.25 (cf. Isa. It appearsthat "the Son" may also be a designationused primarilyfor Christin his earthlystate accordingto Ascen. 8. 231-236.22). Ode 8 reflects some freedom in identifying the name that is sealed name by which he is known is "the Word of God". I saw a glorious angel. This evidence from the Ascensionof Isaiah is significant because it testifies to the influence of the Divine Name Angel tradition (Exod 23:20-22) in both its Christology and Pneumatology as it communicated its understanding of the relationship between the three who are the one God of Israel. "When I have taken you up through (all) the stages and have shown you the vision on account of which I was sent. Exod 23. the influence of the Divine Name Angel tradition (e. 16 Studien riihchristlichen zur (BHT Trinitdtstheologie 21. see Gieschen. who is also the Angel of the Holy Spirit in this document. several texts in the Odes appear to reflect similar baptismal praxis that has the sealing with the Divine Name as a central feature. 100-101. and I said to him. 15 For evidence supportingthis conclusion.1956)62-124. 9.

on account of theNameofyourFather.5] Hear. you who are kept in him who lives. for it is with them. Name of God.7] Because the sign on them is the Lord. Notice what the following text says about the building of the church: [Vis. and the sign is the way for those who cross in theNameof the Lord. I recognized them and imprinted a seal on their faces [. As in the Book of Revelation.152 CHARLES A.. .18 Furthermore. you who are saved in him who was saved. Although this ode states that Christ places his name on the head. but then must put it on. in the sense of wearing it.3. [22] you shall be found uncorruptedin all ages. Hallelujah. then. [21] You who are loved in the Beloved. the name is placed on the head: "And I [Christ] place my name upon their head. and is maintained by the unseen power of the Master. [19] And my righteousnessgoes before them. therefore. GIESCHEN more succinctly as both "my Name" (Christ is speaking) and "the name of your Father": [8. Ode 4. theNameof the MostHighand know him.This complex compilation of visionary revelations testifies of in several places to the Divine Name as the creative word that is the name of the Son used as the seal in baptism.8 and Gal 3. 95-112. The Shepherd of Hermas The importance of ritual baptismal practices in preserving Divine Name Christology is also visible in the early-second century writing entitled the Shepherd Hermas.. [20] Seek and increase. and abide in the love of the Lord.27. cf. elsewhere the author calls the faithful to put on the Divine Name: [39. and they will not be deprived of my Name. because they are free and they are mine" (42.20).[8] Put on. and the tower has been founded by the wordof the almighty glorious name[xoi navxOKcpatopoc and Kai Ev6t6ov 6vo6axoS]. which is depicted as water and the utterance of "the almighty and 118 Fossum. on a daily basis. The sense here may be that the baptismal initiate is sealed (or "signed") with the Divine Name. much like Acts. why the tower has been built upon the water: because your life was saved and shall be saved through water. This text is vivid testimony that the church ("the tower") is built by baptism.]. "Your Father". one sees some variety in identifying the Divine Name: it is the Name of "the Most High".13] And before they existed. and you shall cross without danger while the rivers shall be obedient to you. and "the Lord". 3.

115. 1 Enoch 69) and states that it is possessed by the Son of God and borne by the baptized: [Sim.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 153 glorious name".9.5] "Listen. 9."said he [the Shepherd].17.121 That this "true name" of Jesus is the Divine Name is confirmed in a baptismal scene where this prayer is offered: "Come. "thenameof theSon of God [rb ovoga Txovioz) toi 0eoF] great and incomprehensible. and they made use of it in order that they enter the kingdom of God.16. Hennas also reflects the Jewish understanding of the Divine Name as the word that sustains creation (cf.1). he is dead. 132).12.5-7. what do you think of those who are called by him. Hermas speaks explicitly of the Name that is received in baptism ("water") as i cppayis ("the seal"): [Sim. If then the whole creation is supported by the Son of God. [4] The seal.3] "So these also who had fallen asleep received the seal of the Son of God [Tlnv oppayi5a rxo 'uioi xo 0eob] and entered the kingdom of God. but the name which is given to him is Jesus Christ" (163).8. But when he receives the seal he puts away mortality and receives life.""l9 The basis for the understanding that the Son of God possesses the Divine Name is the pervasive angelomorphic Christology throughout Hernas that is rooted in OT Angel of YHWH traditions that supply several titles used for the Son. Thus. 9. Such words were 19The name as the seal in baptismis also discussedin Sim.1-3). cf. The baptized are called by this name (Sim. is the water. willinglysufferfor it (Sim. "a man bears the name of the Son of God.4). Imageof the InvisibleGod.5 above. and can become ashamedof it (Sim.16. holy Name of Christ that is above every name" (27. so they go down into the water dead and they come up alive.6. Angelomorphic 225-227. Isa. For before. therefore. this seal was proclaimed to them as well. and 9.120 The Acts of Thomas and the Gospel of Thomas The Acts of Thomas is an early-third century document of Syrian provenance that testifies to the continuation of the tradition that the Christian is given the secret name of Jesus in baptism: "You are not able to hear his true name at this time.1." said he.14. This evidence is presented in Fossum.8.and supportsthe whole world. 121 120 .4. 9.8. 9. See Gieschen.28. see also Ascen. which is most certainly the Divine Name. and walk in his commandments?" In a manner similar to the Book of Revelation and the Odes of Solomon. 9. Christologv. and bear thenameof theSonof God.

De Conick. 79-81. and Fossum. moreover. 7. 122 of Image God. This may indicate that iM7 was the primary word that explicated the Tetragrammaton and was viewed as its virtual equivalent. Sanh. In light of both the prohibition against speaking the Tetragrammaton and Jesus' revelation of his secret name. you would pick up stones and throw them at me. It may be significant.14 which functioned as a divine name in their own right: 'I. a collection of sayings attributed to Jesus that dates to the mid-second century. the reflection on the hidden or secret name of the Son found in Gnostic literature is dependent on earlier Jewish and Jewish-Christian traditions. Leiden: Brill.. For examples of this of Jewish Christianity. see Parts II and III above. which make me burn and which I cannot tell anyone else [.14 seems reasonable. 24 See Fossum. When Thomas returned to his companions. ' 11R rn. that Thomas says the stoning would take place if he told the others "one of the words which he told me"." Jarl Fossum argues that the three words here and in the Acts of Thomas are the explication of the Tetragrammaton given to Moses in Exod 3.26) and blasphemy included the mention of God's Name (m.. 123 theInvisible 115-116.5).'25 The two clearest examples of teaching about the Divine Name of the See further April D. 125 . "HetJohannesevangelie en de Gnosis". This tradition of the three words that make up the secret name of Jesus is also found in Logion 13 of the Gospelof Thomas. 1996) 111-115. see also Danielou..]" (47). This secret and true name of Jesus is alluded to again when Thomas states to Jesus: "[.1. 106-112.. they asked him: "What did Jesus say to you?" Thomas said to them: "If I told you one of the wordswhich he told me. Name of God. Seekto See Him: Ascentand VisionMysticismin the Gospelof Thomas(SupVC 33. tradition. Fossum's focus on the three words of Exod 3. GIESCHEN used with the anointing of oil and preceded the use of the Matthean baptismal formula with water (157). 173-202.'22 In this logion Jesus responds to Thomas' difficulty with expressing the true identity of Jesus in this manner: And he took him and withdrew and said three wordsto him.23 He also notes that stoning was the punishment for blasphemy (Lev 24..154 CHARLES A. Name of God. Theology 157-163.] you took me apart from my companions and said three words to me.'24 The Gospel of Philip and the Gospel of Truth As demonstrated by Quispel and those who learned from him. Quispel.

He gavehim his namewhichbelonged him. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf.e. and he to begot him as a son..126 Both of these texts testify to the "hidden name" tradition and both evince the Jewish tradition that the Divine Name is not spoken. he is the hypostasized Name of the Father. thenameabove things: nameof theFather. It is he who first gave a name to the one who came forth from him. however.27 This compilation draws extensively from the writings of Theodotus. see Fossum. is invisible because it alone is the mystery of invisible which comes to ears that are nameis notspoken.53. 95-112. 1970) 5-48. his is the Son. The Gospel of Philip. however. a disciple of Valentinius who wrote in the latter part of the second century. His is the name. 12(b The discussion of the name continues to NHC 1. Sagnard. Name of God. 127Extraitsde Theodote Francois (ed.Phil. who was himself. but they do not speak it. Theodotus taught that the divine nature ("invisible part") ofJesus is "the Name. the Father. theFather's it is apparent through a Son. II.he is the one to whom belongs all that exists around him. for further analysis. Truth1.6-7). the Son's divine nature was imparted to Jesus at his baptism).1) that "descended upon Jesus in the form of a dove and redeemed him" at his baptism (22.5-13] Onesinglenameis not uttered the world. the Those who have this name know it. [Gos. appears to reflect older JewishChristian adoptionist Christology in the mention of "put on himself the Name of the Father" (i. The Gospelof Truthtakes its Name Christology further than the Gospelof Philip: The Son is not only given the Name of the Father. but completely filled with it by him. but representative. The Name. quotation.7-24] Now the nameof the Fatheris the Son. both of which originated in the Valentinian Gnosticism of the latter half of the second century and were discovered in the Nag Hammadi library: in [Gos. whereas those who do not have it do not know it.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 155 Father that was given to the Son are found in the Gospel of Philip and Gospelof Truth. would not become Father unless he put on himself nameof theFather. Sources Chretiennes. It is possible for him to be seen. which is the Only-Begotten Son" (26. The Gospelof Truth continues on this subject far beyond this brief.38. .29. Clementof Alexandria is Clement's Excerptaex Theodoto an invaluable source of information on Gnostic teaching.40.the namethat the Father all the For the Son gaveto theSon. For indeed.

1-5). 147.James R.34.The of Conference on theHistorical Origins the Worship Jesus(ed. '2"Danielou.with the dimming 28 For Clement's knowledge of the (Hebrew) Tetragrammaton and its explanation in Exod 3.6-7] Thenameengraved theplateof gold [Exod 28.10. JSJSup63.27. Conclusion Why does this aspect of Christologyfade during the early centuries of Christianityand virtuallydisappear before Nicaea? The primary reason is quite simple: the move of Christianityfrom Jewish to Gentile soil led to a widespreadignorance of the Tetragrammatonas the unique and unspoken personal name of God.9] and it is graven because of both his written commandmentsand his visible coming. V.Eph. He reflects on the meaning of various parts of the temple in a portion of Book V in Stromata where he expresses that the name of Christ is the Tetragrammaton. Carey C. of '3"For example:Ignatius.'29Even before the birth of Christianity. image of the invisible God before all ages. 1999) 308-341. Newman.128 Clement adapted some of this teaching into his own baptismal theology.'30 Furthermore. see Strom. Andrews JewishRoots Christological Papers Century". De Conick. The experience of bearing the Name is understoodin light of the High Priest bearing the Divine Name on his turban that enabled him to enter the Temple's Holy of Holies (27. GIESCHEN This document also testifies that the Gnostic receives "the Name" that was invoked upon him at baptism (22. Tertullian.. V.A similar phenomenon is visible with the Son of Man tradition which went from being prominently used to express a very elevated. Barnabas 12.the lack of much reading of Hebrew and dependence upon the LXX also contributed to the ebbing of the use of Divine Name traditions. Davila.14.156 CHARLES A. who has set his mark upon all who have been made after him.20.the Divine Name was in the process of being supplantedby a very important divine title: K)cpto.14.the very name worn by the High Priest that is also the basis for "his mark" placed upon the baptized: on [38.36-38] has been judged worthy to be "above every power and principality"[Phil 2.2).4) and bears the "seal"of "the Name of God" (86. Lewis.Even among earlyJewish Christians. of of and GladysS. . see also April D. Theology JewishChristianity. preexistentChristologyin the midst of the Jewish apocalyptic milieu of the first century to a second century title that testifies to Christ's humanity. who is called God the Savior. It is called thenameof Godbecause it is in contemplatingthe goodness of the Father that the Son acts. Leiden:Brill. "HeavenlyTemple Traditions Valentinian and A in Worship: Case for First-Century Christology the Second Monotheism: fromtheSt.Prax.5-6.2.

even though these traditions are in the well as the understanding that "the Word"was a Christological title pointing to the Divine Name: "This was the most perfect beauty and star of the pleroma. Richard Bauckham spells out the significance of this and other such categories: [. JBL 117 (1998) 655-673. "theological category" that early Christiansused to express their convictions aboutJesus. was its relationshipto baptism..W.21. the perfect fruit. He was also aware of the teaching in some Gnostic groups that Christ possesses the name of the Father. In its own terms. what is the significance of the various Divine Name traditions discussed above for our understandingof early Christology?It helps us to see one important. 75). a Christology of divine identity. see Dial. including "the Name which is hidden from every deity. one of the reasons that the Divine Name had some staying power.haer.] we can see that the New Testament writers are already. as has been shown. It is. but often ignored. with which Jesus of Nazareth was clothed" (Adv. ":' L. Irenaeus. it is clear that there is nothing embryonic or tentative about this..3). to Justin Martyrunderstoodthe personal name "Jesus" be the hidden name of the Angel of YHWH (Exod 23.1.14. . A second much less important reason for the decline of this aspect of Christologyis the use of the Divine Name in the Christologyof those condemned as heretical sectarians. Hurtado. In spite of these factors. for example. and truth. haer.6). 'Word'-after the name of the Father-and 'the All' because he derived from All" (Adv. "The Origin of the Nomina Sacra:A Proposal". expressing a fully divine Christology by including Jesus in the unique identity of God as defined by Second Temple Judaism. Once we recognize the theological categories with which they are working. in a deliberate and sophisticatedway. The developmental model.THE DIVINE NAME IN ANTE-NICENE CHRISTOLOGY 157 of the practicalrole of the Tetragrammatonin Christologycame the brightening of the significance of the personal name Jesus as "the name that is above all names" and a centerpiece in worship. References to a "secret name" of Jesus given in baptism and emphasis on believing in this "hidden name". 'Christ'.2.1.21) and the name in the mysterious explanation that YHWH gave Moses (Exod 3. Finally.'3 This did not take long. Jesus who is also called 'Savior'. probably came to be viewed as Gnostic and dangerous by some within the church during the late-second and the third century. is clearly aware of Valentinian baptismal rites that invoked various names. and dominion. as I have called it. it is an adequate expression of a fully divine Christology. Traditions last much longer if they are part of liturgical confessions and actions.

ctsfw. GIESCHEN according to which the New Testament sets a christological direction only completed in the fourth century. long before the Nicene Creed confessed the Son to be of "one substance with the Father".158 CHARLES A.'32 Indeed. some first-centuryJews were confessing the full identification of the Son with the Father on the basis of the Divine Name they shared. Indiana 46825-4996 USA e-mail: gieschenca@mail. is therefore seriously flawed. .26). 132 God 77-78. the farewell prayer of Jesus in John continues to be actualized: "I made your name known to them and will continueto make it known"(17. Concordia Theological Seminary 6600 North Clinton Street Fort Wayne. ': Fossum. Name of God. Crucjfied.'33 Through the early Christian texts discussed in this study.