P. 1
73584148 Fire Fighting

73584148 Fire Fighting

|Views: 84|Likes:
Published by Fares AL-sadek

More info:

Published by: Fares AL-sadek on Mar 15, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/08/2012

pdf

text

original

Fire Fighting Design Case study

Prof. Dr Ali Hammoud
OUTLINE
• Chapter 1: Definitions
• Chapter 2: Fire Fighting Equipments
• Chapter 3: Project Description
• Chapter 4: Hand Calculations
• Chapter 5: Elite Software Calculations
• Chapter 6: WaterCAD Software Calculations
• Chapter 7: Fire Pump Selection
Introduction
Fire protection has three major goals:
• Life safety (minimum standard in fire and building codes)
• Property protection (typically an insurance requirement, or a
regulatory requirement where the protection of building
components is necessary to enable life safety)
• Continuity of operations (typically an insurance requirement or
an item of self-motivation for building owners - not a regulatory
issue). Interruption of operations due to fire damage can be
very costly.
Chapter 1
Definitions
Fire:
• Fire is the visible heat and light energy
released during a chemical reaction
• Fires start when a flammable and/or a
combustible material with an adequate
supply of oxygen or another oxidizer is
subjected to enough heat and is able to
sustain a chain reaction.
Fire Triangle
Fire is a chemical reaction
involving rapid oxidation of a
fuel. Three things must be
present at the same time in
order to produce fire:
• Fuel
• Oxygen
• Heat
Chemical, exothermic
reaction
Fire Tetrahedron
• chain reaction must
take place
The Critical Stages of Fire
• The incipient period
• The growth period
• The fully developed
stage “ Burning”
• The decay period
Incipient Period
• The incipient period is the pre-fire period before the
flames develop. The typical accidental fire begins as
a slow growth, smoldering process, which may last
from a few minutes to several hours.
• During this period heat generation increases,
producing light to moderate volumes of smoke. The
characteristic smell of smoke is usually the first
indication that an incipient fire is underway.
Growth Period
• The growth period commences with ignition and
ends with 'flashover', which is best thought of as the
transition between the second and third stages.
• In the growth period, most fires spread slowly at first
on combustible surfaces, then more rapidly as the
fire grows, providing radiant feedback from flames
and hot gases to other fuel items.
Fully developed (Burning)
• In fully developed period all combustible
materials will become involved, and flames
will emerge through the upper parts of any
opening (door, window, etc.)
Decay
• The fire is dying out because either the fuel
is burning out or there is insufficient air
supply
• The temperature of the enclosure drops
gradually
Fire Classes
• Class A - Ordinary Combustible
• Class B - Flammable Liquids
• Class C - Electrical Hazards
• Class D - Combustible Metals
• Class K - Cooking Oil or Fat
Class A - Ordinary Combustible
Materials: Ordinary Combustiles
• Wood
• Paper
• Rubber
• Plastic
Extinguishing methods:
• Cooling with water
Class B - Flammable Liquids
Materials:
• Flammable or combustible
fuels
• Liquids
• Gases
Extinguishing methods:
• Removing fuel
• Reducing temperature
Class C - Electrical Hazards
Materials:
• Energized electrical
equipment
Extinguishing methods:
• Non conducting extinguishing
agent (halon, dry chemicals,
carbon dioxide)
Class D - Combustible Metals
Materials:
• Magnesium
• Titanium
• Zirconium
• Lithium
• Calcium
• Zinc
Extinguishing methods:
• Dry powders
Class F - Cooking Oil or Fat
Materials:
• Cooking oils
• Hotter than other typical
combustible liquids.
Extinguishing methods:
• Wet chemical extinguisher.
Hazard Classes of Occupancies
The Classes of Occupancies are:
1) Light Hazard.
2) Ordinary Hazard.
– Ordinary Group 1 Hazard
– Ordinary Group 2 Hazard
3) Extra Hazard.
– Extra Group 1 Hazard
– Extra Group 2 Hazard
Light Hazard
• Combustibility of the contents is low
• Quantity of the combustible is low
• Low rates of heat release
Example:
• Residential
• Hospitals
• Schools
Ordinary Group 1 Hazard
• Combustibility of contents is moderate
• Moderate rates of heat release are expected
Example:
• Bakeries
• Laundries
Ordinary Group 2 Hazard
• Combustibility of contents is moderate to high
• Moderate to high rates of heat release are expected
Example:
• Parking
• Post offices
• Libraries
Extra Group 1 Hazard
• Quantity and combustibility of contents is
very high
Examples:
• Die casting,
• Metal extruding
Extra Group 2 Hazard
• Moderate amounts of flammable or
combustible liquids
Examples:
• Asphalt saturating
• Flammable liquids spraying
• Flow coating
Chapter 2
Fire Fighting Equipments
Fire Control Systems
1. Active Control
– Sprinklers
– Fire Extinguishers
– Sensors
2. Passive Control
– Furniture
– Carpets
– Walls
– Floors
Active Protection
Manual or automatic
suppression of fire
that would:
1. Control and
extinguish fires
2. Protect people and
surrounding
structures from the
effects of fire
Passive Protection
Materials by nature of design,
or physical arrangement
would:
1. Resist damage due to heat
and flame
2. Resist or prevent the spread
of heat, smoke and flame.
3. Facilitate the safe evacuation
of people
4. Aid fire-suppression
operations
Manual Fire Suppression
• Fire hose reels
• Standpipe system
• Portable extinguishers
Hose Reel
• Nominal diameter : 2.5 in
• Temperature range: -20 to
50°C
• Hose Length: not less than
32 m.
• FHC Spacing between two
adjacent: 20 m
• Minimum allowable hose
diameter is 1 in at the flow
rate of 33 gpm.
Portable Extinguishers
• Portable fire extinguishers are
intended as a first line of defense
to cope with fires of limited size
• Use CO2 extinguisher in rooms
containing electrical equipments
• Use dry chemical fire extinguisher
for remaining areas
• Fire extinguishers used shall not
exceed 12 kg
Stand Pipe System
• A standpipe is a type of rigid water piping
which is built into multi-story buildings in a
vertical position, to which fire hoses can be
connected, allowing manual application of
water to the fire. Within buildings standpipes
thus serve the same purpose as fire
hydrants.
Dry standpipe system
• A "dry" standpipe is a pipe
extending into a building that
can be used by the fire
department to supply fire
fighting water to the interior of
the structure.
• The pipe is fixed, located near a
road or driveway so that a fire
engine can supply water to the
system.
Wet standpipe system
• A "wet" standpipe, on the
other hand, is filled with
water and is pressurized at
all times.
• wet standpipes may be used
by building occupants.
• they come with hoses so
that building occupants may
fight fires quickly.
System Component Definitions
• Branch Lines: The pipes in which the sprinklers are
placed, either directly or through risers.
• Cross Mains: The pipes supplying the branch lines,
either directly or through risers.
• Feed Mains: The pipes supplying cross mains,
either directly or through risers.
• Risers: The vertical supply pipes in a sprinkler
system.
System Component Definitions
Sprinkler Systems
• There are 3 systems:
1. Tree System
2. Grid System
3. Looped System
Tree System
• It is a system of dead-end
branch lines that is centrally
fed by a cross main. The
cross main is the pipe that
supplies water to the branch
lines, Long branch lines
should, if possible, be fed so
that the cross main is
equidistant from the ends of
the branch lines.
Grid System
• A grid is a system of branch
lines interconnected by
cross main on both ends of
the branch lines. A grid can
be used only for wet pipe
systems to provide a
hydraulic advantage for
systems with numerous
branch lines by providing
water flow to sprinklers from
more than one direction.
Looped System
• A looped system connects
cross mains at two or more
locations. This arrangement
can provide a hydraulic
advantage over the
traditional tree system by
providing water flow to
sprinklers from more than
one direction. It is used for
wet & dry systems.
Type of Sprinklers Head
• Pendent Sprinkler: A sprinkler designed to
be installed in such a way that the water
stream is directed downward against the
deflector.
• Upright Sprinkler: A sprinkler designed to be
installed in such a way that the water spray
is directed upwards against the deflector.
Type of Sprinklers Head
Detectors
• The first step in fire fighting
is the detection of the fire
• Fires are detected either by
persons or by electrical
detectors
• Electrical detectors can be
– Heat detectors
– Smoke detectors
– Flame detectors
Detectors
• According to NFPA standards
detectors shall be located at a
distance of 7 m from each other
• We can know the number of detectors
we need per floor by dividing the area
to be protected by the area protected
by each detector
• Smoke detectors are installed in
offices and parking garages
• heat detectors are installed in pantries
Alarm bell
• After detecting the fire ,alarm bells ring to
warn occupants and personnel.
• Alarm bells are directly connected to the
detectors and rings automatically ,and they
can be manually operated.
Chapter 3
Project Description
Project Description
• The project consists of designing a fire
fighting system for “ABRAJ ACHRAFIEH” in
BEIRUT. The building consists of 3
residential buildings (Block A, B and C):
each containing four basements, a ground
floor, a mezzanine floor, a +6.55 floor, a
technical floor, 21 floors, and a roof.
Project Description
• Concerning the type of hazards, we have:
- Light hazard occupancy for apartments.
- Ordinary hazard occupancy, group 1 for parking
Lots.
• The classifications of fires that can happen in that
project are:
- Class A for apartments and parking lots.
- Class B for parking garages and fuel tanks.
- Class C for electronic and generator rooms.
Design Calculations
• The Project is mainly composed of
apartments and parking lots.
• Sprinklers are added in the four basements
which contains the parking lots.
• Hose reels are placed in the stairways at
each floor
Design Calculations
• In each residential building we have two
risers:
– One wet riser feeding the hose reels
– One dry riser feeding the landing valves
via a siamese connection
Design Calculations
The design studies should be done for:
• Temperature classification (glass bulb color).
• Fire hose reels.
• Hydraulically most demanding area (HMDA)
• Fire pumps.
Chapter 4
Hand Calculations
Temperature Classification
• The maximum ceiling temperature is
supposed to be 38°C and the temperature
rating at which the sprinkler should be active
is between 57and 77°C since there is no
boiler or furnace in the designed area. The
sprinkler glass bulb should be orange or red.
Temperature Classification
Temperature Classification
Sprinkler calculations
• Automatic sprinkler systems are designed in
accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for the
installation of sprinkler Systems.
• NFPA-13 provides the minimum
requirements for the design of sprinkler
systems protecting buildings of a wide
variety of uses.
Step1- Number of sprinkler risers needed
• Based on NFPA 13-4-2.1
• Since the parking area is less than 4831m
2
, one
sprinkler riser is sufficient
Step 2- Area-Density Method
Step 3- Area of Coverage/sprinkler spacing
Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard
Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Ordinary
Hazard. NFPA-13 4.4.1.1
4.6 15 12.1 130 All All
m ft m
2
ft
2
System
type
Construction
type
Maximum
spacing
(s)
Protection
area (A
s
)
4.6 15 12.1 130 All All
m ft m
2
ft
2
System
type
Construction
type
Maximum
spacing
(s)
Protection
area (A
s
)
Step 3- Area of Coverage/sprinkler spacing
As = S X L
Distance between branch lines L = As / S = 12.1 / 4.6
= 2.63 m
Sprinklers Distribution
• Step 1: Meshing for distribution of sprinklers
Sprinklers Distribution
• Step 2: Determining sprinklers needed in the uncovered areas
Sprinklers Distribution
• Step 3: Sprinklers addition
Step 4- Calculation of the total number of sprinklers
per floor
• The area of the parking is 3000 m² with a
height of 3 m
• The protection area of one sprinkler is 12.1

A total number of 247 sprinklers / floor is needed
(255 by design constraints and specifications)
Sprinklers distribution
• Adjustments
• 1- Distance from walls is between 4 in
minimum and Ls/2.
• 2- Obstructions (e.g.. Ventilation duct)
• 3- Uncovered areas (shape, Building
geometry)
Sprinklers distribution
• Actual number of sprinklers per floor is 255
Step 5-Pipe sizing
• Schedule size for Ordinary Hazard Occupancies systems
Ordinary Hazard Pipe Schedule Ordinary Hazard Pipe Schedule
(as per NFPA (as per NFPA- -13.table6 13.table6- -5.3.2(a)) 5.3.2(a))
Steel Copper Steel Copper
1 in. 1 in. …………… …………… 2 sprinklers 1 in. 2 sprinklers 1 in. ……………… ……………… 2 sprinklers 2 sprinklers
1 1¼ ¼ in. in.…………… …………… 3 sprinklers 1 3 sprinklers 1¼ ¼ in. in. …………… …………… 3 sprinklers 3 sprinklers
1 1½ ½ in. in.…………… …………… 5 sprinklers 1 5 sprinklers 1½ ½ in. in. …………… …………… 5 sprinklers 5 sprinklers
2 in. 2 in.……………… ……………… 10 sprinklers 2 in. 10 sprinklers 2 in. ……………… ……………… 12 sprinklers 12 sprinklers
2 2½ ½ in. in.…………… …………… 20 sprinklers 2 20 sprinklers 2½ ½ in. in. …………… …………… 25 sprinklers 25 sprinklers
3 in. 3 in. ……………… ………………40 sprinklers 3 in. 40 sprinklers 3 in. ……………… ……………… 45 sprinklers 45 sprinklers
3 3½ ½ in. in. …………… ……………65 sprinklers 3 65 sprinklers 3½ ½ in. in. …………… …………… 75 sprinklers 75 sprinklers
4 in. 4 in. ……………… ………………100 sprinklers 4 in. 100 sprinklers 4 in. ……………… ……………… 115 sprinklers 115 sprinklers
5 in. 5 in. ……………… ………………160 sprinklers 5 in. 160 sprinklers 5 in. ……………… ……………… 180 sprinklers 180 sprinklers
6 in. 6 in. ……………… ………………275 sprinklers 6 in. 275 sprinklers 6 in. ……………… ……………… 300 sprinklers 300 sprinklers
Step 5-Pipe sizing
• Calculation of pipe diameters
Step 6- Determination of the most remote area
• Sprinkler which has the longest run and the highest pressure
drop is calculated using the equivalent length technique
Step 7- Number of sprinklers in the remote area
• The maximum probable number of operating
sprinklers at the same time is
• Ns =Ad /As
• Ns=1500/ 130 = 12
Step 8- Number of sprinklers in one branch line
• Number of sprinklers on one branch line
Where
• S= spacing between sprinklers (ft)
• Ad= sprinkler operation area (ft2)
• Step 9- Determining the flowrate of the most remote sprinkler
• Step 10- Determining the residual pressure of the most remote
sprinkler
2
|
.
|

\
|
=
k
q
p
Step 11- Total effective length between two adjacent sprinklers
• Equivalent Length
• Pipe Length
f
T
L L L + =
Step12- Friction Loss Formula
• Pipe friction losses shall be determined on the
basis of the Hazen-Williams formula, as follows:
• Where,
• p = frictional resistance in psi per foot of pipe
• Q = flow in gpm
• C = friction loss coefficient
• d = actual internal diameter of pipe in inches
87 . 4 85 . 1
85 . 1
52 . 4
d C
Q
P
×
=
Hazen- Williams C values
• Galvanized steel is used
Nodes Distribution
• The distribution is based on the longest run
Calculation sheet
• Q = area of coverage of one sprinkler x the density
= 130 ft² x 0.15 gpm/ft² = 19.5 gpm
Calculation sheet
• Using the formula Q = K.√Pt, one can find the residual pressure at the sprinkler
Pt = (Q/K)² = (19.5/5.6) ² = 12.1 psi
Calculation sheet
• From Hazen-Williams formula:
p = (4.52 x 19.5^1.85) / (120^1.85 x 1^4.87) = 0.156 psi/ft
• Then the friction loss is Pf = p x total length = 0.156 x 7.119 = 1.116psi
Calculation sheet
• Step 3 differs slightly since a branch estimation is made as follows:
K = 39.819/√17.86 = 9.5
Calculation sheet
Step 13 we compute the effect of the elevation on the pressure by
with Pel =0.433xH= 17.32 psi
Calculation sheet
• Total water required including hose reels is 320 + 4(50) = 520 gpm
• Riser pipe diameter 6 in
• Pump pressure required 94 psi
Chapter 5
Elite Software Calculations
Elite Calculations
• Selection of nodes for the calculations
Elite Calculations
• Selection of nodes for the calculations
Elite Calculations
• Selection of nodes for the calculations
Elite Calculations
• Pressure and flow required as given by Elite
Elite Calculations
• This small difference is due to the fact that the software
calculates the demand of each sprinkler alone, while hand
calculations required that a branch approximation be made
(Kbranch = 9.5).
Hand Calculations Elite Software
Flow rate = 320 gpm Flow rate = 338 gpm
Pressure = 94 psi Pressure = 97 psi
Chapter 6
WaterCAD Software Calculations
WaterCAD Calculations
• The above picture is drawn in WaterCAD
WaterCAD Calculations
• Pressure and flow required as given by WaterCAD
WaterCAD Calculations
• This small difference is due to the fact that the software
calculates the demand of each sprinkler alone, while hand
calculations required that a branch approximation be made
(Kbranch = 9.5).
Hand Calculations WaterCAD Software
Flow rate = 320 gpm Flow rate = 342 gpm
Pressure = 94 psi Pressure = 96 psi
Chapter 7
Fire Pump Selection
Design Parameters
• Total flow required including hose streams
345 + 200 = 545 gpm
• Riser pipe diameter 6 in
• Pump pressure required 97 psi
• ESP software is used to select the pump
Pump Selection
The pump highlighted in yellow is chosen due to its low cost and high efficiency
Pump Selection
• The above figure states all the pump details
Schematic drawing of the Fire pumps connection
Fire Pumps
• The main fire pump is an electrical motor
driven pump having a capacity of 545 gpm.
• The second fire pump, the diesel pump is
used as a back-up pump.
• The jockey pump is used to maintain the
design system pressure and to compensate
for minor leakages.
Jockey Pump
• Every system has a normal leakage rate that
will result in a pressure drop.
• Jockey Pump will maintain the pressure in
the system
• This will prevent the main fire pump from
starting for minor leaks
Jockey Pump
• Jockey pumps should be sized according to NFPA
20
• For 1-5 % of the flow of the main fire pump
• To provide 10 psi more pressure than the main fire
pump
• So that it cannot meet the demand of the lowest flow
fire protection fitting in the system that is less than
19.5 gpm (in our calculation).
Water Supply for fire fighting
• Tank sizing must consider 150% of the fire
pump rated flow
• 2500 gallons
• Sufficient for 30 min
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENDANCE

Chapter 1
Definitions

Fire:
• Fire is the visible heat and light energy released during a chemical reaction • Fires start when a flammable and/or a combustible material with an adequate supply of oxygen or another oxidizer is subjected to enough heat and is able to sustain a chain reaction.

Fire Triangle
Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation of a fuel. Three things must be present at the same time in order to produce fire: • Fuel • Oxygen • Heat Chemical, exothermic reaction

Fire Tetrahedron
• chain reaction must take place

The Critical Stages of Fire
• The incipient period • The growth period • The fully developed stage “ Burning” • The decay period

Incipient Period
• The incipient period is the pre-fire period before the flames develop. The typical accidental fire begins as a slow growth, smoldering process, which may last from a few minutes to several hours. • During this period heat generation increases, producing light to moderate volumes of smoke. The characteristic smell of smoke is usually the first indication that an incipient fire is underway.

window. • In the growth period.Growth Period • The growth period commences with ignition and ends with 'flashover'. which is best thought of as the transition between the second and third stages.) Decay • The fire is dying out because either the fuel is burning out or there is insufficient air supply • The temperature of the enclosure drops gradually . then more rapidly as the fire grows. etc. most fires spread slowly at first on combustible surfaces. Fully developed (Burning) • In fully developed period all combustible materials will become involved. and flames will emerge through the upper parts of any opening (door. providing radiant feedback from flames and hot gases to other fuel items.

Electrical Hazards Class D .Flammable Liquids Class C .Flammable Liquids Materials: • Flammable or combustible fuels • Liquids • Gases Extinguishing methods: • Removing fuel • Reducing temperature .Combustible Metals Class K .Fire Classes • • • • • Class A .Ordinary Combustible Class B .Cooking Oil or Fat Class A .Ordinary Combustible Materials: Ordinary Combustiles • Wood • Paper • Rubber • Plastic Extinguishing methods: • Cooling with water Class B .

carbon dioxide) Class D .Cooking Oil or Fat Materials: • Cooking oils • Hotter than other typical combustible liquids. dry chemicals.Combustible Metals Materials: • Magnesium • Titanium • Zirconium • Lithium • Calcium • Zinc Extinguishing methods: • Dry powders Class F .Class C . .Electrical Hazards Materials: • Energized electrical equipment Extinguishing methods: • Non conducting extinguishing agent (halon. Extinguishing methods: • Wet chemical extinguisher.

Hazard Classes of Occupancies The Classes of Occupancies are: 1) Light Hazard. – Ordinary Group 1 Hazard – Ordinary Group 2 Hazard 3) Extra Hazard. 2) Ordinary Hazard. – Extra Group 1 Hazard – Extra Group 2 Hazard Light Hazard • Combustibility of the contents is low • Quantity of the combustible is low • Low rates of heat release Example: • Residential • Hospitals • Schools Ordinary Group 1 Hazard • Combustibility of contents is moderate • Moderate rates of heat release are expected Example: • Bakeries • Laundries .

• Metal extruding Extra Group 2 Hazard • Moderate amounts of flammable or combustible liquids Examples: • Asphalt saturating • Flammable liquids spraying • Flow coating .Ordinary Group 2 Hazard • Combustibility of contents is moderate to high • Moderate to high rates of heat release are expected Example: • Parking • Post offices • Libraries Extra Group 1 Hazard • Quantity and combustibility of contents is very high Examples: • Die casting.

Chapter 2 Fire Fighting Equipments Fire Control Systems 1. Control and extinguish fires 2. Protect people and surrounding structures from the effects of fire . Active Control – Sprinklers – Fire Extinguishers – Sensors Passive Control – Furniture – Carpets – Walls – Floors 2. Active Protection Manual or automatic suppression of fire that would: 1.

3. Facilitate the safe evacuation of people Aid fire-suppression operations 1.5 in • Temperature range: -20 to 50°C • Hose Length: not less than 32 m. 4. . • FHC Spacing between two adjacent: 20 m • Minimum allowable hose diameter is 1 in at the flow rate of 33 gpm. Manual Fire Suppression • Fire hose reels • Standpipe system • Portable extinguishers Hose Reel • Nominal diameter : 2.Passive Protection Materials by nature of design. or physical arrangement would: Resist damage due to heat and flame Resist or prevent the spread of heat. 2. smoke and flame.

allowing manual application of water to the fire. • The pipe is fixed. Within buildings standpipes thus serve the same purpose as fire hydrants. located near a road or driveway so that a fire engine can supply water to the system. to which fire hoses can be connected. Dry standpipe system • A "dry" standpipe is a pipe extending into a building that can be used by the fire department to supply fire fighting water to the interior of the structure.Portable Extinguishers • Portable fire extinguishers are intended as a first line of defense to cope with fires of limited size • Use CO2 extinguisher in rooms containing electrical equipments • Use dry chemical fire extinguisher for remaining areas • Fire extinguishers used shall not exceed 12 kg Stand Pipe System • A standpipe is a type of rigid water piping which is built into multi-story buildings in a vertical position. .

either directly or through risers. • Feed Mains: The pipes supplying cross mains. either directly or through risers. System Component Definitions • Branch Lines: The pipes in which the sprinklers are placed. • Cross Mains: The pipes supplying the branch lines. • wet standpipes may be used by building occupants. on the other hand. System Component Definitions . either directly or through risers. is filled with water and is pressurized at all times. • they come with hoses so that building occupants may fight fires quickly. • Risers: The vertical supply pipes in a sprinkler system.Wet standpipe system • A "wet" standpipe.

3. Grid System • A grid is a system of branch lines interconnected by cross main on both ends of the branch lines. A grid can be used only for wet pipe systems to provide a hydraulic advantage for systems with numerous branch lines by providing water flow to sprinklers from more than one direction. Long branch lines should. The cross main is the pipe that supplies water to the branch lines. . 2. There are 3 systems: Tree System Grid System Looped System Tree System • It is a system of dead-end branch lines that is centrally fed by a cross main. be fed so that the cross main is equidistant from the ends of the branch lines.Sprinkler Systems • 1. if possible.

• Upright Sprinkler: A sprinkler designed to be installed in such a way that the water spray is directed upwards against the deflector. Type of Sprinklers Head • Pendent Sprinkler: A sprinkler designed to be installed in such a way that the water stream is directed downward against the deflector.Looped System • A looped system connects cross mains at two or more locations. Type of Sprinklers Head . This arrangement can provide a hydraulic advantage over the traditional tree system by providing water flow to sprinklers from more than one direction. It is used for wet & dry systems.

alarm bells ring to warn occupants and personnel.and they can be manually operated. . • Alarm bells are directly connected to the detectors and rings automatically .Detectors • The first step in fire fighting is the detection of the fire • Fires are detected either by persons or by electrical detectors • Electrical detectors can be – Heat detectors – Smoke detectors – Flame detectors Detectors • According to NFPA standards detectors shall be located at a distance of 7 m from each other • We can know the number of detectors we need per floor by dividing the area to be protected by the area protected by each detector • Smoke detectors are installed in offices and parking garages • heat detectors are installed in pantries Alarm bell • After detecting the fire .

.Class A for apartments and parking lots. • The classifications of fires that can happen in that project are: .Ordinary hazard occupancy. 21 floors. The building consists of 3 residential buildings (Block A. B and C): each containing four basements. we have: . a mezzanine floor.Class C for electronic and generator rooms.Light hazard occupancy for apartments.Class B for parking garages and fuel tanks. . .55 floor.Chapter 3 Project Description Project Description • The project consists of designing a fire fighting system for “ABRAJ ACHRAFIEH” in BEIRUT. Project Description • Concerning the type of hazards. and a roof. a +6. a ground floor. a technical floor. group 1 for parking Lots. .

. Hydraulically most demanding area (HMDA) Fire pumps.Design Calculations • The Project is mainly composed of apartments and parking lots. Fire hose reels. • Sprinklers are added in the four basements which contains the parking lots. • Hose reels are placed in the stairways at each floor Design Calculations • In each residential building we have two risers: – One wet riser feeding the hose reels – One dry riser feeding the landing valves via a siamese connection Design Calculations • • • • The design studies should be done for: Temperature classification (glass bulb color).

The sprinkler glass bulb should be orange or red. Temperature Classification .Chapter 4 Hand Calculations Temperature Classification • The maximum ceiling temperature is supposed to be 38°C and the temperature rating at which the sprinkler should be active is between 57and 77°C since there is no boiler or furnace in the designed area.

one sprinkler riser is sufficient .Temperature Classification Sprinkler calculations • Automatic sprinkler systems are designed in accordance with NFPA 13. Standard for the installation of sprinkler Systems.1 • Since the parking area is less than 4831m2. Step1.Number of sprinkler risers needed • Based on NFPA 13-4-2. • NFPA-13 provides the minimum requirements for the design of sprinkler systems protecting buildings of a wide variety of uses.

Area-Density Method Step 3.1.4.1 Maximum spacing (s) ft m 15 4.Area of Coverage/sprinkler spacing As = S X L Distance between branch lines L = As / S = 12.6 = 2.Step 2.6 All Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Ordinary Hazard.Area of Coverage/sprinkler spacing Protection area (As) Construction System ft2 m2 type type All 130 12. NFPA-13 4.1 / 4.63 m .1 Step 3.

Sprinklers Distribution • Step 1: Meshing for distribution of sprinklers Sprinklers Distribution • Step 2: Determining sprinklers needed in the uncovered areas Sprinklers Distribution • Step 3: Sprinklers addition .

Step 4.Distance from walls is between 4 in minimum and Ls/2.Calculation of the total number of sprinklers per floor • The area of the parking is 3000 m² with a height of 3 m • The protection area of one sprinkler is 12. • 2.Uncovered areas (shape..g. Ventilation duct) • 3.1 m² A total number of 247 sprinklers / floor is needed (255 by design constraints and specifications) Sprinklers distribution • Adjustments • 1. Building geometry) Sprinklers distribution • Actual number of sprinklers per floor is 255 .Obstructions (e.

Determination of the most remote area • Sprinkler which has the longest run and the highest pressure drop is calculated using the equivalent length technique .…………… 5 sprinklers 1½ in. ………………160 sprinklers 5 in. ……………… ………………100 5 in.Step 5-Pipe sizing Ordinary Hazard Pipe Schedule (as per NFPA-13.…………… 1½ 2 in. ……………… ………………275 2 sprinklers 3 sprinklers 5 sprinklers 12 sprinklers 25 sprinklers 45 sprinklers 75 sprinklers 115 sprinklers 180 sprinklers 300 sprinklers • Schedule size for Ordinary Hazard Occupancies systems Step 5-Pipe sizing • Calculation of pipe diameters Step 6. …………… 2 sprinklers 1 in. ………………100 sprinklers 4 in.2(a)) NFPA.table6-5.……………… 10 sprinklers 2 in. ……………… ………………40 3½ in.…………… 20 sprinklers 2½ in. …………… in. …………… in. ……………65 sprinklers 3½ in. ………………275 sprinklers 6 in.……………… 2½ in.…………… 2½ 3 in.13.3. ………………40 sprinklers 3 in. …………… in.…………… 3 sprinklers 1¼ in.…………… 1¼ 1½ in. ……………… 1¼ in. …………… ……………65 3½ 4 in. ……………… in. ……………… ………………160 6 in.table6Steel Copper 1 in.

Number of sprinklers in the remote area • The maximum probable number of operating sprinklers at the same time is • Ns =Ad /As • Ns=1500/ 130 = 12 Step 8.Number of sprinklers in one branch line • Number of sprinklers on one branch line Where • S= spacing between sprinklers (ft) • Ad= sprinkler operation area (ft2) • Step 9.Step 7.Determining the residual pressure of the most remote sprinkler q p  k 2 .Determining the flowrate of the most remote sprinkler • Step 10.

Total effective length between two adjacent sprinklers • Equivalent Length • Pipe Length LT  L  Lf Step12.52 1.Friction Loss Formula • Pipe friction losses shall be determined on the basis of the Hazen-Williams formula. C  d 4.85 P  4.Williams C values • Galvanized steel is used . as follows: Q1.87 • p = frictional resistance in psi per foot of pipe • Q = flow in gpm • C = friction loss coefficient • d = actual internal diameter of pipe in inches Hazen.Step 11.85 • Where.

√Pt.6) ² = 12.5 gpm Calculation sheet • Using the formula Q = K.15 gpm/ft² = 19.Nodes Distribution • The distribution is based on the longest run Calculation sheet • Q = area of coverage of one sprinkler x the density = 130 ft² x 0. one can find the residual pressure at the sprinkler Pt = (Q/K)² = (19.1 psi .5/5.

Calculation sheet • From Hazen-Williams formula: p = (4.819/√17.32 psi .119 = 1.86 = 9.156 x 7.85) / (120^1.156 psi/ft Then the friction loss is Pf = p x total length = 0.87) = 0.85 x 1^4.116psi • Calculation sheet • Step 3 differs slightly since a branch estimation is made as follows: K = 39.433xH= 17.52 x 19.5 Calculation sheet Step 13 we compute the effect of the elevation on the pressure by with Pel =0.5^1.

Calculation sheet • • • Total water required including hose reels is 320 + 4(50) = 520 gpm Riser pipe diameter 6 in Pump pressure required 94 psi Chapter 5 Elite Software Calculations Elite Calculations • Selection of nodes for the calculations .

Elite Calculations • Selection of nodes for the calculations Elite Calculations • Selection of nodes for the calculations Elite Calculations • Pressure and flow required as given by Elite .

while hand calculations required that a branch approximation be made (Kbranch = 9. Chapter 6 WaterCAD Software Calculations WaterCAD Calculations • The above picture is drawn in WaterCAD .5).Elite Calculations Hand Calculations Flow rate = 320 gpm Pressure = 94 psi Elite Software Flow rate = 338 gpm Pressure = 97 psi • This small difference is due to the fact that the software calculates the demand of each sprinkler alone.

while hand calculations required that a branch approximation be made (Kbranch = 9.5).WaterCAD Calculations • Pressure and flow required as given by WaterCAD WaterCAD Calculations Hand Calculations Flow rate = 320 gpm Pressure = 94 psi WaterCAD Software Flow rate = 342 gpm Pressure = 96 psi • This small difference is due to the fact that the software calculates the demand of each sprinkler alone. Chapter 7 Fire Pump Selection .

Design Parameters • Total flow required including hose streams 345 + 200 = 545 gpm • Riser pipe diameter 6 in • Pump pressure required 97 psi • ESP software is used to select the pump Pump Selection The pump highlighted in yellow is chosen due to its low cost and high efficiency Pump Selection • The above figure states all the pump details .

• The jockey pump is used to maintain the design system pressure and to compensate for minor leakages. • The second fire pump. the diesel pump is used as a back-up pump. Jockey Pump • Every system has a normal leakage rate that will result in a pressure drop.Schematic drawing of the Fire pumps connection Fire Pumps • The main fire pump is an electrical motor driven pump having a capacity of 545 gpm. • Jockey Pump will maintain the pressure in the system • This will prevent the main fire pump from starting for minor leaks .

5 gpm (in our calculation). Water Supply for fire fighting • Tank sizing must consider 150% of the fire pump rated flow • 2500 gallons • Sufficient for 30 min THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENDANCE .Jockey Pump • Jockey pumps should be sized according to NFPA 20 • For 1-5 % of the flow of the main fire pump • To provide 10 psi more pressure than the main fire pump • So that it cannot meet the demand of the lowest flow fire protection fitting in the system that is less than 19.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->