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https://www.scribd.com/doc/85593898/10cdma
04/18/2013
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CDMA Mobile Communication & IS95
Most of the slides are stolen from Prof.
Abhay Karandikar’s lecture
2
Spread Spectrum Priniciples
Does not attempt to allocate disjoint frequency or
time slot resources
– Instead, this approach allocates all resources to
simultaneous users, controlling the power transmitted
by each user to the minimum required to maintain a
given SNR
Each user employs a noiselike wideband signal
occupying the entire frequency allocation
Each user contributes to the background noise
affecting all users, but to the least extent
possible.
3
Spread Spectrum Priniciples
This restriction on interference limits capacity,
but because time and bandwidth resource
allocations are unrestricted, the resulting
capacity is significantly higher than the
conventional system
4
Spread Spectrum Priniciples
Suppose each user use a wideband Gaussian
noise carrier
Suppose each user‟s transmission is controlled
so that all signals received at the BS are of equal
power
Let P
s
be the power of each user, and the
background noise be negligible.
Then the total interference power, I, presented to
each user‟s demodulator is
I = (K1) P
s
(1) where K is the number of users
5
Spread Spectrum Priniciples
Let‟s say demodulator of each user
operates at bitenergytonoisedensity
level of E
b
/N
0
.
So the noise density received by each
user‟s demodulator is N
0
= I/W (2), where
W Hz is the bandwidth of the wideband
noise carriers
The received energy per bit is the received
signal power divided by the data rate R
(bits/s), i.e., E
b
= P
s
/R (3)
6
Spread Spectrum Priniciples
Combining (1), (2) and (3) we get
K – 1 = I/P
s
= (W/R) / (E
b
/N
0
) (4)
If W >> R then the capacity of the system
can be large
– i.e., transmission bandwidth should be much
larger than the message bandwidth
If E
b
/N
0
is small, then also the capacity can
be large. (since E
b
/N
0
α SNR, this means
SNR should be as small as possible)
7
Code Division Multiple Access  CDMA
Multiple users occupying the same band by having
different codes is known as CDMA  Code Division
Multiple Access system
Let
W  spread bandwidth in Hz
R = 1/T
b
= Date Rate
S  received power of the desired signal in W
J  received power for undesired signals like multiple
access users, multipath, jammers etc in W
E
b
 received energy per bit for the desired signal in W
N
0
 equivalent noise spectral density in W/Hz
8
CDMA (contd…)
0 0
0
N E
R W
N E
WT
T E
W N
S
J
b b
b
b b
= = =
( )
min
0 max
N E
R W
S
J
b
=

.

\

What is the tolerable interference over desired signal power?
) ( ) ( (db) margin Jamming
min
0 max
db
N
E
db
R
W
S
J
b


.

\

÷ = =

.

\

9
CDMA (contd…)
In conventional systems W/R ~ 1 which means, for
satisfactory operation J/S < 1
Example Let R = 9600; W = 1.2288 MHz
(E
b
/N
0
)
min
= 6 dB (values taken from IS95)
Jamming margin (JM) = 10log
10
(1.2288*10
6
/9.6*10
3
)  6
= 15.1 dB ÷ 32
This antijam margin or JM arises from Processing Gain
(PG) = W/R = 128
If (E
b
/N
0
)
min
is further decreased or PG is increased, JM
can be further increased
10
CDMA (contd…)
JM can be used to accommodate multiple
users in the same band
If (E
b
/N
0
)
min
and PG is fixed, number of
users is maximized if perfect power
control is employed.
Capacity of a CDMA system is
proportional to PG.
11
Spreading Codes
A noiselike and random signal has to be
generated at the transmitter.
The same signal must be generated at the
receiver in synchronization.
We limit the complexity by specifying only
one bit per sample, i.e., a binary sequence.
12
Desirable Randomness Properties
Relative frequencies of “0” and “1” should be ½
(Balance property)
Run lengths of zeros and ones should be (Run
property):
– Half of all run lengths should be unity
– One  quarter should be of length two
– One  eighth should be of length three
– A fraction 1/2
n
of all run lengths should be of length n
for all finite n
13
Desirable Randomness Properties
(contd…)
If the random sequence is shifted by any nonzero
number of elements, the resulting sequence
should have an equal number of agreements and
disagreements with the original sequence
(Autocorrelation property)
14
PN Sequences
A deterministically generated sequence that nearly
satisfies these properties is referred to as a
Pseudorandom Sequence (PN)
Periodic binary sequences can be conveniently
generated using linear feedback shift registers
(LFSR)
If the number of stages in the LFSR is r, P s 2
r
 1
where P is the period of the sequence
15
PN Sequences (contd…)
However, if the feedback connections satisfy a
specific property, P = 2
r
 1. Then the sequence
is called a Maximal Length Shift Register
(MLSR) or a PN sequence.
Thus if r=15, P=32767.
MLSR satisfies the randomness properties
stated before
16
Randomness Properties of PN Sequences
Balance property  Of the 2
r
 1 terms, 2
r1
are
one and 2
r1
–1 are zero. Thus the unbalance is
1/P. For r=50; 1/P~10
15
Run length property  Relative frequency of run
length n (zero or ones) is 1/ 2
n
for n s r1 and
1/(2
r
 1) for n = r
One run length each of r1 zeros and r ones
occurs. There are no run lengths for n > r
Autocorrelation property  The number of
disagreements exceeds the number of
agreements by unity. Thus again the
discrepancy is 1/p
17
PN Sequences Specified in IS95
A “long” PN sequence (r =42) is used to
scramble the user data with a different code
shift for each user
The 42degree characteristic polynomial is
given by:
– x
42
+x
41
+x
40
+x
39
+x
37
+x
36
+x
35
+x
32
+x
26
+x
25
+x
24
+x
23
+x
21
+x
20
+x
17
+x
16
+x
15
+x
11
+x
9
+x
7
+1
The period of the long code is 2
42
 1 ~ 4.4*10
2
chips and lasts over 41 days
18
PN Sequences Specified in IS95
(contd…)
A short PN sequence (r = 15) is specific
to a base station and its period is
(2
15
−1)Tc = 27ms.
Two “short” PN sequences (r=15) are
used to spread the quadrature
components of the forward and reverse
link waveforms
19
Power Control in CDMA
CDMA goal is to maximize the number of
simultaneous users
Capacity is maximized by maintaining the
signal to interference ratio at the minimum
acceptable
Power transmitted by mobile station must be
therefore controlled
• Transmit power enough to achieve target
BER: no less no more
20
Two factors important for power
control
Propagation loss
• due to propagation loss, power variations up to
80 dB
• a high dynamic range of power control required
Channel Fading
• average rate of fade is one fade per second per
mile hour of mobile speed
• power attenuated by more than 30 dB
• power control must track the fade
21
Power Control in IS95A
At 900 MHz and 120 km/hr mobile speed
Doppler shift =100Hz
In IS 95A closed loop power control is
operated at 800 Hz update rate
Power control bits are inserted („punctured‟)
into the interleaved and encoded traffic data
stream
Power control step size is +/ 1 dB
Power control bit errors do not affect
performance much
22
Rake Receiver
Mobile station receives multiple attenuated and
delayed replicas of the original signal (multipath
diversity channels).
Two multipath signals are resolvable only if their
relative delay exceeds the chip period Tc
Amplitudes and phases of multipath components are
found by correlating the received waveform with
multiple delayed versions of the signal (delay = nTc).
Searcher performs the above task for up to 3 different
multipath signals.
3 parallel demodulators (RAKE fingers) isolate the
multipath components and the RAKE receiver
combines them.
23
Handoff in CDMA System
In GSM hard handoff occurs at the cell boundary
Soft Handoff
– Mobile commences Communication with a new BS without
interrupting communication with old BS
– same frequency assignment between old and new BS
– provides different site selection diversity
Softer Handoff
– Handoff between sectors in a cell
CDMA to CDMA hard handoff
– Mobile transmits between two base stations with different
frequency assignment
24
Soft Handoff A unique feature of
CDMA Mobile
Advantages
Contact with new base station is made before the call
is switched
Diversity combining is used between multiple cell
sites
– Diversity combining is the process of combining information
from multiple transmitted packets to increase the effective
SNR of received packets
– additional resistance to fading
If the new cell is loaded to capacity, handoff can still
be performed for a small increase in BER
Neither the mobile nor the base station is required to
change frequency
25
References
Lee JS and Miller LM, CDMA System
Engineering Handbook, Arttech
Publishing House, 1998.
Viterbi A, CDMASpread Spectrum
Communication, Addison Wesley 1995.
Spread Spectrum Priniciples
Does not attempt to allocate disjoint frequency or time slot resources
– Instead, this approach allocates all resources to simultaneous users, controlling the power transmitted by each user to the minimum required to maintain a given SNR
Each user employs a noiselike wideband signal occupying the entire frequency allocation Each user contributes to the background noise affecting all users, but to the least extent possible. 2
the resulting capacity is significantly higher than the conventional system 3 . but because time and bandwidth resource allocations are unrestricted.Spread Spectrum Priniciples This restriction on interference limits capacity.
and the background noise be negligible. presented to each user‟s demodulator is I = (K1) Ps (1) where K is the number of users 4 . Then the total interference power. I.Spread Spectrum Priniciples Suppose each user use a wideband Gaussian noise carrier Suppose each user‟s transmission is controlled so that all signals received at the BS are of equal power Let Ps be the power of each user.
So the noise density received by each user‟s demodulator is N0 = I/W (2).e. i.. where W Hz is the bandwidth of the wideband noise carriers The received energy per bit is the received signal power divided by the data rate R (bits/s).Spread Spectrum Priniciples Let‟s say demodulator of each user operates at bitenergytonoisedensity level of Eb/N0. Eb = Ps/R (3) 5 .
.Spread Spectrum Priniciples Combining (1). transmission bandwidth should be much larger than the message bandwidth If Eb/N0 is small. (since Eb/N0 α SNR. then also the capacity can be large.e. (2) and (3) we get K – 1 = I/Ps = (W/R) / (Eb/N0) (4) If W >> R then the capacity of the system can be large – i. this means SNR should be as small as possible) 6 .
Code Division Multiple Access system Let W .received power of the desired signal in W J .received power for undesired signals like multiple access users.spread bandwidth in Hz R = 1/Tb = Date Rate S .received energy per bit for the desired signal in W N0 . multipath.equivalent noise spectral density in W/Hz 7 .Code Division Multiple Access . jammers etc in W Eb .CDMA Multiple users occupying the same band by having different codes is known as CDMA .
CDMA (contd…) N 0W WT b J W R S E b Tb E b N 0 E b N 0 W R J S max E b N 0 min What is the tolerable interference over desired signal power? E b W J Jamming margin (db) (db ) (db ) N R S max 0 min 8 .
6 = 15. W = 1. JM can be further increased 9 . for satisfactory operation J/S < 1 Example Let R = 9600.2288*106/9.6*103) .2288 MHz (Eb/N0)min = 6 dB (values taken from IS95) Jamming margin (JM) = 10log10(1.1 dB 32 This antijam margin or JM arises from Processing Gain (PG) = W/R = 128 If (Eb/N0)min is further decreased or PG is increased.CDMA (contd…) In conventional systems W/R 1 which means.
CDMA (contd…) JM can be used to accommodate multiple users in the same band If (Eb/N0)min and PG is fixed. number of users is maximized if perfect power control is employed. Capacity of a CDMA system is proportional to PG. 10 .
Spreading Codes A noiselike and random signal has to be generated at the transmitter. The same signal must be generated at the receiver in synchronization. 11 .e. i.. a binary sequence. We limit the complexity by specifying only one bit per sample.
eighth should be of length three A fraction 1/2n of all run lengths should be of length n for all finite n 12 .Desirable Randomness Properties Relative frequencies of “0” and “1” should be ½ (Balance property) Run lengths of zeros and ones should be (Run property): – – – – Half of all run lengths should be unity One .quarter should be of length two One .
Desirable Randomness Properties (contd…) If the random sequence is shifted by any nonzero number of elements. the resulting sequence should have an equal number of agreements and disagreements with the original sequence (Autocorrelation property) 13 .
PN Sequences A deterministically generated sequence that nearly satisfies these properties is referred to as a Pseudorandom Sequence (PN) Periodic binary sequences can be conveniently generated using linear feedback shift registers (LFSR) If the number of stages in the LFSR is r.1 where P is the period of the sequence 14 . P 2r .
MLSR satisfies the randomness properties stated before 15 . Then the sequence is called a Maximal Length Shift Register (MLSR) or a PN sequence. P=32767.1.PN Sequences (contd…) However. P = 2r . if the feedback connections satisfy a specific property. Thus if r=15.
Thus again the discrepancy is 1/p 16 .1 terms.Randomness Properties of PN Sequences Balance property . For r=50.1) for n = r One run length each of r1 zeros and r ones occurs. Thus the unbalance is 1/P. 1/P1015 Run length property .Of the 2r .Relative frequency of run length n (zero or ones) is 1/ 2n for n r1 and 1/(2r . There are no run lengths for n > r Autocorrelation property .The number of disagreements exceeds the number of agreements by unity. 2r1 are one and 2r1–1 are zero.
1 4.4*102 chips and lasts over 41 days 17 .PN Sequences Specified in IS95 A “long” PN sequence (r =42) is used to scramble the user data with a different code shift for each user The 42degree characteristic polynomial is given by: – x42+x41+x40+x39+x37+x36+x35+x32+x26+x25+x24+x23+x21 +x20+x17+x16+x15+x11+x9+x7+1 The period of the long code is 242 .
PN Sequences Specified in IS95 (contd…) A short PN sequence (r = 15) is specific to a base station and its period is (215−1)Tc = 27ms. Two “short” PN sequences (r=15) are used to spread the quadrature components of the forward and reverse link waveforms 18 .
Power Control in CDMA CDMA goal is to maximize the number of simultaneous users Capacity is maximized by maintaining the signal to interference ratio at the minimum acceptable Power transmitted by mobile station must be therefore controlled • Transmit power enough to achieve target BER: no less no more 19 .
power variations up to 80 dB • a high dynamic range of power control required Channel Fading • average rate of fade is one fade per second per mile hour of mobile speed • power attenuated by more than 30 dB • power control must track the fade 20 .Two factors important for power control Propagation loss • due to propagation loss.
1 dB Power control bit errors do not affect performance much 21 .Power Control in IS95A At 900 MHz and 120 km/hr mobile speed Doppler shift =100Hz In IS 95A closed loop power control is operated at 800 Hz update rate Power control bits are inserted („punctured‟) into the interleaved and encoded traffic data stream Power control step size is +/.
22 . Two multipath signals are resolvable only if their relative delay exceeds the chip period Tc Amplitudes and phases of multipath components are found by correlating the received waveform with multiple delayed versions of the signal (delay = nTc).Rake Receiver Mobile station receives multiple attenuated and delayed replicas of the original signal (multipath diversity channels). 3 parallel demodulators (RAKE fingers) isolate the multipath components and the RAKE receiver combines them. Searcher performs the above task for up to 3 different multipath signals.
Handoff in CDMA System In GSM hard handoff occurs at the cell boundary Soft Handoff – Mobile commences Communication with a new BS without interrupting communication with old BS – same frequency assignment between old and new BS – provides different site selection diversity Softer Handoff – Handoff between sectors in a cell CDMA to CDMA hard handoff – Mobile transmits between two base stations with different frequency assignment 23 .
handoff can still be performed for a small increase in BER Neither the mobile nor the base station is required to change frequency 24 .A unique feature of CDMA Mobile Advantages Contact with new base station is made before the call is switched Diversity combining is used between multiple cell sites – Diversity combining is the process of combining information from multiple transmitted packets to increase the effective SNR of received packets – additional resistance to fading If the new cell is loaded to capacity.Soft Handoff.
CDMA System Engineering Handbook. Arttech Publishing House. Addison Wesley 1995. 25 .References Lee JS and Miller LM. Viterbi A. 1998. CDMASpread Spectrum Communication.
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