A Short Introduction to Hindi

by Poul Williams Namaskar These pages contain information on Hindi. I have written them while learning Hindi myself. Please note that I am not fluent in Hindi and that the pages are probably filled with mistakes. Use them at your own risk. The following abbreviations are used: f m pl r s feminine gender masculine gender plural respectful singular

You are welcome to put a link to my Hindi site on your pages. Please link to the top page http://www.it-c.dk/people/pfw/hindi/ and not to the sub-pages. I might move the pages around and links to sub-pages would then become invalid. If you add a link, drop me an e-mail. These pages ( the pages with URLs starting with http://www.itc.dk/people/pfw/hindi/ and http://www.it.dtu.dk/~pfw/hindi/ ) are copyright (c) 1996-2000 by Poul Williams. You may view them on the Internet. You may make printed copies for your own personal use. Selling or making a profit of these pages is not allowed. You may not modify the pages. You may not put them on another server on the Internet. Basically, treat the pages like you want me to treat your pages! These pages come with absolutely no guarantees of correctness. If you are serious about learning Hindi, buy a book, or even better, take a class. If you have any comments, please feel free to write me at pfw@it-c.dk.

Hindi is written using the Devanagari script. The Hindi you see on these pages have been transcribed using the English alphabet. Because the Devanagari script contains more letters than the English alphabet, sometimes it is necessary to use two or even three English letters to represent one Devanagari letter. Below is a list of vowels and consonants in Hindi together with guidelines for pronouncing them. Hindi makes widely use of nasal sounds; vowels exist in both a regular and a nasalized version. When transcribing Hindi, one often writes the letter 'n' after a nasalized vowel. Example: Mera naam Poul hai. Kyaa aap John hain? (My name is Poul. Are you John?) The 'ai' in "hai" is a non-nasalized vowel, while the 'ai' in "hain" is nasalized. There are no upper and lower case letters in Hindi; all letters have only one case. Any capitalization of Hindi words on these pages is only to aide the reader. Vowels a aa i u uu e ee ai o oo au normal, formal, woman, popular. father, par, car, far. hit, pin, gin, tin, win, sin. bull, full, pull, put. crucial. set, pet, let. they, hey. said over, lower. mole, pole, post. audit, August, Paul.

Consonants g gh n ch chh jh t th get, gun, mug, give. g + h. sing, wing, bring. much, such. ch + h. j + h. tree, tea. t + h (hard).

mujhko . The main differences are that verbs are placed at the end of the sentence (like in German) and that Hindi (like other Indian languages) uses postpositions instead of prepositions.d d dh th sh s day. Syntax Hindi uses a different word order than English. then. thin. she. do. this. both. Normal sentences English: Subject Verb Object => I learn Hindi Hindi: Subject Object Verb => I Hindi learn English: Subject Verb Preposition Object => I go to the shop Hindi: Subject Object Postposition Verb => I shop to go Imperative sentences English: Verb Place Adverb => Come here now Hindi: Place Adverb Verb => Here now come English: Verb Negative Verb Adverb => Do not eat quickly Hindi: Adverb Negative Verb => Quickly not eat Interrogate sentences English: Adverb Aux. seen. deed. the. shop. sun. d + h (hard).main To me . Postpositions are like prepositions except that they are written after the noun. show.Verb Subject Verb => What are you drawing? Hindi: Subject Adverb Verb => You what draw? Pronouns First Person I .

inko (r) His. tumhare Your (pl) Your (r) .mera (m) .kin ki Pronouns in the direct and indirect cases Singular Plural Direct .yahin That . apke (pl) Third Person He.kaun Whom (s) .tum .kis ka (m) .ham To us . unko (r) To him.kaun si Which (pl) .Indirect | Direct . apki (f) .unko Their . it (here) . hamare Our (pl) Second Person You . her.ve To them . meri (f) . unki (f) . ve (r) He.kis ki Of which (pl) . kis ki (f) Which (s) .usko. mere (pl) We . it (there) .kis ko Of which (s) . it (there) . she. her. uske (pl) They . hamari (f) . this same .vah That very.ye Those .tumko . that same .kis ko Whom (pl or r) .ve Who . unke (pl) Demonstrative & relative This .uska (m) .My .vahin These . uski (f) .unka (m) . tumhari (f) . its . it (here) . ap (r) To you .hamko hamara (m) .kin ko Whose . she.Indirect . apko (r) tumhara (m) . her.apka (m) .yah This very. ye (r) To him.vah .yah.isko.

jis | ye . future) action (perfect.in | ye hin .isin .yah yahin vah vahin kaun koin jo . continuous) degree of respect (intimate. feminine) number of the subject (singular.us .unhin | kaun .jin Hindi Verbs Hindi verbs are inflected with respect to • • • • • gender of the subject (masculine.un | ve hin .kisin .usin . respect) Verbs are referred to in their infinitive noun form which ends in na.inhin | ve .kis . Examples: bol likh le a Present Tense Present tense of hona (to be): main hun I am . past. imperfect. plural) tense (present.kinhin | jo . Examples: bolna likhna lena ana to speak to write to take to come The stem of a verb is the infinitive form minus the na ending.is .kin | koin-koin . familiar.

Below are shown the forms in the masculine. she. it is speaking that. he. te. it speaks we speak you speak (familiar) you speak (respect) these. It is formed like this: stem + raha/rahe/rahi + present tense of hona Below are shown the forms in the masculine. it is that. or ti to the stem of the verb followed by the present tense of hona. they are speaking . he. main bolta hun tu bolta hai yah bolta hai vah bolta hai ham bolte hain tum bolte ho ap bolte hain ye bolte hain ve bolte hain I speak you speak (intimate) this. he. it is speaking we are speaking you are speaking (familiar) you are speaking (respect) these. he. they speak Present Continuous The present continuous is used for ongoing actions -. main bol raha hun tu bol raha hai yah bol raha hai vah bol raha hai ham bol rahe hain tum bol rahe ho ap bol rahe hain ye bol rahe hain I am speaking you are speaking (intimate) this. he. they speak those. they are those. it is we are you are (familiar) you are (respect) these. they are Present Imperfect The present imperfect is used for habitual actions. he. she.tu hai yah hai vah hai ham hain tum ho ap hain ye hain ve hain you are (intimate) this. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing bolta and bolte with bolti. it speaks that. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing raha and rahe with rahi. It is formed by adding ta.like the "-ing" form in English.

It is formed like the present imperfect but with the past tense of hona instead of the present tense. they used to speak those. it was we were you were (familiar) you were (respect) these. he. Below are shown the forms in the masculine. replacing tha with thi. it used to speak we used to speak you used to speak (familiar) you used to speak (respect) these. main bolta tha tu bolta tha yah bolta tha vah bolta tha ham bolte the tum bolte the ap bolte the ye bolte the ve bolte the I used to speak you used to speak (intimate) this. she. they used to speak Past Continuous The past continuous is used for ongoing actions in the past -. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing bolta and bolte with bolti. he. they were those.ve bol rahe hain those. it was that. he. they are speaking Past Tense Past tense of hona (to be): main tha / thi tu tha / thi yah tha / thi vah tha / thi ham the / thin tum the / thin ap the / thin ye the / thin ve the / thin I was you were (intimate) this. she. and the with thin. they were (The slash seperates masculine and feminine forms) Past Imperfect The past imprefect is used for habitual actions in the past. It is formed like this: stem + raha/rahe/rahi + past tense of hona . it used to speak that.like the "-ing" form in English. he.

and the with thin. they were speaking Future Tense Future Imperfect The future imprefect is used to refer to the future as well as to make assumptions about the presents (just like in English). it will speak ham bolenge we will speak tum bologe you will speak (familiar) ap bolenge you will speak (respect) ye bolenge these. replacing tha with thi. or oge/i to the stem. It is formed as the present imperfect but with the future of raha instead of hona. it was speaking we were speaking you were speaking (familiar) you were speaking (respect) these. he.Below are shown the forms in the masculine. it will speak vah bolega that. enge/i. It is formed by adding unga/i. ega/i. it was speaking that. main bolunga I will speak you will speak tu bolega (intimate) yah bolega this. he. he. they will speak Future Continuous The future continuous is used to refer to ongoing actions in the future. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing the ending a or e with i. . Below are shown the forms in the masculine. he. main bol raha tha tu bol raha tha yah bol raha tha vah bol raha tha ham bol rahe the tum bol rahe the ap bol rahe the ye bol rahe the ve bol rahe the I was speaking you were speaking (intimate) this. they were speaking those. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing raha and rahe with rahi. they will speak ve bolenge those.

it will be speaking vah bolta rahega that. na. The tu imperative is the stem itself The tum imperative is the stem + o The ap imperative is the stem + ie or iye Examples: pani la bring water (intimate) pani lao bring water (familiar) pani laie bring water (respect) The imperatives are made negative by adding mat. Use na or nahin with the ap imperative. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing the ending a or e with i in both verbs. main bolta rahunga I will be speaking you will be speaking tu bolta rahega (intimate) yah bolta rahega this. tum. they will be speaking Imperative There are three different imperatives in Hindi: tu. Use mat with the tu imperative. they will be speaking ve bolte rahenge those. Examples: vahan mat ja don't go there (intimate) vahan na jao don't go there (familiar) vahan nahin jaie don't go there (respect) To Have There is no Hindi verb for "to have". or nahin. and ap imperative. it will be speaking ham bolte rahenge we will be speaking tum bolte rahoge you will be speaking (familiar) ap bolte rahenge you will be speaking (respect) ye bolte rahenge these. Use mat or na with the tum imperative.Below are shown the forms in the masculine. he. Possession is expressed in other ways. he. .

jawab dena ana.mangna . Examples: Ram ke pas gari hai Ram has a car ("near Ram a car it is") mera pas kitab hai I have a book ("near me a book it is") Immovable Objects Possession of immovable objects and of relatives is expressed using the possessive particles ka.thakna .nahana .age barhna advance to answer .Movable Objects Possession of movable objects is expressed using ke pas after the (English) subject. to arrive pahunchana to attack .katna .hona . ki.hamla karna to attempt .nind ana .vishwas karna .koshish karna B to bathe to be to bear to beat to beg to behave to believe to be sleepy to be tired to bind to bite . ke. Examples: uska makan hai he has a house ("of him a house it is") Ram ke do bete hain Ram has two sons ("of Ram two sons there are") Verb list A to .marna .sahna .bartav karna .bandhna .

pina .badalna to clean .marna .nakal karna to cover .rangna E .kuchalna to cut .jalna.ana to converse .katna D to depart to decend to dig to die to dine to do to dream to drink to dry to dye juda hona. sukhana .sapna dekhna . jalana to burst .dhakna to creep .kanghi karna to come . rona to cruch .saf karna to climb .bat karna to cook .dafnana C to call .rengna to cry .chillana.pakarna to change .nasta karna to bring .to break .pakana to copy .khana khana .bulana to care .utarna .lana to bring up .palna to burn .charhna to comb .dhalna to catch .khodna .torna to breakfast .sukhna.phutana to bury .parwah karna to cast . jana . alag hona.karna .

pani dena to irritate .nafarat karna .dena to go .pana to get up .darna to fight .chirhana.samjhana to express .larna to fill .kudna to join .asha karna to explain .khana to excuse .jana H to have to hate to hear to help to hide I to improve .urna to fly (run away) .bharna to fly (in air) .vichar prakat karna F to fall .sahayata dena.to eat .maf karna to expect .uthana to give .thik karna to irrigate . rakhna .maf karna G to get . naraz karna J to jump .jorna to judge .chhipana . madad dena .sunna .bhulna to forgive .hona.bhag jana to forget .girna to fear .vichar karna K .

marna chumna.dekhna .uthana .khona .jina .letna .napna to mould .thokar marna to kill .pyar karna .banana to measure . chumma to kiss lena to know .dhalna to move .to keep .janna L to laugh to lead to learn to let to lie (on bed) to lie (speak) to lift to like to live (reside) to live (not to die) to look to lose to love M to make .rakhna to kick .jhuth bolna .hukum dena order P to pat to pay .rahna .thapthapana .kholna to .chahna .karne dena .makan kiraye dena .dena kutarn a .hansna .sarkana N to nibble O to open .sikhna .

sifarish karna .baithna to sleep .yad karna .dantna to see .bhejna to sew .dhakka dena .hilna to shout .sona to smell .dekhna.bona to speak .jawab dena .kahna to scold .vada karna .baja bajana .khelna .dikhana to shut .chillana to show .band karna to sing .uthana .khinchna .dalna .sina to shake .sunghana to solve .hal karna to sow .bolna .charhna .bechna to send .rakhna to quarral .gana to sit .bolna . talash karna to seek .pana .jhagra karna R to read to receive to recollect to recommend to reject to reply to ride to rise S to say .napasnd karna .parhna .to play to play (music) to pour to promise to pronounce to pull to push to put Q .dhundhana to sell .

pharna .chalna.thukna .barbad karna to weep .samajhna V to vomit . batana .dhona to waste .bunna Nouns Gender There are two genders in Hindi: masculine and feminine.tairna .tang karna .kahna.rona to weave .katna .chakhna . Number .churana .ulti karna W to walk . There are exceptions. Rule of thumb: nouns ending on a are masculine and nouns ending on i are feminine.idhar-udhar phirna to wash .sochna to understand .to spin to spit to stay to steal to stop to swim T to take to talk to taste to tear to tease to tell to think U .batchit karna .thaharna.lena . tharana .thaharna . ghumna to wander .

Case There are two cases in Hindi: direct and indirect case. Direct case: Otherwise Masculine nouns on -a Direct Indirect Singular larka larke Plural larke larkon Other masculine nouns Direct Indirect (guru = teacher) Singular guru guru Plural guru guruon Feminine nouns on -i Direct Indirect (larki = girl) (larka = boy) Singular larki larki larkiya larkiyo Plural n n Other feminine nouns Direct Indirect (kitab = book) Singular kitab kitab kitabe Plural kitabon n .There are two numbers in Hindi: singular and plural. Indirect case: Used when the noun is followed by a postposition.

The use of postpositions makes it possible to express the "missing" cases in Hindi. m s. f dative accusative vocative ablative agentive locative larki larki ka kam larki ki bat larki ke kam larki ki baten larki ko larki larki ko larki larki se larki ne larki men larki par larki tak the girl the work of the girl the word of the girl the works of the girl the words of the girl to the girl a girl the girl girl! from / with / of the girl the girl in the girl on / upon / after the girl as far as / as long as / up to the girl (direct case) (direct case) (direct case) Adjective list . The noun in front of the postposition is always in the indirect case. m pl.Postpositions Postpositions in Hindi are like prepositions in English but they are placed after the noun. f pl. nominative genitive s.

mitha .kharab .mushkil .tandurust .dur .basi .dubla .ranjida .bhaunta .mota .lamba .achchha .sachcha .easy difficult sweet bitte sour good bad blunt sharp dark open closed full empty tired fresh stale fat lean dirty clean thick thin true false distant near hot cold honest dishonest hollow solid liquid glad sad wealthy rich poor healthy sick long short new .bimar .taral .band .pola .patla .thanda .naya .pas .mota .saf .taza .maldar .paina .chhota .beiman .karwa .bhara .khusk .ganda .garib .dhani .light .khula .garam .asan .thos .khali .imandar .jhutha .khatta .thaka .

tang wide .badbudar noisy .purana young .hoshiyar dull .uthla urban .jawan old .sust smart .buddha light (color) .dehati brave .gila clever .sab .khushbudar smelling bad .gahra light .kachcha cooked .halka dark (color) .shorgul ka quiet .naraz kind .shahri rural .vir coward .chaura active .namra cheap .khush displeased .bhari polite .mahnga dry .ghamandi humble .badtamiz mannerless .naraz proud .sankra.bewakuf deep .gahra shallow .sundar beautiful .kurup raw .sasta dear .kayar handsome .shant all .sukha wet .namra rude .halka heavy .meharban pleased .old .hoshiyar stupid .phurtila lazy .paka smelling good .mattha. manda angry .chaura broad .sundar ugly .badtamiz narrow .sundar pretty .

aisa.kamzor .kara .nicha . utni .little interesting dull durable not durable strong weak elder younger big small high (person) low (person) high (things) low (things) some much few many right wrong excellent worthless wise foolish sweet harsh national foreign this much as many several that much such whatever hard soft other same .ubane wala .utna.dusra .bara .mulayam .jitne.chhote .bare .kuchh . aisi .barhiya .zyada .bewakuf . itni .raddi .kuchh .bahut .jo kuchh .itna.(usase) bara .mitha .uncha .takatwar .dilchaspa .chhota .vahi Different words .mazbut .buddhiman .kamzor .deshi ya rashtriya .kai .(usase) chhota .galat .sakhta . jitna .videshi .thora .sahi .

kitna Cardinal numbers 0 .do sau 1.kaun what .bis 30 .ek sau ek 200 . sifar 1 .ek hazar lac .kab where .kaise which .000 .kitne how much .do 3 .kyon when .chhah 7 .sattar 80 .kahan how .das 20 .ek karor (10.000) Other words having to do with numbers 1st .tin 4 .ek 2 .kaunsa how many .kya why .pahla 2nd .pachas 60 .ek lakh (100.sath 70 .tis 40 .nabbe 100 .assi 90 .Questions who .sunya.char 5 .nau 10 .000.000) crore .ath 9 .panch 6 .dusra .sat 8 .ek sau 101 .chalis 50 .

about (place) about (pertaining to) above across after again again & again against (opposite) against (touching) alas .naranji red .kala blue .uspar .pauna Colors black . conjuctions.bhira kar .bhura color .bare men .lal rosy .as-pas .bar-bar .upar .chatha 7th .phir .pila Adverbs.tisra 4th .nila bright .satvan 8th .3rd .tihai 1/4 .sunahra gray .gulabi white ..adha 1/3 .khilaf . prepositions.chamkila brown .afsos .baingni orange .hara indigo .safed yellow .dasvan 1/2 .cautha pancva 5th n 6th .bad men .cauthai 3/4 .rang golden .nauvan 10th .athvan 9th ..bhura green .

pahle behind .ekdam always .jyonhi at .hargiz nahin down .karib-karib also .ya to enough .hamesha ke liye forward .khas kar even .am taur par gradually .age from .pichhe below .se generally .bich men beyond .dur for .zarur certainly not .dur almost .(uske) liye for ever .as as if .tab to ever .kyonki because (him) .age-pichhe because .taraf backward .aloof .hamesha every moment .ohi although .shabash but .lekin by .unke bich men and .niche ki taraf during .us par bravo .us bich men early .mano as far as .vajah se (uski) before .niche downward .dhire-dhire .pichhe backwards & forwards .bhi even then .hardam far .jahantak as soon as .jaldi either .niche beneath .aur around .halanki altogether .kafi especially .hamesha among .niche between .se certainly .

bahar .andar .agar nahin to .albatta .upar .ab .kitna .hence (place) hence (time) here here and there hither how how much if if not if possible if so immediate in in brief indeed in front of inparticular in general in short inside just now late little by little near never neither no nor not nothing not yet now now or never of of course off oft / often on once only or out out and out over (higher) over (finished) perhaps .kaise .kuchh nahin .na vah .dur .vastav men .upar .yahan .aksar .khatam .thore men .der se .abhi-abhi .yahan .khas taur se .bilkul . turamt andar .na vah .zaruri.shayad .samne .nahin .yahan vahan .kewal .kabhi nahin .abhi ya phir kabhi nahin .pas .thora-thora karke .am taur se .agar .ka .yahan se .ek bar .ya .agar aisa hai to .ab se .nahin .thore men .andar .abhi tak nanin .ho sake to .

bilkul .kuchh .isliye .phir bhi .rat ko .sahi .jaldi .kal .please quite quietly really scarcely seldom since (time) since (conditional) so some somehow so much so and so so late so soon soon still sorry suddenly surely that (conjunction) than then there therefore thither though through thrice thus till today together tomorrow tonight towards truly truly twice under until up unless very well when . tab .krpaya .tab tak .afsos .bahut .sach taur par .us mense .achanak .itni jaldi .kab .niche .aise .falana .to.jab tak .upar .yahan se .itna .ki .tin bar .vahan .kabhi-kabhi .aj .achchha .tab tak .sachmuch .isliya .chupchap .ek sath .do bar .mushkil se .zarur .yadyapi .itni der se .jyon tyon karke .chunki .tab se .taraf .se .

ap kahan ke rahne vale hain? .yah kya hai? .han . The answer is also namaste. dhanyavad Hindus greet each other with namaste.ap kis des ke hain? .m) ..khuda hafiz How are you (r. kahan hai? .subh prabhat .vah kya hai? .whenever whenever it de where wherever whereas while why yes yesterday . thanks .ap kaisi hain? I am fine. Questions Who is that? What is this? What is that? Where is it? Where is .jab kabhi ho sake .kyon .f) . Muslims greet each other with salam alekum.yah kitne ki hai? .main thik hun.. The answer is valekum as salam.namaste Good bye (muslims) .subh ratri namaskar / namaste / subh Hello din Good bye (hindus) ..kal Examples of sentences in Hindi Greetings Good morning Good day Good afternoon Good night ..kahin bhi .? How much is it? Who are you? What is your name? Where are you from? Which country are you from? .yah kaun hai? .cahan .. thanks .bahut accha.jab tak .jab kabhi .ap kaise hain? How are you (r.chunki .subh sandhya .ap kaun hai? . sukriya I am fine.subh din .apka subh nam kya hai? .vah kahan hai? .

lyngby men main skul jata hun .yah poul bol raha hai .mujhe kuch ..mujhe ....kya samay hua? .kaun bol raha hai? ..kya ap hindi bol sakte hain? .mujhe bhukh nahin hai .mera nam poul hai ..mujhe cay cahiye . karidhna chahtha hun .mujhe jana hai mujhe samajh men yah nahin a raha .mujhe pyas lagi hai .ap ki umar kya hai? .main thak gaya hai . I would like some .(ab) main samajha ... chahein .main hindi kuch-kuch bol sakta hun .yah zaruri hai .How old are you? What is your job? What are you studying? What is wrong? Do you speak Hindi? What time is it? What time is it? Misc..kya baja hai? .Kya bat hai? .. Poul speaking (on the phone) Who is it? (on the phone) .main vidyarthi hun .ap kya padethe hain? .main denmark men rahta hun . I would like a ..mujhe bhukh lagi hai .ap kya kam karte hain? .main . sentences (Masculine forms used) My name is Poul I live in Denmark I am a student I go to school in Lyngby I speak a little Hindi I would like some tea I am tired I am thirsty I am hungry I am not hungry I have to go I don't understand it I understand (now) It is important I would like to buy a .. chahiya .