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New Delhi · Bangalore · Chennai · Cochin · Guwahati · Hyderabad
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Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com
ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2481-2
To
My Mot h e r a n d Si st e r
bot h brave women who fought and won over t heir common enemy
‘cancer’ in t heir sevent ies and sixt ies t o give hope t o younger
generat ion of t heir sex, t his book is lovingly dedicat ed.
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It gives me pleasur e t o wr it e t he for ewor d t o t he book 'Ext r a High Volt age A.C. Tr ansmission
Engineer ing' aut hor ed by Rakosh Das Begamudr e, Visit ing Pr ofessor in Elect r ical Engineer ing
at t he Indian Inst it ut e of Technology, Kanpur . The field of e.h.v. is a ver y gr owing and dynamic
one on which depends t o a lar ge measur e t he indust r ial gr owt h of a developing count r y like
our s. A cour se in t his subject is offer ed for advanced under -gr aduat e and post gr aduat e st udent s,
and t he Inst it ut e also or ganized a shor t -t er m cour se for t eacher s in ot her lear ned inst it ut ions
and pr act ising engineer s in India under t he Qualit y Impr ovement Pr ogr amme.
Wit h a backgr ound of near ly 35 year s in t his ar ea in India, J apan, U.S.A. and Canada in
t eaching, design, r esear ch, and development , I consider Dr . Begamudr e one of t he ablest per sons
t o under t ake t he t ask of wr it ing a book, placing his wide exper ience at t he disposal of younger
engineer s. He has wor ked at not able inst it ut ions such as t he Nat ional Resear ch Council of
Canada and t he Cent r al Power Resear ch Inst it ut e, Bangalor e, and sever al ot her places. His
publicat ions in t he field of e.h.v. t r ansmission ar e numer ous and var ied in ext ent . The I.I.T.
Kanpur offer ed him Visit ing Pr ofessor ship and I am delight ed t o int r oduce t he book by him t o
lear ned r eader s in t his impor t ant field. It is not only a wor t hy addit ion t o t he t echnical lit er at ur e
in t his t opic but also t o t he list of t ext books published in India.
S. SAMP ATH
Dir ect or
Indian Inst it ut e of Technology
Kanpur
Foreword
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Pref a ce t o t h e Th i rd Ed i t i on
It is near ly a decade since t he publicat ion of t he Second Edit ion of t his t ext -r efer ence book
aut hor ed by me and needs a r evision. No significant development s have t aken place in t he
ba sic t h eor y a n d pr in ciples of e.h .v. t r a n smission en gin eer in g, except for in cr ea se in
t r ansmission-volt age levels, cables, magnit udes of power -handling capabilit ies, as well as of
cour se t he cost of equipment and lines.
But t wo pr oblems t hat need ment ioning ar e: (1) har monics inject ed int o t he syst em by
moder n ext ensive use and development s in St at ic VAR syst ems which have an effect on cont r ol
and communicat ion syst ems; and (2) effect on human healt h due t o magnet ic fields in t he
vicinit y of t he e.h.v. t r ansmission line cor r idor . The fir st one of t hese is a ver y advanced t opic
and cannot be included in a fir st t ext on e.h.v. t r ansmission engineer ing, as well as sever al
ot her t opics of a r esear ch nat ur e fit for gr aduat e-level t heses and disser t at ions. The second
t opic is consider ed impor t a nt enough fr om epidemiologica l point of view t o necessit a t e
elabor at ion. Thus a new addit ion has been made t o Chapt er 7 under t he t it le: Magnet ic Field
Effect s of E.H.V. Lines.
Since t he dat e of publicat ion of t he fir st edit ion, t he I.E.E.E. in New Yor k has t hought it
fit t o int r oduce an addit ional t r ansact ions called I.E.E.E. Tr ansact ions on Power Deliver y. The
aut hor has expanded t he list of r efer ences at t he end of t he t ext t o include t it les of significant
t echnical paper s per t aining t o t r ansmission pr act ice.
The aut hor wishes t o acknowledge t he encour agement r eceived fr om Sr i. V.R. Damodar an,
Pr oduct ion Edit or , New Age Int er nat ional (P) Lt d., for r evising t his t ext -r efer ence book and
pr epar at ion of t he Thir d Edit ion.
Vancouver ,
Br it ish Columbia, Canada.
R.D. BEGAMUDRE
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Pref a ce t o t h e Fi rs t Ed i t i on
Ext r a High Volt age (EHV) A.C. t r ansmission may be consider ed t o have come of age in 1952
when t he fir st 380–400 kV line was put int o ser vice in Sweden. Since t hen, indust r ialized
count r ies all over t he wor ld have adopt ed t his and higher volt age levels. Ver y soon it was found
t hat t he impact of such volt age levels on t he envir onment needed car eful at t ent ion because of
high sur face volt age gr adient s on conduct or s which br ought int er fer ence pr oblems fr om power
fr equency t o TV fr equencies. Thus elect r ost at ic fields in t he line vicinit y, cor ona effect s, losses,
audible noise, car r ier int er fer ence, r adio int er fer ence and TVI became r ecognized as st eady-
st at e pr oblems gover ning t he line conduct or design, line height , and phase-spacing t o keep t he
int er fer ing fields wit hin specified limit s. The line-char ging cur r ent is so high t hat pr oviding
synchr onous condenser s at load end only was impr act ical t o cont r ol volt ages at t he sending-end
and r eceiving-end buses. Shunt compensat ing r eact or s for volt age cont r ol at no load and swit ched
capacit or s at load condit ions became necessar y. The use of ser ies capacit or s t o incr ease power -
handling capacit y has br ought it s own pr oblems such as incr eased cur r ent densit y, t emper at ur e
r ise of conduct or s, incr eased shor t -cir cuit cur r ent and subsynchr onous r esonance. All t hese
ar e st ill st eady-st at e pr oblems.
However , t he single ser ious pr oblem encount er ed wit h e.h.v. volt a ge levels is t he
over volt ages dur ing swit ching oper at ions, commonly called swit ching-sur ge over volt ages. Ver y
soon it was found t hat a long air gap was weakest for posit ive polar it y swit ching-sur ges. The
coor dinat ion of insulat ion must now be based on swit ching impulse levels (SIL) and not on
light ning impulse levels only.
Fr om t ime t o t ime, out door r esear ch pr oject s have been est ablished t o invest igat e high-
volt age effect s fr om e.h.v. and u.h.v. lines t o place line designs on a mor e scient ific basis,
alt hough all var iables in t he pr oblem ar e st at ist ical in nat ur e and r equir e long-t er m obser vat ions
t o be car r ied out . Along wit h field dat a, analysis of var ious pr oblems and calculat ions using t he
Digit al Comput er have advanced t he st at e of t he ar t of e.h.v. line designs t o a high level of
scient ific at t ainment . Most basic mechanisms ar e now placed on a fir m foot ing, alt hough t her e
is st ill an endless list of pr oblems t hat r equir es sat isfact or y solut ion.
Dur ing his lect ur ing car eer for under gr aduat e and post gr aduat e classes in High Volt age
A.C. Tr ansmission t he aut hor was unable t o find a t ext book suit able for t he cour ses. The
exist ing t ext books ar e for fir st cour ses in High Volt age Engineer ing concent r at ing on br eakdown
phenomena of solid, liquid, gaseous and vacuum insulat ion, t oget her wit h high volt age labor at or y
and measur ement t echniques. On t he ot her hand, r efer ence books ar e ver y highly specialized
which deal wit h r esult s obt ained fr om one of t he out door pr oject s ment ioned ear lier . To br idge
t he gap, t his t ext -r efer ence book for a cour se in EHV A.C. Tr ansmission is pr esent ed. The
mat er ial has been t r ied out on advanced under gr aduat e and post -gr aduat e cour ses at t he I.I.T.
Kanpur , in special shor t -t er m cour ses offer ed t o t eacher s in Univer sit ies and pr act ising engineer s
t hr ough t he Qualit y Impr ovement Pr ogr amme, and dur ing t he cour se of his lect ur es offer ed at
ot her Univer sit ies and Inst it ut es. Some of t he mat er ial is based on t he aut hor 's own wor k at
r eput ed r esear ch and development or ganizat ions such as t he Nat ional Resear ch Council of
Canada, and similar or ganizat ions in India and at Univer sit ies and Inst it ut es, over t he past 25
year s. But no one single per son or or ganizat ion can hope t o deal wit h all pr oblems so t hat over
t he year s, t he aut hor 's not es have gr own t hr ough r efer ence wor k of t echnical and scient ific
jour nals which have cr yst allized int o t he cont ent s of t he book. It is hoped t hat it will be useful
also for engineer s as well as scient ist s engaged in r esear ch, development , design, and decision-
making about e.h.v. a.c. t r ansmission lines.
Acknowledgements
The pr epar at ion of such a wor k has depended on t he influence, cooper at ion and cour t esy
of many or ganizat ions and individuals. To st ar t wit h, I acknowledge t he deep influence which
t hr ee of my vener able t eacher s had on my car eer —Pr incipal Manor anjan Sengupt a at t he
Banar as Hindu Univer sit y, Pr ofessor Dr . Shigenor i Hayashi at t he Kyot o Univer sit y, J apan,
and finally t o Dean Loyal Vivian Bewley who exer cised t he gr eat est impact on me in t he High
Volt age field at t he Lehigh Univer sit y, Bet hlehem, Pennsylvania, USA. To t he Council and
Dir ect or of t he I.I.T. Kanpur , I am indebt ed for giving me a Visit ing Pr ofessor ship, t o Dr . S.S.
Pr abhu, t he Head of EE Depar t ment , for const ant help and encour agement at all t imes. To t he
coor dinat or , Q.I.P. Pr ogr amme at I.I.T., Dr . A. Ghosh, I owe t he cour t esy for defr aying t he
expense for pr epar at ion of t he manuscr ipt . To t he individuals who have done t he t yping and
dr aft ing, I owe my t hanks. My special t hanks ar e due t o Mr . H.S. Poplai, Publishing Manager ,
Wiley East er n Publishing Company, for his cooper at ion and t oler ence of delays in pr epar ing
t he manuscr ipt . Thanks finally ar e due t o my colleagues, bot h post gr aduat e st udent s and
pr ofessor s, who have helped me at many st ages of t he wor k involved in pr epar ing t his book
while t he aut hor was at t he I.I.T. Kanpur .
(for mer ly)
Elect r ical Engineer ing Depar t ment RAKOSH DAS BEGAMUDRE
Indian Inst it ut e of Technology
Kanpur , U.P., 208 016, India.
xii Preface
Con t en t s
Foreword ................................................................................................. vii
Preface t o t he Third Edit ion .................................................................... ix
Preface t o t he First Edit ion ...................................................................... xi
Ch a p t er 1 I n t r od u ct i on t o EHV AC Tr a n s m i s s i on .......................................... 1–8
1.1 Role of EHV AC Tr ansmission .................................................................. 1
1.2 Br ief Descr ipt ion of Ener gy Sour ces and t heir Development ..................... 1
1.3 Descr ipt ion of Subject Mat t er of t his Book ............................................... 4
Ch a p t er 2 Tr a n s mi s s i on Li n e Tr e n d s a n d P r e l i mi n a r i e s ............................. 9–21
2.1 St andar d Tr ansmission Volt ages ............................................................... 9
2.2 Aver age Values of Line Par amet er s ........................................................ 11
2.3 Power -Handling Capacit y and Line Loss ................................................. 11
2.4 Examples of Giant Power Pools and Number of Lines ............................ 14
2.5 Cost s of Tr ansmission Lines and Equipment .......................................... 15
2.6 Mechanical Consider at ions in Line Per for mance .................................... 17
Ch a p t er 3 Ca l cu l a t i on of Li n e a n d Gr ou n d P a r a me t e r s ............................. 22–60
3.1 Resist ance of Conduct or s ........................................................................ 22
3.2 Temper at ur e Rise of Conduct or s and Cur r ent -Car r ying Capacit y ............ 26
3.3 Pr oper t ies of Bundled Conduct or s ........................................................... 28
3.4 Induct ance of EHV Line Configur at ions .................................................. 30
3.5 Line Capacit ance Calculat ion .................................................................. 38
3.6 Sequence Induct ances and Capacit ances ................................................. 41
3.7 Line Par amet er s for Modes of Pr opagat ion ............................................. 44
3.8 Resist ance and Induct ance of Gr ound Ret ur n ......................................... 50
Ch a p t er 4 Vol t a ge Gr a d i e n t s of Con d u ct or s ............................................... 61–112
4.1 Elect r ost at ics .......................................................................................... 61
4.2 Field of Spher e Gap ................................................................................ 63
xiv Contents
4.3 Field of Line Char ges and Their Pr oper t ies ............................................ 68
4.4 Char ge-Pot ent ial Relat ions for Mult i-Conduct or lines ............................. 72
4.5 Sur face Volt age Gr adient on Conduct or s ................................................. 76
4.6 Examples of Conduct or s and Maximum Gr adient s on Act ual Lines ......... 87
4.7 Gr adient Fact or s and Their Use ............................................................. 87
4.8 Dist r ibut ion of Volt age Gr adient on Sub-conduct or s of Bundle ................ 89
4.9 Design of Cylindr ical Cages for Cor ona Exper iment s .............................. 92
Ap p e n d i x: Volt age Gr adient s on Conduct or s in t he Pr esence of Gr ound
Wir es on Tower s .................................................................................. 107
Ch a p t er 5 Cor on a Effe ct s —I : P owe r Los s a n d Au d i b l e Noi s e ................ 113–137
5.1 I
2
R Loss and Cor ona Loss ..................................................................... 113
5.2 Cor ona-Loss For mulae ......................................................................... 114
5.3 Char ge-Volt age (q–V) Diagr am and Cor ona Loss ................................... 118
5.4 At t enuat ion of Tr avelling Waves Due t o Cor ona Loss ........................... 122
5.5 Audible Noise: Gener at ion and Char act er ist ics ..................................... 125
5.6 Limit s for Audible Noise ....................................................................... 126
5.7 AN Measur ement and Met er s ............................................................... 127
5.8 For mulae for Audible Noise and Use in Design .................................... 131
5.9 Relat ion Bet ween Single-Phase and 3-Phase AN Levels ........................ 134
5.10 Day-Night Equivalent Noise Level ........................................................ 135
5.11 Some Examples of AN Levels fr om EHV Lines ..................................... 136
Ch a p t er 6 Cor on a Effe ct s —I I : Ra d i o I n t e r fe r e n ce .................................. 138–171
6.1 Cor ona Pulses: Their Gener at ion and Pr oper t ies .................................. 138
6.2 Pr oper t ies of Pulse Tr ains and Filt er Response .................................... 142
6.3 Limit s for Radio Int er fer ence Fields ..................................................... 144
6.4 Fr equency Spect r um of t he RI Field of Line ......................................... 147
6.5 Lat er al Pr ofile of RI and Modes of Pr opagat ion ..................................... 147
6.6 The CIGRE For mula ............................................................................. 151
6.7 The RI Excit at ion Funct ion .................................................................. 156
6.8 Measur ement of RI, RIV, and Excit at ion Funct ion ................................ 162
6.9 Measur ement of Excit at ion Funct ion .................................................... 164
6.10 Design of Filt er .................................................................................... 166
6.11 Television Int er fer ence ......................................................................... 167
Ch a p t er 7 El e ct r os t a t i c a n d Ma gn e t i c F i e l d s of EHV Li n e s .................... 172–205
7.1 Elect r ic Shock and Thr eshold Cur r ent s ................................................ 172
7.2 Capacit ance of Long Object ................................................................... 173
7.3 Calculat ion of Elect r ost at ic Field of AC Lines ....................................... 174
7.4 Effect of High E.S. Field on Humans, Animals, and Plant s ................... 183
Contents xv
7.5 Met er s and Measur ement of Elect r ost at ic Fields .................................. 185
7.6 Elect r ost at ic Induct ion in Unener gized Cir cuit of a D/C Line ................ 186
7.7 Induced Volt age in Insulat ed Gr ound Wir es .......................................... 189
7.8 Magnet ic Field Effect s .......................................................................... 190
7.9 Magnet ic Field of 3-Phase Lines ........................................................... 191
7.10 Magnet ic Field of a 6-Phase Line .......................................................... 199
7.11 Effect of Power -Fr equency Magnet ic Fields on Human Healt h ............. 200
Ch a p t er 8 Th e or y of Tr a ve l l i n g Wa ve s a n d St a n d i n g Wa ve s .................. 206–235
8.1 Tr avelling Waves and St anding Waves at Power Fr equency ................. 206
8.2 Differ ent ial Equat ions and Solut ions for Gener al Case .......................... 209
8.3 St anding Waves and Nat ur al Fr equencies ............................................ 215
8.4 Open-Ended Line: Double-Exponent ial Response .................................. 219
8.5 Open-Ended Line: Response t o Sinusoidal Excit at ion ............................ 220
8.6 Line Ener gizat ion wit h Tr apped-Char ge Volt age ................................... 221
8.7 Cor ona Loss and Effect ive Shunt Conduct ance ..................................... 223
8.8 The Met hod of Four ier Tr ansfor ms ...................................................... 224
8.9 Reflect ion and Refr act ion of Tr avelling Waves ...................................... 227
8.10 Tr ansient Response of Syst ems wit h Ser ies and Shunt Lumped
Par amet er s and Dist r ibut ed Lines ........................................................ 230
8.11 Pr inciples of Tr avelling-Wave Pr ot ect ion of E.H.V. Lines ..................... 232
Ch a p t er 9 Li gh t n i n g a n d Li gh t n i n g P r ot e ct i on ....................................... 236–258
9.1 Light ning St r okes t o Lines ................................................................... 236
9.2 Light ning-St r oke Mechanism ............................................................... 237
9.3 Gener al Pr inciples of t he Light ning-Pr ot ect ion Pr oblem ....................... 240
9.4 Tower -Foot ing Resist ance ..................................................................... 243
9.5 Insulat or Flashover and Wit hst and Volt age .......................................... 245
9.6 Pr obabilit y of Occur r ence of Light ning-St r oke Cur r ent s ....................... 245
9.7 Light ning Ar r est er s and Pr ot ect ive Char act er ist ics .............................. 246
9.8 Dynamic Volt age Rise and Ar r est er Rat ing ........................................... 250
9.9 Oper at ing Char act er ist ics of Light ning Ar r est er s ................................. 251
9.10 Insulat ion Coor dinat ion Based on Light ning ......................................... 254
Ch a p t er 10 Ove r vol t a ge s i n EHV Sys t e ms Ca u s e d b y Swi t ch i n g
Op e r a t i on s .................................................................................. 259–294
10.1 Or igin of Over volt ages and Their Types ................................................ 259
10.2 Shor t -Cir cuit Cur r ent and t he Cir cuit Br eaker ..................................... 260
10.3 Recover y Volt age and t he Cir cuit Br eaker ............................................ 262
10.4 Over volt ages Caused by Int er r upt ion of Low Induct ive Cur r ent ........... 264
10.5 Int er r upt ion of Capacit ive Cur r ent s ...................................................... 265
xvi Contents
10.6 Fer r o-Resonance Over volt ages ............................................................. 266
10.7 Calculat ion of Swit ching Sur ges—Single Phase Equivalent s ................. 267
10.8 Dist r ibut ed-Par amet er Line Ener gized by Sour ce ................................. 273
10.9 Gener alized Equat ions for Single-Phase Repr esent at ion ....................... 276
10.10 Gener alized Equat ions for Thr ee-Phase Syst ems .................................. 280
10.11 Inver se Four ier Tr ansfor m for t he Gener al Case .................................. 285
10.12 Reduct ion of Swit ching Sur ges on EHV Syst ems ................................... 287
10.13 Exper iment al and Calculat ed Result s of Swit ching-Sur ge St udies ......... 289
Ch a p t er 11 I n s u l a t i on Ch a r a ct e r i s t i cs of Lon g Ai r Ga p s ......................... 295–317
11.1 Types of Elect r ode Geomet r ies Used in EHV Syst ems .......................... 295
11.2 Br eakdown Char act er ist ics of Long Air Gaps ........................................ 296
11.3 Br eakdown Mechanisms of Shor t and Long Air Gaps ............................ 299
11.4 Br eakdown Models of Long Gaps wit h Non-unifor m Fields ................... 302
11.5 Posit ive Swit ching-Sur ge Flashover —Sat ur at ion Pr oblem .................... 305
11.6 CFO and Wit hst and Volt ages of Long Air Gaps—St at ist ical Pr ocedur e . 308
11.7 CFO Volt age of Long Air Gaps—Par is's Theor y .................................... 314
Ch a p t er 12 P owe r -F r e q u e n cy Volt a ge Con t r ol a n d Ove r volt a ge s ............ 318–358
12.1 Pr oblems at Power Fr equency .............................................................. 318
12.2 Gener alized Const ant s .......................................................................... 318
12.3 No-Load Volt age Condit ions and Char ging Cur r ent .............................. 321
12.4 The Power Cir cle Diagr am and It s Use ................................................. 323
12.5 Volt age Cont r ol Using Synchr onous Condenser s .................................. 328
12.6 Cascade Connect ion of Component s—Shunt and Ser ies Compensat ion . 330
12.7 Sub-Synchr onous Resonance in Ser ies-Capacit or Compensat ed Lines ... 337
12.8 St at ic React ive Compensat ing Syst ems (St at ic VAR) ............................. 345
12.9 High Phase Or der Tr ansmission ........................................................... 355
Ch a p t er 13 EHV Te s t i n g a n d La b or a t or y Eq u i p me n t ................................ 359–408
13.1 St andar d Specificat ions ......................................................................... 359
13.2 St andar d Waveshapes for Test ing ......................................................... 361
13.3 Pr oper t ies of Double-Exponent ial Waveshapes ..................................... 363
13.4 Pr ocedur es for Calculat ing E , ,β α ........................................................ 366
13.5 Waveshaping Cir cuit s: Pr inciples and Theor y ....................................... 368
13.6 Impulse Gener at or s wit h Induct ance .................................................... 373
13.7 Gener at ion of Swit ching Sur ges for Tr ansfor mer Test ing ..................... 376
13.8 Impulse Volt age Gener at or s: Pr act ical Cir cuit s .................................... 378
13.9 Ener gy of Impulse Gener at or s .............................................................. 381
13.10 Gener at ion of Impulse Cur r ent s ........................................................... 385
Contents xvii
13.11 Gener at ion of High Alt er nat ing Test Volt age ........................................ 389
13.12 Gener at ion of High Dir ect Volt ages ...................................................... 393
13.13 Measur ement of High Volt ages ............................................................. 394
13.14 Gener al Layout of EHV Labor at or ies .................................................... 405
Ch a p t er 14 De s i gn of EHV Li n e s Ba s e d u p on St e a d y-St a t e Li mi t s a n d
Tr a n s i e n t Ove r volt a ge s ............................................................. 409–428
14.1 Int r oduct ion ......................................................................................... 409
14.2 Design Fact or s Under St eady St at e ...................................................... 410
14.3 Design Examples: St eady-St at e Limit s .................................................. 413
14.4 Design Example—I ............................................................................... 414
14.5 Design Example—II .............................................................................. 419
14.6 Design Example—III ............................................................................. 420
14.7 Design Example—IV ............................................................................. 421
14.8 Line Insulat ion Design Based Upon Tr ansient Over volt ages ................ 423
Ch a p t er 15 Ext r a Hi gh Vol t a ge Ca b l e Tr a n s mi s s i on ................................. 429–481
15.1 Int r oduct ion ......................................................................................... 429
15.2 Elect r ical Char act er ist ics of EHV Cables .............................................. 435
15.3 Pr oper t ies of Cable-Insulat ion Mat er ials ............................................... 445
15.4 Br eakdown and Wit hst and Elect r ical St r esses in Solid
Insulat ion—St at ist ical Pr ocedur e ......................................................... 453
15.5 Design Basis of Cable Insulat ion ........................................................... 461
15.6 Fur t her Examples of Cable Designs ...................................................... 466
15.7 Test s on Cable Char act er ist ics .............................................................. 470
15.8 Sur ge Per for mance of Cable Syst ems ................................................... 473
15.9 Gas Insulat ed EHV Lines ...................................................................... 478
Bi b l i ogr a p h y ...................................................................................... 482
An s we r s t o P r ob l e m s ........................................................................ 499
In d ex ................................................................................................... 505
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1.1 ROLE OF EHV AC TRANSMISSION
Indust r ial-minded count r ies of t he wor ld r equir e a vast amount of ener gy of which elect r ical
ener gy for ms a major fr act ion. Ther e ar e ot her t ypes of ener gy such as oil for t r anspor t at ion
and indust r y, nat ur al gas for domest ic and indust r ial consumpt ion, which for m a consider able
pr opor t ion of t he t ot al ener gy consumpt ion. Thus, elect r ical ener gy does not r epr esent t he
only for m in which ener gy is consumed but an impor t ant par t never t heless. It is only 150 year s
since t he invent ion of t he dynamo by Far aday and 120 year s since t he inst allat ion of t he fir st
cent r al st at ion by Edison using dc. But t he wor ld has alr eady consumed major por t ion of it s
nat ur al r esour ces in t his shor t per iod and is looking for sour ces of ener gy ot her t han hydr o and
t her mal t o cat er for t he r apid r at e of consumpt ion which is out pacing t he discover y of new
r esour ces. This will not slow down wit h t ime and t her efor e t her e exist s a need t o r educe t he
r at e of annual incr ease in ener gy consumpt ion by any int elligent societ y if r esour ces have t o be
pr eser ved for post er it y. Aft er t he end of t he Second Wor ld War , count r ies all over t he wor ld
have become independent and ar e showing a t r emendous r at e of indust r ial development , most ly
on t he lines of Nor t h-Amer ican and Eur opean count r ies, t he U.S.S.R. and J apan. Ther efor e,
t he need for ener gy is ver y ur gent in t hese developing count r ies, and nat ional policies and
t heir r elat ion t o ot her count r ies ar e somet imes based on ener gy r equir ement s, chiefly nuclear .
Hydr o-elect r ic and coal or oil-fir ed st at ions ar e locat ed ver y far fr om load cent r es for var ious
r easons which r equir es t he t r ansmission of t he gener at ed elect r ic power over ver y long dist ances.
This r equir es ver y high volt ages for t r ansmission. The ver y r apid st r ides t aken by development
of dc t r ansmission since 1950 is playing a major r ole in ext r a-long-dist ance t r ansmission,
complement ing or supplement ing e.h.v. ac t r ansmission. They have t heir r oles t o play and a
count r y must make int elligent assessment of bot h in or der t o decide which is best suit ed for
t he count r y's economy. This book concer ns it self wit h pr oblems of e.h.v. ac t r ansmission only.
1.2 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR
DEVELOPMENT
Any engineer int er est ed in elect r ical power t r ansmission must concer n himself or her self wit h
ener gy pr oblems. Elect r ical ener gy sour ces for indust r ial and domest ic use can be divided int o
t wo br oad cat egor ies: (1) Tr anspor t able; and (2) Locally Usable.
1
In t rod u ct i on t o EHV AC Tra n s m i s s i on
2 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Tr anspor t able t ype is obviously hydr o-elect r ic and convent ional t her mal power . But locally
gener at ed and usable power is by far mor e numer ous and exot ic. Sever al count r ies, including
India, have adopt ed nat ional policies t o invest igat e and develop t hem, ear mar king vast sums of
money in t heir mult i-year plans t o acceler at e t he r at e of development . These ar e also called
'Alt er nat ive Sour ces of Power '. Twelve such sour ces of elect r ic power ar e list ed her e, but t her e
ar e ot her s also which t he r eader will do well t o r esear ch.
Locally Usable Power
(1) Convent ional t her mal power in ur ban load cent r es;
(2) Micr o-hydel power st at ions;
(3) Nuclear Ther mal: Fission and Fusion;
(4) Wind Ener gy;
(5) Ocea n Ener gy: (a) Tida l Power , (b) Wa ve Power , a nd (c) Ocean t her mal gr adient
power ;
(6) Solar t her mal;
(7) Solar cells, or phot o-volt aic power ;
(8) Geo-t her mal;
(9) Magnet o hydr o-dynamic or fluid dynamic;
(10) Coal gasificat ion and liquefact ion;
(11) Hydr ogen power ; and last but not least ,
(12) Biomass Ener gy: (a) For est s; (b) Veget at ion; and (c) Animal r efuse.
To t hese can also be added bact er ial ener gy sour ces wher e bact er ia ar e cult ur ed t o
decompose for est s and veget at ion t o evolve met hane gas. The wat er hyacint h is a ver y r ich
sour ce of t his gas and gr ows wildly in wat er logged ponds and lakes in India. A br ief descr ipt ion
of t hese ener gy sour ces and t heir limit at ion as far as India is concer ned is given below, wit h
some geogr aphical point s.
1. Hydro-Elect ric Power: The known pot ent ial in India is 50,000 MW (50 GW) wit h 10 GW in
Nepal and Bhut an and t he r est wit hin t he bor der s of India. Of t his pot ent ial, almost 30% or 12
GW lies in t he nor t h-east er n par t in t he Br ahmaput r a Valley which has not been t apped. When
t his power is developed it will necessit at e t r ansmission lines of 1000 t o 1500 kilomet r es in
lengt h so t hat t he obvious choice is ext r a high volt age, ac or dc. The hydel power in India can
be cat egor ized as (a) high-head (26% of t ot al pot ent ial), (b) medium-head (47%), (c) low-head
(7%, less t hen 30 met r es head), and (d) r un-of-t he-r iver (20%). Thus, micr o-hydel plant s and
r un-of-t he-r iver plant s (using may be bulb t ur bines) have a gr eat fut ur e for r emot e loads in
hilly t r act s.
2. Coal: The five br oad cat egor ies of coal available in India ar e Peat (4500 BTU/ LB*), Lignit e
(6500), Sub-Bit uminous (7000-12000), Bit uminous (14,000), and Ant hr acit e (15,500 BTU/ LB).
Only non-coking coal of t he sub-bit uminous t ype is available for elect r ic power pr oduct ion
whose deposit is est imat ed at 50 giga t onnes in t he Cent r al Indian coal fields, Wit h 50% of t his
allocat ed for t her mal st at ions, it is est imat ed t hat t he life of coal deposit s will be 140 year s if
*1000 BTU/LB–555.5 k-cal/kg.
Introduction to EHV AC Transmission 3
t he r at e of annual incr ease in inst alled capacit y is 5%. Thus, t he count r y cannot r ely on t his
sour ce of power t o be per ennial. Nuclear t her mal power must be developed r apidly t o r eplace
convent ional t her mal power .
3. Oil and Natural Gas: At pr esent , all oil is used for t r anspor t at ion and none is available for
elect r ic power gener at ion. Nat ur al gas deposit s ar e ver y meager at t he oil fields in t he Nor t h-
East er n r egion and only a few gas-t ur bine st at ions ar e inst alled t o pr ovide t he elect r ic power
for t he oil oper at ions.
4. Coal Liquefaction and Gasification: Indian coal cont ains 45% ash and t he efficiency of a
convent ional t her mal st at ion r ar ely exceeds 25% t o 30%. Also t r anspor t at ion of coal fr om mines
t o ur ban load cent r es is impossible because of t he 45% ash, pilfer age of coal at st at ions wher e
coal-hauling t r ains st op, and mor e impor t ant ly t he lack of availabilit y of r ailway wagons for
coal t r anspor t at ion. These ar e needed for food t r anspor t at ion only. Ther efor e, t he nat ional
policy is t o gener at e elect r ic power in super t her mal st at ions of 2100 MW capacit y locat ed at
t he mine mout hs and t r ansmit t he power by e.h.v. t r ansmission lines. If coal is liquified and
pumped t o load cent r es, power up t o 7 t imes it s weight in coal can be gener at ed in high efficiency
int er nal cumbust ion engines.
5. Nuclear Energy: The r ecent advances made in Liquid Met al Fast Br eeder React or s (LMFBR)
ar e helping many developing count r ies, including India, t o inst all lar ge nuclear t her mal plant s.
Alt hough India has ver y limit ed Ur anium deposit s, it does possess near ly 50% of t he wor ld's
Thor ium deposit s. The use of t his mat er ial for LMFBR is st ill in infant st ages and is being
developed r apidly.
6. Wind Energy: It is est imat ed t hat 20% of India's power r equir ement can be met wit h
development of wind ener gy. Ther e ar e ar eas in t he Deccan Plat eau in Sout h-Cent r al India
wher e winds of 30 km/hour blow near ly const ant ly. Wind power is int er mit t ent and st or age
facilit ies ar e r equir ed which can t ake t he for m of st or age bat t er ies or compr essed air . For an
elect r ical engineer , t he challenge lies in devising cont r ol cir cuit r y t o gener at e a const ant
magnit ude const ant -fr equency volt age fr om t he var iable-speed gener at or and t o make t he
gener at or oper at e in synchr onism wit h an exist ing gr id syst em.
7. S olar-Cell Energy: Phot o-volt aic power is ver y expensive, being near ly t he same as nuclear
power cost ing U.S.$ 1000/kW of peak power . (At t he t ime of wr it ing, 1 U.S$ = Rs. 35). Solar
cells ar e being manufact ur ed t o some ext ent in India, but t he U.S.A. is t he lar gest supplier
st ill. Indian insolat ion level is 600 calor ies/ sq. cm/day on t he aver age which will gener at e 1.5
kW, and solar ener gy is r enewable as compar ed t o some ot her sour ces of ener gy.
8. Magnet o Hydro-Dynamic: The lar gest MHD gener at or successfully complet ed in t he wor ld
is a 500 kW unit of AVCO in t he U.S.A. Thus, t his t ype of gener at ion of elect r ic ener gy has ver y
local applicat ions.
9. Fuel-Cell Energy: The fuel-cell uses H-O int er act ion t hr ough a Phosphor ic Acid cat alyzer t o
yield a flow of elect r ons in a load connect ed ext er nally. The most r ecent inst allat ion is by t he
Consolidat ed Edison Co. of New Yor k which uses a module oper at ing at 190°C. Each cell develops
0.7 V and t her e ar e sufficient modules in ser ies t o yield an out put volt age of 13.8 kV, t he same
as a convent ional cent r al-st at ion gener at or . The power out put is expect ed t o r each 1 MW.
10. Ocean Energy: Ener gy fr om t he vast oceans of t he ear t h can be developed in 3 differ ent
ways: (i) Tidal; (ii) Wave; and (iii) Ther mal Gr adient .
4 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(i) Tidal Power : The highest t ides in t he wor ld occur at 40 t o 50° lat it udes wit h t ides up
t o 12 m exist ing t wice daily. Ther efor e, Indian t ides ar e low being about 3.5 m in t he
West er n Coast and East er n r iver s in est uar ies. Fr ance has successfully oper at ed a
240 MW st at ion at t he Rance-River est uar y using bulb t ur bines. Sever al inst allat ions
in t he wor ld have followed suit . The development of Indian t idal power at t he Gujar at
Coast in t he West is ver y ambit ious and is t aking shape ver y well. Like wind power ,
t idal power is int er mit t ent in nat ur e.
The seawat er dur ing high t ides is allowed t o r un in t he same or differ ent passage
t hr ough t he t ur bine-gener at or s t o fill a r eser voir whose r et aining walls may be up t o
30 km long. At low-t ide per iods, t he st or ed wat er flows back t o t he sea t hr ough t he
t ur bines and power is gener at ed.
(ii) Wave Ener gy: An aver age power of 25 t o 75 kW can be developed per met r e of wave
lengt h depending on t he wave height . The scheme uses air t ur bines coupled t o
gener at or s locat ed in chamber s open t o t he sea at t he bot t om and closed at t he t op.
Ther e may be as many as 200-300 such chamber s connect ed t oget her at t he t op
t hr ough pipes. A wave cr est under neat h some chamber s will compr ess t he air which
will flow int o ot her chamber s under neat h which t he wave-t r ough is passing r esult ing
in lower pr essur e. This r uns t he air t ur bines and gener at es power . Ot her s ar e Salt er 's
Ducks and Cocker r el's 3-par t ship.
(iii) Ocean Ther mal Power : This scheme ut ilizes t he nat ur al t emper at ur e differ ence
bet ween t he war m sur face wat er (20°-25°C) and t he cooler oceanbed wat er at 5°C.
The t ur bine uses NH
3
as t he wor king fluid in one t ype of inst allat ion which is vapor ized
in a heat -exchanger by t he war m wat er . The condenser uses t he cooler ocean-bed
wat er and t he cycle is complet e as in a convent ional power st at ion. The cost of such
an inst allat ion is near ly t he same as a nuclear power st at ion.
This br ief descr ipt ion of 'alt er nat ive' sour ces of elect r ic power should pr ovide t he r eader
wit h an int er est t o delve deeper int o moder n ener gy sour ces and t heir development .
1.3 DESCRIPTION OF SUBJECT MATTER OF THIS BOOK
Ext r a High Volt age (EHV) ac t r ansmission can be assumed t o have seen it s development since
t he end of t he Second Wor ld War , wit h t he inst allat ion of 345 kV in Nor t h Amer ica and 400 kV
in Eur ope. The dist ance bet ween gener at ing st at ions and load cent r es as well as t he amount of
power t o be handled incr eased t o such an ext ent t hat 220 kV was inadequat e t o handle t he
pr oblem. In t hese near ly 50 year s, t he highest commer cial volt age has incr eased t o 1150 kV
(1200 kV maximum) and r esear ch is under way at 1500 kV by t he AEP-ASEA gr oup. In India,
t he highest volt age used is 400 kV ac, but will be incr eased aft er 1990 t o higher levels. The
pr oblems posed in using such high volt ages ar e differ ent fr om t hose encount er ed at lower
volt ages. These ar e:
(a) Incr eased Cur r ent Densit y because of incr ease in line loading by using ser ies capacit or s.
(b) Use of bundled conduct or s.
(c) High sur face volt age gr adient on conduct or s.
(d) Cor ona pr oblems: Audible Noise, Radio Int er fer ence, Cor ona Ener gy Loss, Car r ier
Int er fer ence, and TV Int er fer ence.
Introduction to EHV AC Transmission 5
(e) High elect r ost at ic field under t he line.
(f) Swit ching Sur ge Over volt ages which cause mor e havoc t o air -gap insulat ion t han
light ning or power fr equency volt ages.
(g) Incr eased Shor t -Cir cuit cur r ent s and possibilit y of fer r o r esonance condit ions.
(h) Use of gapless met al-oxide ar r est er s r eplacing t he convent ional gap-t ype Silicon Car bide
ar r est er s, for bot h light ning and swit ching-sur ge dut y.
(i) Shunt r eact or compensat ion and use of ser ies capcit or s, r esult ing in possible sub-
synchr onous r esonance condit ions and high shor t cir cuit cur r ent s.
(j) Insulat ion coor dinat ion based upon swit ching impulse levels.
(k) Single-pole r eclosing t o impr ove st abilit y, but causing pr oblems wit h ar cing.
The subject is so vast t hat no one single book can hope t o handle wit h a descr ipt ion,
analysis, and discussion of all t opics. The book has been limit ed t o t he t r ansmission line only
and has not dealt wit h t r ansient and dynamic st abilit y, load flow, and cir cuit br eaking.
Over volt ages and char act er ist ics of long air gaps t o wit hst and t hem have been discussed at
lengt h which can be classified as t r ansient pr oblems. It ems (a) t o (e) ar e st eady-st at e pr oblems
and a line must be designed t o st ay wit hin specified limit s for int er fer ence pr oblems, cor ona
loss, elect r ost at ic field, and volt ages at t he sending end and r eceiving end buses t hr ough pr oper
r eact ive-power compensat ion.
Chapt er 2 is devot ed t o an int r oduct ion t o t he e.h.v. pr oblem, such as choice of volt age for
t r ansmission, line losses and power -handling capacit y for a given line lengt h bet ween sour ce
and load and bulk power r equir ed t o be t r ansmit t ed. The pr oblem of vibr at ion of bundled
conduct or s is t ouched upon since t his is t he main mechanical pr oblem in e.h.v lines. Chapt er s
3 and 4 ar e basic t o t he r emaining par t s of t he book and deal wit h calculat ion of line r esist ance,
induct ance, capacit ance, and gr ound-r et ur n par amet er s, modes of pr opagat ion, elect r ost at ics
t o under st and char ge dist r ibut ion and t he r esult ing sur face volt age gr adient s. All t hese ar e
dir ect ed t owar ds an N-conduct or bundle. Cor ona loss and Audible Noise fr om e.h.v. lines ar e
consequences of high sur face volt age gr adient on conduct or s. This is dealt fully in Chapt er 5. In
sever al cases of line design, t he audible noise has become a cont r olling fact or wit h it s at t endant
pollut ion of t he envir onment of t he line causing psycho-acoust ics pr oblems. The mat er ial on
int er fer ence is cont inued in Chapt er 6 wher e Radio Int er fer ence is discussed. Since t his pr oblem
has occupied r esear cher s for longer t han AN, t he available lit er at ur e on RI invest igat ion is
mor e det ailed t han AN and a separ at e chapt er is devot ed t o it . Commencing wit h cor ona pulses,
t heir fr equency spect r um, and t he lat er al pr ofile of RI fr om lines, t he r eader is led int o t he
moder n concept of 'Excit at ion Funct ion' and it s ut ilit y in pr e-det er mining t he RI level of a line
yet t o be designed. For lines up t o 750 kV, t he C.I.G.R.E. for mula applies. It s use in design is
also discussed, and a r elat ion bet ween t he excit at ion funct ion and RI level calculat ed by t he
C.I.G.R.E. for mula is given.
Chapt er 7 r elat es t o power fr equency elect r ost at ic field near an e.h.v. line which causes
har mful effect s t o human beings, animals, vehicles, plant life, et c. The limit s which a designer
has t o bear in mind in evolving a line design ar e discussed. Also a new addit ion has been made
in t his chapt er under t he t it le Magnet ic Field Effect s of E.H.V. Lines. Chapt er s 8-11 ar e devot ed
6 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
t o t he discussion of high t r ansient over volt ages exper ienced by an e.h.v. line due t o light ning
and swit ching oper at ions. Chapt er 8 int r oduces t he r eader t o t he t heor et ical aspect s of t r avelling
waves caused by light ning and swit ching oper at ions, and t he met hod of st anding waves which
yields t he same r esult s as t r avelling waves but in many cases gives mor e convenient for mulas.
Wit h t he advent of t he Digit al Comput er , t he st anding-wave met hod poses no pr oblems for
handling t he calculat ion. The Laplace-Tr ansfor m and Four ier -Tr ansfor m Met hods for handling
t r ansient s on e.h.v. lines ar e descr ibed.
Chapt er 9 deals wit h impor t ant aspect s of light ning over -volt ages and pr ot ect ion. The
lat est t ype of Met al Oxide Var ist or known as gapless Zinc Oxide ar r est er is discussed as well as
t he convent ional gap-t ype SiC ar r est er s of bot h t he non cur r ent -limit ing and cur r ent -limit ing
t ypes. The chapt er commences wit h out age level aimed by a designer , and leads st ep by st ep in
descr ibing t he fact or s affect ing it , namely t he isoker aunik level, pr obabilit y of number of st r okes
t o a t ower or midspan, t he t ower -foot ing r esist ance, pr obabilit y of light ning-st r oke cur r ent s,
and finally t he insulat or flash-over . Pr e-dischar ge cur r ent s on t ower s and har dwar e ar e t aken
int o account . Chapt er 10 discusses all t he possible condit ions of int er nal over volt ages on e.h.v.
lines commencing wit h cir cuit -br ea ker r ecover y volt a ge, t er mina l a nd shor t -line fa ult s,
int er r upt ion of low induct ive cur r ent and over volt ages r esult ing fr om 'cur r ent chopping', line
dr opping and r est r ike in cir cuit br eaker s and fer r or esonance condit ions. The bulk of t he chapt er ,
however , is devot ed t o calculat ion of swit ching-sur ge over volt ages. Measur es used for r educt ion
of over volt ages ar e t hor oughly discussed. Equat ions in mat r ix for m dealing wit h t he r esult ing
t r ansient s ar e developed and examples using t he Four ier Tr ansfor m met hod for obt aining t he
swit ching over volt ages ar e wor ked out .
Having known t he magnit ude of over volt ages t hat can be expect ed on a syst em, t he next
aspect is t o design air -gap clear ances on t ower . This r equir es a t hor ough knowledge of t he
flashover and wit hst and char act er ist ics of long air gaps. Chapt er 11 is devot ed t o a descr ipt ion
of t hese char act er ist ics. Commencing wit h t he basic mechanisms post ulat ed by engineer s and
physicist s for t he br eakdown of a long air gap, t he r eader is exposed t o t he st at ist ical nat ur e of
insulat ion design. The wor k of t he eminent It alian engineer , Dr . Luigi Par is, ([51], IEEE) is
descr ibed and examples of using his equat ions for insulat ion design ar e given.
Alt hough t r ansient s caused by light ning and swit ching sur ges have been st udied ext ensively
by e.h.v. engineer s, over volt ages caused under power -fr equency ar e impor t ant for t he design
of line compensa t ion. This is cover ed in Cha pt er 12. The power -cir cle dia gr a m a nd t he
geomet r ical r elat ions r esult ing fr om it ar e used t hr oughout for evaluat ing synchr onous-
condenser design, swit ched capacit or s under load, shunt -r eact or compensat ion including an
int er mediat e st at ion for a ver y long line, and finally a line wit h ser ies-capacit or compensat ion
is discussed. This pr oblem leads logically t o t he pr oblems of high shor t -cir cuit cur r ent and
possible sub-synchr onous r esonance condit ions. These ar e descr ibed fr om t he point of view of
t he line. Count er measur es for SSR ar e descr ibed fully as used on t he Navajo Pr oject ([67],
IEEE) and elsewher e. The chapt er t hen descr ibes St at ic Var compensat ing syst ems (SVS) of
sever al t ypes which ar e now finding mor e and mor e use inst ead of unr egulat ed or fixed r eact or s.
The pr oblem of inject ion of har monics int o e.h.v. line is discussed and t he per for mance of a
ser ies L-C filt er in suppr essing t hem is analyzed. The chapt er ends wit h a shor t descr ipt ion of
high phase or der t r ansmission (6 phase) even t hough it does not yet belong t o t he e.h.v. class.
Introduction to EHV AC Transmission 7
Chapt er 13 deals wit h e.h.v. labor at or ies, equipment and t est ing. The design of impulse
gener at or s for light ning and swit ching impulses is fully wor ked out and waveshaping cir cuit s
ar e discussed. The effect of induct ance in gener at or , h.v. lead, and t he volt age divider ar e
analyzed. Cascade-connect ed power -fr equency t r ansfor mer s and t he Gr einacher chain for
gener at ion of high dc volt age ar e descr ibed. Measur ing equipment such as t he volt age divider ,
oscilloscope, peak volt -met er , and digit al r ecor ding devices ar e cover ed and t he use of fibr e
opt ics in lar ge e.h.v. swit chyar ds and labor at or y measur ement s is discussed.
Chapt er 14 uses t he mat er ial of pr evious chapt er s t o evolve met hods for design of e.h.v.
lines. Sever al examples ar e given fr om which t he r eader will be able t o effect his or her own
design of e.h.v. t r ansmission lines in so far as st eadyst at e and t r ansient over volt ages ar e
concer ned.
The last chapt er , Chapt er 15, deals wit h t he impor t ant t opic of e.h.v cable t r ansmission.
Cables ar e being manufact ur ed and developed for volt ages upt o 1200 kV t o mat ch t he equipment
and over head-line volt ages in or der t o int er connect swit chyar d equipment such as over head
lines t o t r ansfor mer s and cir cuit br eaker s. They ar e also used for leading bulk power fr om
r eceiving st at ions int o t he hear t of met r opolit an indust r ial and domest ic dist r ibut ion st at ions.
In under gr ound power st at ions, lar ge st at ions locat ed at dam sit es, for under -r iver and under -
sea applicat ions, along r ailways, over long-span br idges, and at many sit uat ions, e.h.v. cables
ar e ext ensively used. The four t ypes of e.h.v. cables, namely, high-pr essur e oil-filled (HPOF)
wit h Kr aft paper insulat ion, t he same wit h composit e laminat ed plast ic film and paper insulat ion
(PPLP), cr oss-linked polyet hylene (XLPE), and gas-insulat ed (SF
6
) lines (GIL's) or bus duct s
ar e descr ibed and discussed. Design pr act ices based on a Weibull Pr obabilit y Dist r ibut ion for
init ial br eakdown volt age and st r ess and t he Kr euger Volt -Time char act er ist ics ar e also dealt
wit h. Ext ensive exa mples of 132 kV t o 1200 KV ca bles a lr ea dy ma nufa ct ur ed or under
development ar e given.
Each chapt er is pr ovided wit h a lar ge number of wor ked examples t o illust r at e all ideas in
a st ep by st ep manner . The aut hor feels t hat t his will help t o emphasize ever y for mula or idea
when t he going is hot , and not give all t heor y in one place and pr ovide examples at t he end of
each chapt er . It is expect ed t hat t he r eader will wor k t hr ough t hese t o be bet t er able t o apply
t he equat ions.
No r efer ences ar e pr ovided at t he end of each chapt er since t her e ar e cases wher e one
wor k can cover many aspect s discussed in sever al chapt er s. Ther efor e, a consolidat ed bibliogr aphy
is appended at t he end aft er Chapt er 15 which will help t he r eader who has access t o a fine
libr ar y or can get copies made fr om pr oper sour ces.
Re vi e w Qu e s t i on s a n d Pr oble ms
1. Give t en levels of t r ansmission volt ages t hat ar e used in t he wor ld.
2. Wr it e an essay giving your ideas whet her indust r ial pr ogr ess is r eally a measur e of
human pr ogr ess.
3. What is a micr o-hydel st at ion?
4. How can elect r ic power be gener at ed fr om r un-of-t he-r iver plant s? Is t his possible or
impossible?
8 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
5. What is t he fuel used in (a) Ther ma l r ea ct or s, a nd (b) LMFBR? Why is it called
LMFBR? What is t he liquid met al used? Is t her e a moder at or in LMFBR? Why is it
called a Br eeder React or ? Why is it t er med Fast ?
6. Dr aw sket ches of a wind t ur bine wit h (a) hor izont al axis, and (b) ver t ical axis. How
can t he efficiency of a convent ional wind t ur bine be incr eased?
7. Give a schemat ic sket ch of a t idal power development . Why is it called a 'bulb t ur bine'?
8. Give a schemat ic sket ch of an ocean t her mal gr adient pr oject showing a heat exchanger ,
t ur bine-gener at or , and condenser .
9. List at least t en impor t ant pr oblems encount er ed in e.h.v. t r ansmission which may
or may not be impor t ant at volt ages of 220 kV and lower .
2.1 STANDARD TRANSMISSION VOLTAGES
Volt ages adopt ed for t r ansmission of bulk power have t o confor m t o st andar d specificat ions
for mulat ed in all count r ies and int er nat ionally. They ar e necessar y in view of impor t , expor t ,
and domest ic manufact ur e and use. The following volt age levels ar e r ecognized in India as per
IS-2026 for line-t o-line volt ages of 132 kV and higher .
Nominal S yst em
Volt age kV 132 220 275 345 400 500 750
Maximum Operating
Volt age, kV 145 245 300 362 420 525 765
Ther e exist t wo fur t her volt age classes which have found use in t he wor ld but have not
been accept ed as st andar d. They ar e: 1000 kV (1050 kV maximum) and 1150 kV (1200 kV
maximum). The maximum oper at ing volt ages specified above should in no case be exceeded in
any par t of t he syst em, since insulat ion levels of all equipment ar e based upon t hem. It is
t her efor e t he pr imar y r esponsibilit y of a design engineer t o pr ovide sufficient and pr oper t ype
of r eact ive power at suit able places in t he syst em. For volt age r ises, induct ive compensat ion
and for volt age dr ops, capacit ive compensat ion must usually be pr ovided. As example, consider
t he following cases.
Exa mp le 2.1. A single-cir cuit 3-phase 50 Hz 400 kV line has a ser ies r eact ance per phase
of 0.327 ohm/km. Neglect line r esist ance. The line is 400 km long and t he r eceiving-end load is
600 MW at 0.9 p.f. lag. The posit ive-sequence line capacit ance is 7.27 nF/km. In t he absence of
any compensat ing equipment connect ed t o ends of line, calculat e t he sending-end volt age.
Wor k wit h and wit hout consider ing line capacit ance. The base quant it ies for calculat ion ar e
400 kV, 1000 MVA.
Sol u t i on . Load volt age V = 1.0 per unit . Load cur r ent I = 0.6 (1 – j0.483) = 0.6 – j0.29 p.u.
Base impedance Z
b
= 400
2
/1000 = 160 ohms. Base admit t ance Y
b
= 1/160 mho.
Tot al ser ies r eact ance of line
X = j0.327 × 400 = j130.8 ohms = j 0.8175 p.u.
Tot al shunt admit t ance of line
Y = j 314 × 7.27 × 10
–9
× 400
= j 0.9136 × 10
– 3
mho = j 0.146 p.u.
2
Tra n s m i s s i on Li n e Tren d s a n d Prel i m i n a ri es
10 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Fi g. 2.1 (a)
When consider ing t he line capacit ance, one half will be concent r at ed at load end acr oss
t he load and t he ot her half at t he ent r ance t o t he line at t he sending end, as shown in
Figur e 2.1. Then, t he r eceiving-end cur r ent is
I
r
= 0.6 – j0.29 + j0.073 = 0.6 – j0.217 p.u.
∴The sending-end volt age will be
E
s
= 1 + j (0.6 – j0.217) 0.8175 = 1.1774 + j0.49
= 1.2753

22.6° = 510

22.6°, kV.
When line capacit ance is omit t ed, t he sending-end volt age is
E
s
= 1 + j (0.6 – j0.29) 0.8175 = 1.33

21.6° = 532

21.6°, kV.
Not e t hat in bot h cases, t he sending-end volt age, t hat is, t he gener at ing st at ion h.v. bus
volt age exceeds t he IS limit of 420 kV.
Exa mp le 2.2. In t he pr evious example, suggest suit able r eact ive compensat ion equipment
t o be pr ovided at t he load end t o maint ain 400 kV (1 p.u. volt age) at bot h ends of line.
Sol u t i on . Since t he load is dr awing lagging (induct ive) cur r ent , obviously we have t o
pr ovide capacit ive compensat ing equipment acr oss t he load in or der t o r educe t he line cur r ent .
Figur e 2.1 (b) shows t he over all ar r angement . If I
c
is t he cur r ent dr awn by t his compensat ing
equipment , consider ing line capacit ance, t he t ot al r eceiving-end line cur r ent will be I
r
= 0.6 –
j0.217 + j I
c
, p.u., and t he r esult ing sending-end volt age will be
E
s
= 1 + j (0.6 – j0.217 + j I
c
) 0.8175 = (1.1774 – 0.8175 I
c
) + j0.49.
F i g. 2.1 (b)
Now, since | E
s
| = 1 p.u. also, t her e r esult s I
c
= 0.374 p.u. The r esult ing r at ing of t he
compensat ing capacit or is 374 MVAR.
When t he pr esence of line capacit ance is neglect ed, I
c
= 0.447 p.u. and t he r equir ed
compensat ion is 447 MVAR, which is of cour se higher t han 374 MVAR by 73 MVAR.
Det ailed discussion of line compensat ion for volt age cont r ol at t he sending- and r eceiving-
end busses will be consider ed in Chapt er 12. We not e in passing t hat volt age cont r ol in e.h.v.
syst ems is a ver y expensive pr oposit ion. In addit ion t o swit ched capacit or s which pr ovide var iable
~
j 0.073
p.u.
j 0.8175 p.u.
400 km Ir
E
s
0-6–j 0.29 p.u.
V = 1 0°p.u
~
I
r
0.6– 0.29 j
1 p.u. ∠δ
V = 1 0°p.u
jI
c
Transmission Line Trends and Preliminaries 11
capacit ive r eact ive power t o suit var iat ion of load fr om no load t o full load, var iable induct ive
compensat ion will be r equir ed which t akes t he for m of t hyr ist or -cont r olled r eact or s (TCR)
which ar e also known as St at ic VAR Syst ems. Unfor t unat ely, t hese give r ise t o undesir able
har monics which ar e inject ed int o t he line and may cause maloper at ion of signalling and some
communicat ion equipment . These pr oblems and use of pr oper filt er s t o limit t he har monic
inject ion will also be discussed in Chapt er 12.
2.2 AVERAGE VALUES OF LINE PARAMETERS
Det ailed calculat ion of line par amet er s will be descr ibed in Chapt er 3. In or der t o be able t o
est imat e how much power a single-cir cuit at a given volt age can handle, we need t o know t he
value of posit ive-sequence line induct ance and it s r eact ance at power fr equency. Fur t her mor e,
in moder n pr act ice, line losses caused by I
2
R heat ing of t he conduct or s is gaining in impor t ance
because of t he need t o conser ve ener gy. Ther efor e, t he use of higher volt ages t han may be
dict at ed by pur ely economic consider at ion might be found in or der not only t o lower t he cur r ent
I t o be t r ansmit t ed but also t he conduct or r esist ance R by using bundled conduct or s compr ising
of sever al sub-conduct or s in par allel. We will ut ilize aver age values of par amet er s for lines
wit h hor izont al configur at ion as shown in Table 2.1 for pr eliminar y est imat es.
When line r esist ance is neglect ed, t he power t hat can be t r ansmit t ed depends upon (a) t he
magnit udes of volt ages at t he ends (E
s
, E
r
), (b) t heir phase differ ence , δ and (c) t he t ot al posit ive-
sequence r eact ance X per phase, when t he shunt caspacit ive admit t ance is neglect ed.
Thus, P = E
s
E
r
sin δ /(L.x) ...(2.1)
wher e P = power in MW, 3-phase, E
s
, E
r
= volt ages at t he sending-end and r eceiving end,
r espect ively, in kV line-line, δ = phase differ ence bet ween E
s
and E
r
, x = posit ive-sequence
r eact ance per phase, ohm/km, and L = line lengt h, km.
Ta ble 2.1. Aver a ge Va lu es of Li n e P a r a met er s
S ystem kV 400 750 1000 1200
Average Height, m 15 18 21 21
Phase S pacing, m 12 15 18 21
Conductor 2 × 32 mm 4 × 30 mm 6 × 46 mm 8 × 46 mm
Bundle S pacing, m 0.4572 0.4572 – –
Bundle Dia., m – – 1.2 1.2
r, ohm/ km* 0.031 0.0136 0.0036 0.0027
x, ohm/ km (50 Hz) 0.327 0.272 0.231 0.231
x/r 10.55 20 64.2 85.6
*At 20°C. Incr ease by 12.5% for 50°C.
Fr om consider at ion of st abilit y, δ is limit ed t o about 30°, and for a pr eliminar y est imat e
of P, we will t ake E
s
= E
r
= E.
2.3 POWER-HANDLING CAPACITY AND LINE LOSS
Accor di n g t o t h e a bove cr i t er i a , t h e power -h a n dl i n g ca pa ci t y of a s i n gl e ci r cu i t i s
P = E
2
sin δ / Lx. At unit y power fact or , at t he load P, t he cur r ent flowing is
I = E sin
3 / δ
Lx ...(2.2)
12 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
and t he t ot al power loss in t he 3-phases will amount t o
p = 3I
2
rL = E
2
. sin
2
δ .r/Lx
2
...(2.3)
Ther efor e, t he per cent age power loss is
%p = 100 p/P = 100. sin δ .(r/x) ...(2.4)
Table 2.2. shows t he per cent age power loss and power -handling capacit y of lines at var ious
volt age levels shown in Table 2.1, for δ = 30° and wit hout ser ies-capacit or compensat ion.
Ta ble 2.2. P er cen t P ower Loss a n d P ower -Ha n d li n g Ca p a ci t y
S ystem kV 400 750 1000 1200
76 . 4
55 . 10
50
= 5 . 2
20
50
= 78 . 0
2 . 64
50
= 584 . 0
6 . 85
50
=
Lx,MW E . P / 5 0
2
=
400 670 2860 6000 8625
600 450 1900 4000 5750
800 335 1430 3000 4310
1000 270 1140 2400 3450
1200 225 950 2000 2875
The following impor t ant and useful conclusions can be dr awn for pr eliminar y under st anding
of t r ends r elat ing t o power -handling capacit y of a.c. t r ansmission lines and line losses.
(1) One 750-kV line can nor mally car r y as much power as four 400-kV cir cuit s for equal
dist ance of t r ansmission.
(2) One 1200-kV cir cuit can car r y t he power of t hr ee 750-kV cir cuit s and t welve 400-kV
cir cuit s for t he same t r ansmission dist ance.
(3) Similar such r elat ions can be found fr om t he t able.
(4) The power -handling capacit y of line at a given volt age level decr eases wit h line lengt h,
being inver sely pr opor t ional t o line lengt h L.
Fr om equat ion (2.2) t he same holds for cur r ent t o be car r ied.
(5) Fr om t he above pr oper t y, we obser ve t hat if t he conduct or size is based on cur r ent
r at ing, as line lengt h incr eases, smaller sizes of conduct or will be necessar y. This
will incr ease t he danger of high volt age effect s caused by smaller diamet er of conduct or
giving r ise t o cor ona on t he conduct or s and int ensifying r adio int er fer ence levels and
audible noise as well as cor ona loss.
(6) However , t he percent age power loss in t r ansmission r emains independent of line
lengt h since it depends on t he ratio of conduct or r esist ance t o t he posit ive-sequence
r eact ance per unit lengt h, and t he phase differ ence δ bet ween E
s
and E
r
.
(7) Fr om t he values of % p given in Table 2.2, it is evident t hat it decr eases as t he syst em
volt age is incr eased. This is ver y st r ongly in favour of using higher volt ages if ener gy
is t o be conser ved. Wit h t he enor mous incr ease in wor ld oil pr ices and t he need for
Percentage, Power Loss
Line Length, km
Transmission Line Trends and Preliminaries 13
conser ving nat ur al r esour ces, t his could somet imes become t he gover ning cr it er ion
for select ion of volt age for t r ansmission. The Bonneville Power Administ r at ion (B.P.A.)
in t he U.S.A. has based t he choice of 1150 kV for t r ansmission over only 280 km
lengt h of line since t he power is enor mous (10,000 MW over one cir cuit ).
(8) In compar ison t o t he % power loss at 400 kV, we obser ve t hat if t he same power is
t r ansmit t ed at 750 kV, t he line loss is r educed t o (2.5/4.76) = 0.525, at 1000 kV it is
0.78/4.76 = 0.165, and at 1200 kV it is r educed fur t her t o 0.124.
Some examples will ser ve t o illust r at e t he benefit s accr ued by using ver y high t r ansmission
volt ages.
Exa mp le 2.3. A power of 12,000 MW is r equir ed t o be t r ansmit t ed over a dist ance of 1000
km. At volt age levels of 400 kV, 750 kV, 1000 kV, and 1200 kV, det er mine:
(1) Possible number of cir cuit s r equir ed wit h equal magnit udes for sending and r eceiving-
end volt ages wit h 30° phase differ ence;
(2) The cur r ent s t r ansmit t ed; and
(3) The t ot al line losses.
Assume t he values of x given in Table 2.1. Omit ser ies-capacit or compensat ion.
Sol u t i on . This is car r ied out in t abular for m.
S yst em, kv 400 750 1000 1200
x, ohm/km 0.327 0.272 0.231 0.231
P = 0.5 E
2
/Lx, MW 268 1150 2400 3450
(a) No. of cir cuit s
(=12000/P) 45 10–11 5 3–4
(b) Cur r ent , kA 17.31 9.232 6.924 5.77
(c) % power loss, p 4.76 2.5 0.78 0.584
Tot al power loss, MW 571 300 93.6 70
The above sit uat ion might occur when t he power pot ent ial of t he Br ahmaput r a River in
Nor t h-East India will be har nessed and t he power t r ansmit t ed t o West Bengal and Bihar . Not e
t hat t he t ot al power loss incur r ed by using 1200 kV ac t r ansmission is almost one-eight h t hat
for 400 kV. The widt h of land r equir ed is far less while using higher volt ages, as will be det ailed
la t er on.
Exa mp le 2.4. A power of 2000 MW is t o be t r ansmit t ed fr om a super t her mal power
st at ion in Cent r al India over 800 km t o Delhi. Use 400 kV and 750 kV alt er nat ives. Suggest t he
number of cir cuit s r equir ed wit h 50% ser ies capacit or compensat ion, and calculat e t he t ot al
power loss and loss per km.
Sol u t i on . Wit h 50% of line r eact ance compensat ed, t he t ot al r eact ance will be half of t he
posit ive-sequence r eact ance of t he 800-km line.
Ther efor e P = 0.5 × 400
2
/400 × 0.327 = 670 MW/Cir cuit at 400 kV
and P = 0.5 × 750
2
/400 × 0.272 = 2860 MW/Cir cuit at 750 kV
14 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
400 k V 750 k V
No. of circuits required 3 1
Current per circuit, kA 667/
3
× 400 = 0.963 1.54
Resistance for 800 km, ohms 0.031 × 800 = 24.8 0.0136 × 800 = 10.88
Loss per circuit, MW 3 × 24.8 × 0.963
2
= 69 MW 3 × 10.88 × 1.54
2
= 77.4 MW
Total power loss, MW 3 × 69 = 207 77.4
Loss/ km, kW 86.25 kW/km 97 kW/km
2.4 EXAMPLES OF GIANT POWER POOLS AND NUMBER OF LINES
Fr om t he discussion of t he pr evious sect ion it becomes appar ent t hat t he choice of t r ansmission
volt age depends upon (a) t he t ot al power t r ansmit t ed, (b) t he dist ance of t r ansmission, (c) t he %
power loss allowed, and (d) t he number of cir cuit s per missible fr om t he point of view of land
acquisit ion for t he line cor r idor . For example, a single cir cuit 1200 kV line r equir es a widt h of
56 m, 3 – 765 kV r equir e 300 m, while 6 single-cir cuit 500 kV lines for t r ansmit t ing t he same
power r equir e 220 m-of-r ight -of-way (R-O-W). An addit ional fact or is t he t echnological know-
how in t he count r y. Two examples of similar sit uat ions wit h r egar d t o available hydr o-elect r ic
power will be descr ibed in or der t o dr aw a par allel for deciding upon t he t r ansmission volt age
select ion. The fir st is fr om Canada and t he second fr om India. These ideas will t hen be ext ended
t o t her mal gener at ion st at ions sit uat ed at mine mout hs r equir ing long t r ansmission lines for
evacuat ing t he bulk power t o load cent r es.
2.4.1 Canadian Experience
The power sit uat ion in t he pr ovince of Quebec comes closest t o t he power sit uat ion in India, in
t hat near ly equal amount s of power will be developed event ually and t r ansmit t ed over near ly
t he same dist ances. Hence t he Canadian exper ience might pr ove of some use in making decisions
in India also. The power t o be developed fr om t he La Gr ande River locat ed in t he J ames Bay
ar ea of Nor t her n Quebec is as follows : Tot al 11,340 MW split int o 4 st at ions [LG–1: 1140, LG–
2 : 5300, LG–3 : 2300, and LG–4: 2600 MW]. The dist ance t o load cent r es at Mont r eal and
Quebec cit ies is 1100 km. The Hydr o-Quebec company has vast ecper ience wit h t heir exist ing
735 kV syst em fr om t he ear lier hydr oelect r ic development at Manicouagan-Out ar des River s so
t hat t he choice of t r ansmission volt age fell bet ween t he exist ing 735 kV or a fut ur e 1200 kV.
However , on account of t he vast exper ience accumulat ed at t he 735 kV level, t his volt age was
finally chosen. The number of cir cuit s r equir ed fr om Table 2.2 can be seen t o be 10–11 for 735
kV and 3–4 for 1200 kV. The lines r un pr act ically in wilder ness and land acquisit ion is not as
difficult a pr oblem as in mor e t hickly populat ed ar eas. Plans might however change as t he
development pr oceeds. The 1200 kV level is new t o t he indust r y and equipment manufact ur e is
in t he infant st ages for t his level. As an alt er nat ive, t he company could have invest igat ed t he
possibilit y of using e.h.v. dc t r ansmission. But t he final decision was t o use 735 kV, ac. In 1987,
a
±
450 kV h.v. d.c. link has been decided for J ames Bay-New England Hydr o line (U.S.A.) for
a power of 6000 MW.
Transmission Line Trends and Preliminaries 15
2.4.2 Indian Requirement
The giant hydr o-elect r ic power pools ar e locat ed in t he nor t her n bor der of t he count r y on t he
Himalayan Mount ain valleys. These ar e in Kashmir , Upper Ganga on t he Alakhananda and
Bhagir at hi River s, Nepal, Bhut an, and t he Br ahmaput r a River . Power sur veys indicat e t he
following power gener at ion and dist ances of t r ansmission:
(1) 2500 MW, 250 km, (2) 3000 MW, 300 km, (3) 4000 MW, 400 km, (4) 5000 MW, 300 km,
(5) 12000 MW over dist ances of (a) 250 km, (b) 450 km, and (c) 1000-1200 km.
Using t he power -handling capacit ies given in Table 2.2 we can const r uct a t able showing
t he possible number of cir cuit s r equir ed at differ enct volt age levels (Table 2.3).
Ta ble 2.3: Volt a ge Levels a n d Nu mber of Ci r cu i t s for Eva cu a t i n g fr om
Hyd r o-Elect r i c P ower P ools i n I n d i a
Power, MW 2500 3000 4000 5000 12000
Distance, km 250 300 400 300 250 450 1000
No. of Circuits/ 3/400 4/400 6/400 6/400 12/400 20/400 48/400
Voltage Level 1/750 2/750 2/750 3/750 6/750 12/750
Voltage Level (70% (75%) 1/1200 2/1200 6/1000
(Ac only) loaded) 4/1200
One can dr aw cer t ain conclusions fr om t he above t able. For example, for power s up t o
5000 MW, 400 kV t r ansmission might be adequat e. For 12000 MW, we obser ve t hat 750 kV
level for dist ances up t o 450 km and 1200 kV for 1000 km might be used, alt hough even for t his
dist ance 750 kV might ser ve t he pur pose. It is t he dut y of a design engineer t o wor k out such
alt er nat ives in or der t hat final decisions might be t aken. For t he sake of r eliabilit y, it is usual
t o have at least 2 cir cuit s.
While t he pr evious discussion is limit ed t o ac lines, t he dc alt er nat ives must also be
wor ked out based upon 2000 Amper es per pole. The usual volt ages used ar e ± 400 kV (1600
MW/bipole),
±
500 kV (2000 MW) and
±
600 kV (2400 MW). These power -handling capacit ies
do not depend on dist ances of t r ansmission. It is left as an exer cise at t he end of t he chapt er for
t he r eader t o wor k out t he dc alt er nat ives for power s and dist ances given in Table 2.3.
2.5 COSTS OF TRANSMISSION LINES AND EQUIPMENT
It is univer sally accept ed t hat cost of equipment all over t he wor ld is escalat ing ever y
year . Ther efor e, a designer must ascer t ain cur r ent pr ices fr om manufact ur er of equipment
and line mat er ials. These include conduct or s, har dwar e, t ower s, t r ansfor mer s, shunt r eact or s,
capacit or s, synchr onous condenser s, land for swit chyar ds and line cor r idor , and so on. Gener at ing
st at ion cost s ar e not consider ed her e, since we ar e only dealing wit h t r ansmission in t his book.
In t his sect ion, some idea of cost s of impor t ant equipment is given (which may be cur r ent in
2005) for compar ison pur poses only. These ar e not t o be used for decision-making pur poses.
(1US$ = Rs.50; 1 Lakh = 100, 000; 1 Cr or e = 100 Lakhs = 10 Million = 10
7
).
(a) High Volt age DC
±
400 kV Bipole
Back-t o-back t er minals : Rs. 50 Lakhs/MVA for 150 MVA
Rs. 40 Lakhs/MVA for 300 MVA
16 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Cost of 2 t er minals : Rs. 40 Lakhs/MVA
Tr ansmission line: Rs. 26.5 Lakhs/Cir cuit (cct ) km
Swit chyar ds : Rs. 3000 Lakhs/bay
(b) 400 kV AC
Tr ansfor mer s : 400/220 kV Aut ot r ansfor mer s
Rs. 3.7 Lakhs/MVA for 200 MVA 3-phase unit
t o Rs. 3 Lakhs/MVA for 500 MVA 3-phase unit
400 kV/13.8 kV Gener at or Tr ansfor mer s
Rs. 2 Lakhs/MVA for 250 MVA 3-phase unit
t o Rs. 1.5 Lakh/MVA for 550 MVA 3-phase unit .
(c) Shunt React or s
Non-swit chable Rs. 2.6 Lakhs/MVA for 50 MVA unit t o
Rs. 2 Lakhs/MVA for 80 MVA unit
Swit chable Rs. 9 t o 6.5 Lakhs/MVA for 50 t o 80 MVA unit s.
Shunt Capacit or s Rs. 1 Lakh/MVA
Synchr onous Condenser s (Including t r ansfor mer s) :
Rs. 13 Lakhs/MVA for 70 MVA t o
Rs. 7 Lakhs/MVA for 300 MVA
Tr ansmission Line Cost :
400 kV Single Cir cuit : Rs. 25 Lakhs/cct km
220 kV: S/C: Rs. 13 Lakhs/cct km; D/C: Rs. 22 Lakhs/cct km.
Exa mp le 2.5. A power of 900 MW is t o be t r ansmit t ed over a lengt h of 875 km. Est imat e
the cost difference when using
±
400 kV dc line and 400 kV ac lines.
Sol u t i on . Power car r ied by a single cir cuit dc line = 1600 MW. Ther efor e,
1 Cir cuit is sufficient and it allows for fut ur e expansion.
Power carried by ac line = 0.5 E
2
/xL = 0.5 × 400
2
/ (0.32 × 875) = 285 MW/cct .
∴ 3 cir cuit s will be necessar y t o car r y 900 MW.
DC Al t e r n a t i ve : cost of
(a) Ter minal St at ions Rs. 33.5 × 10
3
Lakhs
(b) Tr ansmission Line Rs. 23 × 10
3
Lakhs
(c) 2 Swit chyar d Bays Rs. 5.8 × 10
3
Lakhs
Tot al Rs. 62.3 × 10
3
Lakhs = Rs. 623 Cr or es
AC Al t e r n a t i ve: Cost of
(a) 6 Swit chyar d Bays Rs. 17.5 × 10
3
Lakhs
(b) Shunt r eact or s 500 MVA Rs. 1 × 10
3
Lakhs
(c) Shunt capacit or s 500 MVA Rs. 0.5 × 10
3
Lakhs
(d) Line cost : (3 × 875 × 25 Lakhs) Rs. 65 × 10
3
Lakhs
Tot a l Rs. 84 × 10
3
Lakhs = Rs. 840 Cr or es
Transmission Line Trends and Preliminaries 17
Differ ence in cost = Rs. 217 Cr or es, dc being lower t han ac.
(Cer t ain it ems common t o bot h dc and ac t r ansmission have been omit t ed. Also, ser ies
capacit or compensat ion has not been consider ed).
Exa mp le 2.6. Repeat t he above pr oblem if t he t r ansmission dist ance is 600 km.
Sol u t i on . The r eader can calculat e t hat t he dc alt er nat ive cost s about 55 x 10
3
La khs or
Rs. 550 Cr or es.
For t he ac alt er nat ive, t he power -handling capacit y per cir cuit is incr eased t o 285 × 875/600
= 420 MW. This r equir es 2 cir cuit s for handling 900 MW.
The r eact ive power s will also be r educed t o 120 MVA for each line in shunt r eact or s and
swit ched capacit or s. The cost est imat e will t hen include:
(a) 4 Swit chyar d Bays Rs. 11 × 10
3
Lakhs
(b) Shunt r eact or s 240 MVA Rs. 0.6 × 10
3
Lakhs
(c) Shunt capacit or s Rs. 0.27 × 10
3
Lakhs
(d) Line cost : 2 × 600 × 25 Lakhs Rs. 30 × 10
3
Lakhs
Tot al Rs. 41. 87 × 10
3
Lakhs = 418.7 Cr or es.
The dc alt er nat ive has become mor e expensive t han t he ac alt er nat ive by about Rs.130
Cr or es. In bet ween line lengt hs of 600 km and 875 km for t r ansmit t ing t he same power , t he
t wo alt er nat ives will cost near ly equal. This is called t he "Br eak Even Dist ance".
2.6 MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN LINE PERFORMANCE
2.6.1 Types of Vibrations and Oscillations
In t his sect ion a br ief descr ipt ion will be given of t he enor mous impor t ance which designer s
place on t he pr oblems cr eat ed by vibr at ions and oscillat ions of t he ver y heavy conduct or
ar r angement r equir ed for e.h.v. t r ansmission lines. As t he number of sub-conduct or s used in a
bundle incr eases, t hese vibr at ions and count er measur es and spacings of sub-conduct or s will
also affect t he elect r ical design, par t icular ly t he sur face volt age gr adient . The mechanical
designer will r ecommend t he t ower dimensions, phase spacings, conduct or height , sub-conduct or
spacings, et c. fr om which t he elect r ical designer has t o commence his calculat ions of r esist ance,
in du ct a n ce, ca pa cit a n ce, elect r os t a t ic field, cor on a effect s , a n d a ll ot h er per for ma n ce
char act er ist ics. Thus, t he t wo go hand in hand.
The sub-conduct or s in a bundle ar e separ at ed by spacer s of suit able t ype, which br ing
t heir own pr oblems such as fat igue t o t hemselves and t o t he out er st r ands of t he conduct or
dur ing vibr at ions. The design of spacer s will not be descr ibed her e but manufact ur er s' cat alogues
should be consult ed for a var iet y of spacer s available. These spacer s ar e pr ovided at int er vals
r anging fr om 60 t o 75 met r es bet ween each span which is in t he neighbour hood of 300 met r es
for e.h.v. lines. Thus, t her e may be t wo end spans and t wo or t hr ee subspans in t he middle. The
spacer s pr event conduct or s fr om r ubbing or colliding wit h each ot her in wind and ice st or ms, if
any. However , under less sever e wind condit ions t he bundle spacer can damage it self or cause
damage t o t he conduct or under cer t ain cr it ical vibr at ion condit ions. Elect r ically speaking, since
t he char ges on t he sub-conduct or s ar e of t he same polar it y, t her e exist s elect r ost at ic r epulsion
among t hem. On t he ot her hand, since t hey car r y cur r ent s in t he same dir ect ion, t her e is
elect r omagnet ic at t r act ion. This for ce is especially sever e dur ing shor t -cir cuit cur r ent s so t hat
t he spacer has a for ce exer t ed on it dur ing nor mal or abnor mal elect r ical oper at ion.
18 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Thr ee t ypes of vibr at ion ar e r ecognized as being impor t ant for e.h.v. conduct or s, t heir
degr ee of sever it y depending on many fact or s, chief among which ar e: (a) conduct or t ension, (b)
span lengt h, (c) conduct or size, (d) t ype of conduct or , (e) t er r ain of line, (f) dir ect ion of pr evailing
winds, (g) t ype of suppor t ing clamp of conduct or -insulat or assemblies fr om t he t ower , (h) t ower
t ype, (i) height of t ower , (j) t ype of spacer s and damper s, and (k) t he veget at ion in t he vicinit y of
line. In gener al, t he most sever e vibr at ion condit ions ar e cr eat ed by winds wit hout t ur bulence
so t hat hills, buildings, and t r ees help in r educing t he sever it y. The t ypes of vibr at ion ar e: (1)
Aeolian Vibr at ion, (2) Galloping, and (3) Wake-Induced Oscillat ions. The fir st t wo ar e pr esent
for bot h single-and mult i-conduct or bundles, while t he wake-induced oscillat ion is confined t o a
bundle only. St andar d for ms of bundle conduct or s have sub-conduct or s r anging fr om 2.54 t o 5
cm diamet er s wit h bundle spacing of 40 t o 50 cm bet ween adjacent conduct or s. For e.h.v.
t r ansmission, t he number r anges fr om 2 t o 8 sub-conduct or s for t r ansmission volt ages fr om
400 kV t o 1200 kV, and up t o 12 or even 18 for higher volt ages which ar e not yet commer cially
in oper at ion. We will br iefly descr ibe t he mechanism causing t hese t ypes of vibr at ions and t he
pr oblems cr eat ed by t hem.
2.6.2 Aeolian Vibration
When a conduct or is under t ension and a compar at ively st eady wind blows acr oss it , small
vor t ices ar e for med on t he leewar d side called Kar man Vor t ices (which wer e fir st obser ved on
air cr aft wings). These vor t ices det ach t hemselves and when t hey do alt er nat ely fr om t he t op
and bot t om t hey cause a minut e ver t ical for ce on t he conduct or . The fr equency of t he for ces is
given by t he accept ed for mula
F = 2.065 v/d, Hz ...(2.5)
wher e v = component of wind velocit y nor mal t o t he conduct or in km/ hour , and d = diamet er
of conduct or in cent imet r es. [The const ant fact or of equat ion (2.5) becomes 3.26 when v is in
mph and d in inches.]
The r esult ing oscillat ion or vibr at ional for ces cause fat igue of conduct or and suppor t ing
st r uct ur e and ar e known as aeolian vibr at ions. The fr equency of det achment of t he Kar man
vor t ices might cor r espond t o one of t he nat ur al mechanical fr equencies of t he span, which if
not damped pr oper ly, can build up and dest r oy individual st r ands of t he conduct or at point s of
r est r aint such as at suppor t s or at bundle spacer s. They also give r ise t o wave effect s in which
t he vibr at ion t r avels along t he conduct or suffer ing r eflect ion at discont inuit ies at point s of
differ ent mechanical char act er ist ics. Thus, t her e is associat ed wit h t hem a mechanical impedance.
Damper s ar e designed on t his pr oper t y and pr ovide suit able point s of negat ive r eflect ion t o
r educe t he wave amplit udes. Aeolian vibr at ions ar e not obser ved at wind velocit ies in excess of
25 km/hour . They occur pr incipally in t er r ains which do not dist ur b t he wind so t hat t ur bulence
helps t o r educe aeolian vibr at ions.
In a bundle of 2 conduct or s, t he amplit ude of vibr at ion is less t han for a single conduct or
due t o some cancellat ion effect t hr ough t he bundle spacer . This occur s when t he conduct or s
ar e not locat ed in a ver t ical plane which is nor mally t he case in pr act ice. The conduct or s ar e
locat ed in near ly a hor izont al plane. But wit h mor e t han 2 conduct or s in a bundle, conduct or s
ar e locat ed in bot h planes. Damper s such as t he St ockbr idge t ype or ot her t ypes help t o damp
t he vibr at ions in t he subspans connect ed t o t hem, namely t he end sub-spans, but t her e ar e
usually t wo or t hr ee sub-spans in t he middle of t he span which ar e not pr ot ect ed by t hese
damper s pr ovided only at t he t ower s. Flexible spacer s ar e gener ally pr ovided which may or
Transmission Line Trends and Preliminaries 19
may not be designed t o offer damping. In cases wher e t hey ar e pur posely designed t o damp t he
sub-span oscillat ions, t hey ar e known as spacer -damper s.
Since t he aeolian vibr at ion depends upon t he power impar t ed by t he wind t o t he conduct or ,
measur ement s under cont r olled condit ions in t he labor at or y ar e car r ied out in wind t unnels.
The fr equency of vibr at ion is usually limit ed t o 20 Hz and t he amplit udes less t han 2.5 cm.
2.6.3 Galloping
Galloping of a conduct or is a ver y high amplit ude, low-fr equency t ype of conduct or mot ion and
occur s mainly in ar eas of r elat ively flat t er r ain under fr eezing r ain and icing of conduct or s. The
flat t er r ain pr ovides winds t hat ar e unifor m and of a low t ur bulence. When a conduct or is iced,
it pr esent s an unsymmet r ical cor ss-sect ion wit h t he windwar d side having less ice accumulat ion
t han t he leewar d side of t he conduct or . When t he wind blows acr oss such a sur face, t her e is an
aer odynamic lift as well as a dr ag for ce due t o t he dir ect pr essur e of t he wind. t he t wo for ces
give r ise t o t or sional modes of oscillat ion and t hey combine t o oscillat e t he conduct or wit h ver y
lar ge amplit udes sufficient t o cause cont act of t wo adjacent phases, which may be 10 t o 15
met r es apar t in t he r est posit ion. Galloping is induced by winds r anging fr om 15 t o 50 km/hour ,
which may nor mally be higher t han t hat r equir ed for aeolian vibr at ions but t her e could be an
over lap. The conduct or oscillat es at fr equencies bet ween 0.1 and 1 Hz. Galloping is cont r olled
by using "det uning pendulums" which t ake t he for m of weight s applied at differ ent locat ions on
t he span.
Galloping may not be a pr oblem in a hot count r y like India wher e t emper at ur es ar e
nor mally above fr eezing in wint er . But in hilly t r act s in t he Nor t h, t he t emper at ur es may dip
t o below t he fr eezing point . When t he ice loosens fr om t he conduct or , it br ings anot her oscillat or y
mot ion called Whipping but is not pr esent like galloping dur ing only winds.
2.6.4 Wake-Induced Oscillation
The wake-induced oscillat ion is peculiar t o a bundle conduct or , and similar t o aeolian vibr at ion
and galloping occur r ing pr incipally in flat t er r ain wit h winds of st eady velocit y and low t ur bulence.
The fr equency of t he oscillat ion does not exceed 3 Hz but may be of sufficient amplit ude t o cause
clashing of adjacent sub-conduct or s, which ar e separ at ed by about 50 cm. Wind speeds for causing
wake-induced oscillat ion must be nor mally in t he r ange 25 t o 65 km/hour . As compar ed t o t his,
aeolian vibr at ion occur s at wind speeds less t han 25 km/hour , has fr equencies less t han 20 Hz
and amplit udes less t han 2.5 cm. Galloping occur s at wind speeds bet ween 15 and 50 km/hour ,
has a low fr equency of less t han 1 Hz, but amplit udes exceeding 10 met r es. Fat igue failur e t o
spacer s is one of t he chief causes for damage t o insulat or s and conduct or s.
Wake-induced oscillat ion, also called "flut t er inst abilit y", is caused when one conduct or
on t he windwar d side aer odynamically shields t he leewar d conduct or . To cause t his t ype of
oscillat ion, t he leewar d conduct or must be posit ioned at r est t owar ds t he limit s of t he wake or
windshadow of t he windwar d conduct or . The oscillat ion occur s when t he bundle t ilt s 5 t o 15°
wit h r espect t o a flat gr ound sur face. Ther efor e, a gent ly sloping gr ound wit h t his angle can
cr eat e condit ions favour able t o wake-induced oscillat ions. The conduct or spacing t o diamet er
r at io in t he bundle is also cr it ical. If t he spacing B is less t han 15d, d being t he conduct or
diamet er , a t endency t o oscillat e is cr eat ed while for B/d > 15 t he bundle is found t o be mor e
st able. As ment ioned ear lier , t he elect r ical design, such as calculat ing t he sur face volt age
gr adient on t he conduct or s, will depend upon t hese mechanical consider at ions.
20 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
2.6.5 Dampers and Spacers
When t he wind ener gy impar t ed t o t he conduct or achieves a balance wit h t he ener gy dissipat ed
by t he vibr at ing conduct or , st eady amplit udes for t he oscillat ions occur . A damping device
helps t o achieve t his balance at smaller amplit udes of aeolian vibr at ions t han an undamped
conduct or . The damper cont r ols t he int ensit y of t he wave-like pr oper t ies of t r avel of t he
oscillat ion and pr ovides an equivalent heavy mass which absor bs t he ener gy in t he wave. A
sket ch of a St ockbr idge damper is shown in Fig. 2.2.
A simpler for m of damper is called t he Ar mour Rod, which is a set of wir es t wist ed ar ound
t he line conduct or at t he insulat or suppor t ing conduct or and har dwar e, and ext ending for
about 5 met r es on eit her side. This is used for small conduct or s t o pr ovide a change in mechanical
impedance. But for heavier conduct or s, weight s must be used, such as t he St ockbr idge, which
r ange fr om 5 kg for conduct or s of 2.5 cm diamet er t o 14 kg for 4.5 cm. Because of t he st eel
st r ands inside t hem ACSR conduct or s have bet t er built -in pr oper t y against oscillat ions t han
ACAR conduct or s.
Fi g. 2.2 (a) St ockbr idge Da mper ; (b) Suspension Clamp (Cour t esy: Elect r ical
Manufact ur ing Co., Calcut t a).
Fi g. 2.3 Spacer for t wo-conduct or bundle (Cour t esy: EMC, Calcut t a).
Damper
Mass
Steel
Massenger
Cable
Centre of
Gravity
Conductor
Damper Clamp
Cushion Insert
Conductor
Cushion
Aluminium Alloy
Retaining Rods
Frame
(a)
(b)
Transmission Line Trends and Preliminaries 21
Ther e ar e a lar ge number of t ypes of spacer s which keep t he conduct or s apar t . Most
moder n spacer s have some flexibilit y built int o t hem t o allow r ot at ion of t he conduct or inside
t hem such as lining t he clamps wit h high-st r engt h plast ic or r ubber washer s. Some spacer s ar e
specially designed t o act as damper s and may also t ake t he for m of heavy spr ings. The select ion
of t he spacer s is also det er mined by t he wind speed in t he localit y. Fig. 2.3 shows a spacer used
for a bundle conduct or .
Re vi e w Qu e s t i on s a n d Pr oble ms
1. Of t he following t r ansmission volt ages (given in kV) used in t he wor ld, which ones
ar e used in India at pr esent : 66, 132, 169, 220, 275, 345, 400, 500–525, 735–765, 1000,
1150.
2. The geogr aphy and civilizat ion of any count r y can best be under st ood by a knowledge
of locat ion of it s r iver s. In moder n days, power development also depends on t he
r iver s. On an at las, locat e t he following r iver s in t he count r ies list ed. Not e: Due t o
int er nat ional disput es and war s bet ween nat ions some of t he r iver s may not be in t he
count r ies given, but only in t he gener al geogr aphic ar ea in an at las.
(a) Indian sub–continent (including Tibet , Pakist an, Bangladesh and Bur ma)—Sind,
J helum, Ganga; Yamuna, Bhagir at hi, Alakhnanda, Gandak, Gomt i, Tsang-Po,
Dehang, Br ahmaput r a, Padma, Hoogly, Nar mada, Damodar , Mahanadi, Godavar i,
Kr ishna, Kali, Shar avat hi, Kaver i, Vaigai, Tamr apar ni, Ir r awaddy, Salween.
(b) Canada and U.S.—Fr a ser , Colu mbia , Sla ve, Ma cken zie, At h a ba sca , Th e
Saskat chewans, Winnipeg, Nelson, Peace (Finlay and Par snip), Red, St . Lawr ence,
St . J ohn, Chur chill, Ot t awa, La Gr ande, Color ado, Mississippi-Missour i, Ohio,
Rio Gr ande, Delawar e, Hudson, Mohawk, Niagar a.
(c) Europe, including t he U.S .S .R. and S iberia—Sever n, Clyde, Thames, Danube,
Rhone, Rhine, Elb, Po, Seine, Ob, Volga, Dneiper , Lena, Yenesei.
(d) Ot her part s of t he world—Yangt ze, Yellow, Senju, Mar ude, Yalu, Nile, Zambezi,
Congo (Zaire), Amazon, It aipu, Or inaco, Makong, La Plat a, Sikiang, Volt a.
3. Using equat ions (2.1) and (2.2), dr aw on a gr aph t he var iat ion of P and I as t he dist ance
of t r ansmission is var ied fr om 200 t o 800 km for (a) 400 kV line, and (b) 750 kV line.
U se average values for r and x given in Table 2.1. Take P = 0.5 E
2
/Lx. Repeat for δ =
45°.
4. In t he U.S.A., for t r ansmit t ing a power of 10,000 MW over 285 km, a volt age of 1150
kV was select ed. In t he U.S.S.R., for t r ansmit t ing a power of 5000 MW over 800 km,
t he same volt age level was select ed. Give your comment s on t he r easons t his level is
most suit able and what t he possible r easons ar e for such a choice. Discuss t hr ough%
line loses by compar ing wit h ot her suit able volt age classes t hat could have been
found suit able.
5. Using t he figur es for power t o be t r ansmit t ed and dist ance given in Table 2.3, wor k
out dc alt er nat ive for India t o evacuat e t hese power s t o load cent r es.
6. Wr it e br ief descr ipt ions of (a) aeolian vibr at ion, and (b) wake-induced oscillat ions.
Descr ibe t he measur es t aken t o minimize t he damage due t o t hem.
3.1 RESISTANCE OF CONDUCTORS
Conduct or s used for e.h.v. t r ansmission lines ar e always st r anded. Most common conduct or s
use a st eel cor e for r einfor cement of t he st r engt h of aluminium, but r ecent ly high t ensile
st r engt h aluminium is being incr easingly used, r eplacing t he st eel. The for mer is known as
ACSR (Aluminium Conduct or St eel Reinfor ced) and t he lat t er ACAR (Aluminium Conduct or
Alloy Reinfor ced). A r ecent development is t he AAAC (All Aluminium Alloy Conduct or ) which
consist s of alloys of Al, Mg, Si. This has 10 t o 15% less loss t han ACSR. When a st eel cor e is
used, because of it s high per meabilit y and induct ance, power -fr equency cur r ent flows only in
t he aluminium st r ands. In ACAR and AAAC conduct or s, t he cr oss-sect ion is bet t er ut ilized.
Fig. 3.1 shows an example of a st r anded conduct or .
Fi g 3.1 Cr oss-sect ion of t ypical ACSR conduct or .
If n
s
= number of st r ands of aluminium, d
s
= diamet er of each st r and in met r e and a
ρ
=
specific r esist ance of Al, ohm-m, at t emper at ur e t , t he r esist ance of t he st r anded conduct or per
km is
R = a
ρ
1.05 × 10
3
/( 4 /
2
s s
n d π ) = 1337
s s a
n d
2
/ ρ , ohms ...(3.1)
The fact or 1.05 account s for t he t wist or lay wher eby t he st r and lengt h is incr eased by 5%.
Exa mp l e 3.1. A Dr ake conduct or of Nor t h-Amer ican manufact ur e has an out er diamet er
of 1.108 inches having an Al cr oss-sect ional ar ea of 795,000 cir cular mils. The st r anding is 26
Al/7 Fe. It s r esist ance is given as 0.0215 ohm/1000' at 20°C under dc, and 0.1284 ohm/mile at
50°C and 50/60 Hz. Calculat e.
(a) diamet er of each st r and of Al and Fe in mils, inch, and met r e unit s;
3
Ca lcu la t ion of Lin e a n d Grou n d Pa ra m et ers
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 23
(b) check t he values of r esist ances given above t aking a
ρ
= 2.7 × 10
–8
ohm-met r e at 20°C
and t emper at ur e-r esist ance coefficient α = 4.46 × 10
–3
/°C at 20°C.
(c) find incr ease in r esist ance due t o skin effect .
Not e. 1 inch = 1000 mils; 1 in
2
= ( π / 4 ) × 10
6
cir -mils;
10
6
cir -mils = ( 4 / π ) × 2.54
2
sq. cm. = 5.067 sq. cm.
Sol u t i on : Ar ea of each st r and of Al = 795,000/26 = 30,577 cm.
(a) Diamet er of each st r and, d
s
= 577 , 30 = 175 mils = 0.175 inch
= 0.4444 cm = 0.00444 m
Refer r ing t o Fig. 3.1, t her e ar e 4 st r ands of Al along any diamet er occupying 700 mils. The
3 diamet er s of Fe occupy 1108 – 700 = 408 mils since t he over all dia. of t he conduct or is 1.108"
= 1108 mils.
Ther efor e, diamet er of each st eel st r and = 408/3 = 136 mils = 0.136" = 0.3454 cm
(b) Because of t he high per meabilit y of st eel, t he st eel st r ands do not car r y cur r ent .
Then, for 1000 feet ,
R
a
= 2.7/10
–8
(1000 × 1.05/3.28)/ 1
]
1

¸

× × ×
π
26 ) 10 444 . 4 (
4
2 3 –
= 0.02144 ohm.
This is close t o 0.0215 ohm/1000'
At 50°C, ρ
50
=
20 10 46 . 4 1
50 10 46 . 4 1
3 –
3 –
× × +
× × +
ρ
20
= 1.123 ρ
20
∴ R
50
= 1.123 × 0.0215 × 5.28 = 0.1275 ohm/mile.
(c) Incr ease in r esist ance due t o skin effect at 50/60 Hz is
0.1284 – 0.1275 = 0.0009 ohm = 0.706%.
3.1.1 Effect of Resistance of Conductor
The effect of conduct or r esist ance of e.h.v. lines is manifest ed in t he following for ms:
(1) Power loss in t r ansmission caused by I
2
R heat ing;
(2) Reduced cur r ent -car r ying capacit y of conduct or in high ambient t emper at ur e r egions.
This pr oblem is par t icular ly sever e in Nor t her n India wher e summer t emper at ur es
in t he plains r each 50°C. The combinat ion of int ense solar ir r adiat ion of conduct or
combined wit h t he I
2
R heat ing r aises t he t emper at ur e of Aluminium beyond t he
maximum allowable t emper at ur e which st ands at 65°C as per Indian St andar ds. At
an ambient of 48°C, even t he solar ir r adiat ion is sufficient t o r aise t he t emper at ur e
t o 65°C for 400 kV line, so t hat no cur r ent can be car r ied. If t her e is impr ovement in
mat er ial and t he maximum t emper at ur e r aised t o 75°C, it is est imat ed t hat a cur r ent
of 600 amper es can be t r ansmit t ed for t he same ambient t emper at ur e of 48°C.
(3) The conduct or r esist ance affect s t he at t enuat ion of t r avelling waves due t o light ning
and swit ching oper at ions, as well as r adio-fr equency ener gy gener at ed by cor ona. In
t hese ca ses, t he r esist a nce is comput ed a t t he following r a nge of fr equencies:
Light ning—100 t o 200 kHz; Swit ching—1000-5000 Hz; Radio fr equency—0.5 t o 2 MHz.
We shall consider t he high-fr equency r esist ance lat er on.
24 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
3.1.2 Power Loss in Transmission
In Chapt er 2, aver age r esist ance values wer e given in Table 2.1. For var ious amount s of power
t r ansmit t ed at e.h.v. volt age levels, t he I
2
R heat ing loss in MW ar e shown in Table 3.1 below.
The power fact or is t aken as unit y. In ever y case t he phase angle differ ence δ = 30° bet ween E
s
and E
r
.
Ta ble 3.1. I
2
R Loss i n MW of E.H.V. Li n e s
S yst em kV 400 750 1000 1200
Resistance, ohm/ km 0.031 0.0136 0.0036 0.0027
Power Transmitted I
2
R Loss, MW
1,000 MW 48 25 7.8 5.84
2,000 96 50 15.6 11.68
5,000 240 125 39 29.2
10,000 480 250 78 58.4
20,000 960 500 156 116.8
We not ice t he vast r educt ion in MW loss occur r ing wit h incr ease in t r ansmission volt age
for t r ansmit t ing t he same power . The above calculat ions ar e based on t he following equat ions:
(1) Cur r ent : I = V P 3 / ...(3.2)
(2) Loss: p = 3I
2
R = P
2
R/V
2
...(3.3)
(3) Tot al r esist ance: R = L.r, ...(3.4)
wher e L = line lengt h in km,
and r = r esist ance per phase in ohm/km.
(4) Tot al above holds for δ = 30°. For any ot her power -angle t he loss is
p = 3I
2
rL = E
2
r sin
2
δ /(L.x
2
) ...(3.5)
wher e x = posit ive-sequence r eact ance of line per phase.
3.1.3 Skin Effect Resistance in Round Conductors
It was ment ioned ear lier t hat t he r esist ance of over head line conduct or s must be evaluat ed at
fr equencies r anging fr om power fr equency (50/60 Hz) t o r adio fr equencies up t o 2 MHz or mor e.
Wit h incr ease in fr equency, t he cur r ent t ends t o flow near er t he sur face r esult ing in a decr ease
in ar ea for cur r ent conduct ion. This gives r ise t o incr ease in effect ive r esist ance due t o t he
'Skin Effect '. The physical mechanism for t his effect is based on t he fact t hat t he inner filament s
of t he conduct or s link lar ger amount s of flux as t he cent r e is appr oached which causes an
incr ease in r eact ance. The r eact ance is pr opor t ional t o fr equency so t hat t he impedance t o
cur r ent flow is lar ger in t he inside, t hus pr event ing flow of cur r ent easily. The r esult is a
cr owding of cur r ent at t he out er filament s of t he conduct or . The incr ease in r esist ance of a
st r anded conduct or is mor e difficult t o calculat e t han t hat of a single r ound solid conduct or
because of t he close pr oximit y of t he st r ands which dist or t t he magnet ic field st ill fur t her . It is
easier t o det er mine t he r esist ance of a st r anded conduct or by exper iment at t he manufact ur er 's
pr emises for all conduct or sizes manufact ur ed and at var ious fr equencies.
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 25
Fi g. 3.2 Var iat ion wit h fr equency par amet er (mr) of (a) skin effect r esist ance r at io R
ac
(f )/R
dc
a nd (b) skin effect induct a nce L(f )/L
0
, wit h L
0
= µ
0
/ 8π, t he induct a nce wit h unifor m cur r ent
dist r ibut ion in r ound conduct or .
In t his sect ion, a met hod of est imat ing t he r at io R
ac
(f)/R
dc
will be descr ibed. The r igor ous
for mulas involve t he use of Bessel Funct ions and t he r esist ance r at io has been t abulat ed or
given in t he for m of cur ves by t he Nat ional Bur eau of St andar ds, Washingt on, sever al decades
ago. Figur e 3.2(a) shows some r esult s wher e t he or dinat e is R
ac
/R
dc
at any fr equency f and t he
abscissa is X = mr = 0.0636
0
/R f , wher e R
0
is t he dc r esist ance of conduct or in ohms/mile.
W hen using S I unit s, X = 1.59 × 10
–3

m
R f / , wher e R
m
= dc r esist ance in ohm/met r e.
Exa mp le 3.2. A Moose conduct or has a r esist ance of 62 milli-ohm/km. Using Fig. 3.2(a),
det er mine t he highest fr equency for which t he gr aph is applicable for a r ound conduct or .
Sol u t i on . Maximum value of X = 4 = 0.0636 √ . /
0
R f
Now, R
0
= 62 × 10
–3
× 1.609 = 0.1
Ther efor e f = (X/0.0636)
2
R
0
≈ 400 Hz.
For ot her fr equencies t he funct ional r elat ionship bet ween R
ac
(f)/R
dc
is as follows:
Let Ber (X) =
L
2 2 2 2
8
2 2
4
8 . 6 . 4 . 2 4 . 2
1
X X
+ −
Bei (X) =
L
2 2 2 2 2
10
2 2 2
6
2
2
10 . 8 . 6 . 4 . 2 6 . 4 . 2

2
X X X
+
...(3.6)
B' er (X) = d Ber (X)/dX, B' ei(X) = d Bei (X)/dX
Then,
dc
ac
) (
R
f R
=
2 2
)] ( ei B [ )] ( er B [
) ( er B ). ( Bei ) ( ei B ). ( Ber
2
X X
X X X X X
′ + ′
′ − ′

,
_

¸
¸
...(3.7)
The Bessel Funct ions ar e t abulat ed and values fr om t her e must be used [see H.B. Dwight :
Mat hemat ical Tables (Dover Publicat ions) pages 194 onwar ds]. The following example will
illust r at e t he incr ease in r esist ance of a r ound copper conduct or up t o a fr equency of 100 kHz.
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0 1 2 3 4
1.0
0.9
0.8
0 1 2 3 4
R
R
(
)
f
d
c
/
L
L
L
(
)
0
0
0
f
/
,

=

/
8
µ
π
mr f R = 0.0636
0
mr
(a) (b)
(b) (a)
26 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Exa mp l e 3.3. A r ound 7/0 copper conduct or 0.5" (12.7 mm) in dia. has ρ = 1. 7 ×10
-8
ohm-m at 20°C. Calculat e t he var iat ion of R
ac
/R
dc
as a funct ion of fr equency up t o 10
5
Hz.
Sol u t i on . R
0
= 1.7 × 10
–8
× 1609/(π × 12.7
2
× 10
–6
/4) = 0.216 ohm/mile
∴ 0.0636/
0
R = 0.0137.
We will use a logar it hmic incr ease for fr equency;
f 100 300 600 1000 3000 6000 10
4
3 × 10
4
6 × 10
4
10
5
X = 0.0137 f .137 .237 .335 .4326 .749 1.06 1.37 2.37 3.35 4.326
R
ac
/R
dc
3 4 4 5
10
8 .
1
10
8 .
1
10
4 . 0
1
10
37 . 0
1
− − − −
×
+
×
+
×
+
×
+
1.0000037, 1.00004, 1.00008, 1.0008
[These values ar e t aken fr om N.B.S. Tables and T. and D. Refer ence Book (West inghouse)].
3.2 TEMPERATURE RISE OF CONDUCTORS AND CURRENT-CARRYING
CAPACITY
When a conduct or is car r ying cur r ent and it s t emper at ur e has r eached a st eady value, heat
balance r equir es

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
n Irradiat io Solar by
Supplied Heat Ext er nal
by Developed
Heat Int er nal
2
R I
=

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
Radiat ion
by Lost Heat
Air t o Convect ion
by Lost Heat
...(3.8)
Let W
i
= I
2
R heat ing in wat t s/met r e lengt h of conduct or
W
s
= solar ir r adiat ion ,, ,, ,, ,,
W
c
= convect ion loss ,, ,, ,, ,,
and W
r
= r adiat ion loss ,, ,, ,, ,,
Then t he heat balance equat ion becomes
W
i
+ W
s
= W
c
+ W
r
...(3.9)
Each of t hese four t er ms depends upon sever al fact or s which must be wr it t en out in t er ms
of t emper at ur e, conduct or dimensions, wind velocit y, at mospher ic pr essur e, cur r ent , r esist ance,
conduct or sur face condit ion, et c. It will t hen be possible t o find a r elat ion bet ween t he t emper at ur e
r ise and cur r ent . The maximum allowable t emper at ur e of an Al conduct or is 65°C at pr esent ,
but will be incr eased t o 75°C . Many count r ies in t he wor ld have alr eady specified t he limit as
75°C above which t he met al loses it s t ensile st r engt h. The four quant it ies given above ar e as
follows:
(1) I
2
R heating. W
i
= I
2
R
m
wat t s/met r e wher e, R
m
= r esist ance of conduct or per met r e
lengt h at t he maximum t emper at ur e.
1.0017 1.0066 1.0182 1.148 1.35 1.8
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 27
R
m
=
.
20 1
1
20
R
t
α +
α +
wit h α = t emper at ur e r esist ance coefficient in ohm/°C and R
20
= conduct or r esist ance at
20°C.
(2) S olar irradiation.
W
s
= s
a
.I
s
.d
m
wat t s/met r e
wher e d
m
= diamet r e of conduct or in met r e, s
a
= solar absor pt ion coefficient = 1 for black
body or well-weat her ed conduct or and 0.6 for new conduct or , and I
s
= solar ir r adiat ion int ensit y
in wat t s/m
2
.
At New Delhi in a summer 's day at noon, I
s
has a value of appr oximat ely 1000-1500 W/m
2
.
[Not e: 10
4
calor ies/sq. cm/day = 4860 wat t s/m
2
]
(3) Convect ion loss.
w
c
= 5.73 , . / t d v p
m m
∆ wat t s/m
2
wher e p = pr essur e of air in at mospher es, v
m
= wind velocit y in met r es/sec.,
and ∆t = t emper at ur e r ise in °C above ambient = t – t
a
.
Since 1 met r e lengt h of conduct or has an ar ea of π d
m
sq. m., t he convect ion loss is
W
c
=
m m
d v p t . . . . 18 ∆ , wat t s/met r e
(4) Radiat ion loss. This is given by St efan-Bolt zmann Law
W
r
= 5.702 × 10
–8
e(
4 4
a
T T − ), wat t s/m
2
wher e e = r elat ive emissivit y of conduct or -sur face = 1 for black body and 0.5 for oxidized Al
or Cu, T = conduct or t emper at ur e in °K = 273 + t and T
a
= ambient t emper at ur e in °K = 273 + t
a
.
The r adiat ion loss per met r e lengt h of conduct or is
W
r
= 17.9 × 10
–8
e(
4 4
a
T T − ) d
m
, wat t /m.
Equat ion (3.9) for t he heat balance t hen becomes
I
2
R
m
+ s
a
I
s
d
m
= 18
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ ∆
4 4
100 100
. . 9 . 17 . .
a
m m m
T T
d e d v p t ...(3.10)
Exa mp l e 3.4. A 400-kV line in India uses a 2-conduct or bundle wit h d
m
= 0.0318 m for
each conduct or . The phase cur r ent is 1000 Amps (500 Amps per conduct or ). The ar ea of each
conduct or is 515.7 mm
2
, ρ
a
= 2.7 × 10
–8
ohm-m at 20°C, α = 0.0045 ohm/°C at 20°. Take t he
ambient t emper at ur e t
a
= 40°C, at mospher ic pr essur e p = 1, wind velocit y v
m
= 1 m/s, e = 0.5
and neglect solar ir r adiat ion. Calculat e t he final t emper at ur e of conduct or due only t o I
2
R
heat ing.
Sol u t i on . Let t he final t emper at ur e = t °C.
Then, R
m
= 2.7 ×10
–8

20 0045 . 0 1
0045 . 0 1
× +
× + t
6
10 7 . 515
05 . 1

×
= 0.5 × 10
–4
(1 + 0.0045t ), ohm/m
Ther efor e, W
t
= I
2
R
m
= 12.5 (1 + 0.0045t ), wat t s/m
W
c
= wat t s/m ), 40 – ( 21 . 3 ) 40 – .( 0318 . 0 1 18 t t · ×
28 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
W
r
= 17.9 × 0.5 × 0.0318
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸ +

,
_

¸
¸ +
4 4
100
40 273
100
273 t
= 0.2845 {[(273 + t )/100]
4
– 95.95}.
Using equat ion (3.9), t he equat ion for t comes out as
12.5 (1 + 0.0045t ) = 3.21t + 0.2845 × 10
–8
(273 + t )
4
– 155.7
or , (273 + t )
4
= (590 – 11.28t ) 10
8
.
A t r ial and er r or solut ion yields t ≈ 44°C. (At t his final t emper at ur e, we can calculat e t he
values of t he t hr ee heat s which ar e I
2
R
m
= 14.38, W
c
= 12.84, and W
r
= 1.54, wat t s/m.).
Exa mp l e . 3.5 In t he pr evious example, calculat e t he final t emper at ur e (or t emper at ur e
r ise) if t he solar ir r adiat ion adds (a) 10 wat t s/m, and (b) 1160 W/m
2
giving a cont r ibut ion of 37
wat t s/m t o t he conduct or .
Sol u t i on . By going t hr ough similar pr ocedur e, t he answer s t ur n out t o be
(a) t = 45.5°C, ∆t = 5.5°C;
(b) t = 54.1°C, ∆t = 14.1°C.
We obser ve t hat had t he ambient t emper at ur e been 50°C, t he t emper at ur e r ise would
r each near ly t he maximum. This is left as an exer cise at t he end of t he chapt er .
3.3 PROPERTIES OF BUNDLED CONDUCTORS
Bundled conduct or s ar e exclusively used for e.h.v. t r ansmission lines. Only one line in t he
wor ld, t hat of t he Bonneville Power Administ r at ion in t he U.S.A., has used a special expanded
ACSR conduct or of 2.5 inch diamet er for t heir 525 kV line. Fig. 3.3 shows examples of conduct or
configur at ions used for each phase of ac lines or each pole of a dc line.
Fi g. 3.3 Conduct or configur at ions used for bundles in e.h.v. lines.
As of now a maximum of 18 sub-conduct or s have been t r ied on exper iment al lines but for
commer cial lines t he lar gest number is 8 for 1150-1200 kV lines.
3.3.1 Bundle Spacing and Bundle Radius (or Diameter)
In almost all cases, t he sub-conduct or s of a bundle ar e unifor mly dist r ibut ed on a cir cle of
r adius R. Ther e ar e pr oposals t o space t hem non-unifor mly t o lower t he audible noise gener at ed
by t he bundle conduct or , but we will develop t he r elevant geomet r ical pr oper t ies of an N-
conduct or bundle on t he assumpt ion of unifor m spacing of t he sub-conduct or s (Fig. 3.4). It is
also r epor t ed t hat t he flashover volt age of a long air gap is incr eased when a non-unifor m
spacing for sub-conduct or s is used for t he phase conduct or .
d = 2r
B
B
B B
R
R
R
R
R
B
Single Twin 3-Cond. 4-Cond. 6-Cond. 8-Cond.
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 29
Fi g. 3.4 Bundle spacing B, and bundle r adius R.
The spacing bet ween adjacent sub-conduct or s is t er med 'Bundle Spacing' and denot ed by
B. The r adius of t he pit ch cir cle on which t he sub-conduct or s ar e locat ed will be called t he
'Bundle Radius', denot ed as R. The r adius of each sub-conduct or is r wit h diamet er d. The angle
sub-t ended at t he cent r e by adjacent sub-conduct or s is (2π/N) r adians, and it is r eadily seen t hat
2
B
= R sin (π/N) giving R = B/2 sin (π/N) ...(3.11)
For N = 2 t o 18, t he following t able gives (R/B) and (B/R).
N = 2 3 4 6 8 12 18
R/B = 0.5 0.578 0.7071 1 1.308 1.874 2.884
B/R = 2
3 2
1 0.7654 0.5344 0.3472
3.3.2 Geometric Mean Radius of Bundle (Equivalent Radius)
Except for calculat ing t he sur face volt age gr adient fr om t he char ge of each sub-conduct or , for
most ot her calculat ions t he bundle of N-sub-conduct or s can be r eplaced by a single conduct or
having an equivalent r adius. This is called t he 'Geomet r ic Mean Radius' or simply t he 'Equivalent
Radius.' It will be shown below t hat it s value is
r
eq
= (N.r.R
N–1
)
1/N
= r[N.(R/r)
N–1
]
1/N
= R(N.r/R)
1/N
...(3.12)
It is t he Nt h r oot of t he pr oduct of t he sub-conduct or r adius r' , and t he dist ance of t his sub-
conduct or fr om all t he ot her (N – 1) companions in t he bundle. Equat ion (3.12) is derived as follows:
Refer r ing t o Fig. 3.4, t he pr oduct of (N – 1) mut ual dist ances is

,
_

¸
¸ π

,
_

¸
¸ π

,
_

¸
¸ π
N
R
N
R
N
R
3
sin 2
2
sin 2 sin 2
....

,
_

¸
¸
π

N
N
R
1
sin 2
=
,
_

¸
¸ π

,
_

¸
¸ π
N N
R
N
2
sin sin ) 2 (
1 –
....
.
1 –
sin
,
_

¸
¸
π
N
N
π
N
4 π
N
2 π
N

R
N 2
1
3
B
R
4
N
N
–1
2 π
30 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
r
eq
=
N
N
N
N
N N
R r
/ 1
1 –
1 –
sin
2
sin . sin ) 2 .(
1
]
1

¸

π
π π
...(3.13)
For N = 2, r
eq
= (2rR)
1/2
For N = 3, r
eq

=

3 / 1 2
3 / 1
2 2
) 3 (
3
2
sin .
3
sin . . . 2 rR r R ·
,
_

¸
¸ π π
For N = 4, r
eq
=
4 / 1 3
4 / 1
3 3
) 4 (
4
3
sin .
4
2
sin .
4
sin . . . 2 rR r R ·
,
_

¸
¸ π π π
For N = 6, r
eq
=
6 / 1 5
6 / 1
5 5
) . . 6 (
6
5
sin
6
2
sin .
6
sin . . . 2 R r r R ·
,
_

¸
¸ π π π
This is equat ion (3.12) wher e t he gener al for mula is r
eq
= (N.r.R
N–1
)
1/N
.
The r eader should ver ify t he r esult for N = 8, 12, 18.
Exa mp l e 3.6 The configur at ions of some e.h.v. lines for 400 kV t o 1200 kV ar e given.
Calculat e r
eq
for each.
(a) 400 kV : N = 2, d = 2r = 3.18 cm, B = 45 cm
(b) 750 kV : N = 4, d = 3.46 cm, B = 45 cm
(c) 1000 kV : N = 6, d = 4.6 cm, B = 12 d
(d) 1200 kV : N = 8, d = 4.6 cm, R = 0.6 m
Sol u t i on . The pr oblem will be solved in differ ent ways.
(a) r
eq
=
B r.
= (1.59 × 45)
1/2
= 8.46 cm = 0.0846 m
(b) r
eq
=
4 / 1 3
] ) 2 / 45 ( 73 . 1 4 [ × ×
= 21.73 cm = 0.2173 m
(c) r
eq
= [6 × 2.3 × 55.2
5
]
1/6
= 43.81 cm = 0.4381 m
Also, r
eq
= 55.2 (6 × 2.3/55.2)
1/6
= 43.81 cm
(d) r
eq
= 60 (8 × 2.3/60)
1/8
= 51.74 cm = 0.5174 m
We obser ve t hat as t he number of sub-conduct or s incr eases, t he equivalent r adius of
bundle is appr oaching t he bundle r adius. The r at io r
eq
/R is (Nr/R)
1/N
. The concept of equivalent
bundle r adius will be ut ilized for calculat ion of induct ance, capacit ance, char ge, and sever al
ot her line par amet er s in t he sect ions t o follow.
3.4 INDUCTANCE OF E.H.V. LINE CONFIGURATIONS
Fig. 3.5 shows sever al examples of line configur at ion used in var ious par t s of t he wor ld. They
r ange fr om single-cir cuit (S/C) 400 kV lines t o pr oposed 1200 kV lines. Double-cir cuit (D/C)
lines ar e not ver y common, but will come int o pr act ice t o save land for t he line cor r idor . As
point ed out in chapt er 2, one 750 kV cir cuit can t r ansmit as much power as 4-400 kV cir cuit s
and in t hose count r ies wher e t echnology for 400 kV level exist s t her e is a t endency t o favour
t he four -cir cuit 400 kV line inst ead of using t he higher volt age level. This will save on impor t of
equipment fr om ot her count r ies and ut ilize t he know-how of one's own count r y. This is a
Nat ional Policy and will not be discussed fur t her .
...
...
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 31
Fi g. 3.5 E.h.v. line configur at ions used.
3.4.1 Inductance of Two Conductors
We shall ver y quickly consider t he met hod of handling t he calculat ion of induct ance of t wo
conduct or s each of ext er nal r adius r and separ at ed by a dist ance D which for ms t he basis for
t he calculat ion of t he mat r ix of induct ance of mult i-conduct or configur at ions.
Fi g. 3.6 Round conduct or wit h int er nal and ext er nal flux linkages.
1 2 3
2 3 3 3'
2' 2
1
1 1'
(a) S/C Horizontal (b) S/C L-Type (c) D/C Conventional
1 1' 1
3
2 3' 2' 3 2
(d) D/C Double Triangle (e) S/C Delta
No.1 No.2 No.3 No.4
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3
(4) Four-Circuit Tower
y
x
r
ye
dy
dye
P
32 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Figur e 3.6 shows a r ound conduct or car r ying a cur r ent I. We fir st invest igat e t he flux
linkage exper ienced by it due, up t o a dist ance x, t o it s own cur r ent , and t hen ext end it t o t wo
conduct or s. The conduct or for t he pr esent is assumed r ound and solid, and t he cur r ent is also
assum ed to be uniform ly distributed with a constant value for current density J = I/πr
2
. Ther e
ar e t wo component s t o t he flux linkage: (1) flux int er nal t o t he conduct or up t o r; and (2) flux
ext er nal t o t he conduct or fr om r up t o x.
I n d u ct a n ce Du e t o I n t er n a l Fl u x
At a r adius y inside t he conduct or , Amper e's cir cuit al law gives H.dl= cur r ent enclosed.
Wit h a unifor m cur r ent densit y J , t he cur r ent enclosed up t o r adius y is I
y
= y
2
I/r
2
. This
gives,
H
y
.2πy = Iy
2
/r
2
or , H
y
=
y
r
I
.
2
2
π
...(3.14)
Now, t he ener gy st or ed in a magnet ic field per unit volume is
w
y
=
,
8
2
1
2
4 2
0
2
2
0
y
r
I
H
r
y r
π
µ µ
· µ µ
J oules/m
3
...(3.15)
Consider an annular volume at y, t hickness dy, and one met r e lengt h of conduct or . It s
volume is (2πy.dy.1) and t he ener gy st or ed is
dW = 2π y.w
y
.dy =
dy y
r
I
r
.
4
3
4
0
2
π
µ µ
Consequent ly, t he t ot al ener gy st or ed up t o r adius r in t he conduct or can be calculat ed.
But t his is equal t o ,
2
1
2
I L
i
wher e = L
i
= induct ance of t he conduct or per met r e due t o t he
int er nal flux linkage.
Ther efor e,
2
2
1
I L
i
=
∫ ∫
π
µ µ
·
π
µ µ
·
r
r r
r
I dy y
r
I
dW
0
2
0
3
4
0
2
0 16
.
4
...(3.16)
Consequent ly,
L
i
= µ
0
µ
r
/8π, Henr y/met r e ...(3.17)
For a non-magnet ic mat er ial, µ
r
=

1. Wit h µ
0
= 4π × 10
–7
H/m, we obt ain t he int er est ing
r esult t hat ir r espect ive of t he size of t he conduct or , t he induct ance due t o int er nal flux linkage is
L
i
= 0.05 µ Henr y/met r e for µ
r
= 1
The effect of non-unifor m cur r ent dist r ibut ion at high fr equencies is handled in a manner
similar t o t he r esist ance. Due t o skin effect , t he int er nal flux linkage decr eases wit h fr equency,
cont r ar y t o t he behaviour of r esist ance. The equat ion for t he induct ive r eact ance is (W.D.
St evenson, 2nd Ed.)
X
i
( f ) = R
0
.(X/2).
2 2
)] ( ei B [ )] ( er B [
) ( ei B . ) ( Bei ) ( er B ). ( Ber
X X
X X X X
′ + ′
′ + ′
...(3.18)

Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 33
wher e X
i
(f) = r eact ance due t o int er nal flux linkage at any fr equency f, R
0
= dc r esist ance
of conduct or per mile in ohms, and X = 0.0636 . /
0
R f [If R
m
= r esist ance per met r e, t hen X =
1.59 × 10
–3
. /
m
R f ]
Figur e 3.2 (b) shows t he r at io L
i
/L
0
plot t ed against X, wher e L
i
= X
i
/2πf and L
0
= µ
0
/8µ
der ived befor e.
I n d u ct a n ce Du e t o Ex t er n a l Fl u x
Refer r ing t o Figur e 3.6 and applying Amper e's cir cuit al law ar ound a cir cle of r adius y
e
on
which t he field st r engt h H is same ever ywher e, t he magnet ic field st r engt h is given as
H
e
= I/2πy
e
giving B
e
= µ
0
µ
r
I/2πy
e
Since e.h.v. line conduct or s ar e always locat ed in air , µ
r
= 1. In a differ ent ial dist ance dy
e
,
t he magnet ic flux is d φ = B
e
.dy
e
per met r e lengt h of conduct or . Consequent ly, t he flux linkage
of conduct or due t o ext er nal flux up t o a dist ance x is
ψ
e
=
) / ( ln .
2
.
0
r x I dy B
r
x
r
e e
π
µ µ
·

...(3.19)
The induct ance is L
e
= Ψ
e
/I =
) / ( ln
2
0
r x
r
π
µ µ
...(3.20)
In air , and wit h µ
0
= 4π × 10
–7
H/m,
L
e
= 0.2 ln (x/r) µH/m.
For a r ound conduct or wit h unifor m cur r ent densit y, t he combined induct ance due t o
int er nal and ext er nal flux linkage up t o dist ance x fr om t he cent r e of conduct or is
L = 0.2[0.25 + ln (x/r)] = 0.2[in 1.284 + ln (x/r)]
= 0.2 ln (x/0.7788r), µH/m or mH/km
This expr ession can be int er pr et ed as t hough t he effect ive r adius of conduct or becomes r
e
= 0.7788 × act ual r adius. We emphasize her e t hat t his applies only t o a solid r ound conduct or
wit h unifor m cur r ent densit y dist r ibut ion inside. It does not apply t o st r anded conduct or s nor
at alt er nat ing cur r ent s wher e t he cur r ent densit y is not unifor mly dist r ibut ed. For st r anded
conduct or s and at power fr equency, conduct or manufact ur er s pr ovide dat a of t he effect ive
r adius t o be used for induct ance calculat ion. This is known as t he 'Geomet r ic Mean Radius' and
t he r eader should consult cat alogues of conduct or det ails. It s aver age value lies bet ween 0.8
and 0.85 t imes t he conduct or r adius.
Th e Two-Con d u ct or Li n e
Figur e 3.7 depict s t wo conduct or s each of r adius r, separ at ed by a cent r e-t o-cent r e dist ance D,
and car r ying cur r ent s I and – I. We will der ive expr ession for t he flux linkage and induct ance of
1 met r e lengt h of t he 2-conduct or syst em which will enable us t o t r anslat e t he r esult t o t he
case of a single conduct or locat ed at a height H = D/2 above a gr ound plane.
Fir st consider a flux line φ
e
flowing ext er nal t o bot h conduct or s. It is clear t hat t his line
links zer o cur r ent and so t he magnet ic field st r engt h is zer o. Ther efor e, all t he flux must flow
in bet ween t he conduct or s fr om r t o (D – r). The flux linkage of conduct or 1 shown on t he left
has t wo par t s:
(i) Due t o it s own cur r ent I, a nd (ii) due t o t he cur r ent – I in conduct or 2. Neglect ing
34 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
int er nal flux linkage, t he flux linkage due t o it s own cur r ent in t he absence of cur r ent in
conductor 2 up to the distance (x) is
ψ
11
=
r
x
I x dx I d
x
r
r r
x
r
ln
2
/
2
0 0
11
∫ ∫
π
µ µ
·
π
µ µ
· ψ
...(3.21)
Fi g. 3.7 Flux linkage calculat ion of 2-conduct or line.
Consider t he effect of cur r ent in conduct or 2. Fleming's r ule shows t hat t he flux is in t he
same dir ect ion as t hat pr oduced by cur r ent in conduct or 1. The flux linkage of conduct or 1 due
t o cur r ent in conduct or 2 is
ψ
12
=

∞ →
π
µ µ
· ψ
x
r D
r
x
x
r D
I d

0
12
. ,

ln
2
...(3.22)
Hence, t he t ot al flux linkage of conduct or 1 due t o bot h cur r ent s is
ψ
1
= ψ
11
+ ψ
12
=
) / ( ln .

ln .
0 0
r D I
r
r D
I
r r
π
µ µ

π
µ µ
...(3.23)
(when D r). The cent r e line G – G bet ween t he t wo conduct or s is a flux line in t he field
of t wo equal but opposit e cur r ent s. The induct ance of any one of t he conduct or s due t o flux
flowing up t o t he plane G – G will be one half t hat obt ained fr om equat ion (3.23). This is
L = ) / ( ln
2
0
r D
r
π
µ µ
...(3.24)
Using µ
0
= 4π × 10
–7
, µ
r
= 1, and D = 2H, t he induct ance of a single over head-line conduct or
above a gr ound plane can be wr it t en as
L = 0.2 ln (2H/r), µ Henr y/met r e (milli Henr y/km) (3.25)
To t his can be added t he int er nal flux linkage and t he r esult ing induct ance using t he
geomet r ic mean r adius.
Exa mp le 3.7. A 345-kV line has an ACSR Bluebir d conduct or 1.762 inches (0.04477 m) in
diamet er wit h an equivalent r adius for induct ance calculat ion of 0.0179 m. The line height is 12
m. Calculat e t he induct ance per km lengt h of conduct or and t he er r or caused by neglect ing t he
int er nal flux linkage.
Sol u t i on : L = 0.2 ln (24/0.0179) = 1.44 mH/km.
If int er nal flux linkage is neglect ed,
L = 0.2 ln (24/0.02238) = 1.3955 mH/km
Er r or = (1.44 – 1.3955) 100/1.44 = 3.09%.
D/2
2r
D
– I
φe
G
G
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 35
We also not e t hat GMR/out er r adius = 0.0179/0.02238 = 0.8. For a r ound solid conduct or ,
GMR = 0.7788 × out er r adius.
3.4.2 Inductance of Multi-Conductor Lines—Maxwell's Coefficients
In t he expr ession for t he induct ance L = 0.2 ln (2H/r) of a single conduct or locat ed above a
gr ound plane, t he fact or P = ln (2H/r) is called Maxwell's coefficient . When sever al conduct or s
ar e pr esent above a gr ound at differ ent height s each wit h it s own cur r ent , t he syst em of n-
conduct or s can be assumed t o consist of t he act ual conduct or s in air and t heir images below
gr ound car r ying equal cur r ent s but in t he opposit e dir ect ion which will pr eser ve t he gr ound
plane as a flux line. This is shown in Fig. 3.8.
Fi g. 3.8 Mult i-conduct or line above gr ound wit h image conduct or s below gr ound.
The flux linkage of any conduct or , say 1, consist s of 3 par t s in a 3-phase line, due it s own
cur r ent and t he cont r ibut ion fr om ot her conduct or s. The self flux linkage is ψ
11
= (µ
0
/2π) I
1
ln
(2H/r). We may use t he geomet r ic mean r adius inst ead of r t o account for int er nal flux linkage
so t hat we wr it e ψ
11
= (µ
0
2π) I
1
ln (2H/D
s
), wher e D
s
= self-dist ance or GMR. For a bundle-
conduct or , we will obser ve t hat an equivalent r adius of t he bundle, equat ion (3.12), has t o be
used.
Now consider t he cur r ent in conduct or 2 only and t he flux linkage of conduct or 1 due t o
t his and t he image of conduct or 2 locat ed below gr ound. For t he pr esent neglect t he pr esence
of all ot her cur r ent s. Then, t he flux lines will be concent r ic about conduct or 2 and only t hose
lines beyond t he aer ial dist ance A
12
fr om conduct or 1 t o conduct or 2 will link conduct or 1.
Similar ly, consider ing only t he cur r ent –I
2
in t he image of conduct or 2, only t hose flux lines
flowing beyond t he dist ance I
12
will link t he aer ial conduct or 1. Consequent ly, t he t ot al flux
linkage of phase conduct or 1 due t o cur r ent in phase 2 will be
ψ
12
=
) / ln(
2
/ /
2
12 12 2
0
2 2
0
12 12
A I I x dx I x dx I
r
I A
r
π
µ µ
·
1
]
1

¸


π
µ µ
∫ ∫
∞ ∞
...(3.26)
The mut ual Maxwell's coefficient bet ween conduct or s 1 and 2 will be
P
12
= ln (I
12
/A
12
)
In gener al, it is evident t hat t he mut ual Maxwell's coefficient for t he flux linkage of
conduct or i wit h conduct or j (and vice-ver sa) will be wit h i, j = 1, 2, ...n,
P
ij
= ln (I
ij
/A
ij
), i ≠ j. ...(3.27)
H1
I
1
I
2
I3
H2 H3
1
2
3
Ground
A
1
2
I
1
– I1
– I
2
– I
3
I
3
I2
1
2
3
2H1
2H2
2H
3
I12
Ground
36 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Thus, for a syst em of n conduct or s (phases or poles) shown in Fig. 3.8, t he flux-linkage
mat r ix is
[ψ]
n
= n nn n nn
r
I L I P ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [
2
0
·
π
µ µ
...(3.28)
wher e [ψ]
n
= [ψ
1

2
,..., ψ
n
]
t
,
[I
n
] = [I
1
,I
2
,..., I
n
]
t
,
and t he element s of Maxwell's coefficient mat r ix ar e
P
ii
= ln (2H/r
eq
) and P
ji
= P
ij
= ln (I
ij
/A
ij
), i ≠ j ...(3.29)
The diagonal element s of t he induct ance mat r ix [L]
nn
r epr esent t he self-induct ances, and
t he off-diagonal element s t he mut ual-induct ances.
3.4.3 Bundled Conductor Lines: Use of Equivalent Radius, r
eq
In t his sect ion we will show t hat for a bundle conduct or consist ing
of N sub-conduct or s, t he denominat or in t he self Maxwell's
coefficient is t o be t aken as r
eq
of equat ion (3.12). This is done
under t he following basic assumpt ions:
(1) The bundle spacing B bet ween adjacent sub-conduct or s
or t he bundle r adius R is ver y small compar ed t o t he
height H of t he phase conduct or above gr ound. This
allows t he use of 2H as t he dist ance bet ween any sub-
conduct or of t he bundle and t he image of all t he ot her
(N–1) sub-conduct or s below gr ound, as shown in Fig.
3.9. This means t hat
I
11
= I
12
= I
13
= ... = I
1N
= 2H
(2) The t ot al cur r ent car r ied by t he bundle is I and t hat
of each sub-conduct or is i = I/N.
(3) Int er nal flux linkages ar e omit t ed, but can be included
if t he pr oblem war r ant s it .
Consider t he flux linkage of conduct or 1, which is
ψ
1
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

+ +
π
+
π
+
π
µ µ
N
N
R
H
N
R
H
N
R
H
r
H
N
I
r
1 –
sin 2
2
ln
2
sin 2
2
ln
sin 2
2
ln
2
ln
2
0
=
π
π π
π
µ µ
N
N
N N
R r
H
N
I
N
r
1 –
sin
2
sin . sin . ) 2 (
) (2
ln
2 1 –
N
0
=
eq
r
r
H
I
2
ln
2
0
π
µ µ
...(3.30)
wher e r
eq
is pr ecisely what is given in equat ion (3.12). The self-induct ance of t he ent ir e
bundle is
L = ψ
1
/I = ) / ln(2
2
0
eq
r
r H
π
µ µ
...(3.31)
Fi g. 3.9 Calculat ion of equivalent
r adius of bundle.
...
...
2H
N
1
2
3
N'
1'
2'
3'
Ground
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 37
while t he induct ance of each subconduct or will be
L
c
= ψ
1
/i =
) / ln(2
2
0
eq
r
r H N
π
µ µ
...(3.32)
which is also N t imes t he bundle induct ance since all t he sub-conduct or s ar e in par allel.
The Maxwell's coefficient for t he bundle is P
b
= ln (2H/r
eq
), as for a single conduct or wit h
equivalent r adius r
eq
.
Exa mp l e 3.7. The dimensions of a 3-pha se 400-kV hor izont a l line, Fig. 3.10, a r e:
H = 15 m, S = 11 m phase separ at ion, conduct or 2 × 3.18 cm dia, and B = 45.72 cm. Calculat e.
(a) t he mat r ix of induct ances per km, for unt r ansposed configur at ion, and
(b) t he same when t her e is complet e t r ansposit ion.
F i g. 3.10 400-kV line for Example 3.7
Sol u t i on . r
eq
= m B r 0853 . 0 4572 . 0 0159 . 0 . · × ·
P
11
= P
22
= P
33
= ln (2 × 15/0.0853) = 5.863
P
12
= P
21
= P
23
= P
32
= ln
0664 . 1 ) / 4 (
2 2
· + S S H
P
13
= P
31
= ln
525 . 0 ) 2 / 4 4 (
2 2
· + S S H
(a) [L]
ut
= 0.2
ì H/m
mH/km
863 . 5 , 0664 . 1 , 525 . 0
0664 . 1 , 863 . 5 , 0664 . 1
525 . 0 , 0664 . 1 , 863 . 5
1
1
1
]
1

¸

=
mH/km
173 . 1
213 . 0 , 173 . 1
105 . 0 , 213 . 0 , 173 . 1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

(b)For t he complet ely t r ansposed line, since each phase occupies each of t he 3 posit ions
for 1/3 t he dist ance, t he aver age mut ual induct ance will be 0.2 (1.0664 + 1.0664 + 0.525)/3
= 0.177 mH/km.
[L]
t
=
mH/km
173 . 1 , 177 . 0 , 177 . 0
177 . 0 , 173 . 1 , 177 . 0
177 . 0 , 177 . 0 , 173 . 1
, ,
, ,
, ,
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

s m m
m s m
m m s
L L L
L L L
L L L
Not e t hat t he self induct ance of usual e.h.v. lines is in t he neighbour hood of 1 mH/km. We
observed t hat as t he number of sub-conduct ors is increased, t he geomet ric mean radius or equivalent
H = 15m
1 2 3
11 m 11 m
38 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
r adius of bundle incr eases. Since r
eq
divides 2H in t he logar it hm, bundling will r educe t he ser ies
induct ance of a line, which will incr ease t he power -handling capacit y. Table 2.1 in Chapt er 2
shows t his pr oper t y wher e, as t he syst em kV incr ease s, t he need for using mor e sub-conduct or s
is ur gent fr om consider at ions of cur r ent -car r ying capacit y as well as r educing t he volt age gr adient
on conduct or sur face. This also br ings t he benefit of decr ease in ser ies r eact ance and impr ovement
in power -handling capacit y of a single cir cuit . Fig. 3.5 must again be r efer r ed for det ails.
3.5 LINE CAPACITANCE CALCULATION
Consider t wo conduct or s of equal r adii r loca t ed wit h t heir cent r es 2H apar t , as shown in
Fig. 3.11. The char ges on each is Q coulombs/met r e and of opposit e polar it y. On a unit posit ive
t est char ge locat ed at point F at a dist ance x fr om t he cent r e of t he conduct or on t he left wit h
posit ive char ge Q, t he t ot al for ce exer t ed will be
E
f
=
Newt ons
– 2
1 1
2
0

,
_

¸
¸
+
π x H x e
Q
...(3.33)
Fig. 3.11 Single-phase line for capacit ance calculat ion.
(This r esult s fr om Gauss's Law and t he r eader is r efer r ed t o Chapt er 4 if it is not alr eady
known fr om pr evious cour ses devot ed t o Elect r ost at ics.). Consequent ly, t he pot ent ial differ ence
bet ween t he t wo conduct or s is
V =
r
r H
e
Q
dx x H x
e
Q
r H
r
– 2
ln )] – 2 /( 1 / 1 [
2
0
– 2
0
π
· +
π

...(3.34)
If 2H r as is usual in e.h.v. lines, V =
0
e
Q
π
ln (2H/r); By symmet r y, t he mid-plane G–G
will be at 0.5 V and t he p.d. bet ween t he posit ive conduct or and G–G is V
g
= V/2.
Ther efor e
V
g
=
char ge posit ive fr om cond. of Dist .
char ge negat ive fr om cond. of Dist .
ln
2
2
ln
2
0 0
e
Q
r
H
e
Q
π
·
π
...(3.35)
2 r
F'
E'F
E'
F
– Q
Q
2 H
x
G
G
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 39
Since t he fact or ln (2H/r) mult iplies t he char ge coefficient (Q/2πe
0
), which is in volt s, it is
called Mawell's Pot ent ial coefficient . We encount er ed t he same fact or in induct ance calculat ion
also. The mid-plane G–G is an equipot ent ial sur face since t he elect r ic for ce is ever ywher e
per pendicular t o it as can be obser ved fr om t he vect or field int ensit y E
F
' at a point F' , whose
component s along G –G ar e equal and opposit e.
We again obser ve t hat when t he gr ound plane G – G is consider ed an equipot ent ial sur face
for capacit ance calculat ions, it s effect can be consider ed by using an image conduct or wit h a
char ge equal t o t he char ge on t he aer ial conduct or but of opposit e polar it y. Fr om equat ion
(3.35), we wr it e t he self pot ent ial coefficient as
P
ii
= ln (2H/r) ...(3.36)
The mut ual pot ent ial coefficient s bet ween phases ar e det er mined by placing t he conduct or s
and t heir images wit h pr oper char ges as shown in Fig 3.12. Following equat ion (3.35) t he
pot ent ial of conduct or 1 due t o t he char ges Q
2
and – Q
2
of conduct or 2 and it s image will be
V
12
=
12
0
2
12 12
0
2
2
2
0
2
.
2
) / ( ln
2 fr om Dist ance
– fr om Dist ance
ln
2
P
e
Q
A I
e
Q
Q
Q
e
Q
π
·
π
·
+ π
...(3.37)
For a syst em of n conduct or s (phases or poles) above gr ound, t he pot ent ial of conduct or s
will be
r
H
e
Q
A
I
e
Q
A
I
e
Q
V
A
I
e
Q
A
I
e
Q
r
H
e
Q
V
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
2
ln
2
ln
2
ln
2
ln
2
ln
2
2
ln
2
0 2
2
0
2
1
1
0
1
1
1
0 12
12
0
2 1
0
1
1
π
+ +
π
+
π
·
π
+ +
π
+
π
·
In mat r ix for m,
[V]
n
= [P]
nn
[Q/2πe
0
]
n
...(3.38)
Fig. 3.12 Mult i-conduct or line for calculat ion of Maxwell's pot ent ial coefficient s.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . . .
. . . .
1'
2'
3'
A23
A
12
A
13
1
2
3
2H
3
2H
2
2H
1
I12
I
13
I23
40 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
wher e [V]
n
= [V
1
, V
2
, ..., V
n
]
t
= t he pot ent ials wit h r espect t o gr ound, and [Q]
n
= [Q
1
, Q
2
, ...,
Q
n
]
t
= t he conduct or char ges. The element s of t he pot ent ial coefficient mat r ix ar e
P
ii
= ln (2H
i
/r), P
ij
= ln (I
ij
/A
ij
), i ≠ j, i, j = 1, 2, ..., n ...(3.39)
The capacit ance mat r ix of t he n-conduct or syst em
[C ]
nn
= ] [ 2 ] [ 2
0
1 –
0
M e P e
nn
π · π ...(3.40)
We der ived t he induct ance mat r ix for t he n-conduct or syst em t o be, equat ion (3.28)
[L]
nn
=
nn
P] [
2
0
π
µ
...(3.41)
If int er nal flux linkages be neglect ed t her e r esult s t he impor t ant r elat ion
[L][C ] = µ
0
e
0
[U] =
] [
1
2
U
g
...(3.42)
wher e [U] = unit mat r ix, and g = velocit y of light = 3 × 10
5
km/sec.*
Potential Coefficients for Bundled-Conductor Lines
When each phase or pole compr ises of N sub-conduct or s we once again ar r ive at t he concept of
geomet r ic mean r adius or equivalent r adius of bundle r
eq
exact ly in t he same manner as for
induct ance calculat ions. In t he self pot ent ial coefficient , equat ion (3.39), r
eq
will be used inst ead
of r. This is der ived as follows, on t he assumpt ions t hat
(1) t he bundle dimensions B and R ar e small compar ed t o line height H, and
(2) B and R ar e small compar ed t o t he spacing S fr om t he cent r e of one phase t o anot her .
Fig. 3.9 is again r efer r ed fr om which, wit h each conduct or having a char ge q = Q/N per
unit lengt h, t he pot ent ial of conduct or 1 is
V
1
=
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

π
+ +
π
+
π
+
π
N
N
R
H
N
R
H
N
R
H
r
H
N e
Q
1 –
sin 2
2
ln
2
sin 2
2
ln
sin 2
2
ln
2
ln
1
2
0
L
=
0
2 e
Q
π
ln (2H/r
eq
)
Thus, P
ii
= ln (2H/r
eq
). (3.43)
For calculat ing t he mut ual pot ent ial coefficient s we can assume t hat t he t ot al bundle
char ge is concent r at ed at t he cent r e of t he bundle conduct or , or else use t he t wo assumpt ions
above t hat t he bundle dimensions ar e small compar ed t o H and S .
Exa mp l e 3.8. Calculat e t he capacit ance mat r ix of t he 3-phase 400 kV line of Example 3.7.
Sol u t i on . (a) For t he unt r ansposed configur at ion, t he mat r ix of Maxwell's pot ent ial
coefficient s was found t o be
[P]
ut
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

863 . 5 , 0664 . 1 , 525 . 0
0664 . 1 , 863 . 5 , 0664 . 1
525 . 0 , 0664 . 1 , 863 . 5
*In t his book, t he symbol g denot es light velocit y or velocit y of e.m. wave in fr ee space, inst ead of t he
st a nda r d symbol c. This is because c is r eser ved for denot ing capacit ance per unit lengt h.
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 41
It s inver se is
[M]
ut
=
1 –
] [
ut
P =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

176 . 0 , 0298 . 0 – , 0104 . 0 –
0298 . 0 – , 1805 . 0 , 0298 . 0 –
0104 . 0 – , 0298 . 0 – , 176 . 0
The r esult ing capacit ance mat r ix will be
[C ] = 2πe
0
[M] = e Far ad/met r ], [
18
10
9 –
M
[C ]
ut
= nF/km
77 . 9 , 65 . 1 – , 58 . 0 –
65 . 1 – , 02 . 10 , 65 . 1 –
58 . 0 – , 65 . 1 – , 77 . 9
1
1
1
]
1

¸

(b) For t he complet ely t r ansposed line,
[C ] =
nF/km 29 . 1 –
and nF/km 85 . 9
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
·
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

m
s
s m m
m s m
m m s
c
c with
c c c
c c c
c c c
We obser ve t hat t he self capacit ance of e.h.v. lines is in t he neighbour hood of 10 nF/km.
All t he self-capacit ance coefficient s ar e posit ive while t he mut ual capacit ance coefficient s ar e
negat ive. For t he hor izont al configur at ion of phases, t he cent r e-phase has a slight ly higher
self-capacit ance (capacit ance t o gr ound) due t o t he incr ease in number of dielect r ic lines of
for ce t er minat ing on it . The negat ive sign in mut ual-capacit ance follows fr om t he physical
consider at ion t hat a char ge of one polar it y placed on a conduct or induces a char ge of opposit e
polar it y on anot her , i.e., t he t wo conduct or s for m t he posit ive and negat ive elect r odes of a
capacit or .
Bundling incr eases t he capacit ance fr om t hat of a single conduct or having t he same cr oss-
sect ional ar ea because of t he equivalent bundle r adius which depends on t he bundle r adius
which is lar ger t han t he conduct or r adius. We will consider t hese aspect s under volt age-gr adient
calculat ions in a lat er sect ion.
3.6 SEQUENCE INDUCTANCES AND CAPACITANCES
The use of Symmet r ical Component s for analysing 3-phase pr oblems has made it possible t o
solve ver y ext ensive net wor k pr oblems. It depends upon obt aining mut ually-independent
quant it ies fr om t he or iginal phase quant it ies t hat have mut ual int er act ion. Following t his
concept , we will now r esolve t he induct ances, capacit ances, char ges, pot ent ials et c., int o
independent quant it ies by a gener al met hod. This pr ocedur e will be used for many t ypes of
excit at ions ot her t han power -fr equency lat er on. The basis for such t r ansfor mat ions is t o impr ess
suit able dr iving funct ions and obt ain t he r esult ing r esponses.
Inductance Transformation to Sequence Quantities
We obser ved t hat for a fully-t r ansposed 3-phase ac line, t he flux-linkage equat ion is
[ψ]
3
= [L]
33
[I]
3
...(3.44)
42 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
The induct ance mat r ix is symmet r ic for a t r ansposed line for which t he symmet r ical-
component s t heor y will be used. For zer o-sequence, t he cur r ent s in t he 3 phases ar e equal and
in phase so t hat I
1
= I
2
= I
3
= I
0
. The r esult ing flux linkage is.

0
] =
0 0
) 2 (
1
1
1
1
1
1
, ,
, ,
, ,
I L L I
L L L
L L L
L L L
m s
s m m
m s m
m m s
+
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

Consequent ly, t he induct ance offer ed t o zer o-sequence cur r ent s is
L
0
= L
s
+ 2L
m
...(3.45)
When posit ive-sequence cur r ent s ar e impr essed,
I
1
= I
m
sin wt , I
2
= I
m
sin (wt – 120°) and I
3
= I
m
sin (wt + 120°)

1
] =
m
s m m
m s m
m m s
I
wt
wt
wt
L L L
L L L
L L L
1
1
1
]
1

¸

° +
° −
1
1
1
]
1

¸

) 120 ( sin
) 120 ( sin
sin
, ,
, ,
, ,
=
m m s
I L L
wt
wt
wt
) (
) 120 sin(
) 120 sin(
sin

1
1
1
]
1

¸

° +
° −
Hence, t he induct ance offer ed t o posit ive-sequence cur r ent s is
L
1
= L
s
– L
m
...(3.46)
Similar ly, for negat ive-sequence cur r ent s, t he induct ance is also
L
2
= L
s
– L
m
...(3.47)
S equ en ce Ca p a ci t a n ces
In a similar manner , we can evaluat e t he zer o-, posit ive-, and negat ive-sequence capacit ances
by r e-wr it ing equat ion (3.38) as
[Q] = 2πe
0
[P]
–1
[V] = [C][V] ...(3.48)
For zer o-sequene volt ages, [V
0
] = [1, 1, 1] V, and we obt ain
C
0
= C
s
+ 2C
m
...(3.49)
For posit ive-sequence volt ages, [V
+
] = [sin wt , sin (wt – 120°), sin (wt + 120°)] V, and C
1
=
C
s
– C
m
. Similar ly, C
2
= C
s
– C
m
for negat ive-sequence volt ages.
Fr om t he above r esolut ion of phase induct ances int o sequence induct ances, and t he
capacit ances, we can obser ve t he following pr oper t ies which ar e ver y impor t ant for modelling
of t r ansmission lines.
(1) The zer o-sequence induct ance L
0
is higher t han t he self induct ance L
s
, while t he posit ive
and negat ive sequence induct ances ar e lower t han L
s
.
(2) The conver se holds for capacit ances since C
m
is a negat ive quant it y.
C
0
< C
s
and, C
1
and C
2
> C
s
.
(3) Fr om equat ions (3.45) and (3.46), t he self and mut ual induct ances can be found fr om
t he sequence induct ances.
L
s
=
) – (
3
1
and ) 2 (
3
1
1 0 1 0
L L L L L
m
·· +
...(3.50)
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 43
(4) Similar ly, C
s
=
) – (
3
1
and ) 2 (
3
1
1 0 1 0
C C C C C
m
· +
...(3.51)
Fig. 3.13 shows r epr esent at ive models of t r ansmission lines used for syst em st udy on
Net wor k Analyser s or Digit al Comput er s. It is easy t o impr ess zer o-sequence and posit ive-
sequence volt ages and cur r ent s and measur e t he r esponses in a pr act ical t est set up.
Fig. 3.13 Model of t r ansmission lines for TNA st udy and Digit al-Comput er Calculat ion.
The sequence induct ances and capacit ances can be obt ained fr om t he phase quant it ies in
a ver y gener al manner by mat r ix diagonalizat ion pr ocedur e which will be descr ibed in t he next
sect ion. Refer r ing t o t he symmet r ical component t heor y, t he phase quant it ies ar e t r ansfor med
t o symmet r ical component s by t he mat r ix mult iplicat ion
1
1
1
]
1

¸

2
1
0
V
V
V
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

c
b
a
V
V
V
a a
a a
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
3
1
...(3.52)
wher e a = 1 ∠ 120°.
The conver se of combining t he symmet r ical component s is car r ied out t hr ough t he mat r ices
1
1
1
]
1

¸

c
b
a
V
V
V
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

2
1
0
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
V
V
V
a a
a a ...(3.53)
These follow t he or iginal r elat ions for mulat ed by Dr . C.L. For t escue as far back as 1915.
We now denot e
[T ] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

a a
a a T
a a
a a
2
2 1 –
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
3
1
] [ and
1
1
1 1 1
...(3.54)
If now we car r y out t he mult iplicat ions [T ]
–1
[L] [T ] and [T ]
–1
[C] [T ] for a complet ely
t r ansposed line, t he r esult is (mult iply and ver ify)
[T ]
–1
[L] [T ] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

2
2
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
, ,
, ,
, ,
1
1
1 1 1
3
1
a a
a a
L L L
L L L
L L L
a a
a a
s m m
m s m
m m s
Ground
L – L s m
r
Cm
C
s
44 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸
+
m s
m s
m s
L L
L L
L L

, –
, 2
...(3.55)
The diagonal element s ar e t he induct ances for zer o-sequence, posit ive-sequence and
negat ive-sequence net wor ks.
Similar ly,
[T ]
–1
[C ] [T ] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸
+
m s
m s
m s
C C
C C
C C

, –
, 2
...(3.56)
Such a gener al pr ocedur e is ver y convenient for de-coupling mut ually-int er act ing quant it ies
and t hen combining t hem suit ably. For a gener al pr oblem encount er ed wit h e.h.v. t r ansmission
lines, t hey ar e given t he gener ic name 'Modes of Pr opagat ion'.
3.7 LINE PARAMETERS FOR MODES OF PROPAGATION
The sequence par amet er s given in t he pr evious sect ion apply t o st eady-st at e condit ions and
use phasor algebr a. The quant it y a = 1 ∠120° = – 0.5 + j0.866 is a complex number . This is not
always convenient when solving equat ions encount er ed wit h wave pr opagat ion on t he phase or
pole conduct or s which ar e char act er ized by (a) velocit y of pr opagat ion, (b) at t enuat ion, and
(c) sur ge impedance. Following t he ideas pr opounded by Dr . For t escue, t he waves on mult i-
conduct or lines can also be r esolved int o 'modes of pr opagat ion'. The t r ansfor mat ion mat r ix
[ T ] and it s inver se [ T ]
–1
have t o be evaluat ed for a given pr oblem t hr ough st andar d set of r ules
which event ually diagonalize t he given mat r ix of induct ances, capacit ances, r esist ances, sur ge
impedances, and ot her par amet er s which gover n t he pr opagat ion char act er ist ics. For a fully-
t r ansposed line, analyt ical expr essions in closed for m can be obt ained for t he t r ansfor mat ion
mat r ix and it s inver se using r eal number s. But for unt r ansposed lines t he evaluat ion of [ T ] and
[ T ]
–1
can also be car r ied case by case when numer ical values for t he induct ances, et c. ar e
given. These will be discussed in det ail below.
3.7.1 Diagonalization Procedure
The r esolut ion of mut ually-int er act ing component s of volt age, cur r ent , char ge, or ener gy in
waves pr opagat ing on t he mult i-conduct or s depends upon diagonalizat ion of t he n × n impedance
mat r ix. A gener al pr ocedur e is given her e while t heir applicat ion t o Radio Noise, Swit ching
Sur ges, et c, will be discussed in lat er chapt er s when we consider t hese pr oblems individually.
Fir st consider t he diagonalizat ion of t he induct ance mat r ix of a t r ansposed line
[L] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

s m m
m s m
m m s
L L L
L L L
L L L
, ,
, ,
, ,
The following st eps have t o be followed for diagonalizat ion.
S tep 1. We eva lua t e t he 'cha r a ct er ist ic r oot s' or 'eigenva lues' (λ) of t he given mat r ix
accor ding t o t he det er minant al equat ion
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 45
| λ[ U ] – [L]| = 0, which gives
0
– , – ,
– , – , –
– , – , –
·
λ −
λ
λ
s m m
m s m
m m s
L L L
L L L
L L L
...(3.57)
This gives λ
3
– 3L
s
λ
2
+ 0 ) 2 3 – ( – ) – ( 3
3 2 3 2 2
· + λ
m m s s m s
L L L L L L
or , (λ – L
s
– 2L
m
) (λ – L
s
+ L
m
)
2
= 0 ...(3.58)
The t hr ee eigenvalues ar e
λ
1
= L
s
+ 2L
m
, λ
2
= L
s
– L
m
, λ
3
= L
s
– L
m
...(3.59)
S tep 2. For each of t hese eigenvalues in t ur n, we evaluat e t he 'eigenvect or ' [x], which is a
column mat r ix, accor ding t o t he equat ion.
{[ U ] λ
n
– [L]} [x] = [0] ...(3.60)
Consider ing λ
1
= L
s
+ 2L
m
, t her e r esult s t he explicit equat ion

1
[ U ] – [L]}
1
1
1
]
1

¸

3
2
1
x
x
x
= L
m

1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

0
0
0
2 , 1 – , 1 –
1 – , 2 , 1 –
1 – , 1 – , 2
3
2
1
x
x
x
,
which in t ur n yields t he t hr ee equat ions for x
1
, x
2
, x
3
t o be
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
· +
· +
·
0 2 – –
0 – 2 –
0 – – 2
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
x x x
x x x
x x x
...(3.61)
By choosing x
1
= 1, t her e r esult s x
2
= x
3
= x
1
= 1. These cor r esponding eigenvect or is [1, 1,
1]
t
wit h t he nor malized for m [1, 1, 1]
t
(1/√3).
By following a similar pr ocedur e for λ
2
= L
s
– L
m
, t her e r esult s

2
[U] – [L]}
1
1
1
]
1

¸

3
2
1
y
y
y
= – L
m
.
0
0
0
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
3
2
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

y
y
y
The t hr ee equat ions for y
1
, y
2
, y
3
ar e all equal t o y
1
+ y
2
+ y
3
= 0. Once again let t ing y
1
=
1, we have y
2
+ y
3
= – 1. Now we have an infinit e number of choices for t he values of y
2
and y
3
,
and we make a judicial choice for t hem based on pr act ical engineer ing consider at ions and
ut ilit y.
As a fir st choice, let y
2
= 0. Then y
3
= – 1. The r esult ing eigen-vect or and it s nor malized
for m ar e
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

1 –
0
1
2
1
and
1 –
0
1
Since t he t hir d eigenvalue λ
3
is also t he same as λ
2
, we obt ain t he same equat ions for t he
component s of t he eigenvect or which we can designat e as[z
1
, z
2
, z
3
]
t
. By choosing z
1
= 1 and z
3
= 1, we obt ain z
2
= – 2. The t hir d eigenvect or and it s nor malized for m ar e
[1, –2, 1]
t
and (1/√6) [1, – 2, 1]
t
.
46 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
S tep 3. For mulat e t he complet e 3 × 3 eigenvect or mat r ix or in gener al, n × n for t he n
eigenvalues and call it t he inver se of t he t r ansfor mat ion mat r ix [T]
–1
. For t he pr oblem under
consider at ion.
[T ]
–1
=
6 / 1
1 , 2 – , 1
3 – , 0 , 3
2 , 2 , 2

1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

√ √
√ √ √
...(3.62)
S tep 4. The t r ansfor mat ion mat r ix [T] will be
[T ] =
6 / 1
1 , 3 – , 2
2 – , 0 , 2
1 , 3 , 2

1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

√ √

√ √
...(3.63)
which t ur ns out t o be t he t r anspose of [T ]
–1
.Their det er minant is – 6.
S tep 5. The given induct ance mat r ix is diagonalized by t he r elat ion
[T ]
–1
[L] [T ] =
] [

, –
, 2
λ ·
1
1
1
]
1

¸
+
m s
m s
m s
L L
L L
L L
...(3.64)
This is a diagonal mat r ix whose element s ar e equal t o t he t hr ee eigenvalues, which might
be seen t o be t he same as t he sequence induct ances pr esent ed t o t he volt age and cur r ent . But
now t hey will be called t he induct ances for t he t hr ee modes of pr opagat ion of elect r omagnet ic
ener gy of t he waves gener at ing t hem.
3.7.2 Interpretation of the Eigenvectors
We obser ve t hat t he eigenvect or cor r esponding t o t he fir st eigenvalue λ
1
= L
s
+ 2L
m
consist s of
[1, 1, 1], which can be int er pr et ed as follows:
In t he fir st mode of behaviour (or t r avel of all quant it ies on t he t hr ee conduct or s), t he
volt ages, cur r ent s, char ges, and accompanying ener gies ar e all equal on t he t hr ee conduct or s.
Also, t hey ar e all of t he same sign or polar it y. In t his mode of pr opagat ion, t he r et ur n cur r ent
flows in t he gr ound and t he r esult ing at t enuat ion of ener gy et c., ar e high because of gr ound
r esist ance. It is usually called t he 'Line-t o-Gr ound' mode of pr opagat ion or t he 'homopolar '
mode.
The eigenvect or [1, 0, –1] cor r esponds t o t he second eigenvalue λ
2
= L
s
– L
m
. In t his case
t he pr opagat ion can be seen t o t ake place bet ween t he out er phase-conduct or s only, wit h t he
cent r e phase being idle. Also, because t his is a closed syst em, involving t he t wo out er phases,
gr ound is not involved in pr opagat ion so t hat at t enuat ion is lower t han in t he line-t o-gr ound
mode. The second mode is called 'Line-t o-Line Mode of t he 1st kind', or simply 'phase-phase'
mode.
The last eigenvect or is [1, – 2, 1] cor r esponding t o t he r epeat ed eigenvalue λ
3
= λ
2
= L
s

L
m
. We obser ve t hat t hese eigenvect or s have depended upon t he choice made by us for t he
r elat ive values of t he component s of t he eigenvect or in st ep 2 of t he diagonalizat ion pr ocedur e.
Th er e a r e i n fi n i t e s et of s u ch va l u es for t h e ei gen vect or compon en t s , a n d t h e ch oi ce
r ecommended her e is felt t o be t he most convenient fr om t he point of view of int er pr et at ion of
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 47
t he physical mechanism of behaviour of t he sever al quant it ies of int er est in t he wave-pr opagat ion
phenomenon involving t he t hr ee phase-conduct or s and gr ound. The eigenvect or [1, –2, 1] can
be int er pr et ed by not ing t hat t he out er phases for m t he 'go' for t he cur r ent and t he cent r e-
phase t he 'r et ur n'. Once again t he syst em is closed if we assume char ges of + 1 and + 1 on t he
out er s and – 2 on t he cent r e phase. Ther efor e, gr ound is not involved in t he pr opagat ion in t his
mode. It is called t he 'Line-t o-Line Mode of t he 2nd kind', or t he 'int er -phase mode'.
F i g. 3.14 Pict or ial r epr esent at ion of condit ions of modes of pr opagat ion on 3-phase line.
These t hr ee modes can be r epr esent ed pict or ially as shown in Figur e 3.14. Once t he
mut ually-int er act ing quant it ies ar e r esolved int o t he t hr ee independent modes of pr opagat ion,
in a manner ident ical t o symmet r ical-component analysis of which we ar e familiar , t he behaviour
of all quant it ies in each mode can be analyzed and t he phase quant it ies obt ained finally by t he
inver se pr ocedur e. In gener al, r esolut ion int o modes r equir es pr emult iplicat ion by [T]
–1
of t he
volt ages, cur r ent s, and char ges on t he phase conduct or s, while combining t he modal quant it ies
t o obt ain phase quant it ies r equir es pr e-mult iplicat ion of t he modal volt ages, cur r ent s, char ges
and ot her r esponses t o t hese by [T], t he t r ansfor mat ion mat r ix.
The concept of modes of pr opagat ion is ver y useful for :
(a) design of car r ier equipment for speech and pr ot ect ion wher e t he at t enuat ion of signals
and t heir dist or t ion is of pr imar y concer n in det er mining t he t r ansmit t er and r eceiver
power s;
(b) pr opagat ion of swit ching and light ning sur ges on t he lines which cause over -volt ages
and cont r ol t he design of insulat ion clear ances; and
(c) r adio-int er fer ence levels gener at ed by cor ona pulses on t he phase-coduct or s which
pr opagat e on t he conduct or s over a gr ound plane.
In t he above illust r at ion, t he diagonalizat ion pr ocedur e was applied t o t he mat r ix of
induct ances of a t r ansposed line. A similar diagonalizat ion of t he capacit ance mat r ix for t he
fully-t r ansposed line will yield t he same t r ansfor mat ion mat r ices. In t his case, t he r esult ing
eigen-values for bot h induct ance and capacit ance ar e equal t o t he zer o-, posit ive-, and negat ive-
s equ en ce qu a n t i t i es obt a i n ed fr om For t es cu e' s t r a n s for ma t i on u s i n g ph a s or s i n t h e
t r ansfor mat ion mat r ix. Her e, we have used only r eal number s t o effect t he diagonalizat ion
pr ocedur e. The r esult ing [T] a nd [T]
–1
ar e called 'Modified Clar ke Tr ansfor mat ion' mat r ices
aft er t he eminent lady engineer Dr . Edit h Clar ke, who is also known for her γ − β α – or
0 − β − α component s of Machines Theor y.
3.7.3 Velocities of Propagation for the Modes in Transposed Lines
When wor king wit h phase quant it ies, eq. (3.42) gave [L] [C] =
2
1
g
[U] wher e g = velocit y of e.m.
wave pr opagat ion, which is equal t o velocit y of light in a medium wit h µ
r
= 1 and e
r
= 1. [g = 1/
+1 +1 +1 +1 0 –1 +1 –2 +1
Mode 1 Mode 3 Mode 2
48 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
0 0
e µ ]. Now, consider t he effect of pr e-mult iplying equat ion (3.42) by [ T ]
–1
and post -mult iplying
by [T]:
[ T ]
–1
[L] [ C ] [ T ] = {[ T ]
–1
[L] [ T ]}{[T]
–1
[ C ] [ T ]}
= [ T ]
–1
[ U ] [ T ] ] [
1 1
2 2
U
g g
· ...(3.65)
i.e.,
1
1
1
]
1

¸
+
1
1
1
]
1

¸
+
m s
m s
m s
m s
m s
m s
C C
C C
C C
L L
L L
L L

, –
, 2

, –
, 2
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
1
2
g
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
· ·
· · + +
2
1 1
2
0 0
/ 1 ) – )( – (
/ 1 ) 2 )( 2 ( gives This
g C L C C L L and
g C L C C L L
m s m s
m s m s
...(3.66)
This shows t hat t he velocit ies of pr opagat ion of waves in all t hr ee modes ar e equal t o t he
velocit y of light . This is t he case when gr ound-r et ur n induct ance is not t aken int o account .
Usually, in t he fir st or line-t o-gr ound mode (homopolar mode) induct ance of gr ound r et ur n
r educes t he velocit y of pr opagat ion of t hat modal component t o about 2 ~ 2.5 × 10
5
km/s (near ly
70-85% of g) as will be discussed aft er we evaluat e t he gr ound-r et ur n induct ance in Sect ion 3.8.
3.7.4 Untransposed Line: Modes of Propagation
The eigenvalues and eigenvect or s r esult ing in t r ansfor mat ion mat r ix and it s inver se for an
unt r ansposed line must be wor ked out on a case-by-case basis using t he numer ical values of
t he induct ance and capacit ance. No gener al expr essions can be given alt hough t he gener al
pr ogr amme for t he diagonalizat ion is t he same as out lined befor e. Thus, a digit al comput er can
handle any t ype of mat r ix diagonalizat ion. We will illust r at e t he pr ocedur e t hr ough an example.
Exa mp le 3.9. The induct ance and capacit ance mat r ices for t he 400-kV hor izont al line
wer e wor ked out in Examples 3.7 and 3.8. Diagonalize t he capacit ance mat r ix of t he unt r ansposed
line.
Sol u t i on . [C]
ut
= nF/km
77 . 9 , 65 . 1 – , 58 . 0 –
65 . 1 – , 02 . 10 , 65 . 1 –
58 . 0 – , 65 . 1 – , 77 . 9
1
1
1
]
1

¸

S t ep 1. | λ [U] – [C]| =
77 . 9 – , 65 . 1 , 58 . 0
65 . 1 , 02 . 10 – , 65 . 1
58 . 0 , 65 . 1 , 77 . 9 –
λ
λ
λ
= λ
3
– 29.65 λ
2
+ 285.46 λ – 896.67 = 0
The eigenvalues ar e λ
1
= 11.9755, λ
2
= 10.35, λ
3
= 7.2345. Not e t hat t he char act er ist ic
r oot s ar e now dist inct .
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 49
S t ep. 2. {λ
1
[U] – [C]} [x] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

0
0
0
2055 . 2 , 65 . 1 , 58 . 0
65 . 1 , 9555 . 1 , 65 . 1
58 . 0 , 65 . 1 , 2055 . 2
3
2
1
x
x
x
Ther efor e, t aking x
1
= 1, t her e r esult x
2
+ 0.3515 x
3
= – 1.3367
and x
2
+ 0.8438 x
3
= – 0.8438
Thus we obt ain t he component s of t he fir st eigenvect or t o be x
1
= 1, x
2
= – 1.6887, and x
3
= 1.00127 ≈ 1. Lengt h of vect or = 2.2032. The nor malized for m is [0.454, – 0.7665, 0.454].
Similar ly, for λ
2
= 10.35, t her e r esult s t he nor malized eigenvect or [0.7071, 0, – 0.7071], and for
λ
3
= 7.2345 , [0.542, 0.6422, 0.542].
S t ep 3. [T]
–1
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

542 . 0 , 6422 . 0 , 542 . 0
7071 . 0 – , 0 , 7071 . 0
454 . 0 , 7655 . 0 – , 454 . 0
and [T] =
1 –
] [
542 . 0 , 7071 . 0 – , 454 . 0
6422 . 0 , 0 , 7655 . 0 –
542 . 0 , 7071 . 0 , 454 . 0
t
T ·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

S t ep 4. [T]
–1
[C] [T] =
s. eigenvalue of mat r ix t he near ly is which
nF/km,
234 . 7
36 . 10
954 . 11
1
1
1
]
1

¸

Figur e 3.15 shows t he dist r ibut ion of cur r ent s in t he t hr ee modes. We not e t hat in only
one mode gr ound is not involved in t he pr opagat ion.
F i g. 3.15. Dist r ibut ion of cur r ent s in t he t hr ee modes of pr opagat ion of Example 3.9.
Di a gon a l i z a t i on of [L]
ut
We will show t hat t he same t r ansfor mat ion mat r ices obt ained for diagonalizing t he capacit ance
mat r ix of t he unt r ansposed configur at ion will also diagonalize t he induct ance mat r ix when
[L] [C] =
], [
1
2
U
g
i.e. when [L] and [C] ar e calculat ed on t he basis of light -velocit y t heor y.
0.454 0.454 0.542 0.6422 0.542 0.7071 –0.7655 –0.7071 0
Mode 1 Mode 3 Mode 2
Ground
Return
–0.1425 0 1.7262
50 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
We obser ve t hat
{[ T ]
–1
[L] [ T ]} {[ T ]
–1
[ C ] [ T ]} =
] [
1
2
U
g
(3.67)
so t hat [ T ]
–1
[L] [ T ] =
2
1
g
{[ T ]
–1
[ C ] [ T ]}
–1
=
1 –
2
] [
1
λ
g
(3.68)
The t hr ee eigenva lues of [L] ar e
µ
1
= 1/g
2
λ
1

2
= 1/g
2
λ
2
and µ
3
= 1/g
2
λ
3
(3.69)
Exa mp le 3.10. The eigenvalues of t he capacit ance mat r ices ar e 11.954 × 10
–9
F/km, 10.36
× 10
–9
F/km, and 7.234 × 10
–9
F/km.
Ther efor e, t he eigenvalues of t he induct ance mat r ix will t ur n out t o be
µ
1
=
1076
1
10 954 . 11 ) 10 3 (
1
9 – 2 5
·
× × ×
Henr y/km = 0.93 mH/km.
µ
2
= mH/km 0725 . 1
4 . 932
1
10 36 . 10 ) 10 3 (
1
9 – 2 5
· ·
× × ×
and µ
3
=
mH/km 536 . 1
651
1
10 234 . 7 ) 10 3 (
1
9 – 2 5
· ·
× × ×
Exa mp le 3.11. Taking t he induct ance mat r ix [L]
ut
of example 3.7 and t he t r ansfor mat ion
mat r ix [ T ] and it s inver se [ T ]
–1
fr om example 3.9, show t hat [ T ]
–1
[L]
ut
[ T ] is diagonalized and
t he eigenvalues ar e near ly µ
1
, µ
2
, µ
3
obt ained in example 3.10.
Sol u t i on .
1
1
1
]
1

¸

×
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

542 . , 7071 . – , 454 .
6422 . , 0 , 7655 . –
542 . , 7071 . , 454 .
173 . 1 , 213 . , 105 .
213 . , 173 . 1 , 213 .
105 . , 213 . , 173 . 1
542 . , 6422 . , 542 .
7071 . – , 0 , 7071 .
454 . , 7655 . – , 454 .
=
mH/km,
535 . 1 , 0 , 0
0 , 068 . 1 , 0
0 , 0 , 92 . 0
1
1
1
]
1

¸

which check wit h µ
1
, µ
2
, µ
3
. (Calculat ed on hand calculat or )
3.8 RESISTANCE AND INDUCTANCE OF GROUND RETURN
Under balanced oper at ing condit ions of a t r ansmission line, gr ound-r et ur n cur r ent s do not
flow. However , many sit uat ions occur in pr act ice when gr ound cur r ent s have impor t ant effect
on syst em per for ma nce. Some of t hese a r e:
(a) Flow of cur r ent dur ing shor t cir cuit s involving gr ound. These ar e confined t o single
line t o gr ound and double line t o gr ound fault s. Dur ing t hr ee phase t o gr ound fault s
t he syst em is st ill balanced;
(b) Swit ching oper at ions and light ning phenomena;
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 51
(c) Pr opagat ion of waves on conduct or s;
(d) Radio Noise st udies.
The gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance incr eases wit h fr equency of t he cur r ent while t he induct ance
decr eases wit h fr equency par alleling t hat of t he r esist ance and induct ance of a conduct or . In all
cases involving gr ound, t he soil is inhomogeneous and st r at ified in sever al layer s wit h differ ent
values of elect r ical conduct ivit y. In t his sect ion, t he famous for mulas of J .R. Car son (B.S.T.J .
1926) will be given for calculat ion of gr ound r esist ance and induct ance at any fr equency in a
homogeneous single-layer soil. The pr oblem was fir st applied t o t elephone t r ansmission but we
will r est r ict it s use t o apply t o e.h.v. t r ansmission lines.
The conduct ivit y of soils has t he following or der s of magnit ude: 10° mho/met r e for moist
soil, 10
–1
for loose soil, 10
–2
for clay, and 10
–3
for bed r ock.
F i g. 3.16 Geomet r ical par amet er s for calculat ion of gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance and induct ance.
Figur e 3.16 descr ibes t he impor t ant par amet er s involved in t he calculat ion showing t wo
conduct or s i and j above gr ound t oget her wit h t heir images. We t ake
c
s
= soil conduct ivit y in mho/m,
f = fr equency of cur r ent , Hz,
G = 1.7811, Euler 's number , µ
0
= 4π × 10
–7
H/m,
I
ij
= dist ance of conduct or j fr om image of conduct or i, met r e,
θ
ij
= ar c t an [X
ij
/(H
i
+ H
j
)], r adians
The most impor t ant par amet er involved in t he calculat ion is
F
ij
= I
ij
s
fc
0
2πµ
...(3.70)
For usual e.h.v. configur at ions, F
ij
< 1.
[When c.g.s. unit s ar e used, I
ij
is in cm, and c
s
is also in c.g.s. e.m. unit s. To conver t ohm/
m int o c.g.s. unit s, t he mult iplying fact or is 10
-–11
. Then, F
ij
= ] 8
2
s ij
fc I π
Having calculat ed F
ij
, t he gr ound r esist ance and induct ance ar e
R
g
= 8πf J
r
. 10
–4
, ohm/km ...(3.71)
X
ij
Hi
H
i
H
j
H
j
I
ij
J
J'
i
i'
θ
ij
52 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
and L
g
= 4. J
i
.10
–4
, Henr y/km ...(3.72)
wher e J
r
and J
i
ar e calculat ed as follows:
J
r
=
2 1 2 2 4
2 2
1
2
1
5 . 0 ) / 2 ( ln . . 5 . 0
8
) 1 ( W W T F G S S
ij ij
+ − θ + +
π
− ...(3.73)
J
i
= 0.25 + 0.5 (1 – S
4
). ln (2/G F
ij
) – 0.5 θ
ij
T
4

8
π
S
2
+ 4 3 1
5 . 0 – ) (
2
1
W W W +
...(3.74)
Ther e ar e sever al quant it ies above, (S, T, W), which ar e given by Car son by t he following
infinit e ser ies when F
ij
< 1. For most calculat ions, only t wo or t hr ee leading t er ms will be
sufficient as will be shown by an example of a hor izont al 400-kV line.
S
2
= ij
k
ij
k
k
k
k k
F θ +
+ +

+

·
2 ) 1 2 cos(
)! 2 2 ( )! 1 2 (
1
) 2 / .( ) 1 (–
) 1 2 ( 2
0
...(3.75)
T
2
= same as S
2
wit h cosine changed t o sine ...(3.76)
S
4
= ij
k
ij k
k
k
k k
F
θ
+ +

,
_

¸
¸


·
) 4 ( cos
)! 2 ( )! 1 (
1
2
) 1 (–
4
1 –
1
...(3.77)
T
4
= same as S
4
wit h cosine changed t o sine ...(3.78)
W
1
= ij
k
ij
k
k
k
k
F θ



·
) 3 – 4 ( cos
) 1 4 ...( 5 . 3 . 1
1
) 1 (–
2 2 2
) 1 – 4 ( 1 –
1
...(3.79)
W
2
= 1.25 S
2
, W
4
=
3
5
4
S
...(3.80)
W
3
= ij
k
ij
k
k
k
k
F θ
+


·
) 1 – 4 ( cos
) 1 4 ...( 5 3
1
) 1 (–
2 2
) 1 – 4 ( 1 –
1
...(3.81)
The impor t ant and int er est ing pr oper t ies of R
g
and L
g
for a- 3-phase line ar e illust r at ed by
t aking an example of t he hor izont al 400-kV line. These pr oper t ies come out t o be
[R
g
] ≈ R
g
1
1
1
]
1

¸


1
1
1
]
1

¸

1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
] [ and
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
g g
L L ...(3.82)
Exa mp le 3.12. Figur e 3.17 shows all major dimensions of a 400-kV line. Calculat e t he
mat r ices of gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance and induct ance per km at f = 1 kHz for c
s
= ear t h conduct ivit y
= 10
–2
mho/m.
Sol u t i on . The fr equency of 1 kHz is useful for swit ching-sur ge pr opagat ion st udies. The
r equir ed par amet er s ar e:
θ
12
= θ
23
= ar c t an (11/26) = 0.4014 r adian.
θ
13
= ar c t an (22/26) = 0.7025 r adian.
θ
11
= θ
22
= θ
33
= 0. I
12
= 30 m, I
13
= 34 m.
F
ij
: F
11
= 0.234, F
12
= 0.27, F
13
= 0.306
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 53
F i g. 3.17. Dimensions of 400 kV line for example 3.12
Self r esist ances and induct ances: θ
ij
= 0.
S
2
=
00685 . 0
! 4 ! 3
1
2
234 . 0

! 2
1
2
234 . 0
6 2
≈ +
,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
T
2
= 0, W
2
= 1.25 S
2
= 0.00856
S
4
= . negligible is . 0 . negligible ,
6 2
117 . 0
4 4
4
W T ·
×
W
1
=
00028 . 0
5 . 3
234 . 0
, 0043 . 0
3 . 1
234 . 0
2
3
3
2
3
· · · W
Ther efor e
J
r
=
2 2
0086 . 0
00215 . 0 –
234 . 0 7811 . 1
2
ln 00685 . 0 5 . 0
8
+
,
_

¸
¸
×
× × +
π
= 0.4
J
i
= 0.25 + 0.5 × 1.61 –
2
0046 . 0
00685 . 0
8
+ ×
π
= 1.055
Ther efor e
R
ii
= 8π × 10
3
×10
–4
× 0.4 = 1 ohm/km
L
ii
= 4 × 1.055 × 10
–4
= 0.422 mH/km
Mu t u a l bet ween 1 a n d 2 (ou t er a n d i n n er )
Calculat ions yield J
r
= 0.3983 ≈ 0.4 and J
i
= 0.952
Ther efor e R
12
= R
23
= 1 ohm/km, L
12
= L
23
= 0.38 mH/km
13
I
12 I13 I
23
13 θ
12
θ
23
θ
13
1 2 3
11 11
...
54 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Mu t u a l bet ween 1 a n d 3 (ou t er a n d ou t er )
J
r
= 0.3925, J
i
= 0.89, giving R
13
≈ 1 ohm/km a nd
L
13
= 0.356 mH/km.
∴ [R
g
] = ohm/km
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

and
[L
g
] =
mH/km
422 . 0 , 38 . 0 , 356 . 0
38 . 0 , 422 . 0 , 38 . 0
356 . 0 , 38 . 0 , 422 . 0
1
1
1
]
1

¸

The mut ual induct ances ar e quit e close t o an aver age value of
(0.422 × 3 + 0.38 × 4 + 0.356 × 2)/9 = 0.39 mH/km
We see t hat t he r esist ance and induct ance of gr ound r et ur n ar e given appr oximat ely as
[R
g
] = ohm/km 1 wher e ,
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

g g
R R
and [L
g
] = mH/km. 39 . 0 wher e ,
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

g g
L L
We will denot e
[D] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
...(3.83)
Then, [R
g
] = R
g
[D], and [L
g
] = L
g
[D] ...(3.84)
This pr oper t y will be used t hr oughout t he book whenever gr oundr et ur n effect s ar e t o be
consider ed.
Di a gon a l i z a t i on of [D]
It is int er est ing t o obser ve t he pr oper t ies of [D] by diagonalizing it . The 3 eigenvalues come out
t o be λ
1
= 3, λ
2
= λ
3
= 0. One set of [T] and [T]
–1
which will diagonalize [D] t ur n out t o be exact ly
t he same as Clar ke's Modified Tr ansfor mat ion, equat ions (3.62) and (3.63), as can be wor ked
out by t he r eader . Also,
[T]
–1
[D] [T] =
6
1
1 , 3 – , 2
2 – , 0 , 2
1 , 3 , 2
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 2 – , 1
3 – , 0 , 3
2 , 2 , 2
6
1

1
1
1
]
1

¸

√ √

√ √
×
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

√ √
√ √ √
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 55
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

λ
λ
λ
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

3
2
1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 3
...(3.85)
We could have applied t his pr oper t y for diagonalizing t he mat r ices of [L]
t
and [C]
t
of t he
t r ansposed line inst ead of t he lengt hy pr ocedur e in st ep 1 of Sect ion. 3.7 for finding t he t hr ee
eigenvalues or char act er ist ic r oot s. Obser ve t hat
[L]
t
= ] [ ] )[ – (
, ,
, ,
, ,
D L U L L
L L L
L L L
L L L
m m s
s m m
m s m
m m s
+ ·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

...(3.86)
Any t r ansfor mat ion mat r ix which diagonalizes [D] will also diagonalize (L
s
– L
m
) [U] which
is alr eady in diagonalized for m.
Com p l et e Li n e Pa r a m et er s wi t h Gr ou n d R et u r n
We can now combine t he r esist ances, induct ances and capacit ances of t he phase conduct or s
wit h t hose of gr ound r et ur n t o for mulat e t he complet e line-par amet er s for a t r ansposed line.
(a) Resist ance
The conduct or r esist ance mat r ix is [R
c
] = R
c
[ U ]
Gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance mat r ix [R
g
] = R
g
[ D ]
Ther efor e
[R] = [R
c
] + [R
g
] = R
c
[U] + R
g
[D] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

+
+
+
g c g g
g g c g
g g g c
R R R R
R R R R
R R R R
, ,
, ,
, ,
...(3.87)
(b) Induct ance
[L
c
] = ] [ ] [ ) (
, ,
, ,
, ,
D L U L L
L L L
L L L
L L L
m m s
s m m
m s m
m m s
+ − ·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

...(3.88)
[L
g
] = L
g
[D]
∴ [L] = [L
c
] + [L
g
] = (L
s
– L
m
) [U] + (L
g
+ L
m
) [D] ...(389)
(c) Capacitance
[C] = (C
s
– C
m
) [U] + C
m
(D) ...(3.90)
Diagonalizat ion of any of t hese mat r ices is easily car r ied out t hr ough [T] a nd [T]
–1
of
Clar ke's modified t r ansfor mat ion mat r ices.
56 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
[T ]
–1
[R][T ] = R
c
[U] + R
g
1
1
1
]
1

¸
+
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

c
c
g c
R
R
R R 3
0
0
3
...(3.91)
Not e t hat t he gr ound cont r ibut es (3R
g
) t o t he fir st mode or line-t o-gr ound mode of
pr opagat ion. The t er m R
0
= R
c
+ 3R
g
may st ill be called t he zer o-sequence r esist ance.
[T ]
–1
[L] [T ] = (L
s
– L
m
) [U] + (L
g
+ L
m
)
1
1
1
]
1

¸

0
0
3
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸



+ +
m s
m s
g m s
L L
L L
L L L
,
, 3 2
...(3.92)
Compar ing wit h equat ion (3.64) we obser ve t hat gr ound has cont r ibut ed an induct ance of
3L
g
t o t he fir st or line-t o-gr ound mode of pr opagat ion since in t his mode gr ound-r et ur n cur r ent
is equal t o t he sum of t he cur r ent s flowing in t he 3-phase conduct or s above gr ound.
On t he ot her hand, t he gr ound has not cont r ibut ed t o t he line-t o-line modes of pr opagat ion
as t her e is no r et ur n cur r ent in t he gr ound in t hese t wo modes. We also obser ve t hat L
g
+ L
m
= (L
0
– L
1
)/3.
The capacit ance t r ansfor mat ion is
[T ]
–1
[C][T ] = (C
s
– C
m
) [U ] + C
m

1
1
1
]
1

¸



+
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

m s
m s
m s
C C
C C
C C 2
0
0
3
...(3.93)
This is t he same as equat ion (3.64) wit h induct ance r eplaced by capacit ance. Ther efor e,
gr ound has not added any capacit ance t o any of t he t hr ee modes of pr opagat ion.
We can obser ve t he fur t her pr oper t y t hat in t he pr esence of gr ound act ivit y.
[T ]
–1
[L ][C][T ] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

− −
− −
+ + +
) )( (
) )( (
), 2 )( 3 2 (
m s m s
m s m s
m s g m s
C C L L
C C L L
C C L L L
...(3.94)
This clear ly shows t hat t he velocit y of wave pr opagat ion in t he second and t hir d modes,
t he t wo line-t o-line modes, is st ill t he velocit y of light as discussed in Sect ion 3.7.3, equat ion
(3.66). However , t he velocit y of pr opagat ion in t he line-t o-gr ound mode is
v
1
= ) 2 )( 3 2 ( / 1
m s g m s
C C L L L + + + ...(3.95)
Since L
g
is a posit ive quant it y, v
1
< g, t he velocit y of light .
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 57
Exa mp le 3.13. A 400-kV line (Example 3.7) gave t he following induct ance mat r ix
[L]
t
= mH/km
173 . 1 , 177 . 0 , 177 . 0
177 . 0 , 173 . 1 , 177 . 0
177 . 0 , 177 . 0 , 173 . 1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

Ta ke (C
s
+ 2C
m
) = (1/g
2
) (L
s
+ 2L
m
)
–1
and (C
s
– C
m
) (L
s
– L
m
) = 1/g
2
. The gr ound r et ur n
cont r ibut es 0.39 mH/km as calculat ed in Example 3.12. Calculat e t he velocit ies in t he t hr ee
modes.
Sol u t i on . C
s
+ 2C
m
= (1/g
2
)[(1.173 + 2 × 0.177) × 10
–3
]
–1
=
527 . 1
10 1
3
2
g
L
s
+ 2L
m
+ 3L
g
= 2.697 × 10
–3
∴ (L
s
+ 2L
m
+3L
g
) (C
s
+ 2C
m
) = 1.7662/g
2
= (1.329/g)
2
and v
1
= g/1.329 = 0.7524g = 2.2572 × 10
5
km/sec.
The velocit y of pr opagat ion in t he line-t o-gr ound mode is now 75.24% of light velocit y.
Equ i va l en t Ci r cu i t of Li n e Mod el f or Net wor k S t u d i es
Fr om equat ions (3.91) and (3.92), we obt ain t he quant it ies
R
0
= R
c
+ 3R
g
, R
1
= R
c
, L
0
= L
s
+ 2L
m
+ 3L
g
, and L
1
= L
s
– L
m
...(3.96)
Fig. 3.18 Line model wit h gr ound-r et ur n par amet er s included.
The gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance is t hen
R
g
= (R
0
– R
1
)/3 ...(3.97)
and t her e also r esult s
L
g
+ L
m
= (L
0
– L
1
)/3 ...(3.98)
The qua nt it ies R
0
and L
0
ca n be consider ed a s t he zer o-sequence qua nt it ies while R
1
a nd
L
1
a r e posit ive-sequ en ce qu a n t it ies obt a in ed u n der symmet r ica l compon en t con cept of
C C
0

3
1
I
1
I
2
I
3
I
1 2 3
+ I + I
L1 R
1
B
B'
L L –
2
0 1 R – R
3
0 1
C – 2C
3
0 1
A
A'
58 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
For t escue. Using t hese, a line model ca n be const r uct ed simila r t o Figur e 3.13. This is shown
in Figur e 3.18.
The three lines are represented by their positive-sequence quantities R
1
and L
1
. The
gr ound-r et ur n par t const it ut es R
g
and (L
g
+ L
m
) which ar e denot ed as (R
0
– R
1
)/3, and (L
0
– L
1
)
/3 r espect ively. The capacit ance net wor k consist s of a Y-connect ed set equal t o C
s
= (C
0
+ 2C
1
)/
3 and a ∆-connect ed set of C
m
= (C
0
– C
1
)/3. The ∆-connect ed set may be conver t ed t o an
equivalent Y if necessar y each leg having a capacit ance of 3C
m
= (C
0
– C
1
). Such a r epr esent at ion
of a line sect ion has been used for set t ing up miniat ur e models on a Tr ansient Net wor k Analyzer
for swit ching-sur ge st udies and in mat hemat ical models for comput at ion of t r ansient per for mance
of t r ansmission lines using t he Digit al Comput er .
The r eader can pr ove t hat t he volt age dr op fr om A t o A' is
{(R
c
+ R
g
) + s(L
s
+ L
g
)}I
1
(s) + {R
g
+ (L
m
+ L
g
)s}I
2
(s) + {R
g
+ (L
m
+ L
g
)s}I
3
(s) ...(3.99)
This is left as an exer cise at t he end of t he chapt er .
Re vi e w Qu e s t i on s a n d Pr oble ms
1. A Moose conduct or has t he following det ails—Out er dia = 31.8 mm. Ar ea of Al = 515.7
mm
2
. Calculat e t he r esist ance of 1 km of a double-Moose bundled conduct or at 50°C
given t hat ρ
a
= 2.7 × 10
–8
ohm-m at 20°C and t emper at ur e r esist ance coefficient of A1
= 4.46 × 10
–3
/°C. (Incr ease lengt h by 5% for st r anding.)
2. The closest conduct or t o Moose of Nor t h-Amer ican manufact ur e is Bluejay wit h ar ea
= 1.113 × 10
6
cir -mil, out er dia = 1.259". It s r esist ance is list ed in t ables of conduct or s
as 0.0166 ohm/1000 feet at 20°C for dc and 0.0941 ohm/mile at 50°C and 50/60 Hz.
(a) Ver ify t hese values.
(b) Find % incr ease due t o skin effect .
3. A 750 kV line has t he det ails given below. Calculat e t he t emper at ur e r ise of t he
conduct or under given condit ions. Conduct or –4 × 0.03 m ACSR (ar ea = 954,000 cir -
mils). Power car r ied 2000 MW. ρ
a
= 2.7 × 10
–8
ohm-m at 20°C, α = 0.0045 ohm/°C,
ambient t
a
= 45°C, e = 0.5, p = 1, v = 1.2 m/s, solar ir r adiat ion 1 kW/m
2
, s
a
= 0.8.
4. A 3-phase 750 kV hor izont al line has minimum height of 12 m, sag at midspan = 12 m.
Phase spacing S = 15 m. Conduct or s a r e 4 × 0.035 m wit h bundle spa cing of
B = 0.4572 m. Calculat e per kilomet r e:
(a) The mat r ix of Maxwell's Pot ent ial coefficient s for an unt r ansposed configur at ion.
(b) The induct a nce a nd ca pa cit a nce ma t r ices for unt r a nsposed a nd t r a nsposed
configur at ions.
(c) The zer o-, posit ive-, and negat ive-sequence induct ances and capacit ances for
t r ansposed line.
(d) The gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance and induct ance mat r ices at 750 Hz t aking ρ
s
= 100
ohm-met r e.
For calculat ion t ake H
av
= H
min
+ Sag/3.
Calculation of Line and Ground Parameters 59
5. Repeat pr oblem 3.4 for a 1150-kV delt a configur at ion of t he 3-phases wit h aver age
height of 18 m for t he lower conduct or s, 36 m for t he t op conduct or , and spacing of 24
m bet ween bot t om conduct or s. Bundle r adius = 0.6 m and conduct or size = 6 × 0.046
m diamet er . f = 1000 Hz and ρ
s
= 50 ohm-met r e.
6. Diagonalize t he mat r ix
[D] =
.
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

Give eigenvalues and eigen-vect or mat r ices.
7. Discuss t he convenience offer ed by using modes of pr opagat ion and possible uses of
t his t echnique.
8. The capacit ance mat r ix of a 750-kV hor izont al configur at ion line is
[C] =
nF/km
20 . 10 45 . 1 – 35 . 0 –
45 . 1 – 45 . 10 , 45 . 1 –
35 . 0 – 45 . 1 – , 20 . 10
1
1
1
]
1

¸

(a) Find t he 3 eigenvalues of t he mat r ix, (λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
).
(b) Diagonalize t he mat r ix by evaluat ing suit able t r ansfor mat ion mat r ix [T] and it s
inver se [T ]
–1
.
(c) Then pr ove t hat
[T ]
–1
[C] [T ] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

λ
λ
λ
3
2
1
9. I n pr oblems 3.4 a nd 3.5 ca lcula t e t he cha r ging cur r ent supplied. Assume full
t r ansposit ion and place all t he capacit ance at t he line ent r ance acr oss t he sour ce. L =
400 km.
10. In Fig. 3.18 show t hat t he volt age dr op fr om A t o B and B' t o A add t o
{(R
c
+ R
g
) + s(L
s
+ L
g
)}I
1
+ (R
g
+ sL
m
+ sL
g
) I
2
+ (R
g
+ sL
m
+ sL
g
) I
3
.
wher e s = t he Laplace-Tr ansfor m oper at or .
11. (a) Using t he t r ansfor mat ion mat r ices for diagonalizing t he mat r ix [D], pr ove wit hout
mult iplying, t hat t he same t r ansfor mat ion mat r ices will diagonalize t he induct ance
or capacit ance mat r ices of a fully-t r ansposed line of t he t ype.
[L] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

s m m
m s m
m m s
L L L
L L L
L L L
60 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(b) If λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
ar e t he eigenvalues of mat r ix [C] and given t hat [L ][C] = [U]/g
2
, pr ove
t ha t t he eigenva lues of [L] will be µ
1
= 1/g
2
λ
1
, µ
2
= 1/g
2
λ
2
and µ
3
= 1/g
2
λ
3
. In
gener al, pr ove t hat if λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
ar e eigenvalues of a mat r ix [M], t hen t he eigenvalues
of it s inver se ar e t he r ecipr ocals of λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
.
12. The following t r ansfor mat ion mat r ix is at t r ibut ed t o Kar r enbauer .
[ T ] =
r s eigenvect o t hr ee t he having
2 – , 1 , 1
1 , 2 – , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

.
2 –
1
1
,
1
2 –
1
,
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

(a) Calculat e [ T ]
–1
.
(b) Nor malize [ T ] and [ T ]
–1
.
(c) Pr ove t hat [ T ]
–1
[L]
t
[ T ] give a diagonal mat r ix for t he induct ance of a fully-
t r ansposed line. Det er mine t he eigenvalues of [L]
t
.
(d) Check t hat [ T ]
–1
[C]
t
[ T ] is also diagonal wher e [L]
t
[ C ]
t
= [ U ]/g
2
.
(e) Int er pr et t he eigenvect or s of t he Kar r enbauer t r ansfor mat ion mat r ix.
( f ) Is t his t ype of t r ansfor mat ion unit ar y?
4.1 ELECTROSTATICS
Conduct or s used for e.h.v. t r ansmission lines ar e t hin long cylinder s which ar e known as 'line
char ges'. Their char ge is descr ibed in coulombs/unit lengt h which was used for evaluat ing t he
capacit ance mat r ix of a mult iconduct or line in Chapt er 3. The pr oblems cr eat ed by char ges on
t he conduct or s manifest t hemselves as high elect r ost at ic field in t he line vicinit y fr om power
fr equency t o TV fr equencies t hr ough audio fr equency, car r ier fr equency and r adio fr equency
(PF, AF, CF, TVF). The at t enuat ion of t r avelling waves is also gover ned in some measur e by
t he incr ease in capacit ance due t o cor ona dischar ges which sur r ound t he space near t he
conduct or wit h char ges. When t he macr oscopic pr oper t ies of t he elect r ic field ar e st udied, t he
conduct or char ge is assumed t o be concent r at ed at it s cent r e, even t hough t he char ge is
dist r ibut ed on t he sur face. In cer t ain pr oblems wher e pr oximit y of sever al conduct or s affect s
t he field dist r ibut ion, or wher e conduct ing sur faces have t o be for ced t o become equipot ent ial
sur faces (in t wo dimensions) in t he field of sever al char ges it is impor t ant t o r eplace t he given
set of char ges on t he conduct or s wit h an infinit e set of char ges. This met hod is known as t he
Met hod of Successive Images. In addit ion t o t he elect r ic-field pr oper t ies of long cylinder s, t her e
ar e ot her t ypes of impor t ant elect r ode configur at ions useful for ext r a high volt age pr act ice in
t he field and in labor at or ies. Examples of t his t ype ar e spher e-plane gaps, spher e-t o-spher e
gaps, point -t o-plane gaps, r od-t o-plane gaps, r od-r od gaps, conduct or -t o-t ower gaps, conduct or -
t o-conduct or gap above a gr ound plane, et c. Some of t hese t ypes of gaps will also be dealt wit h
in t his chapt er which may be used for e.h.v. measur ement , pr ot ect ion, and ot her funct ions.
The coaxial-cylindr ical elect r ode will also be discussed in gr eat det ail because of it s impor t ance
in cor ona st udies wher e t he bundle of N sub-conduct or s is st r ung inside a 'cage' t o simulat e t he
sur face volt age gr adient on t he conduct or s in a set up which is smaller in dimensions t han an
act ual out door t r ansmission line.
4.1.1 Field of a Point Charge and Its Properties
The pr oper t ies of elect r ic field of almost all elect r ode geomet r ies will ult imat ely depend on t hat
of a point char ge. The laws gover ning t he behaviour of t his field will for m t he basis for ext ending
t hem t o ot her geomet r ies. Consider Figur e 4.1 which shows t he sour ce point S
1
wher e a point
char ge + Q coulombs is locat ed. A second point char ge q coulomb is locat ed at S
2
at a dist ance
r met r e fr om S
1
. Fr om Coulomb's Law, t he for ce act ing on eit her char ge is
4
Vol t a ge Gra d i en t s of Con d u ct ors
62 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
F =
2
0
4 / . r e e q Q
r
π , Newt on ...(4.1)
1 2
0 0
) ( [

µ · g e = m F m F / 84194 . 8 / 36 / 1000 µµ · µµ π
r
e = r elat ive per mit t ivit y of t he medium = 1 in air ]
Fi g. 4.1 Point cha r ge Q and for ce on t est char ge q.
Wher e q is ver y small ) 0 ( → q , we define t he elect r ic field pr oduced by Q at t he locat ion of q as
E =
2
0
0
4 / ) / ( r e e Q q F Lim
r
q
π ·

, Newt on/Coulomb ...(4.2)
The condit ion 0 → q is necessar y in or der t hat q might not dist ur b t he elect r ic field of Q.
Equat ion (4.2) may be r e-wr it t en as
) )( 4 (
0
2
E e e r
r
π =
Q D r · π
2
4
...(4.3)
Her e we not e t hat
2
4 r π = sur face ar e of a spher e of r adius r dr awn wit h cent r e at S
1
. The
quant it y D = E e e
r 0
is t he dielect r ic flux densit y. Thus, we obt ain Gauss's Law which st at es
t hat 't he sur face int egr al of t he nor mal component of dielect r ic flux densit y over a closed
sur face equals t he t ot al char ge in t he volume enclosed by t he sur face'. This is a gener al r elat ion
and is valid for all t ypes of elect r ode geomet r ies.
Some impor t ant pr oper t ies of t he field of a point char ge can be not ed:
(a) The elect r ic field int ensit y decr eases r apidly wit h dist ance fr om t he point char ge
inver sely as t he squar e of t he dist ance,
) / 1 (
2
r Q ∝
.
(b) E is inver sely pr opor t ional t o ) / 1 .(
r r
e E e ∝ .
(c) The pot ent ial of any point in t he field of t he point char ge Q, defined as t he wor k done
against t he for ce field of Q in br inging q fr om ∞ t o S
2,
is
ψ

=
∫ ∫
∞ ∞
π
· −
π
· −
r r
r r
r e e
Q
r
dr
e e
Q
Edr
1
4 4
0
2
0
, volt ...(4.4)
(d ) The pot ent ial differ ence bet ween t wo point s at dist ances r
1
and r
2
fr om S
1
will be
ψ
12
=

,
_

¸
¸

π
2 1 0
1 1
4 r r e e
Q
r
, volt ...(4.5)
For a posit ive point char ge, point s closer t o t he char ge will be at a higher posit ive
pot ent ial t han a fur t her point .
(e) The capacit ance of an isolat ed spher e is
C = , 4 /
0
r e e Q
r
π · ψ Far ad ...(4.6)
r
S1
S
2
F1
q
Q
F
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 63
This is based on t he assumpt ion t hat t he negat ive char ge of – Q is at infinit y.
These pr oper t ies and concept s can be ext ended in a st r aight for war d manner t o apply t o
t he field of a line char ge and ot her elect r ode configur at ions.
Exa mp le 4.1. A point char ge Q = 10
–6
coulomb (1 µC) is kept on t he sur face of a conduct ing
spher e of r adius r = 1 cm, which can be consider ed as a point char ge locat ed at t he cent r e of t he
spher e. Calculat e t he field st r engt h and pot ent ial at a dist ance of 0.5 cm fr om t he sur face of t he
spher e. Also find t he capacit ance of t he spher e, 1 · ε
r
.
Sol u t i on . The dist ance of S
2
fr om t he cent r e of t he spher e S
1
is 1.5 cm.
E =
1
]
1

¸

× × ×
π
× π
− − − 4 2 12 6
10 5 . 1 10
36
1000
4 10
= 10
–6
/(0.25 × 10
–13
)
= 40 × 10
6
V/m = 40 MV/m = 400 kV/cm
ψ
= E.r = 600 kV [using equat ions 4.2 and 4.4]
C = F r e e
r
µµ · π 111 . 1 4
0
wit h r = 0.01.
Exa mp le 4.2. The field st r engt h on t he sur face of a spher e of 1 cm r adius is equal t o t he
cor ona-incept ion gr adient in air of 30 kV/cm. Find t he char ge on t he spher e.
Sol u t i on . 30 kV/cm = 3000 kV/m = 3 × 10
6
V/m.
3 × 10
6
=
1
]
1

¸

× ×
π
× π
− − 4 12
0
10 10
36
1000
4 Q
= 9 × 10
13
Q
0
giving Q
0
= 3.33 × 10
–8
coulomb = 0.033 µC.
The pot ent ial of t he spher e is
V = 3 × 10
6
× 10
–2
= 30 kV.
4.2 FIELD OF SPHERE GAP
A spher e-spher e gap is used in h.v. labor at or ies for measur ement of ext r a high volt ages and for
calibr at ing ot her measur ing appar at us. If t he gap spacing is less t han t he spher e r adius, t he
field is quit e well det er mined and t he spher e-gap br eaks down consist ent ly at t he same volt age
wit h a disper sion not exceeding ±3%. This is t he accur acy of such a measur ing gap, if ot her
pr ecaut ions ar e t aken suit ably such as no collect ion of dust or pr oximit y of ot her gr ounded
object s close by. The spher e-gap pr oblem also illust r at es t he met hod of successive images used
in elect r ost at ics.
Figur e 4.2 shows t wo spher es of r adii R separ at ed by a cent r e-cent r e dist ance of S , wit h
one spher e at zer o pot ent ial (usually gr ounded) and t he ot her held at a pot ent ial V. Since bot h
spher es ar e met allic, t heir sur faces ar e equipot ent ials. In or der t o achieve t his, it r equir es a
set of infinit e number of char ges, posit ive inside t he left spher e at pot ent ial V and negat ive
inside t he r ight which is held at zer o pot ent ial. The magnit ude and posit ion of t hese char ges
will be det er mined fr om which t he volt age gr adient r esult ing on t he sur faces of t he spher e on
a line joining t he cent r es can be det er mined. If t his exceeds t he cr it ical disr upt ive volt age, a
spar k br eak-down will occur . The volt age r equir ed is t he br eakdown volt age.
64 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Fi g. 4.2 The spher e gap.
Consider t wo point char ges Q
1
and Q
2
locat ed wit h a separ at ion D, Figur e 4.3. At a point
P(x, y) wit h coor dinat es measur ed fr om Q
1
, t he pot ent ials ar e as follows:
Pot ent ial at P due t o Q
1
=
2 2
1
1 0
1
wit h
1
4
y x r
r e
Q
+ ·
π
Pot ent ial at P due t o Q
2
=
2 2
2
2 0
2
) ( wit h
1
4
y x D r
r e
Q
+ − ·
π
Fi g. 4.3 Point cha r ge Q
1
and spher e of r adius R.
The t ot al pot ent ial at P is V
P
=
) / / (
4
1
2 2 1 1
0
r Q r Q
e
+
π
.
If t his is t o be zer o, t hen Q
2
/Q
1
= – r
2
/r
1
... (4.7)
This clear ly shows t hat Q
1
and Q
2
must be of opposit e polar it y.
Fr om (4.7),
2
1
2
2
/r r =
, /
) (
2
1
2
2
2 2
2 2
Q Q
y x
y x D
·
+
+ −
giving
2
2
2
1 2
) / ( 1
y
Q Q
D
x +
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹


=
2 2
1 2
2
1 2
2
} ) / ( 1 /{ ) / ( Q Q Q Q D − ...(4.8)
This is an equat ion t o a cir cle in t he t wo-dimensional plane and is a spher e in t hr ee-
dimensional space.
R = } ) / ( 1 /{ ) / (
2
1 2 1 2
Q Q Q Q D − ...(4.9)
This r equir es Q
2
t o be less t han Q
1
if t he denominat or is t o be posit ive. The cent r e of t he
zer o-pot ent ial sur face is locat ed at (S
1
, 0), wher e
S
1
= R
Q
Q
Q Q D
2
1 2
1 2
} ) / ( 1 /{ · − ...(4.10)
V V
1
= V
2
= 0
R R
S
V = O
R
Q
2
D
S1
Q1
P x, y ( )
S
2
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 65
This makes S
2
=
R
Q
Q
Q Q
Q Q D
D S
1
2
2
1 2
2
1 2
1
) / ( 1
) / (
·

· −
...(4.11)
Ther efor e, t he magnit ude of Q
2
in r elat ion t o Q
1
is
Q
2
=
1
1
2
1
S
R
Q
R
S
Q · ...(4.12)
Also, S
1
S
2
= R
2
...(4.13)
These r elat ions give t he following impor t ant pr oper t y:
'Given a posit ive char ge Q
1
and a spher e of r adius R, wit h Q
1
locat ed ext er nal t o t he
spher e, whose cent r e is at a dist ance S
1
fr om Q
1
, t he spher e can be made t o have a zer o
pot ent ial on it s sur face if a char ge of opposit e polar it y and magnit ude Q
2
= (Q
1
R/S
1
) is placed at
a dist ance S
2
= R
2
/ S
1
fr om t he cent r e of t he given spher e t owar ds Q
1
.'
Exa mp le 4.3. A char ge of 10 µC is placed at a dist ance of 2 met r es fr om t he cent r e of a
spher e of r adius 0.5 met r e (1-met r e diamet er spher e). Calculat e t he magnit ude, polar it y, and
locat ion of a point char ge Q
2
which will make t he spher e at zer o pot ent ial.
Sol u t i on . R = 0.5, S
1
= 2 ∴ S
2
= R
2
/S
1
= 0.125 m
Q
2
= C S R Q µ · × · 5 . 2 2 / 5 . 0 10 /
1 1
The cha r ge Q
2
is of opposit e sign t o Q
1
. Figur e 4.4 shows t he spher e, Q
1
and Q
2
.
Exa mp le 4.4. An isolat ed spher e in air has a pot ent ial V and r adius R. Calculat e t he
char ge t o be placed at it s cent r e t o make t he sur face of t he spher e an equipot ent ial.
Sol u t i on . Fr om equat ion (4.4), Q = VR e
0
4π .
S
2
= 0.125 m = R
2
/S
Q
2
= – 2.5 µc = Q
1
R/S
Fi g. 4.4 Locat ion of image char ge Q
2
inside spher e t o make spher e pot ent ial zer o.
We now ar e in a posit ion t o analyze t he syst em of char ges r equir ed t o make one spher e at
pot ent ial V and a second spher e at zer o pot ent ial as is t he case in a spher e-spher e gap wit h one
spher e gr ounded. Figur e 4.5 shows t he t wo spher es separ at ed by t he cent r e-cent r e dist ance S .
The spher e 1 at left has pot ent ial V and t hat at r ight zer o pot ent ial. Bot h spher es have equal
r adii R.
In or der t o hold spher e 1 at pot ent ial V, a char ge Q
1
= VR e
0
4π must be placed at it s
cent r e. In t he field of t his char ge, spher e 2 at r ight can be made a zer o pot ent ial sur face if an
ima ge ch a r ge Q
2
is pla ced in side t h is sph er e. Fr om t h e discu ssion pr esen t ed ea r lier ,
θ µ = 10 C
1 Q
2
R
0.5 m
0.125 m
S
2 m
66 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Q
2
= – Q
1
R/S and S
2
= R
2
/S , as shown in Figur e 4.5. However , locat ing Q
2
will dist ur b t he
pot ent ial of spher e 1. In or der t o keep t he pot ent ial of spher e 1 undist ur bed, we must locat e an
image char ge ) /(
2 2 1
S S R Q Q
'
− − · inside spher e 1 so t hat in t he field of Q
2
and
'
Q
1
t he pot ent ial
of spher e 1 is zer o leaving it s pot ent ial equal t o V due t o Q
1
. The cha r ge
'
Q
1
is locat ed at
) /(
2
2
1
S S R S
'
− · fr om Q
1
(cent r e of spher e 1). It is now easy t o see t hat t he pr esence of
'
Q
1
will
dist ur b t he pot ent ial of spher e 2. An image char ge ) /(
1 1 2
' ' '
S S R Q Q − − · is called for inside
spher e 2 locat ed at ) /(
1
2
2
' '
S S R S − · fr om t he cent r e of spher e 2.
Fi g. 4.5. Locat ion of successive image char ges t o maint ain spher es at pot ent ials V and zer o.
Successive image char ges will have t o be suit ably locat ed inside bot h spher es.
The sequence of char ges and t heir locat ions can be t r acked in a t abular for m.
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
− ·
− · − · ·
− − ·
− − · − − · − ·
− · − · − ·
− − ·
− − · − − · π ·
. et c ) /(
), /( ), /( , /
2) spher e of cent r e (Fr om
. et c ), /(
), /( ), /( , / Q
et c. ), /( ), /( ), /(
1) spher e of cent r e (Fr om
. et c ), /(
). /( ), /( , 4
1
2
2
1
2
2 1
2
2
2
2
1 1 2
1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2
2
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1
2 2 1
2 2 1 2 2 1 0 1
"' "'
" " ' '
"' "' "'
" " " ' ' '
" "' ' " '
" " "'
' ' " '
S S R S
S S R S S S R S S R S
S S R Q Q
S S R Q Q S S R Q Q S R Q
S S R S S S R S S S R S
S S R Q Q
S S R Q Q S S R Q Q VR e Q
...(4.14)
Exa mp le 4.5. A spher e gap consist s of t wo spher es wit h R = 0.25 m each. The gap bet ween
t heir sur faces is 0.5 m. Calculat e t he char ges and t heir locat ions t o make t he pot ent ials 1 and 0.
Sol u t i on . The dist ance S bet ween cent r es of t he spher es = 1 m.
R
2
/S = 0.25
2
/1 = 0.0625 m
V = V
1
V = 0
2
R R
S ' 1
S "
1
Q1Q ' Q" 1 1
Q "' 1
Q'"
2
Q'
2
Q
2
Q"
2
S2
S'
2
S"
2
S
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 67
Charges inside sphere 1 Charges inside sphere 2
V = 1 V = 0
Magnitude Dist ance from Magnitude Dist ance from
cent re of cent re of
sphere 1 sphere 2
Q
1
=
0
e π S
1
= 0 Q
2
= – 0.25 Q
1
S
2
= 0.0625 m
'
Q
1
=
0625 . 1
25 . 0
1
2

Q
'
S
1
=
0625 . 1
25 . 0
2

'
Q
2
=
067 . 1
25 . 0 0667 .
1

× − Q
'
S
2
=
0667 . 1
25 . 0
2

= .0667Q
1
= 0.06667 = – 0.01786Q
1
= 0.067
"
Q
1
=
067 . 1
25 . 0 01786 . 0
1

× Q
"
S
1
=
067 . 1
25 . 0
2

"
Q
2
=
067 . 1
25 . 0 0487 . 0
1

× − Q
"
S
2
= 0.067
= 0.00478Q
1
= 0.067 = – 0.00128Q
1
"'
Q
1
= 0.000344Q
1
"'
S
1
= 0.067.
Not e t hat fur t her calculat ions will yield ext r emely small values for t he image char ges.
Fur t her mor e, t hey ar e all locat ed almost at t he same point s. The char ges r educe successively
in t he r at io 0.25/0.933 = 0.268; i.e.
n n n n
Q Q Q Q
2
1
1 1 2
268 . 0 and 268 . 0 − · − ·
+
. The elect r ic field at
any point X along t he line joining t he cent r es of t he t wo spher es is now found fr om t he expr ession
E =
+
− π
+
− π
+
π
2
1
0
1
2
1
0
1
2
0
1
) (
1
4 ) (
1
4
1
4
"
"
'
'
S X e
Q
S X e
Q
X e
Q
...
) (
1
4 ) (
1
4 ) (
1
4
2
2 0
2
2
2 0
2
2
2 0
2
"
"
'
'
S X S e
Q
S X S e
Q
S X S e
Q
− − π

− − π

− − π

...(4.15)
Since
" '
Q Q Q
2 2 2
, , et c., ar e opposit e in polar it y t o
" '
Q Q Q
1 1 1
, , et c., t he for ce on a unit t est
char ge placed at X will be in t he same dir ect ion due t o all char ges. The most impor t ant value of
X is X = R on t he sur face of spher e 1. If t he value of E at X = R exceeds t he cr it ical gr adient for
br eakdown of air (usually 30 kV/cm peak at an air densit y fact or 1 · δ ), t he gap br eakdown
commences.
Exa mp l e 4.6. Ca lcula t e t he volt a ge gr a dient a t X = 0.25 m for t he spher e ga p in
Exa mple 4.5.
Sol u t i on . S = 1 m, X = R = 0.25 m, S – X = 0.75 m
E = 1
]
1

¸

+

+

+
π
...
) 067 . 0 25 . 0 (
00478 . 0
) 067 . 0 25 . 0 (
0667 . 0
25 . 0
1
4
2 2 2
0
1
e
Q
1
]
1

¸

+

+

+
− π
+ ...
) 067 . 0 75 . 0 (
00128 . 0
) 067 . 0 75 . 0 (
01786 . 0
) 065 . 0 75 . 0 (
25 . 0
4
2 2 2
0
1
e
Q
= 0 1
0
1
0
1
wit h ,
4
693 . 18 ] 573 . 0 12 . 18 [
4
e Q
e
Q
e
Q
π ·
π
· +
π
= 4.673 V/m per volt
The cont r ibut ion of char ges inside t he gr ounded spher e amount t o
100
693 . 18
573 . 0
× = 3.06%
68 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Exa mp le 4.7. In t he pr evious example calculat e t he pot ent ial differ ence bet ween t he
spher es for E = 30 kV/cm = 3000 kV/m, peak.
Sol u t i on . V = 3000/4.673 kV = 642 kV
Thus, t he 0.5 met r e diamet er spher es wit h a gap spacing of 0.5 met r e exper ience disr upt ion
at 642 kV, peak. The br eakdown volt age is much higher t han t his value.
Sphere-Plane Gap
When a spher e of r adius R and pot ent ial V is placed above a gr ound plane at zer o pot ent ial, t he
pr oblem is similar t o t he spher e-t o-spher e gap pr oblem. It is clear t hat in or der t o place zer o
pot ent ial on t he plane, an image spher e wit h pot ent ial – V is necessar y. The pr oblem is fir st
solved wit h t he given spher e at + V and t he image spher e at 0 pot ent ial, t hen keeping t he
image spher e at – V and t he given spher e at 0 pot ent ial. The syst em of char ges r equir ed will
now be t he same as wit h t he spher e-t o-spher e gap but t he t ot al char ge inside t he given spher e
and it s image ar e equal and amount t o t he sum of t he char ges ... , , , , ,
2 2 2 1 1 1
" ' " '
Q Q Q Q Q Q wit h all
char ges having t he same sign. Their locat ions ar e also t he same as befor e. Char ges inside t he
given spher e have posit ive polar it y and t hose inside t he image spher e ar e negat ive.
4.3 FIELD OF LINE CHARGES AND THEIR PROPERTIES
Figur e 4.6 shows a line char ge of q coulomb/met r e and we will calculat e t he elect r ic field
st r engt h, pot ent ial, et c., in t he vicinit y of t he conduct or . Fir st , enclose t he line char ge by a
Gaussian cylinder , a cylinder of r adius r and lengt h 1 met r e. On t he flat sur faces t he field will
not have an out war d nor mal component since for an element of char ge dq locat ed at S , t her e
can be found a cor r esponding char ge locat ed at S ' whose fields (for ce exer t ed on a posit ive t est
char ge) on t he flat sur face F will yield only a r adial component . The component s par allel t o t he
line char ge will cancel each ot her out . Then, by Gauss's Law, if E
p
= field st r engt h nor mal t o
t he cur ved sur face at dist ance r fr om t he conduct or ,
) )( 2 (
0 p r
E e e r π = q ...(4.16)
Fi g. 4.6 Line char ge wit h Gaussian cylinder .
The field st r engt h at a dist ance r fr om t he conduct or is
E
p
= ), / 1 )( 2 / (
0
r e e q
r
π Volt s/met r e ...(4.17)
This is called t he (1/r)-field as compar ed t o t he (1/r
2
)-field of a point char ge.
1 m
Gaussian
cylinder
Line charge
q. c/m
S S' q,e,e
r 0
r
P
F
F'
EP
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 69
Let a r efer ence dist ance r
0
be chosen in t he field. Then t he pot ent ial differ ence bet ween
any point at dist ance r and t he r efer ence is t he wor k done on a unit t est char ge fr om r
0
t o r.
Thus, V
r
=


π
· ρ
ρ

π
r
r
r r
r r
e e
q
d
e e
q
0
) ln (ln
2
1
2
0
0 0
...(4.18)
In t he case of a line char ge, t he pot ent ial of a point in t he field wit h r espect t o infinit y
cannot be defined as was done for a point char ge because of logar it hmic t er m. However , we can
find t he p.d. bet ween t wo point s at dist ances r
1
and r
2
, since
(p.d. bet ween r
1
and r
2
) = (p.d. bet ween r
1
and r
0
) – (p.d. bet ween r
2
and r
0
)
i.e. V
12
=
1
2
0
1 2
0
ln
2
) ln (ln
2 r
r
e e
q
r r
e e
q
r r
π
· −
π
...(4.19)
In t he field of a posit ive line char ge, point s near er t he char ge will be at a higher posit ive
pot ent ial t han point s far t her away (r
2
> r
1
).
The pot ent ial (p.d. bet ween t wo point s, one of t hem being t aken as r efer ence r
0
) in t he
field of a line char ge is logar it hmic. Equipot ent ial lines ar e cir cles. In a pr act ical sit uat ion, t he
char ge dist r ibut ion of a t r ansmission line is closed, t her e being as much posit ive char ge as
negat ive.
4.3.1 2-Conductor Line: Charges + q and – q
Consider a single-phase line, Figur e 4.7, showing t wo par allel conduct or s each of r adius
ρ
separ at ed by cent r e-t o-cent r e dist ance of 2d wit h each conduct or car r ying a char ge of q coulombs/
met r e but of opposit e polar it ies. Place a unit t est char ge at point P at a dist ance X fr om t he
cent r e of one of t he conduct or s. Then t he for ce act ing on it is t he field st r engt h at X, which is
p
E =

,
_

¸
¸

+
π X d X e e
q
r
2
1 1
2
0
Newt on/coulomb or V/m ...(4.20)
Fi g. 4.7 Single-phase line.
The pot ent ial differ ence bet ween t he conduct or s is
V =

ρ −
ρ

,
_

¸
¸

+
π
d
r
dX
X d X e e
q
2
0
2
1 1
2
=
ρ π

ρ
ρ −
π
d
e e
q d
e e
q
r r
2
ln
2
ln
0 0
, if 2d ρ ...(4.21)
+ q
– q
V
P
x
2 ρ
2 d
70 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Hence, t he capacit ance of 1 met r e lengt h of bot h conduct or s is
C = ) / 2 ( ln / /
0
ρ π · d e e V q
r
...(4.22)
On t he sur face of any one of t he conduct or s, t he volt age gr adient is, fr om equat ions (4.20)
and (4.21)
E =
) / 2 ln( 2 2
1 1
2
0
ρ ρ

,
_

¸
¸
ρ −
+
ρ π d
V
d e e
q
r
...(4.23)
This is t r ue on t he basis of neglect ing t he effect of t he char ge of t he ot her conduct or if it
is far away t o make t he separ at ion bet ween conduct or s much gr eat er t han t heir r adii.
Fi g. 4.8 Two-conduct or line above gr ound plane and image conduct or s.
A t r ansmission line in pr act ice is st r ung above a gr ound plane and we obser ved in Chapt er
3 t hat it s effect can be t aken int o account by placing image char ges, as shown in Figur e 4.8.
The char ges on t he aer ial conduct or s ar e q
1
and q
2
coulombs/met r e and t heir pot ent ials wit h
r espect t o gr ound ar e V
1
and V
2
. Then,

¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
ρ
π
+
π
·
π
+ ρ
π
·
) / 2 ln(
2
) / ln(
2
) / ln(
2
) / 2 ln(
2
2 2
0
2
12 12
0
1
2
12 12
1 0
2
1 1
0
1
1
H
e e
q
A I
e e
q
V
A I
e e
q
H
e e
q
V
r r
r
...(4.24a)
In mat r ix for m,
1
]
1

¸

2
1
V
V
= 1
]
1

¸

π
π
1
]
1

¸

ρ
ρ
r
r
e e q
e e q
H A I
A I H
0 2
0 1
2 2 12 12
12 12 1 1
2 /
2 /
) / 2 ln( ), / ln(
) / ln( ), / 2 ln(
...(4.24b)
or [V] = ] 2 / ][ [
0 r
e e q P π ...(4.24c)
The element s of [P] ar e Maxwell's Pot ent ial Coefficient s which we have encount er ed in
Chapt er 3. For a single-phase line above gr ound, V
1
= – V
2
= V. Also, let H
1
= H
2
= H and
.
2 1
ρ · ρ · ρ Then obviously, q q q · − ·
2 1
. Let A
12
= A.
V =
)] / 4 ln( ) / 2 [ln(
2
2 2
0
A A H H
e e
q
r
+ − ρ
π
=
Volt s , ] 4 / 2 ln[
2
2 2
0
A H HA
e e
q
r
+ ρ
π
...(4.25)
This gives t he capacit ance per unit lengt h of each conduct or t o gr ound t o be
C
g
=
Far ads )], /2 4 ln( ) / /[ln( 2 /
2 2
0
H A H A e e V q
r
+ − ρ π ·
...(4.26)
V2
H
A
I
V
1
, H
H
G
Ground
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 71
The capacit ance bet ween t he t wo conduct or s is one-half of t his since t he t wo capacit ances
t o gr ound ar e in ser ies. Compar ing equat ions (4.26) and (4.22) wit h 2d = A, we obser ve t hat in
t he pr esence of gr ound, t he capacit ance of t he syst em has been incr eased slight ly because t he
denominat or of (4.26) is smaller t han t hat in (4.22).
The char ging cur r ent of each conduct or is
I
c
= Amper es , 2 V C f
g
π ...(4.27)
and t he char ging r eact ive power is
Q
c
= Var s , 2
2
V C f
g
π ...(4.28)
Exa mp le 4.8. A single-conduct or e.h.v. t r ansmission line st r ung above gr ound is used for
exper iment al pur poses t o invest igat e high-volt age effect s. The conduct or is expanded ACSR
wit h diamet er of 2.5 inches (0.0635 m) and t he line height is 21 met r es above gr ound.
(a) Calculat e t he volt age t o gr ound which will make it s sur face volt age gr adient equal t o
cor ona-incept ion gr adient given by Peek's For mula:
E
or
=

,
_

¸
¸
ρ
+
301 . 0
1
1
2
30
m
, kV/cm, r .m.s., wher e m = 1.3 r equir ed for st r anding effect ,
and t he conduct or r adius is in cm.
(b) Find t he char ging cur r ent and MVAR of t he single-phase t r ansfor mer for excit ing 1
km lengt h of t he exper iment al line.
Sol u t i on . Refer t o Figur e 4.9. ρ = 0.03175 m = 3.175 cm.
Fr om equa t ion (4.24) a nd in t he a bsence of a second
conduct or ,
V =
ρ π
· ρ
π
1
2
and ) / 2 ln(
2
0 0
e
q
E H
e
q
Now,
or
E =

,
_

¸
¸
+
×
175 . 3
301 . 0
1
2 3 . 1
10 30
2
= 1907.4 kV/m
(a) V = 1907.4 × 0.03175 × ln (42/0.03175) = 435.4 kV,
r .m.s.
(b) Ca pa cit a nce ) / 2 ln( / 2 /
0
ρ π · · H L e V qL C
g
= 7.747
nF/km
Char ging cur r ent at 50 Hz is
I
c
= 2π × 50 × 7.747 × 10
–9
× 435.4 × 10
3
A
= 1.06 Amper e
Char ging kVAR Q
c
= 1.06 × 435.4 = 461.5.
Fi g. 4.9 Single-phase exper iment al
line above gr ound for Example 4.8
The design of such an exper iment al 1 km line wit h 2.5 inch diamet er conduct or st r ung at
an aver age height of 21 m above gr ound will need a 500 kV single-phase t r ansfor mer r at ed for
1.1 A and 550 kVAR. In all such exper iment al pr oject s, a r esear ch fact or of 1.3 may be r equir ed
so t hat t he act ual r at ing may be 565 kV at 1.38 A giving near ly 750 kVA.
2 0.0635 m ρ =
V
2 H = 42 m
72 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
4.4 CHARGE-POTENTIAL RELATIONS FOR MULTI-CONDUCTOR LINES
Sect ion 3.5 in t he last Chapt er 3, equat ions (3.38) t o (3.40) descr ibe t he char ge-pot ent ial r elat ions
of a transm ission line with n conduct or s on a t ower . The effect of a gr ound plane consider ed as
an equipot ent ial sur face gave r ise t o Maxwell's Pot ent ial coefficient s and t he gener al equat ions
ar e
[V] = ] 2 / ][ [
0
e Q P π ...(4.29)
wher e t he element s of t he t hr ee mat r ices ar e, for i, j = 1, 2, ..., n

¹
¹
¹
;
¹
≠ · ·
π · π
·
j i A I P i r H P
Q Q Q e e Q
V V V V V
ij ij ij eq i ii
t n
t n
), / ln( )), ( / 2 ln(
] ,...., , )[ 2 / 1 ( ] 2 / [
] ,..., , , [ ] [
2 1 0 0
3 2 1
...(4.30)
The equivalent r adius or geomet r ic mean r adius of a bundled conduct or has alr eady been
discussed and is
r
eq
=R(N. r/ R)
1/ N
...(4.31)
wher e R = bundle r adius = B/2 sin ) / ( N π ,
B = bundle spacing (spacing bet ween adjacent conduct or s)
r = r adius of each sub-conduct or ,
and N = number of conduct or s in t he bundle.
The element s of Maxwell's pot ent ial coefficient s ar e all known since t hey depend only on
t he given dimensions of t he line-conduct or configur at ion on t he t ower . In all pr oblems of int er est
in e.h.v. t r ansmission, it is r equir ed t o find t he char ge mat r ix fr om t he volt age since t his is also
known. The char ge-coefficient mat r ix is evaluat ed as
] 2 / [
0
e Q π = [P]
–1
[V] = [M] [V] ...(4.32)
or , if t he char ges t hemselves ar e necessar y,
[Q] = ] ][ [ 2
0
V M e π ...(4.33)
In nor mal t r ansmission wor k, t he quant it y
0
2 / e Q π occur s most of t he t ime and hence
equat ion (4.32) is mor e useful t han (4.33). The quant it y
0
2 / e Q π has unit s of volt s and t he
element s of bot h [P] and [M] = [P]
–1
ar e dimensionless number s.
On a t r ansmission t ower , t her e ar e p phase conduct or s or poles and one or t wo gr ound
wir es which ar e usually at or near gr ound pot ent ial. Ther efor e, inver sion of [P] becomes easier
and mor e meaningful if t he suit able r ows and columns belonging t o t he gr ound wir es ar e
eliminat ed. An example in t he Appendix illust r at es t he pr ocedur e t o obser ve t he effect of gr ound
wir es on t he line-conduct or char ges, volt age gr adient s, et c. On a 3-phase ac line, t he phase
volt ages ar e var ying in t ime so t hat t he char ges ar e also var ying at 50 Hz or power fr equency.
This will be necessar y in or der t o evaluat e t he elect r ost at ic field in t he line vicinit y. But for
Radio Noise and Audible Noise calculat ions, high-fr equency effect s must be consider ed under
suit able t ypes of excit at ion of t he mult iconduct or s. Similar ly, light ning and swit ching-sur ge
st udies also r equir e unbalanced excit at ion of t he phase and gr ound conduct or s.
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 73
4.4.1 Maximum Charge Condition on a 3-Phase Line
E.H.V. t r ansmission lines ar e most ly single-cir cuit lines on a t ower wit h one or t wo gr ound
wir es. For pr eliminar y consolidat ion of ideas, we will r est r ict our at t ent ion her e t o 3 conduct or s
excit ed by a balanced set of posit ive-sequence volt ages under st eady st at e. This can be ext ended
t o ot her line configur at ions and ot her t ypes of excit at ion lat er on. The equat ion for t he char ges
is,
1
1
1
]
1

¸

π
3
2
1
0
2
1
Q
Q
Q
e
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

3
2
1
33 32 , 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
,
, ,
, ,
V
V
V
M M M
M M M
M M M
...(4.34)
For a 3-phase ac line, we have
V
1
= ), sin( 2 φ + wt V
V
2
= ) 120 sin( 2 ° − φ + wt V
and V
3
= wit h ) 120 sin( 2 ° + φ + wt V
V = r .m.s. value of line-t o-gr ound volt age and w = 2πf,
f = power fr equency in Hz. The angle φ denot es t he inst ant on V
1
wher e
t = 0. If φ + wt is denot ed as θ, t her e r esult s
0 1
2 / e Q π = )] 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin [ 2
13 12 11
° + θ + ° − θ + θ M M M V
= ] cos ) ( 866 . 0 sin )} ( 5 . 0 [{ 2
12 13 13 12 11
θ − + θ + − M M M M M V ...(4.35)
Differ ent iat ing wit h r espect t o θ and equat ing t o zer o gives
) 2 / (
0 1
e Q
d
d
π
θ
= 0
= ] sin ) (
2
3
cos ) 5 . 0 5 . 0 [( 2
12 13 13 12 11
θ − − θ − − M M M M M V
This gives t he value of
m
θ · θ at which Q
1
r eaches it s maximum or peak value. Thus,
m
θ =
1
13 12 11 12 13
)] 2 /( ) ( 3 t an[ ar c

− − − M M M M M ...(4.36)
Subst it ut ing t his value of θ in equat ion (4.35) yields t he maximum value of Q
1
.
An alt er nat ive pr ocedur e using phasor algebr a can be devised. Expand equat ion (4.35) as
0 1
2 / e Q π = ) sin( ) ( 75 . 0 ) 5 . 5 . ( 2
2
12 13
2
13 12 11
ψ + θ − + − − M M M M M V ...(4.37)
The amplit ude or peak value of
0 1
2 / e Q π is
max 0 1
) 2 / ( e Q π =
2 / 1
11 13 13 12 12 11
2
13
2
12
2
11
)] ( [ 2 M M M M M M M M M V + + − + + ...(4.38)
It is left as an exer cise t o t he r eader t o pr ove t hat subst it ut ing
m
θ fr om equat ion (4.36) in
equat ion (4.35) gives t he amplit ude of
max 0 1
) 2 / ( e Q π in equat ion (4.38).
Similar ly for Q
2
we t ake t he element s of 2nd r ow of [M].
max 0 2
) 2 / ( e Q π =
2 / 1
21 23 23 22 22 21
2
23
2
21
2
22
)] ( [ 2 M M M M M M M M M V + + − + + ...(4.39)
74 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
For Q
3
we t ake t he element s of t he 3r d r ow of [M].
max 0 3
) 2 / ( e Q π =
2 / 1
31 33 33 31 32 31
2
32
2
31
2
33
)] ( [ 2 M M M M M M M M M V + + − + + ...(4.40)
The gener al expr ession for any conduct or is, for i = 1, 2, 3,
max 0
) 2 / ( e Q
i
π =
2 / 1
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
)] ( [ 2
i i i i i i i i i
M M M M M M M M M V + + − + +
...(4.41)
4.4.2 Numerical Values of Potential Coefficients and Charge of Lines
In t his sect ion, we discuss r esult s of numer ical comput at ion of pot ent ial coefficient s and char ges
pr esent on conduct or s of t ypical dimensions fr om 400 kV t o 1200 kV whose configur at ions ar e
given in Chapt er 3, Figur e 3.5. For one line, t he effect of consider ing or neglect ing t he pr esence
of gr ound wir es on t he char ge coefficient will be discussed, but in a digit al-comput er pr ogr amme
t he gr ound wir es can be easily accommodat ed wit hout difficult y. In making all calculat ions we
must r emember t hat t he height H
i
of conduct or i is t o be t aken as t he aver age height . It will be
quit e adequat e t o use t he r elat ion, as pr oved lat er ,
H
av
= H
min
+ Sag/3 ...(4.42)
Average Line Height for Inductance Calculation*
The shape assumed by a fr eely hanging cable of lengt h L
c
over a hor izont al span S bet ween
suppor t s is a cat enar y. We will appr oximat e t he shape t o a par abola for der iving t he aver age
height which holds for small sags. Figur e 4.10 shows t he dimensions r equir ed. In t his figur e,
H = minimum height of conduct or at midspan
S = hor izont al span,
and d = sag at midspan.
Fig. 4.10 Calculat ion of aver age height over a span S wit h sag d.
The equat ion t o t he par abolic shape assumed is
y = H + (4d/S
2
) x
2
...(4.43)
The induct ance per unit lengt h at dist ance x fr om t he point of minimum height is
L = 0.2 ln (2y/r) = 0.2 [ln 2y – ln r] ...(4.44)
Since t he height of conduct or is var ying, t he induct ance also var ies wit h it .
The aver age induct ance over t he span is
L
av
=



2 /
S/2
) ln 2 (ln 2 . 0
1
S
dx r y
S
*The aut hor is indebt ed t o Ms. S. Ganga for help in making t his analysis.
S
d
H
x
y
y = H + (4d/S )x
2
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 75
=


2 /
0
) ln 2 ln (
4 . 0
S
dx r y
S
...(4.45)
Now, ln 2y = ln (2H + 8dx
2
/S
2
) = ln (8d/S
2
) + ln (x
2
+ S
2
H/4d) ...(4.46)
Let a
2
= S
2
H/4d. Then,

+ +
2 /
0
2 2 2
) ln(
2
) / 8 ln(
S
dx a x
S
S d = ln [(1 + H/d) S
2
/4]
) / 8 ln( / t an / 2 2
2 1
S d H d d H + + −

= ln 2d + ln (1 + H/d) – 2 + 2
H d d H / t an /
1 −
...(4.47)
If t he r ight -hand side can be expr essed as ln (2 H
av
), t hen t his gives t he aver age height for
induct ance calculat ion. We now use some numer ical values t o show t hat H
av
is appr oximat ely
equal t o

,
_

¸
¸
+ d H
3
1
=
Sag
3
1
min
+ H
Fig. 4.11 Induct ances and capacit ances of 400 kV hor izont al line.
(a) Consider H = 10, d = 10. Using t hese in equat ion (4.47) give
ln 20 + ln (1 + 1) – 2 + 2 t an
–1
1 = 3 + 0.6931 – 2 + π/2 = 3.259 = ln 26 = ln(2 H
av
)
H
av
= 26/2 = 13 = 10 + 3 = H + 0.3d
(b) H = 10, d = 8. ln 16 + ln 2.25 – 2 + 2
8 . 0 t an 25 . 1
1 −
= ln 24.9
H
av
= 12.45 = H + 2.45 = H + 0.306d
(c) H = 14, d = 10. H
av
= 17.1 = 14 + 3.1 = H + 0.3d
These examples appear t o show t hat a r easonable value for aver age height is H
av
= H
min
+
sag/3. A r igor ous for mulat ion of t he pr oblem is not at t empt ed her e.
Figur e 4.11, 4.12 and 4.13 show induct ances and capacit ances of conduct or s for t ypical 400
kV, 750 kV and 1200 kV lines.
Ls
L
m
Lm
m
H
/
k
m
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.2
0.1
0
Outer-Inner
Outer-Outer
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
Outer-Inner
Outer-Outer
Inner
Outer
11
10
9
–2
0
–1
Cm
C
s
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
n
F
/
k
m
Cond. Dia., metre Cond. Dia., metre
400-kV Horizontal
H = 15 m, S = 12 m
N = 2, B = 0.4572 m
76 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
4.5 SURFACE VOLTAGE GRADIENT ON CONDUCTORS
The sur face volt age gr adient on conduct or s in a bundle gover ns gener at ion of cor ona on t he
line which have ser ious consequences causing audible noise and r adio int er fer ence. They also
affect car r ier communicat ion and signalling on t he line and cause int er fer ence t o t elevision
r ecept ion. The designer of a line must eliminat e t hese nuisances or r educe t hem t o t oler able
limit s specified by st andar ds, if any exist . These limit s will be discussed at appr opr iat e places
wher e AN, RI and ot her int er fer r ing fields ar e discussed in t he next t wo chapt er s. Since cor ona
gener at ion depends on t he volt age gr adient on conduct or sur faces, t his will be t aken up now for
e.h.v. conduct or s wit h number of sub-conduct or s in a bundle r anging fr om 1 t o N. The maximum
value of N is 8 at pr esent but a gener al der ivat ion is not difficult .
F i g. 4.12. L a nd C of 750 kV hor izont al line.
Fig. 4.13 L a nd C of 1200 kV hor izont al line.
4.5.1 Single Conductor
Figur e 4.9 can be used for a single conduct or whose char ge is q coulomb/met r e. We ha ve
already found the line charges or the term s (Q
i
/2πe
0
) in t er ms of t he volt ages V
i
and t he Maxwell's
Pot ent ial Coefficient mat r ix [P] and it s inverse [M], wher e i = 1, 2, ..., n, t he number of conduct or s
Ls
Lm
L
m
m
H
/
k
m
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.2
0.1
0
Outer-Inner
Outer-Outer
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
Outer-Inner
Outer-Outer
Inner
Outer
13
12
11
10
2
0
1 C
m
Cs
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
n
F
/
k
m
Cond. Dia., metre Cond. Dia., metre
750-kV Horizontal
H = 20 m, S = 15 m
N = 4, B = 0.4572 m
L
s
L
m
Lm
m
H
/
k
m
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.2
0.1
0
Outer-Inner
Outer-Outer
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
Outer-Inner
Outer-Outer
Inner
Outer
14
13
12
3
2
1 C
m
C
s
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
n
F
/
k
m
Cond. Dia., metre Cond. Dia., metre
1200 kV, Horizontal
H = 20 m, S = 24 m
N = 8, R = 0.6 m
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 77
on a t ower . For t he single conduct or per phase or pole, t he sur face volt age gr adient is
E
c
=
r e
q 1
2
0
π
volt s/met r e ...(4.48)
Fig. 4.14 Volt age gr adient of single conduct or .
This is plot t ed in Figur e 4.14 as a funct ion of conduct or diamet er s r anging fr om 0.02 t o
0.065 m. The lar gest single conduct or manufact ur ed is 2.5 inches (0.0635 m) in diamet er for t he
B.P.A. 525 kV line in t he U.S.A. In t er ms of volt age t o gr ound, V =
) / 2 ln(
2
0
r H
e
q
π
so t hat
E
c
=
) / 2 ln( . r H r
V
volt s/met r e ...(4.49)
Th e fa ct or E
c
/(q/2πe
0
) is a lso plot t ed a ga inst t he r ecipr oca l of dia met er a nd yields
appr oximat ely a st r aight line.
4.5.2 2-Conductor Bundle (Figure 4.15)
In t his case, t he char ge Q obt ained fr om equat ion (4.33) is t hat of t he t ot al bundle so t hat t he
char ge of each sub-conduct or per unit lengt h is q = Q/2. This will for m one phase of an ac line
or a pole of a dc line. In calculat ing t he volt age gr adient on t he sur face of a sub-conduct or , we
will make t he following assumpt ions:
Fig. 4.15 2-conduct or bundle above gr ound for volt age gr adient calculat ion.
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10 20 30 40 50
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
2
e
E
/
q
π
0
c
d, meter
1/d
1/d
d
m
–1
H
Ground
2 r
B
q = Q/2
R = B/2
78 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(1) The conduct or s of t he ot her phases or poles ar e ver y far fr om t he bundled conduct or
under examinat ion, i.e. S B or 2R.
(2) The image conduct or s ar e also ver y far , i.e. 2H B or 2R.
This allows us t o ignor e all ot her char ges except t hat of t he conduct or s in t he bundle.
Now, by definit ion, t he elect r ic field int ensit y is t he for ce exer t ed on a unit posit ive t est char ge
placed at t he point wher e t he field int ensit y is t o be evaluat ed, which in t his case is a point on
t he sub-conduct or sur face. Consider point P
i
on t he inside of t he bundle, Figur e 4.16. The for ce
on a t est char ge is
E
i
= For ce due t o conduct or char ge – For ce due t o t he char ge on second conduct or of
bundle.
At t he point P
0
on t he out side of t he bundle, t he t wo for ces ar e dir ect ed in t he same sense.
It is clear t hat it is her e t hat t he maximum sur face volt age gr adient occur s.
Now, t he for ce due t o conduct or char ge =
r e
q 1
2
0
π
. In comput ing t he for ce due t o t he
char ge of t he ot her sub-conduct or t her e is t he impor t ant point t hat t he conduct or s ar e met allic.
When a conduct ing cylinder is locat ed in t he field of a char ge, it dist or t s t he field and t he field
int ensit y is higher t han when it is absent . If t he conduct ing cylinder is placed in a unifor m field
of a char ge q, elect r ost at ic t heor y shows t hat st r ess-doubling occur s on t he sur face of t he
met allic cylinder . In t he pr esent case, t he left cylinder is placed at a dist ance B fr om it s companion
at r ight . Unless B r, t he field is non-unifor m. However , for t he sake of calculat ion of sur face
volt age gr adient s on sub-conduct or s in a mult i-conduct or bundle, we will assume t hat t he field
is unifor m and st r ess-doubling t akes place. Once again, t his is a pr oblem in successive images
but will not be pur sued her e.
Ther efor e, E
i
=

,
_

¸
¸

π B r e
q 2 1
2
0
=
) / 1 (
1
.
2
0
R r
r e
q

π
=
) / 1 (
1
.
2
1
2
0
R r
r e
Q

π
...(4.50)
wher e Q = t ot al bundle char ge.
On t he ot her hand, at point P
0
on t he out side of bundle
E
0
=
) / 1 (
1
2
1
2
0
R r
r e
Q
+
π
...(4.51)
These ar e t he minimum and maximum values, and t hey occur at π · θ and 0 · θ . The
aver age is
r e
Q
E
1
2
1
2
0
av
π
·
. The var iat ion of sur face volt age gr adient on t he per ipher y can be
appr oximat ed t o a cosine cur ve
E(θ) =

,
_

¸
¸
θ +
π
cos 1
1
2
1
2
0
R
r
r e
Q
=
,
_

¸
¸
θ + cos 1
av
R
r
E ...(4.52)
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 79
Fig. 4.16 Dist r ibut ion of volt age gr adient on 2-conduct or bundle illust r at ing t he cosine law.
This is shown in Figur e 4.16. This is called t he "cosine law" of var iat ion of E wit h θ. We
ar e now encount er ing t hr ee t er ms: Maximum gr adient , Minimum gr adient and Aver age gr adient .
Since we have neglect ed t he char ges on t he ot her phases and t he image conduct or s, t he sur face
volt age gr adient dist r ibut ion on bot h sub-conduct or s of t he bundle is ident ical. The concept s
given above can be easily ext ended t o bundles wit h mor e sub-conduct or s and we will consider N
fr om 3 t o 8.
Exa mp le 4.9. The dimensions of a ± 400 kV dc line ar e shown in Figur e 417. Calculat e
(a) t he char ge coefficient
0
2 / e Q π for each bundle,
(b) t he maximum and minimum sur face gr adient on t he conduct or s by
(i) omit t ing t he char ges of t he second pole and image conduct or s,
(ii) consider ing t he char ge of t he second pole but omit t ing t he char ge of t he image
conduct or s,
(c) t he aver age maximum sur face volt age gr adient of t he bundle under case b (ii).
Sol u t i on . The pot ent ial coefficient s ar e fir st calculat ed.
r
eq
= m 08874 . 0 45 . 0 0175 . 0 · ×
P
11
= P
22
= ln (24/0.08874) = 5.6
P
12
= P
21
= ln (
9 / 9 24
2 2
+
) = 1.047.
Fig. 4.17 Maximum and minimum values of volt age gr adient s on 2-conduct or bundles.
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
Emax
Eav
Emin = E r R av(1 – / )
E = av
Q
e
2
2π 0
1
2
1
r
. .
r/R E = E ( + ) ( ) 1 cos av θ θ
r
R
θ
θ
π
= 0
2
r
q q
R
P0
Pi
Q
2
= 2q
r
H = m 12
2 = 3.5 cm r
B = 0.45 m
B
2 r
P
01
P
02
P
P = 9 m
80 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
[P] =
1
]
1

¸



· ·
1
]
1

¸


185 . 0 , 0346 . 0
0346 . 0 , 185 . 0
] [ ] [ giving
6 . 5 , 047 . 1
047 . 1 , 6 . 5
1
P M
(a) 1
]
1

¸

π
2
1
0
2
1
Q
Q
e
=
3
10
400
400
185 . 0 , 0346 . 0
0346 . 0 , 185 . 0
×
1
]
1

¸


1
]
1

¸



=
3
10 84 . 87
1
1
×
1
]
1

¸


The char ge of each bundle is c/m
18
84 . 87
10 84 . 87 2
3
0
µ · × × πe
= 4.88 µc/m.
The char ge of each sub-conduct or is q = 2.44 µc/m lengt h.
(b) (i) Maximum and minimum gr adient =
) / 1 (
1
2
0
R r
r e
q
t
π
Maximum E
0
=
) 225 . 0 / 0175 . 0 1 (
0175 . 0
1
2
1
10 84 . 87
3
+ ×
= 2705 kV/m = 27.05 kV/cm
Minimum E
i
= 23.15 kV/cm = 2315 kV/m
Aver age gr adient =
kV/m 2510
0175 .
1
2
84 . 87 1
2
0
· ·
π r e
q
= 25.1 kV/cm
(ii) Consider t he 2 sub-conduct or s on t he left .
At P
01
, t he for ces on a posit ive t est char ge ar e as shown in Figur e 4.17.
E
01
=

,
_

¸
¸
+
π
− +
π 4675 . 9
2
0175 . 9
2
2
) / 1 (
1
2
0 0
e
q
R r
r e
q
= 2705 – 19 = 2686 kV/m = 26.86 kV/cm
E
02
=

,
_

¸
¸
+
π
+ +
π 9325 . 8
2
4825 . 8
2
2
) / 1 (
1
2
0 0
e
q
R r
r e
q
= 2705 + 20.2 = 2725.2 kV/m = 27.25 kV/cm
1
i
E
=

,
_

¸
¸
+
π
+ −
π 4325 . 9
2
9825 . 8
2
2
) / 1 (
1
2
0 0
e
q
R r
r e
q
= 2315 + 19.1 = 2334 kV/m = 23.34 kV/cm
2
i
E
=

,
_

¸
¸
+
π
− −
π 0225 . 9
2
5725 . 8
2
2
) / 1 (
1
2
0 0
e
q
R r
r e
q
= 2315 – 20 = 2295 kV/m = 22.95 kV/cm.
The maximum gr adient s on t he t wo sub-conduct or s have now become 26.86 kV/cm and
27.25 kV/cm inst ead of 27.05 kV/cm calculat ed on t he basis of omit t ing t he char ges of ot her
pole.
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 81
(c) The aver age maximum gr adient is defined as t he ar it hmet ic aver age of t he t wo
maximum gr adient s.
E
avm
= kV/cm 055 . 27 ) 25 . 27 86 . 26 (
2
1
· +
This is almost equal t o t he maximum gr adient obt ained by omit t ing t he char ges of t he
ot her pole.
For a 3-phase ac line, t he effect of char ges on ot her phases can usually be ignor ed because
when t he char ge on t he conduct or of one phase is at peak value, t he char ge on t he ot her phases
ar e passing t hr ough 50% of t heir peak values but of opposit e polar it y. This has an even less
effect t han t hat has been shown for t he bipolar dc line wher e t he char ge of t he second pole is
equal and opposit e t o t he char ge of t he conduct or under consider at ion. However , in a digit al
comput er pr ogr amme, all t hese could be incor por at ed. It is well t o r emember t hat all calculat ions
ar e based on t he basic assumpt ion t hat gr ound is an equipot ent ial sur face and t hat t he sub-
conduct or char ges ar e concent r at ed at t heir cent r es. Bot h t hese assumpt ions ar e appr oximat e.
But a mor e r igor ous analysis is not at t empt ed her e.
4.5.3 Maximum Surface Voltage Gradients for
3 N ≥
The met hod descr ibed befor e for calculat ing volt age gr adient s for a t win-bundle conduct or , N =
2, can now be ext ended for bundles wit h mor e t han 2 sub-conduct or s. A gener al for mula will be
obt ained under t he assumpt ion t hat t he sur face volt age gr adient s ar e only due t o t he char ges
of t he N sub-conduct or s of t he bundle, ignor ing t he char ges of ot her phases or poles and t hose
on t he image conduct or s. Also, t he sub-conduct or s ar e t aken t o be spaced far enough fr om each
ot her so as t o yield a unifor m field at t he locat ion of t he sub-conduct or and hence t he concept of
st r ess-doubling will be used.
Figur e 4.18 shows bundles wit h N = 3, 4, 6, 8 sub-conduct or s and t he point P wher e t he
maximum sur face volt age gr adient occur s. The for ces exer t ed on a unit posit ive t est char ge at
P due t o all N conduct or -char ges q ar e also shown as vect or s. The component s of t hese for ces
along t he vect or for ce due t o conduct or char ge will yield t he maximum sur face volt age gr adient .
Due t o symmet r y, t he component s at r ight angles t o t his for ce will cancel each ot her , as shown
on t he figur es.
N = 3. B =
R 3
for equilat er al spacing.
Fig. 4.18 Dist r ibut ion of sur face volt age gr adient s on 3-, 4-, 6-, and 8-conduct or bundles.
B
B
R
P
30°
q
e 2
0
π
q
e 2 0 π
q
e 2 0 π
2
/ 3

R
R
P 45°
30° 60°
R
B
R
B
2 sin /8 R π
2 sin /4 R π
2 si n3 R π/8
( ) a ( ) b
( ) c
( ) d
R = B/ 3 R = B/ 2 R = B R = B/2 sin 22.5°
q
e 2 0 π
2
B
.
q
e 2 0 π
2
B
.
q
e 2
0
π
2
B
.
q
e 2 0 π
1
r
.
q
e 2 0 π
1
r
.
q
e 2
0
π
1
r
.
2
R 2
.
2
R 2
.
.
82 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
E
P
=
) / 2 1 (
1
2
30 cos
2
. 2 1
1
2
0 0
R r
r e
q
B
r
r e
q
+
π
·
,
_

¸
¸
° × +
π
...(4.53)
Th e s u b-con du ct or ch a r ge i s q = Q/3 wh er e Q is obt a in ed fr om equ a t ion (4.32),
] ][ [ ] 2 / [
0
V M e Q · π as discussed ear lier .
N = 4. B =
R 2
for quadr ilat er al spacing.
E
P
=

,
_

¸
¸
° × + +
π
45 cos
2
2
2
2
2 1
2
0 R
R r e
q
=
) / 3 1 (
1
2
0
R r
r e
q
+
π
...(4.54)
Not e t he emer gence of a gener al for mula
E
P
=
] / ) 1 ( 1 [
1
2
0
R r N
r e
q
− +
π
...(4.55)
N = 6. B = R for hexagonal spacing.
E
P
= 1
]
1

¸

° × + ° × + +
π
30 cos
3
2
2 60 cos
2
2
2
2 1
2
0 R
R R r e
q
=
] / ) 1 ( 1 [
1
2
) / 5 1 (
1
2
0 0
R r N
r e
q
R r
r e
q
− +
π
· +
π
...(4.56)
N = 8, B = 2R sin 22°.5 for oct agonal spacing
E
P
=
¸

+
π
×
π
× +
π
π
× + +
π 4
cos
4 / sin 2
2
2
8
3
cos
8 / sin 2
2
2
2
2 1
2
0
R R R r e
q
1
]
1 π
π 8
cos
8 / 3 sin 2
2
2
R
=
) / 7 1 (
1
2
2 2 2 1 1
2
0 0
R r
r e
q
R R R R r e
q
+
π
·
,
_

¸
¸
+ + + +
π
=
] / ) 1 ( 1 [
1
2
0
R r N
r e
q
− +
π
...(4.57)
Fr om t he above analysis, we obser ve t hat t he cont r ibut ions t o t he gr adient at P fr om ea ch
of t he (N – 1) sub-conduct or s ar e all equal t o
R e
q 1
2
0
π
. In gener al, for an N-conduct or bundle,
E
P
=
¸

π
× +
,
_

¸
¸ π

π
π
× + +
π N R N N R R r e
q
/ 2 sin 2
2
2
2
cos
/ sin 2
2
2
2
2 1
2
0
1
]
1

,
_

¸
¸
π


π
π −
× + +
,
_

¸
¸ π

π
N
N
N N R N
1
2
cos
/ ) 1 sin( 2
2
2 ...
2
2
cos
=
] / ) 1 ( 1 [
1
2
) 2 ( 1 1
2
0 0
R r N
r e
q
R
N
R r e
q
− +
π
·
1
]
1

¸

+ +
π
...(4.58)
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 83
Figur es 4.19, 4.20, and 4.21 show t ypical r esult s of maximum sur face volt age gr adient s
for 400 kV, 750 kV, and 1200 kV lines whose dimensions ar e shown in Figur e 3.5 [See S. Ganga,
Ref. 17, "Ot her J our nals"]
F i g. 4.19 Sur face volt age gr adient on conduct or s of 400 kV line. See Figur e 4.11 for dimensions.
4.5.4 Mangoldt (Markt-Mengele) Formula
In t he case of a 3-phase ac line wit h hor izont al configur at ion of phases, a convenient for mula
due t o Mangoldt can be der ived. This is also known as t he Mar kt -Mengele For mula by some
ot her s.
Fig. 4.20 Sur face volt age gr adient on conduct or s of 750 kV line. See Figur e 4.12 for dimensions.
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
Inner
Outer
(
k
V
/
m
)
/
k
V
Cond. Dia., metre
400 kV, Horizontal
H = 15 m, S = 12 m, N = 2,
B = 0.4572
7
6
5
4
3
2
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
Inner
Outer
(
k
V
/
m
)
/
k
V
Cond. Dia., metre
750 kV, Horizontal
H = 20 m, S = 15 m, N = 4
B = 0.4572 m
84 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Fig. 4.21 Sur face volt age gr adient s on 1200 kV lines. See Figur e 4.13 for dimensions.
Refer r ing t o Figur e 4.22, let Q
1
, Q
2
, Q
3
be t he inst ant aneous char ges on t he bundles. The
Maxwell's Pot ent ial coefficient s ar e
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
+ · + · ·
+ · + · · · ·
· · · ·
2 2 2
31 13
2 2 2
32 23 21 12
/ 1
33 22 11
) / ( 1 ln ) 2 / 4 4 ln(
) / 2 ( 1 ln ) / 4 ln(
) / ( wher e ), / 2 ln(
S H S S H P P
S H S S H P P P P
R Nr R r r H P P P
N
eq eq
...(4.59)
Fig. 4.22 3-phase hor izont al configur at ion of line for der ivat ion of Mangoldt For mula.
5
4
3
2
1
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
(
k
V
/
m
)
/
k
V
Cond. Dia., metre
1200-kV Horizontal
H = 20, S = 24, N = 8, R = 0.6
4 + 4 H S
2 2
4 + H S
2 2
Q
1
Q
2
Q3
2H
H
S
2S
S
R
2r
N -
r
conductor
bundle
eq
N
= R Nr/R ( )
1/
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 85
The volt age-char ge r elat ions ar e
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
π + π + π ·
π + π + π ·
π + π + π ·
0 3 33 0 2 32 0 1 31 3
0 3 23 0 2 22 0 1 21 2
0 3 13 0 2 12 0 1 11 1
2 / . 2 / . 2 / .
2 / . 2 / . 2 / .
2 / . 2 / . 2 / .
e Q P e Q P e Q P V
e Q P e Q P e Q P V
e Q P e Q P e Q P V
...(4.60)
Bot h t he volt ages and t he char ges ar e sinusoidally var ying at power fr equency and at
ever y inst ant of t ime, 0
3 2 1
· + + V V V and 0
3 2 1
· + + Q Q Q . When t he char ge of any phase is
passing t hr ough it s peak value, t he char ges of t he r emaining t wo phases ar e negat ive but of
magnit ude 0.5 peak. Fr om symmet r y, t he peak values of char ges on t he t wo out er phases will
be equal. If we assume the peak values of Q
1
, Q
2
, Q
3
t o be appr oximat ely equal, t hen, combining
equat ions (4.59) and (4.60) we obt ain t he following equat ions:
For t h e Ou t er Ph a ses
V
1
=
) 5 . 0 5 . 0 (
2
13 12 11
0
1
P P P
e
Q
− −
π
=
4 / 1
2 2
0
1
1
2
1
1 2
ln
2
1
1
]
1

¸

¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

,
_

¸
¸
+
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

,
_

¸
¸
+
π
S
H
S
H
r
H
e
Q
eq
...(4.61)
Ther efor e,
0
1
2 e
Q
π
is found fr om t he given volt age. If t he r .m.s. value of phase volt age t o
gr ound is used,
0
1
2 e
Q
π
is also t he r .m.s. value of t he char ge coefficient and t he r esult ing sur face
volt age gr adient will also be in kV (r .m.s.)/met r e, if V is in kV. The maximum sur face volt age
gr adient will t hen be accor ding t o equat ion (4.58).
E
0m
= 1
]
1

¸

− +
π R
r
N
r N e
Q
) 1 ( 1
1 1
2
0
1
= ,
}] ) / ( 1 }{ ) / 2 ( 1 [{
1 2
ln . .
/ ) 1 ( 1
4 / 1 2 2
V
S H S H r
H
r N
R r N
eq
+ +
− +
...(4.62)
Similar ly, for t he cent r e phase,
0
2
2 e
Q
π
= V P P P . )] ( 5 . 0 [
1
23 21 22

+ −
and E
cm
= V
S H r
H
r N
R r N
eq
2 / 1 2
] ) / 2 ( 1 [
1 2
ln .
/ ) 1 ( 1
+
− +
...(4.63)
86 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Equat ions (4.62) and (4.63) ar e known as Mangoldt or Mar kt -Mengele For mulas. They
wer e fir st der ived only for t he cent r e phase which gives a higher maximum volt age gr adient
t han t he out er phases. Wit h cor ona assuming lot mor e impor t ance since t his for mula was
der ived, we have ext ended t heir t hinking t o t he out er phases also.
Exa mp le 4.10. For a 400-kV line, calculat e t he maximum sur face volt age gr adient s on
t he cent r e and out er phases in hor izont al configur at ion at t he maximum oper at ing volt age of
420 kV, r .m.s. line-t o-line. The ot her dimensions ar e
H = 13 m, S = 11 m, N = 2, r = 0.0159 m, B = 0.45 m.
Sol u t i on . 2H/S = 26/11 = 2.364 and H/S = 1.182
4 / 1 2 2
}] ) / ( 1 }{ ) / 2 ( 1 [{ S H S H + +
=
567 . 2 ) / ( 1 ; 982 . 1
2
· + S H
eq
r = R(N .r /R)
1/N
= 0.225 (2 × 0.0159/0.225)
1/2
= 0.0846 m
Also, r
eq
= 3 . 307 / 2 , m 0846 . 0 45 . 0 0159 . 0 · · ×
eq
r H
(a) Out er Phases
E
0m
=
) 982 . 1 / 3 . 307 ( ln 0159 . 0 2
3 / 420 ) 225 . 0 / 0159 . 0 1 (
×
+
= 1619 kV/m = 16.19 kV/cm
(b) Cent r e Phase.
E
cm
=
) 567 . 2 / 3 . 307 ln( 0159 . 0 2
3 / 420 ) 225 . 0 / 0159 . 0 1 (
×
+
= 1707 kV/m = 17.07 kV/cm
The cent r e phase gr adient is higher t han t hat on t he out er phases by
100
19 . 16
19 . 16 07 . 17
×

= 5.44%
For a bipolar dc line, it is easy t o show t hat t he maximum sur face volt age gr adient on t he
sub-conduct or of a bundle is
E
m
=
V
P H
r
H
r N
R r N
eq
1
1
]
1

¸

+
− +
2
) / 2 ( 1
1 2
ln . .
/ ) 1 ( 1
...(4.64)
wher e H = height of each pole above gr ound
P = pole spacing
and V = volt age t o gr ound
Exa mp le 4.11. Using t he dat a of Example 4.9, and using equat ion (4.64), calculat e t he
maximum sur face volt age gr adient on t he 2-conduct or bundle for ± 400 kV dc line.
Sol u t i on . H = 12, P = 9, r = 0.0175, N = 2, R = 0.225
r
eq
= 0.08874,
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 87
E
m
=
1
1
]
1

¸

+
×
+
2
) 9 / 24 ( 1
1
08874 .
24
ln 0175 . 0 2
400 ) 225 . 0 / 0175 . 0 1 (
= 2705 kV/m = 27.05 kV/cm
4.6 EXAMPLES OF CONDUCTORS AND MAXIMUM GRADIENTS ON
ACTUAL LINES
Sever al examples of conduct or configur at ions used on t r ansmission lines following wor ld-wide
pr act ice ar e given in t he Table 4.1. The maximum sur face volt age gr adient s ar e also indicat ed.
These ar e only examples and t he r eader should consult t he vast lit er at ur e (CIGRE Pr oceedings,
et c.) for mor e det ails. Most conduct or manufact ur er s use Br it ish unit s for conduct or sizes and
t he SI unit s ar e given only for calculat ion pur poses. These det ails ar e gat her ed fr om a lar ge
number of sour ces list ed in t he bibliogr aphy at t he end of t he book.
The conduct or sizes given in t he t able ar e not t he only ones used. For example, t he
following r ange of conduct or sizes is found on t he Nor t h Amer ican cont inent .
345 kV. Single conduct or — 1.424, 1.602, 1.737, 1.75, 1.762 inches dia
2-conduct or bundle—1.108, 1.165, 1.196, 1.246 inches dia.
500 kV. Single conduct or — 2.5 inches dia
2-bundle—1.602, 1.7, 1.75, 1.762, 1.82 inches dia (ACAR).
3-bundle—1.165 inches dia.
4-bundle—0.85, 0.9, 0.93 inches dia.
735-765 kV 4-bundle—1.165, 1.2, 1.382 inches dia.
4.7 GRADIENT FACTORS AND THEIR USE
Fr om t he Mangoldt (Mar kt -Mengele) for mula given in Sect ion 4.5, it is obser ved t hat t he
maximum sur face volt age gr adient in t he cent r e phase of a hor izont al 3-phase ac line is a
funct ion of t he geomet r ical dimensions and t he maximum oper at ing volt age V. As shown in
Table 4.1, t he maximum oper at ing volt ages show a wide var iat ion. It is t her efor e advant ageous
t o have a t able or gr aph of t he nor malized value called t he 'gr adient fact or ' in kV/cm per kV or
V/m per volt or ot her unit s which will be independent of t he volt age. The gr adient fact or is
denot ed by g
f
= E
cm
/ V and it s value is
g
f
= E
cm
/ V =
1
1
]
1

¸

+
− +
2
) / 2 ( 1
1 2
ln . .
/ ) 1 ( 1
S H
r
H
r N
R r N
eq
...(4.65)
88 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Ta ble 4.1. Con d u ct or Det a i ls a n d Ma xi mu m Su r fa ce Volt a ge Gr a d i en t s
Used i n EHV Li n es
Country Maximum Conductor Details Maximum Gradient
Operating Voltage No. × dia in inches (cm) k v/ cm, RMS
kV, RMS
(1) India 420 2 × 1.258 (3.18) 17.0
(2) Canada 315 2 × 1.382 (3.51) 17.4
380 2 × 1.108 (2.814) 17.5 – 18.0
525 4 × 0.93 (2.362) 18.8
735 4 × 1.2, 1.382 (3.05, 3.51) 17.7–20.4
1200 6 × 1.84, 2.0 (4.674, 5.08) –
8 × 1.65, 1.84 (4.19, 4.674) –
(3) U.S.A. 355 – 362 1 × 1.602 (4.07) 16.6
2 × 1.175, 1.196 (2.985, 3.04) 15–16
500 2 × 1.65 (4.19) 16.9
3 × 1.19 (3.02) 16.4
550 2 × 1.6 (4.07) 16.9
1 × 2.5 (6.35) 16.7
765 4 × 1.165 (2.96) 20.4
1200 8 × 1.602 (4.07) 13.5
(4) U.S.S.R. 400 3 × 1.19 (3.02) 13.6
525 3 × 1.19 (3.02) 18.0
1200 8 × 0.96 (2.438) 21.4
(5) U.K. 420 2 × 1.09 (2.77) 19.6
4 × 1.09 (2.77) 13.5
(6) Fr ance 420 2 × 1.04 (2.64) 19.0
(7) Ger many 380 4 × 0.827 (2.1) 15.7
420 4 × 0.854 (2.17) 16.7
(8) It a ly 380 2 × 1.168 (2.97) 15.0
1050 4 × 1.76, 1.87 (4.47, 4.75) 17.1 – 19.8
6 × 1.5 (3.81) –
(9) Sweden 380 3 × 1.25 (3.18) 12.5
400 2 × 1.25 (3.18) 16.5
800 4 × 1.6 (4.06) 17.6
By var ying t he par amet er s (r, N, R, H and S ) over a lar ge r ange cur ves can be plot t ed for
g
f
against t he desir ed var iable. Fr om pr oduct of g
f
and t he maximum oper at ing line-t o-gr ound
volt age of t he line, t he maximum sur face volt age gr adient is r eadily obt ained. Such cur ves ar e
shown in Figur e 4.23 for N = 1, 2, 4 and for conduct or diamet er s r anging fr om 0.7" t o 2.5" (1.78
cm t o 6.35 cm). The height H in all cases has been fixed at H = 50' (15 m) and t he phase spacing
S r anging fr om 20' t o 50' (6 t o 15 m). Calculat ions have shown t hat a var iat ion of height H fr om
10 to 30 m etres does not change g
f
by mor e t han 1%. The abscissa has been chosen as t he
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 89
r ecipr ocal of t he diamet er and t he r esult ing var iat ion of gr adient fact or wit h (1/d) is near ly a
st r aight line, which is ver y convenient . In equat ion (4.65) it is obser ved t hat t he conduct or
r adius occur s in t he denominat or and t his pr oper t y has been used in plot t ing Figur e 4.23. [Also
see G. Veena, Ref. 16, "Ot her J our nals"].
Fig. 4.23 Gr adient fact or s of conduct or s (g
f
in V/m/Volt ).
Such gr aphs can also be pr epar ed for t he maximum sur face volt age gr adient fact or s for
t he out er phases or bipolar dc lines, et c., in a design office.
4.8 DISTRIBUTION OF VOLTAGE GRADIENT ON SUB-CONDUCTORS
OF BUNDLE
While discussing t he var iat ion of sur face volt age gr adient on a 2-conduct or bundle in sect ion
4.5.2, it was point ed out t hat t he gr adient dist r ibut ion follows near ly a cosine law, equat ion
(4.52). We will der ive r igor ous expr essions for t he gr adient dist r ibut ion and discuss t he
appr oximat ions t o be made which yields t he cosine law. The cosine law has been ver ified t o
hold for bundled conduct or s wit h up t o 8 sub-conduct or s. Only t he guiding pr inciples will be
indicat ed her e t hr ough an example of a 2-conduct or bundle and a gener al out line for N

3 will
be given which can be incor por at ed in a digit al-comput er pr ogr amme.
Figur e 4.24 shows det ailed view of a 2-conduct or bundle wher e t he char ges q on t he t wo
sub-conduct or s ar e assumed t o be concent r at ed at t he conduct or cent r es. At a point P on t he
sur face of a conduct or at angle θ fr om t he r efer ence dir ect ion, t he field int ensit ies due t o t he
t wo conduct or char ges ar e, using st r ess-doubling effect ,
E
1
=
B' e
q
E
r e
q 2
2
and
1
2
0
2
0
π
·
π
...(4.66)
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45
S
6
12
15
6
9
15
9
15
N = 2
N = 4
N = 1
Gradient Factors
(
k
V
/
m
)
/
k
V
1/d, d in cm
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 91
Fig. 4.25 Six-conduct or bundle and gr adient on sub-conduct or .
We fir st evaluat e t he dist ances
' '
B B
16 12
t o .
'
B
12
= ] ) cos 60 cos ( ) sin 60 sin [(
2 2
θ + ° + θ + ° r R r R
'
B
13
= ] ) cos 30 cos 3 ( ) sin 30 sin 3 [(
2 2
θ + ° + θ + ° r R r R
'
B
14
= ] ) cos 2 ( ) sin [(
2 2
θ + + θ r R r ...(4.72)
'
B
15
= ] ) cos 30 cos 3 ( ) sin 30 sin 3 [(
2 2
θ + ° + θ − ° r R r R
'
B
16
= ] ) cos 60 cos ( ) sin 60 sin [(
2 2
θ + ° + θ − ° r R r R
Next t he hor izont al and ver t ical component s of t he field int ensit y at P ar e evaluat ed. The
fact or ) 2 / (
0
e q π is omit t ed in wr it ing for t he pr esent but will be included at t he end.
Conduct or i Horizont al component Vertical component
(i = 1, 2, 3 E
h
(i) E
v
(i)
4, 5, 6)
1. θ cos
1
r
θ sin
1
r
2.
2
12
) /( ) cos 60 cos ( 2
'
B r R θ + °
2
12
) /( ) sin 60 sin ( 2
'
B r R θ + °
3.
2
13
) /( ) cos 30 cos 3 ( 2
'
B r R θ + °
2
13
) /( ) sin 30 sin 3 ( 2
'
B r R θ + °
4.
2
14
) /( ) cos 2 ( 2
'
B r R θ +
2
14
) /( sin 2
'
B r θ
5.
2
15
) /( ) cos 30 cos 3 ( 2
'
B r R θ + °
2
15
) /( ) sin 30 sin 3 ( 2
'
B r R θ − ° −
6.
2
16
) /( ) cos 60 cos ( 2
'
B r R θ + °
2
16
) /( ) sin 60 sin ( 2
'
B r R θ − ° −
Tot al field int ensit y
E
P
(θ) =
2 / 1
2
6
1
2
6
1
0
) ( ) (
2
1
1
1
]
1

¸

¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
π
∑ ∑
· · i
v
i
h
i E i E
e
q
Figur e 4.26 shows examples of sur face volt age gr adient dist r ibut ions on bundled conduct or s
wit h N = 2, 4, 6 subconduct or s.
¹
;
¹
1
2
P
θ
B'15
B'
14
B'13
B'12
B'16
3
4
5
6
92 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Fig. 4.26 Dist r ibut ion of volt age gr adient on bundle conduct or s for N = 2, 4, 6.
Var iat ion wit h conduct or diamet er .
4.9 DESIGN OF CYLINDRICAL CAGES FOR CORONA EXPERIMENTS
The effect s of high volt age-gr adient s on bundled conduct or s ar e evaluat ed all over t he wor ld by
"cages". In t he simplest of t hese ar r angement s a lar ge met allic cylinder at gr ound or near
gr ound pot ent ial for ms t he out er cage wit h t he bundled conduct or st r ung inside. The cent r es of
t he cylinder and t he bundle ar e coincident while t he subconduct or s t hemselves ar e displaced
off-cent r e, except for N = 1, a single conduct or . Sever al examples ar e shown in Figur e 4.27, in
which a squar e cage is also included. When t he dimensions of t he out er cage become ver y lar ge
or wher e t he lengt h of conduct or and weight ar e lar ge wit h a r esult ing sag, a squar e cage made
wit h mesh can be cont our ed t o follow t he sag. The cage ar r angement r equir es lower volt age for
cr eat ing t he r equir ed sur face volt age gr adient on t he conduct or s t han in an over head line
above gr ound. Also ar t ificial r ain equipment can be used if necessar y t o obt ain quick r esult s.
Measur ing inst r ument s ar e connect ed t o gr ound bot h fr om t he conduct or at high volt age and
t he cage at near gr ound pot ent ial wher e necessar y for Radio Int er fer ence, Cor ona Loss, char ge,
et c., measur ement s. Audible noise is usually measur ed as r adiat ion int o a micr ophone placed
away fr om t he t est set up. Nor mally, t he cage consist s of t hr ee sect ions, a long middle sect ion
which is t he pr incipal cage which could ext end up t o 60 met r es, wit h t wo shor t guar d cages at
eit her end gr ounded in or der t o minimize edge effect s.
Fig. 4.27 Configur at ion of 'cages' used for cor ona st udies.
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
180° 360°
N = 6
1.3 1.3
1.2 1.2
1.1 1.1
1.0 1.0
0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7
0.03
0.02
360° 360° 180°
0.05
N = 2 N = 4
Cond. Dia., metre
2R
R
C
2r
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 93
We will der ive equat ions for calculat ing cor ona-incept ion gr adient on given bundled
conduct or s when placed inside a cylindr ical out er cage of a given r adius. Befor e t his is car r ied
out , t he r esult s of such calculat ions ar e pr esent ed for bundles up t o 8 sub-conduct or s which a
designer can use. Figur es 4.28 (a), (b), (c) give t he var iat ion of r .m.s. value of cor ona-incept ion
volt age which will be r equir ed fr om t he single-phase t r ansfor mer t hat excit es t he ent ir e
exper iment . The diamet er s of t he sub-conduct or s in 2, 4, 6 and 8 conduct or bundles have been
var ied fr om 0.02 t o 0.055 met r e (0.8 t o 2.2 inches), and t he out er r adius of t he cylinder fr om 2
t o 5 met r es, (4 t o 10m diamet er s). For 2- and 4-conduct or bundles, t he bundle spacing B is
t aken t o be 18 inches (45.72 cm) while for t he 6-, and 8-conduct or bundles t he bundle r adius R
has been fixed at 0.6 m (1.2 m diamet er ). The volt ages shown ar e for smoot h conduct or s. On a
r ough st r anded conduct or t he cor ona-incept ion occur s at a lower volt age and a suggest ed
r oughness fact or is 1.4. Thus, t he or dinat es must be divided by t his fact or t o yield t he r equir ed
cor ona-incept ion volt age in pr act ical cases.
Fig. 4.28 Cor ona-incept ion volt age on bundled conduct or s inside cylindr ical cage of r adius R
c.
Smoot h-conduct or va lues.
(a) 2-and 4-conduct or bundles.
(b) 6-conduct or bundle.
(c) 8-conduct or bundle.
4.9.1 Single Conductor Concentric with Cylinder
Figur e 4.29 shows a coaxial cylindr ical cage wit h out er cylinder r adius R
c
and inner conduct or
r adius r. The pr oblem is t he same as a coaxial cable wit h air dielect r ic. At any r adius x, t he field
st r engt h is
E
x
=
x e
q 1
2
0
π
and t he volt age is

π
·
π
·
c
R
r
c
r
R
e
q
x dx
e
q
V ln
2
/
2
0 0
1000
1200
1000
800
1000
800
600
800
600
400
600
400
200
400
200 200
0 0 0
N = 4
N = 2
k
V
5
5
5
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
Rc
R
c
Rc
N = 2 and 4 N = 8 N = 6
0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.06
Conductor Dia., metre Conductor Dia., metre Conductor Dia., metre
( ) a ( ) b ( ) c
94 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Fig. 4.29 Coaxial cylindr ical ar r angement of conduct or and cage.
This gives t he sur face volt age gr adient t o be
E
r
= V/ r ln (R
c
/r), which should equal t he cor ona-incept ion gr adient
E
0
= 21.92 × 10
2
(1 + 0.0308/
r
kV/m (r .m.s.) which is valid for a coaxial
cylindr ical elect r ode geomet r y, at an air densit y fact or δ = 1.
∴ The r equir ed volt age at which cor ona-incept ion t akes place on t he smoot h conduct or is
V
0
= ), / ln( ). / 0308 . 0 1 ( 2192 r R r r
c
+ kV (r .m.s) ...(4.74)
The gr adient fact or of t he elect r ode ar r angement is
g
f
= ) / ln( / 1 / r R r V E
c r
· ...(4.75)
The capacit ance of t he ar r angement per unit lengt h is
C = ) / ln( / 2 /
0
r R e V q
c
π · Far ad/m ...(4.76)
and t he r esult ing char act er ist ic impedance is
Z
0
=

,
_

¸
¸ µ
π
·
π
·
r
R
e
r R
g e gC
c
c
ln
2
1
) / ln(
2
1 1
0
0
0
= ohms ), / ln( 60 r R
c
...(4.77)
wher e g = velocit y of light =
0 0
/ 1 e µ
0
µ = 4π × 10
–7
Henr y/m, e
0
= 10
–9
/36π F/m,
and
0 0
/e µ = char act er ist ic impedance of fr ee space = 120π. The capacit ance and sur ge or
char act er ist ic impedance of a cage syst em ar e impor t ant fr om t he point of view of det er mining
t he char ge-volt age r elat ionships under cor ona dischar ge and for t er minat ing t he conduct or
suit ably t o pr event st anding waves fr om dist ur bing t he act ual phenomena.
Exa mp le 4.12. A conduct or 5 cm diamet er is st r ung inside an out er cylinder of 2 met r e
r adius. Find
(a) The cor ona-incept ion gr adient on t he conduct or , kV/cm,
(b) The cor ona-incept ion volt age in kV, r ms,
(c) The gr adient fact or for t he elect r ode ar r angement ,
(d) The capacit ance of t he coaxial ar r angement per met r e, and
(e) The sur ge impedance.
Sol u t i on .
(a) E
0
= · + ) 025 . 0 / 0308 . 0 1 ( 92 . 21 26.19 kV/cm, r .m.s.
x
d
x
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 95
(b) V
0
= E
0
r ln (R
c
/ r) = 26.19 × 2.5 ln (200/2.5) = 26.19 × 10.955 kV
= 286.9 kV, r .m.s.
(c) The gr adient fact or is 26.19/286.9 = 0.0913 kV/cm per kV
Also, 1/r ln (R
c
/ r) = 0.0913. or V/cm per V
(d) C =
F/m 68 . 12
) 80 ln( 18
10
) / ln(
2
9
0
µµ ·
×
·
π

r R
e
c
(e) Z
0
= 60 ln (R
c
/ r) = 263 ohms
Also, Z
0
= 1/gC = 1/(3 × 10
8
× 12.68 × 10
–12
) = 263 ohms.
Such an ar r angement wit h a single conduct or is not of much use in ext r a high volt age
invest igat ions since t he conduct or is invar iably a bundled conduct or wit hout except ion. However ,
when t he cage consist s of shapes ot her t han cylinder s, or in a lar ge hall of a high volt age
labor at or y, it is ver y impor t ant t o have an idea of t he gr adient fact or and an equivalent r adius
of t he cage or hall. This is det er mined exper iment ally by st r inging a smoot h aluminium or
copper t ube of known diamet er for which cor ona-incept ion gr adient is known. A r adio noise
met er is used t o det er mine t he cor ona incept ion and t he volt age init iat ing t he r eading on t he
met er is accur at ely det er mined. This yields t he gr adient fact or fr om which t he equivalent
r adius R
c
of t he out er elect r ode can be easily calculat ed. The smoot h t ube must be pr efer ably
st r ung at t he cent r e of t he hall or wher e nor mal RIV (Radius Influence Volt age) measur ement s
ar e car r ied out . In a squar e cage, t he smoot h t ube is accur at ely cent r ed. The equivalent r adius
can be used for measur ement s and int er pr et at ion of r esult s obt ained wit h bundled conduct or s.
This will for m t he cont ent s of fur t her discussion.
4.9.2 Bundled Conductors Inside a Cylinder
When a bundle wit h N sub-conduct or s is cent r ed inside a cylinder , t he conduct or s t hemselves
ar e eccent r ic wit h r espect t o t he cylinder . We now examine t he pr oper t ies of t he elect r ic field
when a conduct ing cylinder is placed off-cent r e inside a lar ger conduct ing cylinder . This pr oblem
par allels t he spher e-gap pr oblem discussed ear lier .
4.9.2.1 S i n gl e Con d u ct or wi t h Eccen t r i ci t y
Figur e 4.30 shows a cylinder of r adius R
c
in which is locat ed a conduct or of r adius r
c
wit h
it s cent r e displaced by a dist ance R fr om t he cent r e of t he out er cylinder . Bot h t he cylindr ical
elect r odes ar e equipot ent ials wit h volt age V applied bet ween t hem. In near ly all cases, t he
out er cylinder is gr ounded and it s pot ent ial is zer o. The t wo cir cles (in t wo dimensions) of r adii
r
c
and R
c
can be made equipot ent ial lines under t he influence of t wo equal but opposit e char ges
+
q and

q per unit lengt h which ar e locat ed as shown in Figur e 4.30. An impor t ant pr oper t y of
t he field, which will be pr oved lat er in or der not t o int er r upt cont inuit y at t his st age and which
will be used for cage designs, is
r adius cylinder t he of squar e
cylinder given a of cent r e
t he fr om char ges t wo t he
t o dist ances of Pr oduct
·
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
...(4.78)
96 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Fig. 4.30 Out er cylinder wit h eccent r ic conduct or .
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
· −
· +
2
1 2
2
2 1
) ( and
) ( Thus,
c
c
r R R R
R R R R
...(4.79)
Since we ar e given r
c
, R
c
, and R, t he r adii and t he eccent r icit y, it is easy t o det er mine R
1
and R
2
as follows:
Let D = R r R R
c c
/ ) (
2 2 2
− + . Then
R
1
= R R R D D
c c
/ ) ( 5 . 0
2 2 2
≈ − + when
2 2
R R
c
+ ,
2
c
r
and R
2
= ) /(
1
2
R R r
c
− .
The volt age r equir ed in t er ms of t he char ge q is
V =
2 1 0
2 1
0
ln
2
) )( (
ln
2 R R
r R
e
q
r R
R R R R
e
q
c c
c c
π
·
+ −
π
...(4.80)
This will also be der ived lat er . The maximum sur face volt age gr adient on t he inner
conduct or is ), 2 / (
0 c
r e q π if we assume t he ot her char ge t o be locat ed ver y far . For cor ona-
incept ion, t his gr adient should equal t he cor ona-incept ion gr adient
E
0
= kV/m ) / 0308 . 0 1 ( 2192
c
r +
∴ V
0
=
2 1
ln . ). / 0308 . 0 1 ( 2192
R R
r R
r r
c c
c c
+ ...(4.81)
Not e t hat when t he inner conduct or is concent r ic wit h t he cylinder , R = 0 and R
1
R
2
=
2
c
R .
This r educes t o equat ion (4.74) der ived befor e.
All quant it ies in equat ion (4.81) ar e known so t hat t he cor ona-incept ion volt age for a
smoot h conduct or can be det er mined. The capacit ance of t he eccent r ic conduct or and cylinder
is obviously
C = 1
]
1

¸

π ·
2 1
0
ln / 2 /
R R
r R
e V q
c c
, Far ad/met er ...(4.82)
The sur ge impedance is
Z
0
=
2 1
8
ln 60 10 3 / 1
R R
r R
C
c c
· × ...(4.83)
r
c
Rc
R
1
– q
+ q
R2
R
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 97
The above analysis becomes ver y cumber some when t her e ar e mor e t han one eccent r ic
conduct or . We will develop a ver y gener al met hod in t he next sect ion based on t he ideas
developed her e for one eccent r ic conduct or .
Exa mp le 4.13. A st r anded conduct or 3.5 cm diamet er (r
c
= 0.0175 m) is displaced by R =
22.5 cm fr om t he cent r e of a cylinder 3.2 met r es is diamet er (R
c
= 1.6 m). Taking a r oughness
fact or m = 1.4, calculat e
(a) t he char ge coefficient
0
2 / e q π at cor ona incept ion,
(b) t he locat ion of char ges q and – q,
(c) t he cor ona-incept ion volt age V
0
, and
(d) t he capacit ance per met r e and sur ge impedance based on light velocit y.
Sol u t i on . Because of sur face r oughess, cor ona-incept ion t akes place at a gr adient equal
t o (1/1.4) t imes t hat on a smoot h conduct or .
E
or
= ) 0175 . 0 / 0308 . 0 1 (
4 . 1
92 . 21
+ = 19.3 kV/cm = 1930 kV/m
(a)
0
2 / e q π = r
c
. E
or
= 33.81 kV
(b) D = R r R R
c c
/ ) (
2 2 2
− + = (160
2
+ 22.5
2
– 1.75
2
)/22.5 = 1161 cm
R
1
= ) ( 5 . 0
2 2
c
R D D − + = 1155 cm = 11.55 m
R
2
= ) /(
1
2
R R r
c
− = 2.7 × 10
–3
cm = 2.7 × 10
–5
m
Not e t hat t he negat ive char ge is displaced fr om t he cent r e of t he inner conduct or by only
2.7 × 10
–3
cm while t he posit ive char ge is locat ed ver y far (11.55 m) fr om t he cent r e of t he out er
cylinder .
(c) Cor ona-incept ion volt age
V
0
= 19.32 × 1.75 ln [(1155 – 22.5) 22.5/(160 × 1.75)]
= 33.81 ln 91 = 33.81 × 4.51 = 152.5 kV.
(d) Capacit ance C = F/m 316 . 12 91 ln /
18
10
9
µµ ·

Sur ge impedance Z
0
= 1/Cg = 10
12
/12.316 × 3 × 10
8
= 271 ohms.
Exa mp le 4.14. Repeat t he pr evious pr oblem if t he inner conduct or is concent r ic wit h t he
out er cylinder .
Solut ion. (a)
0
2 / e q π = 0 , (b) kV; 81 . 33
2 1
· ∞ · R R
(b) V
0
= kV 6 . 152 ) / ln( . ·
c c or c
r R E r
(c) C = F/m 3 . 12 ) / ln( / 2
0
µµ · π
c c
r R e
Z
0
= 10
12
/12.3 × 3 × 10
8
= 271 ohms.
The displacement of t he conduct or by 22.5 cm in a cylinder of r adius 160 cm, i.e., 14%
eccent r icit y has not made a not iceable differ ence in t he cor ona-incept ion volt age, et c., for t he
dimensions given. (This is one conduct or of a 2-conduct or bundle wit h 45 cm bundle spacing
placed inside a cylinder 10 ft in diamet er ).
We now give a pr oof for equat ions (4.78) and (4.79), which ar e also given in any st andar d
t ext book on elect r ost at ics (see Bewley or Zahn, under "Books" in Bibliogr aphy). Figur e 4.31
98 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
shows t wo line char ges + q and – q coulomb/met r e separ at ed by a dist ance 2S . At a point
midway bet ween t hem t he pot ent ial is zer o and we can choose t his as t he or igin of a coor dinat e
syst em. The pot ent ial of a point P(x, y) wit h r espect t o t he r efer ence point 0 will be, accor ding
t o equat ion (3.35)
V =
2 2
2 2
0 0 ) (
) (
ln
4 char ge posit ive fr om Dist ance
char ge negat ive fr om Dist ance
ln
2
y S x
y S x
e
q
e
q
+ +
+ −
π
·
π
...(4.84)
Fig. 4.31 Locat ion of char ges and an equipot ent ial sur face of r adius R
c
wit h pot ent ial V
c
If we denot e U = exp ( ) / 4
0
q V e π , a const ant -pot ent ial line in t he field of t he t wo char ges
will sat isfy t he equat ion
(x – S )
2
+ y
2
= U[(x + S )
2
+ y
2
]
or
2
2
1
1
y
U
U
S x +
,
_

¸
¸

+

= 4S
2
U/(1 – U)
2
...(4.85)
This is a cir cle wit h r adius ) 1 /( 2 | U U S − · ρ | and cent r e at

,
_

¸
¸

+
0 ,
1
1
U
U
S
on t he line
joining t he t wo char ges.
A cir cle of r adius R
c
has t he pot ent ial given by
2
c
R =
c c
c
c c
U
S
U
S U
U U S
− −
· −
1
2
1
2
) 1 /( 4
2 2
...(4.86)
Now, r efer r ing t o Figur e 4.31 and equat ion (4.86), we obser ve t hat t he dist ances of t he
t wo char ges fr om t he cent r e of t he cir cle (a cylinder in 3 dimensions) ar e
1
ρ =
,
1
2
1
1
and ,
1
2
1
1
2
c c
c
c
c
c
c
U
S
S
U
U
S
U
S U
S
U
U
S

· +

+
· ρ

· −

+
Their pr oduct is
2
2
2 1
) 1 (
4
c
c
U
U S

· ρ ρ
which is
2
c
R accor ding t o equat ion (4.86). Ther efor e
equat ion (4.78) r esult .
In or der t o der ive equat ion (4.80), r efer t o Figur e 4.30, and consider t he line joining t he
t wo char ges and t he point s wher e it int er sect s t he t wo cylinder s of r adii R
c
and r
c
. The pot ent ials
of t hese t wo point s, r esult ing fr om equat ion (3.35), ar e as follows:
P x, y ( )
S S
– q
+ q
ρ = 2S U/1 – U ( )
V
c
1
1
+ U
– U
S R = 2S U/ 1 – U
c c c
( )
Uc = e
4πe V / q
0 c
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 99
On t he inner conduct or :
V
i
= )] /( ) ln[( ) 2 / (
1 2 0 c c
r R R R r e q − − − π ...(4.87)
On t he out er cylinder :
V
0
= )] /( ) ln[( ) 2 / (
1 2 0 c c
R R R R R e q − − − π ...(4.88)
Now, fr om equat ion (4.79),
R
2
+ R =
2
2
1
2
/ and , / R r R R R R
c 1 c
· − .
∴ V
i
=
c
c c
c
r
R
e
q
r R r
R r
e
q
2
0
2
2
2
0
ln
2 /
ln
2 π
·


π
...(4.89a)
V
0
=
1 0 1
1
2
0
ln
2
/
ln
2 R
R
e
q
R R
R R R
e
q
c
c
c c
π
·


π
...(4.89b)
∴ The p.d. bet ween t he inner conduct or and out er cylinder is
V =
2 1 0
0
ln
2 R R
r R
e
q
V V
c c
i
π
· − ...(4.90)
4.9.2.2 Mu l t i -con d u ct or s wi t h Eccen t r i ci t y I n si d e Cyl i n d er
The cor ona-incept ion volt age of a single conduct or of r adius r
c
placed off-cent r e inside a
cylinder of r adius R
c
was der ived befor e, Figur e 4.30. In or der t o handle mor e conduct or s, we
give a differ ent met hod. This uses a cir cle called t he "Cir cle of Inver sion" whose r adius is 2R
c
and t ouches t he cylinder at one point .
Consider Figur e 4.32 in which is shown a cir cle of r adius R
c
wit h cent r e at O, and anot her
wit h r adius 2R
c
and cent r e O' wit h bot h cir cles t ouching at O". A st r aight line FF is dr awn
t hr ough O" t angent t o bot h cir cles. Taking a point P on cir cle R
c
, ext end O' t o P t o cut FF in P' .
Then
O' P × O' P' = (2R
c
)
2
=
2
4
c
R ...(4.90)
which is pr oved as follows: Let φ · ∠O"O' P . Then
O' PO" ∠
= φ · φ · ° · ∠ cos / 2 , cos 2 , 90
c c
R O' P' R O' P O' O"P'
giving
O' P' O' P ×
=
2
4
c
R . All point s inside cir cle R
c
fall above FF.
Fig. 4.32 Cir cle of inver sion and out er cylinder of cage ar r angement .
This is t r ue of all point s such as P on t he cir cle of r adius R
c.
Thus, t he st r aight line FF is
t he locus of all point s on t he cir cle R
c
about t he cir cle of inver sion wit h r adius 2R
c
and cent r e at
φ
R
c
2R
c
90°
F
P
F
O
O'
O" P'
100 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
O' . If t he cir cle is t he out er cylinder of a "cage" ar r angement , t hen it has been t r ansfor med int o
a st r aight line and ever y point on it is t he inver se point on t he cir cle. Any ot her small cylinder
of r adius r
c
placed wit h an eccent r icit y R can also be t r ansfor med int o a cylinder about t he
cir cle of inver sion. Then Maxwell's Pot ent ial coefficient s can be ut ilized t o for mulat e t he char ge
equat ion in t er ms of t he pot ent ial of t he conduct or . This can be done for all t he conduct or s of
t he bundle t hr ough mat r ix [P]. This is car r ied out as follows: For t he point P
0
, t he cent r e of
conduct or , an inver se point ' P
0
can be found about t he cir cle of inver sion fr om t he r elat ion
), /( 4 / 4
2
0
2
0
R R R O'P R ' O'P
c c c
+ · · Figur e 4.33. If t he char ge of t he inner conduct or is locat ed
at it s cent r e P
0
, t hen t he imaged char ge about t he cir cle of inver sion will be locat ed at ' P
0
. It s
dist ance fr om t he flat sur face FF will be
H = ) /( ) ( 2 2
0
R R R R R R ' O' P
c c c c
+ − · − ...(4.91)
Since t he sur face is an equipot ent ial at zer o pot ent ial, t he pot ent ial of t he conduct or is
V = ) / 2 ln( ) 2 / (
0
' r H e q
c
π ...(4.92)
Fig. 4.33 Single eccent r ic conduct or inside out er cylinder and cir cle of inver sion for calculat ion of images.
wher e ' r
c
= r adius of t he image of r
c
wit h cent r e at
'
P
0
. This is det er mined as follows:
Choosing t wo point s on a diamet er of r
c
at dist ances (R – r
c
) and (R + r
c
), t heir inver se
point s ar e locat ed wit h r espect t o O' at dist ances ) /( 4
2
c c c
r R R R − + and ) /( 4
2
c c c
r R R R + + .
Ther efor e,
' r
c
= )] /( 1 ) /( 1 [ 4 .
2
1
2
c c c c c
r R R r R R R + + − − +
O'
P "
O
P ' 0
P "'
0
R
c
R + r c
P . q 0
R – r c
rc
F F
H
H
R
O
OP"' = R / R c
2
2
H = 2R ——— c
R – R
R + R
c
c
2
r' = ————— c
4R r
(R + R) –r
c c
c c
2
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 101
= ] ) /[( 4 .
2 2 2
c c c c
r R R R r − + ...(4.93)
∴ V =
R R
R R
r R
r R R
e
q
c
c
c c
c c
+
− − +
π
2 2
0
) (
ln
2
...(4.94)
In pr act ice, R
c
+ R r
c
so t hat
V =
c c
c
r R
R R
e
q
2 2
0
ln
2

π
...(4.95)
Having locat ed t he char ge q at ' P
0
, t he image char ge wit h r espect t o FF is sit uat ed at " P
0
at a dept h H whose dist ance fr om O' is
" O' P
0
=
R R
R R
R R
R R R
R H R
c
c
c
c c
c c
+
·
+

− · −
4 ) ( 2
2 2 ...(4.96)
∴ The inver se point of " P
0
is locat ed at
' ' ' O' P
0
= R R R R " O'P R
c c c
/ ) ( / 4
0
2
+ · ...(4.97)
Fur t her mor e, ' ' ' OP
0
= R R R ' ' ' O'P
c c
/
2
0
· − ...(4.98)
Ther e ar e now t wo char ges + q and – q locat ed at P
0
and
"'
P
0
at t he point s (O, R) and
) / , (
2
R R O
c
in whose field t he out er cylinder of r adius R
c
and inner conduct or of r adius r
c
ar e
equipot ent ial sur faces. The maximum sur face volt age gr adient on t he sur face of t he inner
conduct or is
E = )] /( 2 / 1 )[ 2 / (
2 2
0
R R R r e q
c c
− + π ...(4.99)
since t he dist ance of
"'
P
0
fr om t he conduct or cent r e is
OP"' – R = R R R
c
/ ) (
2 2
− .
But in t er ms of pot ent ial, equat ion (4.95),
c c
c
r R
R R
V
e
q
2 2
0
ln /
2

·
π
The r elat ion bet ween volt age and sur face volt age gr adient becomes
V = )] /( 2 / 1 [ ln .
2 2
2 2
R R R r
r R
R R
E
c c
c c
c
− +

,
_

¸
¸

...(4.100)
For cor ona -incept ion t o occur , E =
) / 0308 . 0 1 (
92 . 21
c or
r
m
E + ·
, kV/cm, wher e m =
r oughness fact or .
Exa mp le 4.15. Repeat Example 4.13 using t he modified met hod of images, equat ion (4.100).
Solut ion. r
c
= 0.0175 m, R
c
= 1.6 m, R = 0.225 m.
E
or
= 19.3 kV/cm = 1930 kV/m.
c c c
r R R R / ) (
2 2
− = 7 . 318 / 1 ) /( 2 , 90
2 2
· − R R Rr
c c
which may be neglect ed in compar ison t o 1.
102 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
∴ V
0
= 1930 × 0.0175 × ln 90 = 152 kV
In Example 4.13, t he value obt ained was V
0
= 152.5 kV.
Fr om t his calculat ion we obser ve t hat t he effect of image char ge locat ed at " P
0
is pr act ically
nil on t he sur face volt age gr adient of t he conduct or (1/318.7 = 0.3%). Hence it s pr esence will be
neglect ed in all fur t her calculat ions.
N-con d u ct or Bu n d l e
For sever al sub-conduct or s locat ed off-cent r e inside t he out er cylinder wit h eccent r icit y R
fr om O, we must obt ain t he locat ion of images of all sub-conduct or s about t he cir cle of inver sion
so t hat Maxwell's Pot ent ial Coefficient Mat r ix will yield t he r elat ion bet ween volt age and char ge.
The comput at ion is lengt hy and must be per for med st ep by st ep. We shall fir st develop a
pr ogr amme suit able for a digit al comput er commencing wit h a 2-conduct or bundle and ext end
it t o a gener al case. Figur es 4.28 (a), (b), (c) wer e obt ained accor ding t o t his met hod and a
designer can use t hem.
In Figur e 4.34, t he pr esence of an image char ge is indicat ed for t he 2-conduct or bundle,
but as ment ioned befor e t his can be omit t ed in all cases. The quant it ies t o be calculat ed ar e
list ed in a t abular for m and will be t he sequence of st at ement s in a digit al comput er pr ogr amme.
Fig. 4.34 2-conduct or bundle inside out er cylinder and it s image conduct or s
about t he cir cle of inver sion.
Quantity Indicated Conduct or No. 1 Conduct or No. 2
(1) Coordinat es of Conduct or
X
n
A
1
= – R B
1
= R
0
Y A
2
= O B
2
= O
0
O' P A
3
=
2 2
R R
c
+ B
3
= A
3
(2) Inverse
'
O'P
0
R
1
=
3
2
/ 4 A R
c
R
2
= R
1
φ sin S
1
=
3 1
/A A S
2
=
3 1
/B B
φ cos S
3
=
3
/ A R
c
S
4
=
3
/B R
c
' x
0
A
4
= R
1
.S
1
B
4
= R
2
.S
2
2R
B
H
H
F F
2r
c
2
φ
q
– q
q
– q
Po
P"
R
c
2R
c
O'
P' x' , y' ( )
O'P"' =
4R
2
c
O'P"
o o o
o
o
o
o
O
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 103
' y
0
A
5
= R
1
S
3
– R
c
B
5
= R
2
S
4
– R
c
(3) Image about FF
" x
0
A
4
B
4
" y
0
A
6
=
5
2 A R
c
− B
6
=
5
2 B R
c

" O' P
0
R
3
=
2
6
2
4
) (
c
R A A + + R
4
=
2
6
2
4
) (
c
R B B + +
(4) Inverse of " P
0
' ' ' O' P
0
A
7
=
3
2
/ 4 R R
c
B
7
=
4
2
/ 4 R R
c
' ' ' θ sin
T
1
=
3 6
/ ) ( R R A
c
+ T
2
=
4 6
/ ) ( R R B
c
+
' ' ' θ cos
T
3
=
3 4
/ R A T
4
=
4 4
/ R B
' ' ' x
0
A
8
=
3 7
T A B
8
=
4 7
T B
' ' ' y
0
A
9
=
c
R T A −
1 7
B
9
=
c
R T B −
2 7
H =
c
R ' y −
0
H
1
=
c
R A −
5
H
2
= H
1
' r
c
G
1
= ) /( 4
2 2
3
2
c c c
r A r R − G
2
= G
1
(5) Potential Coefficients and Charges
P(1, 1) = ) / 2 ln( ) 2 , 2 (
1 1
G H P · ,
) 2 , 1 ( P =
2
4 4
2
5 5
2
4 4
2
5 2
) ( ) (
) ( ) 2 (
ln 5 . 0 ) 1 , 2 (
A B A B
A B R A B
P
c
− + −
− + − +
· ,
V =
). 2 , 1 ( ) 1 , 1 ( ,
2
)] 2 , 1 ( ) 1 , 1 ( [
2
0 0
P P L L
e
q
P P
e
q
+ ·
π
· +
π
For unit volt age,
0
2 e
q
π
= 1/ L.
(6) Potential Gradient
Due t o posit ive char ge on conduct or s, t he unit gr adient is
K
1
= ) / 1 / 1 )( 2 / (
0
R r e q
c
+ π .
Due t o t he image char ge at ' ' ' P
0
t he gr adient is
K
2
=
1
1
]
1

¸

− + + −
+ −
+
− + + −
+ −
π −
2
1 8
2
2 9
2 9
2
1 8
2
2 9
2 9
0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) 2 / (
A B r A B
r A B
A A r A A
r A A
e q
c
c
c
c
The t ot al gr adient for unit applied volt age, t he gr adient fact or is
g
f
= K
1
+ 2K
2
by t aking q/2πe
0
= 1/L = 1/[P(1, 1) + P(1, 2)].
The cor ona-incept ion gr adient is
E
0
=
kV/m ), / 0308 . 0 1 (
2192
c
r
m
+
.
104 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Then, t he cor ona-incept ion volt age becomes finally,
V
0
= E
0
/g
f
Figur e 4.28 (a) shows r esult s of cor ona-incept ion volt age on a 2-conduct or bundle as t he
inner conduct or r adius is var ied, and for sever al values of out er -cylinder r adius R
c
. These a r e
for smoot h conduct or s for which m = 1.
For 4-, 6-, and 8-conduct or bundles, t he following st eps ar e used.
Comput er Programme (for any number of sub-conduct or s N)
(1) Inputs. R
c
= r adius of out er cylinder
r
c
= r adius of sub-conduct or of bundle
R = bundle r adius = eccent r icit y
N = number of sub-conduct or s of bundle.
(2) Coordinat es of Conduct ors
I
I A y
I A x
¹
;
¹


) ( : s coor dinat e
) ( : s coor dinat e
2
1
= 1, 2, ..., N
O' P
0 :
2
2
2
1 3
) ) ( ( ) ( ) (
c
R I A I A I A − + ·
(3) Inverse about the Circle of Inversion
) ( :
4 0
I A O'P
'
= ) ( / 4
3
2
I A R
c
) ( : sin
1
I S φ = ) ( / ) (
3 1
I A I A
) ( : cos
2
I S φ = ) ( / ) ) ( (
3 2
I A R I A
c
+
' x
0
: A
5
(I) = ) ( ). (
4 1
I A I S
' y
0
: A
5
(I) =
c
R I A I S − ) ( ). (
4 2
H : H(I) =
c
R I A − ) (
6
' r
c
: ) (
1
I R = ) ) ( /( 4
2 2
3
2
c c c
r I A r R −
(4) Image of ' P
0
about FF
" x
0
= ' x
0
: A
5
(I)
" y
0
: ) ( 2 ) (
6 7
I A R I A
c
− ·
" O' P
0
:
2
7
2
5 8
) ) ( ( ) ( ) (
c
R I A I A I A + + ·
(5) Potential Coefficient Matrix
Self coefficient : P(I, I) = ln (2H(I )/R
1
(I ))

¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− + − ·
− + + ·

2
1 1
2
2
1 1
2
)) ( ) ( ( )) ( ) ( ( ) , ( : dist ance Aer ial
)) ( ) ( ( )) ( ) ( ( ) , ( : dist ance Image
J A I A J H I H J I F
J A I A J H I H J I B
J I
Mut ual coefficient : P(I, J ) = Ln (B(I, J )/F(I, J ))
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 105
(6) Charge Coefficient for Unit Voltage
Capacit ance : [C] = Inver se of
0
2 ] [ e P π ×
Cha r ge : [Q] = [C] [V]
wher e [V] = column mat r ix wit h all element s equal t o 1.
(7) S urface Voltage Gradient
(a) Due t o conduct or char ges.
g
f
(I) =


+
N
I J
c
R J Q r I Q / ) ( / ) (
Aver age maximum gr adient for unit volt age
g
f
=
) (
1
1
I g
N
N
I
f ∑
·
(b) Due t o image charges. Sur face volt age gr adient is neglect ed.
(8) Corona-incept ion Volt age. δ = air -densit y fact or .
E
0
=
) / 0308 . 0 1 (
2192
δ +
δ
c
r
m
kV/m, r .m.s.,
∴ cor ona-incept ion volt age
0
V = , /
0 f
g E kV, r .m.s.
Result s of calculat ion ar e shown in Figs. 4.28(a), (b) (c) for smoot h conduct or s. The designer
can use a r oughness fact or for st r anded conduct or s. A suggest ed value is m = 1.4 so t hat t he
volt ages in Figur es 4.28 must be divided by 1.4.
Re vi e w Qu e s t i on s a n d Pr oble ms
1. A spher e gap wit h t he spher es having r adii R = 0.5 m has a gap of 0.5 m bet ween t heir
sur faces.
(a) Calculat e t he r equir ed char ges and t heir locat ions t o make t he pot ent ials 100
and 0.
(b) Then calculat e t he volt age gr adient on t he sur face of t he high-volt age spher e.
(c) If t he par t ial br eakdown of air occur s at 30 kV/cm peak, calculat e t he disr upt ive
volt age bet ween t he spher es.
2. A 735-kV line has N = 4, r = 0.0176 m, B = 0.4572 m for t he bundled conduct or of each
phase. The line height and phase spacing in hor izont al configur at ion ar e H = 15, S =
15 m. Calculat e t he maximum sur face volt age gr adient s on t he cent r e phase and
out er phases using Mangoldt for mula. Compar e t hem wit h values given in t able in
Sect ion 4.6.
3. Th e cor on a -i n cept i on gr a di en t for a s moot h con du ct or by Peek' s For mu l a i s
) / 0301 . 1 (
2
30
0
δ +
δ
· r E
s
, kV/cm, r .m.s. For a st r anded conduct or 4 . 1 /
0 0 s r
E E · .
Take t he air -densit y fact or 1 · δ . Then find t he % differ ence bet ween E
0r
and t he
gr adient s calculat ed in pr oblem 2. Give your conclusions.
106 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
4. A t r ansmission line t r aver ses hills and plains in Nor t her n India. Calculat e E
0s
for a
400-kV line wit h conduct or r adius r = 0.0159 m for t he following set s of elevat ion in
met r es and t emper at ur e in °C. (i) 0, 25°, (ii) 1000, 15°, (iii) 2000, 5°, (iv) 3000, 0°C. Use
δ = b
m
(273 + t
0
)/1013 (273 + t ), wher e b
m
= bar omet r ic pr essur e in millibar s. Assume
b
m
= 1013 at sea level and t o dr op by 10 millibar s for ever y 100-met r e incr ease in
elevat ion. t
0
= 20°C.
Discuss which gives t he lowest value for E
0s
and how a line should be designed for
such var iat ions.
5. If cor ona-incept ion gr adient is measur ed in a h. v. t est ing labor at or y at an elevat ion
of 1000 met r es and 25°C, give cor r ect ion fact or s t o be used when t he equipment is
used at (a) sea level at 35°C, and (b) 2000 m elevat ion at 15°C. Use conduct or r adius
= r met r e.
6. The out er cylinder of a cage is 2 met r es in diamet er . A single conduct or 4 cm in
diamet er is st r ung concent r ic wit h it and t he ar r angement is 30 m long. Calculat e
(a) t he sur face volt age gr adient (gr adient fact or ) on t he conduct or , (b) t he capacit ance
of t he ar r angement , and (c) t he sur ge impedance.
7. If in pr oblem 6 t he inner conduct or is a 2-conduct or bundle wit h each sub-conduct or
4 cm in diamet er at a bundle spacing of 40 cm, r epeat t he t hr ee par t s. Not e–Calculat e
Maxwell's Pot ent ial coefficient s about t he flat sur face obt ained fr om t he cir cle of
inver sion.
Appen d i x t o Ch a pt er 4
Voltage Gradients on the Conductors in the Presence of
Ground Wires on Towers
In sect ion 4.4 t he char ges on t he phase conduct or s wer e calculat ed by neglect ing t he pr esence
of gr ound wir es. These char ges gover n t he volt age gr adient s on t he subconduct or s of t he
bundle. When gr ound wir es ar e not neglect ed, t her e is a slight but not iceable change in volt age
gr adient . However , as will be shown by an example of a single-cir cuit 400-kV hor izont al line
wit h t wo over head gr ound wir es, t he incr ease in gr adient is less t han 1% of what it is when
gr ound wir es ar e neglect ed. We will now discuss t he pr ocedur e for calculat ing t he char ges and
volt age gr adient s on all conduct or s, bot h phase- and gr ound-wir es, t o be able t o decide whet her
or not cor ona-incept ion might t ake place, including on t he gr ound wir es t hemselves. It is
assumed t hat
(a) t h e t h r e e p h a s e vol t a ge s t o gr ou n d a r e , 120 , 0
2 1
° − ∠ · ° ∠ · V V V V a n d
° ∠ · ° − ∠ · 120 240
3
V V V , r .m.s. values, and
(b) t he volt ages of gr ound wir es ar e all zer o.
Let t her e be
p
n phase conduct or s and
g
n gr ound wir es on a t ower . n
p
= 3 for S/C lines
and 6 for D/C lines, et c., while n
g
= 1 or 2 but not mor e. However , equat ions will be der ived for
t he Maxwell's Pot ent ial Coefficient s for a gener al case, and it s inver se can be evaluat ed on a
Digit al Comput er easily in one st ep. A met hod par t it ioning t he Pot ent ial Coefficient Mat r ix P
int o r ows and columns belonging t o t he phase conduct or s and gr ound wir es can be easily
adopt ed for obt aining t he char ges on t hese conduct or s and t hen evaluat e t he volt age gr adient s.
Let H
i
= aver age height of any conduct or (i = 1, 2, ..., n
p
+ n
g
),
I
ij
= dist ance bet ween conduct or i and image of conduct or j, i ≠ j, (i, j = 1,
2, ..., n
p
+ n
g
)
A
ij
= aer ial dist ance bet ween conduct or s i and j, i ≠ j,
and r
eq
= equivalent r adius of any conduct or . For a bundle,
r
eq
= R (Nr/R)
1/N
, and for a single conduct or r
eq
= r adius of conduct or .
Pot en t i a l Coef f i ci en t s
P
ii
= j i A I P r H
ij ij ij eq i
≠ · ), / ( Ln ), / 2 ( Ln . ...(4.101)
Ch a r ge—Vol t a ge R el a t i on :
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

0
0
0
...
.
.
3
2
1
3
2
1
np
g
p
V
V
V
V
n
n
=
0
2
1
e π

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

+ + +
+
ng
g
np
n n n n n n
n n n
n n
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
P P
P P
P P P
g p g p g p
p p p
g p
1
3
2
1
, 1
1
) ( 1 12 11
... ...
... ...
,
...(4.102)
108 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Her e, Q
1
, Q
2
, ...,
p
n Q , denot e t he t ot al bundle char ges of N sub-conduct or s of t he phase
conduct or s, while
ng g
Q Q ,...,
1
denot e t he t ot a l cha r ge of t he gr ound wir es since t hey a r e
invar iably single conduct or s. But t his is a gener al pr ocedur e and a bundled gr ound conduct or
will pose no special pr oblem.
The char ge coefficient s, , 2 /
0
e Q π can be obt ained fr om t he pot ent ial coefficient s easily by
inver t ing t he pot ent ial-coefficient mat r ix and mult iplying by t he volt age mat r ix. Then t he
char ge coefficient for conduct or i will be of t he for m
0
2 / e Q
t
π = ] 120 120 0 [
3 2 1
° ∠ + ° − ∠ + ° ∠ M M M V , ...(4.103)
wher e M
1
, M
2
, M
3
will be combinat ions of element s of t he mat r ix [M] = [P]
–1
, and i = 1, 2,
..., n
p
+ n
g
. The r emaining par t of t he pr ocedur e for calculat ing t he char ges on individual
conduct or s will follow equat ions (4.34) t hr ough (4.41) and ext ended t o mor e t han t hr ee conduct or s
on t he t ower . Then t he sur face volt age gr adient s on all conduct or s, including gr ound wir es,
will follow equat ions (4.48), (4.51) and (4.53) t hr ough (4.58) for single conduct or s and bundled
conduct or s.
Me t h od of Ma t r i x P a r t i t i on i n g
The volt age, char ge and pot ent ial coefficient mat r ices can be par t it ioned int o t hose belonging
t o t he phase conduct or s and gr ound wir es in or der t o obt ain t he char ges on all conduct or s, as
follows:
Let [V] = [V
1
, V
2
,..., V
np
| 0, 0,..., 0]
t
= [[V
ph
], [0]]
t
...(4.104)
] 2 / [
0
e Q π =
0
2
1
]] [ ], [[
e
Q Q
t g ph
π
...(4.105)
[P] = 1
]
1

¸

] [ ], [
] [ ], [
gg gp
pg pp
P P
P P
...(4.106)
Then, obviously
[V
ph
] = ) 2 / 1 ]}( ][ [ ] ][ {[
0
e Q P Q P
g pg ph pp
π + ...(4.107)
[0] = ) 2 / 1 ]}( ][ [ ] ][ {[
0
e Q P Q P
g gg ph gp
π + ...(4.108)

] [
2
1
0
g
Q
e π
= ), 2 / 1 ]( ][ [ ] [
0
1
e Q P P
ph gp gg
π −

...(4.109)
so t hat [V
ph
] = ) 2 / 1 ]( ]}[ [ ] ][ [ ] {[
0
1
e Q P P P P
ph gp gg pg pp
π −

= [P
r ed
][Q
ph
] (1/2πe
0
) ...(4.110)
Ther efor e, t he char ge-coefficient s on t he phase conduct or s ar e
] [
2
1
0
ph
Q
e π
= ] ][ [ ] [ ] [
r ed
1
r ed ph ph
V M V P ·

...(4.111)
wher e [P
red
] and it s inver se [M
r ed
] ar e r educed mat r ices having as many r ows and columns
as t he number of phase conduct or s only, n
P
. Then, t he char ge-coefficient s on t he gr ound wir es
ar e
] [
2
1
0
g
Q
e π
= – [P
gg
]
–1
[P
gp
] [M
r ed
] [V
ph
]
= [M
gg
][V
ph
] ...(4.112)
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 109
We not e t hat t her e is a need for inver t ing only t he squar e mat r ix [P
gg
] belonging t o t he
gr ound wir es which will have only one number for a single gr ound-wir e line or at t he most a 2
× 2 mat r ix. Also t he mat r ix pr oduct ] [ ] [
1
gp gg
P P

occur s t wice so t hat a single calculat ion of t his
pr oduct need be car r ied out .
Having obt ained bot h [Q
ph
] and [Q
g
] fr om t he r educed mat r ices and t he phase volt ages, t he
r est of t he pr oper t ies can be calculat ed in t he usual way. We will illust r at e t he pr ocedur e and
discuss some salient pr oper t ies t hr ough a S/C hor izont al configur at ion 400-kV line wit h t wo
gr ound wir es.
Exa mp le 4.16. A hor izont al 400-kV line of t he UPSEB in India has t he following det ails:
Phase Conduct ors
m 875 . 2 sag
m 8.85 midspan at Height
m 875 . 11 t ower at Height
·
¹
;
¹
·
(single circuit, n
p
= 3)
Phase spacing 11.3 m (hor izont al)
Diamet er 3.17 cm, 2 sub-conduct or s at spacing of B = 45.72 cm.
r
eq
= cm 513 . 8 72 . 45 585 . 1 · × .
Ground Wires Height at t ower 20.875 m. Neglect sag.
(2 gr ound wir es, n
g
= 2) Hor izont al spacing 16 m
Diamet er 9.45 mm = 0.945 cm.
The maximum oper at ing volt age is 420 kV, r .m.s., line-t o-line. Evaluat e t he following:
(1) The 5 × 5 mat r ix of Maxwell's Pot ent ial coefficient s;
(2) Pa r t it ion t he [P]-mat r ix int o four sub-mat r ices as shown befor e. Wr it e down [P
pp
],
[P
pg
], [P
gp
]and [P
gg
].
(3) Evaluat e t he mat r ix ] 2 / [
0
e Q
ph
π for t he char ge-coefficient s of t he 3 phase conduct or s.
(4) Evaluat e t he mat r ix ] 2 / [
0
e Q
g
π belonging t o t he gr ound wir es. Not e t hat even t hough
t he pot ent ials of t he gr ound wir es ar e zer o, t her e exist s char ge on t hem.
(5) Calculat e t he sur face volt age gr adient s on t he phase conduct or s.
(6) Calculat e t he same for t he gr ound wir es.
(7) Calculat e t he above sur face volt age gr adient s on all 3 phase conduct or s by neglect ing
t he pr esence of over head gr ound wir es, and compar e t hem wit h t hose when gr ound
wir es ar e pr esent . Give t he % incr ease or change in sur face volt age gr adient s when
t he gr ound wir es ar e pr esent .
(8) Calculat e t he cor ona-incept ion gr adient s on all conduct or s by Peek's for mula t aking
a sur face r oughness fact or of m = 1.3 t o account for st r anding. Assume air densit y
fact or δ = 1.
Sol u t i on . We will number t he phase conduct or s 1, 2, 3 and t he gr ound wir es 4, 5. The
volt ages ar e, wit h
3 / 420 · V
kV, (242.5 kV t o gr ound),
V
1
= 0 , 120 , 120 , 0
5 4 3 2
· · ° ∠ · ° − ∠ · ° ∠ V V V V V V V
Aver age height of phase conduct or = Minimum height at midspan + sag/3
= 8.85 + 2.875/3 = 9.81 m.
Equivalent r adius of t he t wo-conduct or bundle = 8.51 cm = 0.0851 m.
Voltage Gradients of Conductors 111
=
1
]
1

¸




46 . 111 , 6 . 12
6 . 12 , 46 . 111
10
3
] [ ] [
1
gp gg
P P

=
1
]
1

¸


4 . 103 , 3 . 83 , 42
42 , 3 . 83 , 4 . 103
10
3
[P
pg
] [P
gg
]
–1
[P
gp
] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸


122 , 123 , 92
123 , 140 , 123
92 , 123 , 122
10
3
[P
red
] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

· −

32 . 5 , 572 . 0 , 193 . 0
572 . 0 , 3 . 5 , 572 . 0
193 . 0 , 572 . 0 , 32 . 5
] [ ] ][ [ ] [
1
gp gg pg pp
P P P P
∴[M
red
] = [P
red
]
–1
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

− −
− −
− −

2 . 190 , 5 . 19 , 75 . 4
5 . 19 , 9 . 192 , 5 . 19
75 . 4 , 5 . 19 , 2 . 190
10
3
1
1
1
]
1

¸

π
π
π
0 3
0 2
0 1
2 /
2 /
2 /
e Q
e Q
e Q
= V
j
j
j
1
1
1
]
1

¸

+ −
− −
+
×
1
1
1
]
1

¸

− −
− −
− −

866 . 0 5 . 0
866 . 0 5 . 0
0 1
2 . 190 , 5 . 19 , 75 . 4
5 . 19 , 9 . 192 , 5 . 19
75 . 4 , 5 . 19 , 2 . 190
10
3
Magnit udes = [0.20273, 0.2124, 0.20273] × 242.5 kV
(4) Ch a r ge Coe ffi ci e n t s of Gr ou n d Wi r e s
1
]
1

¸

π
π
0 5
0 4
2 /
2 /
e Q
e Q
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

− −
− −
− −
×
1
]
1

¸


2 . 190 , 5 . 19 , 75 . 4
5 . 19 , 9 . 192 , 5 . 19
75 . 4 , 5 . 19 , 2 . 190
1034 . 0 , 0833 . 0 , 042 . 0
042 . 0 , 0833 . 0 , 1034 . 0
10
3
V
j
j
j
1
1
1
]
1

¸

+ −
− −
+
×
866 . 0 5 . 0
866 . 0 5 . 0
0 1
Magnit udes = 10.461 × 10
–3
× V
= 2536.8
(5) Su r fa ce Vol t a ge Gr a d i e n t s on P h a s e Con d u ct or s
Out ers:
17 . 3
20273 . 0 5 . 242 ×
(1 + 3.17/45.72) = 16.584 kV/cm
Cent re: 16.584 × 0.2124/0.20273 = 17.375 kV/cm
(6) Gr ou n d Wi r e s
4725 . 0
10 461 . 10
3 −
×
× 242.5 = 5.37 kV/cm
112 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(7) Wi t h ou t Gr ou n d Wi r e s
[P] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

44 . 5 , 695 . 0 , 285 . 0
695 . 0 , 44 . 5 , 695 . 0
285 . 0 , 695 . 0 , 44 . 5
,
[M] = [P]
–1
=
3
10
187 , 23 , 9 . 6
23 , 7 . 189 , 23
9 . 6 , 23 , 187

1
1
1
]
1

¸

− −
− −
− −
Ma gn i t u d e of Ch a r ge Coe ffi ci e n t s
V e Q V e Q e Q 2127 . 0 2 / , 2025 . 0 2 / 2 /
0 2 0 3 0 1
· π · π · π .
Gradient s : Out er s: 0.2025 × 242.5 (1 + 3.17/45.72)/3.17 = 16.565 kV/cm
Cent r e : (0.2127/0.2025) 16.565 = 17.4 kV/cm
% changes: Out er s: (16.584 – 16.565) × 100/16.565 = 0.115%
Cent r e : (17.375 – 17.4) × 100/17.4 = – 0.144%
(8) Cor on a -i n ce p t i on Gr a d i e n t s
Phase conduct or s : E
op
=
) 585 . 1 / 301 . 0 1 (
3 . 1
4 . 21
+
= 20.4 kV/cm, r .m.s.
Gr ound wir es : E
og
=
) 4725 . 0 / 301 . 0 1 (
3 . 1
4 . 21
+
= 23.67 kV/cm
These a r e a bove t he sur fa ce volt a ge gr a dient s ca lcula t ed ea r lier . Ther efor e, cor ona
incept ion on any of t he five conduct or s has not t aken place. Not e t hat t he sur face volt age
gr adient s on t he phase conduct or s has not been affect ed by t he pr esence of gr ound wir es by
mor e t han 0.15% in t his calculat ion.
5.1 I
2
R LOSS AND CORONA LOSS
In Chapt er 2, t he aver age power -handling capacit y of a 3-phase e.h.v. line and per cent age loss
due t o I
2
R heat ing wer e discussed. Repr esent at ive values ar e given below for compar ison
pur poses.
S yst em k V 400 750 1000 1150
Line Lengt h, km 400 800 400 800 400 800 400 800
3-Phase MW/ circuit 640 320 2860 1430 6000 3000 8640 4320
(P = 0.5 V
2
/xL)
% Power Loss = 50 r/ x 4.98% 2.4% 0.8% 0.6%
kW/ k m Loss, 3-phase 80 20 170 42.5 120 30 130 32.5
When compar ed t o t he I
2
R heat ing loss, t he aver age cor ona losses on sever al lines fr om
345 kV t o 750 kV gave 1 t o 20 kW/km in fair weat her , t he higher values r efer r ing t o higher
volt ages. In foul-weat her , t he losses can go up t o 300 kW/km. Since, however , r ain does not fall
all t hr ough t he year (an aver age is 3 mont hs of pr ecipit at ion in any given localit y) and
pr ecipit at ion does not cover t he ent ir e line lengt h, t he cor ona loss in kW/km cannot be compar ed
t o I
2
R loss dir ect ly. A r easonable est imat e is t he year ly aver age loss which amount s t o r oughly
2 kW/km t o 10 kW/km for 400 km lines, and 20-40 kW/km for 800 km r ange since usually
higher volt ages ar e necessar y for t he longer lines. Ther efor e, cumulat ive annual aver age cor ona
loss amount s only t o 10% of I
2
R loss, on t he assumpt ion of cont inuous full load car r ied. Wit h
load fact or s of 60 t o 70%, t he cor ona loss will be a slight ly higher per cent age. Nonet heless,
dur ing r ainy mont hs, t he gener at ing st at ion has t o supply t he heavy cor ona loss and in some
cases it has been t he exper ience t hat gener at ing st at ions have been unable t o supply full r at ed
load t o t he t r ansmission line. Thus, cor ona loss is a ver y ser ious aspect t o be consider ed in line
design.
When a line is ener gized and no cor ona is pr esent , t he cur r ent is a pur e sine wave and
capacit ive. It leads t he volt age by 90°, as shown in Figur e 5.1(a). However , when cor ona is
pr esent , it calls for a loss component and a t ypical wavefor m of t he t ot al cur r ent is as shown in
Figur e 5.1 (b). When t he t wo component s ar e separ at ed, t he r esult ing inphase component has
a wavefor m which is not pur ely sinusoidal, Figur e 5.1 (c). It is st ill a cur r ent at power fr equency,
but only t he fundament al component of t his dist or t ed cur r ent can r esult in power loss.
5
Coron a Ef f ect s -I: Power Los s a n d Au d i bl e Noi s e
114 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Fi g. 5.1 Cor ona cur r ent wa vefor m.
The mecha nism of cor ona gener a t ion a nd it s pr oper t ies ha ve been ver y ext ensively
invest igat ed and t he r eader is r efer r ed t o t he bibliogr aphy at t he end of t he book. Of vit al
impor t ance is t he gener at ion of pulses which causes int er fer ence t o r adio, car r ier communicat ion,
and gives r ise t o TV int er fer ence. These aspect s will be discussed in t he next chapt er . In t his
chapt er , engineer ing aspect s of cor ona loss and audible noise will be descr ibed and dat a useful
for design of lines based on t hese t wo phenomena will be discussed.
5.2 CORONA-LOSS FORMULAE
5.2.1 List of Formulae
Cor ona-loss for mulae wer e init iat ed by F.W. Peek J r . in 1911 der ived empir ically fr om most
difficult and painst aking exper iment al wor k. Since t hen a hor de of for mulae have been der ived
by ot her s, bot h fr om exper iment s and t heor et ical analysis. They all yield t he power loss as a
funct ion of (a) t he cor ona-incept ion volt age, V
o
; (b) t he act ual volt age of conduct or , V; (c) t he
excess volt age (V — V
o
) above V
o
; (d) conduct or sur face volt age gr adient , E; (e) cor ona-incept ion
gr adient , E
o
; (f) fr equency, f; (g) conduct or size, d, and number of conduct or s in bundle, N, as
well as line configur at ion; (h) at mospher ic condit ion, chiefly r at e of r ainfall,
, ρ
and (i) conduct or
sur face condit ion.
The available for mulae can be classified as follows: (see Bewley and EHV Refer ence Books
in Bibliogr aphy)
A. T h ose Ba sed on Vol t a ges
(i) Linear relationship : Skilling's for mula (1931):
P
c
∝ V – V
o
...(5.1)
(ii) Quadratic relationship
(a) Peek's for mula (1911):
P
c
∝ (V – V
o
)
2
...(5.2)
(b) Ryan and Henline for mula (1924):
P
c
∝ V (V – V
o
) ...(5.3)
(c) Pet er son' s for mula (1933) :
P
c
∝ V
2
. F (V/V
o
) ...(5.4)
wher e F is an exper iment al fact or .
Ic
v
( ) a
I
c
I v
( ) b
I
L
v
( ) c
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 115
(iii) Cubic Relationship
(a) Foust and Menger for mula (1928):
P
c
∝ V
3
...(5.5)
(b) Pr inz's for mula (1940):
P
c
∝ V
2
(V – V
o
) ...(5.6)
B. T h ose Ba sed on Vol t a ge Gr a d i en t s
(a) Nigol and Cassan for mula (1961):
P
c
∝ E
2
In (E/E
o
) ...(5.7)
(b) Pr oject EHV for mula (1966):
P
c
∝ V. E
m
, m = 5 ...(5.8)
I n or der t o obt a in cor ona -loss figur es fr om e.h.v. conduct or configur a t ions, out door
exper iment al pr oject s ar e est ablished in count r ies wher e such lines will be st r ung. The r esult ing
measur ed values per t ain t o individual cases which depend on local climat ic condit ions exist ing
at t he pr oject s. It is t her efor e difficult t o make a gener al st at ement concer ning which for mula
or loss figur es fit cor onal losses univer sally. In addit ion t o equat ions (5.1) t o (5.8), t he r eader is
r efer r ed t o t he wor k car r ied out in Ger many at t he Rheinau 400 kV Resear ch Pr oject , in
Fr ance at t he Les Renar dier es Labor at or y, in Russia published in t he CIGRE Pr oceedings fr om
1956–1966, in J apan at t he CRIEPI, in Sweden at Uppsala, and in Canada by t he IREQ and
Ont ar io Hydr o.
We will her e quot e some for mulas useful for evaluat ing 3-phase cor ona loss in kW/km,
which ar e par t icular ly adopt ed for e.h.v. lines, and some which ar e classic but cannot be used
for e.h.v. lines since t hey apply only t o single conduct or s and not t o bundles. Ther e is no
convincing evidence t hat t he t ot al cor ona loss of a bundled conduct or wit h N conduct or s is N
t imes t hat of a single conduct or .
(1) Nigol and Cassan Formula (Ont ar io Hydr o, Canada).
P
c
= K.f.r
3
. θ .E
2
. ln (E/E
0
), kW/km, 3-ph ...(5.9)
wher e f = fr equency in Hz, r = conduct or r adius in cm.,
θ = angular por t ion in r adians of conduct or sur face wher e t he volt age
gr adient exceeds t he cr it ical cor ona-incept ion gr adient ,
E = effect ive sur face gr adient at oper at ing volt age V, kV/cm, r .m.s.
E
0
= cor ona-incept ion gr adient for given weat her and conduct or sur face
condit ion, kV/cm, r .m.s.
and K = a const ant which depends upon weat her and conduct or sur face
condit ion.
Many fact or s ar e not t aken int o account in t his for mula such as t he number of sub-
conduct or s in bundle, et c.
(2) Anderson, Baret sky, McCart hy Formula (Pr oject EHV, USA)
An equat ion for cor ona loss in r ain giving t he excess loss above t he fair -weat her loss in kW/3-
phase km is:
P
c
= P
FW
+ 0.3606 K.V.r
2
.ln (1 + 10
ρ
). ∑
N
E
3
1
5
...(5.10)
116 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Her e, P
FW
= t ot al fair -weat her loss in kW/km,
= 1 t o 5 kW/km for 500 kV, and 3 t o 20 kW/km for 700 kV,
K = 5.35 × 10
–10
for 500 t o 700 kV lines,
= 7.04 × 10
–10
for 400 kV lines (based on Rheinau r esult s),
V = conduct or volt age in kV, line-line, r .m.s.,
E = sur face volt age gr adient on t he under side of t he conduct or , kV/cm,
peak,
ρ
= r ain r at e in mm/hour ,
r = conduct or r adius in cm,
and N = number of conduct or s in bundle of each phase [The fact or 0.3606 =
1/1.609
3
].
For mulae ar e not available for (a) snow, and (b) hoar fr ost which ar e t ypical of Canadian
and Russian lat it udes. The EHV Pr oject suggest s K = 1.27 × 10
–9
for snow, but t his is a highly
var iable weat her condit ion r anging fr om heavy t o light snow. Also, t he conduct or t emper at ur e
gover ns in a lar ge measur e t he condit ion immediat ely local t o it and it will be vast ly differ ent
fr om gr ound-level obser vat ion of snow.
The value of
ρ
t o conver t snowfall int o equivalent r ainfall r at e is given as follows :
Hea vy snow :
ρ
= 10% of snowfall r at e;
Medium snow :
ρ
= 2.5% of snowfall r at e;
Light snow :
ρ
= 0.5% of snowfall r at e.
The chief disadvant age in using for mulae based upon volt age gr adient s is t he lack of
difinit ion by t he aut hor s of t he for mulae r egar ding t he t ype of gr adient t o be used. As point ed
out in Chapt er 4, t her e ar e sever al t ypes of volt age gr adient s on conduct or sur faces in a bundle,
such as nominal smoot h-conduct or gr adient pr esent on a conduct or of t he same out er r adius as
t he line conduct or but wit h a smoot h sur face, or t he gr adient wit h sur face r oughness t aken
int o account , or t he aver age gr adient , or t he aver age maximum gr adient , and so on. It is
t her efor e evident t hat for Indian condit ions, an out door e.h.v. pr oject is t he only way of obt aining
meaningful for mulae or cor ona-loss figur es applicable t o local condit ions.
Lat er on in Sect ion 5.3, we will der ive a for mula based upon char ge volt age r elat ions
dur ing t he pr esence of a cor ona dischar ge.
5.2.2 The Corona Current
The cor ona loss P
c
is expr essed as
P
c
= 3 × line-t o-gr ound volt age × in-phase component of cur r ent .
Fr om t he pr eviously ment ioned expr essions for P
c
, we obser ve t hat differ ent invest igat or s
have differ ent for mulas for t he cor ona cur r ent . But in r ealit y t he cur r ent is gener at ed by t he
movement of char ge car r ier s inside t he envelope of par t ial dischar ge ar ound t he conduct or . It
should t her efor e be ver y sur pr ising t o a discer ning r eader t hat t he basic mechanism, being t he
same all over t he wor ld, has not been unified int o one for mula for t his phenomenon. We can
obser ve t he expr essions for cur r ent accor ding t o differ ent invest igat or s below.
1. Peek' s Law. F.W. Peek, J r ., was t he for er unner in set t ing an example for ot her s t o
follow by giving an empir ical for mula r elat ing t he loss in wat t s per unit lengt h of conduct or
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 117
wit h near ly all var iables affect ing t he loss. For a conduct or of r adius r at a height H above
gr ound,
P
c
= kW/km , ) / 1 ( 2 / 10 16 . 5
2 2 3
V V V H r f
o
− ×

...(5.11)
wher e V, V
o
ar e in kV, r .m.s., and r and H ar e in met r es. The volt age gr adient s ar e, at an air
densit y of , δ for a smoot h conduct or ,
E = V/r ln (2H/r) and E
o
= 21.4 ) / 0301 . 0 1 ( δ + δ r ...(5.12)
Exa mp le 5.1. For r = 1 cm, H = 5m, f = 50 Hz, calculat e cor ona loss P
c
accor ding t o
Peek's for mula when E = 1.1 E
o
, and δ = 1.
Sol u t i on . E
0
= r .ms. kV/cm, 84 . 27 ) 01 . 0 / 0301 . 0 1 ( 4 . 21 = +
∴ E = 0316 . 0 2 / . kV/cm 624 . 30 1 . 1
0
= = H r E
V = 30.624 ln (10/0.01) = 211.4 kV. (line-t o-line volt age
= 211.4
3
= 366 kV)
P
c
= 5.16 × 10
–3
× 50 × 0.0316 × 211.4
2
(1 – 1/1.1)
2
= 2.954 kW/km
≅ 3 kW/km.
The expr ession for t he cor ona-loss cur r ent is
i
c
= P
c
/V = 5.16 × 10
–2
f H r 2 / V(1 – V
o
/V )
2
, Amp/km ...(5.13)
For t his example, i
c
= 3000 wat t s/211.4 kV = 14 mA/km.
2. Ryan-Henline Formula
P
c
= 4 fCV(V – V
0
).10
6
, kW/km ...(5.14)
Her e C = capacit ance of conduct or t o gr ound, Far ad/m
=
0
2 e π /ln (2H/r)
and V, V
0
ar e in kV, r .ms.
We can obser ve t hat t he quant it y (CV) is t he char ge of conduct or per unit lengt h. The
cor ona-loss cur r ent is
i
c
= 4 fC(V – V
0
). 10
6
, Amp/km ...(5.15)
Exa mp le 5.2. For t he pr evious example 5.1, comput e t he cor ona loss P
c
and cur r ent i
c
using Ryan-Henline for mulae, equat ions (5.14) and (5.15).
Sol u t i on . P
c
= 4 × 50 × 211.4
2
(1 – 1/1.1) × 10
–3
/18 ln(1000)
= 6.47 kW/km
i
c
= 6.47/211.4 = 3.06 × 10
–2
Amp/km = 30.6 mA/km
3. Project EHV Formula. Equat ion (5.10).
Exa mp le 5.3. The following dat a for a 750 kV line ar e given. Calculat e t he cor ona loss
per kilomet r e and t he cor ona loss cur r ent .
Rat e of r ainfall
ρ
= 5 mm/hr . K = 5.35 × 10
–10
, P
FW
= 5 kW/km
V = 750 kV, line-t o-line. H = 18 m, S = 15 m phase spacing
118 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
N = 4 sub-conduct or s each of r = 0.0175 m wit h bundle spacing
B = 0.4572 m. (Bundle r adius R = B/ 2 = 0.3182 m). Use sur face volt age
gr adient on cent r e phase for calculat ion.
Sol u t i on . Fr om Mangoldt For mula, t he gr adient on t he cent r e phase conduct or will be
E = V.[1 + (N – 1) r/R]/[N.r . ln {2H/r
eq
1 ) / 2 (
2
+ S H }]
wher e r
eq
= R (N.r/R)
1/N
. Using t he values given,
E = 18.1 kV/cm, r .m.s., = 18.1 2 peak = 25.456
P
c
= 5 + 0.3606 × 5.35 × 10
–10
× 750 × 0.175
2
× ln(1 + 50) × 12 × (25.456)
5
= 5 + 229 = 234 kW/km, 3-phase
The cur r ent is
i
c
= A/km 54 . 0 3 750 / 234 3 / = = V P
c
.
Not e t hat t he incr ease in loss under r ain is near ly 46 t imes t hat under fair weat her .
Compar ing wit h Table on page 127 t he cor ona loss is much higher t han t he I
2
R heat ing loss.
5.3 CHARGE-VOLTAGE (q – V ) DIAGRAM AND CORONA LOSS
5.3.1 Increase in Effective Radius of Conductor and Coupling Factors
The par t ial dischar ge of air ar ound a line conduct or is t he pr ocess of cr eat ion and movement of
char ged par t icles and ions in t he vicinit y of a conduct or under t he applied volt age and field. We
shall consider a simplified pict ur e for condit ions occur r ing when fir st t he volt age is passing
t hr ough t he negat ive half-cycle and next t he posit ive half-cycle, as shown in Figur e 5.2.
Fi g. 5.2 Space-char ge dist r ibut ion in cor ona and incr ease in effect ive r adius of conduct or
In Figur e 5.2(a), fr ee elect r ons near t he negat ive conduct or when r epelled can acquir e
sufficient ener gy t o for m an elect r on avalanche. The posit ive ions (a neut r al molecule which
has lost an elect r on) ar e at t r act ed t owar ds t he negat ive conduct or while t he elect r ons dr ift int o
lower fields t o at t ach t hemselves t o neut r al at oms or molecules of Nit r ogen and Oxygen t o
for m negat ive ions. Some r ecombinat ion could also t ake place. The ener gy impar t ed for causing
init ial ionizat ion by collision is supplied by t he elect r ic field. Dur ing t he posit ive half cycle, t he
negat ive ions ar e at t r act ed t owar ds t he conduct or , but because of local condit ions not all ions
dr ift back t o t he conduct or . A space char ge is left behind and t he hyst er esis effect gives r ise t o
t he ener gy loss. Fur t her mor e, because of t he pr esence of char ged par t icles, t he effect ive char ge



+
( ) b
r
r
0
E0
( ) c
Equivalent
Corona Envelope
( ) a




+
+
+
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 119
of t he conduct or gr ound elect r ode syst em is incr eased giving r ise t o an incr ease in effect ive
capacit ance. This can be int er pr et ed in an alt er nat ive manner by assuming t hat t he conduct or
diamet er is effect ively incr eased by t he conduct ing channel up t o a cer t ain ext ent wher e t he
elect r ic field int ensit y decr eases t o a value equal t o t hat r equir ed for fur t her ionizat ion, namely,
t he cor ona-incept ion gr adient , Figur e 5.2(c).
Exa mp l e 5.4. A single smoot h conduct or 1 cm in r adius is st r ung 5 met r es above gr ound;
using Peek's for mula for cor ona-incept ion gr adient , find
(a) t he cor ona-incept ion volt age,
(b) t he equivalent r adius of conduct or t o t he out side of t he cor ona envelope at 20%
over volt age. Take . 1 = δ
Sol u t i on .
(a) E
0
= m. / kV 2784 cm / kV 84 . 27 ) / 0301 . 0 1 ( 4 . 21 = = + r
∴ V
0
= 01 . 0 / 10 ln( 01 . 0 2784 ) / 2 ( ln . .
0
× × = r H r E )
= 192.3 kV, r .m.s.
(b) Let r
0
= effect ive r adius of t he cor ona envelope
Then, E
0c
= ) / ) 0301 . 0 1 ( 2140
0
r + , and
1.2 × 192.3 = E
0c
.r
o
.ln (2H/r
o
) giving
230.8 = 2140 (1 + 0.0301/ ). / 10 ( ln . ).
0 0 0
r r r
A t r ial solut ion yields r
0
= 0.0126 m = 1.26 cm.
So far we have consider ed power -fr equency excit at ion and wor ked wit h effect ive or r .m.s.
values of volt age and volt age gr adient . Ther e ar e t wo ot her ver y impor t ant t ypes of vollt age,
namely t he light ning impulse and swit ching sur ge, which give r ise t o int ense cor ona on t he
conduct or s. The r esult ing ener gy loss helps t o at t enuat e t he volt age magnit udes dur ing t r avel
fr om a sour ce point t o ot her point s far away along t he over head line. The r esult ing at t enuat ion
or decr ease in amplit ude, and t he dist or t ion or waveshape will be discussed in det ail in t he next
sect ion. We ment ion her e t hat at power fr equency, t he cor ona-incept ion gr adient and volt age
ar e usually higher by 10 t o 30% of t he oper at ing volt age in fair weat her so t hat a line is not
nor mally designed t o gener at e cor ona. However , local condit ions such as dir t par t icles et c., do
give r ise t o some cor ona. On t he ot her hand, under a light ning st r oke or a swit ching oper at ion,
t he volt age exceeds t wice t he peak value of cor ona-incept ion volt age. Cor ona plumes have been
phot ogr aphed fr om act ual lines which ext end up t o 1.2 met r es fr om t he sur face of t he conduct or .
Ther efor e, t her e is evidence of a ver y lar ge incr ease in effect ive diamet er of a conduct or under
t hese condit ions.
Cor ona -incept ion gr a dient s on conduct or s under impulse condit ions on cylindr ica l
conduct or s above a gr ound plane ar e equal t o t hose under power fr equency but cr est values
have t o be used in Peek's for mula. The incr ease in effect ive r adius will in t ur n change t he
capacit ance of t he conduct or which has an influence on t he volt age coupled t o t he ot her phase-
conduct or s locat ed on t he same t ower . The incr eased coupling fact or on mut ually-coupled
t r avelling waves was r ecognized in t he 1930's and 40's under light ning condit ions. At pr esent ,
swit ching sur ges ar e of gr eat concer n in det er mining insulat ion clear ance bet ween conduct or
and gr ound, and conduct or t o conduct or . We will consider t he incr ease in diamet er and t he
r esult ing coupling fact or s under bot h t ypes of impulses.
120 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Exa mp le 5.5. A single conduct or 2.5 inch in diamet er of a 525-kV line (line-t o-line volt age)
is st r ung 13 m above gr ound. Calculat e (a) t he cor ona-incept ion volt age and (b) t he effect ive
r adius of conduct or at an over volt age of 2.5 p.u. Consider a st r anding fact or m = 1.25 for
r oughness. (c) Calculat e t he capacit ance of conduct or t o gr ound wit h and wit hout cor ona. (d) If
a second conduct or is st r ung 10 m away at t he same height , calculat e t he coupling fact or s in
t he t wo cases. Take . 1 = δ
Sol u t i on . r = 0.03176 m, H = 13.
(a) E
0r
= 2140 × 0.8 (1 + 03176 . 0 / 0301 . 0 )
= 2001 kV/m = 20 kV/cm.
V
0
= E
0
.r . ln (2H/r) = 532.73 kV r .m.s., line-t o-gr ound,
= 753.4 kV peak.
At 525 kV, r .m.s., line-t o-line, t her e is no cor ona pr esent .
(b) 2.5 p.u. volt age = 3 / 2 525 5 . 2 × = 1071.65 kV, cr est .
Ther efor e, cor ona is pr esent since t he cor ona-onset volt age is 753.4 kV, cr est .
When consider ing t he effect ive r adius, we assume a smoot h sur face for t he envelope
so t hat
1071.65 = 3000 ). / 26 ( ln . ). / 0301 . 0 1 (
0 0 0
r r r +
A t r ial and er r or solut ion yields r
0
= 0.05 met r e. This is an incr ease
in r adius of 0.05 – 0.03176 = 0.01824 met r e or 57.43%.
(c) C = ). / 2 ( ln / 2
0
r H e π
Wit hout cor ona, C = 8.282 nF/km;
Wit h cor ona, C = 8.88 nF/km,
(d) The pot ent ial coefficient mat r ix is
[P] =









= =







1
,
,
] [ ] [ and
,
,
11 21
12 22 1
22 21
12 11
P P
P P
P M
P P
P P
wher e ∆ = | [P]| , t he det er minant .
The self-capacit ance is ∆ π / 2
11 0
P e while t he mut ual capacit ance is – . / 2
12
∆ π P e
o
The
coupling fact or is K
12
= – P
12
/P
11
.
Wit hout cor ona K
12
= – ln ) 03176 . 0 / 26 ( ln / ) 10 / 10 26 (
2 2
+
= – 1.0245/6.7076 = – 0.15274
Wit h cor ona, K
12
= – 1.0245/ ln (26/.05) = – 0.1638.
This is an incr ease of 7.135%.
For bundled conduct or s, coupling fact or s bet ween 15% t o 25% ar e found in pr act ice. Not e
t hat wit h a swit ching sur ge of 1000 kV cr est , t he second conduct or exper iences a volt age of
near ly 152 kV cr est t o gr ound so t hat t he volt age bet ween t he conduct or s could r each 850 kV
cr est .
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 121
5.3.2 Charge-Voltage Diagram with Corona
When cor ona is absent t he capacit ance of a conduct or is based on t he physical r adius of t he
met allic conduct or . The char ge-volt age r elat ion is a st r aight line OA as shown in Figur e 5.3
and C = q
0
/V
0
, wher e V
0
= t he cor ona-incept ion volt age and q
0
t he cor r esponding char ge. However ,
beyond t his volt age t her e is an incr ease in char ge which is mor e r apid t han given by t he slope
C of t he st r aight -line q
0
— V
0
r elat ion. This is shown as t he por t ion AB which is near ly st r aight .
When t he volt age is decr eased aft er r eaching a maximum V
m
t her e is a hyst er esis effect and
t he q – V r elat ion follows t he pat h BD. The slope of BD almost equals C showing t hat t he space-
char ge cloud near t he conduct or has been absor bed int o t he conduct or and char ges far enough
away fr om t he conduct or ar e not ent ir ely pulled back. The essent ial pr oper t ies of t he q –V
diagr am for one half-cycle of an ac volt age or t he unipolar light ning and swit ching impulses can
be obt ained fr om t he t r apezoidal ar ea OABD which r epr esent s t he ener gy loss.
F i g. 5.3 Cha r ge-Volt a ge dia gr a m of cor ona .
Let t he slope of AB equal (1 + K) C wher e K is an exper iment al fact or which lies bet ween
0.6 and 0.8 having an aver age value of 0.7. The maximum char ge cor r espondihg t o V
m
is denot ed
as q
m
. The ar ea of OABD equals ) (
2
1
2
0
2
V V KC
m
− as shown below:
Ar ea OABD = (Ar ea DOFB) – (Ar ea OAG) – Ar ea (GAHF) – Ar ea (AHB)
= (Ar ea DOFB) – ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
0 0 0 0 0 0
V V q q V V q V q
m m m
− − − − −
= Ar ea DOFB – )} ( {
2
1
0 0
V V q V q
m m m
− + ...(5.16)
Now, BH = , / ) ( ) 1 (
0 0 0 0
V V V q K q q
m m
− + = −
J H = , / ) (
0 0 0
V V V q
m

and BF = , / ) ( ) 1 (
0 0 0 0
V V V q K q q
m m
− + + =
∴ DO = BJ = BH – J H = . / ) (
0 0 0
V V V Kq
m
− ...(5.17)
Ar ea DOFB =
0
2
0 0 0 0
/
2
1
/ ) ( ) (
2
1
V V q V V V V Kq V BF DO
m m m m
+ − = + ...(5.18)
Ar ea OAG = ). ( Ar ea ;
2
1
0 0 0 0
V V q AGFH V q
m
− =
Ar ea AHB =
0
2
0 0 0
2
0
2
0 0 0
/ ) (
2
1
/ ) (
2
1
) )( (
2
1
V V V Kq V V V q V V q q
m m m m
− + − = − − ...(5.19)
qm
q
0
V0 Vm
B
J
H
F
G
A
C
O
D
(1 + ) K C
122 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
∴ Ar eas (OAG + AGFH + AHB) = ], ) ( )[ / (
2
1
2
0
2
0 0
V V K V V q
m m
− + ...(5.20)
Finally, Ar ea OABD =
0 0 0 0
/ ) )( ( .
2
1
V V V V V q K
m m
+ −
= ) (
2
1
2
0
2
V V KC
m
− ...(5.21)
For a unipolar wavefor m of volt age t he ener gy loss is equal t o equat ion (5.21). For an ac
volt age for one cycle, t he ener gy loss is t wice t his value.
∴ W
ac
=
2
0
2
( V V KC
m
− ) ...(5.22)
The cor r esponding power loss will be
P
c
= f W
ac
= ) (
2
0
2
V V fKC
m
− ...(5.23)
If t he maximum volt age is ver y close t o t he cor ona-incept ion volt age V
0
, we can wr it e
), ( 2 ) ( ) (
0 0 0
2
0
2
V V V V V V V V V
m m m m m
− = − + = − so t hat
P
c
= ) ( 2
0
V V KCV f
m m
− ...(5.24)
wher e all volt ages ar e cr est values. When effect ive values for V
m
and V
0
ar e used.
P
c
= ) ( 4
0
V V V KC f − ...(5.25)
This is ver y close t o t he Ryan-Henline for mula, equat ion (5.14) wit h K = 1. For light ning
and swit ching impulses t he ener gy loss is equat ion (5.21) which is W = ) (
2
1
2
0
2
V V KC
m
− wher e all
volt ages ar e cr est values.
Exa mp le 5.6. An over head conduct or of 1.6 cm r adius is 10 m above gr ound. The nor mal
volt age is 133 kV r .m.s. t o gr ound (230 kV, line-t o-line). The swit ching sur ge exper ienced is 3.5
p.u. Taking K = 0.7, calculat e t he ener gy loss per km of line. Assume smoot h conduct or .
Sol u t i on . C = ) / 2 ( ln / 2
0
r H e π = 7.79 nF/km
E
0
= ) 016 . 0 / 0301 . 0 1 ( 30 + = 37.14 kV/cm, cr est
∴ V
0
= E
0
.r. ln (2H/r) = 423.8 kV, cr est
V
m
= 2 133 5 . 3 × = 658.3 kV, cr est
∴ W = 0.5 × 0.7 × 7.79 × 10
–9
(658.3
2
– 423.8
2
) × 10
6
J oule/km
= 0.7 kJ /km.
This pr oper t y will be used in der iving at t enuat ion of t r avelling waves caused by light ning
and swit ching in Chapt er 8.
5.4 ATTENUATION OF TRAVELLING WAVES DUE TO CORONA LOSS
A volt age wave incident on a t r ansmission line at an init ial point x = 0 will t r avel wit h a velocit y
v such t hat at a lat er t ime t t he volt age r eaches a point x = vt fr om t he point of incidence, as
shown in Figur e 5.4 In so doing if t he cr est value of volt age is higher t han t he cor ona-disr upt ive
volt a ge for t he conduct or , it loses ener gy while it t r a vels a nd it s a mplit ude decr ea ses
cor r esponding t o t he lower ener gy cont ent . In addit ion t o t he at t enuat ion or decr ease in
amplit ude, t he waveshape also shows dist or t ion. In t his sect ion, we will discuss only at t enuat ion
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 123
since dist or t ion must include complet e equat ions of t r avelling waves caused by induct ance and
capacit ance as well as conduct or and gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance. This is dealt wit h in Chapt er 8.
Fi g. 5.4 At t enuat ion of volt age on a t r ansmission line.
The ener gy of t he wave is st or ed in bot h elect r omagnet ic for m and elect r ost at ic for m. The
t ime r at e of loss of st or ed ener gy is equal t o t he power loss due t o cor ona, whose funct ional
r elat ionship wit h volt age has been given in Sect ion 5.2. The t ot al ener gy in a differ ent ial lengt h
dx of t he wave will be.
dw =
2 2
) . (
2
1
) . (
2
1
I dx L V dx C + ...(5.26)
wher e L and C ar e induct ance and capacit ance per unit lengt h of line. For a t r avelling wave,
t he volt age V and cur r ent I ar e r elat ed by t he sur ge impedance Z = , / C L and t he wave
velocit y is v =
LC / 1
Consequent ly, I
2
= V
2
/ Z
2
= V
2
C/L. Thus, equat ion (5.26) becomes.
dw = C.dx.V
2
. ...(5.27)
The r at e of dissipat ion of ener gy, assuming t he capacit ance does not change wit h volt age for
t he pr esent analysis, is
dw/dt = d (CV
2
.dx)/dt = 2CV.dx.dV/dt . ...(5.28)
Now, t he power loss over t he differ ent ial lengt h dx is
P
c
= ). ( / . 2 t hat so , ). ( V f P dt dV CV dx V f
c
− = − = ...(5.29)
For differ ent funct ional r elat ions P
c
= f(V), equat ion (5.29) can be solved and t he magnit ude of
volt age aft er a t ime of t r avel t (or dist ance x = vt ) can be det er mined. We will illust r at e t he
pr ocedur e for a few t ypical values of f(V), but will consider t he pr oblem lat er on by using
equat ion (5.21) in Chapt er 8.
(a) Linear Relationship
Let f(V) = K
s
(V – V
0
). Then, wit h V
i
= init ial volt age, 2 CV dV/dt = –K
s
(V –V
0
). By separ at ing
var iables and using t he init ial condit ion V = V
i
at t = 0 yields
, ). ( ). (
0 0
/ ) (
0
/
0
V t V
i
V V
i
e V V e V V

− = − ...(5.30)
wher e α = K
s
/2C and V
0
= cor ona-incept ion volt age.
Also, t he volt ages in excess of t he cor ona-incept ion volt age at any t ime t or dist ance x = vt
will be
. ) / ) (
0
/ ) (
0 0
V t V V
i
i
e V V V V
∝ − −
= − − ...(5.31)
x = vt
Vi
x = 0
dx dx
V
124 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
This expr ession yields an indir ect met hod of det er mining α = K
s
/2C by exper iment , if
dist or t ion is not t oo gr eat . It r equir es measur ing t he incident wave magnit ude V
i
and t he
magnit ude V aft er a t ime lapse of t or dist ance x = vt at a differ ent point on t he line, whose
cor ona-incept ion volt age V
0
is known. When C is also known, t he const ant K
s
is calculat ed.
Exa mp le 5.7. A volt age wit h magnit ude of 500 kV cr est is incident on a conduct or whose
cor ona-incept ion volt age is 100 kV cr est , and capacit ance C = 10 nF/km. Aft er a lapse of 120
s µ
(36 km of t r avel at light velocit y) t he measur ed amplit ude is 110 kV. Calculat e α and K
s
.
Sol u t i on . V
i
/V
0
= . 400 , 10 , 5
0 0
= − = − V V V V
i
V
0
= volt s 10 kV 100
5
=
∴ 10/400 = ) 10 / 10 120 ( exp ] 100 / ) 110 500 ( [exp
5 6
a × × − −

This gives
1 9
sec volt 10 325 . 6 2 /

− × = = α C K
s
.
∴ K
s
= 5 . 126 10 10 10 325 . 6 2
9 9
= × × × ×

wat t s/km-volt or Amp/km.
(b) Quadratic Formula
(i) Let t he loss be assumed t o var y as
f(V) = K
R
V(V –V
0
) ...(5.32)
So t hat
2CV (dV/dt ) = – K
R
V(V – V
0
).
Wit h V = V
i
at t = 0, int egr at ion gives
] ) 2 / ( [ exp
0
0
t C K
V V
V V
R
i
− =


...(5.33)
The volt age in excess of cor ona-incept ion value behaves as if it is at t enuat ed by a r esist ance
of R per unit lengt h as given by t he for mula
] ) 2 / ( [ exp ). ( ) (
0 0
t L R V V V V
i
− − = −
∴ K
R
= . / /
2
Z R L RC =
For t he pr evious example.
K
R
=
. 10 5 . 61
10
400
ln .
10 120
10 2
6
6
9



× =
×
×
The unit s ar e wat t s/km-volt
2
.
(ii) If t he loos is assumed t o var y as
f(V) = ) (
2
0
2
V V K
Q
− ...(5.34)
t hen 2CV (dV/dt ) = . 0 wit h ) (
2
0
2
= = − − t at V V V V K
i Q
∴ 2
0
2
0
2
2
V
V
V
V
i


= exp [– (K
Q
/C)t ]
For t he pr evious example,
K
Q
=
. 10 395
100
100
110
500
ln .
10 120
10 10
6
2
2
2
2
6
9



× =


×
×
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 125
(iii) Let . ) ( ) (
2
0
V V K V f
P
− = Then,
. 0 a t wit h ) ( ) / .( 2
2
0
= = − − = t V V V V K dt dV CV
i P
This gives
t C K
V V V V
V V V
V V
V V
P
i
i i
) 2 / (
) )( (
) (
ln
0 0
0
0
0
=
− −

+


...(5.35)
For
9
0
10 10 , kV 110 , kV 500 , kV 100

× = = = = C V V V
i
F/km, a nd
6
10 120

× = t
sec, t her e r esult s K
p
= 224 × 10
–6
.
(c) Cubic Relation
If f(V) =
3 3
) / ( 2 , . V K dt dV CV V K
c c
− =
giving V
i
/V = . ) 2 / ( 1 t V C K
i c
+ ...(5.36)
For t he pr evious example, K
c
= 1.182 × 10
–9
wat t s/km-volt
3
.
5.5 AUDIBLE NOISE: GENERATION AND CHARACTERISTICS
When cor ona is pr esent on t he conduct or s, e.h.v. lines gener at e audible noise which is especially
high dur ing foul weat her . The noise is br oadband, which ext ends fr om ver y low fr equency t o
about 20 kHz. Cor ona dischar ges gener at e posit ive and negat ive ions which ar e alt er nat ely
at t r act ed and r epelled by t he per iodic r ever sal of polar it y of t he ac excit at ion. Their movement
gives r ise t o sound-pr essur e waves at fr equencies of t wice t he power fr equency and it s mult iples,
in addit ion t o t he br oadband spect r um which is t he r esult of r andom mot ions of t he ions, as
shown in Figur e 5.5. The noise has a pur e t one super imposed on t he br oadband noise. Due t o
differ ences in ionic mot ion bet ween ac and dc excit at ions, dc lines exhibit only a br oadband
noise, and fur t her mor e, unlike for ac lines, t he noise gener at ed fr om a dc line is near ly equal
in bot h fair and foul weat her condit ions. Since audible noise (AN) is man-made, it is measur ed
in t he same manner as ot her t ypes of man-made noise such as air cr aft noise, aut omobile
ignit ion noise, t r a nsfor mer hum, et c. We will descr ibe met er s used a nd met hods of AN
measur ement s in a subsequent sect ion 5.7.
Fi g. 5.5 Audible Noise fr equency spect r a fr om ac and dc t r ansmission lines.
Audible noise can become a ser ious pr oblem fr om 'psycho-acoust ics' point of view, leading
t o insanit y due t o loss of sleep at night t o inhabit ant s r esiding close t o an e.h.v. line. This
0 100 200
AN AN dB dB
f
AC Line
f
DC Line
126 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
pr oblem came int o focus in t he 1960's wit h t he ener gizat ion of 500 kV lines in t he USA.
Regulat or y bodies have not as yet fixed limit s t o AN fr om power t r ansmission lines since such
r egulat ions do not exist for ot her man-made sour ces of noise. The pr oblem is left as a social one
which has t o be set t led by public opinion. The pr oposed limit s for AN ar e discussed in t he next
sect ion.
5.6 LIMITS FOR AUDIBLE NOISE
Since no legislat ion exist s set t ing limit s for AN for man-made sour ces, power companies and
envir onment alist s have fixed limit s fr om public-r elat ions point of view which power companies
have accept ed fr om a mor al point of view. In doing so, like ot her kinds of int er fer ence, human
beings must be subject ed t o list ening t est s. Such object ive t est s ar e per for med by ever y civic-
minded power ut ilit y or ganizat ion. The fir st such ser ies of t est s per for med fr om a 500-kV line
of t he Bonneville Power Administ r at ion in t he U.S.A. is known as Per r y Cr it er ion. The AN
limit s ar e as follows:
No complaint s : Less than 52.5 dB (A),
Few complaint s : 52.5 dB (A) t o 59 dB (A),
Many complaint s : Gr eat er t han 59 dB (A),
The r efer ence level for audible noise and t he dB r elat ion will be explained lat er . The
not at ion (A) denot es t hat t he noise is measur ed on a met er on a filt er designat ed as A-weight ing
net wor k. Ther e ar e sever al such net wor ks in a met er .
Design of line dimensions at e.h.v. levels is now gover ned mor e by t he need t o limit AN
levels t o t he above values. The select ion of widt h of line cor r idor or r ight -of-way (R-O-W),
wher e t he near est house can be per mit t ed t o be locat ed, if fixed fr om AN limit of 52.5 dB(A),
will be found adequat e fr om ot her point s of view at 1000 t o 1200 kV levels. The design aspect
will be consider ed in Sect ion 5.8. The audible noise gener at ed by a line is a funct ion of t he
following fact or s:
(a) t he sur face volt age gr adient on conduct or s,
(b) t he number of sub-conduct or s in t he bundle,
(c) conduct or diamet er ,
(d) at mospher ic condit ions, and
(e) t he lat er al dist ance (or aer ial dist ance) fr om t he line conduct or s t o t he point wher e
noise is t o be evaluat ed.
The ent ir e phenomenon is st at ist ical in nat ur e, as in all pr oblems r elat ed t o e.h.v. line
designs, because of at mospher ic condit ions.
While t he Per r y cr it er ion is based upon act ual list ening exper iences on t est gr oups of
human beings, and guidelines ar e given for limit s for AN fr om an e.h.v. line at t he locat ion of
inhabit ed places, ot her man-made sour ces of noise do not follow such limit s. A second cr it er ion
for set t ing limit s and which evaluat es t he nuisance value fr om man-made sour ces of AN is
called t he 'Day-Night Equivalent ' level of noise. This is based not only upon t he var iat ion of AN
wit h at mospher ic condit ions but also wit h t he hour s of t he day and night dur ing a 24-hour
per iod. The r eason is t hat a cer t ain noise level which can be t oler at ed dur ing t he waking hour s
of t he day, when ambient noise is high, cannot be t oler at ed dur ing sleeping hour s of t he night
when lit t le or no ambient noises ar e pr esent . This will be elabor at ed upon in Sect ion 5.9.
Accor ding t o t he Day-Night Cr it er ion, a noise level of 55 dB(A) can be t aken as t he limit inst ead
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 127
of 52.5 dB(A) accor ding t o t he Per r y Cr it er ion. Fr om a st at ist ical point of view, t hese levels ar e
consider ed t o exist for 50% of t he t ime dur ing pr ecipit at ion hour s. These ar e designat ed as L
50
levels.
5.7 AN MEASUREMENT AND METERS
5.7.1 Decibel Values in AN and Addition of Sources
Audible noise is caused by changes in air pr essur e or ot her t r ansmission medium so t hat it is
descr ibed by Sound Pr essur e Level (SPL). Alexander Gr aham Bell est ablished t he basic unit
for SPL as 20 × 10
–6
Newt on/m
2
or 20 micr o Pascals [2 × 10
–5
micr o bar ]. All decibel values ar e
r efer r ed t o t his basic unit . In t elephone wor k t her e is a flow of cur r ent in a set of head-phones
or r eceiver . Her e t he basic unit s ar e 1 milliwat t acr oss 600 ohms yielding a volt age of 775 mV
and a cur r ent of 1.29 mA. For any ot her SPL, t he decibel value is
SPL(dB) = 10 Log
10
(SPL/20 × 10
–6
) Pascals ...(5.37)
This is also t er med t he 'Acoust ic Power Level', denot ed by PWL, or simply t he audible
noise level, AN.
Exa mp le 5.8. The AN level of one phase of a 3-phase t r ansmission line at a point is 50
dB. Calculat e (a) t he SPL in Pascals; (b) if a second sour ce of noise cont r ibut es 48dB at t he
same locat ion, calculat e t he combined AN level due t o t he t wo sour ces.
Sol u t i on .
(a) 10 Log
10
(SPL
1
/2 × 10
–5
) = 50, which gives
SPL
1
= 2 × 10
–5
× 10
50/10
= 2 Pascals
(b) Similar ly, SPL
2
= 2 × 10
–5
× 10
48/10
= 1.262 Pascals
∴ Tot al SPL = SPL
1
+ SPL
2
= 3.262 Pascals.
The decibel value will be
AN = 10 Log
10
(SPL/2 ×10
–5
) = 52.125 dB.
Consider N sour ces whose decibel values, at a given point wher e AN level is t o be evaluat ed,
ar e AN
1
, AN
2
,...., AN
N
. In or der t o add t hese sour ces and evaluat e t he r esult ant SPL and dB
values, t he pr ocedur e is as follows:
The individual sound pr essur e levels ar e
SPL
1
=
10 / AN 6
2
10 / AN 6
2 1
10 10 20 SPL , 10 10 20 × × = × ×
− −
et c.
∴ The t ot al SPL = SPL
1
+ SPL
2
+ . . . = 2 × 10
–5

=
N
i
i
1
10 / AN
10
...(5.38)
The decibel value of t he combined sound pr essur e level is
AN = 10 Log
10
(SPL/2 × 10
–5
) = 10 Log
10

=
N
i
i
1
AN 1 . 0
10
...(5.39)
Exa mp le 5.9. A 3-phase line yields AN levels fr om individual phases t o be 55 dB, 52 dB,
and 48 dB. Find t he r esult ing AN level of t he line.
Sol u t i on .
5 8 . 4 2 . 5 5 . 5 AN 1 . 0 AN 1 . 0 AN 1 . 0
10 382 . 5 10 10 10 10 10 10
3 2 1
× = + + = + +
∴ AN = . dB 31 . 57 ) 10 382 . 5 ( Log 10
5
10
= ×
128 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
5.7.2 Microphones
Inst r ument s for measur ement of audible noise ar e ver y simple in const r uct ion in so far as t heir
pr inciples ar e concer ned. They would confor m t o st andar d specificat ions of each count r y, as for
example, ANSI, ISI or I.E.C., et c. The input end of t he AN measur ing syst em consist s of a
micr ophone as shown in t he block diagr am, Figur e 5.6. Ther e ar e t hr ee t ypes of micr ophones
used in AN measur ement fr om e.h.v. lines and equipment . They ar e (i) air -condenser t ype;
(ii) cer a mic; a nd (iii) elect r et micr ophones. Air condenser micr ophones ar e ver y st able and
exhibit highest fr equency r esponse. Cer amic ones ar e t he most r ugged of t he t hr ee t ypes.
Since AN is pr imar ily a foul-weat her phenomenon, adequat e pr ot ect ion of micr ophone fr om
weat her is necessar y. In addit ion, t he elect r et micr ophone r equir es a polar izat ion volt age so
t hat a power supply (usually bat t er y) will also be exposed t o r ain and must be pr ot ect ed suit ably.
Fi g. 5.6 Block diagr am of AN Measur ing Cir cuit .
Some of t he micr ophones used in AN measur ement fr om e.h.v. lines ar e Gener al Radio
Type 1560-P, or 1971-9601, or Br uel and Kjor t ype 4145 or 4165, and so on. The GR t ype has a
weat her pr ot ect ion. Since AN level for m a t r ansmission line is much lower t han, say, air cr aft
or ignit ion noise, 1" (2.54 cm) diamet er micr ophones ar e used alt hough some have used "
2
1
ones, since t hese ha ve mor e sensit ivit y t ha n 1" micr ophones. Ther efor e, size is not t he
det er mining fact or .
The most impor t ant char act er ist ic of a micr ophone is it s fr equency r esponse. In making
AN measur ement s, it is evident t hat t he angle bet ween t he micr ophone and t he sour ce is not
a lwa ys 90° so t ha t t he gr a zing a ngle det er mines t he fr equency r esponse. Some t ypica l
char act er ist ics ar e as shown in Figur e 5.7.
Fi g. 5.7 Response of micr ophone for gr azing and per pendicular incidence.
MIKE
Pre-Amp II Amp A B C
Weighting
Networks
Output Amp. Meter
Output Amp.
Output
Jack
Gain Control
Calibration
Grazing
Perpendicular
Ideal
4
0
5
d
B
10
2
10
3
10
4
Frequency, Hz
10
4
10
3
10
2
0
Mike Directed
Towards Cond.
Mike Vertical
Ideal
Non-Directional
Frequency, Hz
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 129
AN levels ar e st at ist ical in nat ur e and long-t er m measur ement s ar e car r ied out by
pr ot ect ing t he micr ophone fr om r ain, wind, animals, and bir ds. Some t ypes of shelt er s use
wind-scr eens wit h a coat ing of silicone gr ease. Foam r ubber wind-cover s have also been used
which have negligible at t enuat ion effect on t he sound, par t icular ly on t he A-weight ed net wor k
which will be descr ibed below. Ever y wind-cover must also be calibr at ed and manufact ur er s
supply t his dat a. Foam-r ubber soaks up r ain and must be squeezed out per iodically and silicone
gr ease applied.
5.7.3 Weighting Networks
Ther e ar e 5 weight ing net wor ks designat ed as A t o E in Sound Pr essur e Level Met er s. The ' A'
weight ed net wor k has been designed par t icular ly t o have near ly t he same r esponse as t he
human ear , while t he 'C' weight ed net wor k has a flat r esponse up t o 16 kHz. The 'A' net wor k
is also least suscept ible t o wind gust s. It is also pr efer r ed by Labour Relat ions Depar t ment s for
a ssessing t he a dver sit y of noise-cr ea t ed psychologica l a nd physiologica l effect s in noisy
envir onment s such as fact or ies, power st at ions, et c.
Typical fr equency r esponse of t he A, B, C weight ing net wor ks ar e sket ched in Figur e
5.8(a) while 5.8(b) compar es t he r esponses of A, D net wor ks. The A-weight ing net wor k is widely
used for r elat ively nondir ect ional sour ces. Fr om t hese cur ves it is seen t hat t he C-net wor k
pr ovides essent ially flat r esponse fr om 20 Hz t o 10 kHz. The human ear exhibit s such flat
r esponse for sound pr essur e levels up t o 85 dB or mor e. At lower SPL, t he human ear does not
have a flat r esponse wit h fr equency and t he A and B net wor ks ar e pr efer r ed. The A net wor k is
used for SPL up t o 40 dB and t he B for SPL up t o 70 dB. Somet imes, t he A-weight ed net wor k is
known as t he 40 dB net wor k. It is also used for t r ansfor mer noise measur ement s.
Fi g. 5.8 Fr equency r esponses of (a) A, B, C weight ing net wor ks, (b) A, D weight ing net wor ks.
5.7.4 Octave Band and Third Octave Band
It was ment ioned ear lier t hat in addit ion t o t he br oadband noise gener at ed by cor ona, pur e
t ones at double t he power fr equency and it s mult iples exist . These discr et e-fr equency component s
or line spect r a ar e measur ed on oct ave bands by select ive filt er s. Figur e 5.9 shows a schemat ic
diagr am of t he swit ching ar r angement for use wit h a 50-Hz line.
A
B
C
A
B,C
10 10
0 10
– 10 – 10
– 20 – 20
– 30 – 30
– 40 – 40
d
B
d
B
10
2
10
2
10
3
10
3
10
4
10
4
Frequency, Hz Frequency, Hz
A
D
D
A
130 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Fi g. 5.9 Oct ave band AN met er cir cuit .
The oct ave band consist s of a cent r e fr equency f
0
. Let f
1
and f
2
be t he upper and lower
fr equencies of t he bands. Then f
0
=
2 1
f f . An oct ave band ext ends fr om t he lower fr equency
f
2
= 2 /
0
f t o t he upper fr equency f
1
=
. 2 0
2 2 f f =
A t hir d-oct ave band ext ends fr om t he lower fr equency f
3
= f
0
/(2)
1/6
= 0.891 f
0
t o an upper
fr equency f
4
= . ) 2 ( 1225 . 1 . ) 2 (
3
3 / 1
0 0
6 / 1
f f f = = The oct ave and t hir d-oct ave band SPL is t he
int egr at ed SPL of all t he fr equency component s in t he band.
Exa mp le 5.10. An oct ave band has a cent r e fr equency of 1000 Hz. (a) Calculat e t he upper
and lower fr equencies of t he band. (b) Calculat e t he same for t hir d-oct ave band.
Sol u t i on . (a) f
0
= 1000. ∴ . Hz 707 , H 1414 2
2 0 1
= = = f z f f
(b) f
4
= . H 891 ) 2 /( 1000 , H 1122 ) 2 (
6 / 1
3 0
6 / 1
z f z f = = =
All fr equency component s r adiat ed by a t r ansmission line have t o pr opagat e fr om t he
conduct or t o t he met er and t her efor e int er vening media play an impor t ant r ole, par t icular ly
r eflect ions fr om t he gr ound sur face. The lowest -fr equency oct ave band is most sensit ive t o
such dist ur bances while t he A-weight ed net wor k and higher fr equency oct ave bands give a flat
over all r esponse. Examples ar e shown in Figur e 5.10.
F i g. 5.10 Oct ave band r esponse for line AN.
(a) Fr equency spect r um, (b) Lat er al pr ofile for 100-Hz Oct ave band.
High Pass
A
A
A
Meter
Jack 10 dB Step
Attenuator
Band Selector Switch (Ganged)
INPUT
Low Pass
62.5
4000
62.5 – 125
125 – 250
250 – 500
500 – 10
3
10 – 2 × 10
3 3
2×10– 4 ×10
3 3
65
60
55
50
45
40
d
B
10
2
10
3
10
4
Frequency, Hz
65
60
55
50
45
40
d
B
10
2
10
3
10
4
Frequency, Hz
100-Hz Octave Band
A-Weighted
1000-Hz Octave
Band
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 131
Thus, displacing t he micr ophone even a few met r es can give er r oneous r esult s on a 100-
Hz oct ave band. The cur ve is caused by st anding waves and r eflect ions fr om t he gr ound sur face.
5.8 FORMULAE FOR AUDIBLE NOISE AND USE IN DESIGN
Audible noise fr om a line is subject t o var iat ion wit h at mospher ic condit ion. This means t hat
t her e is no one quant it y or AN level t hat can be consider ed as t he audible noise level of a line.
All designer s accept t wo levels–t he L
50
level and t he L
5
level. These ar e defined as follows:
L
50
Level: This is t he AN level as measur ed on t he A-weight ed net wor k which is exceeded 50%
of t he t ime dur ing per iods of r ain, usually ext ending over an ent ir e year .
L
5
Level: Similar t o L
50
, but exceeded only 5% of t he t ot al t ime.
The L
5
level is used for descr ibing t he noise levels in heavy r ain which ar e gener at ed in
ar t ificial r ain t est s. These ar e car r ied out in 'cage t est s' wher e ar t ificial r ain appar at us is used,
as well as fr om shor t out door exper iment al lines equipped wit h such appar at us. Many empir ical
for mulas exist for calculat ing t he AN level of an e.h.v. line [see IEEE Task For ce paper , Oct ober
1982]. However , we will discuss t he use of t he for mula developed by t he B.P.A. of t he USA. It
is applicable for t he following condit ions:
(a) All line geomet r ies wit h bundles having up t o 16 sub-conduct or s.
(b) Sub-conduct or diamet er s in t he r ange 2 cm t o 6.5 cm.
(c) The AN calculat ed is t he L
50
level in r ain.
(d) Tr ansmission volt ages ar e 230 kV t o 1500 kV, 3-phase ac.
Refer r ing t o Figur e 5.11, t he AN level of each phase at t he measur ing point M is, wit h
i = 1, 2, 3,
AN (i) = 120 log
10
E
am
(i) + 55 log
10
d – 11.4 log
10
D(i) – 115.4, dB(A) (5.40)
F i g. 5.11 Calculat ion of AN level of line by B.P.A. For mula.
It applies for N < 3 sub-conduct or s in t he bundles. For N

3, t he for mula becomes
AN(i) = 120 log
10
E
am
(i) + 55 log
10
d – 11.4 log
10
D(i)
+ 26.4 log
10
N – 128.4, dB(A) ...(5.41)
Her e, E
am
(i) = aver age maximum sur face volt age gr adient on bundle belonging t o
phase i in kV/cm, r .m.s.
d = diamet er of sub-conduct or in cm.,
N = number of sub-conduct or s in bundle,
and D(i) = aer ial dist ance fr om phase i t o t he locat ion of t he micr ophone in met r es.
1
2
3
D
1
D
2
D
3
M
132 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
When all dimensions ar e in met r e unit s, t he above give
N < 3 : AN(i) = 120 log E
m
(i) + 55 log d
m
– 11.4 log D(i) + 234.6, dB(A) ...(5.42)
N

3 : AN(i) = 120 log E
m
(i) + 55 log d
m
– 11.4 log D(i)
+ 26.4 log N + 221.6, dB(A) ...(5.43)
Having calculat ed t he AN level of each phase, t he r ule for addit ion of t he t hr ee levels
follows equat ion (5.39),
AN =
) ( dB , 10 log 10
3
1
) ( 1 . 0
10
A
i
i AN

=
...(5.44)
For a double-cir cuit line, t he value of i ext ends fr om 1 t o 6.
We obser ve t hat t he AN level depends on t he following four quant it ies:
(i) t he sur face volt age gr adient on conduct or ,
Fig. 5.14 AN level of 1150 kV line (calculat ed).
(ii) t he conduct or diamet er ,
(iii) t he number of sub-conduct or s in bundle, and
F i g. 5.12 AN level of 400 kV line (calculat ed). F i g. 5.13 AN level of 735 kV line (calculat ed).
56
54
52
50
48
0 1 2 3
d
B
(
A
)
400 kV
L-Type
Horizontal
X/H
0
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
1 2 3
d
B
(
A
)
4 × 0.0302
735 kV
Hydro-Quebec
Line
X/H
4 × 0.0403
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
d
B
(
A
)
B.P.A. 1150 kV Line
0 1 2 3
X
44 = 26 H
X/H
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 133
(iv) t he aer ial dist ance t o t he point of measur ement fr om t he phase conduct or under
consider at ion. At mospher ic condit ion is included in having pr escr ibed t his as t he L
50
-
level while t he weight ing net wor k is descr ibed by t he not at ion dB(A) on a Sound
Level Met er .
Fig. 5.15 AN level of 1200 kV hor izont al line (calculat ed).
A model for t he gener at ion of AN under r ain has been developed ver y r ecent ly by Kir kham
and Gajda t o which t he r eader is r efer r ed for ver y t hought ful ideas on t he basic mechanisms
involved in AN gener at ion.
L
50
levels of AN fr om sever al r epr esent at ive lines fr om 400 kV t o 1200 kV ar e plot t ed in
Figs. 5.12 t o 5.15, calculat ed accor ding t o t he B.P.A. for mula, equat ions (5.40) t o (5.44). In all
cases, t he aver age maximum gr adient does not differ fr om t he maximum gr adient in t he bundle
by mor e t han 4%, so t hat only t he maximum sur face volt age gr adient is used in t he above
figur es. This is as descr ibed in Chapt er 4.
E
max
= ] / ) 1 ( 1 [
1 1
2
0
R r N
r N e
q
− +
π
...(5.45)
Exa mp le 5.11. A 735 kV line has t he following det ails: N = 4, d = 3.05 cm, B = bundle
spacing = 45.72 cm, height H = 20 m, phase separ at ion S = 14 m in hor izont al configur at ion. By
t he Mangoldt for mula, t he maximum conduct or sur face volt age gr adient s ar e 20kV/cm and
18.4 kV/cm for t he cent r e and out er phases, r espect ively. Calculat e t he SPL or AN in dB(A) at
a dist ance of 30 m along gr ound fr om t he cent r e phase (line cent r e). Assume t hat t he micr ophone
is kept at gr ound level. See Figur e 5.16.
Fig. 5.16 735 kV line configur at ion for Example 5.11.
0 1 2 3
64
62
60
58
56
54
52
50
CANADIAN
1200 kV
6 × 0.0463
6 × 0.0508
8 × 0.0414
8 × 0.0463
X/H
d
B
(
A
)
30
16
25.6 36 48.33
14 14
1 2 3
20
134 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Sol u t i on .
Phase 1. E
m
= 18.4, D
1
= 25.6
AN
1
= 120 log
10
18.4 + 55 log
10
3.05 – 11.4 log
10
25.6 + 26.4 log
10
4 – 128.4
= 120 log 18.4 – 11.4 log 25.6 – 85.87
= 151.78 – 16.05 –85.87 = 49.86 dB(A)
Phase 2. E
m
= 20, D
2
= 36
AN
2
= 120 log 20 – 11.4 log 36 – 85.87 = 52.5 dB(A)
Phase 3. E
m
= 18.4, D
3
= 48.33
AN
3
= 120 log 18.4 – 11.4 log 48.33 – 85.87 = 46.71 dB(A)
∴ Tot al AN = ) ( dB 55 ) 10 15 . 32 ( log 10 ) 10 10 10 ( log 10
4 671 . 4 25 . 5 986 . 4
10
A = × = + +
This is wit hin t he r ange of low-complaint r egion accor ding t o t he Per r y Cr it er ion which is
52.5 t o 59 dB(A).
5.9 RELATION BETWEEN SINGLE-PHASE AND 3-PHASE AN LEVELS
Obt aining dat a of AN and ot her quant it ies fr om e.h.v. lines involves gr eat expense in set t ing up
full-scale out door 3-phase exper iment al lines. Most of t he design dat a can be obt ained at less
cost fr om a single-phase out door line or fr om cage exper iment s. The quant it ies of int er est in so
far as int er fer ence fr om e.h.v. lines ar e concer ned ar e AN, Radio Int er fer ecne and Elect r ost at ic
Field at 50 Hz. It is t her efor e wor t h t he effor t t o consider what r elat ion, if any, exist s bet ween
exper iment al r esult s obt ained fr om 1-phase lines and an act ual 3-phase line. If such a r elat ion
can be found, t hen 1-phase lines can be used for gat her ing dat a which can t hen be ext r apolat ed
t o apply t o 3-phase lines. We fir st consider a hor izont al line.
The AN level fr om any phase at t he measur ing point M consist s of a const ant par t and a
var iable par t which can be seen fr om equat ions (5.40) t o (5.43). They ar e wr it t en as, for N ≥ 3,
AN
1
= (55 log d + 26.4 log N – 128.4) + 120 log E
1
– 11.4 log D
1
= K +120 log E
1
–11.4 log D
1
Similar ly, AN
2
= K + 120 log E
2
– 11.4 log D
2
and AN
3
= K + 120 log E
1
– 11.4 log D
3
Let t he cent r e-phase gr adient be wr it t en as E
2
= (1 + m) E
1
and t he r at ios k
2
= D
2
/D
1
and
k
3
= D
3
/D
1
. Then, t ot al AN level of t he 3-phases obt ained aft er combining t he AN levels of t he
3 individual phases is
AN
T
= ∑
=
3
1
) ( AN 1 . 0
10
10 log 10
i
i
=
3 1 1
log 14 . 1 log 14 . 1 log 12 1 . 0
10
10 10 { 10 . 10 [ log 10
D D E K − −
+
}] 10
) 1 ( log 12 log 14 . 1
2
m D + + −
+
= K + 120 log E
1
– 11.4 log D
1
+ 10 log [1 + k
3
–1.14
+ (1 + m)
12
.k
2
–1.14
] ...(5.46)
For a single-phase line wit h t he same sur face volt age gr adient E
2
as t he cent r e-phase
conduct or of t he 3-phase configur at ion, and at a dist ance D
2
, t he noise level is
AN
s
= K + 120 log E
1
– 11.4 log D
1
+ ] ) 1 ( [ log 10
12 14 . 1
2 10
m k +

...(5.47)
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 135
Ther efor e, t he differ ence in AN levels of equat ion (5.46) and (5.47) is
AN
T
– AN
s
=
12 14 . 1
2
12 14 . 1
2
14 . 1
3
10
) 1 (
) 1 ( 1
log 10
m k
m k k
+
+ + +

− −
...(5.48)
This is t he decibel adder which will conver t t he single-phase AN level t o t hat of a 3-phase
line.
Exa mp le 5.12. Using equat ion (5.46) comput e AN
T
for t he 735 kV line of example 5.11.
Sol u t i on . K = – 85.87, 1 + m = 20/18.4 = 1.087.
11.4 log D
1
= 16.05, 120 log E
1
= 151.8, k
2
= 36/25.6 = 1.406,
k
3
= 48.33/25.6 = 1.888
∴ 33 . 3 ) 1 ( 1
12 14 . 1
2
14 . 1
3
= + + +
− −
m k k
AN
T
= – 85.87 + 151.8 – 16.05 + 10 log 3.33 = 55.1 dB(A).
Exa mp le 5.13. Using equat ion (5.48). comput e t he decibel adder t o conver t t he single-
phase AN level of t he cent r e phase t o t he t hr ee-phase AN level of examples 5.11 and 5.12.
Sol u t i on .
8054 . 1
8444 . 1
33 . 3
) 1 (
) 1 ( 1
12 14 . 1
2
12 14 . 1
2
14 . 1
3
= =
+
+ + +

− −
m k
m k k
∴ dB adder = 10 log 1.8054 = 2.566.
The AN level of t he cent r e phase was 52.5 dB(A) at 30 m fr om t he conduct or along gr ound.
This will be t he level of a single-phase line wit h t he same sur face volt age gr adient and dist ance
t o t he locat ion of micr ophone.
∴ AN
T
= AN
s
+ dB adder = 52.5 + 2.566 = 55.07 dB(A)
5.10 DAY-NIGHT EQUIVALENT NOISE LEVEL
In pr evious discussions t he AN level of a t r ansmission line has been chosen as t he L
50
va lue or
t he audible noise in decibels on t he A-weight ed net wor k t hat is exceeded for 50% of t he dur at ion
of pr ecipit at ion. This has been assumed t o give an indicat ion of t he nuisance value. However ,
anot her cr it er ion which is act ively followed and applied t o man-made AN sour ces is called t he
Day-Night Equivalent Noise level. This has found accept ance t o air cr aft noise levels, heavy
r oad t r affic noise, ignit ion noise, et c., which has led t o lit igat ion among many aggr ieved par t ies
and t he noise maker s. Accor ding t o t his cr it er ion, cer t ain sound level might be accept able
dur ing day-t ime hour s when ambient noises will be high. But dur ing t he night -t ime hour s t he
same noise level fr om a power line or ot her man-made sour ces could be found object ionable
because of t he absence of ambient noises. The equivalent annoyance dur ing night s is est imat ed
by adding 10 dB(A) t o t he day-t ime AN level, or , in ot her wor ds, by imposing a 10 dB (A)
penalt y.
Consider an L
50
level of a power line t o be AN and t he day-t ime t o last for D hour s. Then,
t he act ual annoyance level for t he ent ir e 24 hour s is comput ed as a day-night equivalent level
as follows:
L
dn
= ) ( dB , } 10 ). 24 ( 10 . {
24
1
log 10
) 10 AN ( 1 . 0 AN 1 . 0
10
A D D






− +
+
...(5.49)
This is under t he assumpt ion t hat t he level AN is pr esent t hr oughout t he 24 hour s.
136 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Exa mp le 5.14. The L
50
level of a line is 55 dB(A). The day-light hour s ar e 15 and night -
t ime is 9 hour s in dur at ion. Calculat e t he day-night equivalent and t he decibel adder t o t he day-
t ime AN level.
Sol u t i on . L
dn
=
) ( dB 4 . 61 ) 10 9 10 15 (
24
1
Log 10
5 . 6 5 . 5
10
A =






× + ×
The decibel adder is 61.4 – 55 = 6.4 dB(A).
An addit ion of 6.4 dB incr eases t he SPL by 4.365 t imes [10 log 4.365 = 6.4]. The nuisance
value of t he line has been incr eased by 6.4 dB(A) by adding 10 dB(A) penalt y for night hour s.
If t he day-night hour s ar e differ ent fr om 15 and 9, a differ ent decibel adder will be necessar y.
The 10 dB(A) penalt y added t o night t ime cont r ibut es 6 t imes t he AN value as t he day-t ime
level, since.
. 6 15 / 90 10 15 / 10 9
5 . 5 5 . 6
= = × ×
In evaluat ing t he nuisance value of AN fr om an e.h.v. line, we ar e only concer ned wit h
t he dur at ion of r ainfall dur ing a day and not t he t ot al day-night hour s or 24 hour s. If r ain is not
pr esent over t he ent ir e 24 hour s but only for a cer t ain per cent age of t he day and night , t hen
t he day-night equivalent value of AN is calculat ed as shown below. Let it be assumed t hat
p
d
= % of dur at ion of r ainfall dur ing t he day t ime,
and p
n
= % of dur at ion of r ainfall dur ing t he night .
Then, L
dn
= ) 100 / )( 24 ( 10 ). 100 / ){( 24 / 1 [( 10
AN 1 . 0
10 n d
p D Dp Log − +
}] 10
) 10 AN ( 1 . 0 +
...(5.50)
Exa mp le 5.15. The following dat a ar e given for a line : L
50
= 55 dB(A). D = 15, p
d
= 20, p
n
= 50. Calculat e t he day-night equivalent of AN and t he dB-adder .
Sol u t i on . Dur at ion of r ain is 3 hour s dur ing t he day and 4.5 hour s dur ing t he night .
∴ L
dn
= )] 10 5 . 0 9 10 2 . 0 15 )( 24 / 1 [( Log 10
5 . 6 5 . 5
10
× × + × ×
= 58 dB(A).
The decibel adder is 3 dB(A).
Now, t he night -t ime cont r ibut ion is 15 t imes t hat dur ing t he day t ime (4.5 × 10
6. 5
/3 × 10
5. 5
= 45/3 = 15).
In t he above equat ion (5.50), it was assumed t hat t he L
50
levels for bot h day and night
wer e equal, or in ot her wor ds, t he pr ecipit at ion char act er ist ics wer e t he same. If t his is not t he
case, t hen t he pr oper values must be used which ar e obt ained by keeping ver y car eful r ecor d of
r ainfall r at es and AN levels. Such exper iment s ar e per for med wit h shor t out door exper iment al
lines st r ung over gr ound, or in 'cages'.
5.11 SOME EXAMPLES OF AN LEVELS FROM EHV LINES
It might pr ove infor mat ive t o end t his chapt er wit h dat a on t he per for mance of some e.h.v. line
designs based upon AN limit s fr om all over t he wor ld.
(1) The B.P.A. in t he U.S.A. has fixed 50 dB(A) limit for t he L
50
noise level at 30 m fr om
t he line cent r e in r ain for t heir 1150 kV line oper at ing at 1200 kV.
(2) The A.E.P., U.H.V. Pr oject of t he E.P.R.I., and sever al ot her designs fall ver y close
t o t he above values.
Corona Effects-I: Power Loss and Audible Noise 137
(3) Oper at ing 750 kV lines of t he A.E.P. in U.S.A. gave 55.4 dB(A) at 760 kV. The same
company per for med exper iment s fr om shor t out door line at Apple Gr ove and obt ained
56.5 dB(A) at 775 kV, pr oving t hat shor t -line dat a can be r elied upon t o pr ovide adequat e
design values.
(4) The Hydr o-Quebec company of Canada has given t he following calculat ed AN levels
at 30.5 m fr om t he cent r es of t heir pr oposed line designs.
Volt age, kV 525 735
Conduct or size 2 × 1.602" 3 × 1.302" 4 × 1.382" 4 × 1.2"
Bundle spacing 18" 18" 18" 18"
Phase spacing 34' 34' 50' 45'
AN Level, dB(A) 57 52 55 58.5
Re vi e w Qu e s t i on s a n d Pr oble ms
1. Descr ibe t he behaviour of space-char ge effect s inside a cor ona envelope and discuss
why load cur r ent cannot flow in a conduct or inside t his envelope even t hough it is a
conduct ing zone.
2. Der ive t he expr ession ) (
2
1
2
0
2
V V KC P
m c
− = for t he ener gy loss fr om t he char ge-volt age
diagr am, Figur e 5.3.
3. It was t heor ized by E.W. Boehne, t he famous elect r ical engineer and pr ofessor at
M.I.T., t hat t he incr ease in effect ive r adius of conduct or and consequent incr ease in
capacit ance was par t ly r esponsible for at t enuat ion of t r avelling waves on conduct or s
due t o light ning. Fr om t he mat er ial given in t his chapt er , discuss why t his t heor y is
valid.
4. A 400 kV line supplies a load of 600 MW over a dist ance of 400 km. It s conduct or s ar e
2×3.18 cm dia. wit h a r esist ance of 0.03 ohm/km per phase. It car r ies an aver age load
of 400 MW over t he year (66.7% load fact or ).
(a) Calculat e annual ener gy loss of t he line.
(b) If t he aver age cor ona loss is 20 kW/km for t he 3-phases for 2 mont hs of t he year ,
calculat e t he annual ener gy loss due t o cor ona.
(c) Calculat e t he % cor ona ener gy loss as compar ed t o t he I
2
R heat ing loss of t he
line.
5. Descr ibe t he differ ence bet ween a line spect r um and band spect r um for noise. What
is t he differ ence bet ween a pur e t one and br oad-band spect r um?
6. For t he 735-kV line of pr oblem 2 in Chapt er 4, calculat e t he AN level at a dist ance of
15 met r es along gr ound fr om t he out er phase.
7. Using t his as t he AN level of t he line, calculat e t he day-night equivalent if dayt ime is
15 hour s and t he penalt y for night is 8 dB(A) inst ead of t he suggest ed 10 dB(A) in t he
t ext .
6.1 CORONA PULSES: THEIR GENERATION AND PROPERTIES
Ther e ar e in gener al t wo t ypes of cor ona dischar ge fr om t r ansmission-line conduct or s: (i)
Pulseless or Glow Cor ona; (ii) Pulse Type or St r eamer Cor ona. Bot h t hese give r ise t o ener gy
loss, but only t he pulse-t ype of cor ona gives int er fer ence t o r adio br oadcast in t he r ange of 0.5
MHz t o 1.6 MHz. In addit ion t o cor ona gener at ed on line conduct or s, t her e ar e spar k dischar ges
fr om chipped or br oken insulat or s and loose guy wir es which int er fer e wit h TV r ecept ion in t he
80–200 MHz r ange. Audible noise has alr eady been discussed in Chapt er 5 which is caused by
r ain dr ops and high humidit y condit ions. Cor ona on conduct or s also causes int er fer ence t o
Car r ier Communicat ion and Signalling in t he fr equency r ange 30 kHz t o 500 kHz.
In t he case of Radio and TV int er fer ence t he pr oblem is one of locat ing t he r eceiver s far
enough fr om t he line in a lat er al dir ect ion such t hat noise gener at ed by t he line is low enough
at t he r eceiver locat ion in or der t o yield a sat isfact or y qualit y of r ecept ion. In t he case of
car r ier int er fer ence, t he pr oblem is one of det er mining t he t r ansmit t er and r eceiver power s t o
combat line-gener at ed noise power .
In t his sect ion we discuss t he mechanism of gener at ion and salient char act er ist ics of only
pulse-t ype cor ona in so far as t hey affect r adio r ecept ion. As in most gas dischar ge phenomena
under high impr essed elect r ic fields, fr ee elect r ons and char ged par t icles (ions) ar e cr eat ed in
space which cont ain ver y few init ial elect r ons. We can t her efor e expect a build up of r esult ing
cur r ent in t he conduct or fr om a zer o value t o a maximum or peak caused by t he avalanche
mechanism and t heir mot ion t owar ds t he pr oper elect r ode. Once t he peak value is r eached
t her e is a fall in cur r ent because of lower ing of elect r ic field due t o t he r elat ively heavy immobile
space char ge cloud which lower s t he velocit y of ions. We can t her efor e expect pulses t o be
gener at ed wit h shor t cr est t imes and r elat ively longer fall t imes. Measur ement s made of single
pulses by t he aut hor in co-axial cylindr ical ar r angement ar e shown in Figur e 6.1 under dc
excit at ion. Similar pulses occur dur ing t he posit ive and negat ive half-cycles under ac excit at ion.
The best equat ions t hat fit t he obser ved wave shapes ar e also given on t he figur es. It will be
assumed t hat posit ve cor ona pulses have t he equat ion
i
+
= ) (
t t
p
e e i k
β − α −
+
− ...(6.1)
while negat ive pulses can be best descr ibed by
i

=
t t
p
e t i k
δ − γ − −

/ 2 / 3
. ...(6.2)
6
Coron a Ef f ect s -II: Ra d i o In t erf eren ce
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 139
These equat ions have for med t he basis for calculat ing t he r esponse of bandwidt h-limit ed r adio
r eceiver s (noise met er s), and for for mulat ing mat hemat ical models of t he r adio-noise pr oblem.
In addit ion t o t he waveshape of a single pulse, t heir r epet it ion r at e in a t r ain of pulses is also
impor t ant .
Fi g. 6.1 Single posit ive and negat ive pulses
i
+
=
) / ( 5 . 1
. ); (
t t
p
t t
p
e t i k i e e i k
δ − γ − −
− −
β − α −
+
⋅ · −
Refer r ing t o Fig. 6.2, when a conduct or is posit ive wit h r espect t o gr ound, an elect r on
avalanche moves r apidly int o t he conduct or leaving t he heavy posit ive-ion char ge cloud close t o
t he conduct or which dr ift s away. The r apid movement of elect r ons and mot ion of posit ive-ions
gives t he st eep fr ont of t he pulse, while t he fur t her dr ift of t he posit ive-ion cloud will for m t he
t ail of t he pulse. It is clear t hat t he pr esence of posit ive char ges near t he posit ive conduct or
lower s t he field t o an ext ent t hat t he induced cur r ent in t he conduct or near ly vanishes. As soon
as t he posit ive-ions have dr ift ed far enough due t o wind or neut r alized by ot her agencies such
as fr ee elect r ons by r ecombinat ion, t he elect r ic field in t he vicinit y of t he conduct or r egains
sufficient ly high value for pulse for mat ion t o r epeat it self. Thus, a t r ain of pulses r esult s fr om
a point in cor ona on t he conduct or . The r epet it ion r at e of pulses is gover ned by fact or s local t o
t he conduct or . It has been obser ved t hat only one pulse usually occur s dur ing a posit ive half
cycle in fair weat her and could incr ease t o about 10 in r ain wher e t he wat er spr ays r esult ing
fr om br eaking r aindr ops under t he applied field cont r ol elect r ical condit ions local t o t he conduct or .
Fi g. 6.2 For mat ion of pulse t r ain fr om posit ive polar it y conduct or .
The sit uat ion when t he conduct or is negat ive wit h r espect t o gr ound is t he r ever se of t hat
descr ibed above. The elect r on avalanche moves away fr om t he conduct or while t he posit ive-ion
cloud moves t owar ds t he negat ively-char ged conduct or . However , since t he heavy posit ive-ions
ar e moving int o pr ogr essively higher elect r ic fields, t heir mot ion is ver y r apid which gives r ise
t o a much shar per pulse t han a posit ive pulse. Similar ly, t he light er elect r ons move r apidly
away fr om t he conduct or and t he elect r ic field near t he conduct or r egains it s or iginal value for
Positive Pulse
Negative Pulse
i
p
i
p
0 100 200 300
2.35 ( i e
p
t –0.0105
– e
– 0.03465t
)
ns
651 . . i t
p
–3/2
e
– (34.86 + 0.01215) /t t
+
+

( ) a ( ) b ( ) c
Pulse Train
( ) d
Pulse Formation
+ +
+ +
140 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
t he next pulse gener at ion quicker t han for t he posit ive case. Ther efor e, negat ive pulses ar e
smaller in amplit ude, have much smaller r ise and fall t imes but much higher r epet it ion r at es
t han posit ive pulses. It must at once be evident t hat all t he pr oper t ies of posit ive and negat ive
pulses ar e r andom in nat ur e and can only be descr ibed t hr ough r andom var iables.
Typical aver age values of pulse pr oper t ies ar e as follows:
Type Time to Time t o 50% Peak Value Repetition Rate
Crest on Tail of Current Pulses per S econd
A.C. D.C.
Posit ive 50 ns 200 ns 100 mA Power Fr eq. 1,000
Negat ive 20 ns 50 ns 10 mA 100 × P.F. 10,000
Pulses ar e lar ger as t he diamet er of conduct or incr eases because t he r educt ion in elect r ic
field st r engt h as one moves away fr om t he conduct or is not as st eep as for a smaller conduct or
so t hat condit ions for longer pulse dur at ion ar e mor e favour able. In ver y small wir es, posit ive
pulses can be absent and only a glow cor ona can r esult , alt hough negat ive pulses ar e pr esent
when t hey ar e known as Tr ichel Pulses named aft er t he fir st discover er of t he pulse-t ype
dischar ge. Negat ive pulses ar e ver y r ar ely impor t ant fr om t he point of view of r adio int er fer ence
as will be descr ibed under "Radio Noise Met er Response" t o cor ona pulses in Sect ion 6.2.
Ther efor e, only posit ive polar it y pulses ar e impor t ant because of t heir lar ger amplit udes even
t hough t heir r epet it ion r at e is lower t han negat ive pulses.
6.1.1 Frequency Spectrum
The fr equency spect r um of r adio noise measur ed fr om long lines usually cor r esponds t o t he
Four ier Amplit ude Spect r um (Bode Amplit ude Plot ) of single pulses. These ar e shown in
Figur e 6.3. The Four ier int egr al for a single double-exponent ial pulse is
F (jw) =
∫ ∫

∞ −
− β − α − −
− ·
to
jwt t t
p
jwt
dt e e e Ki dt e t f
0
. ). ( . ). (
= )] /( 1 ) /( 1 [ jw jw Ki
p
+ β − + α
= ) )( /( ) ( jw jw Ki
p
+ β + α α − β
Fi g. 6.3 Bode fr equency plot of posit ive and negat ive cor ona pulses.
The amplit ude is
A (w) = ) )( ( / ) .( .
2 2 2 2
w w i K
p
+ β + α α − β ...(6.4)
0
– 5
– 10
– 15
– 20
– 25
0 2 4 6 8 10
– Pulse
+ Pulse
Frequency, MHz
d
B
142 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
6.2 PROPERTIES OF PULSE TRAINS AND FILTER RESPONSE
Radio Int er fer ence (RI) level is gover ned not only by t he amplit ude and waveshape of a single
pulse but also by t he r epet it ive nat ur e of pulses in a t r ain. On an ac t r ansmission line, as
ment ioned ear lier , posit ive pulses fr om one single point in cor ona occur once in a cycle or at
t he most 2 or 3 pulses ar e gener at ed near t he peak of t he volt age. In r ain, t he number of pulses
in one posit ive half cycle shows an incr ease. Ther efor e, t he number of pulses per second on a
50 Hz line fr om a single point in fair weat her r anges fr om 50 t o 150 and may r each 500 in r ain.
Since t her e exist a ver y lar ge number of point s in cor ona, and t he pulses occur r andomly in
t ime wit hout cor r elat ion, t he fr equency spect r um is band-t ype and not a line spect r um. It is
also found t hat in fair weat her t her e exist s a cer t ain shielding effect when one sour ce in cor ona
does not per mit anot her wit hin about 20 t o 50 cm. This is ver ified by phot ogr aphs t aken at
night when plumes of bluish dischar ges occur at discr et e point s. However , in r ain, t her e is a
cont inuous luminous envelope ar ound a conduct or . It is t her efor e a mat t er of some difficult y in
act ually ascer t aining t he r epet it ion r at e of pulses as seen by t he input end of a noise met er ,
which is eit her a r od ant enna or a loop ant enna. For t unat ely, t his is not as ser ious as it looks,
since t he int egr at ed r esponse of a st andar d noise-met er cir cuit is pr act ically independent of t he
pulse r epet it ion r at e if t he number of pulses per second (pps) is less t han t he bandwidt h fr equency
of t he filt er in t he met er weight ing cir cuit . This is discussed below for a simple case of r ect angular
pulses wit h per iodic r epet it ion. The analysis can be ext ended t o include finally t he act ual case
of r andomly-occur r ing pulse t r ains wit h double-exponent ial shape. But t his is a highly advanced
t opic suit able for exper t s involved in design of noise met er s. [See Begamudr e, Tr ans. Can. Eng.
Inst ., Oct . 1970].
Consider Figur e 6.4 showing r ect angular pulses of amplit ude A and widt h τ h a vin g a
per iodic t ime T and r epet it ion fr equency f = 1/T pulses per second. When t his is an even
funct ion t he Four ier Ser ies for t his t ype of pulse t r ain cont ains only cosine t er ms. The amplit ude
of any har monic is
F(k) =

τ
τ π
π
· π
0
2
sin
2
4
2 cos
4
T
k
k
A
dt kft A
T
...(6.8)
Fi g. 6.4 (a) Pulse t r ain: Amplit ude A, widt h , τ per iod T .
(b) Ideal bandwidt h-limit ed filt er wit h cent r e fr equency f
o
and bandwidt h . f ∆
∆f
f
0
FILTER
( ) b
τ
T T T
PULSES
( ) a
A
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 143
The Four ier Ser ies is
F(w) = ∑

·

,
_

¸
¸ τ π
π
1
cos
2
sin
2
4
k
kwt
T
k
k
A
...(6.9)
Let such a signal be passed t hr ough an ideal filt er wit h bandwidt h f ∆ and st eep cut -off, as
shown in Fig. 6.4(b). Then, t he number of har monics passed will be.
N = . . / T f f f ∆ · ∆ ...(6.10)
If t he met er is t uned t o a cent r e fr equency f
0
= nf, t he out put will cont ain har monic t er ms
fr om .
2
1
t o
2
1

,
_

¸
¸
+
,
_

¸
¸
− · N n N n k The out put of t he filt er is t hen.
1
1
]
1

¸

τ
,
_

¸
¸
+ π
+ π
1
1
]
1

¸

τ
,
_

¸
¸
− π
− π
f
N
n
N n
A
f
N
n
N n
A
2
2 sin
1
2
4
t o
2
2 sin
1
2
4
2
1
2
1
Cer t ain appr oximat ions can be made t o obt ain a wor kable expr ession when we consider
what happens in an act ual sit uat ion in pr act ice. The t uned fr equency is about f
0
= 1 MHz and
t he r epet it ion fr equency f can be consider ed as f = 1000 pps. The met er bandwidt h is 5 kHz for
ANSI met er s and 9 kHz for CISPR met er s of Eur opean design. Ther efor e.
n = . 1000 10 / 10 /
3 6
0
· · f f
Since t he bandwidt h is 5 kHz and t he har monics of t he pulse t r ain ar e separ at ed by 1000
Hz, only 5 or 6 har monic component s will pass in t he 5 kHz bandwidt h. For f ∆ = 9 kHz, about
9 or 10 har monic component s will pass. Thus, (n – N/2) and (n + N/2) r ange fr om 997 t o 1003
and we can appr oximat e bot h t hese wit h a value of 1000 which is f
0
/f. The out put of t he filt er
will t hen be t he sum of har monic t er ms such as
1
]
1

¸

τ
,
_

¸
¸ ∆
+ π τ
,
_

¸
¸ ∆
− π
π 2
2 sin t o
2
2 sin
2
4
0 0
0
f
f
f
f
f
f A
wher e t he pulse widt h τ is of t he or der of 100 ns = 10
–7
.
Now,
,
_

¸
¸
τ

π − τ π
2
2 2 sin
0
f
f = .
2
2 sin . 2 cos
2
2 cos . 2 sin
0 0
τ

π τ π − τ

π τ π
f
f
f
f ...(6.11)
Since , 10 157 10 2500 2
2
2
5 7 − −
× · × × π ≈ τ

π
f
we can wr it e cos . 0
2
2 sin and 1
2
2 · τ

π · τ

π
f f
Then, t he out put of t he filt er will be near ly
t f f N
f
f A
0 0
0
2 cos . 2 sin . . .
2
4
π τ π
π
...(6.12)
wher e we have int r oduced t he t ime funct ion of equat ion (6.9). The final out put can also be
wr it t en as
t f f
f
f A
0 0
0
2 cos . 2 sin .
2
4
π τ π

π
...(6.13)
since , f Nf ∆ · t he bandwidt h, accor ding t o (6.10).
144 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
The out put of t he filt er is a cosine wave at fr equency f
0
, t he t uned fr equency (1 MHz, say),
and is modulat ed by t he amplit ude
τ π

π
0
0
2 sin . .
2
f
f
f A
=
τ π
τ π
∆ τ · πτ
τ π
τ π

π
0
0
0
0
2
2 sin
). ).( ( 4 ) 2 (
2
2 sin
. .
2
f
f
f A
f
f
f
A
...(6.14)
For low t uned fr equencies, t he sigma fact or
τ π
τ π
0
0
2
2 sin
f
f
is near ly 1. Thus, at low fr equencies
f
0
, t he r esponse of t he filt er is near ly flat and r olls off at higher fr equency. The following salient
pr oper t ies can also be not ed fr om equat ion (6.14).
(1) The r esponse of t he filt er is dir ect ly pr opor t ional t o · τ) (A ar ea of t he pulse.
(2) The r esponse is pr opor t ional t o · ∆ ) ( f bandwidt h, pr ovided t he number of har monics
passed is ver y low.
(3) The r esponse is pr opor t ional t o t he Si-fact or .
That t he r esponse of t he filt er is flat up t o a cer t ain r epet it ion fr equency of pulses is not
sur pr ising since as t he r epet it ion fr equency incr eases, t he t uned fr equency becomes a lower
or der har monic of t he fundament al fr equency wit h r esult ing higher amplit ude. But t her e is a
cor r esponding r educt ion in t he number of har monics passed in t he bandwidt h of t he filt er
giving an out put which is near ly equal t o t hat obt ained at a lower t uned fr equency. Ther efor e,
changes in r epet it ion fr equency of t he pulses in a t r ain affect t he noise level only t o a small
degr ee.
Since t he amplit ude-dur at ion pr oduct of t he pulse det er mines t he out put , it is evident
t hat a posit ive cor ona pulse yields much higher noise level t han a negat ive cor ona pulse. In
pr act ice, we omit negat ive-cor ona gener at ed r adio int er fer ence.
6.3 LIMITS FOR RADIO INTERFERENCE FIELDS
Radio Int er fer ence (RI) r esult ing fr om a t r ansmission line is a man-made phenomenon and as
such it s r egulat ion should be similar t o ot her man-made sour ces of noise as ment ioned in
Chapt er 5, such as audible noise, aut omobile ignit ion noise, air cr aft noise, int er fer ence fr om
welding equipment , r –f hea t ing equipment et c. Some of t hese a r e gover ned by IS 6842.
Legislat ion for fixing limit s t o all t hese noise sour ces is now gaining widespr ead publicit y and
awar eness in public in or der t o pr ot ect t he envir onment fr om all t ypes of pollut ion, including
noise. Int er fer ence t o communicat ion syst ems is descr ibed t hr ough Signal-t o-Noise Rat io
designat ed as S / N Rat io, wit h bot h quant it ies measur ed on t he same weight ing cir cuit of a
suit able st andar d met er . However , it has been t he pr act ice t o designat e t he signal fr om a
br oadcast st at ion in t er ms of t he aver age signal st r engt h called t he Field Int ensit y (FI) set t ing
of t he field-st r engt h met er , while t he int er fer ence signal t o a r adio r eceiver due t o line noise is
measur ed on t he Quasi-Peak (QP) det ect or cir cuit . The differ ence in weight ing cir cuit s will be
discussed lat er on. Ther e ar e pr oposals t o change t his cust om and have bot h signal and noise
measur ed on t he same weight ing cir cuit . This point is ment ioned her e in or der t hat t he r eader
may int er pr et S / N r at ios given by public ut ilit y or ganizat ions in t echnical lit er at ur e or elsewher e
since int er fer ence pr oblems r esult in expensive lit igat ions bet ween cont est ing par t ies.
As ment ioned ear lier , it is t he dut y or r esponsibilit y of a designer t o keep noise level fr om
a line below a limit ing value at t he edge of t he r ight -of-way (R-O-W) of t he line cor r idor . The
value t o be used for t his RI limit is causing consider able discussion and, we shall descr ibe t wo
point s of view cur r ent ly used in t he wor ld. Some count r ies, par t icular ly in Eur ope, have set
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 145
definit e limit s for t he RI field fr om power lines, while in nor t h Amer ica only t he minimum
accept able S/N r at io at t he r eceiver locat ion has been r ecommended. We will examine t he
r at ionale of t he t wo point s of view and t he st eps t o be followed in line design.
When a count r y is small in size wit h numer ous t owns wit h each having it s own br oadcast
st at ion and a t r ansmission line r uns close by, it is easy on t he design engineer of t he line if a
definit e RI limit is set and st at ion signal st r engt hs ar e incr eased by incr easing t he t r ansmit t er
power in or der t o yield sat isfact or y qualit y of r adio r ecept ion t o all r eceiver s locat ed along t he
line r out e. The following Table 6.2, gives limit s set by cer t ain Eur opean count r ies.
Ta ble 6.2. RI Li mi t s i n Va r i ou s Cou n t r i es of t h e Wor ld (Loop An t en n a )
Country Distance from Line RI Limit Frequency Remark s
(1) Swit zer land 20 m fr om out er most 200
µ
V/m 500 kHz Dr y weat her
phase (46 dB above 10°C
1
µ
V/m)
(2) Poland 20 m fr om out er phase 750
µ
V/m 500 kHz Air humidit y <80%
(57.5 dB)
t
10 kHz Temp. 5°C
(3) Czechoslovakia Voltage Distance
k V from line
centre
220 50 m
400 55 40 dB 500 kHz Air humidit y = 70%
750 70 Dr y weat her
(4) U.S.S.R. 100 m fr om out er phase 40 dB 500 kHz For 80% of t he
year limit should
not be exceeded
One immediat e obser vat ion t o make is t hat t her e is no unifor mit y even in a small ar ea
such as Eur ope, Excluding t he U.S.S.R. In count r ies like Fr ance wher e a lar ge r ur al populat ion
exist s, no set RI limit is specified since br oadcast st at ions ar e locat ed far fr om far ming
communit ies who have t o be assur ed sat isfact or y S/N r at io.
In Nor t h Amer ica t he following pr act ice is adopt ed in t he U.S.A. and Canada.
U.S .A. Recommended pr act ice is t o guar ant ee a minimum S/N r at io of 24 dB at t he r eceiver for
br oadcast signals having a minimum st r engt h of 54 dB at t he r eceiver .
Canada. For sat isfact or y r ecept ion, a S/N r at io of 22 dB or bet t er must be pr ovided in fair
weat her in subur ban r egions for st at ions wit h a mean signal st r engt h of 54 dB (500
µ
V/m). In
ur ban r egions, t his limit can be incr eased by 10 dB, and in r ur al ar eas lower ed by 3 dB.
Based on t hese t wo point s of view, namely, (1) set t ing a definit e RI limit , and (2) pr oviding
a minimum S/N r at io at t he r eceiver , t he pr ocedur es r equir ed for line design will be differ ent ,
which ar e out lined her e.
(1) When RI limit in dB or
µ
V/m is specified at a par t icular fr equency and weat her
condit ion, it is only necessar y t o calculat e t he lat er al decr ement or pr ofile of RI. This
is t he at t enuat ion of t he noise signal as one pr oceeds away fr om t he line for an
assumed line configur at ion. (The pr ocedur e for calculat ion of lat er al pr ofile will be
out lined in Sect ion 6.6 and following sect ions). By t aking a lar ge number of alt er nat ive
line designs, a choice can be made of t he most suit able conduct or configur at ion.
¹
;
¹
146 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(2) When line design is based upon S/N r at io, measur ement of br oadcast -st at ion signals
must be car r ied out all along a pr oposed line r out e of all st at ions r eceived. This can
also be calculat ed pr ovided t he st at ion power , fr equency, and dist ance t o t he r eceiver
ar e known. The allowable noise fr om t he line at t hese fr equencies is t hen known
fr om t he S/N r at io value. The R-O-W can be specified at ever y r eceiver locat ion for a
chosen size of conduct or and line configur at ion (line height and phase spacing). The
pr ocedur al difficult ies involved in t his met hod ar e illust r at ed as follows. Consider
t hat at a far ming communit y wher e a fut ur e line may pass near by, t he st at ion field
st r engt hs ar e r ecor ded and a S/N r at io of 24 dB must be allowed. The t able below
shows an example of st at ion st r engt hs and allowable noise at t he st at ion fr equencies.
Frequency of S t at ion 0.5 0.8 1 1.1 1.3 1.52 MHz
Received S ignal S t rengt h 55 60 50 75 57 52 dB
Allowable Noise Level 31 36 26 51 33 28 dB
(signal strength-24 dB)
If we assume t hat cor ona-gener at ed noise has a fr quency spect r um such as shown in
Figur e 6.3 which var ies near ly as
,
5 . 1 −
f
t hen t he noise level in r ealt ion t o t hat at 1 MHz t aken
as r efer ence can also be t abulat ed. Since t he allowable noise level at 1 MHz is 26 dB, t he
per missible noise at ot her fr equencies ar e det er mined. When t his is done, it will become clear
t hat cer t ain st at ions will not be guar ant eed a minimum S/N r at io of 24 dB, as shown below.
Frequency, MHz 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.52 MHz
Corona Noise Adder 9 4 0 –1 –2 –3.6 dB
Allowed Noise 35 30 26 25 24 22.4 dB
S / N Rat io, dB 20 30 24 50 33 29.6 dB
Ther efor e, for t he st at ion br oadcast ing at 0.5 MHz, t he r ecommended minimum S/N r at io
of 24 dB cannot be guar ant eed. The sit uat ion is r epr esent ed pict or ially in Figur e 6.5. This leads
t o t he conclusion t hat at any given r eceiver locat ion, wit h a chosen line design, all st at ions
r eceived cannot be guar ant eed sat isfact or y qualit y of r ecept ion wit h a given widt h of R-O-W. It
is ver y uneconomical t o incr ease t he widt h of R-O-W t o accommodat e all r adio st at ions.
Ther efor e, r egulat or y bodies must also specify t he number of st at ions (or per cent age) r eceived
at a village or t own for which sat isfact or y r ecept ion can be guar ant eed. This may usually be
50% so t hat list ener s have t he choice of t uning int o at least 50% of t he st at ions for which
sat isfact or y r ecept ion is guar ant eed.
Fi g. 6.5 St at ion signal st r engt h (.), –24 dB (×), and cor ona-gener at ed noise(–). Illust r at ing basis for design
based upon minimum S/N r at io of 24 db.
75
60
45
30
15
0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5
Station Strengths
Corona
Noise


f
– 1.5
d
B
Frequency, MHz
x – (Station Strength – 24 dB)
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 147
This pr ocess has t o be r epeat ed at all villages and t owns or ot her locat ions such as milit ar y
est ablishment s, et c., along t he pr oposed line r out e and a best compr omise for line design
ar r ived at . Once a definit e RI limit is set at a fixed lat er al dist ance fr om t he line as cont r olled
by t he S/N r at io, which in t he above example was 26 dB at 1 MHz at t he edge of R-O-W, t he line
design follows similar lines as for case (1) wher e t he limit is specified t o st ar t wit h under
legislat ion of t he count r y.
Refer r ing t o Fig 6.5, any X-mar k falling below t he cor ona-gener at ed noise cur ve r epr esent s
a st at ion for which t he minimum S/N r at io of 24 dB cannot be obt ained. Ther efor e, qualit y of
r ecept ion for such a st at ion at t he r eceiver locat ion will be unsat isfact or y.
6.4 FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF THE RI FIELD OF LINE
The fr equency spect r um of r adio noise r efer s t o t he var iat ion of noise level in µV or
µ
V/m (or
t heir dB values r efer r ed t o 1
µ
V or 1
µ
V/m) wit h fr equency of measur ement . The fr equency-
spect r um of a single cor ona pulse of double-exponent ial shape was found in Sect ion 6.1 t o be
A(w) = ) )( ( / ) .( .
2 2 2 2
w w i K
p
+ β + α α − β ...(6.14)
On a long line, t her e exist a ver y lar ge number of point s in cor ona and a noise met er
locat ed in t he vicinit y of t he line (usually at or near gr ound level) r esponds t o a t r ain of pulses
or iginat ing fr om t hem. The widt h of a single pulse is about 200 ns (0.2 µs) while t he separ at ion
of pulses as seen by t he input end of t he met er could be 1
s µ
or mor e. Ther efor e, it is unusual
for posit ive pulses t o over lap and t he noise is consider ed as impulsive. When pulses over lap,
t he noise is r andom. Measur ement s indicat e t hat fr om a long line, t he RI fr equency spect r um
follows closely.
RI(w) ∝ f
–1
t o f
–1.5
...(6.15)
Thus, at 0.5 MHz t he noise is 6-9 dB higher t han at 1 MHz, while at 2 MHz it is 6–9 dB
lower . In pr act ice, t hese ar e t he adder s suggest ed t o conver t measur ed noise at any fr equency
t o 1 MHz level. The fr equency spect r um is t her efor e ver y impor t ant in or der t o conver t noise
levels measur ed at one fr equency t o anot her . This happens when power ful st at ion signal
int er fer es wit h noise measur ement s fr om a line so t hat measur ement s have t o be car r ied out
at a fr equency at which no br oadcast st at ion is r adiat ing. The fr equency spect r um fr om cor ona-
gener at ed line noise is near ly fixed in it s char act er ist ic so t hat any deviat ion fr om it as measur ed
on a noise met er is an indicat ion of sour ces ot her t han t he line, which is t er med "backgr ound
noise". In case a st r ong sour ce of noise is pr esent near by, which is usually a fact or y wit h
mot or s t hat ar e spar king or a br oken insulat or on t he t ower , t his can be easily r ecognized since
t hese usually yield high noise levels up t o 30 MHz and t heir fr equency spect r um is r elat ively
flat .
6.5 LATERAL PROFILE OF RI AND MODES OF PROPAGATION
The most impor t ant aspect of line design fr om int er fer ence point of view is t he choice of conduct or
size, number of sub-conduct or s in bundle, line height , and phase spacing. Next in impor t ance is
t he fixing of t he widt h of line cor r idor for pur chase of land for t he r ight -of-way. The lat er al
decr ement of r adio noise measur ed at gr ound level as one moves away fr om t he line has t he
pr ofile sket ched in Fig. 6.6. It exhibit s a char act er ist ic double hump wit hin t he space bet ween
t he conduct or s and t hen decr eases monot onically as t he met er is moved away fr om t he out er
148 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
phase. For sat isfact or y r adio r ecept ion, a limit RI
i
is det er mined as explained in t he pr evious
sect ion. No r eceiver should be locat ed wit hin t he dist ance d
0
fr om t he out er phase or d
c
fr om
t he line cent r e. Ther efor e, it becomes essent ial t o measur e or t o be able t o calculat e at design
st ages t he lat er al pr ofile ver y accur at ely fr om a pr oposed line in or der t o advise r egulat or y
bodies on t he locat ion of r eceiver s. In pr act ice, many complaint s ar e hear d fr om t he public who
exper ience int er fer ence t o r adio br oadcast s if t he line is locat ed t oo close t o t heir homest eads
when t he power company r out es an e.h.v. line wr ongly. In such cases, it is t he engineer 's dut y
t o r ecommend r emedies and at t imes appear as wit ness in judicial cour t s t o t est ify on t he fact s
of a case.
Fi g. 6.6 Lat er al pr ofile of RI at gr ound level for fixing widt h of r ight -of-way of line
We will discuss t his lat er al pr ofile in gr eat det ail and dissect it int o sever al component s
which belong t o differ ent modes of pr opagat ion, as discussed in Chapt er 3, for t he r adio-fr equency
ener gy on t he mult i-conduct or line. This is t he basis for det er mining t he expect ed noise pr ofile
fr om a chosen conduct or size and line configur at ion in un-t r ansposed and fully-t r ansposed
condit ion. We consider 6 pr eliminar y cases of char ge dist r ibut ion on t he line conduct or s aft er
which we will combine t hese suit ably for evaluat ing t he t ot al noise level of a line. In all t hese
cases, t he pr oblem is t o calculat e t he field st r engt h at t he locat ion of a noise met er when t he
r-f char ge dist r ibut ion is known. Her e, we consider t he ver t ical component of gr ound-level field
int ensit y which can be r elat ed t o t he hor izont al component of magnet ic field int ensit y by t he
char act er ist ic impedance of fr ee space. We r est r ict our at t ent ion t o hor izont al 3-phase line for
t he pr esent . In ever y case, only t he magnit ude is of concer n.
Case I: S ingle Conduct or above Ground
Consider t he simplest of all cases of a single conduct or car r ying a char ge of q coulombs/
met r e at r adio fr equency above a per fect ly-conduct ing gr ound sur face at height H. Figur e 6.7.
As ment ioned in Chapt er 3, t he effect of gr ound in all such pr oblems is r eplaced by image
char ge-– q at dept h H below t he gr ound sur face. It is desir ed t o evaluat e t he ver t ical component
of elect r ic field st r engt h at point M at a lat er al dist ance d fr om t he conduct or on t he gr ound
sur face.
Fi g. 6.7 Single conduct or : (a) Ver t ical component of gr ound-level elect r ic field and (b) Lat er al pr ofile.
x x
RI
RI
dB
d0
S
dc
Ground – Level RI Field
H θ
θ
d
+ q
D
M
E
E
– q
E
V
1
0 1 2 3
d/H
(a) (b)
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 149
The ver t ical component due t o +q and –q will be
E
v
=
2
0
2 2
0
) / ( 1
1
2
2
H d
H e
q
d H
H
e
q
+
π
·
+
π
×
...(6.16)
The dimensionless quant it y
}] ) / ( 1 /{ 1 [
2
H d +
is given t he name "Field Fact or ", F. It has a
value of 1 at d = 0 under t he conduct or and decr eases t o 0.1 at d = 3 H or d/H = 3, as shown in
Fig.6.7(b).
Case 2: 3-Phase AC Line–Charges (+q, + q, +q)
On a per fect ly-t r ansposed line, t he line-t o-gr ound mode car r ies equal char ges q of t he
same polar it y as descr ibed in Chapt er 3, and shown in Figur e 6.8(a). These ar e obt ained fr om
t he eigen-values and eigen-vect or and t heir pr oper t ies. Following t he pr ocedur e for case 1 of a
single conduct or , t he field fact or for t his case is
F
1a
=
2 2 2 2 2
/ ) ( 1
1
) / ( 1
1
/ ) ( 1
1
) / /(
H s d H d H s d
H e q E
o v
− +
+
+
+
+ +
· π ...(6.17)
wher e s = phase spacing and d = t he dist ance t o t he noise met er or r adior eceiver fr om t he line
cent r e.
Fi g. 6 8 Char ge dist r ibut ions at r -f on 3-phase line:
(a) 1st or line-t o-gr ound mode.
(b) 2nd or line-t o-line mode of 1st kind.
(c) 3r d or line-t o-line mode of 2nd kind.
Case 3 : 3-Phase AC Line–Charges (+ q, 0, –q).
Fr om Fig. 6.8 (b), t he field fact or will be
F
2a
=
2 2 2 2
0
/ ) ( 1
1
/ ) ( 1
1
) / /(
H s d H s d
H e q E
v
+ +

− +
· π ...(6.18)
Case 4 : 3-Phase AC Line–Charges (+ q, –2q, + q)
The field fact or for t his case fr om Fig. 6.8(c) is
F
3a
=
) / ( 1
2
/ ) ( 1
1
/ ) ( 1
1
) / /(
2 2 2 2 2
0
H d H s d H s d
H e q E
v
+

− +
+
+ +
· π ...(6.19)
Case 5: Bipolar DC Line–Charges (+ q, + q)
On a bipolar dc line, t he t wo modes of pr opagat ion yield char ge dist r ibut ions (+ q, + q) and
(+ q, – q) on t he t wo conduct or s in each mode, as will be explained lat er . Consider ing t he fir st
or line-t o-gr ound mode wit h char ges (+ q, + q), as shown in Fig. 6.9(a). wit h pole spacing P, t he
field fact or is
F
1d
=
2 2 2 2
0
/ ) 5 . 0 ( 1
1
/ ) 5 . 0 ( 1
1
) / ( /
H P d H P d
H e q E
v
− +
+
+ +
· π ...(6.20)
d d d
H
+ q + q + q + q + q – q + q
s s s s s s
M
( ) a ( ) b ( ) c
0 – 2q
M
H
M
150 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Case 6 : Bipolar DC Line–Charges (+ q, – q)
If t he polar it y of one of t he char ges is r ever sed, t he r esult ing field fact or is, see Fig. 6.9(b).
F
2d
=
2 2 2 2
/ ) 5 . 0 ( 1
1
/ ) 5 . 0 ( 1
1
H P d H P d + +

− +
...(6.21)
F i g.6.9 Char ge dist r ibut ion in t he 2 modes of bipolar dc line:
(a) line-t o-gr ound mode, (b) line-t o-line mode.
We will plot t hese in or der t o obser ve t heir int er est ing and salient pr oper t ies. Figur e 6.10
shows such plot s of only t he magnit udes of t he field fact or s since a r od ant enna of a noise met er
picks up t hese. For pur poses of illust r at ion we t ake s/H = P/H =1.
Fig. 6.10 Plot of field fact or s for char ge dist r ibut ions of Figur es 6.7 t o 6.9.
For cases 1,2 and 5 wher e t he char ges on t he conduct or s ar e of t he same polar it y, t he
ver t ica l compon en t of elect r ic field decr ea ses fr om a ma ximu m u n der t h e lin e cen t r e
monot onically as t he met er is moved along t he gr ound away fr om t he line. For cases 3 and 6
wit h char ge dist r ibut ions (+ q, 0, – q) and (+ q, – q), we obser ve t hat field is zer o at t he line
cent r e, r eaches a maximum value and t hen decr eases monot onically. A combinat ion of field
pr ofiles of cases 2 and 3 (or 5 and 6) yield t he char act er ist ic double hump of Figur e 6.6. For case
1 2 3
2.00
1.75
1.50
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
q
+ q
q – 2q q
q
q
– q
q
0
q
q
– q
q
AC
AC
DC
AC
DC
2
5
3
1
4
F
i
e
l
d
F
a
c
t
o
r
s
E
/
(
q
/
t
H
π
0
x = d/H
0
+ q + q + q – q
P P
d d
M M
( ) a ( ) b
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 151
4 wit h t he char ge dist r ibut ion (+ q, – 2q, + q), t he field commence at a high value under t he line
cent r e, r eaches zer o, and t hen aft er incr easing t o a maximum value decr eases monot onically.
These differ ent t ypes of r-f char ge dist r ibut ions occur when cor ona-gener at ed cur r ent ,
volt age, char ge and power pr opagat e on t he line conduct or s which can be r esolved int o modes
of pr opagat ion. This has alr eady been discussed in Chapt er 3. In t he next sect ions we will give
met hods of calculat ing t he t ot al RI level of a line fr om t he differ ent modal volt ages.
6.6 THE CIGRE FORMULA
The pr oblem of r adio int er fer ence as a cont r olling fact or in design of line conduct or s became
ver y acut e and came t o focus in ear ly 1950's wit h t he planned 500 kV lines. The gr owt h of
t r ansmission lines beyond 345 kV became ver y r apid and RI measur ement s also became ver y
wide-spr ead fr om cage models, out door exper iment al lines and act ual lines in oper at ion. In t he
1960's t he volt age level incr eased t o 735 kV and 765 kV. Based on all RI dat a gat her ed over a
number of year s and fr om lines of var ious configur at ions, t he CIGRE and IEEE evolved an
empir ical for mula r elat ing most impor t ant line and at mospher ic par amet er s wit h t he r adio
noise level. This has come t o be known as t he CIGRE For mula. Ther e ar e about eight empir ical
for mulas available fr om exper ience gained by differ ent count r ies, but we will deal only wit h t he
CIGRE For mula her e. The impor t ant quant it ies involved in t he empir ical for mula ar e:
(1) conduct or r adius, r, or diamet er d = 2r;
(2) maximum sur face volt age gr adient on conduct or , g
m
;
(3) aer ial dist ance fr om conduct or t o t he point wher e RI is t o be evaluat ed, D;
(4) ot her fact or s, such as fr equency and climat ic condit ions.
The basic for mula is, r efer r ing t o Fig. 6.11,
RI
i
(dB) = 30 ) 20 / ( log 33 6 5 . 3
10
− − +
i m
D d g ...(6.22)
This RI level is fr om conduct or i at an aer ial dist ance D
i
fr om conduct or t o t he point M.
Ther e ar e sever al r est r ict ions on t he use of t his for mula. It applies when
F i g. 6.11 CIGRE for mula for evaluat ing RI.
(a) t he values of g
m
and d ar e in cent imet r e unit s; g
m
in kV/cm, r .m.s.;
(b) t he aer ial dist ance D
i
is in met r es and D
i
> 20 m;
(c) t he fr equency is 0.5 MHz;
(d) t he number of sub-conduct or s N in t he bundle is less t han or equal t o 4. This is t r ue
of lines up t o 765 kV;
(e) t he r at io of bundle spacing B bet ween sub-conduct or s t o t he conduct or diamet er lies
bet ween 12 and 20;
2r
g
m
i
Di
M
152 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
( f ) t he weat her condit ion is aver age fair weat her ;
( g ) t he RI level has a disper sion of
t
6 dB.
Exa mp le 6.2. A 400-kV line has conduct or s in hor izont al configur at ion at aver age height
H = 14 m and phase spacing S = 11 m, as shown in Figur e 6.12. The conduct or s of each phase
ar e 2 × 0.0318 m diamet er at B = 0.4572 m spacing. Calculat e t he RI level of each phase at a
dist ance of 30 m fr om t he out er phases at gr ound level at 0.5 MHz at 420 kV using t he CIGRE
for mula.
Fig. 6.12 Calculat ion of RI level of 400-kV line using CIGRE for mula.
Sol u t i on . The fir st st ep is t o calculat e t he maximum sur face volt age gr adient on t he
t hr ee phases at 420 kV using t he Mangoldt for mula. Calculat ions give g
mc
= 17.3 kV/cm on t he
cent r e phase and g
m0
= 16.2 kV/cm on t he t wo out er phases.
Aerial distances : D
1
= 33 m, D
2
= 43 m, D
3
= 54 m.
RI (1) = 3.5 × 16.2 + 6 × 3.18 – 30 – 33 log (33/20) = 38.6 dB
RI (2) = 3.5 × 17.3 + 6 × 3.18 – 30 – 33 log (43/20) = 38.7 dB
RI (3) = 3.5 × 16.2 + 6 × 3.18 – 30 – 33 log (54/20) = 31.6 dB.
6.6.1 Rules for Addition of RI Levels of 3-phases–S/C Line
Having calculat ed t he RI level due t o each phase at t he measur ing point , t he r ules for evaluat ing
t he t ot al RI level of a 3-phase single-cir cuit line ar e as follows:
(a) If one of t he RI levels is at least 3 dB higher t han t he r est , t hen t his is t he RI level of
t he line.
(b) Ot her wise t he RI level of line is
RI = (aver age of t he t wo highest + 1.5) dB.
(c) At 1 MHz, t he RI level is 6 dB lower .
(d) For evaluat ing t he RI level in r ain, add 17 dB.
Exa mp le 6.3. In t he pr evious example, calculat e t he RI level of t he line at t he measur ing
point at 0.5 MHz and 1 MHz in fair weat her .
Sol u t i on . RI (3) is lower t han t he ot her s by mor e t han 3 dB.
∴ RI
line
=
2
1
(38.6 + 38.7) + 1.5 = 40.15 dB at 0.5 MHz and 34.15 dB at 1 MHz.
Exa mp le 6.4. In t he above example, if t he RI limit is given t o be 40 dB at 1 MHz,
calculat e t he widt h of r ight -of-way of t he line cor r idor .
Sol u t i on . We obser ve t hat at 30 m fr om t he out er phases, t he RI level is 34.15 dB.
Ther efor e, t he value of 40 dB will be obt ained at less t han t his dist ance. We will find t he value
of d
0
wher e RI = 40 dB at 1 MHz by t r ial and er r or .
33 43 54
1 2 3
30
14
11 11
400 kV
M
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 153
For t he out er phases, 3.5 × 16.2 + 6 × 3.18 – 30 = 45.78
For t he cent r e phase, 3.5 × 17.3 + 6 × 3.18 – 30 = 49.63.
Assume d
0
= 25, 20, 15 met r es and calculat e t he RI level of line at 1 MHz.
d
0
D
1
D
2
D
3
33 log 33 log 33 log RI(1) RI(2) RI(3)
(D
1
/20) (D
2
/20) (D
3
/20)
25 28.7 38.6 49 5.15 9.43 12.83 40.6 40.2 33
20 24.4 34 44.3 2.85 7.605 11.4 42.9 42 34.4
15 20.5 29.5 39.6 0.354 5.58 9.97 45.4 44 36
The r esult ing RI levels ar e
d
0
= 25, RI = 41.9 at 0.5 MHz, 35.9 dB at 1 MHz
d
0
= 20, RI = 44 at 0.5 MHz, 38 dB at 1 MHz
d
0
= 15, RI = 46.2 at 0.5 MHz, 40.2 dB at 1 MHz
∴ d
0
= 15 met r es at t he edge of R-O-W, and t he widt h of line cor r idor r equir ed is 2(d +s)
= 52 m. Since t he CIGRE for mula has a disper sion of
t
6 dB, fur t her calculat ion may not be
necessar y. Wit h t his disper sion, a widt h of R-O-W giving 46 dB at 1 MHz at t he edge of t he line
cor r idor may be accept able.
6.6.2 Rules for Addition of RI Levels for a D/C Line
E.H.V. lines ar e most ly single-cir cuit (S/C) lines, but wit h t he number of lines on t he incr ease
and availabilit y of land for t he cor r idor incr easingly difficult , double-cir cuit (D/C) and four -
cir cuit 400-kV lines have been designed and commissioned. We will now discuss r ules t hat
apply for adding RI levels of phase conduct or s in a D/C line only. The r eader is r ecommended
for advanced design paper s and r epor t s for 4-cir cuit RI pr oblems since t his depends ent ir ely on
t he possible combinat ions for t he disposit ion of phases on t he 4-cir cuit t ower . (See Sujat ha
Subhash, Ref. 18, under "Ot her J our nals" in t he Bibliogr aphy).
The fir st point t o r emember is t o conver t t he RI levels in dB calculat ed by t he CIGRE
For mula t o micr ovolt /met r e (
µ
V/m) by t he r elat ion.
). 20 / RI (
/
dB
10 RI ·
µ m V
...(6.23)
On a D/C line, t her e ar e t wo phase-conduct or s belonging t o each phase. Let RI
A1
and RI
A2
be t he RI values in
µ
V/m at any point M (measur ing point ) on gr ound (or at any convenient
height above it ) due t o phase A which can be evaluat ed individually by t he CIGRE For mula in
dB and conver t ed t o
µ
V/m accor ding t o equat ion (6.23). Then t he r esult ing RI value in
µ
V/m
due t o t he t wo conduct or s of phase A is give as t he quadr at ic addit ion.
RI
A
= V/m , ) RI RI (
2 / 1 2
2
2
1
µ +
A A
...(6.24a)
Similar ly, RI
B
= . ) RI RI ( RI and ) RI RI (
2 / 1 2
2
2
1
2 / 1 2
2
2
1 C C c B B
+ · + ...(6.24b)
These ar e r e-conver t ed t o dB values by t he r elat ion, RI
dB
= 20 log
10
(RI), and ar e t r eat ed
as t he cont r ibut ions fr om t he t hr ee phases. The r ules for adding t hem t o obt ain t he t ot al RI
level of line at t he measur ing point M will follow t he r ules as for a S/C line given befor e in
Sect ion 6.6.1.
The r eason for quadr at ic addit ion is based upon t he pr oper t y t hat t he pulses causing t he
noise fr om any one phase ar e t ime-cor r elat ed fr om it s t wo conduct or s so t hat ener gies or
power s ar e added ar it hmet ically in t he noise met er cir cuit r y. It has been est ablished fr om
suit able exper iment s t hat if t her e ar e N ident ical noise sour ces which ar e cor r elat ed in t ime,
154 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
t hat is, t hey occur on t he same conduct or or differ ent conduct or s ener gized by t he same volt age,
t hen t he r esult ing met er r eading in m V / µ is for N non-ident ical but t ime-cor r elat ed sour ces,
since t his r epr esent s a quant it y t hat is pr opor t ional t o t he ener gy or power (in a unit bandwidt h).
RI(N) =
× N
(RI due t o each sour ce act ing individually).
∴ [RI(N)]
2
= N

× (RI)
2
, if all sour ces ar e ident ical.
or , = ), RI ... RI RI RI (
2 2
3
2
2
2
1 N
+ + + + ...(6.25)
Exa mp le 6.5. A D/C 400-kV line has t he t hr ee conduct or s of one cir cuit at height s 13 m,
23 m, and 33 m above gr ound, see Fig. 7.9. The hor izont al spacings bet ween conduct or s on t he
tower are 14 m , 16 m and 14 m between phases A
1
– C
2
, B
1
– B
2
, and C
1
– A
2
, r espect ively. The
t wo-conduct or bundles of each phase have conduct or s wit h diamet er s 3.18 cm each at a bundle
spacing of 45.72 cm. At a point on gr ound 15 met r es away fr om t he line cent r e, evaluat e t he
t ot al RI level at 1 MHz in fair weat her at 420 kV. (See p.181).
Sol u t i on . The Maxwell's Pot ent ial Coefficient mat r ix and it s inver se for unt r ansposed
configur at ion ar e as follows.
[P] =
1 1 1 2 2 2
1
1
2
2
2
A B C A B C
B
C
A
B
C
6.652, 1.718, 0.833, 0.678, 1.168, 1.573 A1
1.718, 6.290, 1.276, 0.772, 1.113, 1.168
0.833, 1.276, 5.720, 0.746, 0.772, 0.678
0.678, 0.772, 0.746, 5.720, 1.276, 0.833
1.168, 1.113, 0.772, 1.276, 6.290, 1.718
1.573, 1.168, 0.678, 0.833, 1.718, 6.652
[M] = [P]
–1
=
170.9, – 36, – 10.7, – 6.56, – 15, – 28.3
– 36, 181.7, – 30, – 10.7, – 15.5, – 15
–10.7, – 30, 187.4, – 15.8, – 10.7, – 6.56
– 6.56, – 10.7, – 15.8, 187.4, – 30, – 10.7
– 15, – 15.5, – 10.7, – 30, 181.7, – 36
– 28.3, – 15, – 6.56, – 10.7, – 36, 170.9
× 10
–3
The volt age mat r ix is, wit h . kV 3 / 420 V ·
[V] = ], 120 , 120 , 0 , 120 , 120 , 0 / [ ° ∠ ° − ∠ ° ∠ ° ∠ ° − ∠ ° ∠ V V V V V V
The r esult ing bundle-char ges cazn be expr essed as
] 2 / [
0
e q π = ] ][ [ V M .
∴ · π
0 1
2 / e q
A
+ ° ∠ + ° − ∠ + ° ∠ 120 . 120 . 0 . [
13 12 11
V M V M V M
] 120 . 120 . 0 .
16 15 14
° ∠ + ° − ∠ + ° ∠ V M V M V M
= + ° − ∠ + + ° ∠ + 120 ). ( 0 ). [
15 12 14 11
V M M V M M
]. 120 ). (
16 13
° ∠ + V M M
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 155
Accor ding t o equat ion (4.38), it s maximum value will be
0 1
2 / e q
A
π =
2
16 13
2
15 12
2
14 11
) ( ) ( ) [( M M M M M M V + + + + +
) )( ( ) )( (
16 13 15 12 15 12 14 11
M M M M M M M M + + − + + −
2 / 1
14 11 16 13
)] )( ( M M M M + + −
=
+ − − + − ×
− 2 2 3
) 15 36 ( ) 56 . 6 9 . 170 [( 10
3
420
) 51 )( 56 . 6 9 . 170 ( ) 3 . 28 7 . 10 (
2
− − − − −
2 / 1
] 34 . 164 ). 39 ( ) 39 )( 51 ( − − − − −
= . 827 . 50
∴ E
A1
= (50.827/0.0318) (1 +0.0159/0.2286) = 1710 kV/m
= 17.1 kV/cm = E
C2
.
Similar calculat ions yield
0 1
2 / e q
B
π = . 42 . 51 2 /
0 2
· πe q
B
giving E
B1
= , cm / kV 3 . 17 m / kV 1730 06955 . 1 ) 0318 . 0 / 42 . 51 (
2
· · × ·
B
E
and E
C1
= . kV/cm 52 . 17
2
·
A
E
The aer ial dist ances t o t he point on gr ound at 15 m fr om line cent r e ar e:
D
A1
= ; m 26 . 15 ) 13 8 ( ; m 66 . 39 ) 33 22 (
2 / 1 2 2
2
2 / 1 2 2
· + · · +
A
D
D
B1
= ; m 24 ) 23 7 ( ; m 53 . 32 ) 23 23 (
2 / 1 2 2
2
2 / 1 2 2
· + · · +
B
D
D
C1
= ; m 34 ) 33 8 ( ; m 6 . 25 ) 13 22 (
2 / 1 2 2
2
2 / 1 2 2
· + · · +
C
D
By applying t he CIGRE for mula, t he following dB values r esult which ar e conver t ed t o
m V/ µ :
R
A1
= ; m / 36 . 90 dB 12 . 39 ) 20 / 66 . 39 ( Log 33 30 18 . 3 6 1 . 17 5 . 3 V µ · · − − × + ×
R
A2
= ; m / 13 . 331 dB 4 . 50 30 08 . 19 52 . 17 5 . 3 V µ · − − + ×
A
RI ∴ = MHz. 5 . 0 a t dB, 71 . 50 m / 343 ) 13 . 331 36 . 90 (
2 / 1 2 2
· µ · + V
Similar ly, RI
B1
= , m / 8 . 135 dB 66 . 42 V µ ·
and RI
B2
= . m / 4 . 224 dB 47 V µ ·
B
RI ∴ = . dB 44 . 48 m / 22 . 264 · µV
RI
C1
= . /m 7 . 116 dB 34 . 41 RI and , /m 3 . 220 dB 86 . 46
2
V V
C
µ · · µ ·
C
RI ∴ = . dB 48 /m 3 . 249 · µV
Finally, t he t ot al RI level of line is
RI
T
=aver age of t he t wo highest + 1.5, dB
=
2
1
(50.71 +48.44 +3) = 51.07 dB at 0.5 MHz
= 45.07 dB at 1 MHz.
The same concept can be ext ended t o any number of cir cuit s on a t ower .
156 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
6.7 The RI Excitation Function
Wit h t he advent of volt ages higher t han 750 kV, t he number of subconduct or s used in a bundle
has become mor e t han 4 so t hat t he CIGRE for mula does not apply. Mor eover , ver y lit t le
exper ience of RI levels of 750 kV lines wer e available when t he CIGRE for mula was evolved, as
compar ed t o t he vast exper ience wit h lines for 230 kV, 345 kV, 400 kV and 500 kV. Sever al
at t empt s wer e made since t he 1950's t o evolve a r at ional met hod for pr edict ing t he RI level of
a line at t he design st ages befor e it is act ually built when all t he impor t ant line par amet er s ar e
var ied. These ar e t he conduct or diamet er , number of sub-conduct or s, bundle spacing or bundle
r adius, phase spacing, line height , line configur at ion (hor izont al or delt a), and t he weat her
var iables. The most impor t ant concept r esult ing fr om such an at t empt in r ecent year s is t he
"Excit at ion Funct ion" or t he "Gener at ing Funct ion" of cor ona cur r ent inject ed at a given r adio
fr equency in unit bandwidt h int o t he conduct or . This quant it y is det er mined exper iment ally
fr om measur ement s car r ied out wit h shor t lengt hs of conduct or st r ung inside a cylindr ical or
r ect angular cage, as descr ibed in Chapt er 4, or fr om shor t out door over head exper iment al
lines. It can also be pr edict ed fr om exist ing long-line measur ement s and ext r apolat ed t o ot her
line configur at ions.
Consider Fig. 6.13 which shows a sour ce of cor ona at S locat ed at a dist ance x fr om one
end of a line of lengt h L. Accor ding t o t he met hod using t he Excit at ion Funct ion t o pr edict t he
RI level wit h given dimensions and conduct or geomet r y, t he cor ona sour ce at S on t he conduct or
gener at es an excit at ion funct ion I measur ed in . m / A µ The line has a sur ge impedance Z
0
so
t hat r -f power gener at ed per unit lengt h of line is
E = I
2
Z
0
...(6.26)
F i g. 6.13 The excit at ion funct ion and it s pr opagat ion on line for RI calculat ion.
Under r ain, a unifor m ener gy or power per unit bandwidt h is gener at ed so t hat in a differ ent ial
lengt h dx, t he power gener at ed is (E.dx). In t his met hod, we calculat e t he RI level under r ain
fir st and deduct 17 dB t o obt ain fair -weat her RI. This power will split equally in t wo dir ect ions
and t r avel along t he line t o r each t he point P at a dist ance (y–x) fr om t he sour ce S . In doing so,
it will at t enuat e t o t he value
,
) ( 2 x y a
e
− −
wher e a = at t enuat ion fact or for volt age in Neper s per
unit lengt h. Ther efor e, t he t ot al ener gy r eceived at P due t o all sour ces t o t he left of P will be
E
L
=

− − −
− ·
y
ay x y a
e
a
E
e dx E
0
2 ) ( 2
) 1 (
4
). . (
2
1
...(6.27)
Similar ly, t he ener gy r eceived at P due t o all sour ces t o it s r ight will be
E
R
=
) 1 (
4
) ( 2 y L a
e
a
E
− −

...(6.28)
L
X
Y
S P
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 157
For a line of finit e lengt h, r epeat ed r eflect ions occur fr om t he ends, but for a ver y long
line t hese ar e not of consequence. Also, unless t he point P is locat ed ver y close t o t he ends, t he
exponent ial t er ms can be neglect ed. Ther efor e, t he t ot al r -f ener gy r eceived at P will be
E
p
= E/2a ...(6.29)
which shows t hat all point s on a long line r eceive t he same r -f ener gy when t he cor ona
gener at ion is unifor m.
Exa mp le 6.6. For at t enuat ion fact or s of 6, 1 and 0.17 dB/km, calculat e t he ener gy
r eceived at point P in t er ms of ener gy gener at ed per unit lengt h.
Sol u t i on . The conver sion fact or fr om dB t o Neper s is 8.7. Thus, a = 0.69 N/km for 6 dB/
km, 0.115 N/km for 1 dB/km, and 0.019 N/km for 0.17 dB/km.
P
E ∴ = E/2a = 0.7246 × ener gy gener at ed per km for a = 6 dB/km
E
P
= 4.348 × ener gy gener at ed per km for a = 1 dB/km
and E
P
= 25.575 × ener gy gener at ed per km for a = 0.17 dB/km.
Associat ed wit h t he cur r ent inject ed int o t he conduct or per unit lengt h, t her e is a volt age
t o gr ound which is known as t he Radio Influence Volt age (RIV). Then,
E
P
= E/2a = (RIV)
2
/Z
0
...(6.30)
But E = I
2
Z
0
so t hat (RIV) = a IZ 2 /
0
...(6.31)
The gr ound level field depends upon t he conduct or char ge per unit lengt h and t he field
fact or , as shown in Sect ion 6.5. If t he capacit ance of line per unit lengt h is C, t he char ge is
q = C(RIV) = a ICZ 2 /
0
...(6.32)
However , for a n over hea d line, t he velocit y of pr opa ga t ion, ca pa cit a nce, a nd sur ge
impedance ar e r elat ed by
v = 1/C Z
0
...(6.33)
∴ q =
a v I 2 /
...(6.34)
Since t he char ge is found in t er ms of t he excit at ion funct ion, velocit y, and at t enuat ion
fact or , t he r esult ing RI level of line is
RI =
] 2 /[ Fact or Field
0
0
a Hv e IF
H e
q
π · ×
π
...(6.35)
Thus, t he quant it ies involved in est imat ing t he RI level of a line at a specific dist ance d
fr om t he line cent r e (or a cor r esponding dist ance fr om t he out er phase) ar e t he following:
(a) t he field fact or F which is a funct ion of t he line geomet r y (H,s,d);
(b) t he line height H;
(c) t he velocit y of pr opagat ion v;
(d) t he at t enuat ion fact or , a; and
(e) t he inject ed cur r ent or t he excit at ion funct ion, I.
The velocit y and at t enuat ion fact or s ar e known eit her by per for ming suit able exper iment s
on exist ing lines, or calculat ed if possible. The field fact or is also calculat ed. However , t he
excit at ion funct ion I can only be det er mined for t he conduct or under consider at ion fr om small-
scale exper iment s using ar t ificial r ain appar at us and cages or out door over head lines.
158 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
3-Phase Transmission Line
In or der t o apply t he met hod descr ibed above t o a 3-phase t r ansmission line and calculat e t he
RI level at a specified dist ance, t he pr ocedur e involves r esolving t he r -f quant it ies int o 3 modes
of pr ogagat ion. Let us consider t he line t o be per fect ly t r ansposed t o illust r at e t he pr ocedur e.
The t r ansfor mat ion mat r ix [T] and it s inver se [T]
–1
which diagonalize t he impedance mat r ix
wer e found in Chapt er 3 t o be.
1
1
1
]
1

¸


− ·
1
1
1
]
1

¸


− ·

1 , 2 , 1
3 , 0 , 3
2 , 2 , 2
6
1
] [ and
1 , 3 , 2
2 , 0 , 2
1 , 3 , 2
6
1
] [
1
T T
...(6.36)
For each mode of pr opagat ion, t he char ge on t he conduct or s is
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

) 3 ( 2 ) 3 ( / ) 3 (
) 2 ( 2 ) 2 ( / ) 2 (
) 1 ( 2 ) 1 ( / ) 1 (
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
a v I
a v I
a v I
q
q
q
...(6.37)
wher e t he quant it ies q, I, v and a belong t o t he mode indicat ed in t he br acket s. The modal
excit at ion funct ion is obt ained fr om t hose of t he phases by t he t r ansfor mat ion
[I]
m
= ph
I T
I
I
I
] [ ] [
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
1 −
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

...(6.38)
Now, if all t he t hr ee phase conduct or s ar e developing equal int ensit ies of cor ona, t he
excit at ion funct ions will be equal. Let t his be denot ed by I. Then.
[I]
m
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸


− ·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

0
0
3 /
1 , 2 , 1
3 , 0 , 3
2 , 2 , 2
6
1
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 ( I
I
I
I
I
I
I
...(6.39)
This shows t hat only t he fir st or line-t o-gr ound mode has an inject ed cur r ent and t he
r emaining t wo modes ar e not pr esent .
∴ q(1) = . 0 ) 3 ( , 0 ) 2 ( , ) 1 ( 2 ). 1 ( 3 / · · q q a v I
Figur e 6.14 shows t he modal char ge dist r ibut ions. Conver t ing t his back t o phase quant it ies,
t he r -f char ges on t he t hr ee conduct or s ar e
1
1
1
]
1

¸

3
2
1
q
q
q
=
] ) 1 ( 2 ) 1 ( 3 / [
1
1
1
) 1 (
1
1
1
3
1
0
0
) 1 (
1 , 3 , 2
2 , 0 , 2
1 , 3 , 2
6
1
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
] [ a v I q
q
q
q
q
T
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸


− ·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

...(6.40)
This has t he char ge dist r ibut ion (q, q, q) showing t hat t he t hr ee conduct or char ges ar e
equal and of t he same polar it y. The RI level at t he met er placed on gr ound will now be cont r olled
by t he field fact or s, as shown in Figur e 6.10.
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 159
Fig. 6.14 Modal char ge dist r ibut ions on a fully-t r ansposed 3-phase ac line.
Thus, RI
1
=
2 2
/ ) ( 1
1
H s d
H e
q
o
− +
π
RI
2
=
2
0
) / ( 1
1
H d
H e
q
+
π
...(6.41)
and RI
3
=
2 2
0
/ ) ( 1
1
H s d
H e
q
+ +
π
The addit ion r ule accor ding t o t he CIGRE for mula can now be applied t o t hese t hr ee RI
levels and the RI level of the line calculated. The quantities to be ascertained are I, v and a
fr om measur ement s. The velocit y and at t enuat ion fact or per t ain t o t his mode of excit at ion
while t he excit at ion funct ion applies t o t he conduct or usually per for med in a cage ar r angement
in single-phase configur at ion at t he cor r ect sur face volt age gr adient t hat exist s on t he over head
line.
Bipolar DC Line
It is int er est ing t o obser ve t he pr oper t ies of modal excit at ion funct ions on a bipolar dc line
and compar e t hese wit h a per fect ly t r ansposed 3-phase ac line.
In Sect ions 6.1 and 6.2 it was ment ioned t hat r adio noise is almost ent ir ely caused by
posit ive cor ona pulses so t hat on a bipolar dc line, only t he posit ive-polar it y conduct or develops
measur able r -f ener gy. Thus, t he excit at ion funct ions will be . ] 0 , [ ] [
t p
I I
+
· The t r ansfor mat ion
mat r ix and it s inver se used for diagonalizing t he impedance of a bipolar dc line ar e
[T] =
1
]
1

¸


·

1 , 1
1 , 1
2
1
] [
1
T ...(6.42)
The excit at ion funct ion in t he t wo modes will be
1
]
1

¸

) 2 (
) 1 (
I
I
= ) 2 / (
1
1
] [ ] [
1
+

1
]
1

¸

· I I T
p
...(6.43)
This shows t hat bot h modes cont ain equal amount s of inject ed cur r ent , while we obser ved
t hat on a per fect ly-t r ansposed 3-phase ac line t her e was no ener gy or excit at ion in t wo of t he
modes. All t he ener gy was r et ained in t he fir st or line-t o-gr ound or t he homopolar mode of
pr opagat ion. This is t he essent ial differ ence bet ween t he t wo lines.
The cor r esponding char ge dist r ibut ions in t he t wo modes ar e
[q]
m
= 1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
]
1

¸

) 2 ( ). 2 (
) 1 ( ). 1 (
) 2 ( 2 ) 2 ( / ) 2 (
) 1 ( 2 ) 1 ( / ) 1 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
I K
I K
a v I
a v I
q
q
… (6.44)
q(1) q(1) q(1)
Ist Mode IInd Mode IIIrd Mode
q(3) = 0 q(2) = 0 q v (1) = I / 3 (I) 2 (I) a
160 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Figur e 6.15 depict s t he modal char ge dist r ibut ions. Conver t ing t his back t o t he char ges
r esiding on t he poles by mult iplying [q]
m
by [T], t her e r esult s.
Fig. 6.15 Modal char ge dist r ibut ions on a bipolar dc line.
[q] =
m
q T
q
q
] ][ [ ·
1
]
1

¸


+
= 1
]
1

¸


+
+
) 2 ( ) 1 (
) 2 ( ) 1 (
2 K K
K K I
...(6.45)
We obser ve t hat even t hough t he negat ive pole is not developing any r -f ener gy it has a
char ge due t o mut ual coupling fr om t he posit ive pole. The RI level at gr ound level can be
calculated at two representative points M
1
, M
2
at t he same lat er al dist ance d fr om t he line
cent r e wit h M
1
closer t o t he posit ive pole and M
2
near er t he negat ive pole, Fig. 6.16.
F i g. 6.16 Conduct or r -f char ge dist r ibut ion on bipolar dc line aft er t r ansfor ming modal char ges by [T ].
At M
1
Due t o posit ive conduct or ,
) ( RI
1
M
+
=
2 2
0
2 2
0
/ ) 2 / ( 1
) 2 ( ) 1 (
2
/ ) 2 / ( 1
1
H P d
K K
H e
I
H P d
H e
q
− +
+
π
·
− +
π
+ +
...(6.46)
Due t o t he negat ive conduct or
) ( RI
1
M

=
2 2
0
/ ) 2 / ( 1
) 2 ( ) 1 (
2
H P d
K K
H e
I
+ +

π
+
...(6.47)
S imilarly at M
2
) ( RI
2
M
+
=
2 2
0
/ ) 2 / ( 1
) 2 ( ) 1 (
2
H P d
K K
H e
I
+ +
+
π
+
...(6.48)
) ( RI
2
M

=
2 2
0
/ ) 2 / ( 1
) 2 ( ) 1 (
2
H P d
K K
H e
I
− +

π
+
...(6.49)
q(1) = I/ 2 (1) 2 (1) v a + q I v (2) = / 2 (2) 2 (2) a
+
q(1) q(1) q(2) q(2)
q
+ q

M
1
M2
P
d d
H
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 161
wher e ) 1 ( K = ) 2 ( 2 ) 2 ( / 1 ) 2 ( and ) 1 ( 2 ) 1 ( / 1 a v K a v · ...(6.50)
In gener al, t he velocit ies in t he t wo modes will be differ ent wit h v (1) being about 80%
light velocit y since it involves gr ound r et ur n and v(2) equal t o light velocit y. The at t enuat ion
fact or s a(1) and a(2) will also be differ ent wit h a(1) equal t o about 6 dB/km (0.69 Neper /km) and
a(2) equal t o about 1 dB/km (0.115 Neper /km).
P r oce d u r e for Ob t a i n i n g Exci t a t i on F u n ct i on fr om CI GRE F or mu l a
Since t he pr ocedur e for calculat ing RI level fr om t he excit at ion funct ion par allels t he empir ical
for mula given by t he CIGRE, we will now examine t he r elat ion bet ween t he expr essions given
in equat ions (6.40) for t he char ge and t he r esult ing RI wit h (6.22). For t he char ge given in
(6.40), t he RI level at gr ound will be
RI =
2 2
0
/ 1
1 1
2 3 H d
H e
a v
I
+
π
...(6.51)
The cor r esponding decibel value is
RI
dB
= ] / ) [( Log 20 ) 2 3 ( Log 20 ) / ( Log 20
2 2 2
10 10 0 10
H H d a H ve I + − π − ...(6.52)
The fir st t er m a H ve I g
0
/ · has dimension volt /met r e and t her efor e cor r esponds t o t he
volt age gr adient in t he CIGRE for mula.
1
1
]
1

¸

· · ·

,
_

¸
¸
× × ×
met r e
Volt
met r e - Far ad
Coulomb
met r e - Far ad
Sec - Amp
m
m
Neper
m
F
s
m
) m / Amp (
The ot her quant it ies in equat ion (6.52) ar e dimensionless.
∴ RI
dB
= ) / ( log 40 5 . 22 Log 20
2 2
10 10
H H d g + − − ...(6.53)
The CIGRE for mula is
RI
dB
=
) 20 / ( Log 33 30 12 5 . 3
2 2
H d r g
m
+ − − −
...(6.54)
By calculat ing t he RI level for a given conduct or using t he CIGRE for mula and equat ing it
t o equat ion (6.53), t he value of g can be det er mined and t her eby t he excit at ion funct ion I, as
shown by an example.
Exa mp l e 6.7 In example 6.2, t he RI level at 30 m fr om out er phase due t o t he cent r e
phase was calculat ed as 38.7 dB when H = 14 m, r = 1.59 cm, g
m
= 17.3 kV/cm and d = 41m. (a)
Ca l cu l a t e t h e va l u e of g i n equ a t i on (6. 53) by equ a t i n g (6. 54) wi t h i t . (b) Ta k i n g
v = 2.5 × 10
8
m/s a nd a =0.69 × 10
–3
Neper /m, calculat e t he excit at ion funct ion and it s dB
value above 1 . m / A µ
Sol u t i on . 38.7 = 1 . 42 ) ( Log 20 14 / 14 41 Log 40 5 . 22 ) ( Log 20
2 2
− ·

,
_

¸
¸
+ − − g g
(a) ∴ g = ant ilog 4.04 = 1.0965 ×10
4
volt /met r e = 10.965 kV/m
(b) I =
. m / A 984 . 8 10 69 . 0 14 10 842 . 8 10 5 . 2 10 0965 . 1
3 12 8 4
0
µ · × × × × × × × ·
− −
a H gve
I
dB
= . m / A 1 above dB 07 . 19 984 . 8 Log 20
10
µ ·
Thus, t he RI level is 19.63 dB higher t han t he dB value of t he excit at ion funct ion. The
decibel adder t o conver t t he excit at ion funct ion t o t he RI level is t her efor e 19.63 dB for t his
example.
162 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
6.8 MEASUREMENT OF RI, RIV, AND EXCITATION FUNCTION
The int er efer ence t o AM br oadcast in t he fr equency r ange 0.5 MHz t o 1.6 MHz is measur ed in
t er ms of t he t hr ee quant it ies : Radio Int er fer ence Field Int ensit y (RIFI or RI), t he Radio Influence
Volt age (RIV), and mor e r ecent ly t hr ough t he Excit at ion Funct ion. Their unit s ar e mV/m, mV,
and mA/
m
or t he decibel values above t heir r efer ence values of 1 unit ). m / A , V , m / V ( µ µ µ
The nuisance value for r adio r ecept ion is gover ned by a quant it y or level which is near ly equal
t o t he peak value of t he quant it y and t er med t he Quasi Peak. A block diagr am of a r adio noise
met er is shown in Fig. 6.17. The input t o t he met er is at r adio fr equency (r -f) which is amplified
and fed t o a mixer . The r est of t he cir cuit wor ks exact ly t he same as a highly sensit ive super -
het er odyne r adio r eceiver , However , at t he IF out put st age, a filt er wit h 5 kHz or 9 kHz
bandwidth is present whose output is detected by the diode D. It s out put char ges a capacit ance
C t hr ough a low r esist ance R
c
such t hat t he char ging t ime const ant T
c
= R
c
C = 1 ms. A second
r esist ance R
d
is in par allel wit h C which is ar r anged t o give a t ime const ant T
d
= R
d
C = 600 ms
in ANSI met er s and 160 ms in CISPR or Eur opean st andar d met er s. Field t est s have shown
t hat t her e is not consider able differ ence in t he out put when compar ing bot h t ime const ant s for
line-gener at ed cor ona noise. The volt age acr oss t he capacit or can eit her be r ead as a cur r ent
t hr ough t he dischar ge r esist or R
d
or a micr o-volt met er connect ed acr oss it .
Fig. 6.17 Block diagr am of Radio Noise Met er .
For r adiat ed int er fer ence measur ement RI, t he fr ont end of t he met er is fit t ed wit h eit her
a r od ant enna of 0.5 t o 2 met r es in lengt h or a loop ant enna of t his size of side. For conduct ed
measur ement s, t he int er fer ing volt age RIV is fed t hr ough a jack. The input impedance of t he
met er is 50 ohms:
The following for mulas due t o Nigol apply t o t he var ious set t ings of t he noise met er for
r epet it ive pulses:
Peak Value: V
p
=
f A ∆ τ. . . 2
...(6.55)
Quasi Peak: V
qp
= KV
P
...(6.56)
Average: V
av
=
0
. . . 2 f A τ ...(6.57)
R.M.S . Value: V
rms
= f f A ∆ τ . . . . 2
0
...(6.58)
wher e, A = amplit ude of r epet it ive pulses,
τ = pulse dur at ion,
f ∆ = bandwidt h of met er ,
0
f = r epet it ion fr equency of pulses, < , f ∆
and K = a const ant ≈ 0.9 – 0.95.
Relat ions can be found among t hese four quant it ies if necessar y.
R. F.
∆f
µA
µV
D R
C
R
d
C
I. F.
Amplifiers
RI
L.O. Filter
f
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 163
Conduct ed RIV is measur ed by a cir cuit shown schemat ically in Fig. 6.18. The object
under t est , which could be an insulat or st r ing wit h guar d r ings, is ener gized by a high volt age
sour ce at power fr equency or impulse. A filt er is int er posed such t hat any r -f ener gy pr oduced
by par t ial dischar ge in t he t est object is pr event ed fr om flowing int o t he sour ce and all r -f
ener gy goes t o t he measur ing cir cuit . This consist s of a dischar ge-fr ee h.v. coupling capacit or of
about 500 t o 2000 pF in ser ies at t he gr ound level wit h a small induct ance L. At 50 Hz, t he
coupling capacit or has a r eact ance of 6.36 Megohms t o 1.59 Megohms. The value of L is chosen
such t hat t he volt age dr op is not mor e t han 5 volt s so t hat t he measur ing equipment does not
exper ience a high power -fr equency volt age.
Let V = applied power fr equency volt age fr om line t o gr ound,
V
L
= volt age acr oss L,
X
c
= r eact ance of coupling capacit or
and X
L
= f L π 2 = r eact ance of induct or .
Then, V
L
= V LC f X VX X X X V
c c L L c L
. 4 /
~
) /( .
2 2
π · − − ...(6.59)
Fig. 6.18 Cir cuit for measur ing Radio Influence Volt age (RIV).
Exa mp le 6.8. A t est object for 400 kV is under going an RIV t est . The coupling capacit or
has 1000 pF and t he volt age acr oss t he measur ing syst em is t o be 1 volt . Calculat e t he value of
induct ance r equir ed if
V = kV 5 . 243 kV 3 / 420 ·
Sol u t i on . L = V C f V f X
c L L
2 2
4 / 2 / π · π
L = . mH 8 . 41 ) 10 5 . 242 10 50 4 /( 1
3 9 2 2
· × × × × π

[At 50 Hz, X
L
= ]. Megohm 185 . 3 , ohm 1 . 13 2 · · π
c
X fL
At r adio fr equencies, t he induct ance pr esent s a ver y high impedance while t he coupling
capacit or has ver y low r eact ance. The capacit or is t uned at a fixed fr equency, usually 1 MHz,
wit h an r -f choke, L
0
. Ther e is a ser ies R
g
t o gr ound. This r -f volt age is fed t o t he noise met er
t hr ough a lengt h of cable of 50 ohm char act er ist ic impedance t er minat ed in a 50 ohm r esist ance
at t he input end of t he met er .
Source
L
C
H.V. Lead
Noise
Meter
Cable
R
c
PG
Test
Object
R
c
R
g
C
c
L
0
L
0. F 1µ
NM
164 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
The value of L
0
is obt ained fr om t he equat ion.
f =
c c
C f L C L
2 2
0 0
4 / 1 or 2 / 1 π · π ...(6.60)
wher e f = measur ing fr equency.
Exa mp le 6.9. In t he above example wit h C
c
= 1000 pF, calculat e
(a) t he value of L
0
t o t une t he cir cuit t o 1 MHz,
(b) t he r eact ance of L = 41.8 mH at 1 MHz and
(c) t hat of t he coupling capacit or C
c
. Check wit h r eact ance of L
0
.
Sol u t i on .
(a) L
0
= . H 33 . 25 10 10 4 / 1
9 12 2
µ · × × π

(b) X
L
= . kilohms 64 . 262 10 8 . 41 10 2
3 6
· × × × π

(c) X
c
= . ohms 159 10 10 2 / 1
9 6
· × × π

X
L0
= . ohms 159 10 33 . 25 10 2
6 6
· × × × π

The r-f volt age developed acr oss R
g
is fed t o t he noise met er . Since t r ansmission lines
have a char act er ist ic impedance in t he r ange 300 t o 600 ohms, st andar d specificat ions st ipulat ed
t hat t he r -f volt age must be measur ed acr oss 600 ohms. Thus, R
g
is in t he neighbour hood of 600
ohms. However , it was obvious t hat t his could not be done since t he pr esence of cable will
lower t he impedance t o gr ound. In ear lier days of RIV measur ement at lower volt ages (230 kV
equipment ) t he noise met er was dir ect ly connect ed acr oss R
g
and it s input end was open. The
oper at or sat r ight under neat h t he pedest al suppor t ing t he coupling capacit or in or der t o r ead
t he met er or used a pair of binocular s fr om a dist ance. But wit h incr ease in t est volt age, t he
need for maint aining a safe dist ance necessit at es a cable of 10m t o 20m. Wit h it s sur ge
impedance R
c
conect ed acr oss R
g
, which has a higher value, t he combined par allel impedance
is lower t han R
c
. No coaxial cables ar e manufact ur ed for high sur ge impedance, so t hat st andar d
specificat ions allow RIV t o be measur ed acr oss 150 ohm r esist ance made up of R
g
and R
c
in
par allel. It is clear t hat t he measur ing cable must have R
c
gr eat er t han 150 ohms. The highest
impedance cable has R
c
= 175 ohms on t he mar ket . The value of R
g
can be select ed such t hat
) /(
g c g c
R R R R + = 150 ohms
giving R
g
= 150 R
c
/(R
c
–150) ...(6.61)
For R
c
= 175 ohms, R
g
= 6 R
c
= 1050 ohms.
The met er r eading is t hen mult iplied by a fact or of 4 in or der t o give t he RIV measur ed
acr oss 600 ohms, or by a fact or of 2 for 300 ohms sur ge impedance.
6.9 MEASUREMENT OF EXCITATION FUNCTION
The cor ona gener at ing funct ion or t he excit at ion funct ion caused by inject ed cur r ent at r adio
fr equencies fr om a cor ona dischar ge is measur ed on shor t lengt hs of conduct or st r ung inside
"cages" as discussed ear lier . The design of cages has been cover ed in gr eat det ail in Chapt er 4,
Some examples of measur ing r adio noise and inject ed cur r ent ar e shown in Fig. 6.19. In ever y
case t he measur ed quant it y is RIV at a fixed fr equency and t he excit at ion funct ion calculat ed as
descr ibed lat er . The filt er pr ovides an at t enuat ion of at least 25 dB so t hat t he RI cur r ent is
solely due t o cor ona on conduct or . The conduct or is t er minat ed in a capacit ance C
c
a t one end
in ser ies wit h r esist ances R
1
and R
c
, while t he ot her end is left open. The conduct or is st r ung
wit h st r ain insulat or at bot h ends which can be consider ed t o offer a ver y high impedance at 1
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 165
MHz so t hat t her e is an open-t er minat ion. But t his must be checked exper iment ally in sit u.
The coupling capacit or has negligible r eact ance at r -f so t hat t he t er minat ion at t he measur ing
end is near ly equal t o (R
1
+ R
c
), wher e R
c
= sur ge impedance of t he cable t o t he noise met er .
The r esist ance R
c
is also equal t o t he input impedance of t he noise met er .
Fig. 6.19 Cage set ups for measur ing excit at ion funct ion wit h measur ing cir cuit .
The excit at ion funct ion is calculat ed as follows:
Let J = RI cur r ent inject ed in , m / A µ
C = capacit ance of conduct or in cage, Far ad/met r e,
R = out er r adius of cage,
r
eq
= equivalent r adius of bundle.
Then, t he excit at ion funct ion is
I = m / A , / . 2
0
µ π C J e ...(6.62)
The inject ed cur r ent in t er ms of measur ed RIV is
J = G R R R R
m c m c
/ ) RIV )( ( 2 + ...(6.63)
wher e · + ) /(
m c m c
R R R R r esist ance of R
c
and met er in par allel,
RIV = measur ed noise r eading on met er in , V µ
and G = an amplificat ion fact or caused by addit ion of t he unifor mly dist r ibut ed
r -f cur r ent s gener at ed on t he conduct or .
The t est is nor mally car r ied out under r ain condit ions fr om ar t ificial r ain appar at us so
t hat cor ona is gener at ed unifor mly along t he conduct or . For a line t er minat ed at one end in it s
sur ge impedance wit h t he ot her end open, t he amplificat ion fact or is, for a conduct or lengt h L.
G = 1
]
1

¸
π
π
+ ·
1
]
1

¸
π

v
fL
f
v L
dx x
v
f
L
4
sin
8 2
.
2
cos
0
2
...(6.64)
wher e v = velocit y of pr opagat ion
and f = fr equency of measur ement .
Since R
c
= R
m
, t her e r esult s
I =
. m / A ), RIV .(
4 2
0
µ
π
G R C
e
c
...(6.65)
CONDUCTOR
CAGE
Source
NM
C
c
R
( ) a
F
NM
Coax Cable
Source
Filter
CONDUCTOR
L
CAGE
C
c
R
1
R
c
( ) b
166 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
This value of excit at ion funct ion has been used in Sect ion 6.7 for evaluat ing t he RI level of
a long line.
6.10 DESIGN OF FILTER
When cor ona is gener at ed on t he bundle-conduct or inside t he cage or on a t est object dur ing
RIV measur ement s, t he ener gy in t he pulses will be divided bet ween t he measur ing cir cuit and
t he sour ce t r ansfor mer . The t r ansfor mer can be assumed t o offer a pur e capacit ive r eact ance
consist ing of t he h.v. bushing and t he winding induct ance at t he fr equency of r -f measur ement ,
usually 1 MHz. Fig. 6.20 shows a simple R-L filt er , for which t he at t enuat ion fact or is
A = |V
i
/ V
0
| =
2 / 1 2 2 2 2 2
] ) 1 [(
t f t f
C R w C L w + − ...(6.66)
This is obt ained by simple volt age division which is
V
i
/V
0
= )] 1 /( /[ )] 1 /( ) [(
2 2
t t t t t t f f
C L w jwL C L w jwL L jw R − − + + ...(6.67)
wh er e · π ·
t
C f w , 2 t r a n s for mer ca pa ci t a n ce, L
t
= t r a n s for mer i n du ct a n ce, a n d
R
f
, L
f
= filt er r esist ance and induct ance.
Let t he upper a nd lower fr equencies of mea sur ement be f
2
and f
1
, a nd t he desir ed
at t enuat ions A
2
and A
1
. The decibel values ar e
D
2
= . log 20 and log 20
1 10 1 2 10
A D A ·
Th en t h e fol l owi n g equ a t i on s h ol d fr om wh i ch we ca n ca l cu l a t e t h e pr odu ct s
. and
t f t f
C R Y C L X · · When t he t r ansfor mer capacit ance is known, t he values of filt er element s
ar e fixed.
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
) 1 ( A Y w X w · + − ...(6.68)
2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
) 1 ( A Y w X w · + − ...(6.69)
Then,
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2 2
1
2
2
/ ) 1 ( / ) 1 ( ) ( w A w A X w w − − − · − ...(6.70)
Fig. 6.20 Line filt er for blocking cor ona ener gy fr om ent er ing sour ce t r a nsfor mer .
and
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
/ ] ) 1 ( [ w X w A Y − − · ...(6.71a)
or ,
2
1
2 2
1
2
1
2
/ ] ) 1 ( [ w X w A Y − − · ...(6.71b)
The Q of t he filt er at any fr equency is,
. / 2 / 2 Y fX R L f Q
f f
π · π · ...(6.72)
V
0
CORONA ON
CONDUCTOR
MC V
0
C
t
L
t
L
f
R
f
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 167
Exa mp le 6.10. Design a filt er t o give 40 dB at t enuat ion at 1 MHz and 25 dB at 0.4 MHz.
Calculat e Q of filt er at 1 MHz.
Sol u t i on . Let w
2
= , 100 , 10 4 . 0 2 , 10 2
2
6
1
6
· × × π · × π A w
A
1
= . 78 . 17 10
25 . 1
·
12 2 2 12 2 2 2 2 2 12 2
10 16 . 0 4 / ) 1 78 . 17 ( 10 4 / ) 1 100 ( ) 4 . 0 1 ( 10 4 × × π − − × π − · − × π ∴ X
This gives X =
12
10 76 . 5

× ·
t f
C L
Then, Y
2
=
12 2 2 12 12 2 2
10 4 / ] ) 10 76 . 5 10 4 1 ( 100 [ × π × × × π − −

giving Y = . 10 1 . 16
6
t f
C R · ×

Q = . MHz 1 at 248 . 2 / 2 / 2 · π · π Y X f R L f
f f
Exa mp le 6.11. The limit ing fr equencies for AM br oadcast ar e 0.5 MHz and 1.6 MHz.
Design filt er element s L
f
and R
f
and find Q at 1 MHz for giving 40 dB at 1.6 MHz and 25 dB at
0.5 MHz.
Sol u t i on . Using equat ions (6.68) t o (6.71), t her e r esult
X =
6 12
10 222 . 5 and 10 852 . 0
− −
× · · × ·
t f t f
C R Y C L
Q = . MHz 1 at 025 . 1
If t he t r ansfor mer capacit ance is 1000 pF = 10
–9
Far ad, t he values ar e L
f
= 0.852 mH and
R
f
= 5.222 kilohms.
The most impor t ant point t o obser ve is t hat even t hough t he filt er element s ar e in ser ies
wit h t he sour ce t r ansfor mer and conduct or in t he cage at t he high volt age, t hey must be
designed for t he full wor king volt age. This is a ver y expensive it em in t he exper iment al set -up.
6.11 TELEVISION INTERFERENCE (TVI)
Television (TV) a nd Fr equency Modula t ion (FM) br oa dca st a nd r ecept ion nor ma lly cover
fr equencies in t he r ange 25 t o 100 MHz. The audio por t ion of TV is fr equency modulat ed and is
gener ally insensit ive t o noise gener at ed by power lines, equipment and har dwar e at high volt age
gr adient s, and spar ks. This is also t r ue of video synchr onizing cir cuit s. The only par t sensit ive
t o noise is t he AM car r ier -signal pr ocessing cir cuit which is dist ur bed dur ing t he sweep of t he
elect r on beam acr oss t he TV pict ur e-t ube scr een. We will br iefly discuss t he effect s t his has on
t he qualit y of TV r ecept ion and t he t ypes of noise which affect it . No effor t is made t o descr ibe
t echnical aspect s of TV t r ansmission and r ecept ion her e and t he r eader should consult lit er at ur e
of excellent qualit y and vast ext ent exist ing on TV engineer ing.
Int er fer ence t o TV r ecept ion fr om e.h.v. power lines came int o focus in lat e 1960's and
ear ly 1970's wit h t he ener gizat ion of 500 kV lines, in a manner similar t o audible noise. At t hat
t ime t he pr imar y cause of TVI was r ecognized as cor ona dischar ges fr om wat er dr ops on t he
single and bundled conduct or s, t he for mer yielding higher dist ur bance t han t he lat t er . The
dist ur bance on t he TV scr een was obser ved as bands or st r eaks dr ift ing acr oss it . Pr ior t o t his
obser vat ion, r esident ial dwellings wer e locat ed at least 60 met r es fr om t he cent r e of a power
line which was based on RI limit at ions, but r esult ed in TVI dur ing heavy r ain condit ions. The
noise level was 3 µV/m (9.54 dB) at 75 MHz in fair weat her but incr eased t o 30 µV/m (29.54 dB)
in foul weat her when at t he same t ime t he RI level was measur ed as 1800 µV/m (65.1 dB).
168 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Wet -snow condit ions gave maximum TVI. These obser vat ions pr ompt ed ser ious at t ent ion t o be
given t o TVI and t he nat ur e of dischar ges emanat ing fr om e.h.v. power lines causing t his
int er fer ence. The pr oblem of int er fer ence t o B & W and colour TV had, of cour se, been alr eady
under invest igat ion fr om man-made sour ces since a long t ime pr ior t o t his.
It was soon r ecognized t hat allowable noise should be set 5 µV/m(14 dB) wher e t he TV
signal had a st r engt h of 40 dB higher (100 : 1 r at io for signal t o noise). For sat isfact or y r ecept ion,
t he signal st r engt h is specified as a minimum of 225 µV/m(47 dB) which is per mit t ed in r ur al
ar eas and much higher in ur ban ar eas close t o TV t r ansmit t er s. In foul weat her , measur ed
noise at 75 MHz can be 5 µV/m(14 dB) even at 150 met r es fr om t he line which is consider ed
sat isfact or y for TV r ecept ion in r ur al ar eas wher e t he signal st r engt h can be as low as 225 µV/
m. At 60 met r es fr om t he line, t he noise is about 30 µV/m (29.54 dB) which would t hen r equir e
69.54 dB (3000 µV/m). A measur ed value of 2500 µV/m(68 dB) was seen t o give t oler ably good
r ecept ion. In fair weat her , t hese limit s exist and line noise is obser ved not t o dist ur b TV
r ecept ion even under t he line,. Thus TVI is of gr eat concer n only in foul weat her fr om a line,
but as will be explained lat er , micr o-dischar ges fr om line har dwar e can be a nuisance even in
fair weat her . These must be locat ed and cor r ect ed by pr oper maint enance if complaint s ar e not
t o be for t hcoming. We shall now br iefly enumer at e t he t ypes of dischar ges fr om an e.h.v. line
t hat cause TVI and t he t ypes of possible TVI obser ved in pr act ice. Wit h t he enor mous popular it y
t hat TV has achieved in r ecent year s even in r ur al India, t he pr oblem of TVI is as impor t ant as
in ot her count r ies wher e TV has been used in far ming communit ies not only for ent er t ainment
but also for gat her ing infor mat ion for t heir ever yday life, so t hat TVI should be t r eat ed ser iously
by r egulat ing bodies and envir onment alist s.
Ther e ar e t hr ee t ypes of noise sour ces fr om an e.h.v. power t r ansmission line which ar e
of concer n. These a r e:
(a) Ult r a cor ona on t hin wir es or sliver s or shar p edges and point s;
(b) Cor ona on conduct or s;
(c) Spar king fr om cr acked insulat or s, and acr oss small gaps such as loose connect ions
bet ween line har dwar e component s, which ar e especially t r oublesome dur ing wind
condit ions.
Ult r a cor ona is a phenomenon t hat is r ecognized t o occur at volt age gr adient s much in
excess of nor mal cor ona incept ion and is a var iet y of glow cor ona. Nor mally, glow cor ona of t he
luminous t ype does not exhibit pulse-t ype pr oper t y but a s t he volt a ge gr a dient exceeds
22 kV/cm, r .m.s., pulse-t ype dischar ge commences dur ing t he negat ive half-cycle of power -
fr equency excit at ion. The r esult ing noise is ver y similar t o t hat gener at ed by cor ona on a wet
conduct or dur ing t he negat ive half-cycle. It was ment ioned in Sect ions 6.1 and 6.2 t hat t his was
not of concer n for Radio Int er fer ence because t hese amplit udes and t ime dur at ions of negat ive
pulses when pr ocessed t hr ough t he 5 kHz bandwidt h of t he Quasi-Peak cir cuit of a Radio Noise
met er r esult ed in insignificant level of noise as compar ed t o posit ive cor ona noise. However ,
t he fr equency spect r um of negat ive pulses exhibit s a mor e const ant or flat t ype t han t hat of
posit ive pulses and t his is ser ious fr om TVI point of view. Figur e 6.21 shows r elat ive amplit ude
plot s of t he fr equency spect r a of four t ypes of dischar ges fr om lines, wher e it can be obser ved
t hat posit ive cor ona noise decr eases at t he r at e of 35 dB per decade incr ease in fr equency while
negat ive noise shows a decr ease of only 20 dB decr ease per decade. The gap-t ype noise is near ly
flat upt o 100 MHz which is of concer n for TVI.
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 169
F i g. 6.21 Rela t ive fr equency spect r a of coor dina t ed RIV fr om four t ypes of
dischar ge sour ces in foul weat her fr om e.h.v, lines causing TVI. (i ) Posit ive
st r eamer s; (i i ) Gap-t ype dischar ge; (i i i) Negat ive st r eamer s; and (i v) Negat ive glow
noise (ult r a cor ona).
Negat ive pulses occur in lar ge bunches dur ing t he negat ive half-cycle of power -fr equency
volt age above t he cor ona t hr eshold volt age or volt age gr adient . The spacing bet ween pulses is
as low as 10 t o 20
, s µ
so t hat somet imes t he pulses over lap each ot her giving t he char act er ist ics
of r andom noise, Fig. 6.22. In compar ison, posit ive pulses occur less fr equent ly on t he posit ive
half cycles and can be consider ed t o yield impulsive noise. For gap-t ype noise, t he pulse r epet it ion
r at e is lower t han for negat ive t ype cor ona and t he pulse separ at ion is also lar ger . These
char act er ist ics gover n t he t ype of dist ur bance t o pict ur e qualit y on t he TV scr een. Also, or gap-
t ype posit ive pulses, t he amplit ude has been obser ved t o be higher even t han t he signal st r engt h
by as much as 20 dB so t hat t he Signal/Noise r at io is act ually negat ive by 30 dB. This occur s
under heavy r ain condit ions. The r esult ing dist ur bed pat t er n exhibit s st r eaks wit h a black
head and a long whit e t ail like a comet in t he sky, as shown in Fig. 6.23 (a). Spar king fr om loose
har dwar e wher e t he insulat or s might suppor t light conduct or s gives r ise t o st r eaks t hat cover
only a par t of t he scr een as shown in Fig. 6.23 (b). However , negat ive cor ona gives a t ype of
dist ur bance t o t he pict ur e familiar ly known as 'snow'. Since t he pulses occur only dur ing par t
of a negat ive half cycle, only a par t of t he pict ur e exper iences t his t ype of blur r ing when it is
Fig. 6.22 Typical pulse act ivit y dur ing posit ive and negat ive half-cycles of power -fr equency volt age on
lines in cor ona. (Not e: The pulse amplit udes ar e magnified 10
4
t o 10
5
t imes for t he sa ke of
clar it y. The peak value of excit at ion volt age is in t he r ange of 350 t o 700 kV while t he pulse
amplit udes may be less t han 10 volt s acr oss 600 ohms).
Positive pulses
Positive corona threshold
Power frequency
voltage
Negative corona
threshold
Negative pulses
20 ms
0 10
0.1 1.0 10 100
100
80
60
40
20
0
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
d
B
l
e
v
e
l
Frequency, MHz
Negative streamers
Negative glow
Positive streamers
Gap noise
170 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Fig. 6.23 Typical pat t er ns of Television Int er fer ence (TVI),
(a) Due t o posit ive gap-t ype noise. Noise level is higher t han car r ier signal st r engt h
by about 20 dB.
(b) Due t o spa r king a t loose ha r dwa r e.
r ealized t hat a nor mal TV scr een has 525 lines sweeping acr oss it in t wo fr ames at near ly 50
t imes a second. This cor r esponds near ly t o power -fr equency volt age also. Ther efor e, negat ive
pulses occur r ing dur ing only a par t of a power -fr equency cycle will cause blur r ing at t he middle
of t he scr een fr om a single phase and near ly complet ely fr om t he t hr ee phases. Obser vat ions
made by G.W. J uet t e at t he E.H.V. Pr oject have r evealed t he following t ypes of behaviour for
TVI, (Ref. 115, IEEE in Bibliogr aphy):
(a) When S/N r at io is 0 dB, about 50% of scr een has dense whit e bands fr om a single-
phase noise sour ce;
(b) If t he S/N r at io is mor e favour able, at 20 dB, t he band separ at es int o balck and whit e
spot s;
(c) At S/N r at io of 20 dB, t he spot s become smaller and show a lar ger separ at ion;
(d) At 30 dB S/N r at io, t he separ at ion is even mor e and main pict ur e assumes mor e
br ight ness but is not yet clear ;
(e) At 40 dB, ver y few spot s ar e visible and t her e is no snow. This appear s t o be t he
t hr eshold for noise nuisance;
( f ) At 50 dB, t he pict ur e is ver y clear and noise effect is not visible.
Wor ks of Gia o Tr inh a nd J or da n, a nd r ecent ly by t he t ea m of Ar a i, Miguchi a nd
J anischewskyj have emphasized t he need for car eful invest igat ion int o t he fr equency spect r um
of differ ent modes of cor ona and t r ansit ion fr om st r eamer t o spar k dischar ges in or der t o
assess t heir effect on TV int er fer ence so t hat r emedial measur es may be t aken. (See Refer ences
114 and 119, IEEE in Bibliogr aphy).
Re vi e w Qu e s t i on s a n d Pr oble ms
1. Descr ibe t he mechanism of for mat ion of a posit ive cor ona pulse t r ain.
2. The posit ive and negat ive cor ona pulses can be assumed t o be squar e pulses of
amplit udes 100 mA and 10 mA r espect ively. Their widt hs ar e 200 ns and 100 ns
r espect ively. Their r epet it ion r at es ar e 1000 pps and 10,000 pps. The bandwidt h of a
filt er is 5 kHz. Using equat ion (6.15) calculat e t he r at io of out put of t he filt er for t he
t wo pulse t r ains at a t uned fr equency f
0
= 1 MHz.
( ) a ( ) b
Corona Effects-II: Radio Interference 171
3. At a t own near which a pr oposed e.h.v. line will r un, t he measur ed r adio-st at ion field
st r engt hs ar e as follows:
Frequency of
S t at ion 0.5 0.75 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 MHz
Received S ignal
S t rengt h 50 60 75 70 65 52 80 75 60 dB
Take t he cor ona noise fr om a line t o var y as f
–1.5
, and t he minimum S/N r at io t o be 22
dB. If t he st at ion at 1 MHz is t o be r eceived wit h t his qualit y of r ecept ion, det er mine
which of t he st at ions will have a S/N r at io lower t han t he minimum allowable S/N
r at io of 22 dB.
4. Calculat e and plot t he field fact or s for t he 3 modes of pr opagat ion for a line wit h H =
15 m, S = 12 m as t he dist ance fr om t he line cent r e is var ied fr om 0 t o 3 H.
5. The height s of conduct or s of a bipolar dc line ar e H = 18 m and t he pole spacing P =
12 m. Calculat e and plot t he field fact or s for t his line for t he t wo modes of pr opagat ion
as t he dist ance d fr om line cent r e is var ied fr om 0 t o 3 H.
6. A 750-kV line in hor izont al configur at ion has H = 18 m and phase spacing S = 15 m.
The conduct or s ar e 4 × 0.03 met r e diamet er wit h bundle spacing of 0.4572 met r e.
Using Mangoldt 's For mula and t he CIGRE for mula, comput e t he RI level at 15 met r es
at gr ound level fr om t he out er phase at 1 MHz in aver age fair weat her . Is t he widt h
of cor r idor of 60 met r es sufficient fr om t he RI point of view ?
7. Design a filt er wit h ser ies R-L element s for a cage measur ement t o give an at t enuat ion
of 40 dB at 1 MHz and 30 dB at 0.5 MHz. (a) If t he t r ansfor mer bushing has a capacit ance
C
t
= 500 pF, calculat e t he values of R
f
and L
f
r equir ed. (b) What ar e at t enuat ions
offer ed by t his filt er at 1.5 MHz and 0.8 MHz ?
8. Why does line-gener at ed cor ona noise not int er fer e wit h TV r ecept ion or FM r adio
r ecept ion ? What causes int er fer ence at t hese fr equencies ?
9. (a) Ver ify t he fr equency spect r um for posit ive and negat ive pulses of Table 6.1 under
t he assumpt ion t hat bot h have double-exponent ial waveshape wit h α and β values
given t her e. Assume equal amplit udes for bot h. (b) Plot t he values as shown in Fig.
6.3, but t aking (log f) as t he abscissa and t he dB values as or dinat e. (c) Repeat when
t he peak values ar e in t he r at io 10/1.
7.1 ELECTRIC SHOCK AND THRESHOLD CURRENTS
Elect r ost at ic effect s fr om over head e.h.v. lines ar e caused by t he ext r emely high volt age while
elect r omagnet ic effect s ar e due t o line loading cur r ent and shor t -cir cuit cur r ent s. Hazar ds
exist due t o bot h causes of var ious degr ee. These ar e, for example, pot ent ial dr op in t he ear t h's
sur face due t o high fault cur r ent s, dir ect flashover fr om line conduct or s t o human beings or
animals. Elect r ost at ic fields cause damage t o human life, plant s, animals, and met allic object s
such as fences and bur ied pipe lines. Under cer t ain adver se cir cumst ances t hese give r ise t o
shock cur r ent s of var ious int ensit ies.
Shock cur r ent s can be classified as follows:
(a) Primary S hock Current s. These cause dir ect physiological har m when t he cur r ent
exceeds about 6-10 mA. The nor mal r esist ance of t he human body is about 2-3 kilohms so t hat
about 25 volt s may be necessar y t o pr oduce pr imar y shock cur r ent s. The danger her e ar ises
due t o vent r icular fibr illat ion which affect s t he main pumping chamber s of t he hear t . This
r esult s in immediat e ar r est of blood cir culat ion. Loss of life may be due t o (a) ar r est of blood
cir culat ion when cur r ent flows t hr ough t he hear t , (b) per manent r espir at or y ar r est when cur r ent
flows in t he br ain, and (c) asphyxia due t o flow of cur r ent acr oss t he chest pr event ing muscle
cont r act ion.
The 'elect r ocut ion equat ion' is i
2
t = K
2
, wher e K = 165 for a body weight of 50 kg, i is in
mA and t is in seconds. On a pr obabilit y basis deat h due t o fibr illat ion condit ion occur s in 0.5%
of cases. The pr imar y shock cur r ent r equir ed var ies dir ect ly as t he body weight . For i = 10 mA,
t he cur r ent must flow for a t ime int er val of 272 seconds befor e deat h occur s in a 50 kg human
being.
(b) S econdary S hock Current s. These cannot cause dir ect physiological har m but may
pr oduce adver se r eact ions. They can be st eady st at e 50 Hz or it s har monics or t r ansient in
nat ur e. The lat t er occur when a human being comes int o cont act wit h a capacit ively char ged
body such as a par ked vehicle under a line. St eady st at e cur r ent s up t o 1 mA cause a slight
t ingle on t he finger s. Cur r ent s fr om 1 t o 6 mA ar e classed as, 'let go' cur r ent s. At t his level, a
human being has cont r ol of muscles t o let t he conduct or go as soon as a t ingling sensat ion
occur s. For a 50% pr obabilit y t hat t he let -t o cur r ent may incr ease t o pr imar y shock cur r ent ,
t he limit for men is 16 mA and for women 10 mA. At 0.5% pr obabilit y, t he cur r ent s ar e 9 mA for
men, 6 mA for women, and 4.5 mA for childr en.
7
El ect ros t a t i c a n d Ma gn et i c Fi el d s
of EHV Li n es
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 173
A human body has an aver age capacit ance of 250 pF when st anding on an insulat ed plat for m
of 0.3 m above gr ound (1 ft .). In or der t o r each t he let -go cur r ent value, t his will r equir e 1000 t o
2000 volt s. Human beings t ouching par ked vehicles under t he line may exper ience t hese t r ansient
cur r ent s, t he lar ger t he vehicle t he mor e char ge it will acquir e and gr eat er is t he danger .
Const r uct ion cr ews ar e subject t o hazar ds of elect r ost at ic induct ion when er ect ing new
lines adjacent t o ener gized lines. An ungr ounded conduct or of about 100 met r es in lengt h can
pr oduce shock cur r ent s when a man t ouches it . But gr ounding bot h ends of t he conduct or
br ings t he hazar d of lar ge cur r ent flow. A movable gr ound mat is gener ally necessar y t o pr ot ect
men and machines. When st r inging one cir cuit on a double-cir cuit t ower which alr eady has an
ener gized cir cuit is anot her hazar d and t he men must use a pr oper gr ound. Accident s occur
when placing or r emoving gr ounds and gloves must be wor n. Hot -line t echniques ar e not
discussed her e.
7.2 CAPACITANCE OF LONG OBJECT
Elect r ost at ic induct ion t o adjacent lines such as t elephone lines can be det er mined by Maxwell's
Pot ent ia l Coefficient s a nd t heir inver ses. If gr ound r esist a nce a nd induct a nce a r e t o be
consider ed, Car son's for mulas given in Chapt er 3 ar e used. However , for a long object such as
a lor r y or vehicle par ked par allel t o a line under it , an empir ical for mula for it s
Fi g. 7.1 Calculat ion of capacit ance of long object locat ed near an e.h.v. line.
capacit ance due t o Comsa and René is given her e. The object is r eplaced by an equivalent
cylinder of diamet er D and height h above gr ound as shown below. Figur e 7.1 gives t he act ual
dimensions of t he object wher e a = lengt h of object , b = widt h, v = height , t = height of t yr es.
Then, h = t + v – 0.5 b, and D = b. Ot her dimensions of line ar e shown on t he figur e. The
capacit ance of t he vehicle, including end effect s, is
C =
2 1
. C C a + ...(7.1)
wher e C
1
= m / pF , ) / ln(
4
ln .
4
ln ) / ( ln 2
0 1
]
1

¸

+
,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
π A I
D
h
d
H
A I e ...(7.2)
and C
2
= 31. b, pF due t o end effect s. ...(7.3)
Object
d
b
Line
Ground
H
I
A
a
t
v
L
174 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Exa mp le 7.1. The following det ails of a t r uck par ked par allel t o a line ar e given. Find it s
capacit ance. Lengt h a = 8 m, height of body v = 3m, widt h b = 3m, t = 1.5 m. Height of line
conduct or H = 13m, dia. of conduct or = 0.0406m, dist ance of par king L = 6m.
Sol u t i on . h = , 66 . 11 , 1 . 17 , 3 , 3 5 . 0 · · · · · − + A I b D b v t
∴ C
1
=
1
]
1

¸

+ ×

66 . 11
1 . 17
ln
3
12
ln
0406 .
52
ln ) 66 . 11 / 1 . 17 ln(
18
10
9
= 2.065 pF/met r e lengt h of t r uck.
C
2
= 31 b = 93 pF.
∴ C = 8 × 2.065 + 93 =109.5 pF.
Not e t hat t he edge effect is consider able.
7.3 CALCULATION OF ELECTROSTATIC FIELD OF A.C. LINES
7.3.1 Power-Frequency Charge of Conductors
In Chapt er 4, we descr ibed t he met hod of calculat ing t he elect r ost at ic char ges on t he phase
conduct or s fr om line dimensions and volt age. For n phases, t his is, see Fig. 7.2, wit h q = t ot al
bundle char ge and V = line t o gr ound volt age.
] [
2
1
0
q
e π
=
] ][ [ ] [ ] [
1
V M V P ·

...(7.4)
wher e [q] =
t n
q q q q ] ,..., , , [
3 2 1
...(7.5)
[V] =
t n
V V V V ] ,..., , , [
3 2 1
[P] = n × n mat r ix of Maxwell's Pot ent ial coefficient s wit h
P
ii
= j i A I P r H
ij ij ij eq t
≠ · ), / ln( and ) / 2 ln( ...(7.6)
Fi g. 7.2 n-phase line configur at ion for char ge calculat ion.
N
R
1
2
3
2r
H
j
H
i
H
i
H
j
I
ij
A
ij
i
j
I
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 175
Her e, H
i
= height of conduct or i above gr ound = , sag
1
3
+
min
H
I
ij
= dist ance bet ween conduct or i above gr ound and t he image of conduct or
j below gr ound, , j i ≠
A
ij
= aer ial dist ance bet ween conduct or s i and , , j i j ≠
eq
r =
·
N
R r N R
/ 1
) / . (
equivalent bundle r adius,
R = bundle r adius ), / ( sin 2 / N B π ·
N = number of sub-conduct or s in bundle,
r = r adius of each sub-conduct or ,
and i, j = 1, 2, 3,..., n.
Since t he line volt ages ar e sinusoidally var ying wit h t ime at power fr equency, t he bundle
char ges q
1
t o q
n
will also var y sinusoidally. Consequent ly, t he induced elect r ost at ic field in t he
vicinit y of t he line also var ies at power fr equency and phasor algebr a can be used t o combine
sever al component s in or der t o yield t he amplit ude of t he r equir ed field, namely, t he hor izont al,
ver t ical or t ot al vect or s.
7.3.2 Electrostatic Field of Single-Circuit 3-Phase Line
Let us consider fir st a 3-phase line wit h 3 bundles on a t ower and excit ed by t he volt ages.
[V] = ] ) 120 ( sin ), 120 ( sin ), [sin( ° + ϕ + ° − ϕ + ϕ + wt wt wt V
m
...(7.7)
Select an or igin O for a coor dinat e syst em at any convenient locat ion. In gener al, t his
may be locat ed on gr ound under t he middle phase in a
Fi g. 7.3 Calculat ion of e.s. field component s near t he line.
symmet r ical ar r angement . The coor dinat es of t he line conduct or s ar e ) , (
i i
y x . A point ) , ( y x A
is shown wher e t he hor izont al, ver t ical, and t ot al e.s. field component s ar e r equir ed t o be
evaluat ed, as shown in Fig. 7.3. The field vect or at A due t o t he char ge of t he aer ial conduct or
is wit h
2
i
D = , ) ( ) (
2 2
i i
y y x x − + −
c
E = ) / 1 )( 2 / (
0 i i
D e q π ...(7.8)
Y
X
x
x
i
y
i
q
i
D
i
i
D
i
E'
ci
E'
vi
E'
hi
E
hi
E
vi
E
ci A x, y ( )
– q
i
θ'
θ
176 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
It s hor izont al and ver t ical component s ar e
h
E =
2
0
/ ) )( 2 / ( cos
i i i c
D x x e q E − π · θ ...(7.9)
and
v
E =
2
0
/ ) )( 2 / ( sin
i i i c
D y y e q E − π · θ ...(7.10)
Similar ly, due t o image char ge of conduct or
'
c
E = ) / 1 )( 2 / (
0
'
i i
D e q π
wher e
2
) (
'
i
D = , ) ( ) (
2 2
i i
y y x x + + −
'
h
E =
2
0
) /( ) )( 2 / (
'
i i i
D x x e q − π
'
v
E =
2
0
) /( ) )( 2 / (
'
i i i
D y y e q + π ...(7.11)
We obser ve t hat t he field component s of
c
E and ' E
c
ar e in opposit e dir ect ions. Ther efor e,
t he t ot al hor izont al and ver t ical component s at A due t o bot h char ges ar e
hi
E = ] ) /( 1 / 1 )[ )( 2 / (
2 2
0
'
i i i i
D D x x e q − − π ...(7.12)
vi
E = ] ) /( ) ( / ) )[( 2 / (
2 2
0
'
i i i i i
D y y D y y e q + − − π ...(7.13)
Consequent ly, due t o all n phases, t he sum of hor izont al and ver t ical component s of e.s.
field at t he point ) , ( y x A will be
hn
E = ∑ ∑
· ·
·
n
i
vi vn
n
i
hi
E E E
1 1
and ,
...(7.14)
The t ot al elect r ic field at A is
in
E =
2 / 1 2 2
) (
vn hn
E E + ...(7.15)
We can wr it e t hese out explicit ly for a 3-phase line.
Let J
i
= ] ) /( 1 / 1 [ ) (
2 2 '
i i i
D D x x − − ...(7.16)
and K
i
=
2 2
) /( ) ( / ) (
'
i i i i
D y y D y y + − − ...(7.17)
The bundle char ges ar e calculat ed fr om equat ions (7.4), (7.5), and (7.6), so t hat fr om
equat ions (7.12), (7.13), (7.16) and (7.17) t her e r esult s.
1 h
E = ) 120 ( sin ) ( sin [ . ) 2 / (
12 11 1 1 0 1
° − ϕ + + ϕ + · π wt M wt M J V J e q
m
+ )] 120 ( sin
13
° + ϕ + wt M
2 h
E = ) 120 ( sin ) ( sin [ . ) 2 / (
22 21 2 2 0 2
° − ϕ + + ϕ + · π wt M wt M J V J e q
m
)] 120 ( sin
23
° + ϕ + + wt M
3 h
E = )] 120 ( sin ) ( sin [ . ) 2 / (
32 31 3 3 0 3
° − ϕ + + ϕ + · π wt M wt M J V J e q
m
)] 120 ( sin
33
° + ϕ + + wt M
∴ The t ot al hor izont al component is, adding ver t ically,
hn
E = ) ( sin ) . . . [(
31 3 21 2 11 1
ϕ + + + wt M J M J M J V
m
) 120 ( sin ) . . . (
32 3 22 2 12 1
° − ϕ + + + + wt M J M J M J
)] 120 ( sin ) . . . (
33 3 23 2 13 1
° + ϕ + + + + wt M J M J M J
¹
;
¹
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 177
= ) 120 ( sin . ) ( sin . [
2 1
° − ϕ + + ϕ + wt J wt J V
h h m
)] 120 ( sin
3
° + ϕ + + wt J
h
and in phasor for m,
hn
E = ] 120 120 [
3
0
2 1
° + ϕ ∠ + − ϕ ∠ + ϕ ∠
h h h m
J J J V ...(7.18)
This is a simple addit ion of t hr ee phasor s of amplit udes
3 2 1
, ,
h h h
J J J inclined at 120° t o
each ot her . Resolving t hem int o hor izont al and ver t ical component s (r eal and j par t s wit h
ϕ
=
0), we obt ain
r eal par t =
3 2 1
5 . 0 5 . 0
h h h
J J J − −
and imaginar y par t =
3 2
866 . 0 866 . 0 0
h h
J J + − ...(7.19)
Consequent ly, t he amplit ude of elect r ic field is
hn
E
ˆ
=
m h h h h h
V J J J J J
2 / 1 2
2 3
2
3 2 1
] ) ( 75 . 0 ) 5 . 0 5 . 0 [( − + − −
=
m h h h h h h h h h
C J J J J J J J J J . ) (
2 / 1
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
− − − + +
= . .
m h
V J
The r .m.s. value of t he t ot al hor izont al component at A (x, y) due t o all 3 phases will be
hn
E
= V J E
h hn
. 2 /
ˆ
· ...(7.20)
wher e V = r .m.s. value of line t o gr ound volt age.
In a similar manner , t he r .m.s. value of t oal ver t ical component of field at A due t o all 3
phases is
vn
E =
2 / 1
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
) ( .
v v v v v v v v v v
K K K K K K K K K V V K − − − + + · ...(7.21)
wher e
1 v
K =
31 3 21 2 11 1
. . . M K M K M K + +
2 v
K =
32 3 22 2 12 1
. . . M K M K M K + + ...(7.22)
and
3 v
K =
33 3 23 2 13 1
. . . M K M K M K + +
wher e t he values of
3 2 1
, , K K K ar e obt ained fr om equat ion (7.17) for K
i
wit h i = 1, 2, 3.
Exa mp le 7.2. Comput e t he r .m.s. values of gr ound-level elect r ost at ic field of a 400-kV
line at it s maximum oper at ing volt age of 420 kV (line-t o-line) given t he following det ails. Single
cir cuit hor izont al configur at ion. H = 13 m, S = 12 m, conduct or 2 × 3.18 cm diamet er , B = 45.72
cm. Var y t he hor izont al dist ance along gr ound fr om t he line cent r e fr om 0 t o 3 H. See Fig. 7.4.
Sol u t i on . At t he gr ound level, t he hor izont al component of e.s. field is zer o ever ywher e
since t he gr ound sur face is assumed t o be an equipot ent ial. Also, for ever y point on gr ound, t he
dist ances fr om aer ial conduct or and it s image ar e such t hat
i
D and
'
i
D ar e equal.
S t ep 1.
ii
P =
N
eq ij ij ij eq
R r N R r A I P r H
/ 1
) / . ( ), / ln( ), / 2 ln( · ·
N = 2, R = B/2.Then t he [P] and [M] mat r ices ar e
[P] =
and
64 . 5 , 87 . 0 , 39 . 0
87 . 0 , 64 . 5 , 87 . 0
39 . 0 , 87 . 0 , 64 . 5
1
1
1
]
1

¸

¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
178 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
1
] [ ] [

· P M
=
3
10
8 . 172 , 6 . 25 , 8
6 . 25 , 2 . 176 , 6 . 25
8 , 6 . 25 , 8 . 172

1
1
1
]
1

¸

− −
− −
− −
S t ep 2. Coor dinat es of conduct or s wit h or igin placed on gr ound under t he cent r e-phase,
see Fig. 7.4, ar e 0 . 13 , 12 , 0 , 12
3 2 1 3 2 1
· · · · + · · − · y y y y x x x on gr ound.
S t ep 3. At a point A(x, 0) along gr ound, fr om equat ion (7.17),
K
1
=
] ) 13 ( ) 12 /[( 13 ] ) 13 ( ) 12 /[( 13
2 2 2 2
+ + + − − + + − x x
=
]. 169 ) 12 /[( 26
2
+ + − x
Fi g. 7.4 Det ails of 400 kV line for evaluat ion of gr ound-level e.s. field at point A.
Similar ly,
2
K = – ]. 169 ) 12 /[( 26 and ) 169 /( 26
2
3
2
+ − − · + x K x
S t ep 4.
1 v
K =
31 3 21 2 11 1
M K M K M K + +
=
169 ) 12 (
208 . 0
169
666 . 0
169 ) 12 (
493 . 4
2 2 2
+ −
+
+
+
+ +

x x x
2 v
K =
32 3 22 2 12 1
M K M K M K + +
=
169 ) 12 (
666 . 0
169
58 . 4
169 ) 12 (
666 . 0
2 2 2
+ −
+
+

+ + x x x
3 v
K =
33 3 23 2 13 1
M K M K M K + +
=
169 ) 12 (
493 . 4
169
666 . 0
169 ) 12 (
208 . 0
2 2 2
+ −

+
+
+ + x x x
S t ep 5.
v
K =
2 / 1
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
) (
v v v v v v v v v
K K K K K K K K K − − − + +
S t ep 6.
v
E = . met r e / kV 3 / 420 .
v
K
A comput er pr ogr amme wr it t en for x var ying fr om 0 t o 3 H = 39 m fr om t he line cent r e
has given t he following r esult s, which ar e also plot t ed in Fig. 7.5.
12 12
13
1 2 3
Y
X
A x ( , 0)
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 179
Fi g. 7.5 Pr ofile of E.S. field of 400 kV line at gr ound level.
H x /
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
m / kV ,
v
E 3.214 3.182 3.11 3.06 3.11 3.29 3.60 3.96
H x /
0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
v
E 4.3 4.55 4.69 4.694 4.576 4.136 4.08 3.76
H x /
1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.6 3.0
v
E 3.42 3.1 2.78 2.494 2.23 1.785 1.16 0.783
Fi g. 7.6 E.S. field pr ofile of 750 kV line (calculat ed).
We obser ve t hat t he maximum value of gr ound-level field does not occur at t he line
cent r e but at ). m 3 . 14 ( 1 . 1 / · · x H x Ther e is a double hump in t he gr aph. Fur t her examples
for 750 kV, 1000 kV and 1200 kV lines ar e shown in Figs. 7.6 t o 7.8 using t ypical dimensions. In
all cases, t he pr esence of over head gr ound wir es has been neglect ed. In a digit al comput er
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
H = 13 m
H = 15 m
N = 2
S = 12
d = 3.18 cm
B = 45.72 cm
kV/m
y = 0
y = 0
400 kV
Horizontal
5
4
3
2
1
x/H
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
x/H
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
kV/m
y = 4
y = 4
y = 0 y = 0
765 kV Line 735 kV Line
H = 18 H = 18 m
S = 15 m
d = 3 cm
B = 45.72 cm
N = 4
S = 15
d = 3.5 cm
B = 45.72 cm
N = 4
180 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
pr ogr amme t hey can be included but t heir effect is negligible. The fields at y = 4 m above
gr ound ar e also shown which a t r uck might exper ience.
Fi g. 7.7 E.S. field pr ofile of 1000 kV line (calculat ed).
Fi g. 7.8 E.S. field pr ofile of 1200 kV line (calculat ed).
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
1050 kV
Horizontal line
H = 21 m
S = 18 m
d = 3 cm
R = 0.6 m
N = 6
y = 0
y = 4
kV/m
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
1200 kV
Horizontal line
H = 24 m
S = 21 m
d = 4.63 cm
R = 0.6 m
N = 8
kV/m
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 181
7.3.3 Electrostatic Field of Double-Circuit 3-phase A.C. Line
On a D/C line t her e ar e 6 conduct or s on a t ower , neglect ing gr ound wir es above t he line
conduct or s. [Some pr oposals for using shielding wir es under t he line conduct or s ar e made, but
such pr oblems will not be discussed in t his book]. The e.s. field will depend on t he phase
configur at ion of t he t wo cir cuit s and for illust r at ing t he pr ocedur e, t he ar r angement shown in
Fig. 7.9 will be used. The posit ions occupied by t he phases ar e number ed 1 t o 6 and it is evident
t hat (a) conduct or s 1 and 4 have t he volt age ), ( sin ϕ + wt V
m
(b) conduct or s 2 and 5 have volt ages
) 120 ( sin ° − ϕ + wt V
m
and (c) conduct or s 3 and 6 have volt ages ). 120 ( sin ° + ϕ + wt V
m
F i g.7.9 Configur at ion of a double-cir cuit (D/C) line.
Consequent ly, t he hor izont al and ver t ical component s of e.s. field will consist of 6 quant it ies
as follows:
1 h
E =
) ( ) ( sin ) [( .
2
15 12 14 11 1 1
0
1
M M wt M M J V J
e
q
m
+ + ϕ + + ·
π
)] 120 ( sin ) ( ) 120 ( sin
16 13
° + ϕ + + + ° − ϕ + wt M M wt ...(7.23)
M
6 h
E =
) ( ) ( sin ) [( .
2
65 62 64 61 6 6
0
6
M M wt M M J V J
e
q
m
+ + ϕ + + ·
π
)] 120 ( sin ) ( ) 120 ( sin
66 63
° + ϕ + + + ° − ϕ + wt M M wt ...(7.24)
wher e t he Maxwell's Pot ent ial coefficient mat r ix [P] and it s inver se [M] ar e now of or der 6 × 6,
and t he J
i
values ar e given fr om equat ion (7.16) by using i = 1, 2, ..., 6 in t ur n. Once again, t he
t ot al hor izont al component of e.s. field at ) , ( y x A is of t he for m
E
ht
= V
m
[J
h1
sin

) 120 ( sin ) (
2
° − ϕ + + ϕ + wt J wt
h
)] 120 sin( .
3
° + ϕ + + wt J
h
and in phasor for m
ht
E = ) 120 120 (
3 2 1
° + ϕ ∠ + ° − ϕ ∠ + ϕ ∠
h h h m
J J J V ...(7.25)
The quant it ies , , ,
3 2 1 h h h
J J J ar e obt ained by adding equat ions (7.23) t o (7.24) ver t ically
and collect ing t he coefficient s of sin ). 120 ( sin and ) 120 ( sin ), ( ° + ϕ + ° − ϕ + ϕ + wt wt wt This is of
t he same for m as equat ion (7.19).
Similar ly, t he t ot al ver t ical component of e.s. field can be obt ained by using equat ion
(7.17) for calculat ing K
1
t o K
6
. Then,
vt
E = V K
v
.
1
2
3 4
5
6
A
B
C A'
B'
C'
182 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
wher e
v
K =
2 / 1
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
)
v v v v v v v v v
K K K K K K K K K − − − + +
wit h
1 v
K = ) ( ) ( ) (
34 31 3 24 21 2 14 11 1
M M K M M K M M K + + + + +
) ( ) ( ) (
66 61 6 54 51 5 44 41 4
M M K M M K M M K + + + + + + ...(7.27)
M
3 v
K = ) ( ) ( ) (
36 33 3 26 23 2 16 13 1
M M K M M K M M K + + + + +
) ( ) ( ) (
66 63 6 56 53 5 46 43 4
M M K M M K M M K + + + + + + ...(7.28)
The t ot al e.s. field at ever y point ) , ( y x A will be
t
E =
2 / 1 2 2
] [
vt ht
E E + ...(7.29)
7.3.4 Six-Phase A.C. Line
A r ecent advancement in medium-volt age lines is t he use of high phase or der lines wit h mor e
t han 3 phases on t he same t ower . We will complet e t he pr oblem of e.s. field calculat ion wit h a
6-phase line wher e t he volt ages ar e now.
and 240 , 180 , 120 , 60 , 0
5 4 3 2 1
° − ∠ · ° − ∠ · ° − ∠ · ° − ∠ · ° ∠ ·
m m m m m
V V V V V V V V V V
. 300
6
° − ∠ ·
m
V V Thus, V
1
and V
4
ar e in phase opposit ion, which is also t r ue of V
2
and V
5
, and V
3
and V
6
. The ar r angement of phase posit ions is shown in Fig. 7.10. It is clear t hat t he Maxwell's
Pot ent ial coefficient mat r ix [P] and it s inver se [M] ar e t he same as for a double-cir cuit 3-phase
line of the previous section. The values of J
i
and K
i
ar e also t he same as wer e obt ained fr om
equat ions (7.16) and (7.17), for i = 1, 2, ..., 6.
F i g. 7.10 Det ails of 6-phase line.
Equat ions ar e now wr it t en down for t he hor izont al and ver t ical component s of t he e.s.
field at a point ) , ( y x A due t o t he six volt ages as follows:
1 h
E =
) 60 ( sin ) ( sin [ .
2
.
12 11 1
0
1
° − ϕ + + ϕ + ·
π
wt M wt M V J
e
q
J
m
) 180 ( sin ) 120 ( sin
14 13
° − ϕ + + ° − ϕ + + wt M wt M
)] 300 sin( ) 240 ( sin
16 15
° − ϕ + + ° − ϕ + + wt M wt M
= ) 60 ( sin ) ( ) ( sin ) [( .
15 12 14 11 1
° − ϕ + − + ϕ + − wt M M wt M M J V
m
)] 120 ( sin ) (
16 13
° − ϕ + − + wt M M ...(7.30)
1
2
3 4
5
6
V 0°
V – 60°
V –120° V – 180°
V – 240°
V – 300°
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 183
Similar ly for t he r emaining 5 conduct or s. For conduct or 6,
E
h6
= ) 60 ( sin ) ( ) ( sin ) [( .
65 62 64 61 6
° − ϕ + − + ϕ + − wt M M wt M M J V
m
)] 120 ( sin ) (
66 63
° − φ + − + wt M M ...(7.31)
The t ot al hor izont al component of e.s. field at ) , ( y x A will be of t he for m
ht
E =
6 5 4 3 2 1 h h h h h h
E E E E E E + + + + +
= )] 120 ( sin ) 60 ( sin ) ( sin [
3 2 1
° − ϕ + + ° − ϕ + + ϕ + wt J wt J wt J V
h h h m
= ) 120 60 0 (
3 2 1
° − ∠ + ° − ∠ + ° ∠
h h h m
J J J V ...(7.32)
It s amplit ude is obt ained by separ at ing t he r eal par t and j-par t and t aking t he r esult ing
vect r oial sum.
The r eal par t is )] ( 5 . 0 [
3 2 1 h h h
J J J − + and t he j-par t is 0.866 ). (
3 2 h h
J J + The amplit ude is
J
h
=
2 / 1 2
3 2
2
3 2 1
] ) ( 75 . 0 )} ( 5 . 0 [{
h h h h h
J J J J J + + − +
=
2 / 1
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
) (
h h h h h h h h h
J J J J J J J J J − + + + + ...(7.33)
The t ot al hor izont al component of e.s. field at t he point A(x, y) has t he cor r esponding
r .m.s. value.
E
h
= 2 / wher e , .
m h
V V V J · ...(7.34)
Similar ly, t he t ot al ver t ical component at A(x, y) is
E
v
= K
v
.V ...(7.35)
wher e
v
K =
2 / 1
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
) (
v v v v v v v v v
K K K K K K K K K − + + + + ...(7.36)
1 v
K = ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
44 41 4 34 31 3 24 21 2 14 11 1
M M K M M K M M K M M K − + − + − + −
) ( ) (
64 61 6 54 51 5
M M K K K K − + − +
2 v
K = ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
45 42 4 36 32 3 25 22 2 15 12 1
M M K M M K M M K M M K − + − + − + −
) ( ) (
65 62 6 55 52 5
M M K M M K − + − +
and
3 v
K = ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
46 43 4 36 33 3 26 23 2 16 13 1
M M K M M K M M K M M K − + − + − + −
) ( ) (
66 63 6 56 53 5
M M K M M K − + − +
The quant it ies K
1
t o K
6
ar e calculat ed fr om equat ion (7.17).
7.4 EFFECT OF HIGH E.S. FIELD ON HUMANS, ANIMALS, AND PLANTS
In sect ion 7.1, a discussion of elect r ic shock was sket ched. The use of e.h.v. lines is incr easing
da nger of t he high e.s. field t o (a) huma n beings, (b) a n ima ls , (c) pla nt life, (d) vehicles,
(e) fences, and (f) bur ied pipe lines under and near t hese lines. It is clear fr om sect ion 7.2 t hat
when an object is locat ed under or near a line, t he field is dist ur bed, t he degr ee of dist or t ion
depending upon t he size of t he object . It is a mat t er of some diffficult y t o calculat e t he
char act er ist ics of t he dist or t ed field, but measur ement s and exper ience indicat e t hat t he effect
of t he dist or t ed field can be r elat ed t o t he magnit ude of t he undist or t ed field. A case-by-case
st udy must be made if gr eat accur acy is needed t o obser ve t he effect of t he dist or t ed field. The
limit s for t he undist or t ed field will be discussed her e in r elat ion t o t he danger it poses.
184 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(a) Human Beings
The effect of high e.s. field on human beings has been st udied t o a much gr eat er ext ent
t han on any ot her animals or object s because of it s gr ave and shocking effect s which has
r esult ed in loss of life. A far mer ploughing his field by a t r act or and having an umbr ella over his
head for shade will be char ged by cor ona r esult ing fr om point ed spikes. The vehicle is also
char ged when it is st opped under a t r ansmission line t r aver sing his field. When he get s off t he
vehicle and t ouches a gr ounded object , he will dischar ge himself t hr ough his body which is a
pur e r esist ance of about 2000 ohms. The dischar ge cur r ent when mor e t han t he let -go cur r ent
can cause a shock and damage t o br ain.
It has been ascer t ained exper iment ally t hat t he limit for t he undist ur bed field is 15 kV/m,
r .m.s., for human beings t o exper ience possible shock. An e.h.v. or u.h.v. line must be designed
such t hat t his limit is not exceeded. The minimum clear ance of a line is t he most impor t ant
gover ning fact or . As an example, t he B.P.A. of t he U.S.A. have select ed t he maximum e.s. field
gr adient t o be 9 kV/m at 1200 kV for t heir 1150 kV line and in or der t o do so used a minimum
clear ance at midspan of 23.2 m wher eas t hey could have select ed 17.2 m based on clear ance
r equir ed for swit ching-sur ge insulat ion r ecommended by t he Nat ional Elect r ical Safet y Council.
(b) Animals
Exper iment s car r ied out in cages under e.h.v. lines have shown t hat pigeons and hens ar e
affect ed by high e.s. field at about 30 kV/m. They ar e unable t o pick up gr ain because of chat t er ing
of t heir beaks which will affect t heir gr owt h. Ot her animals get a char ge on t heir bodies and
when t hey pr oceed t o a wat er t r ough t o dr ink wat er , a spar k usually jumps fr om t heir nose t o
t he gr ounded pipe or t r ough.
(c) Plant Life
Plant s such as wheat , r ice, sugar cane, et c., suffer t he following t ypes of damage. At a field
st r engt h of 20 kV/m (r .m.s.), t he shar p edges of t he st alk give cor ona dischar ges so t hat damage
occur s t o t he upper por t ion of t he gr ain-bear ing par t s. However , t he ent ir e plant does not
suffer dam age. At 30 kV/m , the by-products of corona, nam ely ozone and N
2
O become int ense.
The r esist ance heat ing due t o incr eased cur r ent pr event s full gr owt h of t he plant and gr ain.
Thus, 20 kV/m can be consider ed as t he limit and again t he safe value for a human being
gover ns line design.
(d) Vehicles
Vehicles par ked under a line or dr iving t hr ough acquir e elect r ost at ic char ge if t heir t yr es
a r e ma de of insula t ing ma t er ia l. If pa r king lot s a r e loca t ed under a line, t he minimum
r ecommended safe clear ance is 17 m for 345 kV and 20 m for 400 kV lines. Tr ucks and lor r ies
will r equir e an ext r a 3 m clear ance. The danger lies in a human being at t empt ing t o open t he
door and get t ing a shock t her eby.
(e) Ot hers
Fences, bur ied cables, and pipe lines ar e impor t ant pieces of equipment t o r equir e car eful
layout . Met allic fences par allel t o a line must be gr ounded pr efer ably ever y 75 m. Pipelines
longer t han 3 km and lar ger t han 15 cm in diamet er ar e r ecommended t o be bur ied at least 30
m lat er ally fr om t he line cent r e t o avoid danger ous eddy cur r ent s t hat could cause cor r osion.
Sail boat s, r ain gut t er s and insulat ed walls of near by houses ar e also subject s of pot ent ial
danger . The danger of ozone emanat ion and har m done t o sensit ive t issues of a human being at
high elect r ic fields can also be included in t he cat egor y of damage t o human beings living near
e.h.v. lines.
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 185
7.5 METERS AND MEASUREMENT OF ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS
The pr inciple on which a met er for measur ing t he e.s. field of an e.h.v. line is based is ver y
simple. It consist s of t wo conduct ing plat es insulat ed fr om each ot her which will exper ience a
pot ent ial differ ence when placed in t he field. This can be measur ed on a volt met er or an ammet er
t hr ough a cur r ent flow. Ther e exist 3 configur at ions for t he elect r odes in met er s used in pr act ice:
(1) Dipole, (2) Spher ical Dipole, and (3) Par allel Plat es. The dimensions and ot her det ails ar e
given in t he following t abular for m. Also see Fig. 7.11.
F i g. 7.11 Measur ement of E.S. field. (a) Dipole. (b) Spher ical dipole. (c) Par allel plat es.
Ta b le 7.1 Me t e r s for E.S. F i e ld Me a su r e me n t
(1) Electrode S hape Dipole S pherical Dipole Parallel Plates
(2) Major Dimensions Effect ive lengt h, l Radius, r Dist ance, d,
Sur face ar ea, A
(3) Open-circuit Voltage E.l. – E.d
(as volt age sour ce)
(4) S hort-circuit Current E we r
0
2
3π AE we
0
(as cur r ent sour ce) – ) 3 (
2
0
r e C π · ) / (
0
d A e C ·
The for mula for t he spher ical dipole, which consist s of t wo hemispher es insulat ed fr om
each ot her , is ver y accur at e and has been r ecommended as a st andar d. The t wo insulat ed
hemispher es ar e connect ed by a micr o-ammet er whose scale is calibr at ed in t er ms of kV/m of
t he elect r ic field. On t he ot her hand, t he par allel plat e met er is ver y easy t o fabr icat e. A small
digit al volt met er can be used by at t aching a copper -clad pr int ed-cir cuit boar d wit h it s insulat ed
side placed on t op of t he casing. The input t o t he met er is t aken fr om t he t op copper -clad side
and t he casing.
The pr ocedur e for measur ement consist s of at t aching t he met er t o a long (2 m) insulat ed
r od and placing it in t he field at t he desir ed height . The inser t ion of t he met er and r od as well
as t he human-body should not dist or t t he field.
The met er s must be fir st calibr at ed in a high volt age labor at or y. One pr ocedur e is t o
suspend t wo hor izont al plane par allel elect r odes wit h const ant separ at ion. A suggest ed t ype is
6 m × 6 m wir e mesh elect r odes separ at ed by 1 m. These will be accur at e t o wit hin 5%. The
met er is placed in t he cent r e of t his par allel-plat e ar r angement and a known volt age is gr adually
applied unt il about 100 kV/m is r eached. The following applicat ion r ules may be followed:
1. The inst r ument should be capable of measur ing at least t he ver t ical component of
elect r ic field. Up t o a height of 3 or 4 m above gr ound, t he hor izont al component is
ver y small and t he t ot al 50 Hz field is near ly t he same as it s ver t ical component .
µA
r
(b)
SPHERICAL DIPOLE
A
d
(c)
PARALLEL PLATES
(a)
DIPOLE
l
186 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
2. If t he inst r ument is not held in hand, it should be mount ed at about 2 m above
gr ound.
3. It should be bat t er y power ed in case a power supply for t he elect r onic cir cuit r y is
necessar y.
4. The r .m.s. value is pr efer ably measur ed by a full-wave r ect ifier cir cuit and suit ably
calibr at ed.
5. Analogue indicat ion may be pr efer able t o digit al r epr esent at ion as it dist ur bs t he
field.
6. The inst r ument may have full-scale r eadings of 3, 10, 30, and 100 kV/m or ot her
suit able r anges for legible r eading.
7. It should be designed for out door use and por t able. A pole at least 2 m long must go
wit h t he inst r ument if hand-held.
7.6 ELECTROSTATIC INDUCTION ON UNENERGIZED CIRCUIT OF A D/C
LINE
We shall end t his chapt er wit h some discussion of elect r ost at ic and elect r omagnet ic induct ion
fr om ener gized lines int o ot her cir cuit s. This is a ver y specialized t opic useful for line cr ew,
t elephone line int er fer ence et c. and cannot be discussed at ver y gr eat lengt h. EHV lines must
be pr ovided wit h wide enough r ight -of-way so t hat ot her low-volt age lines ar e locat ed far enough,
or when t hey cr oss t he cr ossing must be at r ight angles.
Consider Fig. 7.12 in which a double-cir cuit line configur at ion is shown wit h 3 conduct or s
en er gized by a t h r ee-ph a s e s ys t em of volt a ges ) 120 sin( , sin
2 1
° − · · wt V V wt V V
m m
a n d
V
3
). 120 ( sin ° + · wt V
m
The ot her cir cuit consist ing of conduct or s 4, 5 and 6 is not ener gized.
We will calculat e t he volt age on t hese conduct or s due t o elect r ost at ic induct ion which a line-
man may exper ience. Now,
4
V =
) / ( ln
2
) / ( ln
2
) / ( ln
2
34 34
0
3
24 24
0
2
14 14
0
1
A I
e
q
A I
e
q
A I
e
q
π
+
π
+
π
...(7.37)
= 34
0
3
24
0
2
14
0
1
2 2 2
P
e
q
P
e
q
P
e
q
π
+
π
+
π
F i g. 7.12 D/C line: One line ener gized and t he ot her unener gized t o illust r at e induct ion.
1
2
3 6
5
4
V wt m sin
V wt
m
sin ( – 120°)
V wt m sin ( + 120°)
V4
V5
V6
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 187
The char ge coefficient s
3 2 1
, , q q q ar e obt ained fr om t he applied volt ages.
) 2 / 1 ]( ][ [ ) 2 / 1 (
, ,
, ,
, ,
0 0
3
2
1
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
3
2
1
e q P e
q
q
q
P P P
P P P
P P P
V
V
V
π · π
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

...(7.38)
so t hat ] ][ [ ] 2 / [
0
V M e q · π ...(7.39)
4
V = )] 120 ( sin ) 120 ( sin sin [ .
13 12 11 14
° + + ° − + wt M wt M wt M P V
m
)] 120 ( sin ) 120 ( sin sin [
23 22 21 24
° + + ° − + + wt M wt M wt M P V
m
)] 120 ( sin ) 120 ( sin sin [
33 32 31 34
° + + ° − + + wt M wt M wt M P V
m
= wt M P M P M P V
m
sin ) [(
31 34 21 24 11 14
+ +
) 120 ( sin ) (
32 34 22 24 12 14
° − + + + wt M P M P M P
)] 120 ( sin ) (
33 34 23 24 13 14
° + + + + wt M P M P M P
= )] 120 ( sin ) 120 ( sin sin [
3 2 1
° + λ + ° − λ + λ wt wt wt V
m
...(7.40)
In phasor for m,
4
V = r .m.s. ], 120 120 0 [
3 2 1
° ∠ λ + ° − ∠ λ + ° ∠ λ V ...(7.41)
4
V =
2 / 1
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
) ( λ λ − λ λ − λ λ − λ + λ + λ V ...(7.42)
Similar ly,
5
V =
2 / 1
4 6 6 5 5 4
2
6
2
5
2
4
) ( λ λ − λ λ − λ λ − λ + λ + λ V ...(7.43)
and
6
V =
2 / 1
7 9 9 8 8 7
2
9
2
8
2
7
) ( λ λ − λ λ − λ λ − λ + λ + λ V ...(7.44)

¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
+ + · λ
+ + · λ
+ + · λ
+ + · λ
+ + · λ
+ + · λ
+ + · λ
+ + · λ
+ + · λ
33 36 23 26 13 16 9
32 36 22 26 12 16 8
31 36 21 26 11 16 7
33 35 23 25 13 15 6
32 35 22 25 12 15 5
31 35 21 25 11 15 4
33 34 23 24 13 14 3
32 34 22 24 12 14 2
31 34 21 24 11 14 1
M P M P M P
M P M P M P
M P M P M P
M P M P M P
M P M P M P
M P M P M P
M P M P M P
M P M P M P
M P M P M P
...(7.45)
wher e
and
188 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Exa mp le 7.3. A 230-kV D/C line has t he dimensions shown in Figur e 7.13. The phase
conduct or is a single Dr ake 1.108 inch (0.028 m) diamet er . Calulat e t he volt ages induced in
conduct or s of cir cuit 2 when cir cuit 1 is ener gized assuming (a) no t r ansposit ion, and (b) full
t r ansposit ion.
Fig. 7.13 D/C 230-kV line dimensions.
Sol u t i on . The Maxwell's Pot ent ial coefficient s for t he ener gized cir cuit ar e as follows:
P
11
= ln (36/0.014) = 7.852, P
22
= ln (28/0.014) = 7.6,
P
33
= ln (20/0.014) = 7.264
P
12
= ln (32.02/4.19) = 2.0335, P
13
= ln (28/8) =1.253,
P
23
= ln (24.03/4.19) = 1.747.
∴ [P]
u
= ;
264 . 7 , 747 . 1 , 253 . 1
747 . 1 , 6 . 7 , 0335 . 2
, 253 . 1 , 0335 . 2 , 852 . 7
1
1
1
]
1

¸

[M]
ut
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

− −
− −
− −
·

14755 . , 0297 . , 0159 .
0297 . , 1474 . , 0334 .
0159 . , 0334 . , 1385 . 0
] [
1
ut
P
P
14
= ln (36.77/7.5) =1.59, P
24
= ln (33.175/9.62) = 1.238,
P
34
= ln (29/10.97) = 0.972
P
15
= P
24
= 1.238, P
25
= ln (29.73/10) = 1.09,
P
35
= ln (25.55/9.62) = 0.9765
P
16
= P
34
= 0.972, P
26
= P
35
= 0.9765,
P
36
= ln(21.36/7.5) = 1.0466.
These values give, fr om equat ions (7.42) t o (7.45), wit h , 3 / 230 · V
1
λ = 0.1634,
2
λ = 0.1005,
3
λ = 0.0813, ∴ V
4
= 9.76 kV.
4
λ = 0.1196,
5
λ = 0.09035,
6
λ = 0.092, ∴ V
5
= 3.9 kV.
7
λ = 0.0854,
8
λ = 0.0804,
9
λ = 0.11, ∴ V
6
= 3.65 kV.
For t he complet ely t r ansposed line, t he induced volt age is t he aver age of t hese t hr ee
volt ages which amount s t o . kV 77 . 5 ) 65 . 3 9 . 3 76 . 9 (
3
1
· + +
1
2
3 6
5
4
7.5
10
10
7.5
4
4
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 189
7.7 INDUCED VOLTAGE IN INSULATED GROUND WIRES
Nor mally, in all high volt age and e.h.v. lines which use over head gr ound wir es for light ning
pr ot ect ion, it is usual t o t ie t hem fir mly t o t he t ower t op so t hat t hey ar e gr ounded dir ect ly and
ar e at gr ound pot ent ial which is consider ed as zer o. Consequent ly, only t he phase conduct or s
exper ience a volt age wit h r espect t o gr ound. However , in r ecent year s, t he shield wir es st r ung
above t he phase conduct or s ar e being insulat ed fr om t he t ower st r uct ur e in or der t o ut ilize
t hem for t he following pur poses:
(a) To ser ve as conduct ing wir es for car r ier communicat ion and pr ot ect ion. This is also
being t aken over by fibr e-opt ic links.
(b) To t a p power a t power fr equency a t a volt a ge lower t ha n t he power -fr equency
t r ansmission volt age in or der t o feed r ur al loads along t he line r out e.
In or der also t o ser ve t he pr imar y pur pose of shielding against light ning, t he insulat or s
on which t he "gr ound" wir es ar e mount ed should be pr ovided wit h a spar k gap which flashes
over at t he high light ning volt age. We will now discuss t his pr oblem of induced volt age on
insulat ed gr ound wir es due t o t he power -fr equency volt age car r ied by t he phase conduct or s,
assuming t hat t he volt ages of t he shield wir es ar e float ing. The shield wir es ar e made fr om
ACSR inst ead of galvanized st eel in or der t o r educe bot h t he ser ies r esist ance and induct ance.
At fir st , t he bundle char ge on t he t hr ee phase conduct or s (for a S/C line) ar e calculat ed at
power fr equency in t he usual manner fr om equat ion (7.4) or (7.38). Then, by using equat ions
(7.37) t o (7.42) and designat ing t he insulat ed shield wir es as 4,5,..., t he volt age induced in t hem
can be calculat ed. For example, in a 400-kV line wit h t wo insulat ed shield wir es, calculat ion
yields an induced volt age of about 8.6% of t he line-t o-gr ound volt age of t he phase condut or s
which amount s t o r oughly 21 kV, r .m.s., at 420 kV exccit at ion of t he t hr ee phases, or about 20
kV for 400 kV. This is shown in t he following example.
Exa mp l e 7.4. A 400-kV hor izont al configur at ion S/C line of t he UPSEB t ype has t he
det ails given in Example 4.16 in Chapt er 4. The salient dimensions ar e as follows:
P h a s e con d u ct or s : Aver age height — 9.81 met r es;
Phase spacings — 11.3 met r es;
Conduct or — 2 × 3.18 cm diamet er at bundle
spacing of 45.72 cm.
Gr ou n d wi r e s : Height above gr ound — 20.875 met r es. Neglect sag.
Hor izont al spacing — 16 met r es. Two number s.
Calculat e t he volt age induced in t he insulat ed gr ound wir es as a per cent age of power -
fr equency volt age of t he phase conduct or s using t he line-t o-gr ound value.
So l u t i o n . The equiva lent bundle r a dius is . m 0815 . 0 ) . (
2 / 1
· · B r r
eq
The Ma xwell' s
Pot ent ial Coefficient s ar e as follows:
Self — P
11
= P
22
= P
33
= ln (2 ×9.81/0.0815) = 5.44;
Mut ual—Out er t o inner : P
12
= P
23
= 0.695;
Out er t o out er : P
13
= 0.285.
By inver t ing mat r ix [P] and evaluat ing t he char ge coefficient s, t her e r esult for t he phase
conduct or s, wit h V = phase-t o-gr ound volt age,
0 1
2 / e q π = ° ∠ × − ° − ∠ × − ° ∠ ×
− − −
120 10 9 . 6 120 10 23 0 10 187
3 3 3
V V V
0 2
2 / e q π = ° ∠ × − ° − ∠ × + ° ∠ × −
− − −
120 10 23 120 10 7 . 189 0 10 23
3 3 3
V V V
0 3
2 / e q π = ° ∠ × + ° − ∠ × − ° ∠ × −
− − −
120 10 187 120 10 23 0 10 9 . 6
3 3 3
V V V
190 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Since t he gr ound wir es insulat ed fr om t he t ower ar e locat ed symmet r ically wit h r espect
t o t he phase conduct or s, t he volt ages induced in bot h will be equal. Designat ing any one of
t hem as No. 4, t he mut al pot ent ial coefficient s bet ween t his wir e and t he t hr ee phase conduct or s
ar e calculat ed as follows:
I ma ge d i s t a n ce s : Ae r i a l d i s t a n ce s :
I
14
=
2 / 1 2 2
] 3 . 3 ) 81 . 9 875 . 20 [( + +
A
14
=
. 5466 . 11 ] 065 . 11 3 . 3 [
2 / 1 2 2
· +
= 30.864 met r es;
I
24
= ; m 71 . 31 ] 8 685 . 30 [
2 / 1 2 2
· + A
24
=
; 654 . 13 ] 065 . 11 8 [
2 / 1 2 2
· +
I
34
= ; m 25 . 36 ] 3 . 19 685 . 30 [
2 / 1 2 2
· + A
34
= . m 247 . 22 ] 065 . 11 3 . 19 [
2 / 1 2 2
· +
∴ P
14
= . 4822 . 0 : 8426 . 0 ; 9832 . 0 ) 5466 . 11 / 864 . 30 ( ln
34 24
· · · P P
Then, V
4
=
34 0 3 24 0 2 14 0 1
). 2 / ( ). 2 / ( ). 2 / ( P e q P e q P e q π + π + π
= V ] 120 065 . 0 120 126 . 0 0 1638 . 0 [ ° ∠ + ° − ∠ + ° ∠
∴ V
4
/V =
126 . 0 1638 . 0 065 . 0 126 . 0 1638 . 0 (
2 2 2
× − + +
2 / 1
) 1638 . 0 065 . 0 065 . 0 126 . 0 × − × −
=
%. 634 . 8 08634 . 0 ) 039476 . 0 046931 . 0 (
2 / 1
· · −
At V = 420 kV, line-t o-line = , kV 3 / 420 line-t o-gr ound,
V
4
= 0.08634 × 242.49 = 20.94 kV t o gr ound ≈ 21 kV, r .m.s.
At 400 kV, V
4
= 20 kV t o gr ound
The insulat or suppor t ing t he over head shield wir es must be r at ed for t his volt age class.
7.8 MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS
An over head line gener at es an elect r ost at ic field in it s vicinit y because of t he volt age at which
it is ener gized and t he char ge in it s conduct or s t r apped in it s capacit ance net wor k. In addit ion,
t he line gener at es a magnet ic field in it s vicinit y due t o t he load cur r ent flowing in t he conduct or s.
The int ensit y of t he magnet ic field is pr opor t ional t o t he cur r ent s so t hat it var ies wit h t he load
condit ion. However , in e.h.v. lines, t he load fact or seldom if ever is lower t han 75% so t hat t he
load cur r ent st ays above 75% r at ed value most of t he t ime. In calculat ing t he magnet ic field, we
will assume t hat t he cur r ent flowing is t he r at ed full-load cur r ent . The following Table gives
t he values of r at ed cur r ent for e.h.v. lines based upon t he det ails of Table 2 in Chapt er II.
Nominal kV Reactance Length Load, MW 3ph Cond. Current, Amps.
400 0.327 400 km 612 883
ohm/km 600 408 588
a t 50 Hz 800 306 441
500 0.3 400 1040 1200
600 695 800
800 520 600
750 0.272 600 1720 1327
800 1290 995
1000 1032 796
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 191
These values ar e based on t he following assumpt ions:
(a) Equal volt age magnit udes at bot h ends;
(b) Power angle of 30° based on st abilit y consider at ions;
(c) ; ); . /( sin
3
E E E x L E E P
r s r s ph
· · δ ·
(d) I = . 3 / 3 / sin
3
E P Lx E
ph
· δ
7.9 MAGNETIC FIELD OF 3-PHASE LINES
7.9.1 Single Circuit Horizontal Configuration
Most e.h.v. t r a nsmission lines consist of one 3-pha se cir cuit on a t ower wit h hor izont a l
configur at ion of t he 3 phases. In Chapt er 3, we have discussed t he met hod of calculat ion of t he
induct ance mat r ix of a mult i-conduct or line fr om t he Maxwell Pot ent ial Coefficient mat r ix.
Based on Maxwell's met hod of images, we will now calculat e t he magnet ic field gener at ed at
any point in space in t he vicinit y of t he 3-phase line. In most applicat ions, t he field int ensit y at
gr ound level is t he most impor t ant quant it y. But t he equat ions der ived will be ver y gener al.
Fig. 7.14 F i g. 7.15
Figur e 7.14 shows t he 3 over head conduct or s and t he gr ound sur face r eplaced by image
conduct or s below t he gr ound sur face. This assumes t hat t he gr ound sur face is a flux line. The
or igin of a coor dinat e syst em is placed on t he gr ound under neat h t he cent r e-phase. The
conduct or s ar e at height h above gr ound and t he phase separ at ion is s.
At t he point P (x, y), t he component s of magnet ic field ar e as follows:
(a) Due t o t he conduct or cur r ent , fr om Fig. 7.15:
H
c
= , 2 /
c
D I π ...(7.46)
wher e D
c
=
2 2
) ( ) ( h y s x − + −
...(7.47)
Assume t he dir ect ion of I
c
t o be out of t he paper . Then t he dir ect ion of H-field is count er -
clockwise at P as shown. It s hor izont al and ver t ical component s ar e :
(i) Hor . comp. :
2 2
) ( ) (
2
1
2
cos
h y s x
h y I
D
h y
D
I
H
c c
c
c c
− + −

π
− ·

π
− · θ ...(7.48)
a b c
s
y
x
I
a
–Ia –Ib –Ic
Ib Ic
h
h
s
I
i
= –I
c
θ
c
θi
Dc
Di
I + c
H
c
Hi
y
x
Px y ( , )
192 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(ii) Ver t . comp.:
2 2
) ( ) (
2
1
2
sin
h y s x
s x I
D
s x
D
I
H
c c
c
c c
− + −

π
·

π
· θ ...(7.49)
(b) Due t o t he image cur r ent :
H
i
=
2 2
) ( ) ( wher e ,
1
2
h y s x D
D
I
i
i
c
+ + − ·
π
...(7.50)
This is dir ect ed in t he clockwise sense as shown in Figur e 7.15, since t he cur r ent in t he
image conduct or is assumed t o flow int o t he paper , opposit e t o t he dir ect ion of cur r ent in t he
act ual over head conduct or . The hor izont al and ver t ical component s of t his magnet ic field will
be:
(iii) Hor . comp.:
2 2
) ( ) (
2
1
2
cos
h y s x
h y I
D
h y
D
I
H
c
i i
c
i i
+ + −
+
π
·
+
π
· θ ...(7.51)
(iv) Ver t . comp.:
2 2
) ( ) (
2
1
2
sin
h y s x
s x I
D
s x
D
I
H
c
i i
c
i i
+ + −

π
− ·

π
− · θ ...(7.52)
Fr om t he figur e we obser ve t hat t he hor izont al and ver t ical component s of H
c
ar e dir ect ed
in t he opposit e sense t o t hose due t o H
i
. Ther efor e, t he t ot al hor izont al and ver t ical component s
of t he H-field at point P(x, y) due t o t he conduct or cur r ent I
c
and image cur r ent
I
i
=– I
c
will be r eadily seen t o be:
H
h
=
1
]
1

¸

+ + −


+ + −
+
π
· θ + θ
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2
cos cos
h y s x
h y
h y s x
h y I
H H
c
i i c c
Amp/met r e. ...(7.53)
H
v
=
1
]
1

¸

+ + −


− + −

π
· θ + θ
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2
sin sin
h y s x
s x
h y s x
s x I
H H
c
i i c c
Amp/met r e. ...(7.54)
The cor r esponding flux densit ies ar e:
B
h
= , , and ,
0 0
Tesla H B H
v v h
µ · µ ...(7.55)
wher e
0
µ =
7
10 4

× π Henr y/met r e.
Following t he above pr ocedur e, we can ext end t he equat ions t o calculat e t he magnet ic
field at P(x, y) due t o t he combined effect of all 3 conduct or -cur r ent s. Let t he t hr ee cur r ent s be:
I
a
= Amps. 120 and , 120 , 0 ° + ∠ · ° − ∠ · ° ∠ I I I I I
c b
Then: H
ht
= 1
]
1

¸

− + +


+ + +
+
π
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 h y s x
h y
h y s x
h y I
a
1
]
1

¸

− +


+ +
+
π
+
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( 2 h y x
h y
h y x
h y I
b
1
]
1

¸

− + −


+ + −
+
π
+
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 h y s x
h y
h y s x
h y I
c
, Amp/met r e. ...(7.56)
H
vt
= 1
]
1

¸

+ + +
+

− + +
+
π
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 h y s x
s x
h y s x
s x I
a
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 193
1
]
1

¸

+ +

− + π
+
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( 2 h y x
x
h y x
x I
b
1
]
1

¸

+ + −


− + −

π
+
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 h y s x
s x
h y s x
s x I
c
, Amp/met r e. ...(7.57)
In par t icular , on t he gr ound sur face wher e animals and human beings live, t he magnet ic-
field component s at a dist ance x fr om t he line cent r e will be, wit h y = 0:
H
ht
=
2 2 2 2 2 2
) (
2
2
2
2
) (
2
2
h s x
h I
h x
h I
h s x
h I
c b a
+ −
π
+
+
π
+
+ +
π
...(7.58)
H
vt
=
. 0 0
2
0
2 ) ( ) ( 2
2 2 2 2
· ×
π
+ ×
π
+
1
]
1

¸

+ +
+

+ +
+
π
c b a
I I
h s x
s x
h s x
s x I
...(7.59)
Since we have assumed t he gr ound sur face t o be a flux line, t he ver t ical component of H
due t o any phase-cur r ent is zer o, and t he magnet ic field at t he gr ound sur face is ent ir ely in t he
hor izont al dir ect ion.
Ma gn i t u d e s of H
ht
a n d H
vt
. In equat ions (7.56) and (7.57), t he t hr ee phase-cur r ent s I
a
, I
b
and I
c
ar e phasor s wit h gener ally equal magnit udes I and having a phase differ ence of 120° wit h
r espect t o each ot her . They can be wr it t en as:
I
a
= and ); 866 . 0 5 . 0 ( 120 ); 0 1 ( 0 j I I I j I I
b
− − · ° − ∠ · + · ° ∠
I
c
= ). 866 . 0 5 . 0 ( 120 j I I + − · ° + ∠
It is convenient t o abbr eviat e t he six geomet r ic fact or s fr om equat ions (7.56) and (7.57),
t hus:
Hor i zon t a l comp on e n t s :
K
a
=
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( h y s x
h y
h y s x
h y
− + +


+ + +
+
...(7.60)
K
b
=
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( h y x
h y
h y x
h y
− +


+ +
+
...(7.61)
K
c
=
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( h y s x
h y
h y s x
h y
− + −


+ + −
+
...(7.62)
Ve r t i ca l comp on e n t s :
J
a
=
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( h y s x
s x
h y s x
s x
+ + +
+

− + +
+
...(7.63)
J
b
=
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( h y x
x
h y x
x
+ +

− +
...(7.64)
J
c
=
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( h y s x
s x
h y s x
s x
+ + −


− + −

...(7.65)
194 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Then, equat ions (7.56) and (7.57) may be wr it t en in phasor for ms as follows:
H
ht
=
[ ] ) 866 . 0 5 . 0 ( ) 866 . 0 5 . 0 (
2
j K j K K
I
c b a
+ − + − − +
π
= { } [ ] ) ( 866 . 0 ) ( 5 . 0
2
b c c b a
K K j K K K
I
− + + −
π
...(7.66)
The magnit ude
ht
H will t hen be obt ained as:
ht
H =
{ } [ ]
2 / 1
2 2
) ( 75 . 0 ) ( 5 . 0
2
b c c b a
K K K K K
I
− + + −
π
=
, ) (
2
2 / 1 2 2 2
a c c b b a c b a
K K K K K K K K K
I
− − − + +
π
Amp/met r e ...(7.67)
Similar ly, t he magnit ude
vt
H will be:
vt
H =
, ) (
2
2 / 1 2 2 2
a c c b b a c b a
J J J J J J J J J
I
− − − + +
π
Amp/met r e ...(7.68)
The cor r esponding values of flux densit y will be:
ht
B = . Tesla , and
0 0 vt vt ht
H B H µ · µ ...(7.69)
Exa mp l e 7.5 The det ails of a hor izont al 750-kV line ar e as follows:
Vol t a ge : 750 kV, line-t o-line; Loa d : 1900 MW, 3-phase.
Cu r r e n t : 1.4626 kilo Amps in each phase.
Li n e h e i gh t : 18 met r es; P h a s e s p a ci n g: 15 m.
Calculat e and plot t he B-field int ensit y at gr ound level fr om t he
Line cent r e (x/h = 0) t o a dist ance of x/h = 10.
Sol u t i on . Figur e 7.16 shows t he r esult . Not e t hat t he scale is expanded for x/h = 6 t o 10
because of t he low values of flux densit y. The figur e is symmet r ical about t he line cent r e and
only one half is shown. The maximum value of flux densit y of 215 milli Gauss (0.215 Gauss =
21.5
µ
Tesla) occur s at x/h = 1.1.
Fig. 7.16
6 7 8 9 10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
x h /
x h / =
0 to 6
x h / = 6 – 10
1
2
3
4
5
0
50
100
150
200
250 mG mG
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 195
7.9.2 Double-Circuit Vertical Configuration of 3-Phase Line
Figur e 7.17 shows a double-cir cuit (D/C) 3-phase t r ansmission line wit h a height t o t he middle
phase of h. In t his figur e, t he 6 conduct or s ar e shown as dist r ibut ed unifor mly on a cir cle of
r adius R. This may not always be t he case in pr act ice, but it is not difficult t o use t he act ual
disposit on of conduct or s in a ny given ca se for eva lua t ing t he ma gnet ic field. The pha se
configur at ions can be of t wo t ypes: (i) abc - cba, and (ii) abc - abc. Of t he t wo t he for mer is mor e
comonly encount er ed. It is left as an exer cise at t he end of t he chapt er for t he r eader t o
evaluat e t he magnet ic field for t he lat t er case of abc - abc. Each has it s own advant ages and
disadvant ages, especially on what is known as "low-r eact ance" configur at ion. The lower t he
line r eact ance, t he lar ger will be t he power car r ied by t he line. But we will not ent er int o a
discussion of t his t opic her e.
Fig. 7.17
Using Figur e 7.17 for t he geomet r y of t he phase-conduct or s and phase-configur at ion abc -
cba, we now wr it e down t he magnet ic-field component s at a point P (x, y) in a manner similar
t o t he single-cir cuit hor izont al line of Figs. 7.14 and 7.15.
Wit h t he or igin placed on gr ound sur face under neat h t he line cent r e and t he posit ions of
t he phase-conduct or s shown as 1 t o 6, t he coor dinat es of t he 6 conduct or s will be as follows:
Conductor 1: x
1
= ,
2
1
R − y
1
=

,
2
3
R h + Cur r ent = I
a
;
Conduct or 2: x
2
= –R, y
2
=

h, Cur r ent = I
b
;
Conduct or 3: x
3
= ,
2
1
R − y
3
=

,
2
3
R h − Cur r ent = I
c
; ...(7.70)
Conduct or 4: x
4
= ,
2
1
R y
4
=

,
2
3
R h − Cur r ent = I
a
;
Conduct or 5: x
5
= R, y
5
=

h, Cur r ent = I
b
;
Conduct or 6: x
6
= ,
2
1
R y
6
=

,
2
3
R h + Cur r ent = I
c
;
Refer r ing t o Fig. 7.18 and following ear lier analysis, we can wr it e down t he values of
hor izont al and ver t ical component s of H-field due t o t he cur r ent I
n
in conduct or n and it s image
1
2
6
3 4
5
a
b
c a
b
c
R
x
6 m
y
15 m h
196 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
cur r ent –I
n
. The values of n r ange fr om 1 t o 6 for t he indicat ed posit ions of t he phase conduct or s.
Conduct or n has t he coor dinat es ). , (
n n
y x C
Fig. 7.18
Magnet ic Fields: See Fig. 7.18.
Due t o t he conduct or cur r ent , H
c
=
c
n
D
I 1

...(7.71)
wher e
2
c
D = . ) ( ) (
2 2
n n
y y x x − + − ...(7.72)
It s hor izont al component is
c c
H θ − sin = 2
2
c
n n
D
y y I −
π

...(7.73)
The ver t ical component is +
c c
H θ cos = 2
2
c
n n
D
x x I −
π
...(7.74)
Due t o t he image cur r ent , H
i
=
i
n
D
I 1

...(7.75)
wher e
2
i
D = . ) ( ) (
2 2
n n
y y x x + + − ...(7.76)
It s hor izont al component is
i i
H θ + cos = 2
2
i
n n
D
y y I +
π
...(7.77)
The ver t ical component is
i i
H θ − sin = –
2
2
i
n n
D
x x I −
π
...(7.78)
The t ot al hor izont al component will be:
h
H =
1
1
]
1

¸



+
π
2 2
2
c
n
i
n n
D
y y
D
y y I
...(7.79)
H
c
Hi
θi
Di
In
– In
yn
y
n
ycn
D
c
θ
c
(xn,yn)
P x y ( , )
x
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 197
and t ot al ver t ical component is
v
H =
1
1
]
1

¸




π
2 2
2
i
n
c
n n
D
x x
D
x x I
...(7.80)
Combining t he effect of all 6 conduct or s, we can wr it e down:
H
ht
=

¸

− + −


− + +
+
π
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
y y x x
y y
x x y y
y y I
a
1
1
]
1
− + −


− + +
+
+
2
4
2
4
4
2
4
2
4
4
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( y y x x
y y
x x y y
y y
+
( )

¸

− + −


+ + −
+
π
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
) ( ) ( ) (
2
y y x x
y y
y y x x
y y I
b
1
1
]
1
− + −


+ + −
+
+
2
5
2
5
5
2
5
2
5
5
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( y y x x
y y
y y x x
y y
+

¸

− + −


+ + −
+
π
2
3
2
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
y y x x
y y
y y x x
y y I
c
1
1
]
1
− + −


+ + −
+
+
2
6
2
6
6
2
6
2
6
6
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( y y x x
y y
y y x x
y y
...(7.81)
=
) (
2
) (
2
) (
2
6 3 5 2 4 1
K K
I
K K
I
K K
I
c b a
+
π
+ +
π
+ +
π
...(7.82)
=
.
2 2 2
c
c
b
b
a
a
K
I
K
I
K
I
π
+
π
+
π
...(7.83)

ht
H =
2 / 1 2 2 2
) (
2
a c c b b a c b a
K K K K K K K K K
I
− − − + +
π
...(7.84)
Similar ly, t he t ot al ver t ical component of t he H-field will be:
vt
H =

¸

+ + −


− + −

π
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
y y x x
x x
y y x x
x x I
a
1
1
]
1
+ + −


− + −

+
2
4
2
4
4
2
4
2
4
4
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( y y x x
x x
y y x x
x x
+

¸

+ + −


− + −

π
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
y y x x
x x
y y x x
x x I
b
1
1
]
1
+ + −


− + −

+
2
5
2
5
5
2
5
2
5
5
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( y y x x
x x
y y x x
x x
198 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
+

¸

+ + −


− + −

π
2
3
2
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
y y x x
x x
y y x x
x x I
c
1
1
]
1
+ + −


− + −

+
2
6
2
6
6
2
6
2
6
6
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( y y x x
x x
y y x x
x x
...(7.85)
=
) (
2
) (
2
) (
2
6 3 5 2 4 1
J J
I
J J
I
J J
I
c b a
+
π
+ +
π
+ +
π
...(7.86)
= c
c
b
b
a
a
J
I
J
I
J
I
π
+
π
+
π 2 2 2
...(7.87)

vt
H =
2 / 1 2 2 2
) (
2
a c c b b a c b a
J J J J J J J J J
I
− − − + +
π
...(7.88)
Gr ound-level Field: Y = 0. D
c
= D
i
.
For t his case, equat ions (7.81) and (7.85) ar e as follows:
K
a
= 2
4
2
4
4
2
1
2
1
1
) (
2
) (
2
y x x
y
y x x
y
+ −
+
+ −
...(7.89)
K
b
= 2
5
2
5
5
2
2
2
2
2
) (
2
) (
2
y x x
y
y x x
y
+ −
+
+ −
...(7.90)
K
c
= 2
6
2
6
6
2
3
2
3
3
) (
2
) (
2
y x x
y
y x x
y
+ −
+
+ −
...(7.91)
J
a
= . befor e as 0 . 0 · ∴ · ·
vt c b
H J J
We not ice t hat K
a
, K
b
, K
c
as well as J
a
, J
b
, J
c
in equat ions (7.82), (7.83), (7.86) and (7.87)
have been wr it t en as t he sum of t wo t er ms:
K
a
= ; , ,
6 3 5 2 4 1
K K K K K K K K
c b
+ · + · + ...(7.92)
J
a
= . , ,
6 3 5 2 4 1
J J J J J J J J
c b
+ · + · + ...(7.93)
One advant age in wr it ing like t his is t hat lat er on when we evaluat e t he magnet ic field of
a 6-phase line, t her e will be 6 conduct or s. Their cur r ent s will be diplaced by 60° and it will
pr ove easy t o evaluat e t he r esult ing field. The values of x
1
t o x
6
and y
1
t o y
6
ar e given in
equat ion (7.70).
Exa mp le 7.6. Figur e 7.17 shows t he det ails of a D/C 3-phase line. The line height t o t he
middle phases is 15 met r es while t he 6 conduct or s ar e dist r ibut ed unifor mly on a cir cle of
r adius 6 m. The t ot al 3-phase load is 240 MW at 230 kV, line-t o-line, giving a cur r ent of 300
Amps in each conduct or .
Calculat e and plot t he magnit ude of flux densit y near t he line along t he gr ound sur face
only, as t he dist ance fr om line cent r e is var ied fr om x = 0 t o x = 5 h = 75 met r es.
Sol u t i on . At gr ound level,
vt
H =
vt
B = 0. Only t he hor izont al component sur vives.
The values of x
1
t o x
6
and y
1
t o y
6
ar e given in equat ions (7.70), wher e h = 15 m and R = 6 m.
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 199
Figur e 7.19 Shows t he r esult s of comput at ion of t he gr ound-level flux densit y. It has a
maximum (r .m.s.) value of B = 40 mG at x/h = 0.4 and decr eases or at t enuat es r apidly t o near ly
zer o at x/h = 4, or , x = 60 m fr om line cent r e.
Fig. 7.19
7.10 MAGNETIC FIELD OF A 6-PHASE LINE
In Fig. 7.17, let it be assumed t hat t he cur r ent s in conduct or s 1 t o 6 ar e as follows:
I
1
= ), 866 . 0 5 . 0 ( 60 , 0
2
j I I I I − · ° − ∠ · ° ∠
I
3
= , 180 ), 866 . 0 5 . 0 ( 120
1 4
I I I I j I I − · − · ° − ∠ · − − · ° − ∠
I
5
= , ) 866 . 0 5 . 0 ( 240
2
I j I I − · + − · ° − ∠ ...(7.94)
I
6
= . ) 866 . 0 5 . 0 ( 60 300
3
I j I I I − · + · ° ∠ · ° − ∠
Then, it is easy t o obser ve t hat
ht
H = 6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
2 2 2 2 2 2
K
I
K
I
K
I
K
I
K
I
K
I
π
+
π
+
π
+
π
+
π
+
π
...(7.95)
=
[
4 3 2 1
) 866 . 0 5 . 0 ( ) 866 . 0 5 . 0 (
2
K j K j K K
I
− − − + − +
π
] ) 866 . 0 5 . 0 ( ) 866 . 0 5 . 0 (
6 5
j K j K + + + − + ...(7.96)
=
[ ] ) ( 866 . 0 )} ( 5 . 0 {
2
6 5 3 2 6 5 3 2 4 1
K K K K j K K K K K K
I
+ + − − + + − − + −
π
...(7.97)
The magnit ude of t he hor izont al component is
ht
H =
{ } [
2
6 5 3 2 4 1
) ( 5 . 0
2
K K K K K K
I
+ − − + −
π
] , ) ( 75 . 0
2 / 1
2
6 5 3 2
K K K K − − + +
Amp/met r e. ...(7.98)
The values of K
1
t o K
6
can be obt ained fr om equat ion (7.81).
Similar ly, t he magnit ude of t he ver t ical component of magnet ic field is:
vt
H =
{ } [
2
6 5 3 2 4 1
) ( 5 . 0
2
J J J J J J
I
+ − − + −
π
] , ) ( 75 . 0
2 / 1
2
6 5 3 2
J J J J − − + +
Amp/met r e ...(7.99)
0 1 2 3 4
x h /
mG
50
0
200 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
wher e t he values of J
1
t o J
6
ar e obt ained fr om equat ion (7.85).
The cor r esponding flux densit ies ar e:
ht
B = , and ,
0 0 vt vt ht
H B H µ · µ Tesla. ...(7.100)
Exa mp le 7.7. Assume t hat a 138-kV 6-phase line wit h conduct or -conduct or volt age (and
conduct or -t ower ) volt age being equal t o 138 kV. The conduct or s occupy t he same posit ions as
for t he 3-phase D/C line consider ed in Example 7.6 ear lier . The load is also near ly equal and t he
conduct or -cur r ent is 300 Amper es.
Calculat e and plot t he hor izont al component of
ht
B at gr ound level only.
Fig. 7.20
Sol u t i on . Figur e 7.20 shows t he r esult of calculat ing
ht
B fr om equat ion (7.98) and (7.100)
at gr ound level, y = 0.
We obser ve t hat t he maximum value of
ht
B at gr ound level is 92 mG which is higher
t han for an equivalent 3-phase D/C line shown in Fig. 7.19.
7.11 EFFECT OF POWER-FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELDS ON HUMAN
HEALTH
Magnet ic fields ar e basically ener gy r eser voir s wit h an ener gy densit y of e = , / J oules , 2 /
3
0
2
m B µ
wher e B is in Tesla and
7
0
10 4

× π · µ Henr y/met r e. This ener gy is known t o influence t issues
in t he human body in ever yday act ivit ies. Some of t he effect s ar e known t o be beneficial such as
being used medically for healing br oken bones, but most ar e har mful and pose healt h hazar ds
among which have been count ed cancer of many t ypes. These cancer s ar e: leukemia or blood
cancer , lymphoma which weakens t he immune syst em of t he body t o cancer ous condit ions,
ner vous disor der s leading t o br ain damage such as alt zheimer disease, br east cancer in bot h
female and male species, and sever al ot her danger ous condit ions t oo numer ous t o enumer at e
100
50
0
mG
0 1 2 3 4 5
x h /
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 201
her e. The magnet ic r adiat ion at low fr equency emanat ing fr om Video Display Ter minals such
as ar e used by secr et ar ies in banks, offices and so on is suspect ed t o cause not only skin r ash,
eye pr oblems, t issue cancer but mor e impor t ant ly ar e known t o give r ise t o spont aneous abor t ions
in pr egnant women oper at or s t her eby for cing an end t o pr egnancy. The st udy of healt h hazar ds
associat ed wit h power -fr equency (50 and 60 Hz) magnet ic fields has gained wor ld-wide impor t ance
in medical, biological, physics and engineer ing fields and is t he subject of int ensive st udy,
including t he magnet ic-field r adiat ion fr om e.h.v. lines and dist r ibut ion lines. We will only
descr ibe and discuss a few basic fact s and mechanisms t hat give r ise t o healt h hazar ds associat ed
wit h magnet ic fields.
It is also believed but not pr oved wit h cer t aint y t hat t he power -fr equency magnet ic field
induces a volt age in t he t issue which in t ur n yields a cur r ent flow due t o t he elect r ical
conduct ivit y of t he t issue (about 0.1 t o 0.2 Siemen/met r e). Some wor ker s discount t his t heor y
because t he cell walls ar e made fr om pr ot eins which act as insulat ion bar r ier s t o t he cur r ent
flow. Mor eover , t he ener gy fed by t his mechanism is consider ed t oo low, below even t he t her mal
or J ohnson noise of t he ions in t he cell at t he body t emper at ur e (37°C or 310°K). Ther efor e,
ot her mechanisms ar e sought for t o explain t he influence of magnet ic fields on cancer -pr oducing
condit ions.
Some int er na t iona l or ga niza t ions such a s t he Wor ld Hea lt h Or ga niza t ion (WHO),
Int er nat ional Radiat ion Pr ot ect ion Associat ion (IRPA) as also ot her nat ional or ganizat ions of
differ ent count r ies have given guidelines for limit ing t he magnet ic field in homes or in occupat ions
such as line wor ker s. In homes wher e childr en and adult s live and t he elect r ical wir ing car r ies
power -fr equency cur r ent , t he r esult ing magnet ic field exper ienced cont inuously has been
suspect ed t o cause cancer ous condit ions in t he occupant s. This obser vat ion was published in
medical, biological and elect r ical lit er at ur e for t he fir st t ime in Nor t h Amer ica in 1979 by t wo
scient ist s in Denver Cit y, Color ado St at e, U.S.A. Their names ar e Nancy Wer t heimer and
Edwar d Leeper , t he for mer a psychiat r ist wit h t he Denver Depar t ment of Public Healt h and
t he lat t er a physicist . Pr ior t o t hat dat e in 1966, t wo Russian scient ist s had published t heir
r epor t on t heir findings t hat elect r icians wor king wit h elect r ical dist r ibut ion lines — bot h
males and females — exper ienced br east cancer . They suspect ed t he magnet ic field of t he
cur r ent -car r ying lines t o be t he pr imar y cause and advised t he gover nment t o limit t he exposur e
of wor ker s t o t he magnet ic field. The r esult ing Russian guidelines ar e as follows.
Exposur e Hour s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
B-Field, Gauss 754 616 503 402 314 251 201 176
(The r eader should conver t t he Gauss values given above t o Amper e/met r e).
Since t hen many int er nat ional and nat ional or ganizat ions have suggest ed t he same limit s.
This is known as an "occupat ional hazar d".
For t he gener al public t he exposur e is about 1 t o 2 hour se per day in public places wher e
near by dist r ibut ion lines can give r ise t o exposur e t o magnet ic fields. Also, in many count r ies,
schools and shopping cent r es ar e locat ed near high-volt age t r ansmission lines and have been
suspect ed as causing cancer ous condit ions in t he school-childr en and shop-wor ker s. Ther e ar e
many such inst ances of magnet ic fields at power fr equency being associat ed, along wit h ot her
causes, wit h cancer -pr oducing cir cumst ances.
Accor ding t o t he WHO and IRPA Guidelines, any cancer ous or ot her int er nal healt h defect s
inside t he body can only be diagonozed by obser ving condit ions on t he sur face of t he body or by
202 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
ot her diagnost ic examinat ions. Based on exper ience gained all over t he wor ld, t hey have r elat ed
t he measur ed cur r ent densit y on t he sur face of t he body or or gan wit h t he following healt h
hazar ds:
Su r fa ce Cu r r en t
Densit y, mA/m
2
Health Effects
<1 Absence of any est ablished effect s.
1 –10 Minor biological effect s r epor t ed.
10 –100 Well-est ablished effect s:
(a) Visual defect s (called Magnet o-Phosphene effect );
(b) Possible ner vous-syst em defect s.
100 – 1000 Changes in cent r al ner vous-syst em excit abilit y
(onset of br ain damage) est ablished; St imulat ions t hr esholds;
Possible healt h hazar ds.
> 1000 Ext r a syst oles; Vent r icular fibr illat ion (hear t condit ion); Definit e
healt h hazar ds.
(Not e:
2
mA/m 10 (
=
). 1ììA/c
2
The sur face cur r ent densit y measur ed on a cylindr ical or gan of r adius r and elect r ical
conduct ivit y σ is r elat ed t o t he flux densit y at a fr equency f as follows:
J
r ms
=
2
r ms
Amp/m , rB fσ π ...(7.101)
wher e J
r ms
= r ms value of cur r ent densit y,
B
r ms
= r ms value of flux densit y in Tesla,
f = fr equency, Hz,
σ = elect r ical conduct ivit y of t he t issue, Siemens/met r e,
and r = r adius of t he cylinder , met r e.
This is der ived as follows:
The flux densit y is . 2 wher e , sin 2 ) ( f t B t B
rms
π · ω ω · It induces a volt age in t he cylinder
of r adius r equal t o , 2 2 / dB
r ms
2 2 2
B fr dt r v π · π · volt s. On t he sur face, t he r esult ing volt age
gr adient is . 2 2 /
r ms
frB r v e π · π · This gives an r ms value of sur face cur r ent densit y equal t o
. Amp/m ,
2
r ms r ms r ms
rB f e J σ π · σ ·
Exa mp le 7.8. For a cur r ent densit y of 1 mA/m
2
= 10
–4
A/m
2
, wit h f = 50 Hz and σ = 0.2 S/m,
calculat e t he values of B
r ms
r equir ed t o est ablish t his cur r ent densit y on cylinder s wit h r = 10
inches (Tor so), 5 inches (hear t and head), 2.5 inches (ar m), 1.0 inch, 0.5 inch and 0.25 inch
(fingers).
Sol u t i on . Fr om equat ion ,
1
. ) / ( ), 101 . 7 (
r ms r ms
r
f J B σ π · Tesla. (1 Tesla = 10,000 Gauss =
10
4
Gauss).
r , i n ch es 10 5 2.5 1.0 0.5 0.25
B
r ms
, Ga u s s 1.25 2.5 5 12.5 25 50
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 203
The WHO and IRPA Guidelines r ecommend t hat for elect r ical wor ker s a cur r ent densit y
of 5 mA/m
2
should not be exceeded on t he sur face of t he t or so wit h a r adius of 10 inches = 25
cm. For t he gener al public, t he limit of cur r ent densit y on t he t or so is 1 mA/m
2
. At 1mA/m
2
,
t her e is no onset of any visible healt h defect , while at 5 mA/m
2
t her e is just a chance of some
defect but t he wor ker s ar e in gener al pr ot ect ed by a suit able unifor m. Thus, t he flux-densit y
limit s ar e about 5 Gauss for elect r ical wor ker s and 1 Gauss for t he gener al public.
Ther e ar e consider at ions gover ning t he limit ing value of flux desnsit y ot her t han sur face
cur r ent densit y as pr oposed by t he WHO and IRPA Guidelines. But t hese ar e highly specialized
t opics and will not be discussed her e.
Re vi e w Qu e s t i on s a n d Pr oble ms
1. What is t he effect of high elect r ost at ic fields on human beings under a line? Why does
a nor mal human being not exper ience a shock when walking under neat h a line? Why
do bir ds sur vive even t hough t hey come int o cont act wit h e.h.v. lines ?
2. Descr ibe t he differ ence bet ween pr imar y shock cur r ent and secondar y shock cur r ent .
What is t he meaning of 'let -go' cur r ent ?
3. A 400-kV hor izont al line has 2 conduct or s of 3.18 cm diamet er in a bundle wit h B =
0.4572 met r e spacing. The line height and phase spacing ar e H = 15 m and S = 12 m.
A D/C 230-kV line r uns par allel t o it wit h it s cent r e 25 met r es fr om t he cent r e of t he
400 kV line. The height s of t he conduct or s ar e 18, 14, and 10 met r es wit h equal
hor izont al spacings of 10 met r es bet ween conduct or s. Calculat e t he volt ages induced
in t he 3 conduct or s closest t o t he 400-kV line if t he volt age is 420 kV, line-t o-line.
Assume bot h lines t o be fully t r ansposed.
4. A 1150 kV ∆ line has conduct or s at height s 26 m and 44 m wit h 24 m spacing bet ween
t he lowest conduct or s. Each phase is equipped wit h 8 × 46 mm diamet er conduct or on
a cir cle of 1.2 met r e diamet er . At 1200 kV, calculat e t he e.s. field at gr ound level at
dist ances fr om t he line cent r e d =0, 13, 26, 39, and 52 met r es.
5. A double-cir cuit 400–kV line has conduct or s displaced 8 m fr om line cent r e. The
height s of conduct or s ar e 13, 23, 33 m above gr ound. A neighbour ing D/C 220-kV line
has one cir cuit at 10 m hor izont al separ at ion fr om t he near est cir cuit of t he 400-kV
line. It s conduct or s ar e 10, 14, 18 m above gr ound. The conduct or s of t he 400–kV line
ar e 2 × 3.18 cm dia wit h 45.72 cm spacing. Calculat e: (a) The volt age induced in t he 3
conduct or s of one 400–kV cir cuit when t he ot her cir cuit is ener gized at 420–kV. [28.4,
9.85, 7.23 kV]. (b) The volt age induced in t he conduct or s of t he near est 220–kV cir cuit
when only one of t he (closest ) 400–kV cir cuit s is ener gized at 420–kV, [12,77, 13.72,
14.25 kV]. (c) Repeat (b) when bot h 400–kV cir cuit s ar e ener gized at 420–kV. Assume
phase volt ages (a, b, c; c, b, a) for t he t wo cir cuit s for t he t op, middle, and bot t om
conduct or s. (The Maxwell's Pot ent ial coefficient Mat r ix for 400–kV line is now 6 ×6).
[21.5, 15.2, 14.74 kV].
(d) Compar e cases (a), (b), and (c), and give your comment s on t he volt ages exper ienced
by a lineman.
204 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
6. Repea t wor ked exa mpl e 7. 5 for t h e 750-kV h or i zon t a l l i n e wh en 50% s er i es
compensat ion is used and plot t he lat er al pr ofile of t he magnet ic field on Fig. 7.16.
7. Repeat wor ked example 7.6 when t he phase configur at ion is abc – abc. Compar e t he
int ensit y of r esult ing magnet ic field and super impose on it t he r esult of Example 7.6,
Fig. 7.19. Which configur at ion r esult s in mor e favour able cir cumst ances as far as
lower magnet ic field near t he line?
8. A 3–phase 230 kV D/C line has t he dimensions shown, wit h all dimensions in met r es.
The phase configur at ion is abc – cba wit h cur r ent s as follows: ° ∠ · · 0 300
6 1
I I
Amps; . 120 300 ; 120 300
4 3 5 2
° + ∠ · · ° − ∠ · · I I I I The or igin of coor dinat e syst em
is at gr ound level under t he line cent r e as shown. Evaluat e t he following:
Fig. 7.21
(a) Wr it e down t he coor dinat es of t he 6 conduct or s : ). , ( t o ) , (
6 6 1 1
y x y x
(b) Calculat e and plot t he int ensit y of t he B-field along gr ound for x = 0 t o x = 5 h,
wher e h = 10 met r es.
(c) Give t he value of x at which t he maximum B-field occur s.
9. A 6-phase t r ansmission line has t he same dimensions as t he 3-phase 230 kV D/C line
of pr oblem 8. It s conduct or s car r y t he same cur r ent of 300 Amps. Assume t he cur r ent s
to be: I
1
= 300∠0° Amps; I
2
= 300∠ – 60°; I
3
= 300∠ – 120°;
I
4
= 300∠ – 180°; I
5
= 300∠ – 240°; and I
6
= 300∠ – 300°.
Calculat e t he int ensit y of t he B-field along gr ound only for x/h = 0 t o 5. Take t he
or igin of t he coor dinat e syst em on gr ound under t he line cent r e. Plot t he values on
t he same figur e as in Pr oblem 8 of t he 230–kV D/C line.
10. Conver t t he B-values given in t he t able in Sect ion 7.11 t o H-values.
x
y
Pr-δ
Gr.
h = 10 m
4
2
5
4 1
3
6
4
7.5
10
7.5
Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields of EHV Lines 205
11. (a) Using a limit ing ener gy value of S = 5 x 10
–3
J oule/kg per year of cont inuous
exposur e t o a magnet ic field, calculat e t he r .m.s. value of t he B-field at 50 Hz t hat
should not be exceeded. Take t issue densit y of
. / kg 2000 / gm 2
3
m cc · · δ
(b) Der ive t he for mula µ δ · , / . / 2823 . 0
r ms
f S B Tesla, wher e δ = t issue densit y in
kg/m
3
, and f = fr equency.
[Hint : Let ; sin 2 ) (
r ms
t B t B ω · Ener gy densit y , 2 /
2
o
B e µ · J ou l e/m
3
; If t issue
volume = V and weight = W, t hen t he ener gy/kg = ); / )( 2 / (
2
W V B
o
µ Aver age ener gy
per cycle ). 2 /(
2
r ms
δ µ ·
o
B Then calculat e ener gy in 1 year which should be equat ed t o
S J oule/kg.]
8.1 TRAVELLING WAVES AND STANDING WAVES AT POWER
FREQUENCY
On an elect r ical t r ansmission line, t he volt ages, cur r ent s, power and ener gy flow fr om t he
sour ce t o a load locat ed at a dist ance L, pr opagat ing as elect r o-magnet ic waves wit h a finit e
velocit y. Hence, it t akes a shor t t ime for t he load t o r eceive t he power . This gives r ise t o t he
concept of a wave t r avelling on t he line which has dist r ibut ed line par amet er s r, l, g, c per unit
lengt h. The cur r ent flow is gover ned mainly by t he load impedance, t he line-char ging cur r ent
at power fr equency and t he volt age. If t he load impedance is not mat ched wit h t he line
impedance, which will be explained lat er on, some of t he ener gy t r ansmit t ed by t he sour ce is
not absor bed by t he load and is r eflect ed back t o t he sour ce which is a wast eful pr ocedur e.
However , since t he load can var y fr om no load (infinit e impedance) t o r at ed value, t he load
impedance is not equal t o t he line impedance always; t her efor e, t her e always exist t r ansmit t ed
waves fr om t he sour ce and r eflect ed waves fr om t he load end. At ever y point on t he int er vening
line, t hese t wo waves ar e pr esent and t he r esult ing volt age or cur r ent is equal t o t he sum of
t he t r ansmit t ed and r eflect ed quant it ies. The polar it y of volt age is t he same for bot h but t he
dir ect ions of cur r ent ar e opposit e so t hat t he r at io of volt age t o cur r ent will be posit ive for t he
t r ansmit t ed wave and negat ive for t he r eflect ed wave. These can be explained mat hemat ically
and have gr eat significance for det er mining t he char act er ist ics of load flow along a dist r ibut ed-
par amet er line.
The same phenomenon can be visualized t hr ough st anding waves. For example, consider
an open-ended line on which t he volt age must exist wit h maximum amplit ude at t he open end
while it must equal t he sour ce volt age at t he sending end which may have a differ ent amplit ude
and phase. For 50 Hz, at light velocit y of 300 × 10
3
km/sec, t he wavelengt h is 6000 km, so t hat
a line of lengt h L cor r esponds t o an angle of (L × 360°/6000). Wit h a load cur r ent pr esent , an
addit ional volt age caused by t he volt age dr op in t he char act er ist ic impedance is also pr esent
which will st and on t he line. These concept s will be explained in det ail by fir st consider ing a
loss-less line (r = g = 0) and t hen for a gener al case of a line wit h losses pr esent .
8
Th eory of Tra vel l i n g Wa ves a n d S t a n d i n g
Wa ves
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 207
8.1.1 Differential Equations and Their Solutions
Consider a sect ion of line ∆x in lengt h sit uat ed at a dist ance x fr om t he load end. The line
lengt h is L and has dist r ibut ed ser ies induct ance l and shunt capacit ance c per unit lengt h,
which ar e calculat ed as discussed in Chapt er 3. The induct ance is (
x l ∆ .
) and capacit ance ( x c ∆ . )
of t he differ ent ial lengt h x ∆ . The volt ages on t he t wo sides of l ar e ) (
x x
V V ∆ + and V
x
, while
t he cur r ent s on t he t wo sides of c ar e (I
x
+ ∆I
x
) and I
x
. Fr om Figur e 8.1 t he following equat ions
can be wr it t en down:
Fi g. 8.1 Tr ansmission line wit h dist r ibut ed induct ance and capacit ance.
x x x
V V V − ∆ + ) ( =
x x
I x jwl V ) . ( ∆ · ∆ ...(8.1)
and
x x x
I I I − ∆ + ) ( =
x x
V x jwc I ) . ( ∆ · ∆ ...(8.2)
By making x ∆ infinit esimal, t he changes in volt age and cur r ent along t he line ar e expr essed
as differ ent ial equat ions t hus:
dx dV
x
/ = z. I
x
and dI
x
/dx = y. V
x
...(8.3)
wher e z = jwl and y = jwc, t he ser ies impedance and shunt capacit ive admit t ance at power
fr equency. Since all quant it ies ar e var ying sinusoidally in t ime at fr equency f = w/2π, t he t ime-
dependence is not wr it t en, but is implicit .
By differ ent iat ing (8.3) wit h r espect t o x and subst it ut ing t he expr essions for dV
x
/ dx and
dI
x
/dx, we obt ain independent differ ent ial equat ions for V
x
and I
x
as follows:
2 2
/dx V d
x
= z. y. V
x
= p
2
V
x
...(8.4)
and
2 2
/dx I d
x
=
x x
I p I y z
2
. . · ...(8.5)
wher e y z p . · = λ π · · / 2 / j v jw l c jw ...(8.6)
which is t he pr opagat ion const ant , v = velocit y of pr opagat ion, and λ = wavelengt h.
Equat ion (8.4) and (8.5) ar e wave equat ions wit h solut ions
V
x
=
px px
e B e A

+ ...(8.7)
and I
x
=
) .( / ) / 1 (
px px
x
e B e A
z
p
dx dV z


,
_

¸
¸
·
=
) (
px px
e B e A
z
y


...(8.8)
Ix
V
R
I
R
∆x
∆x
∆x x
l.
c .
(a)
V V
x x
+ ∆
l ∆x.I
x
I
x
+ ∆I
x
∆I
x

x
I
x
V
x
V
x
(b) (c)
c .
208 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
The t wo const ant s A and B ar e not funct ions of x but could be possible funct ions of t since
all volt ages and cur r ent s ar e var ying sinusoidally in t ime. Two boundar y condit ions ar e now
necessar y t o det er mine A and B. We will assume t hat at x = 0, t he volt age and cur r ent ar e V
R
and I
R.
Then, A + B = V
R
and A – B = Z
0
I
R
, wher e Z
0
= c l y z / / · = t he char act er ist ic
impedance of t he line.
Then, V
x
=
λ π − λ π
− + +
/ 2
0
/ 2
0
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
x j
R R
x j
R R
e I Z V e I Z V ...(8.9)
and I
x
=
λ π − λ π
− − +
/ 2
0
/ 2
0
) / (
2
1
) / (
2
1
x j
R R
x j
R R
e I Z V e I Z V ...(8.10)
We can also wr it e t hem as
V
x
= ) / 2 sin( ) / 2 cos( .
0
λ π + λ π x I jZ x V
R R
...(8.11)
and I
x
= ) / 2 sin( ). / ( ) / 2 cos( .
0
λ π + λ π x Z V j x I
R R
...(8.12)
Now, bot h V
R
and I
R
ar e phasor s at power fr equency and can be wr it t en as V
R
=
) (
.
φ + jwt
R
e V ,
and )] [( exp .
L R R
jwt I I φ − φ + · wher e φ
L
= int er nal angle of t he load impedance Z
L
∠φ
L
.
We can int er pr et t he above equat ions (8.11) and (8.12) in t er ms of st anding waves as
follows:
(1) The volt age V
x
at any point x on t he line fr om t he load end consist s of t wo par t s: V
R
cos ) / 2 ( λ πx and jZ
0
I
R
sin ) / 2 ( λ πx . The t er m ) / 2 cos( λ πx V
R
has t he value V
R
at x = 0
(t he load end), and st ands on t he line as a cosine wave of decr easing amplit ude as x
incr eases t owar ds t he sending or sour ce end. At x = L, it has t he value ) / 2 cos( . λ πL V
R
.
This is also equal t o t he no-load volt age when I
R
= 0. Figur e 8.2(a) shows t hese
volt ages. The second t er m in equat ion (8.11) is a volt age cont r ibut ed by t he load
cur r ent which is zer o at x = 0 and Z
0
I
R
sin ) / 2 ( λ πL at t he sour ce end x = L, and adds
vect or ially at r ight angles t o I
R
as shown in Figur e 8.2 (c).
Fi g. 8.2. St anding waves of (a) volt age, and (b) cur r ent a t power fr equency.
V L
R
cos 2 /λ π I L
R
cos 2 /λ π
jZ L 0 sin 2 /λ IR π
V
R
π cos 2 / L λ
VR
I
R
V
R
I
R
L
L L
L
θL
Z
0
I L
R
sin 2 / π λ
VR
Ζ0
sin 2 / π λ L
VR
Ζ0
sin 2 / π λ L j
2 π
λ
L
I
R
cos
IR
V
R

( ) a ( ) b ( ) c
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 209
(2) Th e cu r r en t in equ a t ion (8.12) a lso con sist s of t wo pa r t s. I
R
cos ) / 2 ( λ πx a n d
) / 2 sin( ) / (
0
λ πx Z V j
R
. At no load, I
R
= 0 and t he cur r ent supplied by t he sour ce is
) / (
0
Z V j
R
sin ) / 2 ( λ πL which is a pur e char ging cur r ent leading V
R
by 90°. These ar e
shown in Fig. 8.2(b) and t he vect or diagr am of 8.2(c).
A second int er pr et at ion of equat ions (8.9) and (8.10) which are equivalent t o (8.11) and (8.12)
is t hr ough t he t r avelling wave concept . The fir st t er m in (8.9) is
) / (
0
) (
2
1
v x t jw
R R
e I Z V
+
+ aft er
int r oducing t he t ime var iat ion. At x = 0, t he volt age is (V
R
+ Z
0
I
R
)/2 which incr eases as x does,
i.e., as we move t owar ds t he sour ce. The phase of t he wave is
) / ( v x t jw
e
+
. For a const ant value of
(t + x/v), t he velocit y is dx/dt = – v. This is a wave t hat t r avels fr om t he sour ce t o t he load and
t her efor e is called t he for war d t r avelling wave. The second t er m is
2
1

) / (
0
) (
v x t jw
R R
e I Z V

− wit h
t he phase velocit y dx/dt = + v, which is a for war d wave fr om t he load t o t he sour ce or a backwar d
wave fr om t he sour ce t o t he load.
The cur r ent also consist s of for war d and backwar d t r avelling component s. However , for
t he backwar d waves, t he r at io of volt age component and cur r ent component is (–Z
0
) is seen by
t he equat ions (8.9) and (8.10) in which t he backwar d cur r ent has a negat ive sign befor e it .
8.2 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND SOLUTIONS FOR GENERAL CASE
In Sect ion 8.1, t he behaviour of elect r ical quant it ies at power fr equencies on a dist r ibut ed-
par amet er line was descr ibed t hr ough t r avelling-wave and st anding-wave concept s. The t ime
var iat ion of all volt ages and cur r ent s was sinusoidal at a fixed fr equency. In t he r emaining
por t ions of t his chapt er , t he pr oper t ies and behaviour of t r ansmission lines under any t ype of
excit at ion will be discussed. These can be applied specifically for light ning impulses and swit ching
sur ges. Also, differ ent t ypes of lines will be analyzed which ar e all cat egor ized by t he four
funda ment a l dist r ibut ed pa r a met er s, na mely, ser ies r esist a nce, ser ies induct a nce, shunt
capacit ance and shunt conduct ance. Depending upon t he nat ur e of t he t r ansmit t ing medium
(line and gr ound) and t he nat ur e of t he engineer ing r esult s r equir ed, some of t hese four
par amet er s can be used in differ ent combinat ions wit h due r egar d t o t heir impor t ance for t he
pr oblem at hand. For example, for an over head line, omission of shunt conduct ance g i s
per missible when cor ona losses ar e neglect ed. We shall develop t he gener al differ ent ial equat ions
for volt age and cur r ent by fir st consider ing all four quant it ies (r, l, g, c) t hr ough t he met hod of
Laplace Tr ansfor ms, st udying t he solut ion and int er pr et ing t hem for differ ent cases when one
or t he ot her par amet er out of t he four loses it s significance. As wit h all differ ent ial equat ions
and t heir solut ions, boundar y condit ions in space and init ial or final condit ions in t ime play a
vit al r ole.
8.2.1 General Method of Laplace Transforms
Accor ding t o t he met hod of Laplace Tr ansfor m, t he gener al ser ies impedance oper at or per unit
lengt h of line is z(s) = r + ls, and t he shunt admit t ance oper at or per unit lengt h is y(s) = g + cs,
wher e s = t he Laplace-Tr ansfor m oper at or .
Consider a line of lengt h L ener gized by a sour ce whose t ime funct ion is e(t ) and Laplace
Tr ansfor m E(s), as shown in Fig. 8.3. Let t he line be t er minat ed in a gener al impedance Z
t
(s).
210 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
We will neglect any lumped ser ies impedance of t he sour ce for t he pr esent but include it lat er
on. Also, x = 0 at t he t er minal end as in Sect ion 8.1.2. Let t he Laplace Tr ansfor ms of volt age
and cur r ent at any point x be V(x, s) and I(x, s).
Fi g. 8.3 Dist r ibut ed-par amet er t r ansmission line wit h sour ce E(s) and t er minat ing impedance Z
t
(s).
Then, t he following t wo basic differ ent ial equat ions will hold as for t he st eady-st at e
excit at ion discussed ear lier :
x s x V ∂ ∂ / ) , ( = ) , ( ). ( . / ) , ( and ) , ( ). ( s x V s y x s x I s x I s z · ∂ ∂ ...(8.13)
For simplicit y in wr it ing, we may omit s in all t er ms but only r emember t hat we ar e
discussing t he pr oper t ies of t he Laplace-Tr ansfor ms of all quant it ies. The solut ions for volt age
and cur r ent in equat ion (8.13) will be
V(x) =
px px
e B e A

+ . .
...(8.14)
and I(x) =
) ).( / (
px px
Be Ae z p


...(8.15)
wher e again, p = t he pr opagat ion const ant = y z. ...(8.16)
Also,
0
/ ) / ( Y z y z p · · and
0
/ ) / ( Z y z p z · · , t he char act er ist ic or sur ge impedance.
For t his pr oblem, t he boundar y condit ions ar e:
(1) At x = L, V(L) = sour ce volt age = E(s); and
(2) At x = 0, V(0) = Z
t
. I(0). Using t hem in (8.14) and (8.15) yields
A = ] ) ( ) /[( ) ( ) (
0 0 0
pL
t
pL
t t
e Z Z e Z Z s E Z Z

− + + + ...(8.17)
and B = ) /( ) (
0 0
Z Z A Z Z
t t
+ − ...(8.18)
∴ V(x) = ) (
sinh ) / ( cosh
sinh ) / ( cosh
0
0
s E
pL Z Z pL
px Z Z px
t
t
+
+
...(8.19)
and I(x) =
) (
sinh ) / ( cosh
cosh ) / ( sinh
.
1
0
0
s E
pL Z Z pL
px Z Z px
z
y
x
V
z
t
t
+
+
·


...(8.20)
These ar e t he gener al equat ions for volt age V and cur r ent I at any point x on t he line in
oper at ional for ms which can be applied t o par t icular cases as discussed below.
Line Terminat ions
For t hr ee impor t ant cases of t er minat ion of an open-cir cuit , a shor t cir cuit and Z
t
= Z
0
,
t he special expr essions of equat ions (8.19) and (8.20) can be wr it t en.
Case 1. Open Circuit. Z
t
= ∞

¹
¹
¹
;
¹
·
·
pL s E px z y s x I
pL s E px s x V
oc
oc
cosh / ) ( . sinh . / ) , (
cosh / ) ( . cosh ) , (
...(8.21)
V
x
V
0
L
0
I
x
e t ( )
Zt
E s ( )
L
x
S
r, l, g, c
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 211
Case 2. S hort-Circuit . Z
t
= 0
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
·
·
pL s E px z y s x I
pL s E px s x V
sc
sc
sinh / ) ( . cosh / ) , (
sinh / ) ( . sinh ) , (
...(8.22)
Case 3. Mat ched Line. Z
t
= Z
0
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
+ + ·
+ + ·
) sinh /(cosh ) ( ). sinh (cosh / ) , (
) sinh /(cosh ) ( ). sinh (cosh ) , (
pL pL s E px px z y s x I
pL pL s E px px s x V
m
m
...(8.23)
The r at io of volt age t o cur r ent at ever y point on t he line is
Z
0
= y z / .
0
/ [ Y z y · = .] / 1 ) /( ) (
0
Z ls r cs g · + +
S ource of Excit at ion
The t ime-domain solut ion of all t hese oper at ional expr essions ar e obt ained t hr ough t heir
Inver se Laplace Tr ansfor ms. This is possible only if t he nat ur e of sour ce of excit at ion and it s
Laplace Tr ansfor m ar e known. Thr ee t ypes of excit at ion ar e impor t ant :
(1) S t ep Funct ion. e(t ) =V ; E(s) = V/s, wher e V = magnit ude of st ep
(2) Double-Exponential Function. St andar d waveshapes of light ning impulse and swit ching
impulse used for t est ing line and equipment have a shape which is t he differ ence bet ween t wo
exponent ials. Thus e(t ) = E
0

) (
t t
e e
β − α −

wher e E
0
, α and β depend on t he t imings of impor t ant
quant it ies of t he wave and t he peak or cr est value. The Laplace Tr ansfor m is
E(s) = ) )( /( ) (
0
β + α + α − β s s E ...(8.24)
(3) S i nusoi dal Exci t at i on. When a sour ce a t power fr equency suddenly ener gises a
t r ansmission line t hr ough a cir cuit br eaker , consider ing only a single-phase at pr esent , at any
point on t he volt age wave, t he t ime funct ion is e(t ) = V
m
sin ) ( φ + wt , wher e f w π · 2 , f = t he
power fr equency, and φ = angle fr om a zer o of t he wave at which t he cir cuit br eaker closes on
t he posit ively-gr owing por t ion of t he sine wave. It s Laplace Tr ansfor m is
E(s) = ) /( ) sin . cos . (
2 2
w s s w V
m
+ φ + φ ...(8.25)
Propagat ion Fact or. For t he gener al case, t he pr opagat ion fact or is
p = ) )( ( . cs g ls r y z + + · ...(8.16)
In t he sect ions t o follow, we will consider par t icular cases for t he value of p, by omit t ing
one or t he ot her of t he four quant it ies, or consider ing all four of t hem.
Voltage at Open-End. Befor e t aking up a det ailed discussion of t he t heor y and pr oper t ies
of t he volt age and cur r ent , we might r emar k her e t hat for t he volt age at t he open end, equat ion
(8.21) gives
V(0, s) =
) /( ) ( . 2 cosh / ) (
pL pL
e e s E pL s E

+ ·
=
...) )( ( 2
5 3
− + −
− − − pL pL pL
e e e s E
...(8.26)
Under a pr oper choice of p t his t ur ns out t o be a t r ain of t r avelling waves r eflect ing fr om
t he open end and t he sour ce, as will be discussed lat er . Equat ion (8.26) also gives st anding
waves consist ing of an infinit e number of t er ms of fundament al fr equency and all it s har monics.
212 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
8.2.2 The Open-Circuited Line: Open-End Voltage
This is a simple case t o st ar t wit h t o illust r at e t he pr ocedur e for obt aining t r avelling waves and
st anding waves. At t he same t ime, it is a ver y impor t ant case fr om t he st andpoint of designing
insulat ion r equir ed for t he line and equipment since it gives t he wor st or highest magnit ude of
over -volt age under swit ching-sur ge condit ions when a long line is ener gized by a sinusoidal
sour ce at it s peak value. It also applies t o ener gizing a line suddenly by light ning. The st ep
r esponse is fir st consider ed since by t he Met hod of Convolut ion, it is somet imes convenient t o
obt ain t he r esponse t o ot her t ypes of excit at ion by using t he Digit al Comput er (see any book on
Oper at ional Calculus).
Travelling-Wave Concept: S tep Response
Case 1. Fir st omit all losses so t hat r = g = 0. Then,
p = v s l c s / · ...(8.27)
wher e v = t he velocit y of e.m. wave pr opagat ion.
∴ V
0
(s) =
s e e V e e s V
v sL v sL v sL v sL
/ ...) ( 2 ) ( / 2
/ 3 / / /
+ − · +
− − −
...(8.28)
Now, by t he t ime-shift ing t heor em, t he inver se t r ansfor m of
s e V
v ksL
/ . 2
/ −
= 2V. U(t – kL/v) ...(8.29)
wher e U(t – kL.v) = 0 for t < kL/v
= 1 for t > kL/v.
We obser ve t hat t he t ime funct ion of open-end volt age obt ained fr om equat ions (8.28) and
(8.29) will be
) (
0
t V = ) / 5 ( ) / 3 ( ) / ( [ 2 v L t U v L t U v L t U V − + − − − ...] ...(8.30)
This r epr esent s an infinit e t r ain of t r avelling waves. Let L/v = T, t he t ime of t r avel of t he
wave fr om t he sour ce t o t he open end. Then, t he following sequence of volt ages is obt ained at
t he open end.
t T 2T 3T 4T 5T 6T 7T 8T 9T...
V
0
2V 2V 0 0 2V 2V 0 0 2V...
A plot of t he open-end volt age is shown in Fig. 8.4(a) fr om which it is obser ved t hat
(1) t he volt age r eaches a maximum value of t wice t he magnit ude of t he input st ep,
(2) it alt er nat es bet ween 2V and 0, and
(3) t he per iodic t ime is 4T, giving a fr equency of f
0
= 1/4T.
Fi g. 8.4 St ep r esponse of t r ansmission line. (a) Losses neglect ed. (b) Losses and at t enuat ion included
2V
V
0
01 T 3T 5T 7T
t
( ) a
2
1
0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
t T /
( ) b
P.U. VOLTAGE – = 0.8 a
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 213
Since all losses have been omit t ed, at t enuat ion is absent and t he amplit ude bet ween
successive maxima does not decr ease. The open-end volt age can never st abilize it self t o a value
equal t o t he excit at ion volt age.
Case 2. Omit g
For t his case, p = . or ) (
2 2
rcs lcs p cs ls r + · +
Then, p
2
= l c r l r s l c 4 / ) 2 / ( ) (
2 2 2
− + ...(8.31)
The la st t er m (r
2
c/4l) is usually negligible compar ed t o t he fir st . For example, consider
r = 1 ohm/km, l = 1.1 mH/km and c = 10 nF/km. Then, r
2
c/4l = 2.25 × 10
–6
. Ther efor e, we t a ke
p = s/v + r/2lv = s/v + α, wh er e α = r/2lv = at t enuat ion const ant in Neper s per unit lengt h.
Now, equat ion (8.26) becomes, wit h E(s) = V/s for st ep,
V
0
(s) = s e e e V s e e V
pL pL pL pL pL
/ ...) ( 2 ) /( 2
5 3
− + − · +
− − − −
= ...) . . . )( / 2 (
/ 5 5 / 3 3 /
− + −
− α − − α − − α − v sL L v sL L v sL L
e e e e e e s V ...(8.32)
The t ime r esponse cont ains t he at t enuat ion fact or exp ) ( L kα − and t he t ime shift fact or exp
(– ksL/v) = exp (–kTs). The inver se t r ansfor m of any gener al t er m is 2V.exp ) / ( ). ( v k L t U L k − α − .
Let a = exp ) ( L α − , t he at t enuat ion over one line lengt h which t he wave suffer s. Then t he open
end volt age of (8.32) becomes, in t he t ime domain,
V
0
(t ) = )...] 5 ( . ) 3 ( . ) ( . [ 2
5 3
T t U a T t U a T t U a V − + − − − ...(8.33)
Wit h t he ar r ival of each successive wave at int er vals of 2T = 2L/v, t he maximum value
also decr eases while t he minimum value incr eases, as sket ched in Fig. 8.4 (b) for a = 0.96 and
0.8. The volt age finally set t les down t o t he value V, t he st ep, in pr act ice aft er a finit e t ime. But
t heor et ically, it t akes infinit e t ime, and because we have neglect ed t he t er m (r
2
c/4l), t he final
value is a lit t le less t han V as shown below. The values of at t enuat ion fact or chosen above (0.96
and 0.8) ar e t ypical for a line when only t he conduct or r esist ance is r esponsible for ener gy loss
of t he wave and when a value of 1 ohm/km for gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance is also t aken int o
account . (For a = 0.96, see next page).
Fi g. 8.5 The Bewley Lat t ice Diagr am.
S E
0
2T
T
t
V
0
4T
3T
6T
5T
7T
1 a
a
a
2
– a
2 – a
3
– a
3
– a
4
a
4 a
5
a
5
a
6
– a
6
– a
7
– a
7
2a
2a – a 2
3
2 2 a – a + a
3 5
2
2(a – a + a– a
3 5 7
)
214 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
The following t abular for m gives a convenient way of keeping t r ack of t he open-end volt age
and Fig. 8.5 shows a gr aphical sket ch which is due t o Bewley. It is known as t he Bewley Lat t ice
Diagr am. Not e t he syst emat ic met hod employed in finding t he volt age aft er any number of
r eflect ions.
Time t/ T V
0
(t) a = 0.96 a = 08
1 V
1
= 2V.a 1.92 V 1.6 V
2 V
2
= 2V.a
3 V
3
= 2V(a – a
3
) = V
1
– a
2
V
1
0.15 V 0.576 V
4 V
4
= V
3
5 V
5
= 2V(a – a
3
+ a
5
) = V
1
– a
2
V
3
1.78 V 1.23 V
6 V
6
= V
5
7 V
7
= 2V(a – a
3
+ a
5
– a
7
) = V
1
– a
2
V
5
0.28 V 0.81 V
8 V
8
= V
7
9 V
9
= 2V(a – a
3
+ a
5
– a
7
+ a
9
) = V
1
– a
2
V
7
1.66 V 1.08 V
10 V
10
= V
9
N V
N
= V
1
– a
2
V
N – 2
N + 1 V
N +1
= V
N
Accor ding t o t his pr ocedur e, t he final value is

V =
) 1 /( 2 ...) 1 ( 2
2 6 4 2
a Va a a a Va + · + − + −
...(8.34)
Exa mp le 8.1. For a = 0.96 and 0.8, find t he final value of open-end volt age and t he %
er r or caused by omit t ing t he t er m (r
2
c/4l) in equat ion (8.31)
Sol u t i on . (a) a = 0.96,

V = 0.9992 V, er r or = 0.08%.
(b) a = 0.8,

V = 0.9756 V, er r or = 2.44%.
8.2.3 The Bewley Lattice Diagram
Befor e we consider anot her for m for p, let us discuss t he Lat t ice Diagr am for keeping account
of t he infinit e number of r eflect ions on a line when suddenly ener gized by a sour ce. A hor izont al
line is dr awn t o r epr esent t he line and t wo ver t ical lines at t he ends on which equal int er vals of
t ime T ar e mar ked as shown. The diagr am begins at t he t op left cor ner at t he sour ce and
pr oceeds along t he line OT. The at t enuat ion a is also shown for one t r avel. At t he open end, t he
wave r eflect s complet ely as a. To t he r ight is mar ked 2a which is t he volt age at t he open end
aft er one t r avel t ime. Ar r ows show t he pr ogr ess of t he wave. At T, t he wave r eflect s and
r eaches t he sour ce at t ime 2T wit h an amplit ude a
2
, and since t he sour ce volt age has t o r emain
const ant at + 1, t he wave ar r iving at t he sour ce is r eflect ed negat ively and shown as – a
2
. When
t his r eaches t he open end at t ime 3T, it has t he value (– a
3
). Again, at t he end, t his wave
doubles and a r eflect ion (– a
3
) t r avels back t o t he sour ce. The t ot al volt age at t he open end is
now (a + a – a
3
– a
3
) = 2(a – a
3
) which is t he sum of all volt ages mar ked on t he inclined lines up
t o t ime 3T. Pr oceeding in t his manner , we obser ve t hat in or der t o keep t he sour ce volt age at
+ 1, cont inued r eflect ions have t o t ake place wit h negat ive signs at t he sour ce and posit ive
signs at t he open end.
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 215
8.2.4 r/l = g/c = β β
If t he above condit ion is sat isfied, t hen
p = v s c g s l r s lc cs g ls r / ) ( )] / )( / [( ) )( (
2 / 1
β + · + + · + +
= s/v + r/lv. ...(8.35)
The st ep r esponse is t he same as befor e in Sect ion 8.2.2 and Fig. 8.4(b), but t he at t enuat ion
fact or is now b = exp (–βL/v) = exp (– 2αL/v) = a
2
. The volt age at t enuat es mor e r apidly t han
when g = 0.
Exa mp le 8.2. For a = 0.96 and 0.8, find t he r esult ing at t enuat ion fact or when r/l = g/c,
assuming line lengt h L t o be equal in bot h cases. Also calculat e t he maximum values of t he
sur ge in t he t wo cases in p.u.
Sol u t i on . (1) a =
L
e
α −
= 0.96 ∴ b = a
2
= 0.9216
Maximum value of sur ge is t he fir st peak = 1.8432 p.u.
(2) a = e
–αL
= 0.8. ∴ b = a
2
= 0.64.
∴ Fir st peak = 1.28 p.u.
The r elat ion r/l = g/c is also known as t he dist or t ionless condit ion in which any waveshape
of volt age applied at one end will t r avel wit hout dist or t ion of waveshape but will be at t enuat ed.
The r elat ion is ver y useful in t elephone and t elegr aph wor k wher e ar t ificial loading coils ar e
used t o incr ease t he value of induct ance in cable t r ansmission for which g and c ar e high while
l is low.
The case of including all four par amet er s (r, l, g, c) in t he pr opagat ion const ant p leads t o
complicat ed expr essions for t he Inver se Laplace Tr ansfor m involving Bessel Funct ions but , as
will be shown in t he next sect ion, will yield easier solut ions when t he st anding wave concept is
r esor t ed t o.
8.3 STANDING WAVES AND NATURAL FREQUENCIES
In t his met hod, t he inver se Laplace Tr ansfor m is evaluat ed by t he Met hod of Residues and
inst ead of an infinit e number of r eflect ions caused by bot h ends, we obt ain t he solut ion as t he
sum of an infinit e number of fr equencies which consist of a fundament al fr equency and it s
har monics. The infinit e ser ies of t er ms can be t r uncat ed aft er any suit able number of har monics
t o yield engineer ing r esult s. We will fir st show t hat t he met hod yields t he same r esult as t he
t r avelling-wave concept for a simple case, and t hen pr oceed wit h t he St anding-wave Met hod for
mor e complicat ed cases for p = . ) )( ( cs g ls r + +
8.3.1 Case 1–Losses Neglected r = g = 0
The Laplace Tr ansfor m of t he open-end volt age, equat ion (8.26), can be wr it t en as (wit h r = g =
0), for a st ep input ,
V
0
= V/s. cosh pL = V/s. cosh (s
L l c
) ...(8.36)
The locat ions of t he poles of t he expr ession wher e t he denominat or becomes zer o ar e fir st
det er mined. Then t he r esidues at t hese poles ar e evaluat ed as descr ibed below, and t he t ime
r esponse of t he open-end volt age is t he sum of r esidues at all t he poles.
216 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Locat ion of Poles. The denominat or is zer o whenever s = 0 and 0 cosh · L l c s . Now,
cosh jθ = cos θ which is zer o whenever 0 , 2 / ) 1 2 ( · π + t · θ n n , 1, 2,... Thus, t her e ar e an infinit e
number of poles wher e ) cosh( L l c s becomes zer o. They ar e locat ed at
Ls l c
= 2 / ) 1 2 ( π + t n j .
∴ s = 2 / ) 1 2 ( and 2 / ) 1 2 ( π + t · t · π + t n j pL jw cL l n j
n
...(8.37)
wher e w
n
= T n L v n cL l n 2 / ) 1 2 ( 2 / ) 1 2 ( 2 / ) 1 2 ( π + · π + · π + ...(8.38)
upon using t he pr oper t y t hat l c v / 1 · and T = L/v. We also obser ve t hat (lL) and (cL) ar e
t he t ot al induct ance and capacit ance of t he line of lengt h L, and
0
2 4 / 2 2 / f T T π · π · π , wit h f
0
=
fundament al fr equency. This was t he same as was obt ained in t he t r avelling-wave concept .
Residues
In or der t o calculat e t he r esidue at a simple pole, we r emove t he pole fr om t he denominat or ,
mult iply by e
st
and evaluat e t he value of t he r esult ing expr ession at t he value of s given at t he
pole.
(1) At s = 0:
Residue =
V
Ls lc
e V
s
st
·
·0
) cosh(
.
, t he input st ep.
(2) At t he infinit e number of poles, t he pr ocedur e is t o t ake t he der ivat ive of (cosh pL)
wit h r espect t o s and evaluat e t he value of t he r esult ing expr ession at each value of s at which
cosh pL = 0. Thus, t he r esidues at t he poles of (cosh pL) ar e found by t he oper at ion
) ( + n
V =
2 / ) 1 2 (
) (cosh
π + ·
·
n j pL
jw s
st
n
pL
ds
d
e
s
V
...(8.39)
Now,
ds
d
cos h pL L l c Ls l c L l c Ls l c sinh . ) . sinh( . . · · . Bu t a t , 2 / ) 1 2 ( π + · n j pL
n
j n j pL ) 1 ( 2 / ) 1 2 sin( sinh − · π + ·
.
∴ V(n+) =
π + − − ·

) 1 2 /( ) ( exp 2 . . ) 1 (
. . ) 1 (
) exp(
. n t jw V
L lc j
t jw
jw
V
n
n
n
n
n
...(8.40)
upon using equat ion (8.38).
Similar ly, at s = – jw
n
, t he r esidue will be t he complex conjugat e of equat ion (8.40). Now
using
θ · +
θ − θ
cos 2
j j
e e
, t he sum of all r esidues and t her efor e t he t ime r esponse is
) (
0
t V =
1
1
]
1

¸

π +
π +
− −


·0
.
2
) 1 2 (
cos .
) 1 2 (
4
. ) 1 ( 1
n
n
t
lc L
n
n
V ...(8.41)
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 217
The fir st or fundament al fr equency for n = 0 is f
0
= 1/4L l c = 1/4T and it s amplit ude is
) / 4 ( π . Let l c L t 2 / π · θ . Then equat ion (8.41) can be wr it t en as
V
0
(t ) =
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
− θ + θ − θ
π
− ... 5 cos
5
1
3 cos
3
1
cos
4
1 V ...(8.42)
Now, t he Four ier ser ies of a r ect angular wave of amplit ude V is

,
_

¸
¸
− θ + θ − θ
π
... 5 cos
5
1
3 cos
3
1
cos
4V
.
Ther efor e, t he open-end volt age r esponse for a st ep input when line losses ar e neglect ed
is t he sum of t he st ep input and a r ect angular wave of amplit ude V and fundament al fr equency
f
0
= 1/4T. This is t he same as equat ion (8.30) and Fig. 8.4(a). Ther efor e, t he t r avelling-wave
concept and st anding-wave met hod yield t he same r esult .
8.3.2 General Case (r, l, g, c)
Inst ead of der iving t he open-end volt age r esponse for ever y combinat ion of (r, l, g, c), we will
develop equat ions when all four par amet er s ar e consider ed in t he pr opagat ion const ant , and
t hen apply t he r esult ing equat ion for par t icular cases. Now,
p = ) )( ( cs g ls r + +
The poles of (cosh pL) ar e locat ed as befor e when pL = ± j(2n + 1)π/2, n = 0, 1, 2, ..., ∞ . The
values of s at t hese poles will be obt ained by solving t he quadr at ic equat ion
(r + ls) (g + cs)L
2
= – (2n + 1)
2
π
2
/4 ...(8.43)
This gives s =
2
2
2
2
4
1
4
) 1 2 (
2
1

,
_

¸
¸
+ −
π
+ + t
,
_

¸
¸
+ −
c
g
l
r
lc L
n
lc
rg
j
c
g
l
r
...(8.44)
or s = – a ± jw
n
wher e a = ) / / (
2
1
c g l r + ...(8.45)
and
2
n
w = lc L n c g l r lc rg
2 2 2 2
4 / ) 1 2 ( ) / / (
4
1
/ π + + + − ...(8.46)
Now pL
ds
d
cosh = L. sinh (pL). (dp/ds)
wher e sinh pL = j (– 1)
n
at t he pole, and
ds
dp
=
n
jw a s
cs g ls r
gl rc lcs
+ − ·
+ +
+ +
) )( (
) ( 2
2
1
=
L n j
gl rc jw a lc
n
2 / ) 1 2 (
). ( ) ( 2
2
1
π +
+ + + −
...(8.47)

n
jw a s
pL
ds
d
+ − ·
cosh
= j(– 1)
n
. 2L
2
lc w
n
/(2n + 1)π ...(8.48)
218 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Thus, t he r esidues at t he poles s = 0, s = – a + jw
n
, s = – a – jw
n
ar e found t o be
(1) At s = rg L V
cs g ls r L
Ve
V
s
st
cosh /
) )( ( cosh
. 0
0
0
·
+ +
·
·
...(8.49)
(2) At s = – a + jw
n
.
V(n + ) =
V
ja w
e
lcw L
n e
ds pL d s
e V
n
t jw
n
at n
jw a s
st
n
n
+
π + − −
·

+ − ·
2
2
) 1 2 ( . ) 1 (
) / cosh . (
.
...(8.50)
(3) At s = – a – jw
n
.
V(n – ) =
V
ja w
e
w lc L
n e
n
t jw
n
at n
n
. .
2
) 1 2 ( ) 1 (
2

π + − −
− −
...(8.51)
The sum of all r esidues and t her efor e t he open-end volt age for st ep input will be, wit h
t an φ = a/ w
n
,
V
0
(t ) =
1
1
]
1

¸

φ −
+
π + −



·

0
2 2 2
) cos( .
. . .
. ) 1 2 ( ) 1 (
cosh
1
n
n
n n
at n
t w
w a w lc L
e n
rg L
V ...(8.52)
Particular cases
(1) Wh en r = g = 0, t h e l os s l es s con di t i on , a = 0, φ = 0, cos h 1 · rg L , a n d
4 / ) 1 2 ( /
2 2 2 2
π + · n cw L
n
. The r esult ing open-end volt age r educes t o equat ion (8.41).
(2) When g = 0, a = r/2l, w
n
=
2 / 1 2 2 2 2
] ) 2 / ( 4 / ) 1 2 [( l r lc L n − π +
.
cosh lc L n w a rg L
n
2 / ) 1 2 ( . 1
2 2
π + · + ∴ ·
(3) When r/l = g/c, t he dist or t ionless condit ion, r/l = g/c = b.
a = lc L n w c g l r lc rg l r c g l r
n
2 / ) 1 2 ( , 0 ) / / (
4
1
/ , / ) / / (
2
1
2
π + · · + − · + .
The nat ur al fr equency becomes equal t o t hat when losses ar e omit t ed, equat ions (8.38).
All har monics have same at t enuat ion.
At t he velocit y of light , for differ ent lengt hs of line L, t he following values of fundament al
fr equencies and t r avel t ime ar e found fr om t he expr essions T = L/300 ms, wit h L in km and f
0
= 1/4T.
L, km 100 200 300 400 500 750 1000
T, ms 0.333 0.667 1.0 1.333 1.667 2.5 3.333
f
0
, Hz 750 375 250 187.5 150 100 75
These fr equencies ar e impor t ant for calculat ing gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance and induct ance
accor ding t o Car son's For mulae.
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 219
8.4 OPEN-ENDED LINE: DOUBLE-EXPONENTIAL RESPONSE
The r esponse of an open-ended line when ener gized by a st ep input was descr ibed in Sect ion 8.3
wher e t he Laplace Tr ansfor m of t he st ep was E(s) = V/s. In consider ing light ning and swit ching
sur ges, t he excit at ion funct ion is double exponent ial wit h t he equat ion, as shown in Fig. 8.6(a),
e(t ) = ) (
0
t t
e e E
β − α −
− ...(8.53)
It s Laplace Tr ansfor m is
E(s) = ) )( /( ) ( )] ( / 1 ) /( 1 [
0 0
β + α + α − β · β + − α + s s E s s E ...(8.54)
Now, t he oper at ional expr ession of t he open-end volt age is
V
0
(s) = pL s s E pL s E cosh ) )( /( ) ( cosh / ) (
0
β + α + α − β · ...(8.55)
wher e p = , ) )( ( cs g ls r + + as befor e,
The poles of (8.55) ar e locat ed at s =
n
jw a t − β − α − and , , , wher e by equat ions (8.45) and
(8.46),
a = . / 4 / ) 1 2 ( and ) / / (
2
1
2 2 2 2
a lc rg lc L n w c g l r
n
− + π + · +
Fi g. 8.6 (a) Double-exponent ia l wa ve: e(t ) = E
0
(e
–αt
– e
–βt
)
(b) Sine wave of excit at ion swit ched at any point on t he wave.
Residues
(1) At s =
) )( ( cosh ). (
) (
) ( .
0
α − α − α − β
α − β
· α − α −
α −
c g l r L
e E
V
t
...(8.56)
(2) At s =
) )( ( cosh ) (
) (
) ( .
0
β − β − β − α
α − β
· β − β −
β −
c g l r L
e E
V
t
...(8.57)
(3) At s = – a + jw
n
.
n
jw a s
pL
ds
d
+ − ·
| cosh
= π + − ) 1 2 /( 2 . ) 1 (
2
n lcw L j
n
n
...(8.58)
∴ V(n + ) =
n n n
t jw a
lcw L j jw a jw a
n e E
n
. 2 ) )( (
) 1 2 .( ). (
2
) (
0
+ − β + − α
π + α − β
+ −
...(8.59)
dt
Vp
v = E e e 0
– –
( – )
t t β α
t
( ) a
φ
π/2 3π/2 π
v V wt = cos ( + )
m
φ
V
m
t = 0
( ) b
220 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(4) At s = – a – jw
n
. V(n – ) = complex conjugat e of V(n + ).
The sum of all r esidues will become
V
0
(t ) =
) )( ( cosh ) )( ( cosh
0 0
β − β −

α − α −
β − α −
c g l r L
e E
c g l r L
e E
t t
) cos(
1 ) 1 2 )( ( ) 1 (
2 2
0
2
0 n n
n n
n n
at n
t w
B A
w lc L
e n
E φ +
+
π + α − β −



·

...(8.60)
wher e A
n
=
n n n
w a B w a a ) 2 ( , ) )( (
2
− β + α · − − β − α ...(8.61)
and
n
φ t an =
n n
B A / .
Equat ion (8.60) can be wr it t en out explicit ly for var ious combinat ions of r, l, g, c such as
discussed befor e. These ar e:
(1) Lossless line : r = g = 0.
(2) Neglect g. g = 0.
(3) Dist or t ionless line. r/l = g/c.
(4) All four par amet er s consider ed. Equat ion (8.60).
8.5 OPEN-ENDED LINE: RESPONSE TO SINUSOIDAL EXCITATION
When a sine-wave of excit at ion sour ce is suddenly swit ched on t o an open-ended line, at an
angle φ aft er a posit ive peak, it s t ime funct ion is e(t ) = V
m
cos

) ( φ + wt , wher e w = 2πf and f =
power fr equency. It s Laplace-Tr ansfor m is
E(s) = ) ( / ) sin . cos . (
2 2
w s w s V
m
+ φ − φ ...(8.62)
The r esult ing open-end volt age becomes
V
0
(s) = pL w s w s V
m
cosh ). /( ) sin . cos . (
2 2
+ φ − φ ...(8.63)
The poles ar e now locat ed at
n
jw a jw s t − t · , , wit h a and w
n
obt ained fr om equat ions
(8.45) and (8.46). The r esidue at each pole is evaluat ed as befor e and t he r esult ing open-end
volt age is as follows:
Let J =
2 2 2
) ( , ) ( L lg rc w K L lc w rg + · −
a =
2 / 1 2 2 2 2
] / / ) 1 2 [( ), / / (
2
1
a lc rg lc L n w c g l r
n
− + π + · +
p
1
=
5 . 0 2 2
1
5 . 0 2 2
) ( 5 . 0 , ) ( 5 . 0 J K J q J K J − + · + +
F =
, / t an , sin . sinh , cos . cosh
1 1 1 1
F G q p G q p · θ ·
p
2
=
2 2 2
n
w w a − +
.
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 221
Then, V
0
(t ) = ∑

·

+
π + −
+
+
ψ − φ +
0
2 2 2
2
2 2 / 1 2 2
) 4 (
) 1 2 ( ) 1 (
] [
) cos( .
n n n
at n
m
m
w a p lcw L
e n
V
G F
wt V
} sin ) 2 ( cos ) 2 ( { [cos
2
2
2
2
t w w p a t w a p w
n n n n
+ − − φ ×
)] sin . 2 cos . .( sin
2
t w aw t w p w
n n n
− φ + ...(8.64)
It consist s of a st eady-st at e r esponse t er m, and t he t r ansient r esponse wit h an infinit e
number of fr equency component s which decay wit h t he t ime const ant
a / 1 · τ
.
8.6 LINE ENERGIZATION WITH TRAPPED-CHARGE VOLTAGE
Hit her t o, we have been consider ing a line wit h no init ial volt age t r apped in it at t he t ime of
per for ming t he swit ching or excit at ion oper at ion wit h a volt age sour ce such as t he st ep, double-
exponent ial or sinusoidal. When some equipment is connect ed bet ween line and gr ound, such
as a shunt -compensat ing r eact or or a power t r ansfor mer or an induct ive pot ent ial t r ansfor mer
or dur ing r ain, t he t r apped char ge is dr ained t o gr ound in about half-cycle (10 ms on 50 Hz
base). Ther efor e, when a swit ching oper at ion is per for med, t he line is "dead". But t her e ar e
many sit uat ions wher e t he line is r e-ener gized aft er a de-ener gizat ion oper at ion wit h a volt age
t r apped in it . This volt age in a 3-phase line has a value equal t o t he peak value of volt age wit h
sinusoidal excit at ion or ver y near t he peak. The r esult ing open-end volt age is higher t han
when t r apped char ge is neglect ed. The r esponse or behaviour of t he open-end volt age when
t her e is an init ial volt age V
t
will now be discussed.
The basic differ ent ial equat ions for t he line, Fig. 8.7, ar e
x V
x
∂ ∂ / =
x x x
V t c g x I I t l r ) / . ( / and , ) / . ( ∂ ∂ + · ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ + ...(8.65)
As befor e, let z =r + ls and y = g + cs. Then t aking t he Laplace
Fi g. 8.7 Dist r ibut ed-par amet er line wit h all four par amet er s (r, l , g, c).
Tr ansfor ms wit h t he condit ions t hat at t = 0, i = 0 and v = V
t
, t he t r apped volt age, t her e
r esult s for t he Laplace-Tr ansfor m of volt age at any point x,
t x x
zcV s V p x s V + − ∂ ∂ ) ( / ) (
2 2 2
= 0 ...(8.66)
The compliment ar y funct ion is obt ained wit h V
t
= 0 which is
px px
xc
Be Ae V

+ · . The
par t icular int egr al will be (cV
t
/y), and t he complet e solut ion is
V
x
(s) = y cV Be Ae
t
px px
/ + +

...(8.67)
This can be ver ified by subst it ut ing in equat ion (8.66).
r l
g c
i , v
x x
222 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
The boundar y condit ions ar e (1) at x = L, V
L
= E(s) and (2) at x = 0,
0 0
I Z V
t
· . Then, A and
B have t he values, wit h p z y z Z / /
0
· · , t he char act er ist ic impedance,
A = D Z Z pL Z y c V D s E Z Z
t t t
/ ) ) exp( )( / ( / ) ( ) (
0 0 0
− − − + + ...(8.68)
and B = D Z Z pL Z y c V D s E Z Z
t t t
/ ) ) exp( )( / ( / ) ( ) (
0 0 0
− + − − − ...(8.69)
wit h D = ) ( exp ) ( ) ( exp ) (
0 0
pL Z Z pL Z Z
t t
− − + + ...(8.70)
When V
t
=0, t hese equat ions r educe t o equat ions (8.17) and (8.18). The cur r ent ,
even wit h t r apped char ge, is
I
x
= )) ( exp ) ( exp .( / ). / 1 (
0
px B px A Y x V z
x
− − · ∂ ∂ ...(8.71)
which is t he same as equat ion (8.15).
Combining equat ions (8.68), (8.69) and (8.67), since A and B also cont ain t he t r apped-
volt age t er m,
V
x
=
y
c V
pL Z Z pL
px Z Z px
s E
t
t
t

+
+
sinh ) / ( cosh
sinh ) / ( cosh
). (
0
0
pL Z Z pL
px Z Z pL px
t
t
sinh ) / ( cosh
sinh ) / ))( ( exp 1 ( cosh
0
0
+
− − +
...(8.72)
For an open-ended line, 0 /
0
·
t
Z Z , and t he volt age at any point x on t he line fr om t he
open end is
V
x0
= E(s).cosh px/cosh pL – (V
t
c/y) cosh px/ cosh pL ...(8.73)
In par t icular , at t he open end,
V
0
= pL c g s V pL s E
t
cosh ) / /( cosh / ) ( + − ...(8.74)
When V
t
= 0 t his r educes t o equat ion (8.26) which we have been dealing wit h in pr evious
sect ions. The inver se t r ansfor ms of t he fir st t er m E(s)/cosh pL in equat ion (8.74) have alr eady
been obt ained for st ep, double-exponent ial and sinusoidal excit at ions, which ar e equat ions
(8.52), (8.60) and (8.64). To t hese will be added t he r esponse due t o t he t r apped char ge, t he
second t er m in (8.74).
The poles ar e now at s = – g/c, and s = – a ± jw
n
, wit h a and w
n
given by equat ions (8.45) and
(8.46).
(1) At t he simple pole s = – g/c, t he r esidue is
V
1
= ] ) / ( exp[ . | ) )( ( cosh / .
/
t c g V cs g ls r L e V
t c g s
st
t
− · + +
− ·
...(8.75)
(2) The r esidue at s = – a + jw
n
is
V(n + ) =
) / (
) ( exp
.
2
) 1 2 ).( ( exp ) 1 (
2
c g a j w
t jw
w lc L
n at V
n
n
n
t
n
− +
π + − − −
...(8.76)
(3) At t he pole s = – a – jw
n
, t he r esidue is equal t o t he complex conjugat e of V(n + ), t hus
V(n – ) = [V(n + )]*.
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 223
The sum of all r esidues and t he r esult ing cont r ibut ion t o t he open-end volt age due t o t he
t r apped volt age finally becomes


·
ψ −
− +
π + −
− − −
0
2 / 1 2 2 2
) cos(
} ) / ( { . .
) 1 2 ).( ( exp
. ) 1 ( ] ) / ( exp[ .
n
n
n n
n
t t
t w
c g a w w lc L
n at
V t c g V
...(8.77)
wher e t an
ψ
=
n
w c g a / ) / ( − ...(8.78)
Bot h t er ms decay wit h t heir own t ime const ant s. Not e t hat when g = 0, t he t r apped-
char ge volt age is always pr esent in t he open-end volt age in spit e of a line r esist ance r being
pr esent .
8.7 CORONA LOSS AND EFFECTIVE SHUNT CONDUCTANCE
When sur ges pr opagat e on t r ansmission lines t hey suffer at t enuat ion or decr ease in amplit ude
due t o ener gy lost in t he conduct or r esist ance, gr ound r esist ance, and cor ona. This is par t icular ly
beneficial in t he case of light ning and swit ching sur ges. In t he pr evious discussions, a shunt
conduct ance g has been included which r epr esent s t he cor ona loss element . We will now der ive
an appr oximat e expr ession for t his quant it y assuming t he volt age t o be of t he double-exponent ial
for m. It was shown in Chapt er 5 t hat for unidir ect ional sur ges t he cor ona loss in J oules per
unit lengt h is given by t he expr ession
W
e
= ) (
2
1
2
0
2
V V KC
m
− ...(8.79)
wher e C = capacit ance of conduct or per unit lengt h, K = t he incr ease in capacit ance when
cor ona is pr esent , V
m
= peak value of volt age at t ained and V
0
= cor ona-incept ion volt age, peak
value.
This was obt ained fr om t he q-V r elat ion appr oximat ed t o a t r apezoidal for m, Fig. 5.3.
Let t he waveshape of t he double-exponent ial be
e(t ) = ) (
0
t t
e e E
β − α −
− ...(8.80)
wher e E
0
, α and β depend on t he t imings of fr ont and 50% value on t ail, and t he cr est
volt age. Typical values of
0
, , E β α ar e given below:
α β
m
V E /
0
Light ning Impulse 1.2/50 µs 14.5 × 10
3
2.45 × 10
6
1.035
Swit ching Sur ge 250/2500 µs 320 12 × 10
3
1.13
Denot ing by g
e
"effect ive conduct ance" per unit lengt h t he differ ent ial ener gy loss is (g
e
.e
2
.dt )
per unit lengt h, and t he t ot al ener gy loss in t he full wave is *
W
e
= ∫ ∫
∞ ∞
β − α −
αβ
α − β
· − ·
0 0
2
0
2 2
0
2
.
2
) ( . . . E g dt e e E g dt e g
e
t t
e e
...(8.81)
* In pr act ice t he limit s of int egr at ion ar e not 0 and ∞ but t he t imes when t he volt age equals cor ona-
incept ion and ext inct ion values. These depend on t he peak of sur ge. This can be wor ked out on a case-by-
ca se ba sis.
224 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Equat ing t his t o ) (
2
1
2
0
2
V V KC
m
− , t he effect ive conduct ance per unit lengt h is
g
e
=
2
0
2
0
2
/ ) .( )} /( { E V V KC
m
− α − β αβ ...(8.82)
In pr act ice, t he cr est value of volt age V
m
for bot h light ning and swit ching sur ges is 2.5 t o
3 t imes t he cr est value of cor ona-incept ion volt age V
0
, and E
0
is appr oximat ely equal t o V
m
.
Ther efor e t he fact or
2
0
2
0
2
/ ) ( E V V
m
− is near ly unit y. An appr oximat ion for g
e
will t hen be
C g KC g
e e
/ and ) /( α − β αβ ≈ = ) /( α − β αβK ...(8.83)
The value of K is about 0.7.
Exa mp le 8.3. A 400 kV line has C = 10 nF/km. For light ning and swit ching sur ge t ype of
volt age, calculat e t he effect ive conduct ance per unit lengt h assuming 1 / ) (
2
0
2
0
2
· − E V V
m
.
Sol u t i on .
(a) For light ning : g
e
= ) /( α − β αβKC
= 14.5 × 2.45 × 0.7 × 10
–5
/2.436 = 102 µ mho/km
(b) For swit ching : g
e
= (320 × 12 × 0.7/11.68) 10
–8
= 2.3 µ mho/km
Exa mp le 8.4. A 300 km line is t o be r epr esent ed by a model consist ing of 12 π sect ions for
t he above 400-kV line. Find t he values of r esist ances t o be connect ed in shunt for each sect ion.
Sol u t i on . Let line lengt h be L and number of π sect ions be N. Then each π-sect ion is
equivalent t o a lengt h of line of (L/N) km. The t ot al conduct ance is G
e
= g
e
L/N mhos and t he
cor r esponding r esist ance is R
e
= N/g
e
L.
(a) For lightning-impulse : R
e
= 12/(102 × 10
–6
× 300) = 392 ohms
(b) For swit ching-surge: R
e
= 12/(2.3 × 10
–6
× 300) = 17.4 kilohms
Not e t hat because of t he lower r esist ance t o be connect ed in shunt for t he light ning case,
t he volt age loses ener gy fast er t han for t he swit ching sur ge and t he wave at t enuat ion is higher .
In gener al, light ning sur ges at t enuat e t o 50% value of t he incident sur ge in only 10 km wher eas
it may only be 80% for swit ching sur ges aft er a t r avel of even as far as 400 km.
8.8 THE METHOD OF FOURIER TRANSFORMS
The met hod of Four ier Tr ansfor ms when applied t o pr opagat ion char act er ist ics of light ning
and swit ching sur ges is compar at ively of r ecent or igin and because of t he availabilit y of power ful
Digit al Comput er s offer s a ver y useful t ool for evaluat ing t r ansient per for mance of syst ems,
especially when dist r ibut ed par amet er lines occur in combinat ion wit h lumped syst em element s.
These ar e in t he for m of ser ies sour ce impedance, r esist or s in cir cuit br eaker s, shunt r eact or s
for line compensat ion, t r ansfor mer s, bus bar s, bushing capacit ances, and ent ir e sub-st at ions at
t he r eceiving end.
In pr evious sect ions, a solut ion for volt age at t he open end of a line was der ived in closed
for m by bot h t he t r avelling-wave and st anding-wave met hods using t he t ime-shift ing t heor em
and r esidues by using t he Laplace Tr ansfor m. The Four ier Tr ansfor m par allels t he Laplace
Tr ansfor m wit h (1) t he subst it ut ion of s = a + jw in all quant it ies in t heir oper at ional for m,
(2) separ at ing r eal and j-par t s in t he r esult ing expr ession for a volt age or cur r ent under
invest igat ion, and (3) finally calculat ing t he Inver se Four ier Tr ansfor m (IFT) by per for ming an
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 225
indicat ed numer ical int egr at ion, pr efer ably using t he Digit al Comput er . We will illust r at e t he
met hod for obt aining t he open-end volt age consider ed befor e and t hen ext end it t o include
ot her t ypes of line t er minat ion and ser ies and shunt impedances. Specific cases useful for
design of insulat ion of lines will be t aken up in chapt er 10 on Swit ching Sur ges.
The open-end volt age was found t o be, equat ion (8.26),
V
0
(s) = E(s)/cosh pL wher e p = f(r, l, g, c)
For a st ep input , E(s) = V/s, and in gener al p = . ) )( ( cs g ls r + + Subst it ut e s = a + jw.
Then,
) (
0
jw a V + = )} ( )}{ ( { cosh ). /( jw a c g jw a l r L jw a V + + + + + ...(8.84)
We can separ at e t he r eal and j-par t s easily. Let cosh pL be wr it t en as t he complex number
(M + jN). Then,
V
0
= )} ( ) /{( ) )( /( wM aN j wN aM V jN M jw a V + + − · + +
= jQ P
wM aN wN aM
wM aN j wN aM
V + ·
+ + −
+ − −
2 2
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
. ...(8.85)
The r eal and j-par t s of t he r equir ed open-end volt age ar e
P = D wM aN V Q D wN aM V / ) ( and , / ) ( + − · − ...(8.86)
wher e D =
2 2
) ( ) ( wM aN wN aM + + − , t he denominat or ...(8.87)
The inver se t r ansfor m is t hen given by t he int egr al
V
0
(t ) =



σ
π
· +
0
0
1
, . . cos . .
2
)] ( [ dw wt e P jw a V F
f
at
...(8.88)
wher e
f
σ is called t he "sigma fact or " which helps in conver gence of t he int egr al. In a
pr act ical sit uat ion, because of t he upper limit s being 0 and ∞ , division by zer o occur s. In or der
t o obviat e t his, a lower limit for w = W
i
is assumed (could be a value of 10) and t he int egr at ion
is t er minat ed at a final value w = W
F
. The sigma fact or is t hen wr it t en as
f
σ = ) / /( ) / sin(
F F
W w W w π π ...(8.89)
and t he desir ed int egr al becomes
V
0
(t ) =

π
π
π
F
i
W
W
F
F
at
dw
W w
W w
wt P
e
.
) / (
) / sin(
. cos .
2
...(8.90)
The j-par t could also be used and is t hen wr it t en as
V
0
(t ) =

π
π
π

F
i
W
W
F
F at
dw
W w
W w
wt Q e .
) / (
) / sin(
. sin .
2
...(8.91)
226 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
The numer ical int egr at ion can be car r ied out by ut ilizing any of t he sever al met hods
available in books on Numer ical Met hods, such as (a) t he t r apezoidal r ule, (b) Simpson's Rule,
(c) Gauss's met hod, and finally by t he applicat ion of (d) t he Fast -Four ier Tr ansfor m. These ar e
consider ed beyond t he scope of t his book.
Ther e ar e sever al fact or s which ar e now discussed on t he choice of values for sever al
quantities such as a, W
i
and W
F
, which ar e ver y cr it ical fr om t he point of view of applicat ion of
t his met hod. Fir st , t he values of M and N ar e found as follows:
Let
pL = jn m jw a c g jw a l r L + · + + + + )} ( )}{ ( { ...(8.92)
Then,
2
) ( jn m +
= J + jK wher e ...(8.93)
and
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
+ + + ·
− + + ·
} ) ( ) {(
} ) )( {(
2
2 2
lw ca g cw la r L K
w lc ca g la r L J
...(8.94)
∴ m
2
– n
2
= J and 2 mn = K wit h K > 0 ...(8.95)
∴ Solving for m and n in t er ms of J and K, t her e a r e
m =
2 / 1
2 2
2 / 1
2 2
(
2
1
) (
2
1
1
]
1

¸

− + ·
1
]
1

¸

+ + J K J n and J K J
...(8.96)
Then, cosh (m + jn) = cosh m. cos n + j sinh m sin n = M + jN or
M = cosh m.cos n and N = sinh m.sin n ...(8.97)
The use of t he Four ier -Tr ansfor m Met hod for ver y fast -r ising input volt ages such as t he
st ep funct ion is ver y impor t ant and any choice of values for a, W
i
and W
F
used for t his t ype of
excit at ion will hold for ot her t ypes. Fr om exper ience, t he following r ules ar e for mulat ed which
should be t r ied out for each case and t he final values chosen:
(1) The choice of t he conver ging fact or "a" which is t he r eal par t of t he Four ier -Tr ansfor m
oper a t or s = (a + jw) is ver y cr ucial. If T
f
= final value of t ime up t o which t he r esponse
is t o be evaluat ed, t hen a r ule is t o choose (a T
f
) = 1 t o 4. For example, for a swit ching-
sur ge st udy car r ied out t o one cycle on 50 Hz base, t hat is 20 ms, t he value of a = 50
t o 200. If t he calculat ion is t o pr oceed up t o 40 ms, t wo cycles, t hen choose a = 50 t o
200 for t he fir st 20 ms, and 25 t o 100 for t he next 20 ms.
(2) The choice of final value of w = W
F
at which t he int egr at ion of (8.90) or (8.91) is t o be
t r uncat ed is gover ned by t he r ise t ime of t he phenomenon. The shor t est r ise t ime
occur s for a st ep funct ion (t heor et ically zer o) and W
F
may be as lar ge as 10
6
, but for
ot her wave-shapes it may be 10
5
.
(3) The choice of int er val ( w ∆ ) depends on t he accur acy r equir ed. The number of or dinat es
chosen for int egr at ion is w W W N
i F
∆ − · / ) (
0
. This can be 500 t o 1000 so t hat t he
choice of W
F
will det er mine t he fr equency st ep t o be used.
Chapt er 10 will descr ibe some calculat ions using t his met hod.
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 227
8.9 REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF TRAVELLING WAVES
The met hods descr ibed ear lier can be ver y usefully applied t o simple but impor t ant syst em
configur at ions and t he Four ier Tr ansfor m met hod can handle ent ir e syst ems given sufficient
comput er t ime. In may sit uat ions, sever al component s ar e connect ed in ser ies and a wave
t r avelling on one of t hese pr opagat es in a differ ent component wit h a differ ent value. This is
caused by t he discont inuit y at t he junct ion which gives r ise t o r eflect ed and r efr act ed (or
t r ansmit t ed) waves. They ar e descr ibed by r eflect ion and r efr act ion fact or s which ar e der ived
as follows:
The volt age and cur r ent at any point on a line was found t o be, equat ions (8.19) and (8.20),
and Fig. 8.3,
V =
) (
sinh ) / ( cosh
sinh ) / ( cosh
0
0
s E
pl Z Z pL
px Z Z px
t
t
+
+
...(8.19)
I = ) (
sinh ) / ( cosh
cosh ) / ( sinh 1
0
0
0
s E
pL Z Z pL
px Z Z px
Z
t
t
+
+
...(8.20)
These r esult ed fr om t he gener al solut ions, equat ions (8.14) and (8.15),
V(x) = ) (
1
) ( and
0
px px px px
Be Ae
Z
x I Be Ae
− −
− · +
The volt age and cur r ent consist of t wo par t s:
V(x) =
2
0
1
0
2 1 2 1
1 1
) ( and , V
Z
V
Z
I I x I V V − · + · + ...(8.98)
We count ed x = 0 fr om t he t er minal, Fig. 8.3, (at t he impedance Z
t
) while x = L at t he
sour ce end. The t er m e
px
incr eases as we move fr om Z
t
t o t he sour ce which is an unnat ur al
condit ion. But t he concept of a wave decr easing in magnit ude as one moves fr om t he sour ce
end int o t he line is a nat ur al behaviour of any phenomenon in nat ur e. Consequent ly, t his is a
for war d t r avelling wave fr om t he sour ce. When losses ar e neglect ed, v l c p / 1 · · wher e v =
velocit y of e.m. pr opagat ion. The cur r ent also consist s of t wo par t s: (1)
0 1 0 1
/ / Z V Z Ae I
px
· ·
which is t he for wa r d-t r a velling component . The r a t io of volt a ge t o cur r ent is + Z
0
, t he
char act er ist ic impedance of line. (2)
0 2 0 2
/ / Z V Z Be I
px
− · − ·

, which is t he backwar d-t r avelling
component fr om t he t er minal end t o t he sour ce. The r at io of volt age t o cur r ent is (– Z
0
).
Let us r e-wr it e t he expr ession in (8.19) as
V =
) (
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
0 0
0 0
s E
Z Z e Z Z e
Z Z e Z Z e
t
pL
t
pL
t
px
t
px
− + +
− + +


...(8.99)
At x = 0, t he sur ge is incident on Z
t
wher e t he incident volt age has t he magnit ude
(1 + Z
0
/Z
t
) E(s)/D, wher e D = t he denominat or of equat ion (8.99).
The t ot al volt age acr oss Z
t
is
V =
r i
V V +
wher e V
i
= t he incident volt age and V
r
= r eflect ed volt age. The volt age V is also called t he
r efr act ed volt age or t r ansmit t ed volt age. At t he junct ion of line and Z
t
, fr om equat ion (8.99), we
have t he r elat ion
228 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
K
r
=

,
_

¸
¸
·
+

·
+

·
t Coefficien
Reflect ion
/ 1
/ 1
Volt age Incident
Volt age Reflect ed
0
0
0
0
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
t
t
t
t
...(8.100)
The r efr act ion or t r ansmission coefficient is defined as
K
t
=
junct ion at Volt age Incident
junct ion at Volt age Tot al
=
) /( 2
/ 1
) / 1 ( ) / Z (1
0
0
0 0
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z Z Z
t t
t
t t
+ ·
+
− + +
...(8.101)
We also not e t hat
K
t
=
r
K + 1 ...(8.102)
Similar ly, for t he cur r ent . The t ot al cur r ent can be wr it t en at x = 0, or at t he junct ion of
line and Z
t
, as
r i
pL
t
pL
t
t t
I I s E
e Z Z e Z Z
Z Z Z Z
Z
I + ·
− + +
− + +
·

) (
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
) 1 / ( ) / 1 ( 1
0 0
0 0
0
...(8.103)
The r at io of r eflect ed component of cur r ent t o t he incident cur r ent at t he junct ion, or t he
r eflect ion coefficient , is
i r r
I I J / · = ) 1 / /( ) 1 / (
0 0
+ −
t t
Z Z Z Z
=
r t t
K Z Z Z Z − · + − − ) /( ) (
0 0
...(8.104)
while t he t r ansmission coefficient is
i t
I I J / · =
t t t t t
K Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z ) / ( ) /( 2 ) / 1 /( ) / 2 (
0 0 0 0 0
· + · + ...(8.105)
The r eflect ion coefficient s for volt age and cur r ent , K
r
and J
r
, ar e of opposit e sign since
t hey ar e backwar d t r avelling component s. The r efr act ion coefficient s for volt age and cur r ent
ar e of t he same sign.
These coefficient s ar e usually der ived in a simpler manner (wit hout pr oving t he r elat ions
bet ween incident , r eflect ed and r efr act ed waves) as follows:
Consider t he equat ions
wher e
¹
;
¹
− · · ·
+ · + ·
r r i i t t t
r i t r i t
I Z V I Z V I Z V
I I I V V V
0 0
and , ,
and
...(8.106)
Then,
t t
I Z =
0 0 0
/ giving Z I Z I I I Z I Z
t t r i r i
· − − ...(8.107)
Since
r i
I I + = I
t
, we obt ain
2I
i
=
i t t i t t t
I J Z Z I Z I I Z Z · + · + ) / 2 giving ) / 1 (
0 0 0
...(8.108)
and 2I
r
=
t r t t i r t t
I J Z Z Z Z I I I Z Z · + − · − ) /( ) ( giving ) / 1 (
0 0 0
...(8.109)
Similar ly,
t t
Z V / = . and ) / ( or / ) (
0 0 t r i t t r i r i
V V V V Z Z V V Z V V · + · − −
These yield V
t
=
i t i t t
V K V Z Z Z · + )] /( 2 [
0
...(8.110)
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 229
and V
r
=
i r t t i i t i t
V K Z Z Z Z V V K V V · + − · − · − ) /( ) ( ) 1 (
0 0
...(8.111)
These coefficient s can be used ver y effect ively in or der t o find junct ion volt ages in simple
cases which ar e exper ienced in pr act ice. Let us consider cer t ain special cases.
Case Z
t
K
t
K
r
J
t
J
r
(1) Open cir cuit ∞ + 2 + 1 0 – 1
(2) Shor t cir cuit 0 0 – 1 + 2 + 1
(3) Mat ched Z
0
+ 1 0 + 1 0
(4) Two out going lines Z
0
/2 + 2/3 – 1/3 + 4/3 + 1/3
(5) n out going lines Z
0
/n 2/(n + 1)
) 1 (
) 1 (
+
− −
n
n
) 1 (
2
+ n
n
) 1 (
) 1 (
+

n
n
Exa mp le 8.5. An over head line wit h Z
0
= 400 ohms cont inues int o a cable wit h Z
c
= 100
ohms. A sur ge wit h a cr est value of 1000 kV is coming t owar ds t he junct ion fr om t he over head
line. Calculat e t he volt age in t he cable.
Sol u t i on . K
t
= 2Z
c
/(Z
c
+ Z
0
) = 200/500 = 0.4.
Ther efor e, cable volt age = 400 kV, cr est .
Exa mp le 8.6. In t he above example, t he end of t he cable is connect ed t o a t r ansfor mer
whose impedance is pr act ically infinit e t o a sur ge, when t he bushing capacit ance is omit t ed.
Calculat e t he t r ansfor mer volt age.
Sol u t i on . When t he 400 kV volt age r eaches t he junct ion of cable and t r ansfor mer , it
r eflect s posit ively wit h K
r
= + 1 and K
t
= + 2.
Ther efor e
Tr ansfor mer volt age = 800 kV.
Exa mp le 8.7. A 750-kV t r ansmission line has a sur ge impedance of 275 ohms and t he
t r ansfor mer t o be connect ed t o it has a sur ge impedance of 1100 ohms for it s h.v. winding. The
lengt h of winding is 5 km and it s far end is connect ed t o a zer o r esist ance gr ound. A sur ge of
2400 kV is coming in t he line which is t o be limit ed t o 1725 kV at t he t r ansfor mer bushing by
using a shor t cable. (a) Calculat e t he sur ge impedance and volt age r at ing of t he cable t o be
int er posed bet ween line and t r ansfor mer . (b) Calculat e t he volt age at t he h.v. t er minal of t he
winding as soon as t he fir st r eflect ion ar r ives fr om t he gr ounded end. See Fig. 8.8.
Fi g. 8.8 Cir cuit diagr am for Example 8.7.
Sol u t i on . If V
i
= incident volt age fr om line, V
c
= volt age at junct ion of line and cable, and
V
t
volt age of t r ansfor mer h.v. winding at t he junct ion of cable and t r ansfor mer , t hen:
V
c
= ) 275 /( 2400 2 ) /( 2 .
1
+ × · +
c c c c i
Z Z Z Z Z V .
36 Ohms = 2.25 ∈r
275 Ohms
1 0 Ohms 0 1
J
cl
J
ct
5 km
1km, 5 s µ
230 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Similar ly,
V
t
= ) 1100 /( 2200 ) /( 2 .
c c c t t c
Z V Z Z Z V + · +
Thus we obt ain wit h all sur ge impedances in kilohms.
1725 = )] 1 . 1 )( 275 . 0 /[( 2400 4 . 4
c c c
Z Z Z + + ×
giving
2
c
Z – 4.74674 Z
c
+ 0.3025 = 0.
This yields t he mor e r easonable value of Z
c
= 64.6 ohms. (The ot her value is 4682 ohms).
Wit h t his cable, t he volt ages at t he t wo ends of t he cable ar e V
c
= 913 kV at t he junct ion of line
and 1725 kV at t he junct ion of t r ansfor mer . Ther efor e, t he impulse volt age level of cable will be
chosen as 1725 kV, t he same as t he t r ansfor mer .
(b) The r eflect ion at zer o-r esist ance gr ound of t he t r ansfor mer winding is t ot al and negat ive.
Ther efor e, t he t r ansfor mer t er minal volt age should dr op suddenly fr om 1725 kV t o zer o, but
because of t he cable t he junct ion volt age falls by (2Z
c
/(Z
c
+ Z
t
)) × (– 1725) = – 191.4 kV. Ther efor e,
t he junct ion volt age is (1725 – 191.4) = 1533.6 kV.
8.10 TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF SYSTEMS WITH SERIES AND SHUNT
LUMPED PARAMETERS AND DISTRIBUTED LINES
Up t o Sect ion 8.8 we consider ed t he equat ions and solut ions of a t r ansmission line only when
ener gized by t he differ ent t ypes of sour ces. In pr act ice, lumped element s ar e connect ed t o
lines. In t his sect ion we will consider t he development of equat ions suit able for solut ion based
on t r ansfor m met hods or finit e differ ence met hods using t he Digit al Comput er . The act ual
pr ocedur e for solut ion is left t o Chapt er 10 wher e some examples will be given.
Fi g. 8.9 Tr ansmission syst em wit h sour ce, ser ies impedance, shunt impedance,
dist r ibut ed-par amet er line, and t er minat ing impedance.
Figur e 8.9 shows a gener al single-line diagr am of a sour ce E(s) ener gizing t he line wit h
dist r ibut ed-par amet er s (r, l, g, c per unit lengt h). Ther e is an impedance Z
s
in bet ween t he
sour ce and line which nor mally is composed of t he t r ansient r eact ance x' of t he synchr onous
machine and any r esist ance t hat can be included in t he cir cuit br eaker dur ing t he swit ching
oper a t ion. A shunt impeda nce Z
sh
is a lso in t he cir cuit which ca n r epr esent t he shunt -
compensa t ing r ea ct or . The line is t er mina t ed wit h a n impeda nce Z
t
wh ich con sist s of a
t r a nsfor mer , shunt r ea ct or , or a n ent ir e subst a t ion. For t he pr esent , only single-pha se
r epr esent at ion is used which we can ext end t o a complet e 3-phase syst em as will be done in
Chapt er 10.
Let z = r + ls and y = g + cs as befor e ...(8.112)
s
I
s
I
e
I
0
Zt( ) s Zsh Ve
V0 E s ( ) e t ( )
I r, l, g, c
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 231
Then, at any point x fr om t he t er minat ion Z
t
, t he equat ions ar e
x V ∂ ∂ /
= yV x I zI · ∂ ∂ / and ...(8.113)
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
− ·
+ ·


) )( / ( and
solut ions wit h
px px
px px
e B e A z p I
e B e A V
...(8.114)
The boundar y condit ions ar e : (1) at x = L, V = V
e
, t he volt age at t he line ent r ance, and (2)
at x = 0, V(0) = I(0). Z
t
. Using
Z
0
= , / / p z y z ·
we obt ained t he solut ions, equat ions (8.19) and (8.20) for t he volt age and cur r ent at any
point on t he line as follows;
V(x) = e
t
t
V
pL Z Z pL
px Z Z px
.
sinh ) / ( cosh
sinh ) / ( cosh
0
0
+
+
...(8.115)
and I(x) = e
t
t
V
pL Z Z pL
px Z Z px
Z
.
sinh ) / ( cosh
cosh ) / ( sinh
.
1
0
0
0
+
+
...(8.116)
At t he end of t he line, x = 0, t he volt age and cur r ent ar e
V(0) = ] sinh ) / ( /[cosh
0
pL Z Z pL V
t e
+ ...(8.117)
and I(0) = V(0)/Z
t
...(8.118)
At t he ent r ance t o t he line, x = L, t hey a r e
V(L) =
e
t
t
e
V
pL Z Z pL
pL Z Z pL
Z
L I V .
sinh ) / ( cosh
cosh ) / ( sinh
.
1
) ( and
0
0
0
+
+
· ...(8.119)
Ther efor e, if t he volt age V
e
is found in t er ms of t he known excit at ion volt age of sour ce
(st ep, double exponent ial, or sinusoidal) t hen all quant it ies in equat ions (8.115) t o (8.119) ar e
det er mined in oper at ional for m. By using t he Four ier Tr ansfor m met hod, t he t ime var iat ion
can be r ealized.
Refer r ing t o Fig. 8.9, t he following equat ions can be wr it t en down:
I
sh
=
s s e sh s sh e
I Z s E V L I I I Z V − · + · ) ( ), ( , / ...(8.120)
∴ V
e
= E(s) – Z
s
(I
sh
+ I(L))
=
e
t
t s
e
sh
s
V
pL Z Z pL
pL Z Z pL
Z
Z
V
Z
Z
s E
sinh ) / ( cosh
cosh ) / ( sinh
) (
0
0
0
+
+
− − ...(8.121)
Solving for V
e
, t he volt age at t he line ent r ance, we obt ain
V
e
=
pL Z Z pL
pL Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z pL Z Z Z Z
s E
t
s t sh s t t s sh s
sinh ) / ( cosh
sinh ) / / / ( cosh ) / / 1 (
) (
0
0 0 0
+
+ + + + +
...(8.122)
When Z
s
= 0 and Z
sh
= ∞ , t he ent r ance volt age equals t he sour ce volt age E(s).
232 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
8.11 PRINCIPLES OF TRAVELLING-WAVE PROTECTION OF E.H.V. LINES
In keeping wit h t he pr ogr ess achieved in all fields wit h t he use of t he Digit al Comput er , t he
Micr opr ocessor , fibr e-opt ical links, and high-speed communicat ion, and advances made in cir cuit
br eaker s which could oper at e in one cycle inst ead of t wo and half cycles in e.h.v. syst em pr ot ect ion
dur ing single-pole and t hr ee-pole clear ing, r elaying speeds have also been incr eased in or der t o
make t he br eaker s oper at e ver y quickly in or der t o pr eser ve or impr ove syst em st abilit y. One
such scheme t hat has been developed since 1978 is t he r elaying and pr ot ect ion of EHV/UHV
lines based on t he pr inciple of t r avelling waves which ar e gener at ed by t he fault it self and
which t r avel t o t he r elaying point s at t he speed of e.m. wave pr opagat ion. Ther e ar e sever al
ingenuous schemes which ut ilize t hese waves and t he r eader is r efer r ed t o t he vast amount of
t echnical paper s for t he det ails of soft war e and har dwar e. (See r efer ences 98–110 under IEEE
and 51–53 under "Ot her J our nals" for impor t ant ideas). We shall only set for t h t he pr inciples of
t r avelling waves, especially t he wave solut ions of D'Alember t and t hose of Ber ger on.
Figur e 8.10 shows a sour ce connect ed t o a dist r ibut ed-par amet er line wit h induct ance l
per unit lengt h and capacit ance c per unit lengt h. We neglect any line r esist ance and shunt
conduct ance for t he pr esent . Taking x = 0 at t he sour ce, at any dist ance x and t ime t , t he
following equat ions can be wr it t en down:

,
_

¸
¸


+ − dx
x
v
v v .
=
t
v
c dx
x
i
i i
t
dx l
i


·
,
_

¸
¸


+ −


. . and . . ...(8.123)
giving
x
v



=
t
v
c
x
i
t
i
l


·





. and , .
...(8.124)
Fr om t hese t wo equat ions, by defining g =
l c / 1
, we obt ain t he wave equat ion for volt age
t o be
2
2
2
x
v
g


=
2
2
t
v


...(8.125)
F i g. 8.10 Dist r ibut ed-par amet er line for der ivat ion of gover ning
equat ions for volt age and cur r ent .
The solut ion t o t his equat ions as given by D'Alember t is
v(x, t ) = ) ( ) (
2 1
gt x F gt x F + + − ...(8.126)
The r eader can ver ify t hat t his solut ion sat isfies equat ion (8.125).
Similar ly, i(x, t ) = ) ( ) (
2 1
gt x G gt x G + + − ...(8.127)
i
dx
l. dx
V + dx
∂v
x ∂
V
V
i
i + dx
∂v
x ∂
c.dx
x
E
s
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 233
In equat ions (8.126) and (8.127), t he funct ions F
1
t o G
2
ar e quit e ar bit r ar y whose values
can be det er mined fr om given boundar y and init ial condit ions. The funct ions F
1
(x – gt ) and
G
1
(x – gt ) r epr esent waves t r avelling in t he for war d dir ect ion fr om t he sour ce, since for any
given const ant values of t hese funct ions, as t ime is incr eased, t hat const ant value will be found
at a far t her dist ance, i.e., t he wave is t r avelling away fr om t he sour ce. On t he ot her hand, t he
funct ions F
2
(x + gt ) and G
2
(x + gt ) ar e t r avelling t owar ds t he sour ce or in t he backwar d dir ect ion.
The velocit ies in t he t wo cases ar e (+ g) for t he for war d wave and (– g) for t he backwar d wave.
Rever t ing back t o equat ion (8.124), let t ing
) (
1
gt x F
'
− =
) (
) (
) ( and ) (
) (
1 1 1
gt x G
gt x d
d
gt x G gt x F
gt x d
d
'


· − −

,
we obt ain
) (
1
gt x F
'
− = ) ( . ) ( ) . (
1 0 1
gt x G Z gt x G g l
' '
− · − ...(8.128)
wher e Z
0
=
2 / 1
) / ( c l
= sur ge impedance of line ...(8.129)
∴ It is clear t hat ) (
1
gt x G − = ) ( ) / 1 (
1 0
gt x F Z − ...(8.130)
The r at io of volt age t o cur r ent in t he for war d-t r avelling waves is (+ Z
0
). In a similar
manner , t he r at io of volt age t o cur r ent in t he backwar d-t r avelling waves is (– Z
0
), since
) (
2
gt x F
'
+ = ), ( ) . (
2
gt x G g l
'
+ − fr om equat ion (8.124).
Ther efor e, we can wr it e t he expr essions for t he volt age and cur r ent as

¹
¹
¹
;
¹
+ − − ·
+ − − ·
+ + − ·
) ( ) ( . , or
), ( ) / ( ) ( ) / ( and
) ( ) (
2 1 0
2
2 / 1
1
2 / 1
2 1
gt x F gt x F i Z
gt x F l c gt x F l c i
gt x F gt x F v
...(8.131)
These ar e t he D'Alember t solut ions for t he wave equat ions. Now, in or der t o separ at e t he
for war d and backwar d t r avelling component s, which is ext r emely impor t ant for r elaying and
pr ot ect ion pur poses, we use Ber ger on's t echnique, namely,
and
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
− · +
+ · −
. wave backwar d t he )], , ( . ) , ( [
2
1
) (
, wave for war d t he )], , ( . ) , ( [
2
1
) (
0 2
0 1
t x i Z t x v gt x F
t x i Z t x v gt x F
...(8.132)
When a fault occur s on t he line, as shown in Fig. 8.11, t her e r esult changes in volt age and
cur r ent at t he fault ed point and waves ar e init iat ed which t r avel and ar e super imposed on t he
power -fr equency component s of volt age and cur r ent exist ing pr ior t o occur r ence of fault . For
example, if t he fault is a single-phase-t o-gr ound fault and t he fault impedance is zer o, t he
ent ir e power -fr equency volt age collapses at t his point and a wave wit h a magnit ude equal and
opposit e t o t he power -fr equency volt age at t he inst ant of fault occur r ence t r avels t owar ds t he
t wo ends of line which const it ut e for war d waves fr om t he fault ed point . Thus equat ion (8.132)
for F
1
(x – gt ) will be used which will be sensed at t he r elaying point s as a volt age t hr ough a
pot ent ial t r ansfor mer (eit her induct ive p.t . or a c.v.t .) and a cur r ent t r ansfor mer . The t wo
out put s can be suit ably combined by mult iplying or amplifying t he cur r ent by Z
0
and t he r elay
can be made t o gener at e a pulse t o init iat e t he t r ip-coil mechanism of t he cir cuit br eaker . This
234 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
F i g. 8.11 Line-t o-gr ound fault on a syst em wit h mult iple gener at ion t o
illust r at e init iat ion of t r avelling waves.
is shown schemat ically in Fig. 8.12. The ent ir e phenomenon of occur r ence of fault , sensing t he
t r avelling wave and feeding t he t r ip-coil cur r ent pulse for t he cir cuit br eaker can be made t o be
complet ed wit hin half-cycle, i.e., wit hin 10 ms for 50 Hz and 8.33 ms for 60-Hz syst ems. If t he
br eaker oper at ing mechanism t akes anot her half-cycle, t he fault is t hen clear ed in one cycle.
F i g. 8.12 Fault volt age and cur r ent sensing syst em for t r avelling-wave pr ot ect ion.
R
F
= fault r esist ance. F
1
, G
1
: Fault -init iat ed t r avelling waves of volt age and cur r ent .
(For war d-t r avelling component s).
Cer t ain difficult ies ar ise in t his simple scheme because of t he pr esence of t he gener at ing
st at ion being t he r elaying point while t he shor t -cir cuit cur r ent cont ains a dc offset . These must
be eliminat ed by filt er ing and only t he high-fr equency component s of t he t r avelling wave must
be used. Since t his r epr esent s a t ype of noise signal, some schemes use cor r elat ion t echniques
and Four ier Tr ansfor ms, incor por at ed in soft war e in a comput er or micr opr ocessor at t he
sensing point . Most differ ences bet ween differ ent pr ot ect ion schemes ar e based on dir ect ional
sensing of t he fault in or der t o ascer t ain t hat t he r elay oper at es only for fault s in t he pr ot ect ed
zone and not for a fault beyond it s zone. For det ails of design and oper at ion of pr ot ect ive
schemes based on t r avelling waves, see t he excellent paper s list ed in bibliogr aphy.
Re vi e w Qu e s t i on s a n d Pr oble ms
1. A t r ansmission line is 300 km long and open at t he far end. The at t enuat ion of sur ge
is 0.9 over one lengt h of t r avel at light velocit y. It is ener gized by (a) a st ep of 1000
kV, and (b) a sine wave of 325 kV peak when t he wave is passing t hr ough it s peak.
Calculat e and plot t he open-end volt age up t o 20 ms.
2. For t he st ep input in pr oblem 1, dr aw t he Bewley Lat t ice Diagr am. Calculat e t he
final value of open-end volt age.
x
g1
x
g2
Gen-1 Gen-2
G
F
x
g1 x
g2
Gen.1 Gen.2
P.T. P.T.
G x – gt
1
( )
F x – gt ( )
1
RF
C.T.
Theory of Travelling Waves and Standing Waves 235
3. A t r ansmission line has l = 1 mH/km and c = 11.11 nF/km. The conduct or plus gr ound
r esist a nce a mount s t o 0.4 ohm/km. Ta king only a single-pha se r epr esent a t ion,
calculat e (a) t he velocit y of pr opagat ion, (b) t he sur ge impedance, (c) t he at t enuat ion
fact or for 400 km in Neper s and dB, (d) t he maximum value of open-end volt age.
4. The above line is t er minat ed in a load of 500 ohms r esist ance. Calculat e t he r eflect ion
and r efr act ion fact or s at t he load.
5. Der ive equat ions (8.19) t hr ough (8.23).
6. Ver ify t hat (8.67) is a solut ion (8.66).
7. A t r ansfor mer whose winding has a sur ge impedance of 1000 ohms is t o be connect ed
t o an over head line wit h Z
0
= 400 ohms. The light ning sur ge has a peak value of 1500
kV coming in t he line while t he t r ansfor mer volt age is t o be limit ed t o 800 kV, peak.
Suggest an alt er nat ive t o a light ning ar r est er by using a cable t o connect t he line t o
t he t r ansfor mer . Det er mine it s sur ge impedance and volt age r at ing.
9.1 LIGHTNING STROKES TO LINES
Light ning is a major sour ce of danger and damage t o e.h.v. t r ansmission lines, r esult ing in loss
of t r ansmission up t o a few hour s t o complet e dest r uct ion of a line. This ent ails a lot of expense
t o power ut ilit ies and consumer s. Light ning-pr ot ect ion met hods ar e based on sound scient ific
and engineer ing pr inciples and pr act ice; however , ext ensive damages do occur in power syst ems
in spit e of t his. Thus, no t r ansmission line design can be consider ed light ning-pr oof, nor do
designer s aim for t his goal. Line out ages, or a line being t aken out of ser vice for a shor t t ime,
and line designs against t hese ar e based on st at ist ical pr ocedur es. An accept able design is t o
allow a cer t ain number N
t
out ages per year per 100 km of line, or ot her t ime dur at ions and
ot her line lengt hs. The possibilit y of an out age depends on so many fact or s which ar e st at ist ical
in nat ur e t hat a wor st case design is neit her pr act ical nor economical.
It is evident t hat t he number of st r okes cont act ing a t ower or gr ound wir e along t he span
can only depend on t he number of t hunder st or m days in a year called t he 'ker aunic level' or
also called 'isoker aunic level', and denot ed by I
kl
. On t he basis of a vast amount of exper ience
fr om all over t he wor ld, it is est imat ed t hat t he number of light ning st r okes occur r ing over 1
sq. km. per year at any locat ion is fair ly well given by
n
s
= st r okes t o ear t h/km
2
– year = (0.15 t o 0.2)I
kl
...(9.1)
The act ual fact or must t her efor e be det er mined fr om obser vat ional dat a in any given
r egion. Also, fr om exper ience, t he ar ea int er cept ed by a line wit h it s met allic st r uct ur es is
t aken t o be pr opor t ional t o
(a) (height of t ower , h
t
+ 2 × height of gr ound wir e at mid span, h
g
) and
(b) t he dist ance s
g
bet ween gr ound wir es if t her e is mor e t han 1 gr ound wir e on t he
t ower . Combining a ll t hese fa ct or s, it is est ima t ed t ha t t he number of st r okes
int er cept ed by 100 km of line per year is given by
N
s
= (0.15 t o 0.2) I
kl
{0.0133 (h
t
+ 2 h
g
) + 0.1 s
g
} ...(9.2)
wit h h
g
, h
g
and s
g
in met r es.
Exa mp le 9.1. A r egion has 100 t hunder st or m days in a year . A line wit h a single gr ound
wir e has t ower height h
t
= 30m wit h gr ound line height at midspan h
g
= 24m. Calculat e t he
pr obable number of st r okes cont act ing 100 km of line per year anywher e on t he line.
Sol u t i on . s
g
= 0 for 1 gr ound wir e.
Ther efor e N
s
= (0.15 t o 0.2) × 100 × 0.0133 (30 + 48)
= 15.6 t o 20.8
9
Li gh t n i n g a n d Li gh t n i n g Prot ect i on
Lightning and Lightning Protection 237
Exa mp le 9.2. If t he above line is pr ot ect ed by 2 gr ound wir es wit h s
g
= 12m, and ot her
dimensions r emain same, calculat e N
s
.
Sol u t i on . N
s
= (0.15 t o 0.2) 100 {0.0133 × 78 + 1.2} = 33.6 t o 44.8.
We obser ve t hat pr oviding 2 gr ound wir es has near ly doubled t he number of st r okes
cont act ing t he line. A lar ger ar ea of t he line is t aking par t in at t r act ing st r okes t o t he line
har dwar e which ot her wise would have cont act ed gr ound. However , t he bet t er shielding pr ovided
by 2 gr ound wir es will gener ally keep t he r isk of line out age lower t han wit h only 1 gr ound wir e
by r educing t he possibilit y of a line conduct or being hit by light ning. It is t he job of t he line
designer t o see t hat pr oper shielding pr ocedur e is adopt ed such t hat all st r okes cont act t he
t ower and gr ound wir e, and none t o t he line conduct or s. This is based on pr obabilist ic aspect s.
For lines wit h longer spans, t he number of st r okes cont act ing t he gr ound wir es bet ween
t ower s is higher t han a line wit h shor t er spans. Since e.h.v. lines have higher t ower height s,
higher gr ound wir e height s at midspan, lar ger separ at ion bet ween gr ound wir es and in addit ion
longer spans t han lower volt age lines, t he mechanism of an over volt age being developed when
gr ound wir es ar e hit assumes mor e pr ominence. It is t her efor e essent ial t o have a knowledge
of t he number of st r okes out of N
s
which will cont act t he t ower and t he r est t o t he gr ound
wir es. This is necessar y because at t he t ower , t he light ning st r oke is gr ounded immediat ely
t hr ough a low r esist ance and t he insulat or volt age is consequent ly lower as compar ed t o a
st r oke hit t ing t he gr ound wir e away fr om t he t ower . This makes t he insulat or volt age r ise
near ly t o (st r oke cur r ent × gr ound wir e sur ge impedance).
Befor e we t ake up a discussion of t he pr oblem of design r equir ement s of line insulat ion
based upon light ning volt age and cur r ent , we shall br iefly examine t he mechanism of a light ning
st r oke when it r eaches t he vicinit y of t he t r ansmission line wit h it s met allic t ower s, gr ound
wir es, and phase conduct or s.
9.2 LIGHTNING-STROKE MECHANISM
As t r ansmission volt ages incr eased in 1950 aft er t he second wor ld war t o 345 kV and higher ,
t ower height and bulk incr eased which was r eflect ed in mor e flashover s t han wer e exper ienced
by t he ear lier 132 kV and 230 kV lines. The old out age for mulas developed for t hese lower
volt age lines wer e found t o yield lower out ages t han exper ience indicat ed. This necessit at ed a
cr it ical examinat ion of t he light ning mechanism as it per t ains t o condit ions when cont act ing
t he line. In addit ion t o t he t ower height , t he widt h and br eadt h also incr eased because of wider
phase spacing and incr eased weight of har dwar e t he t ower had t o suppor t as well as t he t ension.
Back flashover mechanism became impor t ant in which t he t ower t op pot ent ial at t he locat ion
of out er phases incr eased t o such a high value as t o cause an insulat or flashover due t o high
pr edischar ge cur r ent s induced by high fields at t he point ed t ip of t he cr oss-ar m. Due t o t r avelling-
wave effect s inside t he long fr amewor k of t he t ower it self, t he t ower -t op pot ent ial is high and it
t akes t ime for all r eflect ions t o die down sufficient ly t o consider t he t ower as acquir ing gr ound
pot ent ial even t hough it is gr ounded well at t he t ower foot ing.
Pr ior t o t hese ver y ser ious obser vat ions, all descr ipt ion of light ning mechanism began
and ended wit h under st anding t he for mat ion of cloud-char ge cent r es, t he physics of pr opagat ion
of leader s and st r eamer s fr om t he cloud down t o ear t h and t he r et ur n st r oke. This is of limit ed
use for e.h.v. line designs alt hough t he physics of t hese mechanisms might find t heir own
academic or ot her uses. But t he advent of t all t ower s changed t his emphasis and we will
commence t he discussion wit h t he mor e impor t ant phenomenon of pr e-dischar ge cur r ent s
caused by t he gr ound plane being elevat ed t o t he met allic par t s of t he t r ansmission line at t he
238 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
t ower s, and at t he same t ime t he infinit ely flat gr ound sur face being r eplaced by met allic par t s
of smaller cur vat ur es yielding ver y high st r ess concent r at ions which t he light ning st r oke looks
fr om a bove.
Fi g. 9.1 Mechanism of light ning st r oke t o t ower .
(a) Cha nnel a nd cor ona descending fr om cloud.
(b) Pr e-discha r ge cur r ent fr om t ower meet ing t he cor e.
(c) Ret ur n st r oke.
(d) Build-up of insulat or volt age.
It is now accept ed t hat t her e ar e pr e-dischar ge cur r ent s t hr ough t he t ower flowing fr om
gr ound which ar e due t o t he flow of char ges of opposit e polar it y t o t hat coming down in t he
light ning st r oke t o cont act a t ower or a gr ound wir e. The exper iment al wor k has t aken a ver y
long t ime commencing wit h Schonland, Komelkov, Br uce, Golde, McEachr on, Gr iscom, and
finally by Wagner and Hileman in r ecent year s. The downwar d pr opagat ing st r oke usually has
a channel of about 1 t o 3 mm diamet er , but is accompanied by a ver y lar ge cor ona sheat h which
can be consider ed cylindr ical up t o t he channel t ip and hemispher ical ahead of it , as depict ed in
Fig. 9.1 (a). The leader fr om t he cloud appr oaches in st eps and as it near s t he ear t h t he st eps
become shor t er in lengt h and t he velocit y incr eases t o about 300 km/sec (1/1000-t h of light
velocit y). The act ual values var y over wide limit s, but t his is cr ucial for t he st r oke cur r ent . All
pr obabilist ic aspect s of st r oke cur r ent magnit udes depend on t he vagar ies of t his velocit y. The
pot ent ial of t he channel at t he commencement of t he pr e-dischar ge cur r ent is of t he or der of 50
MV wit h r espect t o ear t h. At t he high elect r ic fields pr esent , a cor ona dischar ge develops at t he
t ip of t he t ower and t his also pr opagat es upwar ds t o meet t he down-coming leader and it s
cor ona envelope, Fig. 9.1 (b). They meet at height s r anging fr om 60 t o 100 met r es above ear t h.
The aver age pot ent ial gr adient in t he cor ona sheat h is 50 × 10
3
/(60 t o 100) = 833 t o 500 kV/m =
8.33 t o 5 kV/cm or an aver age of 6 kV/cm which is necessar y for br eakdown of moist air .
The char ge along t he st r oke has been est imat ed as about 5µC/cm t o give t his volt age
gr adient , and t he velocit y of t he upwar d channel at t he inst ant and aft er cont act wit h t he
downwar d leader is of t he or der of 10% light velocit y. The for mat ion of fr ont t ime of t he cur r ent
wave-for m and t he cr est value depend on t hese fact or s. The st r oke cur r ent is t hen i = qv = 5 ×
10
–6
× 0.1 × 3 × 10
10
= 15,000 Amper es. If t he velocit y is higher , say 30% light velocit y, t he
cur r ent incr eases t o 45,000 Amper es. The fr ont t ime of t he st r oke is about (60 t o 100 m)/3 × 10
7
= 2 t o 3.333 µs, at 10% light velocit y. It is now clear how t he st at ist ical var iat ions obser ved in
light ning-st r oke cur r ent s and t heir wavefr ont s can be explained since t hey depend ent ir ely on
t he char ge cont ent , velocit y, et c.
Z
m
Z
g
e
g
e
i
i
c
e
c
i
c
Z
c
i
g
i
g
Tower Return
Stroke
( ) a ( ) b ( ) d ( ) c
Channel
Core
Pre-
Discharge
Current
Lightning and Lightning Protection 239
When a st r oke cont act s a t ower , t he volt age st r ess exper ienced by t he insulat or is found
as follows: If Z
c
and Z
g
, Figur e 9.1(d), ar e t he sur ge impedances of t he line conduct or and
gr ound wir e, and Z
m
t he mut ual impedance bet ween t hem, t hen t he gr ound wir e and line-
conduct or pot ent ials ar e
e
g
=
c c g m c c m g g
i Z i Z e i Z i Z + · + and ...(9.3)
wher e i
g
and i
c
ar e cur r ent s flowing fr om each side in t he t wo conduct or s. The conduct or
volt age is t hen
e
c
=
c m f c g f c g m c g g m
i Z K Z e K i Z Z Z e Z Z ) ( . ) / ( ) / (
2
− + · − +
=
c c c m f g f
i Z Z Z K e K ) / 1 ( . − + ...(9.4)
wher e K
f
= coupling fact or bet ween gr ound wir e and conduct or for a volt age applied t o t he
gr ound wir e.
If t he sur ge impedances ar e equal, Z
g
= Z
c
, t hen
e
c
=
c c f g f
i Z K e K ) 1 (
2
− +
The volt age acr oss t he insulat or st r ing is
e
i
=
c c c m f g f c g
i Z Z Z K e K e e ) / . 1 ( ) 1 ( − − − · − ...(9.5)
The second t er m is caused by t he pr esence of pr e-dischar ge cur r ent cont r ibut ed by t he
line conduct or , and if t his can be ar t ificially incr eased, t he insulat or volt age is lower ed. We
obser ve t hat i
c
= 0.5 i
pd
, wher e i
pd
= t he pr e-dischar ge cur r ent flowing in t he conduct or . The
second t er m gives an effect ive impedance of
Z
e
= ) / 1 (
2
1
c m f c
Z Z K Z − ...(9.6)
The r educt ion in insulat or volt age in some designs by pr oviding long pipes along t he
conduct or up t o 4 met r es on each side has been est imat ed t o lower t he insulat or volt age by
15%, and t he pr e-dischar ge cur r ent measur ed fr om labor at or y exper iment s is about 1000
Amper es.
S troke Contacting Midspan , Fig. 9.2 (a).
In t his case,
e
g
=
c c g m c c m g g
i Z i Z e i Z i Z + · + and , ...(9.7)
Also,
c g
i i + = ,
2
1
s
I wher e I
s
= st r oke cur r ent ...(9.8)
∴ I
s
= ) /( ) 2 ( 2 ) /( ) ( 2
m g c m g c m g c g
Z Z i Z Z Z Z Z e e − − + + − − ...(9.9)
Exa mp le 9.3. Taking an insulat or volt age of 8000 kV, sur ge impedances Z
g
= 500, Z
c
=
300, and Z
m
= 150 ohms, and t he pr e-dischar ge cur r ent i
c
= 15000 Amper es, calculat e t he st r oke
cur r ent .
Sol u t i on . I
s
= 2 × 8 × 10
6
/350 + 2 × 15000× 500/350
= 46,000 + 21,400 = 67,400 Amper es
We obser ve t hat t he pr e-dischar ge cur r ent has been r esponsible for cont r ibut ing almost
33% t o t he int ense st r oke cur r ent . Phot ogr aphs t aken in labor at or ies on conduct or -t o-conduct or
gaps and on out door lines have shown t he int ense sheat h of cor ona exist ing bet ween t he
conduct or s inside which st r ea mer s a r e obser ved t o pr opa ga t e giving r ise t o such high
pr edischar ge cur r ent s, as shown in Fig. 9.2 (b).
240 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Fi g. 9.2 St r oke t o midspan, (a) conduct or a nd st r oke configur a t ion
(b) pr e-dischar ge cur r ent and cor ona sheat hs bet ween gr ound wir e and pha se conduct or .
9.3 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE LIGHTNING PROTECTION PROBLEM
This sect ion is a pr eliminar y t o subsequent mat er ial and will discuss t he gener al pr inciples
which affect t he number of t r ipout s per 100 km per year . This will give an idea t o a designer on
t he t ype of infor mat ion t hat is r equir ed t o be gat her ed, and for a r esear ch wor ker on what
t ypes of obser vat ions must be car r ied out in a light ning invest igat ion. Any wor k of t his kind
and t he infor mat ion obt ained is done over a long per iod of t ime, and cont inuously dur ing days
of t hunder st or m act ivit y in any r egion. Much labor at or y invest igat ion can be car r ied out dur ing
t he r emaining por t ion of t he year inside t he labor at or y using impulse gener at or s. These will be
cover ed in Chapt er 13.
Since t he light ning-pr ot ect ion pr oblem is based on st at ist ical pr ocedur es, we shall fir st
out line t he pr ocedur e her e.
I st S t ep. A knowledge of t he number of st r okes cont act ing 100 km of line per year is
essent ial as given by equat ion (9.2). This will depend upon (a) t he isoker aunic level I
kl
which
needs field obser vat ion along t he line r out e, (b) t he t ower height h
t
, gr ound wir e height h
g
at
midspan and t he separ at ion bet ween gr ound wir es, s
g
. Thus, assumpt ions must be made for
(b) for alt er nat e designs. Since a st r oke can cont act anywher e on a line, t he fr act ion t hat might
hit a t ower t op has t o be ascer t ained. For pr eliminar y est imat es, a st r oke cont act ing a gr ound
wir e wit hin
4
1
span fr om t he t ower and t hose t hat hit t he t ower dir ect ly ar e consider ed as
st r okes t o a t ower . Fr om obser vat ions, t his is est imat ed as 0.6 N
s
. The r emaining fr act ion
cont act ing t he middle
2
1
span can be assumed t o cause danger t o t he clear ance bet ween gr ound
wir e and phase conduct or .
IInd S t ep. The st r okes cont act ing a t ower , Fig. 9.3, will see an impedance t o gr ound
gover ned by (a) t he t ower -foot ing r esist ance R
tf
, (b) t he sur ge impedance of t he gr ound wir e, Z
g
,
(c) t he coupling t o line conduct or s, K
f
, a nd (d) t he sur ge impedance Z
s
of t he light ning st r oke
channel it self. This is about 400 ohms.
Let n
g
= number of gr ound wir es. Neglect ing r eflect ions up and down t he t ower which will
not be impor t ant aft er 4 r eflect ions, or about 0.5 µs for a 40-m t ower height , and t he coupling t o
t he phase conduct or , t he t ower -t op pot ent ial is appr oximat ely.
Z
m
Zg
I
s
ig i
g
ic ic
Z
c
( ) a
Ground Wire
Phase Conductor
( ) b
Lightning and Lightning Protection 241
V
t
= ) / 1 / 2 / 1 /(
s g g if s
Z Z n R I + + ...(9.10)
wher e t he denominat or is t he t ot al admit t ance, and I
s
= st r oke cur r ent deliver ed t o a
zer o-impedance gr ound.
Fi g. 9.3 Impedance pr esent ed t o light ning st r oke at t ower .
Exa mp le 9.4. A t ower has a 40-ohm foot ing r esist ance and t wo gr ound wir es each wit h Z
g
= 500 ohms. The light ning st r oke sur ge impedance is Z
s
= 400 ohm. For I
s
= 50 kA, cr est ,
calculat e t he t ower t op pot ent ial (a) consider ing all impedances, (b) neglect ing t he gr ound wir e
and st r oke sur ge impedances, and (c) consider ing only one gr ound wir e and st r oke sur ge
impedance.
Sol u t i on .
(a) Z
e
= 1/(1/R
tf
+ 4/Z
g
+ 1/Z
s
) = 28.2 ohms
Ther efor e t ower t op pot ent ial V
t
= 28.2 × 50 = 1410 kV, cr est .
(b) Z
e
= R
tf
= 40 ohms,∴ V
t
= 2000 kV, cr est
(c) Z
e
= 1/(1/R
tf
+ 2/Z
g
+ 1/Z
s
) = 31.75 ohms
Ther efor e V
t
= 31.75 × 50 = 1587.3 kV, cr est .
IIIrd S tep. A knowledge of t ower -foot ing r esist ance is t her efor e essent ial and met hods for
calculat ion of t his quant it y for var ious t ypes of foot ing ar r angement s such as dr iven r ods,
hor izont ally bur ied wir es called count er poises, et c., will be given in a lat er sect ion.
IVt h S t ep. When t he t ower -t op exper iences t he a bove volt a ge, t he insula t or st r ings
suppor t ing t he conduct or s will exper ience a maximum volt age of
V
i
=
m f t
E K V + − ) 1 ( ...(9.11)
wher e E
m
= cr est value of line-t o-gr ound power -fr equency volt age,
and K
f
= coupling fact or bet ween gr ound wir e(s) and t he phase conduct or .
The coupling fact or can be calculat ed fr om t he capacit ance mat r ix of t he mult i-conduct or
syst em as shown in chapt er 5, even when cor ona is pr esent . The capacit ance mat r ix is calculat ed
fr om Maxwell's Pot ent ial coefficient mat r ix, [c] =
1
0
] [ 2

π P e as shown in chapt er 3. A value for
K
f
= 0.2 t o 0.3 is an aver age. Equat ion (9.11) is based on wor st case and one must evaluat e t he
pr obabilit y t hat at t he inst ant t he st r oke hit s t he t ower t op t he power -fr equency volt age is
passing t hr ough it s peak value but of opposit e sign t o t he polar it y of t he light ning volt age at
t ower t op. The t r ip-out r at e will depend on t his obser ved pr obabilit y, which is again a field
invest igat ion on an ener gized line in t he r egion under consider at ion.
R
tf
Zg Z
g
ng
Zs
I
s
242 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Exa mp le 9.5. A 735-kV line 3 / 2 735 ( = 600 kV, cr est , line-t o-gr ound) has a coupling
fact or bet ween line and gr ound conduct or s K
f
= 0.2. The t ower -foot ing r esist ance is 40 ohms.
Using V
t
= 2000 kV cr est for 50 kA light ning-st r oke cur r ent , find t he volt age exper ienced by t he
insulat or st r ing.
Sol u t i on . V
i
= 2000 (1 – 0.2) + 600 = 1600 + 600 = 2200 kV. We obser ve t hat t he power
fr equency volt age is 600/2200 = 0.2727 or 27.27% of t he insulat or volt age for t his example. If
t he st r oke cur r ent had been 100 kA, t he r educt ion due t o coupling t o t he phase conduct or will
be 800 kV wher eas t he power -fr equency volt age incr eases t he insulat or volt age t o an ext ent of
600 kV, cr est . Thus, t her e always exist count er -balancing effect s in such a game.
Vt h S t ep. When t he volt age V
i
acr oss t he insulat or has been est imat ed, we now enquir e if
t his will exceed t he flashover volt age of t he st r ing. For no flashover , V
i
must equal t he wit hst and
volt age of t he st r ing. Ther efor e, flashover and wit hst and volt ages of insulat or st r ings when
subject ed t o light ning impulses must be available fr om labor at or y st udies under all t ypes of
at mospher ic condit ions. Unt il r eflect ions ar r ive fr om t he low t ower foot ing r esist ances at adjacent
t ower s t o t he t ower hit by light ning, t he insulat or will be subject ed t o t he full light ning volt age.
For span lengt h of 300 met r es, a r eflect ion ar r ives aft er 2 µs. Thus, it is essent ial t o have t he
2-µs flashover dat a.
For st andar d 0 1
4
3
5 ′ ′ × " (14.6 cm × 25.4 cm) discs t he aver age 2 µs 50% flashover values
ar e 125 kV per disc under dr y condit ions and 80 kV under r ain. It is evident t hat t he light ning
volt age must be kept below t he impulse wit hst and volt age by a suit able mar gin, usually 10%.
VIth S tep. The volt age exper ienced by t he insulat or is a funct ion of t he cr est value of
light ning-st r oke cur r ent feeding int o a zer o-r esist ance gr ound. Ther efor e, t he pr obabilit y t hat
t his cr est value of cur r ent will be achieved in t he r egion wher e t he t r ansmission line will r un
must be known in or der t o calculat e t he number of t r ip-out s. This is a ver y ext ensive invest igat ion
and some examples of st r oke cur r ent s and t heir st at ist ical occur r ence will be discussed in a
lat er sect ion. Fr om a lar ge amount of dat a available in published lit er at ur e, t he aut hor has
found t hat t he following expr ession is valid for cr est cur r ent s fr om 25 t o 70 kA wit h I
c
in
kiloamper es;
p
i
= 1.175 – 0.015 I
c
...(9.12)
wher e p
i
= pr obabilit y (fr act ion) of st r okes having a cur r ent of cr est value I
c
kiloamper es.
This will also depend upon t he isoker aunik level I
kl
, so t hat a designer and r esear ch wor ker
must obt ain all t he dat a for t heir r egion.
VIIt h S t ep. We can now calculat e t he number of t imes in a year per 100 km of line which
will give a volt age in excess of t he flashover volt age of t he insulat or . This is
N
t
= p
i
.p
t
.N
S
...(9.13)
wher e p
i
= pr obabilit y t hat t he cr est value of light ning st r oke cur r ent yielding t he flashover
volt age of insulat or will be found,
p
t
= t he fr act ion of st r okes N
S
which will cont act t he t ower .
N
S
= number of st r okes cont act ing t he line per year per 100 km lengt h,
and N
t
= pr obable number of t r ipout s for t hose st r okes cont act ing t he t ower .
To t his must be added t he number of st r okes among N
S
t hat cause midspan flashover .
Lightning and Lightning Protection 243
Exa mp le 9.6. A 400-kV hor izont al line has 22 discs in t he insulat or and t wo gr ound wir es
spaced 15 met r es apar t at 20 m height at mid-span and 26 m at t he t ower . The t ower -foot ing
r esist ance is 40 ohms. The sur ge impedances ar e: Gr ound wir e: 500 ohms, st r oke: 400 ohms.
Assume 60% of st r okes t o cont act wit hin
4
1
span of line fr om t he t ower and at t he t ower t op.
The coupling fact or bet ween gr ound and phase conduct or is 0.2 and t he fact or in N
S
is 0.2. The
isoker aunik level is 60 t hunder st or m days per year . Calculat e t he number of t r ipout s per year
per 100 km of line. See Fig. 9.3.
Sol u t i on .
(1) Fr om equat ion (9.2),
N
S
= 0.2 × 60 {0.0133 (26 + 2 × 20) + 0.1 × 15}
= 29.6 st r okes/100 km-year .
(2) Fr om equat ion (9.10),
V
t
= I
s
/(1/R
tf
+ 4/Z
g
+ 1/Z
s
) = 28.2 I
s
, kV, wit h t he st r oke cur r ent I
s
in kA.
(3) Fr om equat ion (9.11),
V
i
= (1 – 0.2) V
t
+ 400
3 / 2
= 22.56 I
s
+ 326, kV, cr est
(4) Flashover volt age of 22 discs = 22 × 125 = 2750 kV in fair weat her . In r ain, flashover
volt age = 1760 kV.
(5) Ther efor e 2750 = 22.56 I
s
+ 326, which gives t he st r oke cur r ent t o be
I
s
= (2750 – 326)/22.56 = 107.4 kA.
In r ainy weat her , I
s
= (1760 – 326)/22.56 = 63.6 kA.
(6) The pr obabilit y of r eaching t hese cr est cur r ent s ar e:
In rain : p
i
= 1.175 – 0.015 × 63.6 = 0.221.
In fair weather: The value of 107.4 kA is beyond t he r ange of equat ion (9.12). But
fr om Fig. 9.5, it is p
i
= 0.04.
(7) Using values under r ainy condit ions, t he number of pr obable t r ipout s is, fr om equat ion
(9.13),
N
t
= 0.22 × 0.6 × 29.6 = 3.925 per 100 km/year
Using dr y-weat her values,
N
t
= 0.04 × 0.6 × 29.6 = 0.7 per 100 km/year
We shall now discuss all t he fact or s involved in t he est imat ion of t r ipout s in some det ail in
t he following sect ions.
9.4 TOWER-FOOTING RESISTANCE
The t ower -foot ing r esist ance R
tf
will depend on (a) t he t ype of elect r ode configur at ion employed,
and (b) t he soil r esist ivit y. The most common t ypes of elect r ode shapes ar e (1) t he hemispher e,
(2) long slender r ods of about 2 t o 5 cm diamet er and 10 t o 15 met r es in lengt h dr iven ver t ically
down int o t he soil and connect ed t o t ower legs, and (3) bur ied hor izont al wir es called t he
'count er poise' of 50 t o 150 met r es in lengt h in soil wher e ver t ical r ods cannot be dr iven. In all
cases, sufficient ar ea must be exposed bet ween t he elect r ode and soil in or der for t he cur r ent t o
spr ead over a lar ge ar ea.
244 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Soil r esist ivit ies,
s
ρ , have t he following r anges:
S ea Wat er Moist S oil Loose S oil and Clay Rock
10
0
10
1
10
2
> 10
3
ohm-met r e
The elect r ode shapes and t heir dimensions ar e shown in Fig. 9.4 and t he for mulae for
r esist ances of var ious t ypes of elect r odes ar e given in t he following t able.
Electrode S hape Resistance
(1) Hemispher e, R R
s
π ρ 2 /
(2) Ver t ical dr iven r od

,
_

¸
¸

π
ρ
π
ρ
1
4
ln
2
, or ), / 2 ln(
2 a
l
l
a l
l
s s
(r adius a, lengt h 2l) (Rudenber g) =
) Dwight ( ) / 472 . 1 ln(
2
a l
l
s
π
ρ
.
(3) Hor izont al wir e. 1
]
1

¸

+
π
ρ
) / 2 ln(
) / ln(
1 ). / 2 ln(
2 a l
y l
a l
l
s
(r adius a, lengt h 2l, dept h y) ) / 2 ln( ) 2 / (
2
ay l l
s
π ρ ·
Fi g. 9.4 Tower -foot ing elect r odes. Hemispher e, dr iven r od a nd bur ied count er poise.
Exa mp le 9.7. It is necessar y t o obt ain a t ower -foot ing r esist ance of 20 ohms in a soil of
r esist ivit y
s
ρ = 100 ohm-m using t he t hr ee differ ent t ypes of elect r odes shown above. Take a =
1.25 cm for r ods and count er poises and a dept h y = 0.5 m for t he count er poise. Calculat e t he
r equir ed dimensions.
Sol u t i on .
(1) Hemisphere. R = met r e 8 . 0 20 2 / 100 2 / · × π · π ρ
tf s
R
(2) Vert ical Driven Rod. The equat ion t o be solved for l is
ln (2l/0.0125) = 2πl × 20/100 = 0.4πl.
Tr ial and er r or gives l = 5.4 met r es.
(3) Horizont al Count erpoise. The equat ion is
ln (2l
2
/0.0125 × 0.5) = ln (320l
2
) = 0.4πl.
This gives l = 8 met r es.
In t he case of dr iven r ods and count er poises, t he r esist ance is dist r ibut ed along t heir
lengt hs and t he cur r ent ent er ing t hem will exhibit t r avelling-wave effect wit h t he r esult t hat
R
ρ
s
Hemisphere
ρ
s
2a
Vertical Driven Rod
2l
ρ
s
2l
y
2a
Horizontal
Buried Wire
Counterpoise
Lightning and Lightning Protection 245
init ially t he sur ge cur r ent will see t he sur ge impedance but aft er a few r eflect ions t he r esist ance
assumes t he values given above. Usually 4 r eflect ions ar e sufficient t o change t he r esist ance
fr om t he sur ge impedance t o t he st eady value.
9.5 INSULATOR FLASHOVER AND WITHSTAND VOLTAGES
Under posit ive polar it y light ning impulses, a st andar d " " 10
4
3
5 × disc (14.6 cm × 25.4 cm) shows
a highly linear char act er ist ic bet ween spar k-over volt age and number of discs. In fair or dr y
weat her condit ions, t hey can be expr essed by t he following values:
Time t o Breakdown, µs 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 8.0
kV/ disc, crest 188 150 125 110 105 97.5 92.5
1.20/50 µs wave, kV/ disc = 87.5 kV cr est
Power Frequency. In fair weat her t he flashover volt age is 75 kV/disc, cr est value, or 53
kV/disc, r .m.s. value. A st andar d disc has leakage dist ance of 31.8 cm (12.5 inches) over it s
sur face. The usual cr eepage st r engt h used is 1 kV/cm of leakage dist ance, r .m.s. value.
S trings in Parallel. When light ning hit s a line, many insulat or s ar e st r essed in par allel. It
has been found in pr act ice fr om out door exper iment s t hat under light ning-t ype of volt age wit h
ext r emely small wave-fr ont (1 – 2µs), t his point is not impor t ant as it definit ely is under longer
sur ges such as t he swit ching sur ge. Ther efor e, single-st r ing values for volt age can be used for
flashover and wit hst and st r engt h.
Conduct or-conduct or Flashover. Under posit ive light ning wave t he following empir ical
r elat ion based upon exper iment al wor k can be t aken:
Flashover volt age V
cc
= 590 kV/met r e, cr est
9.6 PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE OF LIGHTNING STROKE
CURRENTS
The pr obabilit y or t he fr act ion of st r okes r eaching t he gr ound whose magnit ude is above a given
ant icipat ed value must be ascer t ained for t he r egion in which t he line will be r un. Such exper iment s
use 'magnet ic links' connect ed near t ower t ops and conduct or s whose magnet izat ion int ensit y
will depend upon t he cr est value of cur r ent . A t ypical pr obabilit y cur ve is pr esent ed in Fig. 9.5.
Fi g. 9.5 Pr obabilit y of occur r ence of st r oke-cur r ent magnit udes.
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 kA
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Peak Impulse Current
Probability
246 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
9.7 LIGHTNING ARRESTERS AND PROTECTIVE CHARACTERISTICS
Light ning ar r est er s, also called 'sur ge absor ber s' because t hey ar e also meant for swit ching-
sur ge pr ot ect ion, pr ot ect pr imar ily major equipment such as t r ansfor mer s, r ot at ing machines,
shunt r eact or s, and even ent ir e subst at ions. Less expensive pr ot ect ive devices such as r od gaps
can be used for pr ot ect ion of t r ansfor mer and cir cuit -br eaker bushings and open cont act s.
When subst at ions have t o be pr ot ect ed, t hey ar e locat ed at t he ent r ance of t he incoming and
out going lines. Moder n sur ge absor ber s for e.h.v. levels ar e designed t o offer pr ot ect ion t o
equipment and lines for bot h light ning over volt ages and cur r ent s as well as swit ching sur ge
over -volt ages wher e t he ener gy involved is much higher . Their char act er ist ics will be descr ibed
lat er . Ar r est er s ar e of t hr ee impor t ant t ypes and classified accor ding t o t heir int er nal st r uct ur e.
They ar e
(1) Gap t ype ar r est er wit hout cur r ent -limit ing funct ions;
(2) Gap t ype ar r est er wit h cur r ent -limit ing capabilit y; and
(3) Gapless met al oxide var ist or s.
The fir st is commonly known by t r ade names such as Thyr it e, Magnavalve, Aut ovalve,
Miur it e, et c., each one being associat ed wit h it s manufact ur er . The non-linear r esist ance mat er ial
is usually sint er ed Silicon-Car bide (SiC) and is designed t o dissipat e t he ener gy in shor t dur at ion
light ning-st r oke cur r ent and t he cur r ent at power fr equency t hat will follow t his cur r ent when
t he ser ies gap conduct s. The cur r ent is finally int er r upt ed at a power -fr equency zer o. The
second, or t he cur r ent -limit ing gap t ype, is of Nor t h-Amer ican and Eur opean design in which a
magnet ic act ion on t he ar c bet ween t he gap cr eat es a lengt hening of t he ar c wit h consequent
lar ge r esist ance capable of limit ing t he cur r ent . In such a design, t he power -fr equency cur r ent
can be ext inguished pr ior t o r eaching a cur r ent zer o. Such an ar r est er can per for m swit ching-
sur ge dut y also. The non-linear r esist ance is st ill SiC. The last one, t he gapless MOV, is of
r ecent or igin, having been pat ent ed only in 1968 by a J apanese fir m for low-volt age low-cur r ent
elect r onic cir cuit ar y but now is sufficient ly well developed t o handle e.h.v. r equir ement s.
Prot ect ive Rat io. The most impor t ant pr oper t y of a sur ge absor ber is t he 'pr ot ect ive r at io'
which is defined as
N
p
=
value R.M.S. Volt age, fr equency - Power Ar r est er Rat ed
Equipment Pr ot ect ed of Level Insulat ion Impulse Peak
Typical examples of light ning ar r est er pr ot ect ive r at ios ar e given in Table 9.1.
The select ion of an ar r est er wit h a specified volt age r at ing is gover ned by t he value of
'ear t hing coefficient ' or t he 'ear t h-fault fact or '. These ar e defined as follows and ar e based on a
single line t o gr ound fault condit on.
EC =
locat ion ar r est er at volt age line - t o - Line
locat ion ar r est er at volt age phase healt hy of Value RMS
...(9.14)
The ear t h-fault fact or , EFF = EC × 3 ...(9.15)
and uses t he line-t o-gr ound volt age in t he denominat or of equat ion (9.14). The Indian st andar ds
and t he I.E.C. use t he EFF but ar r est er s ar e st ill known by t he ear t hing coefficient value.
Thus, on a 400-kV line wit h a maximum oper at ing volt age of 420 kV, an 80% ar r est er has a
r at ing of 336 kV, r .m.s. wit h EC = 0.8 and EFF = 3 8 . 0 .
248 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Under a single line t o gr ound fault , t he volt age of t he fault ed phase is zer o at t he fault
while t he volt ages of t he r emaining t wo healt hy phases will r ise above nor mal wor king volt age.
The light ning ar r est er must wit hst and t his higher volt age wit hout spar kover of t he ser ies gap
nor conduct cur r ent in a gapless ar r est er . The calculat ion of ear t hing coefficient is discussed in
sect ion 9.8. In Table 9.1, column 5 shows values of EC used in var ious count r ies which have
r anged fr om a low value of 0.72 in t he U.S.A. wit h solidly-ear t hed neut r als of equipment t o a
high of 1.0 in Finland using isolat ed-neut r al syst em (t uned coil).
Discharge Current. The second impor t ant quant it y for t he ar r est er select ion is t he light ning-
t ype impulse cur r ent which t he ar r est er mat er ial has t o dischar ge wit hout damage t o it self.
Repr esent at ive values of st andar d 8/20 µs sur ge cur r ent s t aken fr om IS 3070 (Par t I)— 1974
ar e given below:
Crest 8/ 20 µs current , Amps 5000 10000 15000 20000
S yst em volt age, kV up t o 230 345–400 500 750 (735–765)
Prot ect ive Level. The t hir d impor t ant char act er ist ic of an ar r est er is t he pr ot ect ive level
offer ed by it t o t he connect ed equipment . Having select ed t he ar r est er r at ing based on t he
syst em ear t hing coefficient for a bus fault , t he manufact ur er of t he ar r est er s can pr ovide a
r esist ance mat er ial which has a specified I-V char act er ist ic. In ideal cases, t he volt age acr oss
t he ar r est er mat er ial should be const ant for all cur r ent values which flow t hr ough it . In a gap-
t ype ar r est er t her e is t he addit ional quant it y, t he spar kover volt age. When t he gap spar ks
over , t he light ning cur r ent is dr ained t o gr ound t hr ough t he ar r est er mat er ial. This will hold
an IR-volt age which depends on t he non-linear r esist ance char act er ist ic of t he SiC mat er ial.
The pr ot ect ive level offer ed by a light ning ar r est er is t he higher of t he following t wo volt age
values:
(1) Spar kover volt age of t he ser ies gap under a st andar d 1.2/50 µs impulse; or
(2) Residual volt age (t he IR-dr op) when dischar ging t he specified t est impulse cur r ent of
8/20µs waveshape. For gapless ar r est er s only it em (2) applies.
Wit h t he const ant impr ovement s t aking place in ar r est er mat er ial and volt age-cont r ol
(gr ading) cir cuit s incor por at ed in t he ar r est er chamber , t he above t wo values ar e made near ly
equal. Table 9.2 gives r epr esent at ive values. In older t ypes (befor e 1970) t he 250/2500 µs
swit ching-sur ge spar k-over volt age was t aken as 83% of t he shor t -dur at ion st eep-fr ont light ning-
impulse br eakdown. But in moder n ar r est er s, t he t wo ar e made near ly equal by pr oper volt age
cont r ol cir cuit r y.
Ta ble 9.2 Li gh t n i n g Ar r est er Sp a r k over –Di sch a r ge Volt a ge Ch a r a ct er i st i cs
S ystem Maximum Arrester Rating, 1.2/ 50µs Discharge S witching S urge
Continuous Oper- kV, RMS S parkover Voltage, kV. S parkover kV,
ating Voltage, kV kV, crest 8/ 20µs, kA crest
362 258 (72%) 625 585 610
276 (76%) 670 625 10 650
312 (86%) 770 705 735
550 372 (68%) 895 905 870
396 (72%) 955 965 15 925
420 (76%) 1010 1020 980
800 540 (67.5%) 1300 1390 1200
576 (72%) 1400 1500 20 1285
612 (76%) 1465 1580 1370
Lightning and Lightning Protection 249
When cur r ent -limit ing gap-t ype ar r est er s wer e not used, t he power -follow cur r ent flowing
due t o 50 Hz volt age when t he gap has spar ked over had t o wait unt il a cur r ent zer o, in or der
t hat t he cur r ent t hr ough t he ar r est er r esist or mat er ial could be int er r upt ed, as it does in a
cir cuit br eaker . However , in moder n cur r ent -limit ing ar r est er s, t he ar c can be elongat ed t o
any desir ed ext ent in a suit ably-designed ar cing chamber t o int er r upt t he cur r ent ver y quickly
wit hout wait ing for a cur r ent zer o. This r educes t he ener gy dissipat ed by t he SiC mat er ial and
t he per for mance is impr oved consider ably even under swit ching-sur ge condit ions when t he
ener gy dischar ged by a long t r ansmission line could be consider able.
The lower t he pr ot ect ive level offer ed by t he ar r est er , it is evident t hat lower can be t he
insulat ion level of t he equipment it pr ot ect s. This will br ing down t he cost of major equipment
such as t r ansfor mer s. Examples ar e alr eady pr ovided in Table 9.1. Accor ding t o IS 2026 : Par t
III (1981) examples of equipment insulat ion levels ar e given in Table 9.3 below:
Ta ble 9.3 Li gh t n i n g Ar r est er P r ot ect i ve Levels a n d Equ i p men t I n su la t i on
(Tr ansfor mer s)
Nominal Highest Rated S witching Rated Lightning L.A.
System Equipment Impulse withstand Impulse Withstand Protective
kV, RMS Voltage, kV (Phase-Neutral) Voltage, kV crest Level,
RMS kV, crest kV, crest
275 300 750 850 a nd 950
850 950 a nd 1050
345 362 850 950 a nd 1050 625-770
950 1050 a nd 1175
400 420 950 1050 a nd 1175
1050 1175, 1300 a nd 1425
500 525 1050 1175, 1300 a nd 1425 895-1010
1175 1425 a nd 1550 1010
750 765 1425 1550 a nd 1800 1300-1465
1550 1800 a nd 1950
The ideas discussed above can be r epr esent ed pict or ially as shown in Figur e 9.6.
Fi g. 9.6 Pict or ial r epr esent at ion of ar r est er volt age r at ing, ear t hing coefficient C
e
over volt age
under light ning and swit ching impulses, pr ot ect ive level of ar r est er , and mar gins.
P.U.
0
1
2
3
4
1.2/50 s µ
250/2500 s µ
Withstand
V = Ce V a m 3
V , L – N m
System Voltages
Lightning
Switching
Margins
V
p
Vq
Arrester Characteristics
V
C
V
a
e
m
= Arrester Rating
= Earthing Coefficient
= Rated Peak
V
p
= Protective Level
250 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
9.8 DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RISE AND ARRESTER RATING
The select ion of ar r est er volt age r at ing was shown t o depend upon t he volt age r ise of t he
healt hy phases at t he ar r est er locat ion when a single line t o gr ound fault t akes place. Thr ee
cases ar e shown in Fig. 9.7: (1) t he isolat ed-neut r al syst em wit h a bus fault on phase C, (2) t he
solidly-gr ounded-neut r al syst em wit h a bus-fault ; and (3) a gener al syst em wit h a fault beyond
connect ed equipment .
Fi g. 9.7 Syst em configur at ions. (a) Isolat ed neut r al, (b) Solidly gr ounded, and
(c) Gener al configur at ion for illust r at ing dynamic volt age r ise under 1-phase t o gr ound fault .
For t he isolat ed-neut r al syst em, t he volt age of t he healt hy phases t o gr ound will r ise t o
line-t o-line volt age. Thus, Ear t hing coefficient EC = Healt hy Phase Volt age/line-line volt age =
1.0. The cor r esponding ear t h fault fact or EFF =
3
.
For t he solidly-ear t hed syst em, t he healt hy phases do not exper ience any r ise in volt age
fr om t he nor mal oper at ing condit ion. Ther efor e, EC = 3 / 1 and EFF = 1.
Fi g. 9.8 Connect ion of sequence net wor ks a nd ca lcula t ion of a r r est er
r at ing under dynamic volt age r ise.
For t he gener al syst em, t he ear t hing coefficient lies bet ween 3 / 1 and 1. The value is
der ived in t er ms of t he r at io of zer o-sequence impedance Z
0
t o t he posit ive-sequence impedance
V0
V
1
V2
E
0
= 0
E E
1
=
E2 = 0
I0
I
1
I2
I
Z0
Z1
Z2
a a a
b b b
c c c
+
+ +
Ea
Ec Eb
( ) a ( ) b ( ) c
Lightning and Lightning Protection 251
Z
1
up t o t he fault . When single line t o gr ound fault occur s, accor ding t o symmet r ical-component
t heor y, t he t hr ee sequence net wor ks ar e connect ed in ser ies, as shown in Fig. 9.8. Only t he
posit ive-sequence net wor k cont ains a dr iving volt age E. The cur r ent is
I = ) ( /
2 1 0
Z Z Z E + + ...(9.16)
∴ The t hr ee sequence volt ages at t he fault ar e
V
0
= ) / / 1 /(
0 2 0 1 0 0
Z Z Z Z E IZ E + + − · − ...(9.17)
V
1
= ) / / 1 /(
1 2 1 0 1 1
Z Z Z Z E E IZ E + + − · − ...(9.18)
and V
2
= ) / / 1 /(
2 1 2 0 2 2
Z Z Z Z E IZ E + + − · − ...(9.19)
For st at ic equipment such as lines and t r ansfor mer s, Z
1
= Z
2
. Let , up t o t he fault ,
m = Z
0
/Z
1
= zer o-sequence impedance/posit ive-sequence impedance.
Then, V
0
/E = ) 2 /( ) 1 ( / ), 2 /(
1
+ + · + − m m E V m m
and V
2
/E = –1/(m + 2) ...(9.20)
The healt hy phase volt age such as V
b
is wit h a = ° ∠120 1 ,
E
V
b
=
E
aV V a V + +
1
2
0
=
2
) 866 . 0 5 . ( ) 1 )( 866 . 0 5 . 0 (
+
+ − − + − − + −
m
j m j m
and it s p.u. value is
E
V
b
=
2
1
3
2
+
+ +
m
m m
, when m is r eal quant it y. ...(9.21)
This will apply when R
0
/x
0
= R
1
/x
1
, wher e R and x ar e t he r esist ance and r eact ance
component s of Z. The ear t hing coefficient is t her efor e
EC =
, 0 ,
2
1
3
2

+
+ +
· m
m
m m
E
V
b
When m var ies fr om 1 t o ∞ , t he ear t hing coefficient and ear t h fault fact or s have t he
following values.
m = Z
0
/Z
1
1 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 7.5 10 ∞
EC 0.578 0.66 0.7 0.721 0.744 0.764 0.795 0.849 0.88 1
EFF 1 1.14 1.20 1.25 1.29 1.323 1.38 1.47 1.52
3
9.9 OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGHTNING ARRESTERS
In t his sect ion we will descr ibe t he t hr ee t ypes of ar r est er s used in e.h.v. syst ems in det ail.
These ar e (1) t he gap-t ype SiC ar r est er , (2) t he cur r ent -limit ing gap-t ype SiC ar r est er , and (3)
t he gapless met al oxide var ist or or t he zinc-oxide (ZnO) ar r est er .
252 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
9.9.1 Gap Type SiC Arresters
In bot h t he non cur r ent -limit ing and cur r ent -limit ing t ypes, t he mat er ial is sint er ed Silicon
Car bide which is made for a volt age r at ing of 6 kV, r .m.s., per disc. As many discs as ar e
necessar y for t he ar r est er r at ed volt age ar e st acked in ser ies and pr ovided wit h volt age-gr ading
cir cuit s. These may consist of high volt age r esist or s, capacit or s, or a combinat ion of bot h. The
I-V char act er ist ics of bot h t ypes ar e shown in Fig. 9.9. They funct ion in t wo st ages: (a) Upon
occur r ence of an over volt age, t he gaps spar kover and pr ovide a low-impedance pat h t o gr ound.
(b) The ser ies r esist or r educes power -fr equency follow cur r ent so t hat t he ar c acr oss t he gap is
able t o r e-seal eit her befor e or at t he following volt age and cur r ent zer o. In t he magnet ically-
blown-out sur ge ar r est er , Fig. 9.9(b), t he ar c is lengt hened so t hat t he r esult ing back e.m.f.
helps t o r educe t he power follow cur r ent . The ener gy loading is about 7 kJ /kV dur ing limit ing
swit ching sur ges wit h a pr ot ect ion level of 2.2 p.u. being at t ained.
Fi g. 9.9 I-V char act er ist ics of (a) gap-t ype non cur r ent -limit ing t ype, (b) gap-t ype cur r ent -limit ing t ype,
ar r est er s. (c) Time lag of br eakdown of ser ies gap wit h volt age-gr ading cir cuit s.
The r esist ance of a valve element is non-linear wit h 8.5 kV cr est ) 2 6 ( for 1250 Amper es
and only 12 kV cr est for 10,000 Amper es sur ge cur r ent . These values give an I-V r elat ions.
V = 2604 I
0.166
(or
6
V I ∝ ) ...(9.21)
wher e V and I ar e in volt s and amper es. The r esult ing r esist ance is
R =
834 . 0
2604 /

· I I V ohms. ...(9.22)
Ideally, if t he mat er ial is t o hold a const ant value of volt age at all cur r ent s, t he r esist ance
of t he mat er ial must var y as
1
.

· I K R
id id
. This is near ly fulfilled in Met al Oxide Var ist or s,
but not in a SiC ar r est er .
In a non cur r ent -limit ing ar r est er , t he gap br eaks down on t he incidence of a light ning
over volt age, which is set at a power -fr equency volt age of 1.5 t o 2.0 p. u. and at a light ning
volt age equal t o t he pr ot ect ive level. In addit ion t o t he light ning cur r ent of st andar d wave-
shape of 8/20 µs, t he mat er ial conduct s t he power -follow cur r ent wit h a ver y lar ge dissipat ion of
heat in t he r esist or . In addit ion, under a swit ching sur ge dischar ge, cur r ent s ar e high and t he
dur at ion can be as much as 2000 µs. Ther efor e, light ning ar r est er s ar e subject ed t o 3 t ypes of
t est s:
(1) The power -fr equency flashover of t he gap. This should not t ake place for 1 minut e at
less t han 1.5 p. u. volt age [Wit h an ear t hing coefficient of 0.8 say, t he ar r est er r at ed
volt age is 0.8
3
= 1.3856 t imes t he maximum line-t o-neut r al oper at ing volt age].
V
VS
VN
I
Normal Gap
Type SiC
( ) a
V
VS
VN
I
Current Limiting Gap
Type SiC
( ) b
Time to Sparkover
( ) c
1 10 10
2
10
3
µs
2
V V
A N
/
Lightning and Lightning Protection 253
(2) An 8/20 µs st andar d light ning impulse cur r ent t est . The r esult ing volt age must not
exceed t he pr ot ect ive level offer ed by t he ar r est er at r at ed cur r ent s of 5, 10, 15 or 20
kiloamper es, cr est . The pr ot ect ive level is given in Table 9.3.
(3) A long-dur at ion cur r ent t est of 100-150 Amper es of 1000 µs dur at ion. This simulat es
swit ching-sur ge dut y when a line is ener gized fr om a sour ce.
By using a suit ably-designed gr ading net wor k t o cont r ol t he dist r ibut ion of volt age amongst
t he ser ies-connect ed gaps, t he volt age-t ime char act er ist ic of t he ar r est er is cont r olled much
bet t er t han wit hout t hem as shown in Figue 9.9(c).
9.9.2 The Gapless Metal Oxide Arrester
Recent advances in solid-st at e physics in elect r onics have been applied t o develop a mat er ial
which is ideal for sur ge ar r est er . SiC r esist or s have a char act er ist ic I = KV
α
, wit h α = 4 t o 6.
This is not high enough for ar r est er s wit hout spar k gaps. A cer amic mat er ial based on oxides of
Zn, Bi, and Co has α > 20 and can handle a ver y lar ge cur r ent r ange. The I-V char act er ist ic is
near ly ideal wit h a const ant pr ot ect ive level fr om a few milliamper es t o t housands of amper es
over a 5 decade r ange. The base mat er ial is ZnO (n-mat er ial) gr ains sint er ed in a flux of var ious
insulat ing oxides such as Bi
2
O
3
. Ot her const it uent s ar e CoO, MnO and Cr
2
O
3
. These cha nge
ener gy levels and hence t he conduct ion and insulat ing pr oper t ies. These oxides coat t he high-
conduct ivit y ZnO gr ains wit h a t hin insulat ing layer of 100-200
o
A as shown in Fig. 9.10. The
r esult ing I-V char act er ist ic is near ly
50 35 −
∝ V I
.
Exa mp le 9.8. Two ar r est er mat er ials have t he char act er ist ics
6
V I ∝ and
40
V I ∝ . For
cur r ent var iat ions fr om 10 Amper es t o 100,000 Amps., det er mine t he r at io of volt ages at t hese
cur r ent s.
Sol u t i on . (a) 10 =
6
2
5 6
1
10 and KV KV ·
∴ 645 . 4 10 ) 10 ( /
667 . 0 6 / 1 4
1 2
· · · V V
(b) 10 =
40
2
5 40
1
10 and KV KV ·
∴ V
2
/V
1
= (10
4
)
1/40
= 10
0. 1
= 1.26.
Fig. 9.10 Int er nal st r uct ur e and ext er nal I-V char act er ist ics of ZnO gapless ar r est er .
Compar ison wit h SiC ar r est er .
Ther efor e, higher t he index of V, t he less is t he r ise in volt age and mor e it appr oaches t he
ideal. A compar ison of gap-t ype SiC ar r est er and gapless ZnO ar r est er is shown in Fig. 9.10(c).
ZnO ar r est er s ar e usually made in discs of 80 mm diamet er and 32 mm t hickness. At t he
V
Vp
ZnO
SiC
I
( ) c ( ) Ideal b ( ) Real a
ZnO grain
Contacts
Current
Loads
Intermediate
Insulation Layer
254 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
r efer ence volt age t he cur r ent conduct ed is only 5 mA at about 150°C. At lower t emper at ur es
(60°C) it is well below 1 mA. Thus, even t hough t he mat er ial is always connect ed in t he cir cuit ,
it conduct s negligible amount of cur r ent . This is because of t he insulat ing oxides sur r ounding
t he ZnO. When an over volt age occur s, t he ener gy band levels change and t he cur r ent will r ise
by a cont inuous t r ansit ion fr om insulat ing t o conduct ion st at e. At t he t er minat ion of t he volt age
t r ansient , eit her light ning or swit ching, t he cur r ent is r educed and t her e is no power -follow
cur r ent . The r at ed volt age or t he r efer ence volt age is cont r olled by t he ear t hing coefficient EC.
The advant ages of ZnO t echnology ar e evident ly t heir simple const r uct ion, absence of
spar k gaps which gives a shock t o t he syst em when t he gap br eaks down. But t he disadvant ages
ar e a cont inuous flow of power fr equency cur r ent wit h t he t heor et ical possibilit y of t her mal
r unaway pr esent in all solid-st at e mat er ials. The ear lier ar r est er s demonst r at ed inst abilit y
effect s wit h wat t s loss under nor mal volt age incr easing wit h t ime and wit h t he number of
dischar ges. But moder n development s have eliminat ed t his danger pr act ically complet ely. In
or der t o pr ove t he r eliabilit y, a line-dischar ge t est is specified and t he t emper at ur e of t he
mat er ial must r egain it s nor mal value aft er t wo or t hr ee quick dischar ges in succession. The
absence of spar k gaps also eliminat es t he need for volt age-gr ading syst em which in t ur n
eliminat es t he volt /t ime-lag pr oper t y pr esent in gap-t ype ar r est er s.
9.10 INSULATION COORDINATION BASED ON LIGHTNING
Insulat ion coor dinat ion consist s of select ing insulat ion of var ious lines and equipment t hat
have t o be int er connect ed int o a syst em for desir ed oper at ional r equir ement . The syst em must
be r eliable and economical. The I.E.C. and Indian st andar ds (or ot her st andar ds) have only
r ecommended cer t ain values or pr oposed levels for coor dinat ing insulat ion. But as t r ansmission
volt ages and equipment insulat ion levels var y at e.h.v. levels, and t her e exist mor e t han one
insulat ion level for major equipment , as can be seen fr om Tables 9.1, 9.2, and 9.3, t he designer
has t o wor k out t he best solut ion for his syst em. Thus, in high light ning-pr one ar eas or in
syst ems wit h heavy swit ching-sur ge condit ions, t he select ion of insulat ion levels will be differ ent
fr om ar eas wit h lit t le or no light ning and wit h shor t er lines. Nor mally, insulat ion syst ems ar e
designed in a syst em for no flashover s, or if flashover s cannot be pr event ed such flashover s
should be r est r ict ed t o places wher e damage is not done, such as air gaps or in gap-t ype ar r est er s.
The flash-over should not dist ur b nor mal syst em oper at ion and must occur in r esealable
insulat ion st r uct ur es. The over volt ages t hat can cause damage ar e due t o ext er nal or igin,
namely light ning, and oper at ion of t he syst em it self which ar e at power fr equency, ear t h fault s,
and swit ching oper at ions. We will consider her e t he insulat ion co-or dinat ion pr inciples based
on light ning. These insulat ion levels ar e known as Basic Impulse Insulat ion Levels or BIL.
Those based on swit ching-sur ge r equir ement s ar e known as Swit ching Impulse Levels or SIL.
The light ning ar r est er is t he foundat ion of pr ot ect ion in e.h.v. r anges, which is select ed
for bot h light ning and swit ching-sur ge dut y. It is usually of t he magnet ic blow-out (cur r ent -
limit ing) gap t ype, or in r ecent year s t he gapless ZnO t ype. For at mospher ic over volt age, t he
dut y or t ask of t he ar r est er is t o limit t hese over volt ages t o t he pr ot ect ive level V
p
given in
column 6 of Table 9.1. This is t he peak value of impulse volt age as det er mined by t he higher of
t he 1.2/50 µs spar k-over value of t he gap or r esidual volt age for st andar d 8/20 µs sur ge cur r ent
in t he 10 kA t o 20 kA r ange. The lat t er applies t o gapless t ype while bot h t he volt ages apply t o
gap t ype ar r est er s. The light ning cur r ent passing t hr ough t he ar r est er mat er ial is calculat ed
as follows.
Lightning and Lightning Protection 255
Consider a t r avelling wave of volt age V
w
, cr est , which is accompanied by a cur r ent wave I
w
on a line wit h sur ge impedance Z, Fig. 9.11. They st r ike an ar r est er whose dut y is t o hold t he
volt age acr oss it const ant at t he pr ot ect ive level V
p
. Now, by using Thevenin's t heor em, wit h
t he ar r est er t er minals open, t he incident t r avelling wave will give a volt age 2V
w
due t o t ot al
r eflect ion. The Thevenin impedance looking t hr ough t he open ar r est er t er minals is equal t o
t he sur ge impedance Z of t he line.
Fig. 9.11 Calculat ion of ar r est er cur r ent .
Fig. 9.12 Spher e-t o-plane and r od-t o-plane pr ot ect ive gaps for insulat ion
coor dinat ion of equipment .
Ther efor e, wit h t he ar r est er connect ed, t he cur r ent t hr ough it will be
I
a
= (2V
w
– V
p
)/Z ...(9.23)
The maximum value t he t r avelling-wave volt age V
w
can r each is t he flashover volt age of
t he line insulat ion. Also, it is assumed t hat V
p
st ays fair ly const ant at all cur r ent values dischar ged
by t he ar r est er .
Exa mp le 9.9. For a 750 kV line, t ake V
w
= 3000 kV, cr est , t r avelling on t he line and V
p
=
1700 kV. The line sur ge impedance is Z = 300 ohms. Calculat e and discuss (a) t he cur r ent
flowing in t he line befor e r eaching t he ar r est er , (b) t he cur r ent t hr ough t he ar r est er , and
(c) t he value of ar r est er r esist ance for t his condit ion and ver ify t he r eflect ion and r efr act ion
coefficient s giving r ise t o t he volt age and cur r ent condit ions.
Sol u t i on .
(a) I
w
= Z V
w
/ = 3000/300 = 10 kiloamper es.
(b) I
a
= Z V V
p w
/ ) 2 ( − = (6000 – 1700)/300 = 14.33 kA.
(c) The r eflect ed cur r ent in t he line is + 4.33 kA.
This gives r ise t o a r eflect ed volt age of – 4.33 × 300 = – 1300 kV. Under t hese condit ions,
t he ar r est er r esist ance is
R
a
= V
p
/I
a
= 1700 kV/14.33 kA ≈ 120 ohms. (118.6 ohms).
VW, IW
Vp
I
a
Z
R
g
256 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Wit h t he line sur ge impedance Z = 300 ohms, t he following r eflect ion and r efr act ion
coefficient s ar e found.
(1) Volt age r eflect ion fact or : K
r
=
7
3
300 120
300 120
− ·
+

·
+

Z R
Z R
a
a
∴ Reflect ed volt age V
r
= K
r
. V
w
= – 3 × 3000/7 = – 1300 kV.
(2) Volt age r efr act ion fact or : K
t
= 2R
a
/(R
a
+ Z) = 1 + K
r
= +4/7.
∴ J unct ion volt age at ar r est er , V
p
= K
t
V
w
= 1700 kV.
(3) Cur r ent r eflect ion fact or : J
r
= (Z – R
a
)/(Z + R
a
) = – K
r
= + 3/7.
∴ Reflect ed cur r ent I
r
= J
r
I
w
= + 4.33 kA
(4) Cur r ent t r ansmission fact or : J
t
= 2Z/(Z + R
a
) = + 10/7
∴ Ar r est er dischar ge cur r ent I
a
= J
t
I
w
= 14.33 kA.
This example shows t hat for such a 750 kV line an ar r est er r at ed for 15 kA would be
necessary. U sually a 750-kV line will be equipped with about 35 standard " " 10
4
3
5 × insulat or
discs whose wit hst and value is about 3000 kV.
The pr ot ect ive r at io can be calculat ed if t he r at ed volt age of t he ar r est er is known fr om
t he syst em condit ions.
Exa mp le 9.10. For t he above example , if an 80% ar r est er is used, calculat e t he pr ot ect ive
r at io N
p
= V
p
/V
a
.
Sol u t i on . For r at ed line-t o-line volt age of 750 kV, ar r est er r at ing is
V
a
= 0.8 × 750 = 600 kV (R.M.S.).
∴ Pr ot ect ive r at io N
p
= 1700/600 = 2.83.
Volt age Across Equipment Prot ect ed by Arrest er
In t he ideal case, t he ar r est er must be locat ed adjacent t o t he equipment which is usually
a lar ge t r ansfor mer or shunt r eact or . In pr act ice, however , t her e may be a lengt h of t he line
bet ween t he t wo ext ending t o 20 t o 40 met r es. This r esult s in a slight ly higher volt age acr oss
t he equipment due t o r epeat ed r eflect ions. The high induct ance of a t r ansfor mer or r eact or
r epr esent s near ly an open-cir cuit t o a sur ge. The excess volt age exper ienced is given by an
empir ical equat ion and depends on t he line lengt h and t he r at e of r ise of t he volt age, t hus:
V ∆
= (dV
w
/dt ). (l/150)kV, ...(9.24)
wher e l = lengt h of line in met r es
and dV
w
/dt = st eepness of wave fr ont in kV/ µs of t he incoming wave. This can be
t aken as appr oximat ely 500 kV/µs for lines wit h over head gr ound wir es
and 1000 kV/µs when a line conduct or is hit . (A line wit hout ear t h
wir es).
Exa mp le 9.11. A t r ansfor mer is connect ed by a lengt h of 20 met r es of line t o an ar r est er .
The r at e of r ise of volt age is 700 kV/ µs. The ar r est er volt age is 1700 kV. Calculat e t he volt age
acr oss t he t r ansfor mer .
Sol u t i on .
V ∆
= (700) × (20/150) = 93 kV.
∴ Tr ansfor mer volt age = 1793 kV, impulse cr est .
Lightning and Lightning Protection 257
Not e t hat fr om Table 9.3, for 750 kV syst em volt age, t he t r ansfor mer light ning-impulse
wit hst and volt ages have levels r anging fr om 1550 t o 1950 kV.
The t r ansfor mer insulat ion level is kept higher t han t he ar r est er pr ot ect ive level by a
safe mar gin as shown by column 8 of Table 9.1. The I.E.C. suggest s a value of 1.2 V
p
as t he
equipment insulat ion level. This is t he pr ot ect ive r at io C
p
= V
s
/V
p
, wher e V
s
= volt age level of
st at ion equipment insulat ion. It depends on t he ear t hing coefficient , C
e
, t he impulse pr ot ect ive
level r at io of ar r est er , C
p
, and t he impulse pr ot ect ive r at io of equipment , C
i
. Thus, t he equipment
insulat ion level is
V
s
= C
e
.C
p
.C
i
.V
wher e V = r at ed r .m.s. value of power -fr equency line-line volt age of t he syst em.
Exa mp le 9.12. For a 750-kV syst em wit h maximum oper at ing volt age of 765 kV at t he
r eceiving-end subst at ion, t he ear t hing coefficient is C
e
= 0.84, t he pr ot ect ive level r at io of t he
ar r est er is 2.83, and t he equipment insulat ion level r at io is 1.3. Calculat e t he impulse wit hst and
volt age of t he equipment insulat ion.
Sol u t i on . V
s
= 0.84 × 2.83 × 1.3 V = 3.094 × 765
= 2370 kV, cr est .
[Not e. I.E.C. suggest s a 2400 kV level. But t his has not yet found accept ance as a st andar d].
Exa mp le 9.13. For a 400-kV syst em (420 kV maximum) t he impulse level of a t r ansfor mer
is 1425 kV, cr est or peak. Calculat e t he r at io of impulse wit hst and level of t r ansfor mer insulat ion
t o t he maximum ser vice volt age.
Sol u t i on . C
t
=C
e
.C
p
.C
i
= V
s
/ V

= 1425/420 = 3.4
Rod-Plane S park Gap
Thus far , t he r equir ement and pr ot ect ion affor ded by a light ning ar r est er wer e discussed.
For pr oviding fur t her safet y t o major equipment insulat ion in t r ansfor mer s, r eact or s and cir cuit
br eaker s as well as t heir bushings, r od-plane and r od-r od gaps will nor mally be used in par allel,
which ar e var iously known as pr ot ect ive gaps or spill gaps. These have a t ime lag of spar kover
r anging fr om 2-10 µs depending upon t he gap lengt h bet ween elect r odes so t hat t he pr ot ect ed
equipment must be capable of wit hst anding t he flashover volt age of t he gaps for t his lengt h of
t ime.
Aver age 50% flashover volt age values of r od-plane and r od-r od gaps ar e given by well-
known for mulas, which ar e on t he aver age as follows, wit h d in met r es:
Elect rode Power Frequency Lightning Impulse
Geomet ry kV crest kV crest
Rod-Plane V
50
= 652. d
0.576
500 d
Rod-Rod V
50
= 850 d
0.576
650 d
The wit hst a nd va lue for t hese ga ps is nor ma lly 85% of t he 50% fla shover volt a ge.
Char act er ist ics of 50% flashover and wit hst and volt ages of long air gaps will be discussed in
Chapt er 11.
Exa mp le 9.14. A 750 kV bushing is pr ot ect ed by gaps which wit hst and 2 p.u. power -
fr equency volt age. Det er mine t heir 50% flashover value under 50 Hz and light ning-impulse
volt ages, if (a) r od-plane gap is used, and (b) r od-r od gap is used.
258 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Sol u t i on . The calculat ion will be based on t he power -fr equency volt age of 750 kV, r .m.s.,
line-line. The 1 p.u. line-t o-gr ound cr est value is
3 / 2 750 = 612 kV.
∴ 2 p.u. = 1224 kV, which is t he wit hst and volt age, V
w
,
The flashover value is taken to be V
50
= V
w
/0.85 = 1440 kV.
(a) For a r od-plane gap, d =
736 . 1 576 . 0 / 1
50
2086 . 2 ) 652 / ( · V
= 3.958 met r es.
For t his gap lengt h, t he light ning-impulse 50% flashover value is V
50
= 500 d = 1980 kV,
cr est . The wit hst and volt age will be appr oximat ely 85% of t his value, or V
wi
= 0.85 × 1980 =
1683 kV, cr est .
(b) For a r od-r od gap d = (1440/850)
1.736
= 2.5 met r es. The 50% flashover under light ning
impulse volt age is
V
50
= 650 d = 1625 kV, cr est
and t he impulse wit hst and is V
wi
= 0.85 × 1625 = 1381 kV, cr est .
For adequat e pr ot ect ion and pr oper insulat ion coor dinat ion, t he pr ot ect ive gap flashover
values must be higher t han t he light ning ar r est er pr ot ect ive volt age level and lower t han t he
t r ansfor mer or bushing insulat ion levels.
Re vi e w Qu e s t i on s a n d Pr oble ms
1. A r egion has 75 t hunder st or m days in a year . A 400-kV line has a t ower height of 35
m wit h t wo gr ound wir es at 25 met r e height at midspan and separ at ed by 20 met r es.
What is t he pr obable number of st r okes cont act ing 400 km of line per year ?
2. Descr ibe wit h neat sket ches t he machanism of light ning st r oke cont act ing (a) a t ower ,
and (b) midspan.
3. A 750-kV hor izont al line has 35 discs in t he insulat or . The t wo gr ound wir es ar e
spaced 30 m apar t at height s of 30 met r es at midspan and 40 met r es at t he t ower . The
t ower -foot ing r esist ance is 20 ohms. The coupling fact or bet ween a gr ound wir e and
phase conduct or is 0.15 and t he fact or in N
S
is 0.2 for calculat ing number of st r okes
cont act ing t he line per 100 km in a year . The isoker aunik level is 100 days per year .
Assume 50% of st r okes t o cont act t he t ower . Calculat e t he st r oke cur r ent t o flashover
t he insulat or st r ing if t he sur ge impedance of st r oke is 400 ohms, and gr oundwir e
sur ge impedance is 500 ohms. Take t he flashover value of one disc as 125 kV, peak,
for light ning impulse.
4. Define t he t er ms (a) ear t hing coefficient , (b) ear t h fault fact or , (c) r esidual volt age, (d)
ar r est er r at ing, and (e) insulat ion co-or dinat ion.
5. Compar e t he per for mance char act er ist ics of Silicon Car bide ar r est er wit h a Zinc Oxide
ar r est er . What ar e t he advant ages and disadvant ages of each?
6. A volt age wave of 2500 kV is t r avelling on a line of sur ge impedance 275 ohms. The
ar r est er connect ed t o t he line has a pr ot ect ive level of 1500 kV. Calculat e (a) t he
cur r ent in t he wave, (b) t he cur ent t hr ough t he ar r est er , and (c) t he ar r est er r esist ance
at t his cur r ent .
10.1 ORIGIN OF OVERVOLTAGES AND THEIR TYPES
Over volt ages due t o t he r elease of int er nally t r apped elect r omagnet ic and elect r ost at ic ener gy
in an e.h.v. syst em cause ser ious damages t o equipment insulat ion. These could, under many
cir cumst ances, be mor e sever e t han light ning damage which we consider ed in t he pr evious
chapt er . Sur ge diver t er s and r esist ances included pur posely while making swit ching oper at ions
as well as ot her schemes r educe t he danger t o a consider able ext ent . This chapt er will descr ibe
all t hese schemes and discuss t he equat ions t hat indicat e over volt ages and t he backgr ound for
suggest ed r emedies. Invest igat ion of swit ching over volt ages has assumed ver y gr eat impor t ance
as t r ansmission volt ages ar e on t he incr ease and line lengt hs and capacit y of gener at ing st at ions
ar e also incr eased. The shor t -cir cuit capacit y of sour ces is r esponsible for a lar ge amount of
damage t o insulat ion.
Over cur r ent s ar e gener at ed by shor t cir cuit s and light ning, but t hey do not for m t he
subject ma t t er of t his cha pt er . The pr oblems of ca lcula t ing shor t -cir cuit cur r ent s fr om
symmet r ical-component t heor y ar e well cover ed in a lar ge number of t r eat ises. Her e, some of
t he over volt age condit ions caused by int er r upt ion of shor t -cir cuit cur r ent s will only be discussed
wit h due r egar d t o t he dut y imposed on t he cir cuit br eaker t hr ough t he r est r iking and r ecover y
volt ages. They br ing in t he concept of t er minal fault , shor t -line fault , t wo-and four -par amet er
r epr esent at ions of t he r ecover y volt age. In addit ion, int er r upt ion by t he cir cuit br eaker of low
induct ive cur r ent s such as dr opping t r ansfor mer s and shunt r eact or s cause over volt ages because
of sudden collapse of cur r ent descr ibed by t he phenomenon of ‘cur r ent chopping’. Int er r upt ion
of small capacit ive cur r ent s caused by dr opping an unloaded line br ing over -volt ages because of
possibilit y of r e-st r iking in t he ar cing chamber of t he br eaker . Fer r o-r esonance condit ions
exist when t he cir cuit -br eaker poles do not close simult aneously as is usually t he case wit h
poor ly-maint ained cir cuit br eaker s. However , t he most impor t ant oper at ion caused by t he
cir cuit br eaker is t o ener gize a long e.h.v. t r ansmission line at desir ed int er vals. The line may
be car r ying no t r apped volt age or it could be r e-ener gized while a volt age is t r apped in it . These
ener gizing and r e-ener gizing t r ansient s will be discussed at gr eat lengt h and will for m t he bulk
of t he mat er ial of t his chapt er . Some of t he met hods of handling such pr oblems have alr eady
10
Overvol t a ges i n EHV S y s t em s Ca u s ed by
S wi t ch i n g Opera t i on s
260 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
been descr ibed in Chapt er 8 wher e t r avelling-wave and st anding-wave met hods wer e explained
which r esult when a swit ching oper at ion is per for med. Line r e-ener gizat ion wit h t r apped-char ge
volt age was also consider ed.
10.2 SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT AND THE CIRCUIT BREAKER
Consider a simple syst em wit h one gener at ing st at ion G connect ed t hr ough 2 lines and feeding
a load, Fig. 10.1. If a shor t cir cuit occur s at t he load bus necessit at ing br eaker CB t o open and
isolat e t he fault ed bus, t he quest ion is what st r esses come on t he br eaker .
Fig. 10.1 (a) Shor t cir cuit acr oss load bus in a syst em. (b) Shor t -cir cuit cur r ent component s.
St eady st at e ac component , t r ansient dc component and t ot al s-c cur r ent .
When all r esist ances ar e neglect ed, t he a.c. component of shor t cir cuit cur r ent fed by t he
sour ce is
i = ) 5 . 0 /(
L t g
X X X V + + ...(10.1)
If t her e ar e ot her gener at ing ar eas connect ed t o t he load, t heir cur r ent s add t o i.
In moder n 2-cycle high-speed br eaker s, t he cont act s separ at e in about 30 milliseconds or
2
1
1 cycles on 50 Hz base aft er t he init iat ion of t he shor t cir cuit . This is gover ned by t he
oper at ing t ime of t he pr ot ect ive syst em and t he pneumat ic or mechanical oper at ing syst em.
This t ime is equal t o or longer t han t he subt r ansient t ime const ant of lar ge alt er nat or s. Ther efor e
t he value of X
g
t o use is t he t r ansient r eact ance X
d
' which is near ly 0.3 p.u. for 500 MVA set s
and 0.3 t o 0.45 p.u. for 1000 MVA set s. For smaller set s t hey may r ange fr om 0.15 t o 0.2 p.u.
For t r ansfor mer s, X
t
is appr oximat ely 0.1 t o 0.15 p.u. For lines, appr oximat e values ar e X
L
= 0.32 ohm/km for 400 kV and 0.275 for 750 kV. In pr act ice, 5 . 0
'
≈ + ·
t d
X X X p. u. so t hat for a
Isc
DC
O
Transient
( ) b
A.C.
G
T
L
1
L
2
CB
S. C LOAD
( ) a
G
Xg Xt
X
L
CB
Isc
XL
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 261
bus fault not including lines, t he shor t -cir cuit cur r ent is t wice t he r at ed cur r ent of t he gener at ing
st at ion. When t he d-c component is also included, t ot al shor t -cir cuit cur r ent wit h full offset will be
i =
)] / exp( ). cos( ) [cos(
2
2 2
T' t wt
X R
V
− θ + ϕ − θ − ϕ −
+
...(10.2)
wher e t an θ = X/R up t o t he fault and
T' =
R X π 2 /
...(10.3)
At t = 0, i = 0 and at t = ∞ , t he cur r ent becomes t he a.c. component . The angle
ϕ
denot es
t he inst ant on t he sinusoidal sour ce volt age
V 2
sin ) ( ϕ + wt at which t he shor t -cir cuit t akes
place. The var iat ion of i in equat ion (10.2) wit h full dc offset (
ϕ
= 0) is shown in Fig. 10.1(b). The
I.E.C. r ecommends T' = 45 ms. Fr om t he figur e, t he maximum cur r ent occur s
2
1
cycle aft er
t he init iat ion of t he fault .
Exa mp le 10.1. A 400-kV syst em has a gener at ion of 2000 MVA. Calculat e (a) t he nor mal
cur r ent , (b) t he r .m.s. value of s-c cur r ent for a bus fault on t he t r ansfor mer h.v. winding if
t d
X ' X + = 0.5 p.u. on gener at or base on t he 400-kV side, (c) t he maximum cur r ent which t he
cir cuit br eaker cont act s have t o car r y, and (d) t he maximum int er r upt ing cur r ent of t he br eaker
if t he cont act s par t aft er
2
1
1 cycles (f = 50 Hz).
Sol u t i on .
(a) Nor mal cur r ent I = 2000/400 3 = 2.9 kA.
(b) RMS value of s-c cur r ent I
r ms
= 2 × 2.9 = 5.8 kA.
(c) Maximum cur r ent t hr ough br eaker cont act s at 10 ms is
I
m
= kA 8 . 14 2 8 . 1 ) 1 ( 2
r ms
45 / 10
r ms
· · +

I e I .
(d) At 30 ms, (
2
1
1 cycles aft er fault init iat ion) a peak value occur s.
∴ I
t
= kA 4 . 12 2 513 . 1 ) 1 ( 2
r ms
45 / 30
r ms
· · +

I e I
The final int er r upt ion of t he cir cuit is at 2 cycles aft er fault init iat ion when t he cur r ent
passes t hr ough a zer o if t he decr ement of t he dc component is r apid.
In t his example, t he shor t -cir cuit cur r ent fr om one 2000 MVA sour ce at 400 kV was 5.8
kA, r .m.s. In a lar ge int er connect ed syst em wit h sever al gener at ing st at ions, t he s-c cur r ent
level will be ver y high. Pr esent ly, air blast br eaker s ar e available for 80 kA and S F
6
br ea ker s
for 90 kA. This shows t hat a syst em engineer must keep s-c levels down t o what cur r ent ly-
available cir cuit br eaker s can handle. In 400-kV net wor ks t he maximum specified is 40 kA.
It is evident t hat t he d-c component must decay fast in or der t hat int er r upt ion might t ake
place at t he fir st cur r ent zer o aft er t he cont act s par t . At 40 ms, t he d.c. component has a value
e
–40/45
= 0.41 of t he a.c. component and usually a cur r ent zer o can occur . The above discussion
has assumed a 3-phase bus fault .
262 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
S i n gl e-Ph a se S h or t Ci r cu i t
Near ly 80% of all fault s in a syst em involve only a single phase and t he s-c cur r ent magnit ude
is lower t han for a 3-phase fault , which occur s only in 10% of cases. However , t he most sever e
dut y of a br eaker occur s under a 3-phase fault and t his gover ns t he br eaker design. As descr ibed
in Chapt er 9, under a single phase t o gr ound fault , t he t hr ee sequence net wor ks ar e connect ed
in ser ies and t he fault cur r ent is
I
1ph
= 3E/(Z
0
+ 2Z
1
) ...(10.4)
But it is I
3ph
= E/Z
1
under a 3-phase fault since only t he posit ive-sequence net wor k is
involved. Thus, t he r at io of cur r ent s for t hese t wo t ypes of fault is
I
1ph
/I
3ph
= 3/(2 + Z
0
/Z
1
) = 3/(2 + X
0
/X
1
) ...(10.5)
when r esist ances ar e neglect ed. For a solidly-gr ounded neut r al, 2 /
1 0
≅ X X so t hat t he
single-phase s-c cur r ent is 75% of t hat for a 3-phase bus fault .
Del a yed Cu r r en t Zer o Con d i t i on
The at t ainment of a cur r ent zer o depends on t he r at e of decay of t he d-c component ,
which is gover ned by t he r esist ance up t o t he fault . When fault s occur ver y close t o lar ge power
st at ions of higher t han 1000 MVA capacit y and line r eact ance and r esist ance ar e not pr esent , it
is difficult for t he cur r ent t o pass t hr ough zer o quickly. In such cases, t he ar c r esist ance of t he
cir cuit br eaker must be incr eased by pr oviding mult iple int er r upt er s. For a low-volt age gener at or
br eaker s t he s-c cur r ent is even higher and in or der t o int er r upt 100 kA, air -blast br eaker s ar e
pr efer r ed because of higher ar c r esist ance t han S F
6
br eaker s in or der t o effect a cur r ent zer o.
10.3 RECOVERY VOLTAGE AND THE CIRCUIT BREAKER
When t he cont act s have separ at ed and t he ar c has been finally quenched, t he cont act s have t o
wit hst and t he r ecover y volt age. The final value of t his volt age equals t he sour ce volt age while
t he init ial value is equal t o t he low ar c volt age which may be pr act ically zer o. Thus, an oscillat or y
condit ion exist s which may be of single fr equency or cont ain mult iple fr equencies, depending
upon t he connect ed net wor k. For a single fr equency it is
V
R
= K t w wt V ). cos .(cos 2
0
− ...(10.6)
wher e
0
w =
0
2 f π = t he nat ur al fr equency, and
K = a const ant which depends on t he t ype of fault .
The r at e of r ise of t his r ecover y volt age (RRRV) det er mines t he abilit y of t he quenching
medium t o int er r upt t he ar c, since t he r at e of r ise of dielect r ic st r engt h must exceed t he RRRV.
For syst ems wit h low nat ur al fr equency, which occur when long lines ar e involved wit h t heir
high induct ance and capacit ance, oil cir cuit br eaker s wer e found adequat e, alt hough air blast
and S F
6
br eaker s can do as well. But in syst ems wit h high nat ur al fr equency, t he r at e of r ise of
r ecover y volt age is ver y high and air -blast and S F
6
br eaker s ar e necessar y.
These ar e complicat ed fur t her when a shor t line of 1 or 2 km is int er posed bet ween t he
cir cuit br eaker and t he fault locat ion. Two t ypes of fault ar e dist inguished when t he sever it y of
RRRV is assessed: (1) t he t er minal fault , TF, and (2) t he shor t -line fault , SLF.
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 263
Terminal Faults (TF)
Such fault s involve maximum s-c cur r ent s. 3-phase t er minal fault s yield highest s-c cur r ent s
and r esult in most sever e condit ions for t he r ecover y volt age. This is fur t her enhanced when
one pole of t he cir cuit br eaker clear s ahead of ot her s. The fir st pole t o clear exper iences t he
highest r ecover y volt age since t he t r ansient component is higher t han when t he second or
subsequent poles clear . This is bet ween 1.5 t o 2 t imes t he phase volt age appear ing aft er final
int er r upt ion.
Short-Line Fault (SL)
In t his t ype of fault , r eflect ions ar r iving on t he line of 1 or 2 km lengt h bet ween t he
br eaker and fault ar e super imposed on t he sour ce volt age, as shown in Figur e 10.2. These give
t he highest r at es of r ecover y volt age, and in many br eaker s t he int er r upt ing capabilit y will be
gover ned by SLF r at her t han by TF. Time delays bet ween cont act s opening cannot be avoided
and in t his t ype of fault t he last pole t o open exper iences highest r ecover y volt age because of
induct ion fr om t he clear ed phases.
These st r esses can be r educed in cir cuit br eaker s by connect ing r esist ances or capacit ances
in par allel t o absor b t he shock of high-fr equency t r ansient s under ver y high s-c cur r ent s.
Resist ances ar e pr efer r ed for air -blast br eaker s and capacit ances for S F
6
br eaker s since t he
differ ence in ar c r esist ance cont r ols t he effect iveness of t hese r emedial measur es.
Fig. 10.2 Tr ansient r ecover y volt age acr oss poles of cir cuit br eaker under Shor t Line Fault .
Definition of Transient Component of Recovery Voltage
(a ) 2-Pa r a m et er Def i n i t i on
For single-fr equency cir cuit s, t he r ecover y volt age is defined t hr ough t wo par amet er s: (1)
t he magnit ude, V
1
, and (2) t he r at e of r ise, V
1
/t
1
, Fig. 10.3.
(b) 4-Pa r a m et er Def i n i t i on
Wit h lar ge int er connect ion in a syst em, t he 2-par amet er definit ion has been super seded
by t he 4-par amet er definit ion because of t he pr esence of mult iple fr equencies, as shown in
Figur e 10.3. These ar e V
1
, V
2
, t
1
, t
2
(or V
1
/t
1
). The init ial t ime t
1
is clear ly equal t o t wice t he
Short Line Side
V Source Side
Total Transient
50 Hz Voltage
264 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
t r avel t ime of t he wave on t he shor t est connect ed line. In a shor t -cir cuit t o gr ound, t he capacit ance
of t he gr ounding syst em is involved which may help t o keep t he st eepness of t he r ecover y
volt age or RRRV down.
Under t hese t wo t ypes of fault t he following values of RRRV ar e r ecommended by t he
I.E.C. for cir cuit -br eaker designs.
Terminal Fault 5kV/µs (This is being r evised t o 5.5 t o 12.6 kV/ µs).
S hort-Line Fault 9 kV/µs
These ar e maximum values and will depend upon t he cur r ent and t he degr ee of asymmet r y.
The fir st peak of r ecover y volt age is usually 2.25 p.u.
Fig. 10.3 2-and 4-par amet er r epr esent at ion of r ecover y volt age acr oss cir cuit br eaker .
10.4 OVERVOLTAGES CAUSED BY INTERRUPTION OF LOW INDUCTIVE
CURRENT
When disconnect ing t r ansfor mer s or r eact or s, t he cur r ent is low but highly induct ive. When a
cir cuit br eaker designed nor mally t o int er r upt ver y high shor t -cir cuit cur r ent s int er r upt s such
low cur r ent s on t he high volt age side, over volt ages occur on t he equipment by pr emat ur e
r educt ion of cur r ent t o zer o pr ior t o r eaching a nor mal cur r ent zer o. Cur r ent magnit udes in
such cases ar e
Tr ansfor mer on no load–2 t o 5 Amper es,
React or -loaded t r ansfor mer –up t o 400 Amper es,
High-volt age r eact or s–100 t o 200 Amps.
Fig. 10.4 shows a current magnitude i
a
when chopping occur s wit h t he syst em volt age v
a
acr oss t he induct ive load. The st or ed ener gy is
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
C v L i
a a
+ and oscillat es at t he nat ur al
fr equency f
2
= , 2 / 1
2 2
C L π which in e.h.v. syst ems is 200 t o 400 Hz for a t r ansfor mer on no
load and may be as high as 1000 Hz for a shunt r eact or . The maximum volt age appear s when
all t his ener gy is st or ed in t he capacit ance.
Thus,
2
2
max
C V =
2
2
2
2
L i C v
a a
+ which yields
max
V =
2 / 1
2 2
2 2
) / ( C L i v
a a
+ ...(10.6)
The quant it y
2 2
/C L equals t he char act er ist ic or nat ur al impedance of t he equipment .
If i
a
is low, t he volt age is at it s peak and no over volt age occur s. However , if t he cur r ent at
t he inst ant of chopping is at it s peak value and v
a
= 0, t hen V
max
= . /
2 2
C L i
a
The following
values ar e t ypical over volt ages which may be expect ed based on exper ience.
V
2
V
1
t
1
t
2
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 265
220 kV – 2.5 p.u. 400 kV – 1.8 p.u. 750 kV– 1.2 p.u.
This t ype of over volt age can be r educed by sur ge ar r est er s and ser ies r esist ances used in
cir cuit br eaker s.
10.5 INTERRUPTION OF CAPACITIVE CURRENTS
When t r a nsmission lines a r e dr opped or de-ener gized or ca pa cit or ba nks swit ched off,
over volt a ges a r e gener a t ed. Consider Fig. 10.4 wher e a line is r epr esent ed by a lumped
capacit ance C
2
. Befor e int er r upt ion, V
1
= V
2
.
Fig. 10.4 Condit ions of volt age and cur r ent dur ing 'cur r ent chopping'
when int er r upt ing low induct ive cur r ent s.
Aft er t he cur r ent is int er r upt ed C
2
r emains char ged t o 3 / 2
2 s
V V · , which is t he cr est
value of t he sour ce volt age at power fr equency. However , t he sour ce volt age V
1
changes polar it y
and t he br eaker volt age is 3 / 2
s b
V V · (1 + K) wher e
1 ≈ K
, giving 3 / 2 2
s
V . If t he insulat ing
medium in t he br eaker has not gained sufficient dielect r ic st r engt h t o wit hst and V
b
, t he ar c
may r est r ike and connect t he line t o t he sour ce. A cur r ent flows which is 90° leading. When t he
cir cuit is int er r upt ed again at a cur r ent zer o, t he volt age is at it s peak value and t he line holds
a negat ive volt age. Ther e may be r epeat ed r est r ikes such as t his and br eaker failur e may
occur . See Fig. 10.5.
Ther efor e, r est r ike-fr ee br eaker s ar e essent ial. Moder n S F
6
and air blast br eaker s meet
t hese r equir ement s but in all cases pr oper maint enance is absolut ely necessar y. Lines equipped
wit h shunt r eact or s help t o dr ain t he t r apped char ge of t he line and aid in pr oper int er r upt ion.
Capacit or banks cause t he same t ype of st r esses on t he cir cuit br eaker .
V
Line CB i
L
1
f1
C1
L
V
1
f
3
C2
V
2
f2
L
2
Va
i
a
f3
Va
V
2
f2
f1 V1
266 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Fig. 10.5 Volt ages dur ing r e-st r iking of br eaker when int er r upt ing small
capacit ive cur r ent s (line dr opping)
10.6 FERRO-RESONANCE OVERVOLTAGES
Par t ial r esonance condit ions occur in power syst ems when unbalanced configur at ion occur s so
as t o place capacit ances in ser ies wit h induct ances.
Fig. 10.6 Condit ions leading t o fer r o-r esonance dur ing non-simult aneous
oper at ion of cir cuit br eaker poles.
When a t r ansfor mer is connect ed t o a long t r ansmission line and bot h ar e swit ched t oget her ,
such a condit ion might occur as shown in Fig. 10.6. Under nor mal oper at ing condit ions, t he
line capacit ance t o gr ound is ener gized by t he phase volt age. However , suppose dur ing a
swit ching oper at ion, one pole opens or closes non-simult aneously wit h t he ot her s. The equivalent
cir cuit , Fig. 10.6(b), shows t hat t he line capacit ance is in ser ies wit h t he t r ansfor mer induct ance
in t he open phase. The condit ion when t wo poles ar e open may be seen in Fig. 10.6(b). The
i
V2
V1
V3
V
1
Ec
LT E
a
Sb
Sa C
r, l, c
C
S
b
Sc
L
T
N
L
T
C
Sa
Ea
C
LT
S
b
Eb
C
LT
N
L
T
Sc
C
Ea
(a)
(b)
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 267
pr oblem involves ver y difficult analysis and must t ake int o account t he dist r ibut ed capacit ance
of line and t he non-linear magnet izat ion cur ve of t he t r ansfor mer . This is a highly specialized
t opic and will not be consider ed fur t her . The pr oblem is also ver y impor t ant in ur ban dist r ibut ion
wher e long cables ar e used under gr ound and failur es t o bot h cable and t r ansfor mer insulat ions
have r esult ed in gr eat expense and inconvenience t o consumer s and power companies, especially
since load-shedding and fr equent swit ching has become common.
10.7 CALCULATION OF SWITCHING SURGES–SINGLE PHASE
EQUIVALENTS
Swit ching oper at ions in e.h.v. syst ems give r ise t o over volt ages due t o t he int er act ion bet ween
elect r ost at ic and elect r omagnet ic ener gies t r apped in t he long lines which r elease in connect ed
equipment . Insulat ion designs ar e gover ned by t hese over volt ages and t he r emaining par t s of
t his chapt er will be devot ed t o t he calculat ion of over volt ages and t heir r educt ion in pr act ice.
We will commence t he det ailed discussion on for mulat ing and solving equat ions cont r olling
swit ching sur ges wit h (a) lumped-par amet er net wor ks, t hen (b) dist r ibut ed-par amet er lines,
and finally (c) a combinat ion of bot h lumped-par amet er element s connect ed t o dist r ibut ed-
par amet er lines. Some of t hese ideas have alr eady been developed in Chapt er 8 wher e t he
t heor y was pr esent ed. A ver y good engineer ing idea of t he magnit udes of swit ching sur ges
exper ienced in syst em (c) can be obt ained if syst ems (a) a nd (b) ar e fir st analyzed and t heir
r esult s int er pr et ed.
10.7.1 Single-Frequency Lumped-Parameter Circuit
Consider Figur e 10.7 showing a ser ies L-R-C cir cuit ener gized by a sour ce e(t ) by closing t he
swit ch S . The capacit or has an init ial t r apped-char ge volt age V
0
wit h t he polar it y shown and
t her e is no init ial cur r ent . The oper at ional equat ion for t he cur r ent using Laplace Tr ansfor m is
s V s I Cs R Ls / ) ( ) / 1 (
0
+ + + = E(s) ...(10.7)
giving I(s) =
] ) [(
) ( .
2
0
2
0
w s L
V s E s
+ α +

...(10.8)
wher e α =
2 2
0
/ 1 and 2 / α − · LC w L R ...(10.9)
Fig. 10.7 (a) Lumped-par amet er L-R-C cir cuit wit h init ial volt age on capacit or .
(b) Effect of incr ea se of R on peak value of volt age acr oss capacit or . (See Example 10.3)
e t ( ) E S ( )
S
V
c
L R
i
+V0
C
( ) a
V
cp
, P.U.
3.0
2.0
1.0
10 40 100 632 10
3
R. ohms
( ) b
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 269
Exa mp le 10.2. A 400-kV 400-km line has t he dist r ibut ed par amet er s r = 0.031 ohm/km, l
= 1 mH/km, and c = 10 nF/km. The equivalent lumped par amet er s for t he cir cuit of Fig. 10.7
ar e assumed as R = 12.4 ohms, L = 400 mH, and C = 4µF. It is excit ed by an equivalent st ep
volt age of magnit ude E = 3 / 2 420 = 343 kV. Calculat e
(a) t he at t enuat ion fact or α ,
(b) t he nat ur al angular fr equency w
0
and π · 2 /
0 0
w f , and
(c) t he peak value of volt age acr oss C wit h t he line holding an init ial t r apped-char ge
volt age equal t o – 343 kV.
Sol u t i on .
(a) α = R/2L = 12.4/2 × 0.4 = 15.5 sec
–1
(b)
2
0
w = 1/LC – α
2
= 0.625 × 10
6
. ∴ w
0
= 790.6 and f
0
= 125 Hz.
Time for
2
1
cycle = 4 ms when t he peak occur s.
(c) Peak value of capacit or volt age is, by equat ion (10.15),
v
cp
= kV 988 88 . 2 ] cos . . 2 1 [
3
10 4 5 . 15
· · π −

× × −
E e E .
Equat ion (10.14) can be maximized as follows:
1
]
1

¸

E
t v
dt
d
c
) (
= )] sin( ) cos( [
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
0
ϕ − + ϕ − α ·
α −
t w w t w
LC w
e
t
.
giving t an ) (
0 0
ϕ − t w = ) t an( or ) t an( t an /
0 0 0 0
ϕ − π ϕ − · ϕ − · α − w .
Ther efor e
0 0
ϕ − t w =
0
ϕ − π , for t he fir st peak.
Subsequent peaks occur at (2n + 1)
0
ϕ − π , n = 1, 2, 3,....
The peak value occur s at t
m
=
0
/ w π . ...(10.17)
The maximum p.u. value fr om equat ion (10.14) is
v
cp
/ E =
0
/
0 0
2 1 cos . /
0
.
2
1
w
e w
e
LC w
πα −
+ · ϕ πα −
+ ...(10.18)
since cos LC w w w
0
2
0
2
0 0
/ · + α · ϕ fr om equat ion (10.13).
In example 10.2, α = 15.5 and w
0
= 790.6, giving 0
/ w
e
πα −
= 0.94, and t her efor e v
cp
= 1 + 2
× 0.94 = 2.88 p.u.
We also not e t hat t he r at io of adjacent peaks above t he input st ep can be wr it t en as
K
p
=
) / 2 exp(
) / ) 1 2 ( exp(
) / ) 1 2 ( exp(
) 1 2 (
) 1 2 (
0
0
0
w
w n
w n
E n v
E n v
p
p
πα ·
α + π −
α − π −
·
− +
− −
...(10.19)
Ther efor e ) ln( . ) ln(
2
giving ) ln( / 2
0
0
0 p p p
K f K
w
K w ·
π
· α · πα ...(10.20)
This gives a ver y convenient met hod of mea sur ing t he a t t enua t ion fa ct or fr om a n
oscilloscopic r ecor d. The fr equency of t he oscillat or y volt age is easily measur ed while t he
270 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
amplit udes of successive peaks can also be found. Such a met hod is useful in all t r ansient
st udies wher e t he at t enuat ion is gover ned by t he ac value of r esist ance at t he fr equency of
oscillat ion while t he d.c. r esist ance can be measur ed on a br idge.
10.7.3 Reduction of Switching Surge Overvoltage
On long e.h.v. lines, int r oduct ion of a ser ies r esist ance wit h t he cir cuit br eaker at t he inst ant
of swit ching r educes t he open-end volt age. Aft er near ly 10 ms t he ser ies r esist ance is r emoved
fr om t he cir cuit by having anot her cir cuit br eaker closing acr oss t he t er minals of t he r esist or .
W e can exam ine the effect of increasing R in Fig. 10.7. We obser ve t hat w
0
= 0 when
C L R / 2 ·
,
and t he cir cuit is 'cr it ically damped'. For t his condit ion, equat ion (10.10) becomes
V
c
(s) =
s
V
s s
LC
V E
0
2
0
) (
1
+
α +

wher e
CL L R / 1 4 /
2 2 2
· · α
...(10.21)
The t ime r esponse is
v
c
(t ) =
0 0
)] 1 ( 1 )[ ( V t e V E
t
+ α + − −
α −
...(10.22)
For t he case V
0
= – E,
v
c
(t ) =
)] 1 ( 2 1 [ t e E
t
α + −
α −
...(10.23)
Differ ent iat ing and t aking dv
c
/dt = 0, t her e dv
c
/dt =
t e E
t α
α
– 2
. 2
which is zer o at t = 0. The
r esult ing maximum value of capacit or volt age is
0
V E v
cp
· − · , fr om (10.23). Consequent ly, t he
volt age acr oss t he capacit or will never exceed t he st ep or 1 p.u.
Exa mp le 10.3. In example 10.2, wit h L = 0.4 Henr y, C = F 4µ calculat e t he maximum
volt age acr oss capacit or as t he r esist ance R is changed fr om 10 ohms t o 632 ohms ) / 2 ( C L · .
Assume t he t r apped volt age t o be – 1 p.u.
Sol u t i on . The maximum value is 1 + 2 exp ) / (
0
w πα − p.u., equat ion (10.18). The r esist ance
values may be select ed on a logar it hmic scale.
R = 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 200 300 400 600 632
α = 12.5 25 37.5 50 75 100 125 250 375 500 750 790
w
0
= 790.6 790.3 790 789 787 784 781 750 696 612 250 0
v
cp
= 2.9 2.81 2.723 2.64 2.48 2.34 2.21 1.7 1.37 1.15 1.003 1
Fig. 10.7(b) shows t he p.u. values of capacit or volt age as t he ser ies r esist ance is incr eased.
10.7.4 Sinusoidal Excitation–Lumped Parameter Circuit
Equat ion (10.10) is t he gener al expr ession for t he capacit or volt age in oper at ional for m in t he
L–R–C cir cuit shown in Fig. 10.7(a). The for cing funct ion is e(t ) whose Laplace Tr ansfor m is
E(s). For a sine-wave of excit at ion wit h e(t ) = V
m
cos (wt +
ϕ
), t he Laplace-Tr ansfor m is
E(s) = ) /( ) sin . cos . (
2 2
w s w s V
m
+ ϕ − ϕ ...(10.24)
In solving for t he capacit or volt age for t his t ype of excit at ion, it is easy if t he r esponse due
t o t he for cing funct ion and t he init ial volt age V
0
on t he capacit or ar e separ at ed. Also, inst ead of
evaluat ing t he r esidues, we will use an int uit ive met hod, alt hough t he Inver se Laplace Tr ansfor m
can be wor ked out in t he usual manner .
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 271
Response due to Initial Trapped Voltage V
0
For t his volt age, t he oper at ional expr ession for t he capacit or volt age in equat ion (10.10) is
V
0
(s) =
] ) .[(
1
.
2
0
2
0 0
w s s LC
V
s
V
+ α +

...(10.25)
The inver se t r ansfor m is, using equat ion (10.11),
v
0
(t ) = )}] cos( . / 1 . 1 { 1 [
0 0
2
0
2
0
ϕ − α + − −
α −
t w w e V
t
=
) cos( .
0 0
0
0
ϕ −
α −
t w e
LC w
V
t
...(10.26)
wher e t he values of α , w
0
and
0
ϕ ar e t aken fr om equat ions (10.9) and (10.13). The above
solut ion is valid for
C L R / 2 <
.
For t he cr it ically-damped case, R = 0 , / 2
0
· w C L , it becomes
v
0
(t ) = )}] 1 ( 1 ){ / 1 ( 1 [
2
0
t e LC V
t
α + − α −
α −
= )}] 2 / 1 ( 1 ){ / 4 ( 1 [
2
0
L Rt e C R L V
t
+ − −
α −
...(10.27)
The quant it y
C L /
can be called t he nat ur al impedance Z
0
of t he L-R-C cir cuit , giving
4L/R
2
C =
2 2
0
/ 4 R Z . Thus, t he magnit ude of t he second quant it y in (10.27) depends on t he r at io
of char act er ist ic impedance t o t he act ual r esist ance included in t he net wor k. Also,
C R L
2
/ 4
=
1 for t he cr it ically damped case.
Response due to Forcing Function e(t) = V
m
cos (wt + ϕ ϕ)
The t r ansient r esult ing fr om sudden ener gizat ion of t he cir cuit will consist of t wo par t s which
ar e (1) t he st eady st at e t er m or par t icular int egr al sur viving when all t r ansient s have vanished,
and (2) t he exponent ially decaying t r ansient t er m or t he compliment ar y funct ion.
(1) S t ea d y-S t a t e T er m
Using phasor algebr a, t he cir cuit cur r ent phasor leads t he applied volt age by t he angle
ψ
and t he magnit ude is V
m
/Z. Thus, it s value is
I
ss
= ) cos( ψ + ϕ + wt
Z
V
m
...(10.28)
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
− · ψ
− + ·
] / ) / 1 t an[( ar c and
) / 1 ( wher e
2 2
R wL wC
wL wC R Z
...(10.29)
The capacit or volt age in t he st eady st at e lags 90° behind t he cur r ent and has t he value
V
cs
=
) sin( 90
1
ψ + ϕ + · ° − ∠ wt
wCZ
V
I
wC
m
ss ...(10.30)
(2) Com p l i m en t a r y Fu n ct i on or T r a n si en t T er m
The t r ansient t er m will be of t he same for m as equat ion (10.11) and is wr it t en as
V
cc
=
t
e t w K t w K
α −
+ ) sin cos (
0 2 0 1
, ...(10.31)
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 273
Critical Damping. R = ) 2 .( / 2
0
Z R C L · .
For t his case, t he r esponse funct ion wit h V
0
is
V
c
=
2 2
. ) {sin( ) [sin( w t e wt
wCZ
V
t m
+ α + ψ + ϕ − ψ + ϕ +
α −
.
) 2 / 1 ( )}] cos(
0
L Rt e V
t
+ + δ − ψ + ϕ
α −
...(10.39)
S hort -circuit Power
In usual sour ces, t he induct ance is consider able. If in t he cir cuit of Fig. 10.7 (a), t he
induct ance L is consider ed as cont r ibut ed by t he sinusoidal sour ce only, we can define a shor t -
cir cuit power of t he sour ce as
P
sc
= wL V
m
2 /
2
...(10.40)
This will be deliver ed when a shor t -cir cuit occur s at t he t er minals of t he sour ce whose
ser ies r eact ance at power fr equency is X = wL. Then, t he p.u. value of capacit or volt age for
C L R / 2 <
can be wr it t en in t er ms of t his s-c power as follows fr om equat ions (10.26) and
(10.36):
m
c
V
V
=
). sin( . ) [sin(
2
0
2
η + − ψ + ϕ +
α −
t w e wt
CZ
L
V
P
t
m
sc
1
1
]
1
1
1
]
1

¸

δ − ψ + ϕ
+
+ ψ + ϕ
2 / 1
2
2 2
0
2 2 2
2
) ( cos
4
4
) ( sin
L w
L w R
) cos( ) exp(
1
0 0
0
0
ϕ − α − + t w t
LC w V
V
m
...(10.41)
The t er m w V L P
m sc
2 /
2
· is a const ant for given values of for cing funct ion V
m
and power
fr equency f = w/2π.
10.8 DISTRIBUTED-PARAMETER LINE ENERGIZED BY SOURCE
We have alr eady analyzed t he t r avelling-wave and st anding-wave r esponses of a dist r ibut ed-
par amet er line wit h open end when ener gized by a st ep funct ion in Chapt er 8. The oper at ional
expr essions for t he volt age and cur r ent at any point on an open-ended line wer e, neglect ing t he
init ial t r apped volt age,
¹
;
¹
·
·
pL Z px s E s x I
pL px s E s x V
cosh . / sinh ). ( ) , ( and
cosh / cosh ). ( ) , (
0
...(10.42)
wher e p = , ) )( ( cs g ls r + + t he pr opagat ion fact or
and Z
0
= , ) /( ) ( cs g ls r + + t he sur ge impedance of line c l / ≈ .
Also, v = , / 1 l c t he velocit y of pr opagat ion.
At t he open end, t he volt age is
V
0
= E(s)/cosh pL. ...(10.43)
274 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
S t ep Response. Denot ing A
0
= e
–aL
wher e
0
2 / 2 / Z r lv r a · · , t he st ep r esponse was obt ained
as shown in Fig. 8.4 and t he Bewley Lat t ice Diagr am, Figur e 8.5. The gener al expr ession for
t he volt age at t ime t = NT, wher e T = t ime t aken for t r avel of sur ge over one line lengt h (T =
L/v) was , 2
) 2 (
2
0 0 T N NT
V A A V

− · N odd. The maximum volt age is 2A
0
at t he open end when
t r apped char ge is neglect ed. Wit h a t r apped volt age of 1 p.u., t he open-end volt age r eaches a
maximum of (2A
0
+ 1) p.u. In usual t r ansmission lines, t he t r apped volt age is 0.8 p.u. on a
r eclosing oper at ion. We may not e her e t hat t he value of fir st peak is ver y near ly t he same as
was obt ained fr om t he lumped-par amet er net wor k.
The at t enuat ion fact or must be pr oper ly calculat ed by consider ing t he r esist ance of not
only t he conduct or but also t he gr ound r et ur n which exceeds t he conduct or r esist ance by a
fact or of as much as 10. The following example shows t he effect of gr ound-r et ur n induct ance on
t he velocit y of pr opagat ion and t he r esist ance on t he at t enuat ion.
Exa mp le 10.4. The 400-km 400-kV line consider ed in example 10.2 has t he following
det ails:
Conductor resistance r
c
= 0.031 ohm/km
Gr ound r et ur n r esist ance r
g
= 0.329 ohm/km at 125 Hz
Ser ies induct ance of line l
s
= 1 mH/km
Gr ound-r et ur n induct ance l
g
= 0.5 mH/km
Shunt capacit ance c = 11.1 nF/km
Calculate
(a) velocit y of pr opagat ion v and t r avel t ime T;
(b) sur ge impedance;
(c) at t enuat ion fact or A
0
;
(d) maximum p.u. value of open-end volt age wit hout t r apped volt age.
Compar e all t hese quant it ies by neglect ing gr ound and consider ing t he gr ound-r et ur n
par amet er s.
Sol u t i on .
Neglect ing r
g
and l
g
Considering r
g
and l
g
Tot al r esist ance r 0.031 ohm/km 0.36 ohm/km
Tot al induct ance l 1 mH/km 1.5 mH/km
Capacit ance c 11.1 nF/km 11.1 nF/km
Velocit y v, km/sec 3 × 10
5
1 . 11 5 . 1 / 10
6
×
= 2.45 × 10
5
= 82% light velocit y
Time for 1 t r avel, T, ms 1.33 1.633
Sur ge impedance 300
367 10 1 . 11 / 5 . 1
3
· ×
Z
0
, ohms
At t enuat ion fact or , A
0 98 . 0
800 / 4 . 12
·

e 822 . 0
734 / 144
·

e
Maximum open-end 1.96 p.u. 1.644 p.u.
volt a ge, 2A
0
We not e t hat t he effect of gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance and induct ance on t he swit ching sur ge
r esponse (st ep r esponse) is t o
(a) decr ease t he velocit y of pr opagat ion of t he sur ge,
(b) incr ease t he t ime of t r avel,
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 275
(c) incr ease t he sur ge impedance,
(d) incr ease t he at t enuat ion of sur ge over one t r avel, and
(e) lower t he maximum value of open-end volt age.
Sine-Wave Response
Following t he same pr ocedur e as for t he st ep r esponse, t he t r avelling-wave concept yields t he
followin g sequ en ce of volt a ges a t t h e open en d wh en t h e sou r ce volt a ge h a s t h e for m
). cos( ) ( ϕ + · wt V t e
m
At t = 0, t he swit ch is closed and t he sour ce volt age will appear at t he open end at t ime t
= T wit h magnit ude A
0
cos
ϕ
. Due t o t ot al r eflect ion at t he open end, t he volt age will be
ϕ · cos 2
0 1
A V , p.u. At t = 2T, t he volt age ) cos( ϕ + wT V
m
will r each t he open end and become
double. ∴ ) cos( 2
0 2
ϕ + · wT A V , p.u. At t = 3T, t he r eflect ed volt age at t = T would have gone
back t o t he sour ce and r et ur ned wit h a negat ive sign aft er at t enuat ing by
2
0
A . Also, t he volt age
V
m
cos ) 2 ( ϕ + wT would r each t he open end at t he same t ime. ∴ At t = 3T, and p.u. value of
open-end volt age is V
3
= 2A
0
cos
1
2
0
) 2 ( V A wT − ϕ + . The sequence of volt ages is t her efor e as
follows:
At t = 0 : V
0
= 0
t = T : V
1
= ϕ cos 2
0
A
t = 2T : V
2
= ) cos( 2
0
ϕ + wT A
t = 3T : V
3
=
1
2
0 0
) 2 cos( 2 V A wT A − ϕ + ...(10.44)
t = 4T : V
4
=
2
2
0 0
) 3 cos( 2 V A wT A − ϕ +
t = NT :V
N
= 2A
0
. ) 1 ( cos
2
2
0 −
− ϕ + −
N
V A wt N
When t he sour ce is swit ched on t o t he line at t he inst ant it is passing t hr ough it s peak
value,
ϕ
= 0°. This usually gives t he maximum st r ess on line insulat ion.
Exa mp le 10.5. For t he 400-kV 400-km line of pr evious example, when t he sour ce of
excit at ion is sinusoidal wit h f = 50 Hz, and is swit ched on t o t he line at it s peak (
ϕ
= 0),
consider ing gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance and induct ance, calculat e and plot t he open-end volt age
in per unit up t o 20 ms (1 cycle).
Sol u t i on . T = 1.633 ms, v = 2.45 × 10
5
km/s, A
0
= 0.822
∴ N = 20/1.633 = 12.25 t r avel t imes. We will go up t o 14 t r avel t imes
(V = 0 up t o t = T). ) 6757 . 0 (
2
0
· A
t = 0 V
0
= 0
t = T V
1
= 2A
0
= 1.644
t = 2T V
2
= 452 . 1 4 . 29 cos 2 18 633 . 1 cos 2
0 0
· ° · ° × A A
t = 3T V
3
= 259 . 0 4 . 29 2 cos 2
1
2
0 0
− · − ° × V A A
t = 4T V
4
= 9362 . 0 4 . 29 3 cos 2
2
2
0 0
− · − ° × V A A
276 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Cont inuing in t his manner , we obt ain
V
5
= – 0.587, V
6
= – 0.746, V
7
= – 1.244, V
8
= – 0.976, V
9
= – 0.098,
V
10
= 0.5037, V
11
= 0.735, V
12
= 0.98, V
13
= 1.134,
and V
14
= 86 . 0 4 . 29 13 cos 2
12
2
0 0
· − ° × V A A
The oscillat ions have near ly vanished and t he open-end volt age follows t he sour ce volt age
as shown in Fig. 10.8.
Fig. 10.8 Open-end volt age on a line excit ed by a sinusoidal sour ce.
10.9 GENERALIZED EQUATIONS FOR SINGLE-PHASE REPRESENTATION
A mor e gener al case wit h ser ies and shunt impedance lumped element s connect ed t o dist r ibut ed-
par amet er line was consider ed in chapt er 8, sect ion 8.10. It was shown t hat t he volt age at t he
ent r ance t o t he line was, wit h a lit t le r e-wr it ing of equat ion (8.122),
V
e
=
pL
Z
Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
pL
Z
Z
Z
Z
pL Z Z pL
s E
s
t sh
s
t t
s
sh
s
t
sinh cosh 1
sinh ) / ( cosh
). (
0
0 0
0

,
_

¸
¸
+ + +

,
_

¸
¸
+ +
+
...(10.45)
Having found V
e
, all ot her volt ages and cur ent s can be obt ained. In par t icular , t he volt age
at t he far end or at t he t er minat ion is
V
0
=
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + +

,
_

¸
¸
+ + pL
Z
Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
pL
Z
Z
Z
Z
s E
s
t sh
s
t t
s
sh
s
sinh cosh 1 ) (
0
0 0
...(10.46)
These for m t he gener alized equat ions for a single-phase r epr esent at ion of t he syst em.
These equat ions also yield t he mor e complicat ed set of per for mance equat ions of a 3-phase
syst em if all quant it ies ar e suit ably r eplaced by mat r ices. This will be t aken up in t he next
sect ion. The mat r ices can be diagonalized t o yield t hr ee mut ually-decoupled single-phase syst ems
or modes of pr opagat ion for t he sur ge. Obt aining t he inver se t r ansfor m t o yield t he cor r esponding
t ime var iat ion in closed for m is not easy for a gener al case and must be at t empt ed t hr ough t he
Four ier Tr ansfor m or ot her met hods suit able for t he Digit al Comput er .
Particular Cases of the General Equations
Equat ions (10.45) and (10.46) for t he ent r ance and t er minat ion volt ages can be used for
par t icular cases which occur in pr act ice. Some t ypical cases ar e shown in t he t abular for m. 7
cases ar e consider ed which ar e shown in Fig. 10.9.
2.0
1.0
0
– 1.0
– 2.0
1 2
3
4 5 6 7 8
9
10 11 12 13 14
V
0
t/T
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 277
S .No. S yst em Impedances Open-end Voltage V
0
Ent rance Volt age V
e
Configuration
1. Figur e 10.9 (a)
∞ ·
∞ · ·
t
sh s
Z
Z Z , 0 E(s)/cosh pL E(s)
2. Figur e 10.9(b)
sh t
sh s
Z Z
Z Z
·
· , , 0
pL
Z
Z
pL
s E
sh
sinh cosh
) (
0
+
E(s)
3. Figur e (10.9)(c)
∞ ·
·
sh
t s
Z
Z Z , 0
pL
Z
Z
pL
s E
t
sinh cosh
) (
0
+
E(s)
4. Figur e 10.9(d)
∞ ·
∞ ·
t
sh s
Z
Z Z ,
pL
Z
Z
pL
s E
s
sinh cosh
) (
0
+
pL V cosh .
0
5. Figur e 10.9(e)
∞ ·
t
sh s
Z
Z Z ,
pL
Z
Z
pL
Z
Z
s E
s
sh
s
sinh cosh 1
) (
0
+

,
_

¸
¸
+
pL V cosh .
0
6. Figur e 10.9( f )
sh t
sh s
Z Z
Z Z
·
,
,
pL
Z
Z Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
pL
Z
Z
s E
sh
s s
sh
sh
s
sinh
cosh
2
1
) (
2
0
0
0

,
_

¸
¸
+ +

¸

+

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
+
pL
Z
Z
pL V
sh
sinh
cosh
0
0
7. Figur e 10.9(g)
t
sh s
Z
Z Z , , Equat ion 10.46 Equat ion 10.45
Line
E
E Zsh
Ve
V0
Zt
Ve V0
( ) a
( ) b
278 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
F i g. 10.9 7 par t icular cases of syst em configur at ion for illust r at ing
application of generalized equations. In (f ), Z
t
= Z
sh
.
Numerical Examples
The inver se t r ansfor m has been evaluat ed by using t he Four ier Tr ansfor m Met hod for
t hr ee cases which ar e shown in Fig. 10.10. These ar e:
1. 250 km line bet ween Dehar Power St at ion and Panipat Receiving St at ion wit h line
open. Line par amet er s ar e r = 0.0274 ohm/km, l = 0.992 mH/km, c = 7.4 nF/km, T =
916 µs, Z
s
= 0.075 ohm and 0.2184 Henr y which r epr esent t he r esist ance and t r ansient
r eact ance of power st at ion. Swit ching at peak of sine wave. Bot h ent r ance volt age
and open-end volt age ar e shown.
2. 160 km line, Z
g
= 0.385 ohm and 0.049 Henr y, T = 545 µs, r = 0.02 ohm/km, l = 0.89
mH/km, c = 13 nF/km. Init ial w
t
= 10, final w
F
= 10
5
, w ∆ = 100, number of or dinat es
used in numer ical int egr at ion n = 1000, a = 1/10 T fr om 0 t o 10 T, a = 1/20 T fr om 10T
t o 20 T. Bot h ent r ance volt age V
e
and open-end volt age ar e plot t ed for sinusoidal
excit at ion at peak value.
3. St ep r esponse of a t r ansfor mer -t er minat ed line. 160 km line, r = 0.29 ohm/km, l = 2
mH/km, c = 14.1 nF/km, t r ansfor mer r epr esent ed by 1000 pF bushing in par allel
wit h 13.9 ohm r esist ance and 0.468 Henr y induct ance in ser ies. The t r ansfor mer
volt age and volt age at 50% point of line ar e shown. Sour ce has no ser ies impedance.
Values of T, w
t
, w
F
, n and a ar e same as in case (2).
E
E
E
E
E
V
e
Ve
V
e
Zsh
Z
sh
Z
sh
Z
t
Z
t
V
e
V
e
V
0
V0
V
0
Z
s
Zs
Z
s
Z
s
V0
V
0
Zt
( ) c
( ) d
( ) e
( ) f
( ) g
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 279
Fi g. 10.10 Over volt ages dur ing swit ching oper at ions on syst ems calculat ed by Four ier Tr ansfor ms.
(a) 250 km line ener gized at peak of sine wave at gener at ing st at ion wit h ser ies impedance. (b) 160 km line
ener gized at peak of sine wave, wit h sour ce having small induct ance (sub-t r ansient ). (c) St ep r esponse of a
r eceiving-st at ion t r ansfor mer t er minat ion. No sour ce ser ies impedance.
V
e
V
0
Ve
V0
V
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
2T 4T 8T 12T 14T 16T
T
n
= 545 s
= 1000
µ
.0488
160 km
V
e
V
0
V
.075
250 km
= 916 s T µ
.2184 H
Dehar
T 2T 3T 5T 6T 7T
1.0
( ) a
( ) b
( ) c
0.5
V
e
V0
V
Dehar
Panipat
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
T 2T 4T 6T 8T 12T 16T 14T
V
5
V
0
STEP
S 160 km 1 nF
.468 H
13.9 Ω
V
5
V
0
280 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
10.10 GENERALIZED EQUATIONS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS
The gener alized equat ions for swit ching-sur ge calculat ion on 3-phase syst ems is an ext ension
of t he single-phase case of t he pr evious sect ion. Since t he equat ions ar e quit e lengt hy, a st ep by
st ep pr ocedur e is given below. We will r est r ict t he development t o a fully t r ansposed line.
Resist ance of Line
Wit h gr ound-r et ur n consider ed, t he t ot al r esist ance consist s of conduct or r esist ance r
c
and gr ound-r et ur n r esist ance r
g
. The r esult ing mat r ix of r esist ance will be
[r] = ] [ ] [ D r U r
g c
+ ...(10.47)
wher e [U] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
1 , 1 , 1
] [ and
1 , 0 , 0
0 , 1 , 0
0 , 0 1
D ...(10.48)
Induct ance of Line: In a similar manner
[l] = ] )[ ( ] )[ ( D l l U l l
g m m s
+ + − ...(10.49)
wher e l
s
= self induct ance, l
m
= mut ual induct ance bet ween phases, and l
g
= gr ound-r et ur n
induct ance per unit lengt h.
Capacitance of Line
[c] = ] [ ] )[ ( D c U c c
m m s
+ − ...(10.50)
S hunt Impedance at line ent r ance
[Z
sh
] = Z
sh
[U] ...(10.51)
S eries Impedance of source
[Z
s
] = Z
s
[U] ...(10.52)
Terminating Impedance
For balanced condit ion
[Z
t
] = Z
t
[U] ...(10.53)
For gener al unbalanced condit ion,
[Z
t
] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

3
2
1
,
t
t
t
Z
Z
Z
...(10.54)
S ource Volt age
[e(t )] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸

ϕ +
ϕ +
ϕ +
) cos(
) cos(
) cos(
3
2
1
wt
wt
wt
V
m
...(10.55)
For synchr onous closing.
2
ϕ = ° + ϕ · ϕ ° − ϕ 120 , 120
1 3 1
The angles
3 2 1
, , ϕ ϕ ϕ denot e t he point s on t he wave at which swit ching t akes place fr om
t he posit ive peaks of t he r espect ive phase volt ages.
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 281
Voltage Equations
Commencing wit h t he out put end, we have t he following sequence of equat ions, as shown
fr om Fig. 10.11.
[V
0
] = [Z
t
] [I
0
], [V
0
] = [F] [V
e
] ...(10.56)
wher e [F] is a funct ion which is t o be det er mined fr om t he differ ent ial equat ions. For a
single-phase r epr esent at ion, F is given by t he r at io of equat ions (10.46) and (10.45), which is
] sinh ) / ( [cosh
0
pL Z Z pL
t
+ . ] ][ [ ] [
e e
V G I · wher e [G] is anot her funct ion st ill t o be evaluat ed.
Refer t o Chapt er 8 for t he single-phase case. A similar value in mat r ix for m can be der ived.
Fi g. 10.11 Gener a l r epr esent a t ion of a syst em.
[I
s
] = [I
e
] + [Z
sh
]
–1
[V
e
] ...(10.57)
[E] = Laplace t r ansfor m of sour ce volt ages
= ]} [ ] [ ] ]{[ [ ] [ ] ][ [ ] [
1
e sh e s e s s e
V Z I Z V I Z V

+ + · +
= ] }][ ] [ ] ]{[ [ ] [[
1
e sh s
V Z G Z U

+ + ...(10.58)
∴ The ent r ance volt age is
[V
e
] = [[U ] + [Z
s
] {[G] + [Z
sh
]
–1
}]
–1
[E ] ...(10.59)
Having obt ained t he ent r ance volt age in t er ms of t he sour ce volt age [E], t he out put volt age
[V
0
] and t he cur r ent s can be obt ained in oper at ional for m. The t ime-domain solut ions have t o
be evaluat ed by t he Inver se Tr ansfor m.
10.10.1 Resolution into Component Modes of Propagation
In equat ions (10.47) t o (10.50), t he line par amet er s involve t he special mat r ix [D]. If t his is
diagonalized, t hen t he volt ages and cur r ent s can all be r esolved int o component s which will
show no mut ual int er act ion. They ar e r esolved int o t hr ee 'modes of pr opagat ion.' At any desir ed
t ime, t hey can be r ecombined t o yield t he phase quant it ies. This can be car r ied out by t he
Digit al Comput er aft er ever y calculat ion of t he inver se t r ansfor m.
It has been shown in Chapt er 3 t hat t he modified Clar ke Tr ansfor mat ion mat r ix will
diagonalize [D]. The mat r ices ar e
[T] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸


− ·
1
1
1
]
1

¸




1 2 , 1
3 0 , 3
2 , 2 , 2
6
1
] [ and
1 , 3 , 2
2 , 0 , 2
1 , 3 , 2
6
1
1
T
...(10.60)
[ ] Zs
[ ( )][Z ] E s
sh
[ ] I
s
[ ] I
e
[ ] I
0
[ ] Z
t [ ] V0 [ ] Ve
282 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Then ] ][ [ ] [
1
T D T

= ] [
0 , 0 , 0
0 , 0 , 0
0 , 0 , 3
λ ·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

...(10.61)
t he eigenvalue mat r ix.
Line Paramet ers in Modal Form
Let [r
m
], [l
m
], and [c
m
] be t he r epr esent at ions of modal r esist ance, induct ance and capacit ance
mat r ices, obt ained as follows fr om t he line par amet er mat r ices.
[r
m
] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸
+
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·

c
c
g c
r
r
r r
r
r
r
T r T
, 0 , 0
0 , , 0
0 , 0 , 3
,
,
] ][ [ ] [
3
2
1
1
...(10.62)
[l
m
] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸



+ +
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·

m s
m s
g m s
l l
l l
l l l
l
l
l
T l T ,
3 2
] ][ [ ] [
3
2
1
1
...(10.63)
[c
m
] =
1
1
1
]
1

¸



+
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·

m s
m s
m s
c c
c c
c c
c
c
c
T c T ,
, 2
,
,
] ][ [ ] [
3
2
1
1
...(10.64)
Lumped Impedances in Modal Form
] [
shm
Z = ] [ ] ][ [ ] [
1
U Z T Z T
sh sh
·

...(10.65)
[Z
sm
] = ] [ ] ][ [ ] [
1
U Z T Z T
s s
·

...(10.66)The t er minat ing impedance needs special
at t ent ion. For balanced impedances, equat ion (10.53),
[Z
tm
] = ] [ ] ][ [ ] [
1
U Z T Z T
t t
·

...(10.67)
But when t he impedances connect ed t o gr ound in t he t hr ee phases ar e unequal as in
equat ion (10.54), t her e will be mut ual int er act ion bet ween t he phases since
] ][ [ ] [
1
T Z T
t

=
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

+ + − + −
− + −
+ − − + +
6 / ) 4 ( , 3 2 / ( , 3 2 / ) 2 (
3 2 / ) ( , 2 / ) ( , 6 / ) (
3 2 / ) 2 ( , 6 / ) ( , 3 / ) (
3 2 1 3 1 3 2 1
2 1 3 1 3 1
3 2 1 3 1 3 2 1
t t t t t t t t
t t t t t t
t t t t t t t t
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
...(10.68)
For ,
3 3 1 t t t
Z Z Z · · t his r educes t o equat ion (10.67).
Special met hods ar e available for handling unbalanced t er minal condit ions which have
been developed by Ur am, Miller and Feer o and by Dommel and ot her s. But a ver y ext ensive
invest igat ion of t he effect pr oduced on swit ching sur ges car r ied out on a Tr ansient Net wor k
Analyzer by Sujat ha Subhash, Meer a, J yot i and Kanya Kumar i have r evealed t he following
impor t ant t heor em:
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 283
'When unbalanced t er minal condit ions exist , t he syst em r esponse t o swit ching is near ly
t he same as if t he syst em consist s of t hr ee balanced syst ems, each one having t er minat ing
impedances equal t o t hose connect ed in t he individual phases.' Using t his pr oper t y, t he syst em
can be analyzed t hr ee t imes by using balanced load of Z
t1
in all phases and calculat ing t he
swit ching-sur ge r esponse in phase 1. Then r eplace a balanced load of Z
t2
and det er mine t he
r esponse of phase 2. Finally, r eplace a balanced load Z
t3
in t he syst em and t he r esult ing r esponse
of phase 3 will be t he same as when t he unbalanced load is used. We might also r emar k t hat
since swit ching-sur ge calculat ions under unbalanced loads or when consider ing r esist ances in
lines is ver y complicat ed and consumes a ver y long comput er t ime, shor t er met hods, giving
r esult s accept able for engineer ing designs must be cont inuously devised. Hedman has found
t hat t he line r esist ance can be omit t ed in solving t he t r avelling-wave equat ions but can be
included as a lumped ser ies r esist ance wit h t he load. Similar ly, t he pr oblems of fr equency-
dependence of gr ound-r et ur n par amet er s have also caused gr ave concer n and for m ver y advanced
t opics which cannot be discussed in t his int r oduct or y chapt er t o calculat ion of swit ching sur ges.
The r eader is r efer r ed t o t he ext ensive wor k list ed in t he bibliogr aphy.
Voltages and Currents in Modal Form: Differential Equations:
S ource Volt age
] )][ ( [ ] [
1
T t e T

=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

ϕ + + ϕ + − ϕ +
ϕ + − ϕ +
ϕ + + ϕ + + ϕ +
) cos( ) cos( 2 ) cos(
)} cos( ) {cos( 3
)} cos( ) cos( ) {cos( 2
6
3 1
3 1
3 2 1
wt wt wt
wt wt
wt wt wt
V
m
...(10.69)
The oper at ional for ms of t hese volt ages can be evaluat ed suit ably by using )] [cos( ϕ + wt L
= ) /( ) sin . cos . (
2 2
w s w s + ϕ − ϕ .
The gover ning differ ent ial equat ions and t heir solut ions for each of t he t hr ee independent
modes can now be der ived. The basic differ ent ial equat ion for t he phase quant it ies ar e
dx
V d
x
] [
=
] [ ] [
] [
and ], }[ ] [ ] {[
x
x
x
V s c
dx
I d
I s l r · +
...(10.70)
These ar e r esolved int o modal for m t hus:
] [ ] [
1
x
V
dx
d
T

=
] [ ] [ ] [
3
2
1
1
m
m
m
m
x
V
dx
d
V
V
V
dx
d
V T
dx
d
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·

...(10.71)
But [T]
–1
{[r] + [l]s} [T] [T]
–1
[I
x
] = {[r
m
] + [l
m
]s} [I
m
] ...(10.72)

] [
m
V
dx
d
= {[r
m
] + [l
m
]s} [I
m
] ...(10.73)
Similar ly, ] [
m
I
dx
d
= [c
m
] s[V
m
] (10.74)
These const it ut e 6 independent equat ions which ar e as follows by using equat ions (10.62)
t o (10.64):

¹
¹
¹
;
¹
− + ·
− + ·
+ + + + ·
m m s c m
m m s c m
m g m s g c m
I s l l r dx dV
I s l l r dx dV
I s l l l r r dx dV
3 3
2 2
1 1
} ) { { /
} ) ( { /
} ) 3 2 ( ) 3 {( /
...(10.75)
284 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering

¹
¹
¹
;
¹
− ·
− ·
+ ·
m m s m
m m s m
m m s m
V s c c dx dI
V s c c dx dI
V s c c dx dI
3 3
2 2
1 1
. ) ( /
. ) ( /
. ) 2 ( /
...(10.75)
We obser ve t hat t hese ar e equivalent t o t he following 3 set s of equat ions, one for each
mode, as if each per t ains t o a single-phase quant it y but in modal for m,
d (V
km
)/dx = z
km
.I
km
, and d(I
km
)/dx = y
km
V
km
...(10.76)
wher e k = 1, 2, 3. Omit t ing t he subscr ipt s, for any one of t he modes, t he differ ent ial
equat ions ar e of t he for m
dV/ dx = zI, and dI/dx = yV ...(10.77)

¹
¹
¹
;
¹
− ·
+ ·


) (
1
and
ar e solut ions Their
0
px px
px px
Be Ae
Z
I
Be Ae V
...(10.78)
We have encount er ed t hese befor e in Chapt er 8. In t hese equat ions, t he pr opagat ion
fact or p and sur ge impedance Z
0
belong t o t he mode under consider at ion, and t heir values ar e
as follows:
Mode 1:
p
1
= ] ) 2 }( ) 2 ( ) 3 [{( s c c s l l l r r
m s g m s g c
+ + + + +
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
+ ·
+ ·
s c s l r Z
s c s l r
1 1 1 01
1 1 1
/ ) (
) (
...(10.79)
Mode 2:
p
2
= s c s l r Z s c s l r
2 2 2 02 2 2 2
/ ) ( , ) ( + · + ...(10.80)
Mode 3:
p
3
= p
2
and Z
03
= Z
02
...(10.81)
The values of r
1
, r
2
, l
1
, l
2
, c
1
, c
2
ar e given in equat ions (10.62) t o (10.64). Equat ions (10.78)
can be applied for each mode in t ur n which will yield expr essions for t he r equir ed volt ages or
cur r ent s in t he syst em when t he ent r ance volt age V
e
t o t he line is found in t er ms of t he sour ce
volt age as shown in equat ions (10.45) and (10.46) for a single phase case.
Aft er having calculat ed t he inver se t r ansfor m at ever y inst ant of t ime by a suit able met hod
on t he Digit al Comput er , t he modal volt ages and cur r ent s can be r e-conver t ed t o phase quant it ies
by t he inver se t r ansfor mat ion t o equat ions (10.71) t o (10.74):
[V
ph
] = [T] [V
m
] and [I
ph
] = [T] [I
m
] ...(10.82)
For exa mple,
1
1
1
]
1

¸

3
2
1
ph
ph
ph
V
V
V
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
]
1

¸



m
m
m
V
V
V
3
2
1
1 , 3 , 2
2 , 0 , 2
1 , 3 , 2
6
1
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 285
=
1
1
1
]
1

¸

+ −

+ +
m m m
m m
m m m
V V V
V V
V V V
3 2 1
3 1
3 2 1
3 2
2 2
3 2
6
1
...(10.83)
In swit ching-t r ansient calculat ions, t he most difficult oper at ion is obt aining t he inver se
t r ansfor m. We will discuss t his aspect next and only indicat e t he st eps involved in evaluat ing
t he same by using a Digit al Comput er for t he Inver se Four ier Tr ansfor m. This is dir ect and t he
main ideas have alr eady been set for t h in Chapt er 8. Var ious ot her ver y power ful met hods
have been evolved by many eminent engineer s t o obt ain t he t ime r esponse. Chief among t hese
ar e (See Gr eenwood, under Books in Bibliogr apy):
1. Dommel's Met hod based on Ber ger on's analysis of Wat er Hammer in hydr aulic pipe
lines and t he development of t he Elect r omagnet ic Tr ansient s Pr ogr ammes (EMTP);
2. Ur am, Miller , and Feer o's Met hod using Laplace Tr ansfor ms;
3. Amet ani's Modified Refr act ion Coefficient Met hod;
4. Bar t hold and Car t er 's Reflect ion Coefficient Met hod which is an applicat ion and
impr ovement of Bewley's Lat t ice Diagr am for handling a lar ge syst em using t he
Digit al Comput er .
5. Finally, t he Four ier Tr ansfor m Met hod developed and used by t he Br it ish t eam of
Day, Mullineux, Reed, Doeppel, and ot her s.
10.11 INVERSE FOURIER TRANSFORM FOR THE GENERAL CASE
We will illust r at e t he st eps involved in evaluat ing t he Inver se Four ier Tr ansfor m (IFT) for t he
far -end volt age given by equat ion (10.46) and for each mode in a 3-phase syst em aft er t he phase
volt ages have been r esolved int o t he 3 independent modes. Consider t he equat ion
V
0
=
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + +

,
_

¸
¸
+ + pL
Z
Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
pL
Z
Z
Z
Z
s E
s
sh t
s
t t sh
s
sinh cosh 1 ) (
0
0 0 0
...(10.46)
wher e p = ) /( ) ( , ) )( (
0
cs g ls r Z cs g ls r + + · + + ...(10.84)
In pr evious equat ions t he shunt conduct ance g could be int r oduced as a mat r ix wit hout
loosing t he gener alit y. For t he sake of illust r at ing t he st eps, let r = g = 0, and only shunt
r eact or s be used at bot h ends so t hat Z
t
= Z
sh
. Then,
p = s L R Z s L Z Z c l Z v s lc s
s s s sh sh t
+ · · · · · , , / . /
0
...(10.85)
Her e, v = velocit y of pr opagat ion for t he mode under consider at ion wit h l and c comput ed
for ea ch mode.
Z
0
= sur ge impedance of t he line for t he mode.
L
s
= induct ance of t he shunt -compensat ing r eact or ,
L
s
= ser ies induct ance of sour ce = t r ansient r eact ance/2πf,
R
s
= ser ies r esist ance of sour ce and any r esist ance incor por at ed in t he cir cuit br eaker
dur ing swit ching, and
E(s) = sour ce volt age in oper at ional for m for t he mode obt ained fr om equat ion (10.69).
286 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Then,
V
0
(s) =

¸

+

,
_

¸
¸ + +
+ v sL
s L
Z s L R
s E
sh
s s
/ cosh 1 ) (
0
1
1
]
1

,
_

¸
¸
+
+
+
+ v sL
Z
s L R
s L
Z s L R
s L
Z
s s
sh
s s
sh
/ sinh
) (
0
2 2
0 0
...(10.86)
Next , we r eplace s = a + jw wher e a and w ar e as yet unspecified but t hey ent er in t he
int egr at ion as discussed in Chapt er 8. When s = a + jw, t he equat ion (10.86) will become a
funct ion of complex number s. We t hen pr oceed t o separ at e t he r eal and j-par t s, designat ing
t hem P and Q r espect ively. Now,
sh
s
sh
s
L
L
s L
Z R
+
+
+
1
1
0
=
) (
) (
) (
) (
1
2 2
0
2 2
0
w a L
w Z R
j
w a L
a Z R
L
L
sh
s
sh
s
sh
s
+
+

,
_

¸
¸
+
+
+ +
0 0
2
0
2 2
0 0
1 1
Z
s L
Z
R
s
L
Z L
s L
Z R
s L
Z
s s
sh
s
sh
s
sh
+ + + +
...(10.87)
=
1
1
]
1

¸

+ +
+
+
+

+
+
0 0
2 2 2
0
2 2 2
2 2
2
0
2 2
0
) (
Z
a L
Z
R
w a
a
L
Z L
w a
w a
L
Z R
w a
a
L
Z
s s
sh
s
sh
s
sh

1
1
]
1

¸


+
+
+
+
+
0
2 2 2
0
2 2 2 2
0
2 2
0
) ( ) (
2
) (
Z
w L
w a L
w Z L
w a L
aw Z R
w a L
w Z
j
s
sh
s
sh
s
sh
...(10.88)
cosh (sL/v) = cosh (aL/v). cos(wL/v) + j sinh (aL/v). sin (wL/v) ...(10.89)
sinh (sL/v) = sinh (aL/v). cos (wL/v) + j cosh (aL/v). sin (wL/v) ...(10.90)
By mult iplying equat ion (10.87) wit h (10.89), and (10.88) wit h (10.90), t he denominat or of
equat ion (10.86) can be wr it t en as a complex number
D = D
r
+ jD
i
...(10.91)
If t he sour ce of excit at ion e(t ) is sinusoidal and t he modal r esolut ion has been car r ied out
accor ding t o equat ion (10.69) and it s cor r esponding oper at ional expr ession is evaluat ed wit h
s = a + jw, it can be wr it t en as
E(s) = N
r
+ jN
i
...(10.92)
∴ V
0
(a + jw) = ) /( ) (
i r i r
jD D jN N + +
=
2 2
) ( ) (
i r
i r r i i i r r
D D
D N D N j D N D N
+
− + +
...(10.93)
The r eal par t is
P = ) /( ) (
2 2
i r i i r r
D D D N D N + + ...(10.94)
and t he j-par t is
Q = ) /( ) (
2 2
i r i r r i
D D D N D N + − ...(10.95)
The inver se t r ansfor m of V
0
(a + jw) can be obt ained by per for ming a numer ical int egr at ion.
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 287
Thus,
V
0
(t ) =

π
π
π
F
i
w
w
F
F
at
dw
w w
w w
wt P
e
.
) / (
) / sin(
. cos .
2
...(10.96)
=

π
π
π

F
i
w
w
F
F
at
dw
w w
w w
wt Q
e
.
) / (
) / sin(
. sin .
2
...(10.97)
10.12 REDUCTION OF SWITCHING SURGES ON EHV SYSTEMS
In pr act ice t he most sever e over volt ages on lines which t he insulat ion must wit hst and ar e
caused under t he following condit ions:
(a) ener gizing an open-ended line;
(b) r e-ener gizing an open-ended line;
(c) r e-ener gizing a line aft er clear ing a single-phase t o ear t h fault .
Ener gizing r efer s t o swit ching a line wit hout t r apped char ge while r e-ener gizing is done
wit h a t r apped char ge left fr om a pr evious ener gizat ion or r e-ener gizat ion. In single-pole r eclosing
schemes, t her e is no volt age on t he fault ed phase when it is clear ed fr om bot h ends, but due t o
mut ual coupling fr om t he ot her phases t he cir cuit -br eaker r e-ener gizes t he fault ed phase wit h
a t r apped char ge. If r esist ance is inser t ed in t he br eaker dur ing r e-ener gizat ion, a maximum
value of 1.5 p.u. can be expect ed at t he open end.
I n e.h.v. lines, ener giza t ion a nd r e-ener giza t ion ca use a ma ximum swit ching-sur ge
amplit ude of not higher t han 2.5 p.u. at t he open end t o gr ound and t he designer has t o make
ever y effor t t o keep it below 2 p.u. by t aking measur es which will be descr ibed lat er . While we
discussed r e-ener gizat ion for lumped-par amet er net wor k in sect ion 10.7, in e.h.v. lines t r apped
char ge is ver y r ar ely pr esent because of shunt -connect ed equipment which dr ain t he t r apped
char ge. Thus, all closing oper at ions may be consider ed mor e or less equivalent t o ener gizing a
line wit hout t r apped char ge.
The following measur es ar e adopt ed in e.h.v. syst ems t o r educe over volt age magnit udes.
1. Draining of Trapped Charge of Line
Shunt r eact or s ar e invar iably used at bot h ends of an e.h.v. line as shown in Fig. 10.12 (a). The
schemes used r esemble Fig. 10.12 which is known as t he '4-legged r eact or '. The r eact or in t he
common neut r al connect ion ser ves t o quench secondar y ar c pr oduced under single-pole r eclosing
which is not discussed in t his book. The shunt r eact or s ar e designed wit h a ver y low r esist ance
(high Q at power fr equency of t he or der of 200). These pr ovide compensat ing VARs at near ly
zer o power fact or dur ing nor mal st eady-st at e oper at ion. If one of t he pur poses of using shunt
r eact or s is also t o dr ain t he t r apped char ge aft er a de-ener gizing or line-dr opping oper at ion, t he
r eact or in t he neut r al will be r eplaced by a r esist or . In such schemes, t he t ime const ant is low
and t he line dischar ges complet ely in 5 t ime const ant s which usually is set at 5 ms or 1/4 cycle
on 50 Hz basis. The r esist or is shor t -cir cuit ed by a vacuum swit ch VS r at ed for 15 kV. It is
int er locked wit h t he main cir cuit br eaker such t hat VS opens at t he same inst ant as t he cir cuit
br eaker and closes just pr ior t o t he main cir cuit br eaker does.
288 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Inst r ument t r ansfor mer s such as t he induct ive t ype pot ent ial t r ansfor mer s (IPT) can also
dischar ge t he t r apped line char ge in cont r ast t o capacit ive volt age t r ansfor mer s (CVT). Power
t r ansfor mer s help t o dr ain t he t r apped char ge in about 20 ms or 1 cycle, if t hey ar e st ill left
connect ed. But swit ching a t r ansfor mer -t er minat ed line is not looked wit h favour because of
t he possibilit y of fer r o-r esonance condit ions. The Hydr o-Quebec Company of Canada r elies
solely on shunt r ect or s t o keep t he swit ching over volt age t o 2.1 p.u. on t heir 735 kV line and
have not equipped t he cir cuit br eaker s wit h ser ies r esist ances.
Fi g. 10.12 (a) Four -legged r eact or for dr aining t r apped char ge and quenching
secondar y ar c dur ing single-pole r eclosing.
(b) Swit ching ar r angement of ser ies r esist ance in cir cuit br eaker .
MB–Main br eaker . AB–Auxiliar y br eaker .
2. Series Resistance Switching
For lines of 400 kV and higher (or on some ver y long 220 kV lines also) r educt ion of swit ching
surges to 2 p.u. or less can be attained by inserting a resistance R in ser ies wit h t he line. At t he
t ime of ener gizat ion, Fig. 10.12 (b), t he main br eaker is open while t he auxiliar y br eaker
closes. The voltage impressed at the line entrance is thus V
e
= ) /( ). (
0 0
Z R Z t e + . If R = Z
0
, only
50% of t he sour ce volt age is impr essed on t he line giving 1 p.u. at t he open end due t o t ot al
r eflect ion. Because t he line is mat ched at t he sour ce end, t he volt age set t les down t o t he
sour ce volt age ver y quickly. However , when r e-ener gizat ion wit h t r apped char ge occur s a
maximum of 2 p.u. will be at t ained. Thus, wit h ser ies-r esist ance swit ching t he over volt age is
never higher t han 2 p.u. This has been ver ified by a lar ge number of swit ching sur ge st udies
using t he Tr ansient Net wor k Analyzer and Digit al comput er .
The value of r esist ance R in gener al depends on a lar ge number of fact or s as follows:
(a) The value of R is select ed t o achieve opt imum r esult s for t he syst em.
(b) The sur ge impedance of connect ed lines when t her e is a single line or mult iple lines.
The lines swit ched might not all be of equal lengt h so t hat complicat ions ar ise due t o
r eflect ions fr om t he shor t er lines get t ing int o t he longer ones and vice-ver sa.
(c) The inser t ion t ime of t he r esist ance cont r ols t he over volt age.
Fr om a lar ge number of st udies, t he following r ecommendat ions ar e made:
1. The inser t ion t ime is 8–10 ms or
2
1
cycle on 60 Hz or 50 Hz basis. Aft er t his t ime, t he
r esist ance is shor t ed.
a b c
VS
( ) a
MB
AB Rs
V
( ) b
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 289
2. The value of r esist ance is slight ly higher t han t he sur ge impedance of a single line
which is swit ched. In older designs a value of t he or der of 1000 ohms was used, but
moder n pr act ice is near ly 400 ohms.
3. The closing span of t he cir cuit -br eaker poles must be cont r olled wit hin 60°.
The last it em is ver y impor t ant under 3-phase r eclosing oper at ions. Poor ly-maint ained
br eaker s can have a 180° lag bet ween t he fir st and last pole t o close which r esult in high
over volt ages since t he last phase has a t r apped volt age induced in it by t he ot her phases which
have alr eady been ener gized. On t he ot her hand, because of t he non-synchr onous or non-
simult aneous closur e of t he poles wit h r esult ing unbalanced condit ions, gr ound-r et ur n cur r ent s
ar e pr esent which help t o at t enuat e t he sur ges. However , each case must be st udied car efully
on models and t he wor st case guar ded against .
3. Electronic Sensing of Voltage Polarities
In t he r esist ance-inser t ion scheme t he maximum over volt age condit ion exist s when t he main
br eaker closes t o shor t -cir cuit R in t he auxiliar y br eaker , and at t he same inst ant t he polar it y
of line-side volt age is opposit e t o t hat of t he sour ce. Ver y sophist icat ed elect r onic cir cuit r y
using sensor s and logic element s t o sense t he polar it ies of t he t wo volt ages and t o act ivat e t he
closing mechanism of t he main cir cuit br eaker exist . This connect s t he line dir ect ly t o t he
sour ce while t he polar it ies of volt ages ar e t he same. This applies when t her e is a t r apped
char ge on t he line. In such schemes t he over volt age is br ought down as low as 1.5 p.u. at t he
open end. The scheme is impr oved fur t her if t he main br eaker closes when t he cur r ent in t he
line is zer o when t her e ar e oscillat ions caused by t he induct ance and capacit ance of t he line
it self. Such a scheme has been developed and used successfully in t he U.S.A. by t he Bonneville
Power Administ r at ion.
4. Limiting Value of Minimum Switching Surge
While a designer or user of such sophist icat ed and expensive equipment aims at lower ing t he
over volt ages t o 1.5 p.u. or less, it has been obser ved t hat t her e is not much advant age in
lower ing t he over volt age t o less t han 1.5 p.u. The main r eason for t his is t hat under a single
line t o gr ound fault , t he dynamic volt age r ise is 1.5 p.u. or ver y near t his value. For an 80%
ar r est er of t he convent ional t ype, t he over volt age under a fault r eaches
4 . 1 3 8 . 0 ·
p.u.
Ther efor e, t her e is not much advant age gained in lower ing only t he swit ching over volt age.
However , wit h new gapless Met al Oxide ar r est er s, t he volt age r at ing of t he ar r est er can
be as low as 60 t o 65% of line-t o-line volt age which per mit s a lower ing of equipment insulat ion
levels. These ar r est er s ar e meant for swit ching-sur ge dut y so t hat e.h.v. insulat ion levels can
be br ought down fur t her .
10.13 EXPERIMENTAL AND CALCULATED RESULTS OF
SWITCHING-SURGE STUDIES
We conclude t his chapt er wit h a discussion of swit ching-sur ge over -volt ages as obser ved on
e.h.v. syst ems of t ypical configur at ions. These st udies ar e car r ied out by t hr ee met hods:
(a) Mat hemat ical modelling using t he Digit al Comput er ,
(b) Physical modelling using t he Tr ansient Net wor k Analyzer (TNA), and
(c) Field Test s.
290 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Ever y designer involved in t he select ion of air -gap clear ances or ot her t ypes of insulat ion
must have exhaust ive dat a on t hese t wo point s:
(1) The expect ed maximum amplit udes of over volt ages at all point s of all t ypes in t he
syst em net wor k, and
(2) The flashover or wit hst and volt ages of t he insulat ion st r uct ur e t o be select ed which
will insulat e against t he over volt ages.
Bot h t hese aspect s ar e st at ist ical in nat ur e and involve applicat ion of pr obabilit y t heor y.
Some of t hese concer ning insulat ion st r engt h of long air gaps will be discussed in t he next
chapt er , Chapt er 11.
The main fact or s t o be invest igat ed on a TNA or wit h a Digit al Comput er pr ior t o line
design ar e list ed below. These var y wit h t he syst em but t he list cover s t he most impor t ant
it ems used in e.h.v. syst ems.
1. Line Lengt h L and Line Const ant s r, l, g, c: These quant it ies may not be t r uly
const ant because of t he effect of fr equency especially t he gr ound-r et ur n par amet er s.
In gener al, a fr equency of f = 1/4T = v/4L ca n be used wher e v = velocit y and T =
t r a vel t ime = L/v.
2. High Volt age React ors: When t hese ar e depended upon t o r educe t he swit ching-sur ge
magnit udes by dr aining t he t r apped char ge, t he loss of one leg or as many legs as ar e
ant icipat ed must be st udied. The loss of shunt r eact or also r aises t he power -fr equency
open-end volt age due t o Fer r ant i Effect . In lower ing t he swit ching-sur ge magnit udes,
bot h t he st eady-st at e and t r ansient component s of volt age must be kept down.
3. S eries Capacit ors: The pr esence of ser ies ca pa cit or s up t o 50% line-induct a nce
compensat ion nor mally does not affect swit ching sur ges, but will affect t he st eady-
st at e component in t he t ot al t r ansient .
4. S hort -Circuit Capacit y of S ource: This is r eflect ed as t he value of ser ies r eact ance of
sour ce. In gener al, an infinit e sour ce (zer o ser ies impedance) yields higher swit ching
sur ges at t he open end of a line, but t her e ar e cases wher e t his depends upon t he
lengt h of line swit ched as well as t heir number in par allel.
5. Damping Factor of S upply Network: The pr esence of gr ound cur r ent s on t he swit ching
over volt ages plays an impor t ant r ole. The fr equency-dependence of t he zer o-sequence
r esist ance and induct ance must be pr oper ly t aken int o account in any st udy.
6. Presence of Transformers or Aut ot ransformers: When a line is connect ed t o a sour ce
t hr ough a t r ansfor mer at t he gener at ing st at ion, as is usual in unit -connect ed schemes,
t he line can be swit ched eit her on t he high-volt age side or t he low-volt age side. In
gener al, when swit ched fr om t he l.v. side t he ser ies-impedance of t he t r ansfor mer
lower s t he ent r ance volt age of t he line and t he swit ching over -volt age at t he open
end is lower t han when swit ched fr om t he h.v. side. The pr esence or absence of
t er t iar ies has some effect on t he swit ching sur ges.
7. S at urat ion of Transformers and React ors: These give r ise t o har monic oscillat ions
wit h t he line capacit ance.
8. Load Transmitted: A line-dr opping oper at ion followed by a fault due t o t he over volt age
gives ver y high sur ges if t he cir cuit br eaker s at bot h ends do not open simult aneously.
The power fact or of load has consider able effect on t he swit ching sur ges.
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 291
9. S ingle-Phase Reclosing: When a fault is clear ed on a single line t o gr ound fault by
opening cir cuit br eaker s, due t o mut ual induct ion fr om t he healt hy phases, a cur r ent
of 20-30 Amper es keeps flowing in t he ar c at t he fault on t he gr ounded line. The dead
t ime, or t he t ime int er val bet ween opening of t he fault ed line and it s r eclosur e has t o
be det er mined. Wit h shunt r eact or s using 4-legged const r uct ion, t he dead t ime is of
or der of 5 seconds or 250-300 cycles.
10. Frequency of S ource: This has only a secondar y effect .
11. S wit ching Resist ors: These clear ly have ver y impor t ant effect in r educing swit ching
over volt ages. The opt imum values of r esist ance and t he t ime of t heir inser t ion in
ser ies wit h t he cir cuit br eaker has been t he subject of int ense st udy.
12. Order of Phases to Clear : Wher e cir cuit br eaker poles have a t ime lag in closing or
opening t he swit ching-sur ge magnit ude will have differ ent value fr om simult aneous
closur e called synchr onous closing. The last phase t o close has a higher over volt age
because of coupling of volt age fr om t he ot her phases.
13. Restriking in Circuit Breaker: When br eaker ar cing chamber s ar e unable t o int er r upt
pr oper ly, t her e is a r est r ike which essent ially connect s a line t o t he sour ce wit h
t r apped char ge on t he line. This has been consider ed in sect ion 10.5. Long lines
cause maximum t r ouble due t o line dr opping wit h r est r ike in cir cuit br eaker causing
light ning-ar r est er failur es or cir cuit -br eaker explosions due t o fr equent oper at ion.
14. Light ning Arrest er S parkover Charact erist ics: These ar e nor mally set for 1.5 p.u.
wit h gap t ype SiC ar r est er s. If magnet ic blowout or cur r ent -limit ing gaps fail, t hen
t hey cannot handle swit ching sur ge dut y. Their effect on insulat ion levels must be
invest igat ed.
15. Line-to-line Voltages: In or der t o design conduct or -t o-conduct or clear ances, a knowledge
of phase-t o-phase over volt age magnit ude is necessar y. It is insufficient t o obt ain t he
maximum expect ed line-t o-gr ound volt age on one phase and mult iply by
3
. The
maximum is lower t han t his value because of t he waveshapes not being sinusoidal.
Out of an enor mous amount of st udies car r ied out all over t he wor ld, t he following t ypes
of condit ions leading t o over volt ages ar e consider ed ver y impor t ant . Against each it em, a list of
par amet er s which affect t he over volt age is given.
1. Interruption of Line at No Load : Lengt h of line, line const ant s, shunt r eact or s, ser ies
capacit or s, r eact ance of sour ce, and swit ching r esist or s.
2. Load S h ed d i n g: All of t he a bove fa ct or s a nd in a ddit ion sa t ur a t ion effect s of
t r ansfor mer s and r eact or s, load char act er ist ics and damping fact or s.
3. Load S hedding at End of Line Followed by Disconnect ion of Unloaded Line: All of t he
above fact or s plus nat ur al fr equency of supply net wor k as it affect s t he r est r iking in
t he br ea ker .
4. Clearing a S hort Circuit : All t he above fact or s.
5. Closing a Transformer-Terminated Line with Load : All t he above fact or s plus or der of
phases t o close which causes possible fer r o-r esonance condit ion.
6. Energizing or Re-energizing an Unloaded Line: All t he above fact or s minus t he
t r ansmit t ed load.
292 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
In or der t o give an idea of p.u. values of over volt ages t hat may be r ealized, Table 10.1 has
been pr epar ed summar izing t he findings of a 500 kV/230 kV syst em which wer e obt ained fr om
model st udies on a Tr ansient Net wor k Analyzer and r epor t ed in an I.E.E.E. Paper (No. 42,
IEEE in list of Bibliogr aphy).
Ta ble 10.1 Swi t ch i n g-Su r ge Volt a ges fr om Mod el St u d i es on T.N.A.
A. Swi t ch i n g a n Op e n -e n d e d Li n e
1. S witching from High Voltage S ide (500 kV)
(a) Wit h t r apped char ge on Line
2,260 MVA sour ce shor t cir cuit power 3.3
13,600 MVA 3.8
Infinit e Bus at sour ce 4.1
(b) Wit hout t r apped char ge on line:
2,260 MVA sour ce shor t cir cuit power 2.1
13,600 MVA 2.6
(c) De-ener gizing wit hout fault : 1.p.u.
No r est r ike in br eaker t r apped on all lines
(+1, –1, –1)
(d) De-ener gizing line wit h a line t o gr ound fault (270 kms) 1.3
2. S witching from Low-Voltage S ide (220 kV)
Tr ansfor mer has no t er t iar y. Line has no t r apped char ge since t r ansfor mer dr ains t he
char ge in 5 t o 10 cycles 2.0
B. Swi t ch i n g a Tr a n sfor mer Ter mi n a t ed Li n e
High-volt age side closing; sour ce t r ansfor mer has no t er t iar y 2.2
C. Ser i es Ca p a ci t or Comp en sa t i on No changes in over -
Up t o 50% volt age magnit udes
D. Sou r ce Tr a n sfor mer Ter t i a r y Effect
1. S witching Open Ended Line
(a) High-side ener gizing wit h t r apped char ge
(i) Wit h t r ansfor mer t er t iar y 3.0
(ii) Wit hout t er t iar y 3.3
(b) High-side ener gizing a dead line wit hout t r apped char ge:
(i) Wit h t r ansfor mer t er t iar y 2.0
(ii) Wit hout t er t iar y 2.1
(c) Low-side ener gizing of t r ansfor mer and line:
(i) Wit h t r ansfor mer t er t iar y 2.8
(ii) Wit hout t er t iar y 2.0
(iii) Wit h shunt r eact or connect ed t o t er t iar y for 50%
compensat ion 2.6
(Contd...)
Overvoltages in EHV Systems Caused by Switching Operations 293
E. Li gh t n i n g Ar r est er
Ar r est er at sending end set t o spar k at :
(a) 2.0 p.u. 3.0
(b) 1.5 p.u. 2.6
Ar r est er included at r eceiving end, and set t o spar k
at 1.5 p.u. 2.2
F. Su r ge Su p p r essi n g Resi st or i n Br ea k er
In all cases wher e over volt ages exceeded 2.3 p.u.,
1200 ohms was included 2.0
G. Hi gh Sp eed Reclosi n g Aft er Fa u lt Clea r i n g
(wit h t r apped char ge) 3.6
H. Effect of Non -Syn ch r on ou s Op er a t i on of Ci r cu i t Br ea k er P oles
(a) Br eaker poles close wit hin 1/2 cycle 2.4
(b) Br eaker poles close on 1 cycle 3.5
Re vi e w Qu e s t i on s a n d Pr oble ms
1. A 750 kV syst em has a gener at ion of 4000 MVA. The t r ansient r eact ance of t he
sour ce is 0.25 p.u. on 750 kV 4000 MVA base and t he unit -connect ed t r ansfor mer has
a leakage r eact ance of 0.15 p.u. For a 3-phase bus fault on t he high-volt age side of t he
t r ansfor mer , calculat e t he shor t -cir cuit cur r ent in kiloamper es and in p.u.
2. Explain the term s (a) sub-t r ansient r eact ance, (b) t r ansient r eact ance, (c) synchr onous
r ea ct a n ce of a s ou r ce, a n d (d) a . c. compon en t , (e) d.c. compon en t , a n d (f) t h e
int er r upt ing cur r ent capacit y of a cir cuit br eaker .
3. Explain t he t er ms (a) t er minal fault , (b) shor t -line fault , (c) 2-par amet er definit ion of
r ecover y volt age, and (d) 4-par amet er definit ion of r ecover y volt age.
4. Explain clear ly how over volt ages ar e gener at ed when int er r upt ing (a) low induct ive
cur r ent s a nd (b) low ca pa cit ive cur r ent . Dr a w a figur e showing fer r o-r esona nce
condit ion in a net wor k when t wo poles of a cir cuit br eaker ar e open and one pole is
closed.
5. A ser ies L-R-C cir cuit has a L = 0.3 H, R = 9 ohm, and C = 3.3 µF. It is excit ed by a
st ep input of magnit ude 600 kV wit h t he init ial value of capacit or volt age equal t o
–600 kV, in Fig. 10.7. Calculat e t he following–
(a) at t enuat ion fact or L R 2 / · α , (b) t he nat ur al fr equency of oscillat ion w
0
and f
0
.
(c) t he fir st peak of volt age acr oss t he capacit or , (d) t he r at io of adjacent posit ive
peaks of volt age fr om zer o value.
6. Repeat pr oblem 5 if t he r esist ance is incr eased t o t he value R = C L / 2 . Only par t s
(a) and (c) apply.
294 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
7. A 750 kV 500 km 50 Hz line has t he following det ails;
Conduct or r esist ance, r
c
= 0.03 ohm/km;
Gr ound r et ur n r esist ance, r
g
= 0.27 ohm/km at 100 Hz;
Ser ies line induct ance, l
s
= 0.9 mH/km;
Gr ound r et ur n induct ance, l
g
= 0.6 mH/km;
Shunt capacit ance, c = 12.33 nF/km.
Wor king on single-phase basis, calculat e t he following wit h and wit hout consider ing
gr ound-r et ur n par amet er s:
(a) Velocit y of pr opagat ion and t r avel t ime;
(b) Sur ge impedance Z
0
and at t enuat ion fact or L R e A
T
2 / ,
0
· α
α −
· .
(c) Plot t he st ep r esponse upt o 20 ms when t he volt age of 1 per unit is swit ched on t o
t he line suddenly. Neglect t r apped char ge.
(d) Plot t he r esponse upt o 20 ms when t he sinusoidal volt age of 3 / 750 kV t o gr ound
is swit ched on t o t he line at (i) posit ive peak, and (ii) 30° aft er t he posit ive peak.
Neglect t r apped char ge in bot h cases.
11.1 TYPES OF ELECTRODE GEOMETRIES USED IN EHV SYSTEMS
In e.h.v. t r ansmission syst ems, ot her t han t he int er nal insulat ion of equipment such as
t r ansfor mer s, cir cuit br eaker s, et c., all ext er nal insulat ion is air at at mospher ic pr essur e and
elect r onegat ive gases such as S F
6
. Air gaps used for insulat ion have now r eached enor mous
lengt hs—up t o 20 met r es and mor e—and will incr ease wit h fur t her incr ease in t r ansmission
volt age. As of t his dat e, t he highest commer cially-used volt age is 1200 kV, ac. But exper iment al
pr oject s at 1500 kV ac have been in pr ogr ess since 1980. It is ver y impor t ant and vit al t o know
t he br eakdown and wit hst and pr oper t ies of such long gaps and in t his chapt er we will discuss
only air gaps.
The insulat ion char act er ist ics of long air gap lengt hs namely t he flashover and wit hst and
volt ages ar e gover ned mainly by t he geomet r y of t he elect r odes insulat ed by t he gap. The most
usual elect r ode geomet r ies ar e shown in Figur e 11.1. Repr esent at ive air -gap lengt hs used in
conduct or -t o-t ower gaps ar e:
400 kV 500 kV 750 kV 1000 kV 1150-1200 kV
2.134 m 2.59 m 5.6 m 7 m 8 m (U.S.A.)
(84") (102") 10 m (U.S.S.R.)
These gaps ar e subject ed t o sever al t ypes of volt age waveshapes so t hat br eakdown and
wit hst and volt ages have t o be ascer t ained for all of t hem. These ar e:
(a) Power Fr equency A.C.; (b) Light ning Impulses—posit ive and negat ive; (c) Swit ching
Sur ges—posit ive and negat ive; (d) D.C.—posit ive and negat ive; and (e) A.C. wit h a D.C. offset .
In bot h indoor and out door high-volt age labor at or ies, exper iment s at gr eat expense have
been and ar e being conduct ed in or der t o det er mine t he br eakdown volt ages of air -gap geomet r ies.
Along wit h t hese impor t ant exper iment s, a ver y lar ge amount of t heor et ical wor k concer ning
t he basic mechanisms of br eakdown have also been handed down in t echnical lit er at ur e. Once
t hese mechanisms ar e t hor oughly under st ood, t he br eakdown char act er ist ics of ver y long air
gaps have been known t o follow t he same pat t er n as small gaps. An under st anding of basic
br eakdown mechanisms helps t o r educe t he expense involved in lar ge-scale exper iment s and
pr oper int er pr et at ion of such exper iment al r esult s.
All br eakdown phenomena depend on t he elect r ic field dist r ibut ion in t he gap which init iat es
t he pr imar y elect r on-avalanche mechanism, leading t o secondar y mechanisms, as t hese depend
on t he velocit ies or ener gies of t he r esult ing ions. In ver y long gaps, especially under swit ching
11
In s u l a t i on Ch a ra ct eri s t i cs of Lon g Ai r Ga ps
296 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
sur ges, t he secondar y mechanisms lead t o ver y danger ous condit ions which ar e cont r olled by
t he envir onment leading t o t he well-known sat ur at ion phenomenon and somet imes t o anomalous
flashover .
Fig. 11.1 Types of elect r ode geomet r ies encount er ed in e.h.v. t r ansmission lines wit h long air gaps.
It is not possible t o discuss at any gr eat lengt h t he elect r ic field dist r ibut ion of all t ypes of
geomet r ies and t he r eader should consult books on elect r ost at ics and highly specialized ar t icles
on such field dist r ibut ion. It is one of t he single most impor t ant it em t hat must be car efully
examined. Some field pat t er ns will be given as and when t he discussion pr oceeds in t he lat er
sect ions of t his chapt er . Some pr oblems have alr eady been descr ibed in Chapt er 4 under Volt age
Gr adient s.
11.2 BREAKDOWN CHARACTERISTICS OF LONG AIR GAPS
The calculat ion of field dist r ibut ion in t he long gap will not lead t o as clear an under st anding of
t he br eakdown char act er ist ics as t hey do in ver y smal gaps because of t he impor t ance of secondar y
phenomena becoming t he cont r olling fa ct or s. We a r e t her efor e const r a ined t o r esor t t o
exper iment al r esult s conduct ed fr om full-scale mock-ups in labor at or ies using pr oper ly-designed
elect r odes. These models should r epr esent as fait hfully as possible t he sit uat ions encount er ed
in t he field, for example, a t ower must be full-scale wit h t ubular member s and gr ound can be
r epr esent ed by wir e mesh, and so on. Ar t ificial r ain appar at us must be mount ed pr oper ly t o
wet insulat or s evenly. The elect r ode geomet r ies shown in Figur e 11.1 must be capable of being
t est ed under t he t ypes of volt ages list ed in Sect ion 11.1, namely, power fr equency, light ning,
dc, and swit ching sur ges.
Coaxial
Cylinders
Sphere-
Sphere
Cond.-Plane
Rod-
Rod
Sphere-Plane Rod-Plane
Chainette Insulators Cond. - Tower
with Insulators
Cond. Cond.
Above Plane
Insulation Characteristics of Long Air Gaps 297
The most impor t ant fact or s by which engineer s descr ibe t he br eakdown volt age ar e t he
wit hst and volt age and cr it ical flashover volt age or 50% flashover volt age which is t he volt age
t hat yields flashover in 50% of t he number of shot s given t o t he air gap. The wit hst and volt age
is based on pr obabilit y basis and will be explained lat er on. The following empir ical r elat ions
bet ween t he CFO (50% flashover volt age) and gap lengt h ar e valid for design pur poses for
posit ive-polar it y volt ages, except for ac excit at ion. All volt ages ar e peak values of volt age,
including power fr equency. Negat ive polar it y flashover , except under r ain under swit ching
sur ges, will always be higher t han posit ive polar it y or become equal t o it . Under except ional
cir cumst ances, such as in heavy r ain under swit ching sur ges, it may be lower t han posit ive-
polar it y flashover .
S witching S urge
Lightning D.C. Power Frequency (120/4000
s µ
)
Rod -P la n e: Gap Length in metres, V
50
in kV crest
1.2/50 µs–550d 500d 652d
0.576
535.5d
0.552
(3<d<9)
1/50 - 667d 500d
0.6
Rod -Rod
1.2/50µs–580d 555d 500d 872d
0.429
687d
0.6
For posit ive-r od negat ive-plane elect r odes, t he following addit ional for mulas ar e also in
use.
Feser' s Formulas
St at ic volt age: 500d + 12, kV (d in met r es) ...(11.1)
Power Fr equency: 455d + 25 ...(11.2)
1.2/50
s µ
Light ning: 540d ...(11.3)
Swit ching Sur ge:
250 1 50 100 − + d
...(11.4)
Leroy and Gallet Formula
Swit ching Sur ge 3400/(1 + 8/d) ...(11.5)
Paris et al. Swit ching sur ge – 500d
0. 6
or 535d
0.552
...(11.6)
All t he above for mulas, ar e based on exper iment al r esult s and ar e compar ed in Figur e
11.2. Ther e ar e however , many at t empt s made fr om t ime t o t ime t o der ive a t heor et ical expr ession
for t he spar kover volt age
Fig. 11.2 Compar ison of flashover char act er ist ics of long air gaps under light ning impulse ), 50 / 2 . 1 ( s µ
dc, power fr equency (PF), and posit ive swit ching sur ges.
6000
4000
2000
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 17
V
s
,

k
V
1.2/50 s µ
DC
PF
S.S. (+)
d, metres
298 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
in t er ms of t he basic physical pr ocesses t hat might be occur r ing in long gaps. They ar e
based on t he following br oad assumpt ions:
(1) Pr ior t o br eakdown, t her e exist s an int ense cor ona envelope on t he highly-st r essed
elect r ode. This is par t icular y pr ominent on t he posit ive r od in a r od-plane ar r angement
and on bot h r ods in a r od-r od air gap. This spher ical cor ona envelope is assumed t o
have a diamet er r anging fr om 20 cm t o 1 met r e.
(2) The cor ona gives r ise t o leader channels of about 1-3 mm in diamet er such t hat t he
r adial elect r ic field is 20 kV/cm wit h a char ge of about 0.5 t o 1 . cm / c µ These leader s
for k out in all dir ect ions but one t hat event ually causes t he spar kover pr opagat es
along t he axis of t he gap and is pr eceeded by a leader -cor ona at it s t ip. The axial
elect r ic field in t he leader column is about 5 kV/cm.
(3) When t he leader cor ona has r eached a lengt h of 4.5 t o 5 met r es in a 7 m gap, or about
65–70% lengt h, t he influence of t he plane cat hode is so int ense t hat t her e r esult s a
jump-phase wher e t he acceler at ion of t he leader cor ona is high enough t o br idge t he
r emaining por t ion of t he gap. In a r od-r od gap, a negat ive-leader pr opagat es fr om t he
negat ive r od also t o meet t he posit ive leader and spar kover occur s.
Wit hout going t hr ough t he der ivat ion of t he following equat ions which ar e based on differ ing
assum ptions, three expressions are given for the 50% sparkover voltage, V
s
, for posit ive swit ching
sur ges in t er ms of t he gap lengt h, d.
I. Lemke' s Model. (d < 10 m)
V
s
= kV )], ln ( ln 33 . 1 1 [ 450 d d − + ...(11.7)
II. Wat ers' Model
V
s
= kV , 350 ) 10 2 . 3 10 5 . 1 (
5 . 0 5 6
− × + × d ...(11.8)
III. Alexandrov' s Model, ) m 9 . 0 ( = r
V
s
= kV , / 1 t anh . ) / 1 ( 1260
1 5 . 0
d r d r r − −

...(11.9)
All of t he above t hr ee models yield near ly t he same value of V
s
for gap lengt h up t o 20 m.
It is t her efor e ver y sur pr ising how widely differ ing assumpt ions made by t he t hr ee invest igat or s
can lead t o close r esult s. They also cor r espond ver y closely t o t he empir ical for mulas of Ler oy
and Gallet , and Par is et al. Result s of compar ison of t hese models ar e shown in Figur e 11.3.
Fig. 11.3 Compar ison of CFO vs gap lengt h accor ding t o t he models of Lemke (LK), Wat er s (WT),
and Alexandr ov (AL).
AL
WT
LK
3000
2000
1000
0
0 4 8 12 16 20
V
s
,

k
V
d, metres
Insulation Characteristics of Long Air Gaps 299
11.3 BREAKDOWN MECHANISMS OF SHORT AND LONG AIR GAPS
Lit er at ur e descr ibing t he physical mechanism of spar kover of gaps is immense and var ied. We
will only give t he br oad out line her e of sever al basic and impor t ant t heor ies which have been
put for war d by eminent physicist s and engineer s t o give t he design engineer an indicat ion of
some of t he physica l pr ocesses in uinder st a nda ble t er ms. I t is r ecognized by a ll t ha t a
compr ehension of t hese basic mechanisms of spar kover will help t o design exper iment s of
br eakdown involving less expense and t ime.
We limit our selves t o t he mechanism of gaps near at mospher ic pr essur e. The t wo classic
t heor ies of br eakdown of small gaps wit h unifor m fields ar e t he well-known: (1) Townsend and
Raet her mechanisms called t he avalanche t heor y, and (2) t he st r eamer t heor y of Loeb and
Meek. Aft er discussing t hese t wo t heor ies, we will br iefly out line t he sever al t heor ies or models
of br eakdown of long gaps put for war d by many wor ker s t o explain t he dependence of t he 50%
br eakdown volt age wit h change in gap lengt h, which in one way or anot her ar e based on t he
avalanche and st r eamer t heor ies of unifor m field gap br eakdown.
11.3.1 Townsend's Theory and Criterion of Sparkover
Figur e 11.4(a) shows a unifor m-field gap bet ween an anode and a cat hode wit h E = V/d. An
init ial fr ee elect r on in t he gap acquir es sufficient ener gy t o r elease fur t her elect r ons fr om t he
int er vening gas molecules t o cause an elect r on avalanche. It is evident t hat if t he elect r ic field
is high t he elect r ons cause incr eased ionizat ion wit hin limit s while wit h incr ease in gas pr essur e,
p, t he number of molecules or densit y of gas is incr eased so t hat t he fr ee pat h of an elect r on is
decr eased befor e anot her collision can occur . This r esult s in an elect r on acquir ing low velocit y
and kinet ic ener gy bet ween collisions, and t he pr obabilit y t hat it will r elease anot her elect r on
fr om a gas molecule is r educed. The effect of elect r ic field int ensit y E and t he gas pr essur e p on
t he pr obabilit y of cr eat ing new elect r ons by an incident elect r on on gas molecules is t her efor e
pr opor t ional t o E and 1/p. This is expr essed t hr ough Townsend's fir st ionizat ion coefficient , . α
F i g. 11.4 (a) Theor y of a va la nche br ea kdown of unifor m-field ga p (Townsend a nd Ra et her )
(b) Theor y of st r ea mer br ea kdown (Loeb a nd Meek).
Thus,
α = mean number of collisions t aking place in 1 cm of dr ift by 1 elect r on. ...(11.10)
The value of α is det er mined exper iment ally and has t he following char act er ist ics in
Nit r ogen, wher e n = number densit y of molecules at t he given t emper at ur e and pr essur e
[n = 2.69 × 10
19
/cm
3
at 0°C and 760 mm].
V
d
E
p
Anode +
Cathode –

+
+
( ) a ( ) b
+
+
+
+
+ +

+
+
Anode +
V
V
p
E
E
3
E
2
E1
Cathode –
300 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
E/n 100 200 300 400 500 600
n / α
10
–19
4 × 10
–18
1.5 × 10
–17
3 × 10
–17
4.5 × 10
–17
5 ×10
–17
.
The best fit for t his var iat ion (car r ied out by t he aut hor ) gives a for mula of t he t ype
) / ( log
10
n α = ] 1 ) / /( 74 . 16 /[ 82 . 15 − n E ...(11.11)
The ion densit y can be conver t ed t o pr essur e of gas by t he r elat ion.
n = ) / 273 ).( 760 / ( 10 69 . 2
19
T p
T
× ...(11.12.)
wher e p
T
= pr essur e of gas in mm Hg at t emper at ur e T
°
K. Then, at 20°C (T = 293 °K),
n = 3.295 ×10
16
p
20
. This gives
α =
θ
10 . 5
. 20
p ...(11.13)
wher e θ = ) 10 516 . 5 / /( 10 8725 . 0
17
20
19
× − × p E ...(11.14)
This shows t hat α = p.f
1
(E/p) wher e f
1
(E/p) is a funct ion of (E/p) only.
A single avalanche is at t r act ed by t he posit ive elect r ode because of t he int ense negat ive
char ge at it s head, at a velocit y of about 10
7
cm/sec, wher eas t he dr ift velocit y of posit ive ions
left behind and t r avelling t owar ds t he cat hode is about 10
5
cm/sec since t hey ar e much heavier
t han elect r ons. Thus, t he cloud of posit ive ions is almost st at ionar y as compar ed t o t he dr ift of
t he elect r on avalanche. The posit ive ions, however , dist ur b t he elect r ic field due t o t he space
char ge.
The single elect r on avalanche r eaching t he anode does not const it ut e spar kover since t he
gap is not complet ely br idged by elect r ons t o const it ut e a heavy enough cur r ent flow. The
br eakdown or spar kover of t he gap occur s due t o a succession of avalanches gener at ed by
secondar y mechanisms caused by t he pr imar y-avalanche elect r ons. These ar e (a) t her mionic
emission fr om t he cat hode due t o t he high ener gy acquir ed by t he posit ive ions or unst able
neut r a l molecules; (b) excit ed molecules emit t ing phot ons on r et ur ning t o t he gr ound st at e
which will cause phot o-emission of elect r ons; (c) t he pot ent ial of t he posit ive-ion space char ge
near t he cat hode being sufficient t o eject elect r ons upon st r iking t he cat hode. In what ever
manner t hese ar e r eleased, t he number of elect r ons now incr eases due t o secondar y mechanisms
and is descr ibed by Townsend's second ionizat ion coefficient
. γ
Once again (like α) γ is a funct ion
of (E/p). Fr om a va ila ble exper iment a l r esult s, t he a ut hor ha s found t ha t t he funct iona l
r elat ionship bet ween γ and (E/p) is of t he t ype
γ =
66 . 1 34 66 . 1 6
) / ( 10 782 . 5 ) / ( 10 52 . 1 p E n E
− −
× = × ...(11.15)
The cur r ent int ensificat ion due bot h t o t he pr imar y and secondar y mechanisms is, when
t he avalanches cr oss t he gap dist ance d,
α-pr ocess only: I =
d
e I
α
.
0
...(11.16)
γ-pr ocess also: I = )] 1 ( 1 /[ .
0
− γ −
α α d d
e e I ...(11.17)
The Townsend cr it er ion for spar k br eakdown is t aken as , ∞ → I or when t he denominat or
of equat ion (11.17) becomes zer o, t hat is,
) 1 ( − γ
αd
e = 1 ...(11.18)
Since t he funct ional r elat ionship of α and
γ
wit h gas pr essur e p and elect r ic field int ensit y
E is known, t he va lue of (E/p) is calculat ed by t r ial and er r or fr om equat ion (11.18). In t he
Insulation Characteristics of Long Air Gaps 301
unifor m field, E = V
s
/d so t hat t he value of (V
s
/pd) is found, and t he spar kover for given values
of p and d can be calculat ed.
11.3.2 Paschen's Law
Using ) / ( and ) / ( .
2 1
pd V f pd V f p = γ = α for a unifor m-field gap, t he Townsend br eakdown cr it er ion
of equat ion (11.18) can be r e-wr it t en as
1 ] 1 } ). / ( ).[exp{ / (
1 2
= − pd pd V f pd V f
s s
...(11.19)
Thus, t he spar kover volt age V
s
is a funct ion of (pd), which is Paschen's Law. In air , t he
for mula for spar kover volt age is found t o be
V
s
=
kV ,
760
.
273
20 273
08 . 6
760
.
273
20 273
. 22 . 24
pd
t
pd
t +
+
+
+
+
= kV , / 775 . 3 / 34 . 9 T pd T pd + ...(11.20)
wher e p is in mm Hg, d in cm, and t in °C.
The above r elat ion holds even for gases wit h elect r on at t achment such as S F
6
, whose
r elat ive elect r ic st r engt h compar ed t o air is 2.5/1.
At st andar d t emper at ur e and pr essur e, equat ion (11.20) gives t he unifor m-field spar kover
for 1 cm gap as 30.3 kV.
In non-unifor m fields such as co-axial cylindr ical geomet r y and cylinder -cylinder (conduct or -
conduct or on a t r ansmission line) gaps, F.W. Peek, J r ., has det er mined t he following expr essions
for onset of par t ial dischar ge (cor ona) in t he highly diver gent field dist r ibut ion for air -densit y
fact or s close t o unit y.
Concentric Cylinders. E
0
= peak cm, / ), / 308 . 0 1 ( 31 kV rδ + δ ...(11.21)
Parallel Cylinders. E
0
= peak kV/cm, ), / 301 . 0 1 ( 30 δ + δ r ...(11.22)
Her e, r = r adius of inner cylinder or conduct or in cm,
and δ = air -densit y fact or
, / 3856 . 0
760
.
273
20 273
T p
p
t
=
+
+
=
...(11.23)
wit h p = pr essur e in mm Hg.
The pr essur e var ies wit h t emper at ur e and alt it ude as descr ibed in Chapt er 4. See Pr oblem
4 at end of Chapt er 4.
11.3.3 Streamer Breakdown Theory of Loeb and Meek
In t he Townsend mechanism, t he t ime lag of br eakdown, which is t he t ime int er val bet ween
applicat ion of pot ent ial and t he br eakdown of t he gap, is equal t o t he t r ansit t ime of t he elect r on
avalanche. However , it has been obser ved wit h long air gaps in unifor m fields, in pr act ice, t hat
t ime lags ar e shor t er t han t hose post ulat ed by elect r on-t r ansit t imes. This has led t o t he
St r eamer Theor y of br eakdown. It uses t he pr oper t y t hat a ver y high concent r at ion of t he
elect r ic field occur s in fr ont of t he elect r on-avalanche head, as well as in t he space bet ween t he
posit ive-char ge cloud and t he cat hode. These t wo ar e dir ect ed in t he same sense as t he applied
302 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
elect r ic field as shown in Figur e 11.4(b). In t he space bet ween t he elect r on-avalanche head and
t he posit ive spa ce-cha r ge cloud t he field is lower t ha n t he a pplied unifor m field. The
phot oelect r ons emit t ed in t he augment ed field init iat e auxiliar y avalanches, which ar e int ense
along t he axis of t he main avalanche, will be dir ect ed t owar ds t he anode t o be absor bed t her e.
The posit ive ions t hen for m a self-pr ogagat ing st r eamer ext ending fr om t he anode t o cat hode
for ming a conduct ing plasma. This const it ut es t he br eakdown of t he gap.
Loeb and Meek consider ed t he t r ansit ion fr om elect r on avalanche t o st r eamer t o occur
when t he field pr oduced bet ween t he posit ive ions and t he avalanche head is equal t o t he
applied field E = V/d. The br eakdown cr it er ion obt ained by t hem, wit h a spher ical avalanche
head, can be wr it t en as
V
s
= p d e d
d
/ / ). ( 10 27 . 5
) ( 7 α −
α × ...(11.24)
Since ), / ( .
1
pd V f p
s
= α t he spar kover volt age is once again a funct ion of (pd). The equat ion
can be solved for V
s
for given values of p and d by t r ial and er r or . The funct ional r elat ionship
bet ween α and (V
s
/pd) is of t he t ype of equat ion (11.13).
11.4 BREAKDOWN MODELS OF LONG GAPS WITH NON-UNIFORM FIELDS
As ment ioned ear lier , sever al models for explaining t he obser ved char act er ist ics of t he 50%
br eakdown of long air gaps have been put for war d fr om t ime t o t ime. The main char act er ist ics
of gap spar kover which need t o be explained by any of t he models ar e list ed below:
(1) The funct ional r elat ionship bet ween spar kover volt age and gap lengt h for a given
elect r ode geomet r y. Most t heor ies confine t hemselves t o a r od-t o-plane gap, and t r y
t o evolve a fact or called t he "gap fact or " t o ext end t he equat ion t o apply t o ot her t ypes
of gap geomet r ies found in pr act ical engineer ing sit uat ions, usually obt ained as a
r esult of exper iment al obser vat ions.
(2) The volt -t ime cha r a ct er ist ics which pr oduce t he t ime la g for br ea kdown a ft er
applicat ion of t he volt age t o t he gap.
(3) The r elat ion bet ween swit ching-sur ge fr ont t ime and t he spar kover volt age called
t he U-char act er ist ic.
(4) The aver age elect r ic field in t he gap at t he inst ant of br eakdown.
(5) The char ge in t he leader column and it s velocit y of pr opagat ion, as well as t he size of
cor ona envelope ar ound t he highly-st r essed elect r ode (r od).
(6) Some ot her char act er ist ics which ar e gover ned by t he conver gent or diver gent elect r ic
fields.
None of t he models put for war d so far in t echnical and scient ific lit er at ur e consider all t he
above fact or s in one model nor t he complet e mechanism of dist r ibut ion of t he char ge, t he
t emper at ur e, t he velocit y, number densit y, column r adius, leader -cor ona size, micr oscopic
volt age gr adient , et c. Some t heor ies or models use exper iment al dat a t o obt ain numer ical
est imat es for t he salient gover ning fact or s, as will be out lined below. We will fir st list t he
common fact or s t o all t heor ies and t hen point out wher e t hey differ , and yet in t he final r esult
t hey all show agr eement among each ot her wit hin limit s.
The mechanism of br eakdown depends on a leader or st r eamer pr opagat ing fr om t he r od
anode t owar ds t he plane cat hode in a r od-plane gap wit h t he r od posit ive. The onset of t his
Insulation Characteristics of Long Air Gaps 303
"posit ive leader " is pr eceded by an init ial cor ona dischar ge, and also accompanied by cor ona at
t he leader t ip. This leader car r ies a cur r ent of less t han 1 Amper e and pr opagat es at a velocit y
var ying fr om 1 t o 10 cm/
. s µ
When t he leader cor ona appr oaches t he plane-cat hode, secondar y
pr ocesses give r ise t o a st r eamer which meet s t he leader in most cases, t hat is, t her e is a
"jump-phase" in which condit ions ar e r ipe for t he lat t er por t ion of t he leader t o r each t he anode
at velocit ies exceeding 100 cm/
. s µ
Once t he gap is br idged, a r et ur n cur r ent st r oke fr om t he
plane cat hode follows in t he ionized channel whose velocit y can r each 300 cm/
s µ
*. The pot ent ial
gr adient in t he r et ur n st r oke is of t he or der of 1 kV/cm or mor e.
Pr e-br eakdown st r eamer pulses in t he cor ona ar e followed by br eak-down st r eamer s. The
char ge in t he leader channel var ies fr om 0.5 C/cm µ t o 4 C/cm µ depending on t he r esist ance
connect ed in ser ies wit h t he gap t o t he sour ce, and t he waveshape of t he applied impulse
volt age. The cor ona envelope at t he r od gives r ise t o 50 or mor e leader br anches out of which
only one causes t he st r eamer br eakdown. The r est give r ise t o leader -t ip cor onas which cause
phot o-ionizat ion of t he gap and help secondar y pr ocesses. The t emper at ur e of t he leader has
been known t o exceed 5000 °K and t he longit udinal elect r ic field appr oaches 2–3 kV/cm. The
cor ona envelope has been known t o ext end t o diamet er s r anging fr om 20 cm t o 2 met r es
depending upon t he over volt age. For small gaps, t he space char ge in t he cor ona envelope
lower s t he elect r ic field in t he gap t o such an ext ent t hat lar ge volt ages for br eakdown ar e
r equir ed. This effect is less pr onounced as t he gap lengt h incr eases so t hat br eakdown volt ages
less t han suggest ed by a linear incr ease ar e indicat ed. The ent ir e phenomenon is t her efor e
non-linear wit h t he br eakdown volt age showing a lower incr ease wit h gap spacing for swit ching
sur ges ). (
6 . 0 5 . 0 −
∝ d V
s
Since most of t hese condit ions ar e gover ned by t he waveshape of t he
applied volt age, sever al fact or s gover ning t he spar kover volt age have t o be measur ed under
act ual condit ions in t he labor at or y fr om smaller gaps in or der t o pr edict t he br eakdown
char act er ist ics of ver y long gaps.
We will now consider a few impor t ant models.
(a ) Lem k e' s Mod el
The simplest and a ver y st r aight -for war d model is due t o Lemke, which is based on cer t ain
cont r adict or y assumpt ions as point ed out by Wat er s (see Meek and Cr aggs, (ed), Elect r ical
Br eakdown of Gases, Chapt er 5, 1978). It t akes int o account t he pr oper t ies of t wo component s
in t he leader channel: (i) a leader lengt h L
1
. and (ii) a leader -cor ona dischar ge t ip of lengt h L
t
wit h pot ent ial gr adient E
t
. Spar kover condit ion is assumed t o r each when ,
1
d L L
t
= + t he gap
lengt h. The spar kover volt age is
V
s
=
t t
L E L E . .
1 1
+ ...(11.25)
It is t he det er minat ion of t he four cont r olling quant it ies t hat give r ise t o some pr oblems.
The pot ent ial dr op along t he leader t ur ns out t o be
V
1
= ) / 1 ln( . . .
0 1 0 0 1 1
L L L E L E + = ...(11.26)
wher e E
0
= 1.5 kV/cm chosen by Lemke which is felt low,
and L
0
= 1 m fr om phot ogr aphs t aken of t he leader pr opagat ion in gaps up
t o 2m.
*Velocit y of light = 0.3 km/µs = 300 m/µs = 30,000 cm/µs.
304 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
Tur ning t o t he leader -cor ona t ip, t he pot ent ial gr adient E
t
in t he st r eamer s of t he leader -
7cor ona is assumed t o be 4.5 kV/cm based on obser vat ions made wit h 1 m gap. The lengt h of
t he st r eamer s, L
t
, is also obt ained fr om measur ement s and is
L
t
= 1 + ln d ...(11.27)
Finally, t he cr it ical spar kover volt age comes out t o be
V
s
= cm, in )], ln ( ln ). / 1 ( 1 [
0
d d d E E E
t t
− + +
= 450 [1 +1.33 ln (d –ln d)], kV. ...(11.28)
This for mula yields values of V
s
which agr ee wit h exper iment al r esult s for swit ching-
sur ge flashover s up t o gap lengt hs of 10 m, but lower values for lar ger lengt hs. Ther efor e, gap
clear ances r equir ed beyond 10 m will be lar ger t han r equir ed when using t his for mula and will
give uneconomical designs. However , it is wor t hwhile ment ioning at t his st age t hat up t o 1150
kV t r ansmission, ext er nal insulat ion using air gaps on t ower s ar e not in excess of 9 met r es and
t his simple model is adequat e.
(b) Wa t er s' a n d J on es' Mech a n i sm
In t his model, a cr it ical lengt h for t he leader pr opagat ion is post ulat ed which if at t ained, a lar ge
incr ease in cur r ent t akes place and spar kover r esult s. The calculat ion of t he cr it ical leader
lengt h is at t empt ed. In a r od-plane gap, t he aver age pot ent ial gr adient in t he leader channel is
gover ned by t he degr ee of ionizat ion given by Saha's equat ion t hr ough t he channel t emper at ur e
which is caused by i
2
R heat ing. Because of t his heat and incr eased ionizat ion, t he aver age
pot ent ial gr adient in t he leader channel is incr eased fr om 3–4 kV/cm t o a value of about
10 kV/cm when t he leader r eaches 24 cm lengt h in a 2-met r e r od-plane gap. If t he leader
pr opagat es beyond t his lengt h, due t o st ill higher ionizat ion (and possibly due t o int ense
secondar y mechanisms) t he aver age volt age gr adient falls t o 1–2 kV /cm ver y quickly and
spar kover occur s.
The model does not give a specific r elat ion bet ween spar kover volt age and gap lengt h, but
gives t he mean pot ent ial gr adient in t he leader dur ing t he decr easing gr adient pr ocess t o be
E
1
= kV/cm ), 25 . 5 1 .( ) ( 25 . 1
85 / 2 / 1 t
e i
− −
+ ...(11.29)
wher e t is in
. s µ
The cur r ent i in most cases is equal t o 0.75 A but is r elat ed t o t he
t emper at ur e.
(c) Al ex a n d r ov' s Mod el
In t his t heor y, t hr ee quant it ies ar e assumed t o gover n t he br eakdown: (1) t he leader -t ip pot ent ial,
(2) elect r ic field st r engt h at t he head of t he developing dischar ge, and (3) r adius of cur vat ur e of
t he t ip. The r elat ion among t hem is found by Alexandr ov t o be
V
t
= d r d r r E
t
/ 1 t anh . / 1 . .
1
− −

...(11.30)
wher e V
t
= leader -t ip pot ent ial,
E
t
= elect r ic field gr adient at t he head of t he developing dischar ge,
and r = r adius of cur vat ur e of t he t ip = 0.9 met r e.
The value of E
t
was obt ained exper iment ally, while r was calculat ed t o be 0.91 m for a 2-
m gap and 0.98 for a 30-m gap. For spar kover condit ion, E
t
= 12.6 kV/cm =1260 kV/m. Ther efor e,
Insulation Characteristics of Long Air Gaps 305
equat ion (11.30) for t he spar kover volt age becomes.
V
s
= d r d r r / 1 t anh . / 1 1260
1
− −

...(11.31)
(d ) Wa t er s' Mod el
Anot her model pr oposed by Wat er s assumes t hat t he cur r ent flow in t he posit ive leader column,
i, depends upon t he t ip pot ent ial V
i
in a par abolic manner , as der ived by Townsend. The unbr idged
gap bet ween t he leader t ip and plane cat hode is assumed t o br eak down when t he leader -t ip
pot ent ial is (0.5 V + 175) kV, wher e V = anode pot ent ial. Fr om t his, and ot her exper iment al
obser vat ions t hat t he leader lengt h is 20 cm in a 2-m gap at 1000 kV, t he spar kover volt age
der ived by Wat er s is
V
s
= kV 350 ] 10 5 . 3 10 5 . 1 [
2 / 1 5 6
− × + × d ...(11.32)
Anot her expr ession der ived by Wa t er s fr om cer t a in obser va t ions ma de of t he ba sic
pr ocesses by t he t eam fr om Elect r icit e' de Fr ance is, wit h d in met r es,
V
s
= kV , . 563
5 . 0
d ...(11.33)
Wit h all t hese models based on differ ing assumpt ions, it must be clear t hat a unified
model can be at t empt ed by a r esear ch wor ker even t oday.
11.5 POSITIVE SWITCHING-SURGE FLASHOVER—SATURATION
PROBLEM
In select ing t he r equir ed air -gap insulat ion clear ance for e.h.v. t ower s bet ween t he conduct or
and t ower st r uct ur e, it s abilit y t o wit hst and posit ive swit ching sur ges wit h condcut or posit ive
is of par amount impor t ance. The shor t est air gap occur s in t he t ower window and has been t he
subject of int ensive invest igat ion. The pr oblem is complicat ed since t he cr it ical flashover volt age
depends upon (a) t he wave-fr ont t ime of t he swit ching sur ge, (b) t he gap lengt h, (c) t he widt h of
t he t ower st r uct ur e, and (d) t he pr esence of insulat or and ot her har dwar e. Ther efor e, no t wo
labor at or ies agr ee on t he CFO volt age of a given gap lengt h in a conduct or -t o-t ower insulat ion
st r uct ur e. Fr om a ver y la r ge number of exper iment a l r esult s a va ila ble, some impor t a nt
obser vat ions and pr oper t ies ar e wor t h not ing.
(1) The CFO volt age V
50
of t ower windows wit h insulat or st r ings inside t hem var ies wit h
t he fr ont -t ime of t he swit ching sur ge. Typical flashover volt ages ar e shown in Figur e
11.5 [Menemenlis and Har bec. See No. 56, IEEE, in Bibliogr aphy].
(2) The CFO volt age var ies wit h t he per cent age of space filled by por celain of t he insulat or
st r ing which has a higher per mit t ivit y t han air .
(3) The CFO volt age depends upon t he r at io of t he shor t est dist ance in air bet ween
conduct or and t ower (t he "st r ike dist ance") t o t he lengt h of t he por celain or glass
insulat or st r ing. A r at io bet ween 0.85 and 1 is nor mally used in t ower windows.
(4) The fir st swit ching-sur ge t est s per for med by J .W. Kalb, J r ., of t he Ohio Br ass Co.,
U.S.A., est ablished t he impor t ant pr oper t y t hat t he minimum value of CFO occur r ed
at a cer t ain fr ont t ime. His exper iment s for 525 kV t ower s wit h 24 insulat or s in t he
st r ing gave t he minimum CFO at a wave-fr ont t ime of 250
. s µ
The CFO was higher
at shor t er and longer wave-fr ont t imes t han t his value.
306 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(5) Fr om r esult s obt ained in labor at or ies all over t he wor ld since
Fi g. 11.5(a) CFO of long a ir ga ps bet ween conduct or a nd t ower showing t ime t o cr est of swit ching
sur ge against gap dist ance. [Ref. 56, IEEE].
(b) Minimum br eakdown volt age and gr adient at minimum CFO. Var iat ion wit h gap lengt h.
Kalb's exper iment s in t he ear ly 1960's, it has been est ablished t hat t he minimum
CFO occur s for swit ching-sur ge wave-fr ont t imes var ying fr om 55 t o 300
, s µ
Figur e
11.5, depending upon t he mock-up t he invest igat or s have used.
(6) The values quot ed by differ ent invest igat or s for t he wave-fr ont t ime have not been
based on a unifor m definit ion of t he wave-fr ont . Some have used t he t ime t o act ual
cr est value of volt age, while ot her s have used t he I.E.C. st andar d definit ion of
) ( 67 . 1
30 90
t t t
f
− = wher e
30 90
and t t ar e t imes fr om vir t ual zer o t o 90% and 30% cr est
values of volt age on t he r ising por t ion of t he wave. (See sect ion 13.2.1).
(7) Since Kalb's pioneer ing exper iment s, t he st andar d waveshape for a swit ching sur ge
has been adopt ed as 250/2500
. s µ
(8) This does not necessar ily imply t hat t ower insulat ion st r uct ur es t est ed under t he
st andar d waveshape will yield t he wor st swit ching-sur ge st r engt h. Each air gap
clear ance or gap lengt h for a given elect r ode geomet r y must be t est ed individually
wit h var ying fr ont t imes t o ascer t ain t he minimum CFO. This necessar ily r equir es a
swit ching-sur ge gener t or capable of deliver ing sur ges wit h var ying fr ont t imes. The
pr oblem of design of such impulse gener at or s is discussed in det ail in Chapt er 13.
(9) The widt h of t ower st r uct ur e used in mock-ups in labor at or y invest igat ion has some
effect on t he CFO volt age, as also t he lengt h of conduct or used on eit her side of t he
t ower . This has been clear ly point ed out by Dr . Alexandr ov who r ecommends conduct or
lengt hs not less t han 20 met r es on eit her side. The conduct or pr ofile and size must
be exact r eplicas of what will be used on act ual lines. This is because t he pr e-br eakdown
mechanisms and t her efor e t he br eakdown char act er ist ics of long gaps under posit ive
swit ching sur ges ar e ver y sensit ive t o secondar y mechanisms which ar e cont r olled
by met allic par t s in t he envir onment of t he air gap under going t est .
(10) The CFO of long gaps under posit ive swit ching-sur ge volt age does not incr ease linear ly
wit h t he gap lengt h, as shown in Figur es 11.2 and 11.3. It bends t owar ds t he gap-
lengt h axis showing t hat a sat ur at ion might be occur r ing.
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
0 200 400 600 800
8.75
7.50
6.00
4.50
Gap, metres
Crest Time, s µ
M
V
,

C
r
e
s
t
2.5
2.0
1.5 3
2
1
1.0
0.5
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
M
V
K
V
/
c
m
M
i
n
.

5
0
%
B
.
V
Gradient at
Min.
KV/cm
Gap, metres
Clearance to Tower
Insulation Characteristics of Long Air Gaps 307
Possi bl e Cei l i n g Vol t a ge f or AC T r a n sm i ssi on
The most ser ious of t he above list ed pr oblems is t he non-linear br eakdown char act er ist ic wit h
ga p lengt h a nd sa t ur a t ion. It shows t ha t incr ea se in ga p lengt h does not br ing a bout a
cor r esponding incr ease in insulat ion st r engt h or CFO volt age. The gr oup of engineer s of E. de
F. in Fr ance, while t est ing gaps up t o 8 met r es bet ween r od and plane found t hat t he CFO for
posit ive swit ching sur ge can be descr ibed by t he equat ion
V
50
= ) met r es in ( kV ), / 8 1 /( 3400 d d + ...(11.34)
This was int er pr et ed at t he Less Renar diér es Labor at or y t o imply t hat as t he gap lengt h
d incr eased t o ver y lar ge values, t he highest volt age t hat can be suppor t ed is 3400 kV, cr est .
Beyond t his, no air gap lengt h however lar ge ) ( ∞ = d can sust ain a swit ching sur ge in excess of
3400 kV. This might imply t hat t her e is a limit t o t he t r ansmission volt age t hat can be used for
ac lines as shown below. This ceiling volt age has been var iously t aken t o be 1850 kV, r .m.s.
line-t o-line, t o 2800 kV. [see No. 50, IEEE, and Nos. 48, 49 under "Ot her J ournals" in Bibliography].
Exa mp le 11.1. If t he cr est value of s.s. suppor t ed by an air gap has a ceiling of 3400 kV,
using a safet y fact or of 1.5 and swit ching over volt age of 1.5 p.u., calculat e t he maximum
per missible r .m.s. value of line-t o-line volt age for ac t r ansmission.
Sol u t i on . Wit h a safet y fact or (wit hst and volt age = 2/3 × CFO volt age) of 1.5, t he wit hst and
volt age is 3400/1.5 = 2267 kV cr est . Since t he p.u. value of s.s. is 1.5, t he cr est or peak value of
line-t o-neut r al volt age is 2267/1.5 = 1510 kV. The cor r esponding line-t o-line r .m.s. value of
volt age will be . kV 1850 2 / 3 1510 = ×
If t he p.u. value of s.s. can be r educed or t he safet y fact or decr eased, t he ceiling volt age
can be incr eased. The r elat ion bet ween t he 50% flashover volt age (CFO volt age) and t he wit hst and
volt age depends upon t he st at ist ical pr oper t ies of br eakdown which will be discussed in a lat er
sect ion. The flashover pr obabilit y of a given gap lengt h wit h volt age follows a near ly Gaussian
or nor mal dist r ibut ion. The st andar d deviat ion σ has t o be det er mined for each gap lengt h.
Then t he accept ed r ule up t o dat e is t hat
Wit hst and volt age = % 50 ) 3 1 ( × σ − flashover volt age ...(11.35)
The exist ence of a ceiling volt a ge for a c t r a nsmission is now being hot ly deba t ed.
Dr .Alexandr ov wor king wit h ver y long gaps has come t o t he opinion t hat t her e is a slow but
per cept ible incr ease in CFO for ver y long air gaps and t her e is no such value as a celing volt age
which an air gap can exhibit , i.e. t her e is no ult imat e sat ur at ion. This can be compar ed t o t he
br eakdown under light ning wave shapes on t he basis of what we obser ve in nat ur e. If t her e be
such a phenomenon as sat ur at ion, volt ages of t he or der of 100 t o 1000 MV obser ved in light ning
might not be pr esent in or der t o cause br eakdown of air gaps fr om 500 t o 5000 met r es fr om
cloud t o gr ound. Alexandr ov's equat ion (11.31) gives t his slow r ise.
Exa mp le 11.2. Using equat ion , / 1 t anh . / 1 1260 ), 31 . 11 (
1
d r d r r V
s
− − =

calculat e V
s
for r = 0.9 and d = 25,50, and 100 met r es.
Sol u t i on . Let . t anh / 1 Then . / 1 t anh
1
x d r d r x = − − =

, / 1 ) /( ) ( d r e e e e
x x x x
− = + − ∴
− −
giving x =
.
/ 1 1
/ 1 1
ln
2
1
d r
d r
− −
− +
308 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(a) For d = 34614 . 2 ) 01816 . 0 / 98183 . 1 ln(
2
1
, 25 = = x
∴ V
s
= 1260 ×0.9 × 0.981835 × 2.34614 = 2612.2 kV, cr est .
(b) d = 990959 . 0 / 1 : 50 = − d r
x =
6973 . 2
990959 . 1
990959 . 1
ln
2
1
=

+
∴ V
s
= 1260 × 0.9 ×0.990959 ×2.6973 = 3031 kV, cr est .
(c) d = 99549 . 0 / 1 : 100 = − d r
x =
046155 . 3
99549 . 1
99549 . 1
ln
2
1
=

+
∴ V
s
= 1260 × 0.9 × 0.99549 × 3.046155 = 3438.8 kV, cr est .
The equat ion 3400/(1 + 8/d) gives t he following values:
(a) . kV 2576 , 25 = =
s
V d
(b) ; kV 2931 , 50 = =
s
V d
(c) . kV 3148 , 100 = = Vs d
These obser vat ions ar e meant t o give t he r eader t he idea t hat t he invest igat ion of basic
mechanisms leading t o br eakdown of ver y long gaps is st ill as necessar y as when t hey wer e
fir st at t empt ed t o explain t he for mat ion of char ges in clouds, t heir pr opagat ion as leader s and
st r ea mer s, a nd t he mecha nism of induced pr e-discha r ge cur r ent s fr om t r a nsmission-line
st r uct ur es and gr ound plane. This must be invest igat ed under differ net t ypes of excit at ion
volt ages. Such invest igat ions ar e being under t aken at some expense of money, t ime, and effor t
in e.h.v. labor at or ies and by engineer s dealing wit h e.h.v. t r ansmission in conjunct ion wit h
physicist s. Dr . K. Ber ger of t he E.T.H. in Zur ich, Swit zer land, has point ed out in one of his
discussions t hat his st udies and t hat of his st udent s have r evealed t he fact t hat t her e is quit e a
lot t o under st and about t he basic char act er ist ics of br eakdown of a 60-cm gap and a 6-met r e gap
even t hough t hey show similar ext er nal char act er ist ics bet ween V
s
and d.
11.6 CFO AND WITHSTAND VOLTAGES OF LONG AIR GAPS—
STATISTICAL PROCEDURE
Insulat ion design of e.h.v. lines based on t he use of long air gaps t ends t owar ds a st at ist ical
pr ocedur e inst ead of det er minist ic met hods based on wor st -case sit uat ion. This is pr imar ily
because of t he lar ge number of var iables involved in t he pr oblem each of which has it s own
char act er ist ic pr obabilit y of occur r ence eit her alone or in conjunct ion wit h ot her var iables. For
example, t he shor t est gap bet ween t he t ower st r uct ur e and conduct or suppor t ed fr om a ver t ical
or I-st r ing of insulat or s occur s under maximum conduct or swing in high winds and lar ge
oscillat or y condit ions. This dist ance must wit hst and t he highest swit ching-sur ge volt age nor mally
encount er ed in t he syst em under t he wor st -case design. However , t he above is t r ue only if t he
pr obabilit y of maximum conduct or swing coincides wit h t he pr obabilit y t hat t he maximum
swit ching sur ge will also occur at t he same t ime. Such a pr obabilit y of bot h event s occur r ing
Insulation Characteristics of Long Air Gaps 309
simult aneously is ver y r emot e and a design based on wor st case gives uneconomically lar ge
air -gap lengt hs necessit at ing ext r emely heavy t ower s. In act ual pr act ice, t he U.S.S.R. 1150 kV
line does not consider bot h event s t o occur simult aneously dur ing t he life of t he line, and t he
gap clear ance is designed for wit hst anding t he maximum swit ching sur ge wit h t he insulat or
ver t ical in an I-st r ing or t he conduct or occupying it s nor mal r est posit ion for a double 90°-V
st r ing.
In adopt ing t he pr obabilist ic philosophy of design, it is also evident t hat even t hough t he
pr obabilit y of a flashover under wor st condit ion is neglect ed, t her e exist s always t he danger
t hat such a condit ion could occur . Ther efor e, a flashover once in so many swit ching oper at ions
should be allowed. This depends ent ir ely on t he exper ience of t he designer acquir ed fr om
exist ing lines, if dat a of such infor mat ion have been pr oper ly logged. The most usual case is t o
allow 1 flashover in 100 swit ching oper at ions and it is t he det er minat ion of t his pr obabilit y t hat
has for med t he ent ir e basis for design of air gap insulat ion for swit ching sur ge and light ning-
impulse volt ages based on st at ist ical consider at ions. Some designer s use a 0.2% pr obabilit y of
flashover (1 in 500 oper at ions). It has however been r ecognized t hat a flashover under t hese
t wo t ypes of impulse volt ages is not cat ast r ophic on t he syst em in t hat it is not any mor e
ser ious t han init iat ion of a single line t o gr ound fault or a phase-t o-phase fault . Sur ge absor ber s
ar e also impr oved a lot t o handle t he sever it y imposed by swit ching-sur ge dut y.
Fr om what has been descr ibed befor e, it is evident t hat many pr obabilit ies have t o be
det er mined, chief among which ar e t he following:
(a) Magnit ude of swit ching sur ge exper ienced in t he syst em dur ing all possible t ypes of
swit ching oper at ions and syst em condit ions dur ing swit ching.
(b) Envir onment al condit ions such as r at e of r ainfall, humidit y (r elat ive and absolut e).
(c) Wind condit ions which give r ise t o aeolian vibr at ions, wake-induced oscillat ions, et c.,
t hat det er mine t he swing and clear ances under ser vice condit ions.
(d) Snow, ice, and such ot her condit ions which will affect t he insulat ion st r engt h.
Alt hough t he t ask of cor r elat ing all t hese fact or s in or der t o evolve an economical or
opt imal design is a for midable t ask and may sound impossible, in pr act ice, digit al comput er
pr ogr ammes such as t he METIFOR, at t empt t o include t he simult aneit y of t he pr obabilit y of
occur r ence of t he above fact or s in helping t o evolve a suit able design for t he insulat ion st r uct ur e
of t ower s and conduct or s. Needless t o say, cost s can be br ought down consider ably when all
fact or s ar e det er mined t o a high degr ee of confidence level.
As one example, we will quot e one inst ance of a 735-kV line fr om Chur chill Falls in
Labr ador (New Foundland) in Canada as designed by t he Becht el Cor por at ion. Wit h an air gap
in t he window of 15.4 feet (4.7 m) and 27 insulat or s, t he cost per kilomet r e of line was $ 61,000
(1970 pr ice quot ed by Mr . Pr ice), while it could be br ought down t o $ 48,000/km by using 13.2
feet (4.024 m) in t he window, t hat is a r educt ion of 2.2 feet or 14.3%. The CFO volt ages in t he
t wo cases ar e 1307 kV cr est and 1062 kV cr est . The phase spacing could be r educed fr om 50 feet
t o 45 feet (15.44 m t o 13.72 m) wit h a gr and saving of $ 5 million out of $ 65 million for
t r ansmit t ing 5000 MW which cost s $ 13/kW in t r ansmission line t ower s and foundat ions.
The dat a necessar y for line insulat ion design as it is pr act iced for t he pr esent ar e t her efor e
t he following:
(a) The flashover volt age of an insulat or st r ing on a t ower expr essed t hr ough t he 50%
flashover level, V
50
. This is t he r elat ion bet ween pr obabilit y of flashover and t he
sur ge amplit ude.
310 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(b) The r elat ion bet ween flashover volt age and waveshape, t he weat her or at mospher ic
condit ions.
(c) The st andar d deviat ion, ,
f
σ for flashover when using an assumed st at ist ical var iat ion
for t he flashover volt age.
(d) The st at ist ical dist r ibut ion of amplit udes and waveshapes of t he sur ges occur r ing on
t he syst em dur ing all possible swit ching condit ions which can be defined t hr ough a
mean value
µ
and st andar d deviat ion .
s
σ
(e) The number , n, of insulat or st r ings st r essed simult aneously on t he line.
(f ) The st a t ist ica l r ela t ion bet ween a t mospher ic condit ions a nd t he pr oba bilit y of
occur r ence of a cer t ain level of t he swit ching sur ges.
It ems (a) t o (c) ar e evaluat ed in out door and indoor e.h.v. and u.h.v. labor at or ies, while
it em (d) on evaluat ing t he swit ching-sur ge magnit udes on elect r ical net wor ks is car r ied out
fr om model st udies on a Tr ansient Net wor k Analyzer (TNA) or by field t est s on exist ing lines
or calculat ion on Digit al Comput er s. Ver y ext ensive lit er at ur e exist s on case-by-case as well as
gener al st udies on t his t opic and t he r eader is r efer r ed t o t he bibliogr aphy on t his impor t ant
t opic.
Even t hough much st r ess has been laid on t he V
50
or CFO volt age, t he designer is r eally
int er est ed in t he wit hst and volt age of an insulat ion st r uct ur e at t he design st ages. This value
has been point ed out t o be t he volt age at which 1 flashover in 500 or 1000 swit ching oper at ions
r esult s, and cannot be det er mined fr om exper iment s wit h available t ime in a labor at or y. Thus,
t he low pr oba bilit y r egion of fla shover , 0.1% or 0.2%, must be obt a ined fr om fla shover
pr obabilit ies of higher values. Using a pr ocedur e par alleling insulat ion br eakdown values of
solid insulat ion st r uct ur es used in t r ansfor mer s and cables, t he t ime r equir ed t o evaluat e t he
0.1% or low pr obabilit y of flashover is obt ained by assuming t he most popular and widely-used
Nor mal or Gaussian dist r ibut ion of t he t ype.
) (V p =
dx V x
V
f f
. } 2 / ) ( exp{ ). / 1 (
2
1
2 2
50

∞ −
σ − − σ
π
...(11.36)
wher e ) (V p = pr obabilit y of flashover at volt age V,
50
V = 50% flashover volt age, or t he mean,
and
f
σ = st andar d deviat ion as per cent age of .
50
V
The t ype of r elat ion in equat ion (11.36) is used chiefly for obt aining t he st andar d deviat ion
f
σ fr om a set of exper iment al r esult s obt ained in a labor at or y. The pr obabilit y of flashover p(V)
at a cer t ain volt age level as well as t he V
50
-level ar e det er mined, as shown in Example 11.3
below:
Exa mp le 11.3. A flashover t est on an insulat ion st r uct ur e of a t ower gave t he following
r esult s.
No. of shot s 24 25 24 24 25 20 20
Voltage kV 1600 1620 1650 1690 1730 1770 1800
No. of flashovers 4 5 8 12 15 16 18
% flashover 16.67 20 33.3 50 60 80 90
Insulation Characteristics of Long Air Gaps 311
(a) Plot t he % flashover against volt age on linear and pr obabilit y gr aph paper s.
(b) Give the value of 50% flashover, V
50
.
(c) Assuming t he st andar d deviat ion
f
σ t o be t he differ ence bet ween V
50
and V
16.7,
and V
50
and V
83.3,
calculat e t he aver age st andar d deviat ion in kV.
(d) Det er mine
50
/ V
f
σ in per cent age.
Sol u t i on .
(a) Figur e 11.6 shows t he t wo gr aphs.
(b) , kV 1690
50
= V cr est , fr om t he t able of dat a given.
(c) kV 90 1600 1690
7 . 16 50
= − = −V V
kV. 90 1690 1780
50 3 . 83
= − = − V V
. kV 90 = σ ∴
f
(d) %. 3 . 5 1690 / 100 90 / %
50
= × = σ V
f
The following pr oper t ies should be not ed r ega r ding t he r ela t ion bet ween fla shover
pr obabilit y, 50% flashover volt age, and st andar d deviat ion when t he dist r ibut ion is Gaussian.
F i g. 11.6 Plot of number or % fla shover s wit h volt a ge on (a) linear gr aph, (b) pr obabilit y paper ,
t o illust r at e median (50%) flashover volt age, and st andar d deviat ion. Example 11.3.
(1) As we deviat e fr om V
50
by one st andar d deviat ion ,
f
σ eit her below or above it , t he
pr obabilit y of flashover changes by 33.3%, and near ly 67% of all flashover s lie wit hin
one st andar d deviat ion.
(2) I t ca n be s h own t h a t a t
f
σ 2 fr om V
50
, t h e fl a s h over pr oba bi l i t i es wi l l be
). 2 ( at % 98 and ) 2 ( at % 2
50 50 f f
V V σ + σ − Since we ar e int er est ed in t he low-pr obabilit y
r egion of flashover , we only consider volt ages less t han t he mean value V
50
.
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1500 1600 1700 1800
%

F
l
a
s
h
o
v
e
r
s
Flashover, kV
1500 1600 1700 1800
99.9
99
95
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
1
%

F
l
a
s
h
o
v
e
r
s
Flashover Voltage, kV
312 Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering
(3) At 3 st andar d deviat ions fr om V
50
, t he flashover pr obabilit ies will be 0.1% at
) 3 (
50 f
V σ − and 99.9% at ) 3 (
50 f
V σ − .
(4) We now have est ablished t he wit hst and volt age if t his is t aken t o give 0.1% pr obabilit y
of flashover . For t he pr esent st at e of t he ar t of design followed in most count r ies, t his
is t he accept ed value for wit hst and volt age.
(5) However , some designer s use ) 4 (
50 f
V σ − as t he wit hst and volt age which gives a
pr obabilit y of flashover of 0.0033% or 1 flashover in 30,000 swit ching oper at ions.
We can now appr eciat e t he full significance of cont r olled exper iment s in t he labor at or y
which should yield accur at e values for t he V
50
value and t he st andar d deviat ion .
f
σ In a design,
t he wit hst and volt age must equal or exceed t he highest cr est value of ant icipat ed swit ching
sur ge in t he syst em. This also must be ascer t ained on a pr obabilit y basis.
Exa mp le 11.4. The r esult s of a lar ge number of swit ching oper at ions per for med on a
syst em using models on a TNA gave t he following r esult s when pr e-inser t ion r esist or s wer e
not used in t he cir cuit br eaker .
Mean value of swit ching sur ge p.u. 325 . 2 = µ
St andar d deviat ion in s.s. over volt age p.u. 25 . 0
0
= σ
(a) Calculat e . / %
0
µ σ
(b) Assuming t hat t he maximum swit ching sur ge is 4 st andar d deviat ions above t he
mean, calculat e t he upper value of s.s. on t his syst em st udied on t he TNA.
Sol u t i on . (a) %. 8 . 10 325 . 2 / 100 25 . 0 / %
0
= × = µ σ
(b) Upper value p.u. 325 . 3 1 325 . 2 4
0
= + = σ + µ =
Exa mp le 11.5. The following t est r esult under dr y condit ions wer e obt ained on a 500-kV
t ower for posit ive swit ching sur ges wit h 23 unit s of " 10 "
4
3
5 × insulat or s in a t ower window of 11
met r es (5.5 met r e clear ance when st r ing is ver t ical).
(i) S ingle st ring. CFO = 1340 kV cr est ,
wit hst and volt age at . kV 1100 down 3 = σ
f
(ii) Double st ring. CFO = . kV 1250 down 3 , kV 1390 = σ
f
For t he t wo cases, calculat e
(a) ; CFO / %
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σ (b) The maximum allowable p.u. swit ching sur ge based on oper at ing
volt age of 525 kV.
Sol u t i on . 1 p.u. swit ching sur ge = , kV 66 . 428 3 / 2 525 = cr est , line-t o-gr ound.
(a) For single st ring.
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