The Formation of Magma y Magma forms when rock melts y The three factors that affect whether rock

melts include: 1. temperature 2. pressure 3. presence of fluids in the rock Partial Melting y Partial melting- the process by which different minerals in rock melt at different temperatures y Different minerals have different melting points, and minerals that have lower melting points are the first mineral to melt y When the first minerals, melt, the magma that forms has a specific composition y As the temperature increases and as other minerals melt, the magma¶s composition changes Fractional Crystallization y Fractional crystallization- the crystallization and removal of different minerals from the cooling magma Textures of Igneous Rocks y Igneous rocks are classified according to where magma cools and hardens y Two types of igneous rocks are: 1. intrusive igneous rock- rock formed from the cooling solidification of magma beneath Earth¶s surface 2. extrusive igneous rock- rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at earth¶s surface. y Two major igneous rocks are: 1. where they formed 2. size of their crystals or grains (texture)  Intrusive igneous rocks commonly have large mineral crystals  Many extrusive igneous rocks are composed of small mineral grains How Cooling Affects Texture

y The size of the crystals is determined mainly by cooling rate of the magma y Magma/Lava cooling slowly produces large. well-eveloped crystals y Magma/Lava cooling rapidly produces small to no crystals y Types of textures found in igneous rocks are: 1. porphyritic texture 4. glassy texture  Example: obsidian 5. coarse-grained texture 2. vesicular texture  Example: pumice . fine-grained texture 3.

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