Handbook for

Disc Springs
2
Please refer any questions to:
Schnorr Corporation
4355 Varsity Drive Suite A
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Phone 734-677-2683
Fax 734-975-0408
eMail: sales@schnorr.com
Internet: http://www.schnorr.com
© Adolf Schnorr GmbH + Co. KG 2003
All rights reserved.
Reprinting, in full or part, is only pos si ble with express
per mis si on and ack now led ge ment of the source.
Compiled by Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Eberhard Fromm and Ing.
(grad.) Wolfgang Kleiner.
We reserve the right to make technical changes
wi t hout no tice. All information is published to the best
of our knowledge and has been checked with great care.
However, we can accept no re spon si bi li ty for errors or
omis si ons. We reserve the right to sup p ly fea tures other
than those specified.
Art.-No. 900 507 / 04.03
Production: Hela Werbung, Heilbronn
3
Theoretical basis
This part contains the theoretical basis for
the cal cu la ti on and design of disc springs.
You only need to consult chapter 1–2 if you
yours elf are specifying a special spring size or
wish to analyse an existing spring with re gard
to load and stress.
Practical use of disc springs
This part answers questions resulting from
the prac ti cal use of disc springs. It is best to
select a disc spring by consulting the tables
in chapter 9.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 Firm grip for bolts
by SCHNORR
®
-Serrated Safety Washers
(Rib washers) and SCHNORR HDS Load
Washers
Basic Calculation p. 13
with Examples
Design and Operation Limits p. 29
Possible Combinations p. 35
Manufacture p. 41
Tolerances p. 49
Application p. 55
Materials p. 65
Special Types p. 77
Dimensional Tables p. 81
Security Elements for p. 137
Bolted Connections
Supplement p. 149
Introduction p. 5
4
Foreword
SCHNORR has now manufactured Disc Springs for over 60 years.
This period has been marked by extraordinary technical develop-
ments and Disc Springs have found many new and important
applications due to their special characteristics and advantages.
In order to meet customer requirements, SCHNORR has con stant ly
raised the quality of its products and researched solutions to cus-
tomer problems. Looking back, the development of the SCHNORR
®

Handbook for Disc Springs, which had its origin in the 1930s, is a
mirror of SCHNORR’s endeavours. The 1942 issue, 60 years ago,
already contained characteristic diagrams for 21 standard springs
as well as application and installation standards and in struc tions for
empirically based spring calculations. Each new issue revised the
technical content to conform to the state of the art.
SCHNORR would like to acknowledge and thank all of its col-
leagues at the Technical Universities of Braunschweig and Darmstadt
for their suggestions and developments in the field of disc springs.
Their continued collaboration will ensure that the SCHNORR
®
Hand-
book continues to be the source of technical advise on Disc Springs,
as it has been for many decades.
Dieter Jentsch, Manager
Adolf Schnorr GmbH + Co. KG
5
Introduction
A spring stack can con sist of either single
springs or parallel spring sets. Disc springs
are available either with or without contact
flats.
A disc spring is a conical shell which can be
loaded along its axis either statically or
dynamical ly. The loads are normally applied
to the upper inner edge and the lower outer
edge. Either a single spring or a stack of
springs can be used.
The Story of the Disc Spring
Although the disc spring has found a wider
application during the last few decades, it is
still an old established machine component.
The original inventor is not known, but more
than 130 years ago (on 26.12.1861 to be
precise) Julien Francois Belleville of Dunkirk
was granted French Patent Number 52399
for a spring design which already contained
the principle of the disc spring. The im-
portance this invention achieved is un known,
but the fact that even today France and the
Anglo Saxon countries still speak of “Belle-
vil le Springs” infers a broad dissemination of
this or similar springs. Today this tends to
denote a disc spring of inferior quality, which
still reflects the not always satisfactory de-
sign and function of springs at that time. This
is no wonder considering that in the last
century neither the theoretical conditions for
calculations nor the necessary materials for
manufacture were available.
Not until 1917 did Fr. Dubois develop the
theory on which the calculation of the disc
spring is based in his dissertation “The
Strength of the Conical Shell”
[1]
at the ETH in
Zurich. However, it still took several de ca des
until this was adopted in practice. For a long
time disc springs continued to be cal cu la ted
– if at all – in accordance with the theory of
the flat perforated plate. Then in 1936 two
Americans, Almen and László, published a
sim pli fied method of calculation
[2]
which al-
lowed a quick and practically correct me thod
for calcu lating disc springs.
As these two documents
substantiate, SCHNORR
was and is substancially
involved in the de velop -
ment of disc springs.
1940
1995
6
Introduction
Features of the
Disc Spring
Compared with other types of springs, the
disc spring has a number of advantageous
properties, of which the following should be
named:
1. Very large loads can be sup por ted
with a small in stal la ti on space.
2. Depending on the dimensional rela-
tionships, its spring cha rac te ri stic can
be designed to be linear or re gres si ve
and with a sui ta ble ar ran ge ment also
progressive.
3. Due to the nearly unlimited number of
possible combinations of indi vi du al
disc springs, the characteristic cur ve
and the column length can be further
varied within additional li mits.
4. High service life under dynamic load
if the spring is properly di men sio ned.
5. Provided the permissible stress is
not exceeded, no impermissible re -
laxa ti on occurs.
6. With suitable arrangement, a large
damping effect may be achieved.
7. Stock keeping is minimised, as the
individual spring sizes can be com-
bined universally.
8. Because the springs are of an annular
shape, force transmission is abso
lutely concentric.
On the basis of these excellent pro per ties,
the disc spring has been adopted in nearly all
areas of technology during the last several
decades.
In the meantime, the disc spring had been
introdu ced into nu merous are as of techno l-
ogy. Star ting with ap pli ca ti ons in the con -
struc tion of cutting and presswork tools,
where the disc spring is es pe ci al ly ad van -
tage ous because of the large num ber of
variations possible with the same spring
size, new applications were quickly found in
ma chi ne, en gi ne and mo tor vehicle manufac-
ture.
Tech no lo gi cal de velop ment is often ad-
van ced rapidly in time of war. The disc spring
was no ex cep ti on and its spreading was
strongly pro mo ted by the Second World
War. For example, its excellent damping char-
acteristics with multiple parallel layers were
utilised for the suspension of artillery breech-
es. Calculation methods and material tech-
no lo gy were further developed. After the war
the conditions were created for the in tro duc-
tion of the disc spring into all areas of tech-
no lo gy.
Adolf Schnorr, who had founded a me-
cha ni cal workshop in 1908, already began to
ex pe ri ment with the disc spring in the 1920s.
He needed high-quality springs for precision
tools, with which he had made himself a
name, and had come across the disc spring
after a long search. As he was unable to
procure them anywhere, he went about pro-
du cing these springs himself. Initially he
produced only for his own needs, but the
demand had already increased so greatly by
the early 1930s that he decided to give up
toolmaking for customers and devote him-
self entirely to the manufacture of the
“SCHNORR Spring”. From that time on
SCHNORR has manufactured disc springs
and continually opened up new appli cations
with its many domestic and foreign cus-
tomers.
7
Checklist for disc spring design
Due to the relatively simple geometrical shape
the complexity of disc springs in pro duc tion
and application is very often un der ra ted.
There are possibilities for mistakes in out-
lining a disc spring solution, which in e vi tab ly
cause faulty design or even failures later on.
Then it is very difficult to find better sub sti-
tu tes, because most of the times the in stal -
la ti on space is fixed.
With a correct design these problems are
easy to avoid. The main difficulty is to realize
these in the design stage to get an optimum
disc spring solution.
Since for most of the designers the disc
spring is not daily bread and to many the
rules for disc spring design are little known,
the most important aspects are summarized
here.
Spring force
The calculation of the force of a disc spring
is based on a model by Almen and László. Its
accuracy in the usable range of the character
line of the spring is very good. Yet there is a
slow rise at the beginning of the measured
load/deflection curve, because disc springs
never are perfectly symmetrical. They so to
speak have to be pressed even. Also the
spring force rises in the last part of the load/
deflection curve more than calculated, when
the spring is loaded in between two parallel
planes, since the leverage changes due to the
never ideally even surfaces (see chapter 1.7).
Static loading
In the design of a new disc spring a certain
stress level should not be surpassed for
static loading. The maximum allowable limit
is given by the reference stress σ
om
. Its value
should not exceed the value of the tensile
strength R
m
of the material to avoid plastic
deformations of the spring, i.e. set ting losses
(chapter 2.1).
Dynamic loading
Most of the disc springs only can bear a
limited dynamic load. The life time depends
on the load span as well as on the load level
(chapter 2.2). The number of cycles, which is
to be expected under a certain load con di ti on,
can be estimated from fatigue diagrams
(chap ter 2.2 and chapter „diagrams“). It is
also necessary to preload disc springs in a
dynamic application to at least 15% to 20%
of their maximum deflection, to avoid com-
pres si on-tension alternating stresses in the
beginning of the deflection range of the spring
(chapter 2.2).
Stacking
Disc springs can be stacked „face to face“
(series arrangement), which means their
deflections add up, or they can be stacked in
the same sense (parallel arrangement), then
their forces add up (chapter 3). The latter
induces increased friction and a stronger
hysteresis effect (chapter 6.5). Thus the for ce
in loading direction is higher and in un-
loading direction lower than the calculated
for ce. Applying suitable lubrication (MoS2
con tainig grease) can reduce the hysteresis
ef fect. The various possibilities of stacking
disc springs can be combined in a stack.
Different types of stacking in one spring
stack can be used to generate a progressive
character line. It is necessary to pay attention
to the weaker parts in a combined stacking
though, because these normally are pressed
flat qui te fast, which is not allowed in dy na mic
loading. If necessary a deflection li mi ta ti on
has to be provided.
Guide
The surface of guide elements in dynamic
disc spring applications always has to be
harder than the disc springs themselves. A
minimum of 55 HRC is advisable, otherwise
8
the surfaces can be damaged. This again
causes uneven movement during the de flec -
tion of the spring. The characteristics will be
changed and even fatigue cracks can occur
(chapter 6.4). Wrong guide clearance also
can change the dynamics of loading in a
detrimental way (chapter 6.3).
Stack length
Friction and other influences make a spring
stack move unevenly. It deflects more on the
side of the loading. This effect usually can be
neglected for a „normal“ spring stack, but
not for long stacks. Therefore the length of a
spring stack should not exceed three times
the value of the outer diameter. If it is longer,
the stack can be stabilized by dividing it with
guide washers, which as a rule of thumb
should have a thickness of at least one and a
half times the guide diameter (chapter 6.1).
Material
The best material for disc springs is standard
spring steel. It is always used as long as
there are no particular circumstances, which
may necessitate a special material. In gen-
eral spe ci al materials have a lower tensile
strength and most of the times a different
Young’s mo du lus compared to the standard
spring steels. Therefore springs out of these
ma te ri als ge ne ral ly cannot be designed with
the same free height, which means that the
spring forces are lower (chapter 7).
Temperature
The different materials have different tem-
per ature ranges (see table chapter 7.4). Too
high temperatures may have a tempering
offset, which again results in a loss of force
and, in extreme cases, in plastic deformation
(set ting losses).
Corrosion
Disc springs can be protected against cor ro -
si on either by suitable coatings or by using
corrosion resistant materials. Such ma te ri -
als are only available in a limited variety of
thicknesses (table chapter 7.4). Also almost
all high alloy steels may show stress cor ro-
si on cracking at high working stresses.
Hydrogen embrittlement
During the application of certain chemical or
electrochemical processes (such as galvanic
coating) hydrogen can get into the material
and can cause delayed brittle fractures. This
cannot be avoided entirely by thermal tre at -
ment. Thus processes, which do not bear
this risk, are to be preferred.
Introduction
9
In addition to springs as per the dimensions
contained in DIN 2093, we manufacture many
more spring sizes in accordance with our
works standard, for which we also apply the
quality regulations of DIN 2093. These also
include the springs of the ”Z“ series with
dimensions in inches and the ”K“ series
intended for the special purpose of preload-
ing ball bearings. The technical data for all
these springs of standard spring steel can be
found in the tables in chapter 9.
Besides these, we also supply many disc
springs in special sizes from 3.0 mm to
1000.0 mm in diameter and up to a thickness
of 80.0 mm of spring steel and all technically
possible special materials. Such springs of -
Standards for Disc Springs
For disc springs the following 2 standards
are applicable:
● DIN 2092 Disc Springs, calculation
and
● DIN 2093 Disc Springs, dimensions
and quality specifications.
New editions of both of these appeared in
January 1992. These standards are go verning
our production and are also basic for the
pre sent SCHNORR
®
Handbook for Disc
Springs.
DIN 2092 covers the standard calcula-
tions ba sed on a paper by J.O. Almen and
A. László
[2]
which has been proven in prac-
tice for many years. It has been mo di fied in
the last few years to include disc springs with
contact flats.
DIN 2093 contains 3 dimensional series
for disc springs differentiated by outer di-
ameter, thickness and h
0
/t ratio. It also con-
tains comprehensive quality requirements
for type, dimensions, material, permissible
stress, permissible set, gui de clearance and
the testing of disc springs. Details of these
re qui re ments can be found in chapter 2
and 4 – 7.
The SCHNORR
®
Production Pro gram me
Disk Springs from the
SCHNORR Product Range
10
fer the advantage of being optimally ad ap ted
to the respective require ments. Howe ver, in
each individual case the practicality of pro -
duc tion must be examined, and the final
decision always remains ours.
We recommend you contact our Tech ni-
cal Consulting Service in the design stage,
when we will gladly offer our knowledge,
experience and resources in the calculation
and design of disc springs.
From section “Features of the Disc Spring”
it can also be seen that the cha rac te ri stics of
the disc spring are also ex cellently suited for
locking screw. We have de veloped our Ori gi -
nal SCHNORR
®
Serrated Safety Washers for
this pur po se. These are detailed in chapter
10 to gether with Load Washers as per DIN
6796.
Introduction
11
Diagram of a Disc Spring
Figure 1
Single spring, cross-section and position of re fe rence
points
Symbols Unit Designation
D
e
mm Outside diameter
D
i
mm Inside diameter
D
w
mm Diameter at the root of slots in a disc spring
D
0
mm Diameter of centre of rotation
E N/mm
2
Young’s modulus
F N Spring force of a single spring
F
1
, F
2
, F
3
N Spring force for deflections s
1
, s
2
, s
3

F
c
N Calculated spring force of a single spring when flat
F
ges
N Spring force of a spring set or stack
∆ F N Force lost in setting
K
1
,K
2
,K
3
,K
4
Constants for calculations (see chapter 1)
L
0
mm Unloaded length of the spring stack or spring sets
L
1
, L
2
, L
3
mm Length of the loaded spring stack or spring set
for forces F
1
, F
2
, F
3
L
c
mm Calculated length of the spring stack or set
when springs are flat
N Number of cycles to failure
R N/mm Spring rate
W Nmm Spring work
a) without contact flats b) with contact flats
Symbols and Units
12
Symbols Unit Designation
h
0
mm Cone height of an unloaded single spring
(calculated h
0
= l
0
– t)
h
0
’ mm Cone height of an unloaded spring with reduced thickness t’
(and contact flats, cal cu la ted h
0
’ = l
0
– t’)
i No. of single springs or sets in series in a stack
l
0
mm Height of an un loaded sin gle spring
n No. of parallel springs in a set
s mm Deflection of a sin gle spring
s
1
, s
2
, s
3
mm Deflections relative to loads F
1
, F
2
, F
3
s
ges
mm Deflection of a spring set or stack
t mm Thickness of individual
t’ mm Reduced spring thick ness for springs with contact flats
(group 3)
w
M
, w
R
Friction factors
δ = D
e
/D
i
Diameter ratio
µ Poisson's ratio (for spring steel = 0.3)
σ N/mm
2
Calculated stress
σ
OM
, σ
I
, σ
II
, N/mm
2
Calculated stress at points
σ
III
, σ
IV
OM, I, II, III and IV as per figure 1
σ
o
N/mm
2
Calculated maximum stress for springs
with dynamic loads
σ
u
N/mm
2
Calculated minimum stress for springs
with dynamic loads
σ
h
N/mm
2
Stress range for the working stroke
of dynamically loaded springs
σ
O
N/mm
2
Maximum stress for fatigue resistance
σ
U
N/mm
2
Minimum stress for fatigue resistance
σ
H
= σ
O
– σ
U
N/mm
2
Permissible stress range for fatigue resistance
Introduction
13
1 Chapter
Basic Calculation
14
Basic Calculation
1.1 Calculation for a Single Spring ........................................................... 15
1.2 Equations for Calculations ................................................................ 15
Characteristics .......................................................................................................... 15
Spring Force............................................................................................................... 16
Stress Calculations..................................................................................................... 17
Spring Rate ................................................................................................................ 17
Spring Work............................................................................................................... 18
1.3 Disc Springs without Contact Flats ...................................................... 18
1.4 Disc Springs with Contact Flats and Reduced Thickness ............................ 19
1.5 Disc Springs of Special Materials ........................................................ 21
1.6 Spring Parameters for Dimensions and Calculation ................................... 21
1.7 Characteristics of a Single Spring ........................................................ 22
1.8 Calculation Examples ....................................................................... 24
15
1.2
1.1
The rotation of the cross section is the rea-
son for the various stresses and the spring
effect.
The calculations assume that Young’s
mo du lus ‘E’ remains linear for the material,
the spring cross-section is rectangular with
sharp corners and the spring remains in one
plane during deflection. The load is applied at
points I and III. There is residual stress in the
spring after being manufactured and heat
treated and can be ignored.
Equations for Calculations
These are valid for all disc springs:
Characteristics
The calculations of Almen and László as-
sume that a spring flank rotates arround a
cen t re of rotation during deflection, placed in
the centre of the spring flank at diameter D
0
.
Calculation for a Single Spring
Although today there are more accurate
methods of calculation
[10] [12] [13]
, there is no
reason to abandon the simple and conve-
nient formulas of DIN 2092. For standard
di men si ons they pro du ce values which cor-
re spond well to the mea su red results.
Figure 2
Position of the centre of rotation and point OM
1
Formula 1
D
D D
D D
e i
e i
0


ln /
δ D D
e i
/
K
1
2
1
1
1
1
2

− j
(
,
\
,
(
+


π
δ
δ
δ
δ δ

ln
K
2
6
1
1



π
δ
δ
δ

ln
ln
K
3
3 1


π
δ
δ

ln
Formula 2
Formula 3
Formula 4
Formula 5
with C
t
t
l
t
t
t
l
t
t
t
1
2
0 0
1
4
3
4
5
8
3
8

j
(
,
\
,
(
− +
j
(
,
\
,
(
− +
j
(
,
\
,
(
'

'

'
K
C C
C
4
1 1
2
2
2 2
− +
j
(
,
\
,
(
+
Formula 6
16
Spring Force
Young’s modulus ‘E’ is virtually in de pen dent
of the heat treatment condition and tensile
strength of the material.
For steel springs with dimensions in ac-
cor dan ce with DIN 2093, formula 7 provides
values which correspond closely to the meas-
ured values. The limitations and extent of this
are explained in greater detail in chapter 1.
The force of a disc spring does not in-
crease linearly with the deflection, but is
always regres sively curved. Its pitch, i.e. the
rate, decreases with increasing stroke. The
rate of curvature is determined exclusively
by the ratio h
0
/t, as can be seen in figure 3.
See also chapter 1.
Formula 7
For disc springs manufactured to group 3 with contact flats and reduced thickness, t’ and h
0

must be used (h
0
’ = l
0
– t’):
For disc springs manufactured to group 1 and 2 (chapter 4) K
4
= 1:
Formula 8a
F
E t
K D
K
s
t
K
h
t
s
t
h
t
s
t
e


j
(
,

\
,
(
j
(
,

\
,
(
+
,
¸
,
]
]
]
4
1 2
1
2
4
1
2
4
2
4
2
0 0
µ


• • •
Figure 3
Spring characteristic
cur ve with respect to
h
o
/t and s/h
o
Formula 8b
F
E

t
K • D
K •
s
t
K
h
t
s
t
h
t
s
t
0 0



j
(
,
\
,
(

j
(
,
\
,
(
+
,
¸
,
]
]
]
4
1 2
1
2
4
1 e
2
4
2
4
2
µ
'
'
'
' '
'
' '
F =
E

t
K • D

s
t
h
t
s
t
h
t
s
t
o o
4
1 2
1
2
4
1 e
2


j
(
,
\
,
(

j
(
,
\
,
(
+
,
¸
,
,
,
]
]
]
]
]
µ
Basic Calculation
17
Stress Calculations
Formula 9
Formula 10
Formula 11
Formula 12
Formula 13
Here
also applies to spring steel. Positive values
are tensile stress and ne ga ti ve values are
compressive stress. It is im portant to re-
Spring Rate
Through differentiation of the spring load F
in accordance with the deflection s, the fol-
lo wing formula is obtained for spring rate R:
The spring rate between any two adjacent
points, F
1
, s
1
and F
2
, s
2
can be approximated
by means of the following simple formula:
mem ber that this the calculated stress is a
nominal value and that the actual stress is
conside rably lower, as it is consi derab ly in -
flu enced by the ever-present in ter nal stress.
Formula 14
σ
µ π
OM
e
E t
K D
K
s
t


4
1
3
2
2
1
2
4


• • •
σ
µ
l
e
E t
K D
K
s
t
K K
h
t
s
t
K −


j
(
,
\
,
(
+
,
¸
,
]
]
]
4
1 2
2
2
1
2
4 4 2
0
3


• • •
σ
µ
ll
e
E t
K D
K
s
t
K K
h
t
s
t
K −


j
(
,
\
,
(

,
¸
,
]
]
]
4
1 2
2
2
1
2
4 4 2
0
3


• • •
( )
σ
µ δ
lll
e
E t
K D
K
s
t
K K K
h
t
s
t
K −

− −
j
(
,
\
,
(

,
¸
,
]
]
]
4
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
4 4 2 3
0
3


• • • • •
( )
σ
µ δ
lV
e
E t
K D
K
s
t
K K K
h
t
s
t
K −

− −
j
(
,
\
,
(
+
,
¸
,
]
]
]
4
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
4 4 2 3
0
3


• • • • •
R
dF
ds
E t
K D
K K
h
t
h
t
s
t
s
t
e


j
(
,
\
,
(
− +
j
(
,
\
,
(
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
+
,
¸
,
,
]
]
]
]
4
1
3
3
2
1
2
3
1
2
4
2
4
2
0
2
0
2
µ


• • • •
Formula 15
R
F F
s s



2 1
2 1
1
4
1
905 495
2
2
E
N mm


µ
/
18
1.3
For a limited area of application it can be
integrated between the two deflections s
1
and s
2
.
For disc springs without contact flats K
4
= 1
and h
0
= l
0
– t. This applies to all disc springs
in pro duction groups 1 and 2 (see chapter 2),
i.e. with a thickness of up to 6.0 mm.
Because of the rectangular cross-section
with rounded cor ners, as is specified for
springs in groups 1 and 2, the application of
load in practice always takes place via slight-
ly shortened lever arms (figure 4). Due to the
h/H tolerance for the outer and inner dia me -
ters, the lever arms are shortened even fur-
ther. This results in an increase in the spring
load by the factor
in virtually all springs compared to the val-
ues calculated with formula 7.
Spring Work
The work done by a disc spring can be
obtained by integrating formula 7 for the
load F according to the deflection s:
Disc Springs without Contact Flats
Formula 16
W F ds
E t
K D
K
s
t
K
h
t
s
t
S
e


j
(
,
\
,
(

j
(
,
\
,
(
+
,
¸
,
,
]
]
]
]

0
2
5
1
2
4
2
2
4
2 0
2
2
1
2
1 • •

• • • •
µ
Figure 4
Cross-section of a disc spring in group 2
This conditions takes the standard DIN
2093 into consi de ra ti on in that the thickness
to le ran ces toward the minus side are clearly
larger than toward the plus side. Therefore,
we ma nu fac ture all springs with a slightly re-
duced disc thick ness. This reduction in the
lever arm length is also an ex pla na ti on for
the fact that the permissible deviations for
the spring loads for groups 1 and 2 are
consi derab ly larger toward the plus than
the mi nus side.
D D
D D
e i
e i

− ' '
Basic Calculation
19
Disc Springs with Contact Flats and
Reduced Thick ness
1.4
For disc springs with a thickness of more
than 6.0 mm, DIN 2093 specifies small con-
tact surfaces at points I and III in addition to
the rounded corners. Figure 5 shows a sche-
ma tic cross-section of a spring in group 3 as
per DIN 2093. The corresponding springs of
our factory standard are also manufactured
in the same manner.
These contact flats improve definition of
the point of load application and, particularly
for spring stacks, reduce friction at the guide
rod. The result is a considerable reduction in
the lever arm length and a corresponding
increase in the spring load. This is in turn
compensated for by a reduction in the spring
thick ness from t to t’.
When calculating disc springs with con-
tact flats and reduced thickness, the factor K
4
must be calculated using formula 6, and t
replaced with t’ and h
0
with h
0
’ = l
0
– t’ in the
equations 7 to 16.
Figure 5
Cross-section of a disc spring in group 3
The reduced thickness t’ is specified in
accordance with the following conditions:
● The overall height l
0
remains un al te red.
● The width of the contact flats is to be
appro ximately 1/150 of the outside di-
ameter.
● The spring load for a reduced-thickness
spring must be the same at s = 0.75 h
0
as
for an unreduced spring.
The dimension t’ is specified for those disc
springs contained in DIN 2093. The mean
factor t’/t is:
Series A B C
t’/t 0.94 0.94 0.96
For other springs the factor for t’/t is depend-
ent on the dimensional ratio δ and h
0
/t from
figure 6. The curves were calculated for disc
springs with σ
OM
= –1600 N/mm
2
. For springs
with different stress s
OM
, we would ask you to
contact our Tech ni cal department.
As the overall height is not reduced,
springs with reduced thickness inevitably
have an increased flank angle and a greater
cone height h
0
’ than springs of the same
nominal dimension without reduced thick-
ness. The re fo re, the characteristic curve is
altered and becomes more curved. Figure 7
shows the characteristic curves for springs
of the se ries A, B and C as per DIN 2093 with
and without contact flats and reduced thick-
ness.
1
20
Figure 6
Factor t’/t for disc springs
with
s
OM
= –1600 N/mm
2
Figure 7
Calculated characteristics for disc springs with and
without contact flats. F
c
is valid for springs without
contact flats (continuos line).
Basic Calculation
21
1
1.5 Disc Springs of Special Materials
When special materials are used with dif-
ferent ‘E’ moduli and Poisson’s ratio µ, it is
recommended that the corresponding ‘E’
modulus is used, but that the value of
0.91 for 1–µ
2
be retained. This is justified
with the fact that formula 7 for steel with
E = 206 000 N/mm
2
and µ = 0.3 provides
loads 8 – 9% higher, however this is more or
less ba lan ced out again by radii and cross-
sec tion-related short ening of the lever arm.
1.6 Spring Parameters for Dimensions and Cal cu la ti on
Outside diameter D
e
Disc thickness t
Disc springs are determined essentially by
the following three parameters:
δ =
h
o
/t =
D
e
/t =
Outside diameter D
e
Innendurchmesser D
i
Cone height l
0
– t
Disc thickness t
If at all possible, the parameters above should
be within the following values:
δ = 1.75...2.5
h
0
/t = 0.4...1.3
D
e
/t = 16...40
For smaller values δ, smaller values of h
0
/t
and D
e
/t also apply and vice-versa.
For steel springs with dimensions within
these limits, for mu la 7 can be used wi t hout
restriction. For very thin disc springs (D
e
/t > 50)
the formula results in spring forces which are
too high.
For very narrow disc washers with a ratio
of diameters of D
e
/D
i
< 1.75, the shortening
of the lever arm must be consi de red when
calculating the force. This is brou ght about
by the rectangular cross-section and by the
rounded edges (chapter 1) and results in the
calculation of too low a load. In all such
cases please consult us.
22
1.7 Characteristics of a Single Spring
The value h
0
/t determines the amount of cur -
va ture of the spring characteristic (figure 3).
For h
0
/t < 0.4, the characteristic is almost
linear, as the value h
0
/t increases, the curve
becomes more regressive. At h
0
/t = √
_
2 the
curve has a nearly horizontal segment
(at s = h
0
it has a horizontal tangent). This
means that springs can be develo ped with an
almost ho ri zon tal characteristic, which gives
very little load increase with deflection. How-
ever, this type of spring with h
0
/t > 1.3 is not
suitable for long spring stacks, as individual
springs within the stack may move unevenly
and be over loaded. As a result, such springs
should only be used alone.
From the dependence of the characteris-
tic curvature from the ratio h
0
/t, follows that
the characteristic curve of disc springs of the
same dimensions changes when they are
formed to a different height. Conversely, at
the same height h
0
, a thinner disc will have a
more regressive characteristic curve than a
thicker disc (figure 8).
On the other hand, the force of the flat-
tened disc spring increases linearly. If, for
ex amp le, a spring calculation cannot predict
this in a satisfactory manner, then a first step
in the form of a change in the free height may
already produce the desired load/deflection
diagram. Here, how ever, the permissible
stress must be observed, as these increase
with increasing cone height h
0
.
Figure 8
Characteristic of a
sin gle disc with
different height h
0
Basic Calculation
23
For the normal arrangement of disc springs
a progressive increase in the spring force
occurs at deflections of s > 0.75 h
0
which
deviates from the calculated value. This re-
sul ts from the shift in the load points to
smaller lever arms, because the disc springs
roll on each other or on the abutments. There-
fore, it is recommended that only ap prox. 75
to 80 % of the spring deflection is utilised.
For this reason, the spring force is only
indicated at s ≈ 0.75 h
0
in DIN 2093 (figure 10).
At h
0
/t > √
_
2, the spring force reaches a
maxi mum and then de crea ses again. In some
cases the decreasing segment of the curve is
utilised. Under cer tain conditions the spring
must be loaded beyond the flat position, for
which certain design conditions must be
given (figure 9).
Figure 9
Spring loaded beyond the flat position
1
Figure 10
Calculated and actual
characteristic
24
1.8 Calculation Examples
The section ”Diagrams“ contains the cha rac -
te ri stics for all springs in our stan dard range.
The ”life lines“ also allow the fatigue life to be
estimated for various wor king strokes. In
spite of this we show several examples of the
calculation and checking of disc springs be-
low.
Example 1: Checking Fatigue Life of a Disc Spring
Given:
Spring 45 x 22.4 x 1.75; l
0
= 3.05 mm
Preload F
1
= 1580 N
Final load F
2
= 2670 N
Frequency f = 1000/min
To be determined:
Is the stress within the acceptable range
– what is the estimated fatigue life.
Solution:
From the tables of section 9.2 we can
ob tain the following data:
s/h
0
s [mm] F [N] s [N/mm²]
0.25 0.325 1524 433
0.5 0.650 2701 814
0.75 0.980 3659 1148
1.0 1.300 4475 1421
With the help of these four points the load
and stress relative to the deflection may be
drawn.
Figure 11
Disc spring 45 x 22.4 x 1.75; l
0
= 3.05 mm
The following values may be obtained from
the diagram (figure 12):
s
1
= 0.34 mm, s
2
= 0.64 mm
σ
u
= 450 N/mm²
σ
o
= 804 N/mm²
From the fatigue diagram for group 2 springs
figure 19, we obtain σ
U
= 450 N/mm
2
with a
maximum stress of σ
O
= 920 N/mm
2
. The re-
fo re the spring is fatigue resistant as σ
o
< σ
O
.
Figure 12
Diagram for spring
45 x 22.4 x 1.75 mm,
l
0
= 3.05 mm
Basic Calculation
25
1
Example 2: Disc Springs with a high h
0
/t Ratio
Given:
Guide diameter 30 mm
Installed length l
1
= 4,9 mm
Preload F
1
= 2000 N min.
Working defl. s
2
– s
1
= 1.05 mm
Spring load F
2
= 2500 N max.
Required:
Suitable Disc Spring Dimensions
Solution:
Spring inside diameter D
i
= 30.5 mm
Spring outside diameter D
e
= 60 mm
(selected because of the favourable D
e
/
D
i
ratio).
Because of the very small load range and
the small installed length only a spring
with a high h
0
/t ratio is suitable.
Selected:
Disc spring 60 x 30.5 x 1.5 mm;
l
0
= 3.5 mm h
0
/t = 1.333; δ = 1.967
Calculation:
First the factors are calculated using for-
mu la 3. 4 and 5:
K
1
= 0.688
K
2
= 1.212
K
3
= 1.365
Figure 13
Disc spring 60 x 30.5 x 1.5 mm
The stress σ
OM
can be checked using formula 9:
σ
OM
= –1048 N/mm²
This value lies well under the limit of –1600
N/mm², the spring will therefore not set.
Now the spring loads can be calculated to
formula 8a, preferably for the 4 deflections
s = 0.25h
0
, s = 0.5 h
0
, s = 0.75h
0
and s = h
0
.
One obtains the following values:
s/h
0
s [mm] F [N]
0.25 0.5 1338
0.5 1.0 2058
0.75 1.5 2367
1.0 2.0 2469
With these 4 points the spring diagram can
be drawn.
Figure 14
Diagram for spring
60 x 30.5 x 1.5 mm,
l
0
= 3.5 mm
26
One can read F
1
= 2100 N s
1
= 1.05 mm
and for F
2
= 2400 N s
2
= 1.61 mm
Deflection s
2
– s
1
= 0.56 mm
The deflection of a single spring is not suf-
ficient, therefore two in series must be used.
This arrangement gives:
Unloaded length: L
0
= 7.0 mm
Preloaded length: L
1
= 4.90 mm
Preloaded deflection: s
1
= 2.1 mm
Preload: F
1
= 2100 N
Deflection s
2
= s
1
+ 1.05 = 3.15 mm
Final load F
2
= 2390 N
To check the fatigue life we must use the
stresses at s
1
= 1.05 and s
2
= 1.575 mm.
Figure 17 shows that point III is the do mi-
nant one, this gives:
s
1
: σ
u
= 843 N/mm²
s
2
: σ
o
= 1147 N/mm²
By utilising the fatigue life diagram in figure
19 we can see that the expected life will be in
the order of 1,000,000 cycles.
Example 3: Calculation of a Disc Spring with Contact Flats
Given:
Disc spring 200 x 82 x 12 mm; l
0
= 16.6 mm
h
0
= 4.6 mm; δ = 2.439; h
0
/t = 0.383
Required:
The spring characteristic and the stres-
ses σ
II
and σ
III
Although this spring is to our works stand ard
we show below how the cal cu la ti ons are
made and results can be checked in the
tables section 9.2.
From the formula 3 to 5 we first calculate the
constants K
1
to K
3
:
K
1
= 0.755
K
2
= 1.315
K
3
= 1.541
The static design can be checked by the cal cu -
la ti on of σ
OM
, the reduced thickness is not
considered and we use the values of t and h
0
.
This gives:
σ
OM
= –1579 N/mm²
As the acceptable value for σ
OM
is 1600 N/mm²,
the spring is correct. From fi gu re 6 and
consi de ring d and h
0
/t the re duc tion factor t’ /
t can be ob tai ned:
t’/t = 0.958
Therefore t’ = 11.5 mm and h
0
’ = 5.1 mm.
Constant K
4
can be calculated from formula 6:
K
4
= 1.0537
Figure 15
Disc spring
200 x 82 x 12 mm
Basic Calculation
27
1
Figure 16
Spring force and stres ses
for spring 200 x 82 x
12 mm,
t’ = 11.5 l
0
= 6.6 mm
Now from formula 8b, 11 and 12 the spring
force and both stresses can be cal cu la ted:
s/h
0
s [mm] F [N] σ
II
[N/mm
2
] σ
III
[N/mm
2
]

0.25 1.15 66924 416 389
0.5 2.3 127191 890 747
0.75 3.45 182737 1421 1072
1.0 4.6 235503 2011 1366
With this spring the greater values of stress
are on the inner diameter which should be
used. Finally the value of the stress σ
OM
for
the reduced thickness can be checked:
σ
OM
’ = σ
OM
· K
4
· t’/t
σ
OM
’ = –1595 N/mm²
28
29
Chapter 2
imits
Design and
Operation L
30
2.1 Allowable Stress for Static or Quasistatic Loads ...................................... 31
Static Design.............................................................................................................. 31
Permissible Stress ..................................................................................................... 31
2.2 Permissible Stress for Dynamic Loads ................................................... 31
Critical Stress Affecting Dynamic Failure.................................................................... 32
Minimum Preload to Prevent Superficial Cracks ........................................................ 32
Permissible Stress ..................................................................................................... 33
Design and Operation Limits
31
2
2.1 Allowable Stress for Static or Quasistatic Loads
Static Design
Static or rarely changing loads exist when:
a) Disc springs carry only static, non-chang-
ing loads
b) Disc springs are subject to occasional
load changes at greater time intervals and
less than 10,000 load cycles during the
planned service life.
Disc springs are normally designed with an
overall height l
0
, so that they can be flattened
under static or rarely changing loads without
the overall height l
0
reducing by more than
the permissible tolerance. The stress σ
OM
at
point OM defined in formula 9 applies here.
Permissible Stress
Plastic de for ma ti ons occur, when the
stresses in certain areas exceed the yield
strength. Reference stress is σ
OM
. Its value
should not exceed the tensile strength R
m
of
the material used. For spring steel as per DIN
EN 10132-4 and DIN 17221 the tensile strength
is R
m
≈1600 N/mm
2
. For other materials, the
respective applicable yield point values must
be used. Disc springs as per DIN 2093 and
our factory standards listed in the tables in
chapter 9 were de si gned according to an earlier
me thod using the stress at point I.
For this reason, some of these springs
ex ceed the per mis si ble stress at the point
OM. As these springs have been manu-
factured for years with this overall height l
0
,
we have not changed the height. With these
types of springs there is the possibility of
slight setting in use.
Dynamic loads occur in disc springs when
the load con ti nuous ly changes between a
preload deflection s
1
and a deflection s
2
.
Under the influence of a change in stress of
σ
h
, dynamically loaded disc springs can be
divided into two groups by service life (see
also DIN 50100):
a) Disc springs with longer life. These disc
springs are intended to withstand load
cycles of at least 2 · 10
6
and more without
breaking. If a considerably lon ger life is
required, please consult us. It may be that
only an endurance test can provide exact
in for ma ti on.
b) Disc springs with a limited service life.
These disc springs are intended to achie ve
a limited number of load cycles in the
range between 10
4
≤ N < 2 · 10
6
before
failure.
Permissible Stress for Dynamic Loads 2.2
32
lar ge st stress range σ
h
may occur at both
point II and point III. Whether point II or point
III is decisive can be derived figure 17 for
springs with and without contact flats.
Critical Stress Affecting Dynamic Failure
For disc springs carrying dynamic loading,
the calculated tensile stress on the un der si de
of the spring are the de ter mi ning factors, as
fatigue cracks always start here. In depend-
ency on the dimensional ratios δ = D
e
/D
i
and h
0
/t and the relative deflection s/h
0
, the
Figure 17
Decisive point of cross-
sec tion to be used to
deter mine fatigue life
We recommend calculating the stress for
both points using formulas 11 and 12 . Use the
larger value to determine fatigue life using the
applicable diagrams (figure 18 – 20).
Minimum Preload to Prevent Superficial Cracks
After heat treatment all disc springs are going
to be scragged or prestressed, which causes
a plastic deformation in the re gi on of cross-
sectional point I (see section 4.4). This re sul ts
in residual tensile stress at this point in the
unloaded spring. When loaded there is then
a change from tensile to com pres si ve stress
which can result in the for ma ti on of cracks
during dynamic loading. To avoid these
the tensile stress must be balanced out by
ap p lying a suitable prestress. Therefore,
dynamically loaded disc springs should be
pre loaded to at least s = 0.15 to 0.20 h
0
.
Design and Operation Limits
33
2
Permissible Stress
The stress calculated for the working range
of the spring is compared with the fatigue
diagrams in figure 18 – 20. These provide
stan dard values of the permissible stress
range σ
H
for N ≥ 2·10
6
, N = 5·10
5
and N = 10
5

load cycles in de pen den cy on the mi ni mum
stress σ
U
for dy na mi cal ly loaded, non-shot-
pee ned disc springs. In ter me dia te va lues for
other load cycles can be esti ma ted.
A fatigue diagram is indicated for each of
the 3 manufacturing groups as per DIN 2093.
These groups are divided by the disc thick -
ness as follows:
Group 1: t less than 1.25 mm
Group 2: t = 1.25 to 6 mm
Group 3: t over 6 to 14 mm
These diagrams were developed from la bo -
ra to ry tests on test machines with an even
sinusoidal load by means of statistical eval-
uation, whereby a survival rate of 99% was
assumed. This means that for a large enough
sample a failure rate of 1% can be expected
due to fatigue.
The diagrams are applicable to single
springs and spring stacks with up to 10
single springs stacked in series, ope ra ting at
room tem pe ra ture with hardened and per-
fect ly fi nis hed inner or outer guides and
minimum preload de flec tion of s
1
= 0.15 to
0.20 h
0
(page 32).
Figure 18
Fatigue resistance
diagram for group 1
It should be noted that in practice the type of
loads applied in many cases deviates from a
nearly sinusoidal frequency. In the case of an
impact-type load cycle and as the result of
natural frequencies, the actual material load-
ing is con siderably greater than the calcu-
lated value. The values of the diagrams may
only be used for these types of loading under
inclusion of the appropriate safety factors.
34
For disc springs of ma te ri als others than
tho se specified in DIN 2093, for spring stacks
with more than 10 or with multiply pa ral lel-
stacked individual springs, and in the case of
other unfavourable influences of a chemical
or thermal nature, sufficient data to predict
fatigue are not yet available. In such cases
additional safety factors must also be ap-
plied and we recommend that you consult
us.
Figure 19
Fatigue resistance
diagram for group 2
Figure 20
Fatigue resistance
diagram for group 3
Design and Operation Limits
35
3 Chapter
Possible Combinations
36
Possible Combinations
3.1 Possible Combinations of Single Springs ............................................... 37
3.2 Stacks in Series ............................................................................. 37
3.3 Stacks in Parallel ........................................................................... 38
3.4 Stacks from Spring Sets .................................................................... 38
3.5 Progressive Spring Characteristics ...................................................... 39
37
3
Possible Combinations of Single Springs 3.1
The shape of the disc spring as a conical disc
allows single springs to be combined in
different ways. As a result, the characteristic
of a spring combination can be varied in
almost any way desired and adapted to the
requirements. In principle the following pos-
si bi li ties exist (figure 21):
● Single-series spring stack
(series stacking)
● Parallel springs in spring sets
(parallel stacking)
● Spring stack of parallel sets in series
Stacks in Series 3.2
A stack of “i” springs in single series (figure
21, chart b) results in the following without
considering friction:
The determination of the characteristic for
assem bled disc springs stack is based on the
Spring Load:
Formula 17

Spring Deflection:
Formula 18
Unloaded Stack Length:
Formula 19
F
ges
= F
s
ges
= i · s
charac teristic of the single spring (figure 21,
chart a).
L
0
= i · l
0
Only the deflection is multiplied by the num -
ber of springs in series, not the load.
Figure 21
Schematic representa-
tion of cha racteristic li nes
possible with springs of
the same size in dif fe rent
com bi na ti ons
38
Stacks in Parallel
A set of “n” single springs in pa ral lel (figure
21, chart c) results in the following without
consi de ring friction
3.3
Stacks from Spring Sets
This is the combination of parallel sets in
series (figure 21, chart d). For “i” sets in
series and “n” springs in parallel following
results without considering friction:
3.4
Spring Load:
Formula 20

Spring Deflection:
Formula 21
Unloaded Set Height:
Formula 22
In this case the spring load must be
mul ti p lied by the number of springs in par al-
lel, where as the deflection remains as for a
single spring. For springs in Group 3 with
contact flats and reduced disc thickness, t
must be replaced with t’ in formula 22. F
ges
= n · F
s
ges
= s
L
0
= l
0
+ (n – 1) · t
Spring Load:
Formula 23

Spring Deflection:
Formula 24
Unloaded Stack Length:
Formula 25
L
0
= i · [l
0
+(n – 1) · t]
F
ges
= n · F
s
ges
= i · s
With this arrangement the spring load is
pro por tio nal to the number of disc springs in
pa ral lel, while the deflection is pro por tio nal
to the number of sets. In formula 25 t must
be replaced with t’ if necessary.
Possible Combinations
39
3
With a spring stack as shown in figure 23,
chart a, the di scs of the 1, 2 and 3-fold
layering will be flattened in sequence when a
load is applied. The characteristic of such a
spring stack re sul ts in the addition of the
individual characteristics, as shown schemat-
ically in fi gu re 23. The same re sul ts can be
achie ved by combining springs of dif fe rent
thickness to form a stack (fi gu re 23, chart b).
In this case it must be consi de red that the
spring sets stac ked 1 or 2-fold or the thinner
single discs are sub jec ted to very high stres ses
if disc springs as per DIN 2093 or the
SCHNORR Factory stand ard have been se -
lected. Howe ver, this over loa ding can be
pre ven ted with a smaller cone height or with
spacer sleeves or rings to limit the de flec tion.
Figure 23
Progressive characteristic with disc springs
Figure 22
Various types of spring characteristics
Progressive Spring Characteristics 3.5
In many cases it is a requirement that the
spring load increases progressively as the
deflection increases, i.e. the rate of the char-
acteristic in creases instead of (as it is typical
for disc springs) decreasing (figure 22). Such
characteristic cur ves can be achie ved in va-
rious ways.
40
Other ways of obtaining a progressive charac-
teristic are shown in figures 24 to 26. By
inserting in ter me dia te rings of differing thick-
nes ses, the deflection of a spring stack con-
si sting of disc springs of the same thick ness
can be limited in steps. As a result, the spring
rate increases with incre a sing deflection (fig-
ure 24). Care must be taken to ensure that the
permissible stress is not exceeded for springs
wi t hout spa cer rings (sec tion 3 of the stack).
Figure 25
Spring arrangements for a progressive characteristic
Figure 24
Spring arrangements for a progressive characteristic
A progressive characteristic can also be ob-
tai ned by com bining disc springs with flat
washers. With this ar ran ge ment as shown in
figure 25, the disc springs of a group of 2
disc springs with a flat washer between them
first deflect until they all 3 parts lie parallel.
From this point on the two disc springs act as
a parallel pair and the flat washer is unloaded
again, as it moves toward its ori gi nal state.
Washers and disc springs may also have
dif fe rent thick nes ses or be arranged so that
3 or more layers result.
Figure 26 shows a stack con si sting of disc
springs of 3 different thicknesses. Here ex -
ter nal rings are used as spa cers to limit the
de flec tion to protect the thinner springs from
overloading.
Figure 26
Spring arrangements for a progressive characteristic
If you should have a re qui re ment for similar
spring ar ran ge ments, please consult our
Techni cal Consulting Service. We will be glad
to make the appropriate cal cu la ti ons for you.
Possible Combinations
41
Chapter 4
Ma nu fac ture
42
Manufacture
4.1 Classification by Group ..................................................................... 43
4.2 Fine Blanked or Turned Disc Springs? ................................................... 43
4.3 Heat Treatment .............................................................................. 45
4.4 Scragging or Presetting .................................................................... 45
4.5 Shot Peening ................................................................................. 45
4.6 Corrosion Protection ........................................................................ 46
Phosphating............................................................................................................... 46
Browning.................................................................................................................... 46
Metallic Surface Treatment......................................................................................... 46
Zinc.......................................................................................................................... 46
Cadmium.................................................................................................................. 46
Nickel ....................................................................................................................... 46
Electroplating ............................................................................................................. 47
Mechanical or Peen Plating........................................................................................ 47
Metal Spray................................................................................................................ 47
Chemical Nickel Plating.............................................................................................. 47
Dacromet Coating ...................................................................................................... 47
43
4
The large dimensional range in which disc
springs are made requires very different pro -
duc tion methods. The methods em ployed
range from simp le stamping and stamping
with extra machi ning to hot forged and rolled
rings, which are turned or ground to obtain
their final shape.
DIN 2093 specifies 3 manufacturing
groups:
4.1
Group 1: Thickness t less than 1.25 mm
Group 2: Thickness t from 1.25 to 6 mm
Group 3: Thickness t more than 6 to 14 m
For these groups the following manufactur-
ing methods are specified:
Group 1: ● Stamped,
● Cold formed,
● Corners rounded
Classification by Group
All SCHNORR disc springs as per DIN 2093
and our factory standards are made to these
require ments. Special sizes are also as signed
to the appropriate group if production is
possible or no other production method has
been agreed upon. The manufacturing pro-
cess is shown schemati cally for the three
groups in figure 27.
Group 2: ● Stamped,
● Cold formed,
● D
e
and D
i
turned,
● Corners radiused
Group 3: ● Cold or hot formed,
● Machined all over,
● Corners radiused,
● With contact flats and
reduced thickness
Fine Blanked or Turned Disc Springs?
For group 2 manufacture the standard allows
the following alternative:
● Fine blanked
● Cold formed
● Corners rounded
The machining method is left to the
manufacturer’s dis cre ti on, unless it is ex -
pres sly specified by the cu sto mer. This
means that the user can specify which ver-
sion is to be supplied!
The group 2 springs we deliver are ex clu -
si ve ly turned on the inside and outside di-
ameter, as we still consider this the best
method. During turning the unavoidable
4.2
machining grooves result in the circumfer-
ential direction, and thus lie in the same
direction as the maximum stress, whereas
stam ping grooves (which also result during
fine blanking!) run at a right angle to the
maximum stress, which leads to a much
lower impact strength
[11]
.
If fine-cut springs are required to reach
the life expectancy laid down in DIN 2093,
there is clear evidence that these turned
springs are more suitable for the highest
demands.
44
Figure 27
The manufacturing process of several groups
Manufacture
45
4
Heat treatment is of major importance for
properties of a spring. Therefore, we heat
treat all springs of ordinary spring steel – as
long as they are not manufactured of spring-
hard material – using an isothermal an nealing.
This enables a so-called bainite stage to
en sure that the springs attain the highest
strength, and at the same time a high degree
of tou g h ness and optimal fatigue resistance.
According to DIN 2093 the hardness of
disc springs should be 42 – 52 HRC. With the
springs we manufacture, hardness is related
inversely to disc thickness.
Heat Treatment 4.3
Scragging or Presetting
thereby avoided during later loading of the
spring.
According to DIN 2093 each disc spring
must be scragged so that following loading
equivalent to twice the spring force F(s = 0.75 h
0
),
the limit deviations for the spring force are not
exceeded.
After heat treatment each spring is flat te ned
at least once. This reduces the overall height
by means of plastic de for ma ti on. Ten si le
stress results on the upper side, which coun-
teracts the compressive stress caused by
subsequent loa dings and so reduces the
stress peaks. Further plastic de for ma ti on is
4.4
Shot Peening
which partially counteracts internal tensile
stress resulting from setting. Therefore shot-
pee ned springs will generally set more than
usual. For this reason, surface bonding by
means of shot pee ning is not re com men ded
for springs carrying static loads.
It has been shown that shot peening can be
very beneficial to springs subjected to dy-
namic loads. It can considerably improve the
working life far in excess of the values shown
in figures 18, 19 and 20. Shot peening pro -
du ces compressive stress at the surface
4.5
46
Corrosion Protection
In practice the presence of corrosive media
is so common and the forms of attack so
numerous that it is not possible to deal with
the entire problem in detail here. We must
refer you to the literature in the supplement.
It can only be established here that ordinary
spring steel must offer no corrosion pro tec -
tion of their own. Therefore, disc springs of
these types of steel must be protected against
4.6
● Zinc is by far the most commonly used
coating metal. As it lies lower than steel in the
electro chemical series at room temperature,
it forms a so-called cathodic protection and
is at tac ked first by cor ro si on. With a chro ma ted
surface the onset of corrosion can be signif-
icantly delay ed. The most effective is yellow
chro ma ting, which should always be chosen
over clear chro mating.
● Cadmium also offers very good corrosion
pro tection, but is only rarely used now for
environ mental protection reasons.
● Nickel is resistant to a large number of
media and is frequently used as a coating
metal. It is placed higher than steel in the
elec tro che mi cal series, i.e. in the case of the
for ma ti on of a local element (e.g. at a dam-
aged point in the nickel coating) nickel acts
as a cathode and the base metal is attacked.
For this reason the nickel must always be a
dense, non-porous coating.
Metals for Sur face Treatment
corrosion with a suitable surface treat ment.
A wide range of methods are available for
this purpose from which the best suited
must be selected for each in di vi du al case.
More information on corrosion-resistant steel
can be found in section 7.3.
The most im portant surface tre at ment
methods are:
Phosphating
This is the standard process generally ap-
plied to all low alloy steels unless other wi se
agreed. A zinc phosphate layer is pro du ced
on the surface, which is then im pre gna ted
with corrosion-protection oil. The pro tec tion
achieved in this way is sufficient in the vast
majority of all cases. Primarily for inside
Browning
This process simply produces an oxidised
surface, which is then coated with a corro-
sion-resistant oil. The corrosion resistance
is not as good as phosphating, therefore this
treatment is mostly used where a phosphate
coating or its abrasion is a problem.
DIN 50960 defines brow ning as follows:
Surface coating as per DIN 50938 Fe/A f.
Metallic Surface Tre at ment
applications, but a lso out of doors, if the
springs are installed with weather pro tec -
tion, no additional protection is required.
According to DIN 50960, the de si gna ti on
for phosphate treatment is: Surface coating
as per DIN 50942 Fe/Znph r10 f.
Manufacture
47
4
With electroplating virtually any metal can be
precipitated as a surface coating. However,
when treating high-tensile steels – such as
those always used for disc springs and lock
washers – the danger of hydrogen em brittle-
ment cannot be excluded with the current
state of technology. Post plating bake is also
no guarantee that this risk is completely
eli mi na ted. Therefore, we only use elec t ro -
pla ting if it is specified as mandatory or there
is no other alternative.
Designation of a galvanically produced
8 µm thick zinc coating with trans pa rent
chro ma ting is: Surface coating as per
DIN 50961 Fe/Zn 8 cB.
Electroplating
With this process the parts to be treated are
moved in a barrel together with peening bod-
ies, e.g. glass beads, and a so-called pro mo ter
and the coating metal (preferably zinc) is
added in powdered form. This pow der is
deposited on the surface and is com pac ted by
the peening bodies. An even, mat coating
re sul ts, which can then be chro ma ted like a
gal va nic coating. The usual layer thickness is
8 µm, however thicknesses of up to 40 µm are
possible. It is of particular importance that no
hydrogen embrittlement can occur when the
process is carried out properly.
Designation of a mechanically applied
8 mm thick zinc coating with yellow chromat-
ing is: Surface coating mech Zn 8 cC.
Mechanical or Peen Plating
This treatment is primarily for disc springs
with diameters above 150 mm which cannot
be me chanically zinc plated. As a rule, sprayed
zinc coatings are relatively thick and have a
granular surface which also makes them
excellently suited as a base for paints. How-
ever, the adhesion is inferior to mechanical
zinc coating and it may become delaminated
during dynamic loading.
Metal Spray
Chemical Nickel Plating
This is an inorganic silver-grey metallic coat-
ing of zinc and aluminium flakes in a chro ma-
tic com pound. The parts are treated in a
barrel or on racks and the coating then baked
on at over 280°C. Dacromet-treated springs
exhibit ex cellent resistance in a salt spray
test. With the usual processing tech no lo gy
there is absolutely no possibility of hy dro gen
embrittlement.
Dacromet Coating
With this treatment, also known as “elec tro -
less nickeling”, a nickel-phosphor alloy is
precipitated onto the surface with a che mi cal
method. This results in a thick, hard layer
with sharp contours and outstanding corro -
si on and ab ra si on re sistan ce. The coating is
usually applied in layers with a thickness of
15 – 30 µm.
48
49
Chapter 5
Tolerances
50
Tolerances
5.1 Diameter Tolerances ........................................................................ 51
5.2 Thickness Tolerances ...................................................................... 52
5.3 Overall Height Tolerances ................................................................. 52
5.4 Load Tolerances ............................................................................. 52
Single Disc Springs.................................................................................................... 52
Spring Stacks............................................................................................................. 53
5.5 Permissible Setting .................................................................................................. 54
51
5
Disc Springs Tolerances
The following maximum deviations are laid
down in DIN 2093. They are valid for all
SCHNORR disc springs as per the DIN and
our works standards. In general we also
apply these tolerances to special sizes, how-
ever, if they deviate greatly from the DIN
springs, wider tolerances must be specified.
This applies, for example, to our ball-bearing
disc springs (section 8.1 and 9.5). If clo ser
tolerances are required than those speci fied
in DIN 2093, please consult us.
For the outside diameter D
e
, the tolerance
field h12 is applied, and for the inner dia me -
ter D
i
it is H12.
For the concentricity the tolerances applied are:
for D
e
to 50 mm: 2 · IT 11
for D
e
over 50 mm: 2 · IT 12
D
e
or D
i
Permissible deviation in mm
[mm] D
e
D
i
Con cen tri ci ty
over 3 to 6 0 / –0.12 +0.12 / 0 0.15
over 6 to 10 0 / –0.15 +0.15 / 0 0.18
over 10 to 18 0 / –0.18 +0.18 / 0 0.22
over 18 to 30 0 / –0.21 +0.21 / 0 0.26
over 30 to 50 0 / –0.25 +0.25 / 0 0.32
over 50 to 80 0 / –0.30 +0.30 / 0 0.60
over 80 to 120 0 / –0.35 +0.35 / 0 0.70
over 120 to 180 0 / –0.40 +0.40 / 0 0.80
over 180 to 250 0 / –0.46 +0.46 / 0 0.92
over 250 to 315 0 / –0.52 +0.52 / 0 1.04
over 315 to 400 0 / –0.57 +0.57 / 0 1.14
over 400 to 500 0 / –0.63 +0.63 / 0 1.26
Diameter Tolerances 5.1
52
Thickness Tolerances
t or t’ Tolerance for t
[mm] [mm]
Group 1 0.2 to 0.6 +0.02/–0.06
> 0.6 to < 1.25 +0.03/–0.09
Group 2 1.25 to 3.8 +0.04/–0.12
> 3.8 to 6.0 +0.05/–0.15
Group 3 > 6.0 to 16.0 +0.10/–0.10
5.2
Tolerances allowed in DIN 2093 are as fol-
lows:
For springs in group 3 the tolerance is ap-
plied to the reduced thickness t’.
We use the thickness to ensure that spring
loads are within tolerance and therefore will in
some cases deviate from the above fi gu res.
Overall Height Tolerances 5.3
t Tolerance for l
o
[mm] [mm]
Group 1 < 1.25 +0.10/–0.05
Group 2 1.25 to 2.0 +0.15/–0.08
> 2.0 to 3.0 +0.20/–0.10
> 3.0 to 6.0 +0.30/–0.15
Group 3 > 6.0 to 16.0 +0.30/–0.30
To ensure the specified spring forces, DIN
2093 allows the overall height tolerance to
be slightly exceeded.
For single disc springs the following maximum deviations are allowed:
5.4
t Tolerances for F
[mm] at the test length
l
P
= l
0
– 0.75 h
0
Group 1 < 1.25 +25 % /–7.5 %
Group 2 1.25 to 3.0 +15 % /–7.5 %
> 3.0 to 6.0 +10 % /–5 %
Group 3 > 6.0 to 16.0 +5 % /–5 %
Load Tolerances
Single Disc Springs
With a single spring the spring force must be
checked at the height l
0
– s. This should be
carried out with the spring pressed between
two lubricated, hardened, ground and pol-
ished pla tes. Measurements are always ta -
ken in loading direc tion.
Tolerances
53
5
For the determination of the variation be-
tween loading and unloading, a stack of 10
springs in single series is used. The stack is
fitted with a guide rod as described in section
6.3 and abutment plates inserted at both
ends as per section 5.4. Before testing, the
stack should be loaded with twice the spring
force F(s = 0.75 h
0
).
During unloading the measured spring
force at the length L
0
– 7.5 h
0
must at least
reach the percentage of the loading cha rac -
te ri stic shown in the table (figure 28).
Series A Series B Series C
Group 1 min. 90% min. 90% min. 85%
Group 2 min.92.5% min.92.5% min. 87.5%
Group 3 min. 95% min. 95% min. 90%
Figure 28
Test points on the loading/unloading characteristic curve
54
Permissible Setting 5.5
All springs experience a loss of load or re-
laxa ti on in the course of time, which is pri -
ma ri ly dependent on the occurring stress
and the temperature-time curve. For disc
springs the stress distribution in the cross-
section also plays a role determined by the
dimensional relationships δ and h
0
/t. The
relaxation can therefore be related to stress
σ
OM
, because it best reflects all other in flu -
ences. De pending on the in stal la ti on situa-
tion, the load loss may occur as creeping or
relaxation. Creeping is described as a loss of
length ∆l which the spring suffers under a
constant load F, and relaxation as a loss in
load ∆ F if the spring is installed at a constant
length l. Approximate values for the per mis-
si ble re laxa ti on of disc springs under static
loads are provided in figure 29 and 30. If
working temperatures above 100°C occur,
we re com mend you contact our Technical
department.
Figure 29
Permissible relaxation
for disc springs of
Ck steel
Figure 30
Permissible relaxation
for disc springs of
chro me and chrome-
va na di um-alloy steel as
per DIN EN 10132-4 and
DIN 17221
Tolerances
55
Chapter 6
Application
56
Application
6.1 Spring Stacks and their Features ......................................................... 57
6.2 Alignment of Spring Stacks ................................................................ 57
6.3 Guide Clearance ............................................................................. 58
6.4 Guide Elements and Abutments ........................................................... 59
6.5 Friction ....................................................................................... 60
Causes of Friction ...................................................................................................... 60
The Magnitude and Factors Influencing Friction......................................................... 61
Calculation of Friction as per DIN 2092...................................................................... 62
Lubrication................................................................................................................. 64
The Effects of Friction ................................................................................................ 64
57
6
Spring Stacks and their Features
The best spring arrangement is the one which
uses the least number of individual springs.
In order to achieve this goal, the outside
diameter should always be as large as pos si-
ble. This automatically keeps the stack length
short.
With an increasing number of disc springs,
the friction and the uneven de flec tion of
individual discs within the stack increa ses.
We recommend L
0
< 3 · D
e
as the ap pro xi ma te
stack length. If it is not possible to avoid a
longer stack, then it should be divided into 2
or possibly 3 partial stacks with suitable
washers. These wa s hers should be guided
as exactly as possible (figure 31).
In order to keep the friction within re a -
sona ble limits, no more than 2 or 3 springs
should be stacked in parallel unless a large
friction loss is expressly desired. Par ti cu lar-
ly in the case of dynamic loading, consi dera-
ble warming must be expected with 2 or
more springs in parallel. Whenever possible,
the abutments of a disc spring stack should
contact the outside diameter, however this is
only possible at both abutments with an even
number of individual springs or spring sets.
6.1
Alignment of Spring Stacks 6.2
Within a spring stack the disc springs do not
always move evenly (figure 32).
This naturally leads to overloading at one
end of the stack with consequential re duc-
tion in fatigue life. This is also the reason
why, with dynamic loads, the first breaks
occur at an end of the spring stack in most
cases. Therefore, we re com mend that the
spring stack be aligned on the guide rod with
a “vee bar” and then maintained in position
with a light preload. After alignment the
spring stack should not be completely re-
laxed. This procedure has been found most
satisfactory in practice for minimizing fric -
tion in spring stacks. If it is not possible to
align the stack for design reasons, the stack
should be com pressed flat once or twice.
This also has the effect of centrali sing the
springs and reducing friction.
The friction is usually somewhat less in a
vertically arranged stack than in the horizon-
tal installation position. It is the re fo re better
to have long stacks arranged vertically rather
than horizontally.
With a dynamically loaded stack there is
a running in period during which the friction
is reduced, especially with multiple layering.
The reason for this is a certain smoothing
effect at both the contact edges and the
touching spring flanks.
Figure 31
Division of a long spring stack
58
Figure 32
Example of the uneven
deflection within a
spring stack
6.3 Guide Clearance
Disc springs always need a guide element to
prevent lateral movement. The guide can be
on the outside D
e
or the inside D
i
of the
springs, but inside guidance on a bolt or
shaft is preferred to the outside guidance in a
sleeve, because it offers design and eco no mic
advantages.
For the clearance between the guide and
the spring DIN 2093 recommends the follow-
ing values.
D
i
or D
e
Clearance
to 16 mm 0.2 mm
over 16 to 20 mm 0.3 mm
over 20 to 26 mm 0.4 mm
over 26 to 31.5 mm 0.5 mm
over 31.5 to 50 mm 0.6 mm
over 50 to 80 mm 0.8 mm
over 80 to 140 mm 1.0 mm
over 140 to 250 mm 1.6 mm
Application
59
6
On compression the spring cross-section turns
about a centre of ro ta ti on S on the diameter D
0

(figure 33). If in the unloaded con di ti on the
contact point of the spring on the guide is
below a horizontal through point S, there is
no reduction in the in si de dia me ter. The
same holds true for an outside guide where
the contact point is above the ho ri zon tal. For
springs with a ratio of h
0
/t > 1 this is not
always the case and a reduction of the inner
diameter must be expected. Howe ver, this
re duction is mostly very small and with
stan dard springs is covered by the gui de
clea rance laid down in table on page 58. The
cal cu la ti ons to determine the variations in
the dia me ter are very easy today and we
re com mend you contact our Tech ni cal de -
part ment if you require additional infor ma -
tion on this sub ject.
Figure 33
With the rectangular spring cross section jamming at
the guide pin during deflection is prevented
These values represent the difference in
the diameters. Under certain conditions this
guide clearance can be reduced, e.g. with
high-speed spindles.
In order to avoid jamming of the individu -
al disc springs on the guide bolt or in the
guide sleeve, the spring cross-sections must
be designed to be rec tan gu lar (figure 33). All
four corners are slight ly rounded with a
radius of approximately t/8.
Guide Elements and Abutments 6.4
The guide elements and abutments should be
hardened if possible to a minimum of 55HRC
and a minimum case depth of 0.8 mm. The
surface of the guide rod should be smooth
and, if possible, ground. For dynam ic applica-
tions we re com mend lubrication with a high
pressure grease containing MoS
2
. For static
applications guides may be unharde ned.
60
Friction
Due to friction, the actual loads obtained
when loading and unloading the spring stack
may deviate from the figures calculated. The se
variations are in many cases inconve nient,
but at times required for application re a sons.
Therefore, it is often necessary to cal cu la te
the friction and take this into consid eration.
Causes of Friction
6.5
The total friction with disc spring stacks
arises because of 4 different components
(figure 34):
1. The internal friction through elastic de-
for ma ti on of the material. It occurs with
each deflection of the material and cannot
be altered.
2. Friction on the end abutments through
the radial movement between the spring
and the abutment surface. This only oc-
curs with the end springs in the stack, as
there is no relative movement between
the other springs to each other.
3. Friction of the springs on the guide due to
axial movement of the springs during
deflection.
4. Friction between springs in the case of
parallel stacking.
Figure 34
Friction in disc springs
The first three types of friction occur with
single springs and single series spring stacks.
It is therefore a fact that friction with disc
springs is always greater than with coil
springs.
Application
61
6
The Magnitude and Factors Influencing Friction
The amount of friction depends on very many factors:
Geometric factors:
● Shape of the cross section
● Radii on the corners
● Amount of guide clearance
● Surface roughness of the springs and
guide elements
Material factors:
● Material of the springs and guide ele ments
● Hardness of the springs and guide ele ments
● Surface protection of the springs
● Type of lubricant
Assembly factors:
● Number of parallel stacked springs
● Length of the spring stack
Load dependant factors:
● Length of spring stroke
● Speed of loading (frequency)
The value of the different factors on the total
friction varies considerably from case to
case and we can only give the following
indications:
The geometric factors have already been
mentioned in sec tion 6.3. A frequently un-
der ra ted influence is the surface treatment.
For example, zinc plated springs have less
friction than those phosphated. With pa ral lel
stacking the greatest friction is between the
springs, with an increase in proportion to the
number of pa ral lel springs. This can, how ever,
be reduced by means of a suitable grea se (see
page 64).
It is known from experience that relatively
large deflection s/h
0
or (s
2
– s
1
)/h
0
cause
more friction than smaller de flec tions. The se
fac tors should all be considered for high
fre quen cy spring applications. Because of
the large number of in flu ences, it is not
possible to derive an exact calculation for
friction in disc spring stacks.
62
However, from many tests with various spring
sizes a figure has been derived of ± 2.5% per
parallel spring (+ loading, – unloading). This
results in the following values:
1 single spring ± 2... 3 %
2 in parallel ± 4... 6 %
3 in parallel ± 6... 9 %
4 in parallel ± 8...12 %
5 in parallel ± 10...15 %
Figure 35 shows the principal load variations
for one to 4 springs in parallel.
Influence of friction on spring load
Calculation of Friction as per DIN 2092
DIN 2092, Issue 1/92 gives a method of
calculating the friction F
R
on spring load.
This omits the internal friction and the fric-
tion on the guide rod (section 6.5 Nos. 1
and 3). This must be obtained through an
ad di tio nal calculation. The values below for
sur face and edge friction to DIN 2092 give a
relatively wide range.
Therefore, it is our opinion that, although
this process is theoretically cor rect, in the
end it does not provide any better results
than the consideration of the friction with a
simple, per centile addition. For complete-
ness we have shown this calculation method
below.
The following formula applies:
Formula 26
F F
n
w n w
gesR
M R

± − ± 1 1 ( )
Where:
F = Calculated spring load to formula 7
n = Number of springs in parallel
w
M
= Coefficient of surface friction
w
R
= Coefficient of edge friction
– = On loading
+ = On unloading
With n = 1 formula 26 describes relation-
ships for a single spring between 2 flat pla tes.
For the friction coefficients w
M
and w
R
, DIN
2092 gives the following values:
Figure 35
Influence of friction on spring force for various parallel
stackings
Application
63
6
Series par DIN 2093 w
M
w
R
Series A 0.005...0.030 0.03...0.05
Series B 0.003...0.020 0.02...0.04
Series C 0.002...0.015 0.01...0.03
When calculated with these values, formula
26 provides the fol lo wing numbers, which
are con siderably easier to understand:
n = 1 n = 2 n = 3
Series A +3.09... +5.26 +3.63... +8.70 +4.17... +12.36
–2.91... –4.76 –3.38... –7.41 –3.85... –9.91
Series B +2.04... +4.17 +2.35... +6.38 +2.67... +8.70
–1.96... –3.85 –2.25... –5.66 –2.53... –7.41
Series C +1.01... +3.09 +1.21... +4.71 +1.42... +6.38
–0.99... –2.91 –1.19... –4.31 –1.38... –5.66
These results are presented in figure 36.
Figure 36
Friction for disc springs
as per DIN 2092
Alteration of the calculated spring load through the friction is in %.
+ = Increase in load when loading / – = Reduction in load when unloading

64
Lubrication
The large variation in figure 36 shows the
influence of lubrication on the friction. The
choice of the cor rect lub ri cant is the re fo re
often of de ci si ve in flu ence. As well as re-
ducing fric tion, it can prevent gal ling of one
spring on another when stac ked in par al lel.
Similarly, it can help prevent corrosion. The
lubricants which may be used are:
● Oil is frequently used for springs in ma chi ne
construction, especially with central lub ri ca-
ti on or an assured continuous oil supply.
● Grease is more suitable if relubrication is
dif fi cult or cannot be done on a regular basis.
● Slip paints are based on MoS
2
and are an
ele gant solution to providing permanent
lubrica tion. It also provides a high degree of
cor ro si on resistance.
The Effects of Friction
Friction mainly affects the deflection of the
spring, i.e. it modifies the spring loads. It
must be added when loading the spring and
subtracted when the spring is unloaded.
Between the actual loading and unloading
curve there is a hysteresis loop. The effect of
the number of parallel springs on the hys-
teresis is shown in figure 35. This frictional
work is turned into heat and with high
fre quen cy dynamic loading this can be con-
siderable. In such cases, single stacked disc
springs should be prefered and good lubri-
ca ti on is essential.
With spring energy storage the hys teresis
is a total loss and cannot be recovered.
Howe ver, with springs for damping, this
hy ste re sis effect is useful and the frictional
work is a measure of the damping.
Application
65
Chapter 7
Materials
66
7.1 General Requirements ............................................................................................. 67
7.2 Standard Materials .................................................................................................. 68
C 60S ....................................................................................................................... 68
C 67S, C 75S............................................................................................................ 68
51 CrV 4................................................................................................................... 68
7.3 Materials for Special Requirements ....................................................................... 68
Corrosion Resistant Steels......................................................................................... 68
X 10 CrNi 18-8 ......................................................................................................... 68
X 7 CrNiAl 17 7 ........................................................................................................ 69
X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 ................................................................................................. 69
Steels for Higher Temperatures.................................................................................. 69
X 22 CrMoV 12 1...................................................................................................... 69
X 39 CrMo 17-1 ....................................................................................................... 70
Copper Alloys............................................................................................................. 70
CuSn 8 ..................................................................................................................... 70
CuBe 2 ..................................................................................................................... 70
Nickel and Cobalt Alloys............................................................................................. 70
NIMONIC 90............................................................................................................. 71
INCONEL X 750 and INCONEL 718 .......................................................................... 71
DURATHERM 600 .................................................................................................... 71
7.4 Table of Material Properties ................................................................................... 72
Materials
67
7
General Requirements
The essential of a spring is that it has the
quality to react to loading by elastic de for ma -
ti on. There fore, materials with high elasticity
are necessary. As in each case a small design
is desired, spring materials should have the
highest tensile strength and a high elastic
limit.
In addition to high strain in the elastic
region, there must also be sufficient pla sti ci ty.
This allows the manufacture of cold for med
springs which will not break through the
grea test unforeseen overloading.
Moreover, a high fatigue limit is required
which is however not a characteristic value
of the material as, for example, the tensile
strength. For a high fatigue strength, a high
degree of purity, a homogenous structure
and a smooth carbon-free surface are pre-
sup po sed.
These requirements are ful fil led very well
by steel, therefore most springs are made of
steel. Apart from this there will be the re qui-
re ment in some cases for corrosion resi -
stance, heat resistance or anti-magnetic pro -
per ties whe re special ma te ri als will be requi-
red.
An important property of spring material
is Young’s Mo du lus (E). From this material
constant is derived a linear re la ti onship be-
tween load and deflection. The ‘E’ of steel is
practically not affected by heat treatment,
but it is tem pe ra ture dependent and this
must be taken into consideration at higher
working temperatures (figure 37).
7.1
Figure 37
Temperature de pen dence
of ‘E’ and related re duc -
tion in load
68
Materials for disc springs are principally
supplied in the following forms:
● Cold rolled strip as per DIN EN 10140
● Hot rolled strip as per DIN EN 10048
● Plate as per DIN EN10029
● Forgings as per DIN 7521 and 7526
In the tables on pages 72 to 75 list the
pro per ties of all the materials from which
disc springs are manufactured. The follow-
ing notes give clarifica tion of this.
Standard Materials 7.2
● C 60S: Both types are quality steels
as per DIN EN 10132-4. We use them for our
Original Schnorr Serrated Safety Wa s hers
and Load Washers as per DIN 6796 where
the loading is only static.
● C 67S and C 75S: These high grade steels
as per DIN EN 10132-4 are used for cold
formed springs to group 1. For lightly loaded
springs, for example our “K” springs for
preloading ball bearings, these ma te ri als can
be processed in the spring-hard condition.
Special requirements such as corrosive or
high temperature enviroments often require
the use of materials designed for these applica-
tions. These materials, in general, have low-
er tensile strength than standard ma te ri als
and should only be specified, if absolutely
Materials for Special Requirements 7.3
ne ces sa ry. These springs have a lower over-
all height than comparable sizes made of
stan dard materials resulting in lower spring
force. This must be taken into consideration
using these materials.
Corrosion Resistant Steels
● X 10 CrNi 18-8 (1.4310): This chrome
nickel alloyed steel as per DIN EN 10151 is the
material most used for corrosion resistant
springs. Becau se of its austenitic structure
with ferritic inclusions, it cannot be hardened
in the usual way, but by cold forming it can
obtain the strength required for disc springs.
Consi dera ble cold for ming is ne ces sa ry and
the strength re du ces with incre a sing thick-
ness. The re fo re, the material is nor mal ly not
availa ble thic ker than 2.5 mm. In fact, springs
can only be supplied to this thick ness. Where-
as the ma te ri al in the soft con di ti on is hardly
magnetic, the cold wor king process will make
it more or less ma gne tic again, making it
unsuitable for com ple te ly non-magnetic
springs.
● 51 CrV 4 (1.8159): This is a chrome
vanadium refined alloy steel of the highest
quality. It is available in cold rolled form as
per DIN EN 10132-4, hot rolled and forgings
as per DIN 17221 for the manufacture of disc
springs. It has very good through-hardening
ca pa bi li ty and is therefore suitable for mak ing
springs up to 50 mm thick. The re laxa ti on is
less than for non-alloyed steel (see section
5.5), which allows use up to 250°C (with a
suitable reduction in load).
Materials
69
7
Steels for Higher Temperatures
When considering springs for use at higher
working tem pe ra tures it must be remember-
ed that both tensile strength and Young’s
modulus ‘E’ are reduced compared with the
values at room temperature.
● X 22 CrMoV 12 1 (1.4923): This heat
treatable chrome-molybdenum steel has been
used very successfully for heat resistant disc
springs. Springs of 1.5 to 6 mm thickness
are made from strip or plate. For thicker
springs, forged rings can be used.
Figure 38 shows the mechanical pro per-
ties and Young’s modulus ‘E’ with respect to
temperature. It should be noted that with a
chrome content of 12% this steel is not
corrosion resistant.
Figure 38
Yield stress and
‘E’ mo du lus of steel
X 22 Cr MoV 12 1 with
respect to temperature.
● X 7 CrNiAl 17 7 (1.4568): This steel as per
DIN EN 10151 precipitation hardened produces
an austenitic/ferritic struc ture. It will also be
pro cessed in the work hardened condition
and may be harde ned by sub se quent heat
treatment. A disadvan tage compared to steel
1.4310 is the lower corrosion resist ance
and sen si ti vi ty to stress cor ro si on. We
there fore only recommend its use for springs
over 2.5 mm thickness if no other material
is availa ble.
● X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 (1.4401): The strength
of this material is somewhat less than eit her
of the two forgoing. Not wi th stan ding that it
offers higher corrosion re si stance and low-
est magnetism. Al though also con tai ned in
DIN 17224, it is often difficult to obtain and
therefore only sel dom used.
70
● X 39 CrMo 17-1 (1.4122): Here we have a
chro me-mo lyb de num al loyed heat treatable
mar ten si tic steel which is also suitable for
corrosion resistant springs. Be cau se of the
molybdenum it may be used up to 400°C.
However, at these temperatures both the
ten si le strength and ‘E’ are re du ced.
In order to achieve the required pro per-
ties, this steel must be har de ned to higher
values which rai ses the question of stress
cor ro si on. Unfortuna tely, in the li ght of cur-
rent technical know ledge we cannot com-
pletely dis count the possibility of delayed
brittle fracture.
Copper Alloys
● CuBe 2 (2.1247): Beryllium copper is an
out standing spring material. This heat treat-
able alloy has strength values com pa ra ble
with steel. How ever, Young’s modulus ‘E’ is
only 60% of that for steel. It has very good
corrosion resistance and may be used at very
low temperatures nearing absolute zero.
Copper alloys are absolutely non-magnetic
and have very good electric conductivity.
Moreover, they are corrosion-resistant
against many media. These characteristics
make them suitable for many disc spring
applications.
● CuSn 8 (2.1030): Tin bronze as per DIN
EN 1654 is an alloy of copper and tin, which
obtains its spring properties from cold work-
ing. The tensile strength is certainly lower
than spring steel and the ‘E’ modulus is only
55% of the value for steel. This must be
considered in the spring calculation and al -
lows their use in applications where very low
spring loads are required.
Nickel and Cobalt Alloys
From the large number of nickel-chrome and
nickel-chrome-cobalt based alloys some have
achieved importance for disc springs. By
alloying with aluminium, titanium and/or
niobium/tantalum they are precipitation har-
den a ble. These ma te ri als are very tough, that
is to say they have high strength and a low
elastic ratio. Therefore, the probability of
more set in the spring must be considered.
Against this are the outstanding fatigue pro -
per ties. With correct spring proportions this
is good over the total spring travel. Because
of the material composition they have out-
stan ding corrosion resistance to many me -
dia. All these alloys are very expensive and
often hard to work, and as a rule have long
deliveries. They are therefore only used
whe re no other material is suitable due to
tech ni cal considerations.
Materials
71
7
● NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti (Nimonic 90) (2.4632,
2.4969): These nickel-chrome-co balt alloy
gives the least problems in processing and is
therefore the most often used. It has very good
heat resist ance and can be used up to 700°C with
suitable dimensioning.
● NiCr 15 Fe 7 TiAl (Inconel X 750) (2.4669)
and NiCr 19 NbMo (Inconel 718) (2.4668):
These nickel-chrome alloys are prac tically
cobalt-free, and are therefore used in reactor
applications. The hardening process is difficult
and expensive. The ap pli ca ti on is limited and
only used in special cases. NIMONIC and
INCONEL are trade na mes of Inco Alloys
International.
● DURATHERM 600: This is a heat treatable
alloy of the cobalt-nickel series with outstand-
ing mechanical properties. At a tem pe ra -
ture of 0°C the material is non-magnetic. It
can be used at very high temperatures (600°C
and over). The very high price of this alloy
limits its use to very special ap pli ca ti ons.
DU RATHERM is a trade name of Va cu um -
schmel ze GmbH in Hanau.
72
Table of Material Properties 7.4
Short Name AISI Mat.-No. Standard Chemical Analysis in %
Steel for Normal ASTM
Applications C Si Mn
Spring Steel
C 60S 1060 1.1211 DIN EN 10132-4 0.57...0.65 0.15...0.35 0.60...0.90
C 67S 1070 1.1231 DIN EN 10132-4 0.65...0.73 0.15...0.35 0.60...0.90
C 75S 1078 1.1248 DIN EN 10132-4 0.70...0.80 0.15...0.35 0.60...0.90
51 CrV 4 6150 1.8159 DIN EN 10132-4 0.47...0.55 max. 0.40 0.70...1.10
DIN 17221 0.47...0.55 0.15...0.40 0.70...1.10
Corrosion Re si stant Steel
X 10 CrNi 18-8 301 1.4310 DIN EN 10151 0.05...015 max. 2.0 max. 2.0
X 7 CrNiAl 17-7 631 1.4568 DIN EN 10151 max. 0.09 max. 0.7 max. 1.0
X 5 CrNiMo 17-12-2 316 1.4401 DIN EN 10151 max. 0.07 max. 1.0 max. 2.0
X 5 CrNi 18-10 304 1.4301 DIN EN 10151 max. 0.07 max 1.0 max. 2.0
Heat Resistant Steel
X 22 CrMoV 12-1 – 1.4923 DIN EN 10269 0.18...0.24 max. 0.5 0.40...0.90
X 39 CrMo 17-1 – 1.4122 DIN EN 10088-2 0.33...0.45 max. 1.0 max. 1.5
Copper Alloys Sn P Be
CuSn 8 – 2.1030 DIN EN 1654 7.5...8.5 0.01...0.4 –
CuBe 2 – 2.1247 DIN EN 1654 – – 1.8...2.1
Nickel and Cobalt Alloys Ni Cr Co
NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti HEV6 2.4632 / 2.4969 Balance 18.0...21.0 15.0...21.0
(Nimonic 90) 5829C (AMS)
NiCr 15 Fe 7 TiAl 688 2.4669 70.0 min. 14.0...17.0 1.0 max.
(Inconel X 750) 5542L (AMS)
NiCr 19 NbMo 5596J (AMS) 2.4668 50.0...55.0 17.0...21.0 1.0 max.
(Inconel 718)
Duratherm 600 – – Balance 12 40...41
Nickel and Cobalt Alloys (contd.) S P B
NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti HEV6 2.4632 / 2.4969 0.015 max. 0.03 max. 0.02 max.
(Nimonic 90) 5829C (AMS)
NiCr 15 Fe 7 TiAl 688 2.4669 0.015 max. 0.020 max. –
(Inconel X 750) 5542L (AMS)
NiCr 19 NbMo 5596J (AMS) 2.4668 0.015 max. 0.015 max. 0.006 max.
(Inconel 718)
Duratherm 600 – – – – –
Materials
73
7
P max. S max. Cr V Mo Ni N
0.025 0.025 max. 0.40 – max. 0.10 max. 0.40
0.025 0.025 max. 0.40 – max. 0.10 max. 0.40
0.025 0.025 max. 0.40 – max. 0.10 max. 0.40
0.025 0.025 0.90...1.20 0.10...0.25 max. 0.10 max. 0.40
0.030 0.030 0.90...1.20 0.10...0.20 – –
0.045 0.015 16.0...19.0 – max. 0.8 6.0...9.5 –
0.040 0.015 16.0...18.0 – – 6.5...7.8 –
0.045 0.015 16.5...18.5 – 2.0...2.5 10.0...13.0 max. 0.11
0.045 0.015 17.0...19.5 – – 8.0...10.5 max. 0.11
0.025 0.015 11.0...12.5 0.25...0.35 0.80...1.20 0.30...0.80
0.040 0.03 15.5...17.5 – 0.8...1.3 max. 1.0
Ni + Co Cu
– Balance
max. 0.3 Balance
Ti Al C Si Mn Fe Cu Zr
2.0...3.0 1.0...2.0 0.13 max. 1.0 max. 1.0 max. 1.5 max. 0.2 max. 0.15 max.
2.25...2.75 0.40...1.00 0.08 max. 0.50 max. 1.0 max. 5.0...9.0 0.5 max. –
0.70...1.15 0.3...0.7 0.02...0.08 0.35 max. 0.35 max. Balance 0.2 max. –
1.8...2.2 – – – 8.7 – –
Nb + Ta Mo W
– – –
0.7...1.2 – –
4.8...5.5 2.8...3.3 –
– 4 3.9
74
Short Name AISI Mat.-No. Standard Physical and Mechanical Properties
ASTM REF Density E-modulus in kN/mm
2

Steel for Normal Kg/dm
3
at RT 100 200 300
Applications °C °C °C °C
Spring Steel
C 60S 1060 1.1211 DIN EN 10132-4 7.85 206 202 – –
C 67S 1070 1.1231 DIN EN 10132-4 7.85 206 202 – –
C 75S 1078 1.1248 DIN EN 10132-4 7.85 206 202 – –
51 CrV 4 6150 1.8159 DIN EN 10132-4 7.85 206 202 196 –
DIN 17221
Corrosion Re si stant Steel
X 10 CrNi 18-8 301 1.4310 DIN EN 10151 7.90 190 186 180 –
X 7 CrNiAl 17-7 631 1.4568 DIN EN 10151 7.90 195 190 180 171
X 5 CrNiMo 17-12-2 316 1.4401 DIN EN 10151 7.95 180 176 171 –
X 5 CrNi 18-10 304 1.4301 DIN EN 10151 7.90 185 179 171 –
Heat Resistant Steel
X 22 CrMoV 12-1 – 1.4923 DIN EN 10269 7.7 216 209 200 190
X 39 CrMo 17-1 – 1.4122 DIN EN 10088-2 7.7 215 212 205 200
Copper Alloys
CuSn 8 – 2.1030 DIN EN 1654 8.3 115 110 – –
CuBe 2 – 2.1247 DIN EN 1654 8.8 135 131 125 –
Nickel and Cobalt Alloys
NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti HEV6 2.4632 / 2.4969 8.18 220 216 208 202
(Nimonic 90) 5829C (AMS)
NiCr 15 Fe 7 TiAl 2.4669 8.28 214 207 198 190
(Inconel X 750) 5542L (AMS)
NiCr 19 NbMo 5596J (AMS) 2.4668 8.19 199 195 190 185
(Inconel 718)
Duratherm 600 – – 8.50 220 215 208 202
Materials
75
7
The values quoted for E-modulus and tensile strength are for reference only.
The range of working temperature and thickness only serve as an indication.
The heat treatment and the hardness of disc springs made from heat resistant steels is
deviating from the standards mentioned above.

Working Tensile Thickness Avai la bi li ty
400 500 600 Temperature Strength range
°C °C °C N/mm
2
mm
– – – –20...+100 1150–1750 0.2...7.0 easy
– – – –20...+100 1200–1800 0.1...2.5 easy
– – – –20...+100 1200–1800 0.1...1.5 easy
– – – –50...+200 1200–1800 0.3...80 easy
– – – –200...+200 1150–1500 0.2...2.5 easy
– – – –200...+300 1150–1700 0.2...4.0 less easy
– – – –200...+200 1000–1500 0.2...1.6 difficult
– – – –200...+200 1000–1500 0.2...1.6 less easy
179 167 – –50...+500 1200–1400 1.5...20 easy
190 – – –50...+400 1200–1400 0.3...6.0 easy
– – – –50...+100 590–690 0.1...6.0 easy
– – – –260...+200 1270–1450 0.1...2.5 easy
193 187 178 –200...+700 ≥ 1100 to 6.35 dif fi cult
179 170 158 –200...+600 ≥ 1170 to 6.35 difficult
179 174 167 –200...+600 ≥ 1240 to 6.35 difficult
195 188 – –200...+550 1150–1550 0.1...2.0 difficult
76
77
Chapter 8
Special Types
78
Special Types
8.1 Disc Springs for Preloading Bearings ..................................................................... 79
8.2 Slotted Disc Springs ................................................................................................. 79
8.3 Disc Springs with Trapezoidal Cross-Section .......................................................... 80
79
With every ball bearing there is radial play so
it may function correctly. This radial play or
clear ance can cause consi dera ble noise at
high spe eds. In many cases it is possible to
achieve a quiet running bearing assembly by
the use of a suitable disc spring to apply an
axial load to the bearing. Similarly, the springs
can be used to accommodate the build up of
tolerances or ther mal movements within the
assembly. SCHNORR has, in close co ope ra-
ti on with SKF in Schwein furt, designed a
special ran ge of disc springs for this purpose
– our “K” springs for ball bearings. In ad di-
ti on to the normal range “slotted” springs
are available up to a diameter of 95 mm. This
special design generates very small loads
and will accom modate large deflections
(section 9.5). We will be pleased to send our
special “K” Spring leaflet on re quest. Be-
cause of the different dimensions of these
springs com pa red with “nor mal” disc springs,
the load and di men sio nal to le ran ces of DIN
2093 (chapter 5) do not apply.
For the dimensions of “K” Disc Springs
plea se see section 9.5.
Disc Springs for Preloading Bearings
is most important with this type of spring
that the permissible stresses in the annular
portion are not exceeded and, if necessary,
the outside diameter must be increased to
compensate.
The inclusion of slots on either the inner or
outer diameter creates a lever which works
on the unslotted portion of the spring. This
has the effect of reducing the spring load and
increasing the deflection (figure 39). The
resulting spring has a softer characteristic
with a large deflection and in pro portion to
the outside diameter smaller spring loads. It
Slotted Disc Springs
Figure 39
Slotted Disc Spring
8.2
8.1
8
80
Taking these limitations and a few design
features into account, this type of spring has
many possible applications. The classic ex -
amp le is the automo tive clutch spring. No-
table are the slot ted ball bearing preload
springs which give extremely low loads (see
section 8.1 and the dimension tables section
9.3).
The first approximation for the calcula-
tion of slotted disc springs can be achieved
by con sidering the lever arm and the formula
in section 1.2.
The loads generated depend to a large
extent on the shape of the slots or the cor re-
spon ding fingers. The deflection of the fin-
gers is only a small percentage of the total
de flec tion and can be ignored. An exact cal-
cu la ti on is given in
[7]
. If you need to consi der
the use of slotted Disc Springs we re com-
mend you contact our Technical department
so the design and manufacture may be dis-
cus sed.
Disc Springs with Tra pe zoi dal Cross-Section 8.3
By the use of a trapezoidal cross-section it is
possible to equalise the stresses on the spring
upper and lower surfaces. The advantageous
tensile stresses on the lower surface contrib -
ute to a better fatigue life. The equal com-
pres si ve stres ses on the upper surface result
in more set. A similar distribution of the ten-
sile stresses at points II and III to give the
optimum fatigue life can also be achieved
with a rec tan gu lar cross-section spring if
the ratios δ and h
0
/t are correctly chosen
[5] [6]
. In
this regard therefore, the trapezoidal cross-
section offers no advantages. Com pa red with
a stan dard spring having a similar angle on
the top surface, a trapezoidal spring will give
less deflection. This can be increased by
including intermediate rings, but these will
also increase the overall stack length and
require more space.
The main advantage of the trapezoidal
cross-section disc spring is the ability to
limit the stroke without additional parts. It is
the re fo re possible to design a spring which
is re la tive ly fatigue free over the complete
de flec tion range with relatively little increase
in load towards the end of the stroke.
With the same installation space and un-
der consi deration of the permissible stres -
ses, no more favourable spring data (more
force or more deflec tion) can be achieved
with disc springs with a trapezoidal cross-
section than with springs with a square cross-
section.
These few advantages and the hig h er
ma nu fac tu ring costs are the reasons why the
tra pe zoi dal disc spring is of no practical
impor tance today.
Figure 40
Disc Spring with
trapezoidal cross sec tion
Special Types
81
Chapter 9
Dimensional Tables
82
9.1 Explanation of the Tables ........................................................................................ 83
Article Reference........................................................................................................ 83
Load and stress specifications ................................................................................... 83
9.2 Dimension Tables for SCHNORR Disc Springs .......................................................... 84
9.3 Dimension Tables for Corrosion Resistant SCHNORR Disc Springs ........................ 98
9.4 Dimension Tables for Heat Resistant SCHNORR Disc Springs ............................... 108
9.5 Dimension Tables for SCHNORR “K” Disc Springs ................................................ 128
9.6 Dimension Tables for SCHNORR “Z” Disc Springs ................................................ 134
Dimensional Tables
83
9
9.1 Explanation of the Tables
The following tables list the springs to DIN
2093 as well as those to Schnorr Works
Standards. Those to DIN 2093 are shown in
heavy type. The prefix A, B and C show the
corresponding series. All sizes are normally
kept in stock and the heavy type does not
indicate a better delivery.
The article number quoted is for normal
manu facture from spring steel with phos -
pha te finish.
the underside at point II or III whichever is
the greater.
Static or infrequently loaded springs may
be compressed to the flat condition (see
section 2.1). It should be noted that from
s = 0.75 h
0
the actual characteristic pro gres -
si ve ly increases from that calculated (see
sec tions 1.7 and figure 10).
For dynamic application the calculation in
section 2.2 must be completed. With the help
of the drawn graph for stress and the fatigue
life dia grams (figures 18 – 20) the expected
dy na mic life may be obtained without cal cu -
la ti on.
All values are based on a Young’s mo d u lus
‘E’ of 206000 N/mm
2
with µ = 0.3 and are
therefore only valid for Disc Springs from
spring steel to DIN EN 10132-4 and DIN
17221 (e.g. 51 CrV 4 or C 67S). The use of
other materials necessitates re cal cu la ti on with
the correct value for Young’s modulus ‘E’. For
lower tensile strength the free height h
0
and
the overall height l
0
must be amended (see
chapters 1 and 2).
When considering the use of special sizes
or springs from special materials we re com-
mend you leave the work to us. We will be
pleased to go through the necessary cal cu la-
ti ons quickly, at no cost and advise you of the
possibilities of manufacture.
Figure 41
Cross section with main dimensions
Article Reference
Reference for a Disc Spring with D
e
= 40 mm.
D
i
= 20.4 mm and t =1.5 mm:
Disc Spring 40 x 20.4 x 1.5
or for a spring to DIN 2093:
Disc Spring DIN 2093-B 40
or with the article number:
Disc Spring 012800
Load and stress specifications
The load and the corresponding stresses are
given for the four points s = 0.25 h
0
,
s = 0.5 h
0
, s = 0.75 h
0
and s = h
0
. This allows
the relevant graphs for load and stress to be
accurately drawn.
At s = 0.75 h
0
, DIN 2093 quotes rounded
values for the deflection s. Spring load F and
the corresponding stress s are calculated
exactly for the rounded values. The quoted
stress at s = 0.75 h
0
is the tensile stress on
84
9.2 Dimension Tables for SCHNORR Disc Springs
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

000100 6 3.2 0.3 0.45 0.15 0.50 0.044 –1623
000200 8 3.2 0.2 0.4 0.20 1.00 0.064 –710
000300 8 3.2 0.3 0.55 0.25 0.83 0.093 –1332
000400 8 3.2 0.4 0.6 0.20 0.50 0.126 –1421
000550 C 8 4.2 0.2 0.45 0.25 1.25 0.055 –1003
000600 B 8 4.2 0.3 0.55 0.25 0.83 0.080 –1505
000700 A 8 4.2 0.4 0.6 0.20 0.50 0.107 –1605
000800 10 3.2 0.3 0.65 0.35 1.17 0.157 –1147
000900 10 3.2 0.4 0.7 0.30 0.75 0.211 –1311
001000 10 3.2 0.5 0.75 0.25 0.50 0.266 –1365
001100 10 4.2 0.4 0.7 0.30 0.75 0.193 –1384
001200 10 4.2 0.5 0.75 0.25 0.50 0.243 –1441
001300 C 10 5.2 0.25 0.55 0.30 1.20 0.109 –957
001400 B 10 5.2 0.4 0.7 0.30 0.75 0.170 –1531
001500 A 10 5.2 0.5 0.75 0.25 0.50 0.214 –1595
001600 12 4.2 0.4 0.8 0.40 1.00 0.297 –1228
001700 12 4.2 0.5 0.85 0.35 0.70 0.374 –1343
001800 12 4.2 0.6 1 0.40 0.67 0.450 –1841
001900 12 5.2 0.5 0.9 0.40 0.80 0.345 –1619
002000 12 5.2 0.6 0.95 0.35 0.58 0.415 –1700
002100 12 6.2 0.5 0.85 0.35 0.70 0.310 –1544
002200 12 6.2 0.6 0.95 0.35 0.58 0.373 –1853
002300 12.5 5.2 0.5 0.85 0.35 0.70 0.382 –1288
002050 C 12.5 6.2 0.35 0.8 0.45 1.29 0.251 –1250
002500 B 12.5 6.2 0.5 0.85 0.35 0.70 0.346 –1388
002700 A 12.5 6.2 0.7 1 0.30 0.43 0.488 –1666
002750 C 14 7.2 0.35 0.8 0.45 1.29 0.308 –1018
002800 B 14 7.2 0.5 0.9 0.40 0.80 0.425 –1293
002900 A 14 7.2 0.8 1.1 0.30 0.38 0.676 –1551
003000 15 5.2 0.4 0.95 0.55 1.38 0.468 –1079
003100 15 5.2 0.5 1 0.50 1.00 0.588 –1226
003200 15 5.2 0.6 1.05 0.45 0.75 0.708 –1324
003300 15 5.2 0.7 1.1 0.40 0.57 0.828 –1373
003500 15 6.2 0.5 1 0.50 1.00 0.553 –1275
003600 15 6.2 0.6 1.05 0.45 0.75 0.665 –1377
Dimensional Tables
85
∅ 6 – 15 mm
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N][N/mm
2
]
0.038 45 343 0.075 84 750 0.110 117 1187 0.150 153 1753
0.050 12 233 0.100 20 433 0.150 26 600 0.200 30 733
0.063 46 401 0.125 79 750 0.190 105 1057 0.250 126 1290
0.050 69 365 0.100 130 792 0.150 186 1281 0.200 238 1832
0.063 21 409 0.125 33 753 0.190 39 1044 0.250 42 1251
0.063 52 501 0.125 89 938 0.190 119 1325 0.250 142 1621
0.050 78 343 0.100 147 749 0.150 210 1218 0.200 269 1750
0.088 51 378 0.175 82 697 0.260 98 951 0.350 108 1158
0.075 75 285 0.150 133 663 0.230 182 1168 0.300 220 1698
0.063 104 410 0.125 195 884 0.190 282 1447 0.250 357 2028
0.075 79 405 0.150 140 760 0.230 192 1084 0.300 232 1322
0.063 110 359 0.125 206 778 0.190 297 1280 0.250 377 1803
0.075 30 380 0.150 48 702 0.230 58 980 0.300 63 1169
0.075 88 485 0.150 155 912 0.230 213 1303 0.300 257 1591
0.063 122 343 0.125 228 749 0.190 329 1238 0.250 418 1749
0.100 85 385 0.200 141 714 0.300 178 988 0.400 206 1205
0.088 116 293 0.175 208 671 0.260 282 1122 0.350 352 1687
0.100 224 421 0.200 405 954 0.300 557 1600 0.400 694 2358
0.100 150 493 0.200 263 923 0.300 350 1291 0.400 424 1596
0.088 196 372 0.175 361 828 0.260 502 1350 0.350 641 1990
0.088 134 475 0.175 239 894 0.260 324 1249 0.350 404 1569
0.088 214 531 0.175 394 1007 0.260 547 1417 0.350 699 1795
0.088 111 245 0.175 200 568 0.260 270 955 0.350 337 1444
0.113 84 506 0.225 130 932 0.340 152 1284 0.450 160 1542
0.088 120 420 0.175 215 791 0.260 291 1105 0.350 363 1388
0.075 239 403 0.150 457 864 0.230 673 1419 0.300 855 1957
0.113 68 418 0.225 106 770 0.340 123 1061 0.450 131 1274
0.100 120 419 0.200 210 787 0.300 279 1101 0.400 338 1363
0.075 284 390 0.150 547 826 0.230 813 1341 0.300 1040 1836
0.138 101 401 0.275 154 735 0.410 175 998 0.550 181 1202
0.125 133 383 0.250 221 711 0.380 280 992 0.500 321 1199
0.113 171 269 0.225 302 630 0.340 409 1093 0.450 499 1625
0.100 214 358 0.200 395 789 0.300 555 1291 0.400 704 1865
0.125 138 424 0.250 229 787 0.380 291 1100 0.500 334 1331
0.113 178 400 0.225 314 752 0.340 426 1060 0.450 519 1307
86
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

003700 15 6.2 0.7 1.1 0.40 0.57 0.778 –1428
003800 15 8.2 0.7 1.1 0.40 0.57 0.654 –1646
003900 15 8.2 0.8 1.2 0.40 0.50 0.740 –1881
004100 C 16 8.2 0.4 0.9 0.50 1.25 0.444 –988
004300 B 16 8.2 0.6 1.05 0.45 0.75 0.672 –1333
004400 16 8.2 0.7 1.15 0.45 0.64 0.786 –1555
004500 16 8.2 0.8 1.2 0.40 0.50 0.888 –1580
004600 A 16 8.2 0.9 1.25 0.35 0.39 1.002 –1555
004700 18 6.2 0.4 1 0.60 1.50 0.677 –816
004800 18 6.2 0.5 1.1 0.60 1.20 0.850 –1021
004900 18 6.2 0.6 1.2 0.60 1.00 1.024 –1225
005000 18 6.2 0.7 1.25 0.55 0.79 1.197 –1310
005100 18 6.2 0.8 1.3 0.50 0.63 1.353 –1361
005200 18 8.2 0.5 1.1 0.60 1.20 0.762 –1101
005300 18 8.2 0.7 1.25 0.55 0.79 1.073 –1412
005400 18 8.2 0.8 1.3 0.50 0.63 1.213 –1468
005500 18 8.2 1 1.4 0.40 0.40 1.524 –1468
005550 C 18 9.2 0.45 1.05 0.60 1.33 0.651 –1052
005600 B 18 9.2 0.7 1.2 0.50 0.71 0.999 –1363
005700 A 18 9.2 1 1.4 0.40 0.40 1.418 –1558
005800 20 8.2 0.6 1.3 0.70 1.17 1.191 –1202
005900 20 8.2 0.7 1.35 0.65 0.93 1.393 –1302
006000 20 8.2 0.8 1.4 0.60 0.75 1.574 –1373
006100 20 8.2 0.9 1.45 0.55 0.61 1.776 –1416
006200 20 8.2 1 1.55 0.55 0.55 1.978 –1574
006300 C 20 10.2 0.5 1.15 0.65 1.30 0.876 –1024
006400 B 20 10.2 0.8 1.35 0.55 0.69 1.394 –1386
006500 20 10.2 0.9 1.45 0.55 0.61 1.573 –1560
006600 20 10.2 1 1.55 0.55 0.55 1.752 –1733
006700 A 20 10.2 1.1 1.55 0.45 0.41 1.913 –1560
006800 20 10.2 1.25 1.75 0.50 0.40 2.181 –1969
006900 20 10.2 1.5 1.8 0.30 0.20 2.610 –1418
007000 C 22.5 11.2 0.6 1.4 0.80 1.33 1.361 –1178
007100 B 22.5 11.2 0.8 1.45 0.65 0.81 1.799 –1276
007200 A 22.5 11.2 1.25 1.75 0.50 0.40 2.814 –1534
∅ 15 – 22.5 mm
Dimensional Tables
87
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N][N/mm
2
]
0.100 222 328 0.200 411 727 0.300 578 1195 0.400 733 1734
0.100 256 479 0.200 474 909 0.300 666 1291 0.400 844 1624
0.100 367 523 0.200 689 997 0.300 982 1423 0.400 1261 1800
0.125 84 399 0.250 131 735 0.380 155 1018 0.500 165 1220
0.113 172 420 0.225 304 790 0.340 412 1115 0.450 503 1377
0.113 254 461 0.225 461 871 0.340 641 1238 0.450 798 1539
0.100 308 343 0.200 579 749 0.300 825 1218 0.400 1059 1749
0.088 363 386 0.175 697 820 0.260 1004 1287 0.350 1319 1831
0.150 85 319 0.300 126 583 0.450 139 791 0.600 137 944
0.150 130 350 0.300 206 646 0.450 245 885 0.600 267 1070
0.150 191 382 0.300 317 708 0.450 400 980 0.600 462 1195
0.138 236 253 0.275 414 600 0.410 550 1034 0.550 672 1580
0.125 286 333 0.250 523 745 0.380 733 1256 0.500 912 1803
0.150 140 417 0.300 222 769 0.450 265 1056 0.600 288 1279
0.138 255 434 0.275 446 815 0.410 594 1135 0.550 725 1412
0.125 309 292 0.250 564 660 0.380 791 1124 0.500 984 1624
0.100 425 388 0.200 814 824 0.300 1181 1309 0.400 1537 1842
0.150 121 440 0.300 186 809 0.450 214 1106 0.600 223 1333
0.125 233 421 0.250 417 792 0.380 572 1126 0.500 699 1387
0.100 451 382 0.200 865 814 0.300 1254 1295 0.400 1631 1826
0.175 214 432 0.350 342 797 0.530 413 1103 0.700 453 1327
0.163 262 416 0.325 442 775 0.490 570 1080 0.650 668 1320
0.150 315 398 0.300 557 748 0.450 751 1048 0.600 921 1300
0.138 374 311 0.275 685 696 0.410 949 1147 0.550 1201 1690
0.138 494 374 0.275 917 823 0.410 1288 1336 0.550 1648 1944
0.163 141 422 0.325 219 776 0.490 254 1067 0.650 268 1283
0.138 304 421 0.275 547 793 0.410 745 1112 0.550 929 1394
0.138 412 452 0.275 754 856 0.410 1045 1206 0.550 1323 1520
0.138 544 484 0.275 1010 920 0.410 1418 1300 0.550 1815 1646
0.113 548 379 0.225 1050 809 0.340 1531 1301 0.450 1976 1821
0.125 890 484 0.250 1708 1030 0.380 2507 1665 0.500 3222 2310
0.075 857 427 0.150 1695 877 0.230 2576 1381 0.300 3340 1843
0.200 240 488 0.400 370 897 0.600 425 1227 0.800 444 1478
0.163 306 412 0.325 533 771 0.490 710 1083 0.650 855 1335
0.125 693 383 0.250 1330 815 0.380 1952 1316 0.500 2509 1825
88
∅ 23 – 31.5 mm
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

007400 23 8.2 0.7 1.5 0.80 1.14 1.939 –1173
007500 23 8.2 0.8 1.55 0.75 0.94 2.192 –1257
007600 23 8.2 0.9 1.6 0.70 0.78 2.472 –1320
007700 23 8.2 1 1.7 0.70 0.70 2.753 –1466
007800 23 10.2 0.9 1.65 0.75 0.83 2.270 –1500
007900 23 10.2 1 1.7 0.70 0.70 2.527 –1556
008000 23 10.2 1.25 1.9 0.65 0.52 3.172 –1806
008100 23 12.2 1 1.6 0.60 0.60 2.255 –1467
008200 23 12.2 1.25 1.85 0.60 0.48 2.807 –1834
008350 23 12.2 1.5 2 0.50 0.33 3.359 –1834
008600 25 10.2 1 1.75 0.75 0.75 3.105 –1371
008700 C 25 12.2 0.7 1.6 0.90 1.29 1.994 –1238
008800 B 25 12.2 0.9 1.6 0.70 0.78 2.543 –1238
008900 25 12.2 1 1.8 0.80 0.80 2.832 –1573
009000 25 12.2 1.25 1.95 0.70 0.56 3.526 –1720
009100 A 25 12.2 1.5 2.05 0.55 0.37 4.219 –1622
009200 28 10.2 0.8 1.75 0.95 1.19 3.233 –1078
009300 28 10.2 1 1.9 0.90 0.90 4.062 –1277
009400 28 10.2 1.25 2.05 0.80 0.64 5.057 –1419
009500 28 10.2 1.5 2.2 0.70 0.47 6.051 –1490
009600 28 12.2 1 1.95 0.95 0.95 3.789 –1415
009700 28 12.2 1.25 2.1 0.85 0.68 4.717 –1583
009800 28 12.2 1.5 2.25 0.75 0.50 5.645 –1676
009900 C 28 14.2 0.8 1.8 1.00 1.25 2.760 –1282
010000 B 28 14.2 1 1.8 0.80 0.80 3.468 –1282
010100 28 14.2 1.25 2.1 0.85 0.68 4.317 –1702
010200 A 28 14.2 1.5 2.15 0.65 0.43 5.166 –1562
010300 31.5 12.2 1 2.1 1.10 1.10 5.035 –1250
010400 31.5 12.2 1.25 2.2 0.95 0.76 6.268 –1349
010500 31.5 12.2 1.5 2.35 0.85 0.57 7.501 –1448
010650 C 31.5 16.3 0.8 1.85 1.05 1.31 3.442 –1077
010700 B 31.5 16.3 1.25 2.15 0.90 0.72 5.384 –1442
010800 31.5 16.3 1.5 2.4 0.90 0.60 6.443 –1730
010900 A 31.5 16.3 1.75 2.45 0.70 0.40 7.546 –1570
011000 31.5 16.3 2 2.75 0.75 0.38 8.605 –1923
Dimensional Tables
89
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N][N/mm
2
]
0.200 279 397 0.400 448 733 0.600 544 1007 0.800 602 1221
0.188 332 384 0.375 560 714 0.560 717 988 0.750 842 1214
0.175 391 251 0.350 687 595 0.530 925 1046 0.700 1119 1563
0.175 507 315 0.350 909 723 0.530 1249 1241 0.700 1536 1820
0.188 463 469 0.375 802 877 0.560 1055 1221 0.750 1273 1512
0.175 538 451 0.350 964 849 0.530 1325 1204 0.700 1629 1487
0.163 870 422 0.325 1627 923 0.490 2320 1511 0.650 2955 2159
0.150 475 429 0.300 872 813 0.450 1217 1152 0.600 1536 1446
0.150 863 399 0.300 1630 868 0.450 2331 1404 0.600 3000 2010
0.125 1159 473 0.250 2250 994 0.380 3338 1586 0.500 4320 2178
0.188 492 397 0.375 870 745 0.560 1168 1041 0.750 1436 1295
0.225 331 499 0.450 515 919 0.680 601 1265 0.900 635 1519
0.175 367 389 0.350 644 730 0.530 868 1031 0.700 1050 1268
0.200 585 500 0.400 1021 938 0.600 1359 1312 0.800 1647 1624
0.175 848 357 0.350 1573 792 0.530 2232 1320 0.700 2814 1895
0.138 1040 425 0.275 2007 898 0.410 2910 1410 0.550 3821 1988
0.238 348 375 0.475 553 692 0.710 661 947 0.950 723 1149
0.225 512 385 0.450 872 718 0.680 1135 1004 0.900 1337 1226
0.200 737 327 0.400 1339 735 0.600 1853 1225 0.800 2322 1797
0.175 1003 424 0.350 1899 911 0.530 2745 1478 0.700 3511 2074
0.238 590 467 0.475 992 870 0.710 1266 1204 0.950 1482 1480
0.213 844 451 0.425 1519 849 0.640 2089 1200 0.850 2590 1491
0.188 1149 406 0.375 2159 883 0.560 3065 1423 0.750 3949 2049
0.250 435 515 0.500 681 950 0.750 801 1304 1.000 859 1577
0.200 476 414 0.400 832 776 0.600 1107 1086 0.800 1342 1344
0.213 907 513 0.425 1634 968 0.640 2246 1369 0.850 2785 1703
0.163 1033 371 0.325 1970 795 0.490 2854 1281 0.650 3680 1806
0.275 587 426 0.550 951 788 0.830 1170 1091 1.100 1309 1320
0.238 761 385 0.475 1343 723 0.710 1800 1009 0.950 2207 1254
0.213 1033 351 0.425 1912 774 0.640 2697 1276 0.850 3413 1838
0.263 384 448 0.525 594 825 0.790 687 1132 1.050 722 1363
0.225 791 449 0.450 1409 844 0.680 1923 1194 0.900 2359 1478
0.225 1260 501 0.450 2314 950 0.680 3249 1354 0.900 4077 1689
0.175 1391 382 0.350 2669 814 0.530 3905 1310 0.700 5036 1826
0.188 2199 481 0.375 4239 1020 0.560 6148 1607 0.750 8054 2267
90
∅ 34 – 50 mm
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

011100 34 12.3 1 2.25 1.25 1.25 6.006 –1201
011200 34 12.3 1.25 2.35 1.10 0.88 7.477 –1322
011300 34 12.3 1.5 2.5 1.00 0.67 8.948 –1442
011400 34 14.3 1.25 2.4 1.15 0.92 7.074 –1435
011500 34 14.3 1.5 2.55 1.05 0.70 8.465 –1572
011600 34 16.3 1.5 2.55 1.05 0.70 7.911 –1658
011700 34 16.3 2 2.85 0.85 0.43 10.57 –1790
011850 C 35.5 18.3 0.9 2.05 1.15 1.28 4.952 –1042
011900 B 35.5 18.3 1.25 2.25 1.00 0.80 6.865 –1258
012000 A 35.5 18.3 2 2.8 0.80 0.40 10.97 –1611
012100 40 14.3 1.25 2.65 1.40 1.12 10.40 –1213
012200 40 14.3 1.5 2.75 1.25 0.83 12.45 –1299
012300 40 14.3 2 3.05 1.05 0.53 16.63 –1455
012400 40 16.3 1.5 2.8 1.30 0.87 11.89 –1392
012500 40 16.3 2 3.1 1.10 0.55 15.89 –1571
012600 40 18.3 2 3.15 1.15 0.58 15.04 –1712
012700 C 40 20.4 1 2.3 1.30 1.30 7.067 –1024
012800 B 40 20.4 1.5 2.65 1.15 0.77 10.53 –1359
012900 40 20.4 2 3.1 1.10 0.55 14.06 –1733
013000 A 40 20.4 2.25 3.15 0.90 0.40 15.72 –1595
013100 40 20.4 2.5 3.45 0.95 0.38 17.52 –1871
013250 C 45 22.4 1.25 2.85 1.60 1.28 11.34 –1227
013300 B 45 22.4 1.75 3.05 1.30 0.74 15.89 –1396
013400 A 45 22.4 2.5 3.5 1.00 0.40 22.77 –1534
013500 50 18.4 1.25 2.85 1.60 1.28 16.13 –892
013600 50 18.4 1.5 3.3 1.80 1.20 19.31 –1204
013700 50 18.4 2 3.5 1.50 0.75 25.79 –1338
013800 50 18.4 2.5 4.1 1.60 0.64 32.14 –1784
013900 50 18.4 3 4.4 1.40 0.47 38.35 –1873
014000 50 20.4 2 3.5 1.50 0.75 24.85 –1371
014100 50 20.4 2.5 3.85 1.35 0.54 30.97 –1543
014200 50 22.4 2 3.6 1.60 0.80 23.82 –1511
014300 50 22.4 2.5 3.9 1.40 0.56 29.68 –1653
014400 C 50 25.4 1.25 2.85 1.60 1.28 13.82 –1006
014500 50 25.4 1.5 3.1 1.60 1.07 16.54 –1207
Dimensional Tables
91
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N][N/mm
2
]
0.313 637 429 0.625 998 789 0.940 1175 1083 1.250 1258 1304
0.275 815 394 0.550 1395 734 0.830 1825 1026 1.100 2162 1255
0.250 1097 321 0.500 1982 730 0.750 2725 1225 1.000 3397 1807
0.288 913 461 0.575 1546 858 0.860 1990 1190 1.150 2347 1464
0.263 1224 447 0.525 2192 841 0.790 2997 1186 1.050 3704 1472
0.263 1291 495 0.525 2313 933 0.790 3163 1316 1.050 3908 1635
0.213 2097 445 0.425 4003 952 0.640 5803 1527 0.850 7498 2150
0.288 458 427 0.575 712 786 0.860 831 1076 1.150 884 1302
0.250 731 409 0.500 1277 766 0.750 1699 1073 1.000 2059 1329
0.200 1864 393 0.400 3576 837 0.600 5187 1332 0.800 6747 1878
0.350 904 406 0.700 1459 750 1.050 1780 1033 1.400 1984 1253
0.313 1114 376 0.625 1929 702 0.940 2550 981 1.250 3061 1207
0.263 1800 393 0.525 3363 855 0.790 4781 1392 1.050 6096 1988
0.325 1224 430 0.650 2102 802 0.980 2758 1122 1.300 3281 1376
0.275 1972 375 0.550 3663 825 0.830 5195 1359 1.100 6580 1948
0.288 2182 365 0.575 4030 810 0.860 5642 1333 1.150 7171 1946
0.325 565 422 0.650 876 776 0.980 1018 1067 1.300 1072 1283
0.288 1109 431 0.575 1953 810 0.860 2616 1134 1.150 3201 1410
0.275 2175 484 0.550 4041 920 0.830 5730 1314 1.100 7258 1646
0.225 2336 392 0.450 4481 835 0.680 6544 1339 0.900 8456 1871
0.238 3351 470 0.475 6453 997 0.710 9359 1573 0.95012243 2219
0.400 1041 497 0.800 1620 914 1.200 1891 1253 1.600 2007 1514
0.325 1524 433 0.650 2701 814 0.980 3659 1148 1.300 4475 1421
0.250 2773 383 0.500 5320 815 0.750 7716 1296 1.00010037 1825
0.400 757 325 0.800 1178 597 1.200 1375 817 1.600 1459 984
0.450 1379 423 0.900 2184 779 1.350 2606 1069 1.800 2837 1293
0.375 1918 259 0.750 3392 609 1.130 4586 1054 1.500 5603 1577
0.400 3703 407 0.800 6733 917 1.200 9315 1529 1.60011673 2244
0.350 5043 530 0.700 9546 1138 1.05013688 1824 1.40017650 2590
0.375 1966 397 0.750 3478 745 1.130 4702 1048 1.500 5745 1295
0.338 3008 373 0.675 5601 817 1.010 7902 1330 1.35010098 1922
0.400 2247 466 0.800 3924 872 1.200 5222 1220 1.600 6329 1509
0.350 3261 364 0.700 6044 806 1.050 8510 1324 1.40010817 1920
0.400 854 410 0.800 1328 755 1.200 1550 1035 1.600 1646 1251
0.400 1242 447 0.800 2028 828 1.200 2512 1145 1.600 2844 1397
92
∅ 50 – 80 mm
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

014600 B 50 25.4 2 3.4 1.40 0.70 22.09 –1408
014700 50 25.4 2.5 3.9 1.40 0.56 27.52 –1760
014800 A 50 25.4 3 4.1 1.10 0.37 32.85 –1659
014950 C 56 28.5 1.5 3.45 1.95 1.30 20.85 –1174
015000 B 56 28.5 2 3.6 1.60 0.80 27.81 –1284
015100 A 56 28.5 3 4.3 1.30 0.43 41.57 –1565
015200 60 20.5 2 4.1 2.10 1.05 38.16 –1284
015300 60 20.5 2.5 4.3 1.80 0.72 47.69 –1376
015400 60 20.5 3 4.7 1.70 0.57 57.04 –1560
015500 60 25.5 2.5 4.4 1.90 0.76 44.20 –1527
015600 60 25.5 3 4.65 1.65 0.55 52.86 –1592
015700 60 30.5 2.5 4.3 1.80 0.72 39.94 –1572
015800 60 30.5 3 4.7 1.70 0.57 47.77 –1782
015900 60 30.5 3.5 5 1.50 0.43 55.10 –1834
016050 C 63 31 1.8 4.15 2.35 1.31 32.53 –1315
016100 B 63 31 2.5 4.25 1.75 0.70 44.85 –1360
016200 63 31 3 4.8 1.80 0.60 53.86 –1679
016300 A 63 31 3.5 4.9 1.40 0.40 62.13 –1524
016400 70 25.5 2 4.5 2.50 1.25 50.78 –1135
016500 70 30.5 2.5 4.9 2.40 0.96 59.53 –1430
016600 70 30.5 3 5.1 2.10 0.70 71.19 –1502
016700 70 35.5 3 5.1 2.10 0.70 65.21 –1615
016800 70 35.5 4 5.8 1.80 0.45 86.13 –1845
016900 70 40.5 4 5.6 1.60 0.40 77.04 –1813
017000 70 40.5 5 6.2 1.20 0.24 95.15 –1700
017100 C 71 36 2 4.6 2.60 1.30 44.66 –1295
017200 B 71 36 2.5 4.5 2.00 0.80 56.11 –1246
017300 A 71 36 4 5.6 1.60 0.40 88.63 –1594
017400 80 31 2.5 5.3 2.80 1.12 82.01 –1233
017500 80 31 3 5.5 2.50 0.83 98.01 –1321
017600 80 31 4 6.1 2.10 0.53 130.0 –1480
017700 80 36 3 5.7 2.70 0.90 91.92 –1497
017800 80 36 4 6.2 2.20 0.55 121.9 –1626
017850 C 80 41 2.25 5.2 2.95 1.31 63.54 –1311
017900 B 80 41 3 5.3 2.30 0.77 84.92 –1363
Dimensional Tables
93
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N][N/mm
2
]
0.350 1949 430 0.700 3491 810 1.050 4762 1140 1.400 5898 1421
0.350 3473 494 0.700 6437 938 1.050 9063 1332 1.40011519 1677
0.275 4255 424 0.550 8214 897 0.83012044 1418 1.10015640 1987
0.488 1458 483 0.975 2259 889 1.460 2621 1217 1.950 2766 1470
0.400 1910 415 0.800 3335 778 1.200 4438 1090 1.600 5379 1349
0.325 4142 371 0.650 7895 795 0.98011441 1281 1.30014752 1806
0.525 2318 409 1.050 3802 758 1.580 4737 1049 2.100 5380 1273
0.450 3018 297 0.900 5379 685 1.350 7302 1165 1.800 9006 1736
0.425 4449 414 0.850 8234 909 1.28011615 1486 1.70014698 2145
0.475 3447 451 0.950 6081 847 1.430 8195 1190 1.900 9997 1471
0.413 4495 369 0.825 8352 812 1.24011803 1334 1.65015002 1922
0.450 3447 486 0.900 6145 914 1.350 8342 1285 1.80010289 1600
0.425 5083 502 0.850 9407 953 1.28013269 1358 1.70016792 1703
0.375 6591 437 0.750 12574 937 1.13018225 1507 1.50023528 2123
0.588 2364 536 1.175 3658 986 1.760 4237 1351 2.350 4463 1629
0.438 2942 410 0.875 5270 773 1.310 7179 1086 1.750 8904 1355
0.450 4891 477 0.900 8981 904 1.35012536 1280 1.80015825 1606
0.350 5399 383 0.700 10359 815 1.05015025 1296 1.40019545 1826
0.625 2408 406 1.250 3771 748 1.880 4441 1024 2.500 4755 1235
0.600 3755 475 1.200 6297 883 1.800 8031 1225 2.400 9360 1501
0.525 4676 433 1.050 8376 814 1.58011453 1148 2.10014152 1426
0.525 5028 493 1.050 9007 928 1.58012316 1310 2.10015218 1628
0.450 8757 430 0.900 16634 925 1.35023923 1486 1.80030919 2114
0.400 8391 411 0.800 16099 877 1.20023351 1399 1.60030376 1974
0.300 11544 458 0.600 22728 946 0.90033672 1465 1.20044495 2016
0.650 2861 532 1.300 4432 980 1.950 5144 1342 2.600 5426 1620
0.500 2894 402 1.000 5054 754 1.500 6725 1055 2.000 8152 1306
0.400 7379 393 0.800 14157 837 1.20020535 1332 1.60026712 1877
0.700 3678 425 1.400 5933 785 2.100 7239 1081 2.800 8070 1312
0.625 4531 393 1.250 7847 735 1.88010369 1028 2.50012451 1265
0.525 7319 378 1.050 13677 823 1.58019447 1343 2.10024791 1920
0.675 5401 487 1.350 9196 909 2.03011936 1268 2.70014106 1556
0.550 8163 362 1.100 15168 799 1.65021400 1310 2.20027245 1895
0.738 3698 544 1.475 5715 1000 2.210 6611 1369 2.950 6950 1652
0.575 4450 434 1.150 7838 814 1.73010539 1145 2.30012844 1417
94
∅ 80 –150 mm
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t t’ l
0
h
0
h
0
/t h
0
’/t’ at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

018000 80 41 4 6.2 2.20 0.55 112.6 –1738
018100 A 80 41 5 6.7 1.70 0.34 139.5 –1679
018200 C 90 46 2.5 5.7 3.20 1.28 89.74 –1246
018300 B 90 46 3.5 6 2.50 0.71 125.3 –1363
018400 A 90 46 5 7 2.00 0.40 177.6 –1558
018500 100 41 4 7.2 3.20 0.80 200.0 –1465
018600 100 41 5 7.75 2.75 0.55 248.9 –1574
018750 C 100 51 2.7 6.2 3.50 1.30 120.1 –1191
018800 B 100 51 3.5 6.3 2.80 0.80 155.4 –1235
018900 100 51 4 7 3.00 0.75 177.6 –1512
019000 100 51 5 7.8 2.80 0.56 221.1 –1764
019150 A 100 51 6 8.2 2.20 0.37 262.8 –1663
019250 C 112 57 3 6.9 3.90 1.30 168.0 –1174
019300 B 112 57 4 7.2 3.20 0.80 222.7 –1284
019450 A 112 57 6 8.5 2.50 0.42 332.1 –1505
019500 125 41 4 8.2 4.20 1.05 338.1 –1177
019600 125 51 4 8.5 4.50 1.13 315.6 –1317
019700 125 51 5 8.9 3.90 0.78 391.5 –1426
019850 125 51 6 9.4 3.40 0.57 465.8 –1492
019900 125 61 5 9 4.00 0.80 357.6 –1573
020050 125 61 6 9.6 3.60 0.60 425.4 –1698
020100 125 61 8 7.5 10.9 2.90 0.45 547.3 –1850
020200 C 125 64 3.5 8 4.50 1.29 242.3 –1273
020300 B 125 64 5 8.5 3.50 0.70 346.2 –1415
020400 A 125 64 8 7.5 10.6 2.60 0.41 529.9 –1708
020550 125 71 6 9.3 3.30 0.55 377.9 –1730
020600 125 71 8 7.4 10.4 2.40 0.41 479.6 –1709
020700 125 71 10 9.2 11.8 1.80 0.28 596.3 –1615
020850 C 140 72 3.8 8.7 4.90 1.29 329.7 –1203
020900 B 140 72 5 9 4.00 0.80 433.2 –1293
021000 A 140 72 8 7.5 11.2 3.20 0.49 663.0 –1675
021100 150 61 5 10.3 5.30 1.06 565.0 –1345
021250 150 61 6 10.8 4.80 0.80 676.8 –1462
021350 150 71 6 10.8 4.80 0.80 628.9 –1548
021400 150 71 8 7.5 12 4.00 0.60 803.6 –1733
Dimensional Tables
95
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N][N/mm
2
]
0.550 8726 486 1.100 16213 924 1.650 22874 1314 2.200 29122 1655
0.425 11821 439 0.850 22928 924 1.280 33682 1460 1.700 43952 2028
0.800 4232 509 1.600 6585 938 2.400 7684 1286 3.200 8157 1553
0.625 5836 421 1.250 10416 792 1.880 14189 1116 2.500 17487 1387
0.500 11267 382 1.000 21617 814 1.500 31354 1295 2.000 40786 1826
0.800 8714 437 1.600 15219 818 2.400 20251 1144 3.200 24547 1414
0.688 12345 374 1.375 22937 823 2.060 32328 1344 2.750 41201 1944
0.875 4779 490 1.750 7410 902 2.630 8613 1237 3.500 9091 1491
0.700 5624 399 1.400 9823 749 2.100 13070 1049 2.800 15843 1298
0.750 8673 476 1.500 15341 894 2.250 20674 1255 3.000 25338 1559
0.700 13924 496 1.400 25810 942 2.100 36339 1337 2.800 46189 1683
0.550 17061 424 1.100 32937 897 1.650 48022 1418 2.200 62711 1987
0.975 5834 483 1.950 9038 889 2.930 10493 1220 3.900 11064 1470
0.800 7639 415 1.600 13341 778 2.400 17752 1090 3.200 21518 1349
0.625 15800 363 1.250 30215 777 1.880 43812 1243 2.500 56737 1752
1.050 8501 370 2.100 13943 685 3.150 17346 945 4.200 19729 1150
1.125 10096 463 2.250 16265 856 3.380 19829 1179 4.500 22060 1431
0.975 13063 420 1.950 22931 787 2.930 30705 1103 3.900 37342 1363
0.850 17027 349 1.700 31514 770 2.550 44307 1264 3.400 56254 1832
1.000 14615 500 2.000 25526 938 3.000 33965 1312 4.000 41170 1624
0.900 19789 481 1.800 36336 911 2.700 50722 1290 3.600 64028 1619
0.725 34434 415 1.450 65305 893 2.180 93765 1436 2.900120218 2034
1.125 8514 522 2.250 13231 961 3.380 15422 1319 4.500 16335 1591
0.875 12238 433 1.750 21924 816 2.630 29950 1151 3.500 37041 1432
0.650 31118 391 1.300 59520 833 1.950 85926 1326 2.600111056 1870
0.825 19538 504 1.650 36302 959 2.480 51304 1366 3.300 65207 1718
0.600 30867 470 1.200 59149 908 1.800 85494 1314 2.400110547 1688
0.450 42963 401 0.900 84219 829 1.350124124 1284 1.800163035 1766
1.225 9514 495 2.450 14773 911 3.680 17201 1250 4.900 18199 1508
1.000 12014 419 2.000 20982 787 3.000 27920 1101 4.000 33843 1363
0.800 31903 467 1.600 59967 895 2.400 85251 1284 3.200108813 1634
1.325 15292 458 2.650 25021 848 3.980 31059 1172 5.300 35207 1426
1.200 19560 435 2.400 34161 814 3.600 45456 1138 4.800 55098 1406
1.200 20721 487 2.400 36189 913 3.600 48155 1277 4.800 58370 1580
1.000 35296 501 2.000 64684 954 3.000 89851 1357 4.000112487 1711
96
∅ 150 – 250 mm
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t t’ l
0
h
0
h
0
/t h
0
’/t’ at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

021500 150 81 8 7.5 11.7 3.70 0.56 732.9 –1739
021600 150 81 10 9.3 13 3.00 0.40 908.8 –1779
021650 C 160 82 4.3 9.9 5.60 1.30 492.2 –1189
021750 B 160 82 6 10.5 4.50 0.75 679.8 –1333
021800 A 160 82 10 9.4 13.5 3.50 0.44 1089 –1753
021850 C 180 92 4.8 11 6.20 1.29 705.3 –1159
021950 B 180 92 6 11.1 5.10 0.85 862.5 –1192
022000 A 180 92 10 9.4 14 4.00 0.49 1381 –1576
022100 200 82 8 7.6 14.2 6.20 0.87 1554 –1415
022200 200 82 10 9.6 15.5 5.50 0.61 1962 –1581
022300 200 82 12 11.5 16.6 4.60 0.44 2351 –1595
022400 200 92 10 9.5 15.6 5.60 0.64 1840 –1679
022500 200 92 12 11.4 16.8 4.80 0.47 2208 –1737
022600 200 92 14 13.1 18.1 4.10 0.38 2537 –1743
022650 C 200 102 5.5 12.5 7.00 1.27 999.3 –1213
022700 B 200 102 8 7.5 13.6 5.60 0.81 1363 –1409
022800 200 102 10 9.4 15.6 5.60 0.66 1708 –1772
022900 A 200 102 12 11.25 16.2 4.20 0.44 2044 –1611
023000 200 102 14 13.1 18.2 4.20 0.39 2380 –1884
023100 200 112 12 11.1 16.2 4.20 0.46 1870 –1726
023200 200 112 14 12.9 17.5 3.50 0.36 2173 –1689
023300 200 112 16 14.8 18.8 2.80 0.27 2493 –1550
023350 C 225 112 6.5 6.2 13.6 7.10 1.19 1450 –1119
023400 B 225 112 8 7.5 14.5 6.50 0.93 1754 –1267
023500 A 225 112 12 11.25 17 5.00 0.51 2631 –1489
023600 250 102 10 9.6 18 8.00 0.88 3075 –1459
023700 250 102 12 11.5 19 7.00 0.65 3683 –1542
023750 C 250 127 7 6.7 14.8 7.80 1.21 1909 –1086
023800 B 250 127 10 9.4 17 7.00 0.81 2678 –1406
023900 250 127 12 11.25 19.3 7.30 0.72 3205 –1766
024000 A 250 127 14 13.1 19.6 5.60 0.50 3732 –1596
024100 250 127 16 15 21.8 5.80 0.45 4273 –1893
Dimensional Tables
97
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N][N/mm
2
]
0.925 34518 516 1.850 63876 985 2.780 89663 1409 3.700 112942 1781
0.750 50088 399 1.500 96120 846 2.250 139128 1342 3.000 180141 1887
1.400 12162 491 2.800 18832 904 4.200 21843 1238 5.600 23022 1494
1.125 17203 420 2.250 30431 790 3.380 41051 1110 4.500 50260 1377
0.875 50547 390 1.750 96216 836 2.630 138564 1341 3.500 178214 1896
1.550 14646 476 3.100 22731 877 4.650 26442 1201 6.200 27966 1450
1.275 16558 396 2.550 28552 742 3.830 37533 1036 5.100 44930 1278
1.000 46850 437 2.000 88141 837 3.000 125417 1201 4.000 160223 1528
1.550 35029 450 3.100 60013 842 4.650 78034 1177 6.200 92176 1455
1.375 51105 329 2.750 93357 739 4.130129569 1233 5.500162061 1804
1.150 66924 416 2.300127191 890 3.450182737 1421 4.600235503 2011
1.400 55136 490 2.800100014 928 4.200137688 1315 5.600171214 1651
1.200 73913 400 2.400139548 864 3.600199269 1393 4.800255443 1985
1.025 95633 445 2.050184092 938 3.080267623 1484 4.100346888 2072
1.750 19817 494 3.500 30882 910 5.250 36111 1247 7.000 38423 1507
1.400 33367 475 2.800 57955 892 4.200 76378 1254 5.600 91252 1559
1.400 58757 546 2.800106099 1036 4.200145357 1468 5.600179858 1844
1.050 66983 357 2.100127401 766 3.150183020 1227 4.200235610 1739
1.050103781 445 2.100199476 943 3.150289181 1492 4.200374993 2094
1.050 72257 490 2.100136873 943 3.150195830 1358 4.200251108 1736
0.875 91033 387 1.750 176156 813 2.630 257208 1281 3.500 334227 1782
0.700 105268 395 1.400 206697 815 2.100 305100 1260 2.800 401294 1730
1.775 23582 446 3.550 37417 825 5.330 44594 1138 7.100 48147 1383
1.625 32870 450 3.250 55412 842 4.880 70788 1177 6.500 82002 1451
1.250 64497 415 2.500 120738 794 3.750 171016 1137 5.000 217625 1444
2.000 56867 462 4.000 97282 865 6.000126387 1207 8.000149323 1490
1.750 73563 303 3.500133130 691 5.250182962 1163 7.000227317 1720
1.950 26895 438 3.900 42527 810 5.850 50466 1116 7.800 54284 1356
1.750 51871 471 3.500 90206 886 5.250119053 1244 7.000142462 1547
1.825 87633 563 3.650156021 1063 5.480210942 1503 7.300257630 1879
1.400 93239 444 2.800 175145 851 4.200 248828 1221 5.600 317399 1554
1.450140941 413 2.900267295 890 4.350383017 1429 5.800492058 2031
98
9.3 Dimension Tables for Corrosion Resistant
SCHNORR Disc Springs
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

024 650 6 3.2 0.3 0.45 0.15 0.50 0.047 -1497
025 250 8 3.2 0.2 0.4 0.2 1.00 0.066 -655
025 400 8 3.2 0.3 0.55 0.25 0.83 0.098 -1228
025 700 8 3.2 0.4 0.55 0.15 0.38 0.131 -983
026 300 8 3.2 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.40 0.166 -1638
026 700 8 4.2 0.2 0.45 0.25 1.25 0.057 -925
027 100 8 4.2 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.67 0.085 -1110
027 400 8 4.2 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.50 0.113 -1480
028 910 10 3.2 0.3 0.65 0.35 1.17 0.165 -1058
029 101 10 3.2 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.75 0.220 -1209
029 301 10 3.2 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.40 0.274 -1007
029 602 10 4.2 0.4 0.65 0.25 0.63 0.202 -1064
029 701 10 4.2 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.40 0.252 -1064
030 290 10 5.2 0.25 0.55 0.3 1.20 0.112 -883
030 800 10 5.2 0.4 0.65 0.25 0.63 0.179 -1177
031 000 10 5.2 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.40 0.223 -1177
032 040 12 4.2 0.4 0.8 0.4 1.00 0.309 -1132
032 500 12 4.2 0.5 0.8 0.3 0.60 0.386 -1061
032 704 12 4.2 0.6 0.85 0.25 0.42 0.463 -1061
033 400 12 5.2 0.5 0.8 0.3 0.60 0.357 -1120
033 500 12 5.2 0.6 0.85 0.25 0.42 0.429 -1120
034 200 12 6.2 0.5 0.85 0.35 0.70 0.323 -1424
034 550 12 6.2 0.6 0.85 0.25 0.42 0.387 -1221
035 040 12.5 5.2 0.5 0.85 0.35 0.70 0.395 -1188
035 103 12.5 6.2 0.35 0.8 0.45 1.29 0.253 -1152
035 400 12.5 6.2 0.5 0.85 0.35 0.70 0.361 -1281
035 601 12.5 6.2 0.7 0.95 0.25 0.36 0.504 -1281
038 353 14 7.2 0.35 0.8 0.45 1.29 0.310 -939
038 600 14 7.2 0.5 0.9 0.4 0.80 0.442 -1192
039 040 14 7.2 0.8 1.05 0.25 0.31 0.706 -1192
039 500 15 5.2 0.4 0.95 0.55 1.38 0.486 -995
039 800 15 5.2 0.5 1 0.5 1.00 0.607 -1131
039 971 15 5.2 0.6 1.05 0.45 0.75 0.728 -1221
Dimensional Tables
99
∅ 6 – 15 mm Material: 1.4310 (X 10 CrNi 18-8)
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.038 43 412 0.075 81 786 0.113 116 1125 0.150 148 1617
0.050 12 215 0.100 20 400 0.150 25 553 0.200 29 676
0.063 44 370 0.125 77 691 0.188 101 965 0.250 122 1299
0.038 47 290 0.075 91 612 0.113 133 966 0.150 173 1353
0.050 125 471 0.100 239 999 0.150 347 1584 0.200 451 2226
0.063 21 377 0.125 32 695 0.188 38 954 0.250 41 1154
0.050 36 337 0.100 64 636 0.150 88 897 0.200 110 1120
0.050 76 405 0.100 143 772 0.150 203 1124 0.200 261 1615
0.088 50 349 0.175 79 643 0.263 95 883 0.350 105 1068
0.075 73 321 0.150 129 611 0.225 174 1046 0.300 213 1566
0.050 77 336 0.100 147 710 0.150 213 1122 0.200 278 1573
0.063 59 289 0.125 108 546 0.188 149 845 0.250 188 1240
0.050 81 296 0.100 155 629 0.150 225 998 0.200 293 1403
0.075 30 350 0.150 47 647 0.225 56 890 0.300 61 1079
0.063 65 347 0.125 119 656 0.188 165 928 0.250 208 1198
0.050 90 300 0.100 172 608 0.150 249 968 0.200 324 1365
0.100 83 355 0.200 137 659 0.300 173 911 0.400 200 1174
0.075 90 265 0.150 166 589 0.225 232 971 0.300 293 1411
0.063 117 328 0.125 224 696 0.188 324 1105 0.250 421 1554
0.075 95 303 0.150 175 574 0.225 244 889 0.300 309 1298
0.063 124 300 0.125 237 640 0.188 342 1018 0.250 444 1437
0.088 130 438 0.175 232 825 0.263 317 1161 0.350 392 1447
0.063 135 314 0.125 258 624 0.188 373 996 0.250 484 1408
0.088 108 336 0.175 194 633 0.263 264 892 0.350 327 1332
0.113 81 467 0.225 126 860 0.338 147 1178 0.450 156 1423
0.088 117 387 0.175 209 730 0.263 285 1027 0.350 353 1282
0.063 187 336 0.125 362 708 0.188 529 1117 0.250 692 1563
0.113 66 386 0.225 103 710 0.338 120 973 0.450 127 1175
0.100 117 387 0.200 204 725 0.300 271 1016 0.400 329 1258
0.063 224 320 0.125 436 670 0.188 640 1049 0.250 841 1458
0.138 98 370 0.275 150 678 0.413 170 924 0.550 175 1109
0.125 129 353 0.250 214 655 0.375 270 906 0.500 312 1180
0.113 166 333 0.225 293 625 0.338 395 998 0.450 485 1499
100
∅ 15 – 20 mm Material: 1.4310 (X 10 CrNi 18-8)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

040 130 15 5.2 0.7 1.05 0.35 0.50 0.849 -1108
040 950 15 6.2 0.5 1 0.50 1.00 0.572 -1176
041 301 15 6.2 0.6 1 0.40 0.67 0.687 -1129
041 700 15 6.2 0.7 1.05 0.35 0.50 0.801 -1152
042 400 15 8.2 0.7 1 0.30 0.43 0.677 -1138
042 601 15 8.2 0.8 1.1 0.30 0.38 0.773 -1301
043 750 16 8.2 0.4 0.9 0.50 1.25 0.464 -911
044 000 16 8.2 0.6 1.05 0.45 0.75 0.695 -1230
044 101 16 8.2 0.7 1.05 0.35 0.50 0.811 -1116
044 201 16 8.2 0.8 1.1 0.30 0.38 0.926 -1093
044 400 16 8.2 0.9 1.2 0.30 0.33 1.042 -1230
045 800 18 6.2 0.4 1 0.60 1.50 0.702 -753
046 003 18 6.2 0.5 1.1 0.60 1.20 0.878 -941
046 252 18 6.2 0.6 1.2 0.60 1.00 1.053 -1129
046 400 18 6.2 0.7 1.25 0.55 0.79 1.228 -1208
046 505 18 6.2 0.8 1.3 0.50 0.63 1.403 -1255
046 924 18 8.2 0.5 1.1 0.60 1.20 0.789 -1015
047 070 18 8.2 0.7 1.2 0.50 0.71 1.104 -1184
047 300 18 8.2 0.8 1.25 0.45 0.56 1.262 -1218
047 691 18 8.2 1 1.35 0.35 0.35 1.576 -1184
047 910 18 9.2 0.45 1.05 0.60 1.33 0.662 -970
048 050 18 9.2 0.7 1.2 0.50 0.71 1.029 -1257
048 098 18 9.2 1 1.35 0.35 0.35 1.469 -1257
048 051 20 8.2 0.5 1.15 0.65 1.30 1.029 -858
051 100 20 8.2 0.6 1.3 0.70 1.17 1.226 -1108
052 270 20 8.2 0.7 1.35 0.65 0.93 1.430 -1201
051 450 20 8.2 0.8 1.35 0.55 0.69 1.634 -1161
051 701 20 8.2 0.9 1.45 0.55 0.61 1.838 -1306
051 761 20 8.2 1 1.45 0.45 0.45 2.042 -1188
052 803 20 10.2 0.5 1.15 0.65 1.30 0.910 -944
052 804 20 10.2 0.6 1.2 0.60 1.00 1.098 -1046
053 500 20 10.2 0.8 1.35 0.55 0.69 1.454 -1279
053 701 20 10.2 0.9 1.4 0.50 0.56 1.635 -1308
053 901 20 10.2 1 1.4 0.40 0.40 1.817 -1162
054 380 20 10.2 1.1 1.5 0.40 0.36 1.998 -1279
Dimensional Tables
101
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.088 174 315 0.175 327 680 0.263 466 1096 0.350 598 1564
0.125 134 391 0.250 223 726 0.375 281 1005 0.500 324 1228
0.100 145 313 0.200 261 589 0.300 359 876 0.400 448 1297
0.088 181 290 0.175 340 629 0.263 485 1018 0.350 622 1456
0.075 172 302 0.150 329 578 0.225 474 890 0.300 615 1262
0.075 251 332 0.150 483 667 0.225 704 1057 0.300 918 1485
0.125 81 368 0.250 127 678 0.375 150 930 0.500 161 1125
0.113 167 388 0.225 295 728 0.338 398 1023 0.450 488 1270
0.088 175 302 0.175 330 576 0.263 470 860 0.350 603 1235
0.075 211 275 0.150 406 583 0.225 591 923 0.300 771 1296
0.075 294 324 0.150 572 680 0.225 838 1069 0.300 1098 1490
0.150 82 294 0.300 122 538 0.450 135 730 0.600 133 871
0.150 126 323 0.300 200 595 0.450 238 817 0.600 259 987
0.150 186 352 0.300 308 653 0.450 389 903 0.600 448 1184
0.138 229 336 0.275 402 629 0.413 537 962 0.550 652 1457
0.125 278 317 0.250 508 687 0.375 705 1139 0.500 885 1663
0.150 136 384 0.300 215 709 0.450 257 974 0.600 280 1179
0.125 213 350 0.250 381 658 0.375 518 925 0.500 640 1241
0.113 259 328 0.225 481 623 0.338 676 964 0.450 859 1398
0.088 353 330 0.175 683 694 0.263 998 1093 0.350 1306 1526
0.150 117 406 0.300 180 746 0.450 207 1020 0.600 217 1230
0.125 227 388 0.250 405 730 0.375 550 1028 0.500 679 1279
0.088 374 326 0.175 725 687 0.263 1059 1083 0.350 1386 1513
0.163 125 327 0.325 193 601 0.488 224 822 0.650 236 991
0.175 208 398 0.350 332 735 0.525 400 1010 0.700 440 1224
0.163 254 384 0.325 429 715 0.488 552 993 0.650 649 1218
0.138 268 325 0.275 482 611 0.413 660 890 0.550 819 1324
0.138 363 349 0.275 665 659 0.413 926 1066 0.550 1166 1559
0.113 371 318 0.225 704 682 0.338 1013 1093 0.450 1309 1549
0.163 137 389 0.325 213 716 0.488 247 981 0.650 260 1184
0.150 172 375 0.300 285 698 0.450 360 968 0.600 415 1184
0.138 295 388 0.275 531 732 0.413 726 1031 0.550 902 1286
0.125 351 366 0.250 651 696 0.375 918 989 0.500 1168 1405
0.100 354 294 0.200 679 608 0.300 985 968 0.400 1281 1364
0.100 463 327 0.200 895 691 0.300 1305 1092 0.400 1705 1530
102
∅ 20 – 31.5 mm Material: 1.4310 (X 10 CrNi 18-8)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

055 280 20 10.2 1.25 1.55 0.30 0.24 2.269 -1090
055 650 20 10.2 1.5 1.75 0.25 0.17 2.721 -1090
057 710 22.5 11.2 0.6 1.4 0.80 1.33 1.406 -1086
057 903 22.5 11.2 0.8 1.45 0.65 0.81 1.873 -1177
058 050 22.5 11.2 1.25 1.65 0.40 0.32 2.924 -1132
058 950 23 8.2 0.7 1.5 0.80 1.14 1.987 -1082
059 210 23 8.2 0.8 1.55 0.75 0.94 2.271 -1159
059 400 23 8.2 0.9 1.6 0.70 0.78 2.554 -1217
059 504 23 8.2 1 1.6 0.60 0.60 2.838 -1159
060 460 23 10.2 0.9 1.65 0.75 0.83 2.352 -1384
060 600 23 10.2 1 1.6 0.60 0.60 2.613 -1230
060 901 23 10.2 1.25 1.7 0.45 0.36 3.264 -1153
001 922 23 12.2 1 1.6 0.60 0.60 2.337 -1353
061 600 23 12.2 1.25 1.65 0.40 0.32 2.919 -1127
061 951 23 12.2 1.5 1.85 0.35 0.23 3.501 -1184
063 872 25 10.2 1 1.7 0.70 0.70 3.205 -1181
064 400 25 12.2 0.7 1.6 0.90 1.29 2.052 -1142
064 900 25 12.2 0.9 1.6 0.70 0.78 2.637 -1142
065 104 25 12.2 1 1.65 0.65 0.65 2.929 -1178
065 129 25 12.2 1.25 1.75 0.50 0.40 3.660 -1133
065 400 25 12.2 1.5 1.95 0.45 0.30 4.389 -1224
071 600 28 10.2 0.8 1.75 0.95 1.19 3.351 -995
071 752 28 10.2 1 1.9 0.90 0.90 4.188 -1178
072 001 28 10.2 1.25 1.95 0.70 0.56 5.232 -1145
072 105 28 10.2 1.5 2.1 0.60 0.40 6.277 -1178
072 750 28 12.2 1 1.95 0.95 0.95 3.911 -1305
072 860 28 12.2 1.25 1.95 0.70 0.56 4.887 -1202
073 300 28 12.2 1.5 2.05 0.55 0.37 5.862 -1133
075 260 28 14.2 0.8 1.8 1.00 1.25 2.870 -1182
075 700 28 14.2 1 1.8 0.80 0.80 3.586 -1182
075 925 28 14.2 1.25 1.9 0.65 0.52 4.480 -1200
076 160 28 14.2 1.5 2.05 0.55 0.37 5.373 -1219
082 253 31.5 12.2 1 2.1 1.10 1.10 5.191 -1153
081 505 31.5 12.2 1.25 2.15 0.90 0.72 6.486 -1179
082 303 31.5 12.2 1.5 2.25 0.75 0.50 7.781 -1179
Dimensional Tables
103
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.075 487 316 0.150 959 653 0.225 1420 1011 0.300 1877 1389
0.063 688 338 0.125 1365 691 0.188 2036 1058 0.250 2703 1440
0.200 233 450 0.400 359 827 0.600 413 1132 0.800 431 1364
0.163 297 380 0.325 518 712 0.488 687 995 0.650 830 1231
0.100 520 308 0.200 1012 645 0.300 1485 1010 0.400 1949 1405
0.200 271 366 0.400 435 676 0.600 528 929 0.800 584 1126
0.188 322 354 0.375 544 659 0.563 698 914 0.750 818 1238
0.175 380 341 0.350 667 639 0.525 892 952 0.700 1087 1442
0.150 395 292 0.300 725 635 0.450 1012 1047 0.600 1278 1523
0.188 450 433 0.375 779 809 0.563 1027 1130 0.750 1235 1395
0.150 419 336 0.300 769 636 0.450 1074 961 0.600 1356 1405
0.113 539 324 0.225 1041 682 0.338 1520 1075 0.450 1986 1502
0.150 461 396 0.300 846 750 0.450 1181 1063 0.600 1491 1382
0.100 518 295 0.200 1008 618 0.300 1480 969 0.400 1942 1349
0.088 760 338 0.175 1498 697 0.263 2221 1078 0.350 2936 1480
0.175 430 332 0.350 770 625 0.525 1051 899 0.700 1301 1341
0.225 322 460 0.450 500 847 0.675 582 1161 0.900 617 1401
0.175 356 359 0.350 626 674 0.525 837 944 0.700 1020 1170
0.163 415 344 0.325 752 650 0.488 1039 917 0.650 1299 1230
0.125 539 286 0.250 1034 609 0.375 1500 969 0.500 1952 1365
0.113 706 344 0.225 1385 717 0.338 2046 1120 0.450 2698 1553
0.238 338 346 0.475 536 638 0.713 642 876 0.950 702 1060
0.225 497 356 0.450 846 662 0.675 1097 921 0.900 1298 1271
0.175 715 292 0.350 1300 643 0.525 1799 1051 0.700 2254 1517
0.150 807 360 0.300 1548 763 0.450 2246 1208 0.600 2922 1696
0.238 573 431 0.475 963 802 0.713 1231 1114 0.950 1439 1365
0.175 624 318 0.350 1157 603 0.525 1629 981 0.700 2071 1421
0.138 765 319 0.275 1477 674 0.413 2153 1063 0.550 2811 1487
0.250 422 475 0.500 661 876 0.750 778 1203 1.000 834 1454
0.200 463 382 0.400 808 715 0.600 1075 1001 0.800 1303 1240
0.163 609 328 0.325 1139 625 0.488 1616 917 0.650 2068 1322
0.138 1003 312 0.275 1912 659 0.413 2758 1042 0.550 3573 1461
0.275 570 393 0.550 923 727 0.825 1133 1002 1.100 1270 1218
0.225 680 329 0.450 1212 618 0.675 1646 914 0.900 2030 1368
0.188 851 310 0.375 1599 672 0.563 2278 1085 0.750 2924 1551
104
∅ 31.5 – 50 mm Material: 1.4310 (X 10 CrNi 18-8)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

082 801 31.5 16.3 0.8 1.85 1.05 1.31 3.577 -993
083 370 31.5 16.3 1.25 2 0.75 0.60 5.584 -1108
083 800 31.5 16.3 1.5 2.15 0.65 0.43 6.698 -1153
084 493 31.5 16.3 1.75 2.3 0.55 0.31 7.811 -1138
084 800 31.5 16.3 2 2.5 0.50 0.25 8.923 -1182
087 900 34 12.3 1 2.25 1.25 1.25 6.187 -1108
088 046 34 12.3 1.25 2.35 1.10 0.88 7.732 -1219
088 300 34 12.3 1.5 2.4 0.90 0.60 9.275 -1197
089 321 34 14.3 1.25 2.3 1.05 0.84 7.321 -1208
089 400 34 14.3 1.5 2.35 0.85 0.57 8.783 -1174
090 500 34 16.3 1.5 2.3 0.80 0.53 8.216 -1165
091 100 34 16.3 2 2.6 0.60 0.30 10.946 -1165
004 543 35.5 18.3 0.9 2.05 1.15 1.28 5.132 -961
094 000 35.5 18.3 1.25 2.25 1.00 0.72 7.124 -1161
093 683 35.5 18.3 2 2.65 0.65 0.33 11.385 -1207
099 423 40 14.3 1.25 2.65 1.40 1.12 10.752 -1118
099 461 40 14.3 1.5 2.75 1.25 0.83 12.899 -1198
099 833 40 14.3 2 2.9 0.90 0.45 17.189 -1150
100 503 40 16.3 1.5 2.7 1.20 0.80 12.332 -1185
100 801 40 16.3 2 2.9 0.90 0.45 16.433 -1185
101 755 40 18.3 2 2.85 0.85 0.43 15.584 -1167
102 531 40 20.4 1 2.3 1.30 1.30 7.300 -944
103 000 40 20.4 1.5 2.6 1.10 0.73 10.942 -1199
103 500 40 20.4 2 2.8 0.80 0.40 14.580 -1162
103 953 40 20.4 2.25 2.95 0.70 0.31 16.397 -1144
104 465 40 20.4 2.5 3.15 0.65 0.26 18.212 -1180
110 412 45 22.4 1.25 2.9 1.65 1.32 11.746 -1167
110 501 45 22.4 1.75 2.95 1.20 0.69 16.434 -1188
110 901 45 22.4 2.5 3.35 0.85 0.34 23.457 -1202
115 970 50 18.4 1.25 2.85 1.60 1.28 16.679 -822
116 300 50 18.4 1.5 3.3 1.80 1.20 20.011 -1110
116 653 50 18.4 2 3.45 1.45 0.73 26.669 -1193
116 901 50 18.4 2.5 3.65 1.15 0.46 33.323 -1182
117 400 50 20.4 2 3.4 1.40 0.70 25.710 -1181
117 703 50 20.4 2.5 3.6 1.10 0.44 32.123 -1160
Dimensional Tables
105
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.263 373 413 0.525 577 761 0.788 667 1042 1.050 701 1257
0.188 590 321 0.375 1083 608 0.563 1512 862 0.750 1909 1149
0.163 803 300 0.325 1530 580 0.488 2207 928 0.650 2859 1317
0.138 1023 304 0.275 1992 636 0.413 2925 997 0.550 3841 1385
0.125 1357 337 0.250 2667 697 0.375 3948 1080 0.500 5213 1487
0.313 619 396 0.625 969 728 0.938 1140 997 1.250 1221 1203
0.275 792 363 0.550 1355 677 0.825 1765 942 1.100 2099 1339
0.225 917 303 0.450 1684 649 0.675 2351 1071 0.900 2968 1557
0.263 761 372 0.525 1316 695 0.788 1733 970 1.050 2081 1230
0.213 881 307 0.425 1631 593 0.638 2293 975 0.850 2911 1413
0.200 858 314 0.400 1599 598 0.600 2264 913 0.800 2891 1318
0.150 1361 331 0.300 2656 691 0.450 3908 1078 0.600 5139 1495
0.288 444 394 0.575 692 725 0.863 808 994 1.150 858 1201
0.250 603 377 0.500 1074 707 0.750 1459 990 1.000 1799 1225
0.163 1423 320 0.325 2767 670 0.488 4058 1052 0.650 5322 1464
0.350 878 375 0.700 1416 692 1.050 1728 953 1.400 1926 1156
0.313 1082 347 0.625 1873 648 0.938 2471 903 1.250 2972 1368
0.225 1437 338 0.450 2729 723 0.675 3925 1155 0.900 5073 1634
0.300 1044 353 0.600 1823 661 0.900 2426 924 1.200 2940 1265
0.225 1480 319 0.450 2812 684 0.675 4044 1095 0.900 5227 1552
0.213 1439 299 0.425 2747 639 0.638 3968 1020 0.850 5146 1442
0.325 549 389 0.650 850 716 0.975 987 981 1.300 1041 1184
0.275 1006 374 0.550 1786 703 0.825 2417 987 1.100 2973 1228
0.200 1416 294 0.400 2716 608 0.600 3940 968 0.800 5125 1364
0.175 1698 309 0.350 3308 647 0.525 4861 1013 0.700 6385 1407
0.163 2123 336 0.325 4170 696 0.488 6164 1081 0.650 8133 1490
0.413 1011 481 0.825 1573 884 1.238 1836 1210 1.650 1949 1458
0.300 1312 357 0.600 2359 673 0.900 3229 948 1.200 4011 1197
0.213 2228 320 0.425 4321 673 0.638 6324 1059 0.850 8283 1477
0.400 735 299 0.800 1144 550 1.200 1334 753 1.600 1417 907
0.450 1339 390 0.900 2121 719 1.350 2530 986 1.800 2754 1192
0.363 1768 328 0.725 3148 616 1.088 4268 954 1.450 5259 1428
0.288 2319 337 0.575 4396 723 0.863 6311 1157 1.150 8146 1641
0.350 1720 332 0.700 3081 625 1.050 4203 899 1.400 5206 1341
0.275 2251 315 0.550 4284 674 0.825 6173 1078 1.100 7989 1525
106
∅ 50 – 90 mm Material: 1.4310 (X 10 CrNi 18-8)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

118 401 50 22.4 2 3.3 1.30 0.65 24.652 -1132
000 227 50 22.4 2.5 3.6 1.10 0.44 30.800 -1198
119 950 50 25.4 1.25 2.85 1.60 1.28 14.311 -928
120 103 50 25.4 1.5 3.1 1.60 1.07 17.168 -1113
120 400 50 25.4 2 3.3 1.30 0.65 22.878 -1206
120 801 50 25.4 2.5 3.5 1.00 0.40 28.582 -1160
128 599 56 28.5 1.5 3.45 1.95 1.30 21.495 -1083
128 600 56 28.5 2 3.6 1.60 0.80 28.646 -1185
131 001 60 20.5 2 4.1 2.10 1.05 39.235 -1185
003 158 60 20.5 2.5 4.05 1.55 0.62 49.027 -1093
131 801 60 25.5 2.5 4.1 1.60 0.64 45.471 -1186
113 193 60 30.5 2.5 4 1.50 0.60 41.157 -1208
138 221 63 31 1.8 4.1 2.30 1.28 33.419 -1187
138 503 63 31 2.5 4.15 1.65 0.66 46.389 -1183
144 401 70 25.5 2 4.5 2.50 1.25 52.479 -1047
146 250 70 30.5 2.5 4.7 2.20 0.88 61.266 -1209
153 014 71 36 2 4.6 2.60 1.30 46.249 -1195
153 110 71 36 2.5 4.5 2.00 0.80 57.789 -1149
159 600 80 31 2.5 5.3 2.80 1.12 84.001 -1137
161 220 80 41 2.25 5.2 2.95 1.31 65.586 -1209
169 200 90 46 2.5 5.7 3.20 1.28 92.370 -1150
Dimensional Tables
107
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.325 1594 320 0.650 2892 604 0.975 3992 852 1.300 4993 1248
0.275 2325 306 0.550 4425 656 0.825 6376 1049 1.100 8251 1487
0.400 829 378 0.800 1290 697 1.200 1505 955 1.600 1598 1153
0.400 1206 412 0.800 1969 764 1.200 2439 1056 1.600 2761 1288
0.325 1698 358 0.650 3080 675 0.975 4251 954 1.300 5317 1227
0.250 2207 293 0.500 4234 608 0.750 6141 968 1.000 7988 1364
0.488 1416 446 0.975 2194 820 1.463 2546 1124 1.950 2685 1356
0.400 1854 383 0.800 3238 718 1.200 4309 1005 1.600 5223 1244
0.525 2251 378 1.050 3691 699 1.575 4592 965 2.100 5223 1206
0.388 2357 274 0.775 4308 605 1.163 5986 1001 1.550 7530 1460
0.400 2593 327 0.800 4715 617 1.200 6523 923 1.600 8174 1360
0.375 2573 348 0.750 4724 659 1.125 6595 933 1.500 8325 1267
0.575 2196 478 1.150 3418 880 1.725 3992 1207 2.300 4241 1457
0.413 2620 349 0.825 4741 658 1.238 6529 928 1.650 8150 1220
0.625 2338 375 1.250 3661 690 1.875 4308 945 2.500 4617 1139
0.550 3141 385 1.100 5374 719 1.650 7003 1001 2.200 8330 1232
0.650 2778 491 1.300 4303 904 1.950 4994 1238 2.600 5268 1494
0.500 2810 371 1.000 4907 695 1.500 6529 973 2.000 7914 1205
0.700 3571 392 1.400 5760 724 2.100 7028 997 2.800 7835 1210
0.738 3590 501 1.475 5549 922 2.213 6420 1263 2.950 6748 1524
0.800 4109 470 1.600 6393 865 2.400 7460 1186 3.200 7920 1433
108
9.4 Dimension Tables for Heat Resistant SCHNORR Disc Springs
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

024 670 6 3.2 0.3 0.4 0.10 0.33 0.046 -1098
025 600 8 3.2 0.3 0.55 0.25 0.83 0.096 -1351
025 800 8 3.2 0.4 0.55 0.15 0.38 0.128 -1081
027 000 8 4.2 0.3 0.5 0.20 0.67 0.083 -1221
027 300 8 4.2 0.4 0.55 0.15 0.38 0.110 -1221
028 900 10 3.2 0.3 0.65 0.35 1.17 0.161 -1164
029 100 10 3.2 0.4 0.7 0.30 0.75 0.214 -1330
029 300 10 3.2 0.5 0.7 0.20 0.40 0.268 -1108
029 600 10 4.2 0.4 0.65 0.25 0.63 0.196 -1170
029 700 10 4.2 0.5 0.7 0.20 0.40 0.245 -1170
030 700 10 5.2 0.4 0.65 0.25 0.63 0.174 -1295
030 900 10 5.2 0.5 0.7 0.20 0.40 0.217 -1295
032 200 12 4.2 0.4 0.8 0.40 1.00 0.301 -1245
032 400 12 4.2 0.5 0.8 0.30 0.60 0.376 -1168
032 702 12 4.2 0.6 0.85 0.25 0.42 0.452 -1168
033 300 12 5.2 0.5 0.8 0.30 0.60 0.348 -1232
033 450 12 5.2 0.6 0.85 0.25 0.42 0.418 -1232
034 100 12 6.2 0.5 0.8 0.30 0.60 0.315 -1343
034 500 12 6.2 0.6 0.85 0.25 0.42 0.378 -1343
035 041 12.5 5.2 0.5 0.85 0.35 0.70 0.385 -1306
035 300 12.5 6.2 0.5 0.8 0.30 0.60 0.351 -1207
035 600 12.5 6.2 0.7 0.95 0.25 0.36 0.492 -1409
038 500 14 7.2 0.5 0.9 0.40 0.80 0.431 -1312
039 000 14 7.2 0.8 1.05 0.25 0.31 0.688 -1312
039 475 15 5.2 0.4 0.95 0.55 1.38 0.473 -1094
039 700 15 5.2 0.5 1 0.50 1.00 0.592 -1244
039 970 15 5.2 0.6 1.05 0.45 0.75 0.710 -1343
040 100 15 5.2 0.7 1.05 0.35 0.50 0.828 -1219
040 949 15 6.2 0.5 1 0.50 1.00 0.558 -1293
041 300 15 6.2 0.6 1 0.40 0.67 0.669 -1242
041 600 15 6.2 0.7 1.05 0.35 0.50 0.781 -1268
042 300 15 8.2 0.7 1 0.30 0.43 0.660 -1252
042 600 15 8.2 0.8 1.05 0.25 0.31 0.754 -1193
043 749 16 8.2 0.4 0.95 0.55 1.38 0.452 -1102
043 900 16 8.2 0.6 1.05 0.45 0.75 0.678 -1353
Dimensional Tables
109
s ∅ 6 – 16 mm Material: 1.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1)
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.025 28 282 0.050 54 593 0.080 84 932 0.100 103 1300
0.063 46 407 0.125 80 761 0.190 107 1061 0.250 127 1429
0.038 49 319 0.075 95 673 0.110 136 1063 0.150 181 1488
0.050 37 370 0.100 67 699 0.150 92 987 0.200 115 1233
0.038 56 307 0.075 108 642 0.110 154 1017 0.150 205 1428
0.088 52 384 0.175 83 707 0.260 99 971 0.350 110 1175
0.075 76 353 0.150 135 672 0.230 185 1150 0.300 223 1723
0.050 80 369 0.100 154 781 0.150 223 1235 0.200 290 1730
0.063 62 318 0.125 112 601 0.190 158 929 0.250 196 1364
0.050 85 326 0.100 162 692 0.150 235 1097 0.200 306 1543
0.063 68 382 0.125 124 722 0.190 174 1021 0.250 217 1318
0.050 94 330 0.100 180 669 0.150 261 1065 0.200 339 1501
0.100 86 390 0.200 143 724 0.300 181 1002 0.400 209 1291
0.075 94 292 0.150 173 648 0.230 246 1068 0.300 306 1552
0.063 123 360 0.125 234 765 0.190 343 1215 0.250 440 1709
0.075 100 333 0.150 183 631 0.230 260 978 0.300 322 1428
0.063 129 330 0.125 247 704 0.190 362 1120 0.250 464 1580
0.075 109 389 0.150 200 737 0.230 283 1044 0.300 352 1394
0.063 141 345 0.125 270 686 0.190 395 1096 0.250 506 1549
0.088 113 370 0.175 202 696 0.260 274 981 0.350 342 1465
0.075 98 344 0.150 179 652 0.230 255 923 0.300 316 1286
0.063 196 369 0.125 379 779 0.190 560 1229 0.250 723 1719
0.100 122 426 0.200 213 798 0.300 283 1117 0.400 343 1383
0.063 234 352 0.125 456 737 0.190 678 1154 0.250 879 1604
0.138 103 407 0.275 157 746 0.410 178 1017 0.550 183 1219
0.125 135 389 0.250 224 721 0.380 284 997 0.500 326 1298
0.113 173 367 0.225 307 688 0.340 415 1098 0.450 506 1649
0.088 182 346 0.175 342 748 0.260 483 1206 0.350 625 1720
0.125 140 430 0.250 233 798 0.380 296 1105 0.500 339 1351
0.100 151 344 0.200 273 648 0.300 375 963 0.400 468 1426
0.088 189 319 0.175 356 692 0.260 503 1119 0.350 650 1601
0.075 180 332 0.150 343 636 0.230 506 979 0.300 643 1388
0.063 213 309 0.125 414 646 0.190 616 1012 0.250 799 1407
0.138 103 469 0.275 158 862 0.410 179 1178 0.550 185 1417
0.113 175 426 0.225 309 801 0.340 418 1125 0.450 510 1397
110
∅ 16 – 23 mm Material: 1.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

044 102 16 8.2 0.7 1.05 0.35 0.50 0.790 -1227
044 202 16 8.2 0.8 1.1 0.30 0.38 0.903 -1202
044 300 16 8.2 0.9 1.2 0.30 0.33 1.015 -1353
045 700 18 6.2 0.4 1 0.60 1.50 0.685 -828
046 000 18 6.2 0.5 1.1 0.60 1.20 0.856 -1035
046 250 18 6.2 0.6 1.2 0.60 1.00 1.026 -1242
046 300 18 6.2 0.7 1.25 0.55 0.79 1.197 -1329
046 500 18 6.2 0.8 1.25 0.45 0.56 1.368 -1242
046 925 18 8.2 0.5 1.1 0.60 1.20 0.769 -1117
047 100 18 8.2 0.7 1.2 0.50 0.71 1.076 -1303
047 400 18 8.2 0.8 1.25 0.45 0.56 1.230 -1340
047 690 18 8.2 1 1.35 0.35 0.35 1.536 -1303
048 000 18 9.2 0.7 1.15 0.45 0.64 1.003 -1245
048 100 18 9.2 1 1.3 0.30 0.30 1.432 -1185
050 980 20 8.2 0.6 1.3 0.70 1.17 1.195 -1219
051 250 20 8.2 0.7 1.35 0.65 0.93 1.394 -1321
051 400 20 8.2 0.8 1.35 0.55 0.69 1.593 -1277
051 700 20 8.2 0.9 1.4 0.50 0.56 1.791 -1306
051 760 20 8.2 1 1.45 0.45 0.45 1.990 -1306
052 741 20 10.2 0.5 1.1 0.60 1.20 0.887 -959
053 400 20 10.2 0.8 1.3 0.50 0.63 1.417 -1279
053 700 20 10.2 0.9 1.35 0.45 0.50 1.594 -1295
053 900 20 10.2 1 1.4 0.40 0.40 1.771 -1279
054 375 20 10.2 1.1 1.45 0.35 0.32 1.947 -1231
055 300 20 10.2 1.25 1.55 0.30 0.24 2.212 -1199
055 640 20 10.2 1.5 1.75 0.25 0.17 2.652 -1199
057 709 22.5 11.2 0.6 1.4 0.80 1.33 1.370 -1195
057 900 22.5 11.2 0.8 1.45 0.65 0.81 1.826 -1294
058 000 22.5 11.2 1.25 1.65 0.40 0.32 2.850 -1245
059 100 23 8.2 0.7 1.5 0.80 1.14 1.937 -1190
059 200 23 8.2 0.8 1.55 0.75 0.94 2.213 -1275
059 360 23 8.2 0.9 1.6 0.70 0.78 2.490 -1339
059 503 23 8.2 1 1.6 0.60 0.60 2.766 -1275
060 430 23 10.2 0.9 1.55 0.65 0.72 2.292 -1319
060 500 23 10.2 1 1.6 0.60 0.60 2.547 -1353
Dimensional Tables
111
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.088 183 333 0.175 344 634 0.260 487 946 0.350 630 1358
0.075 220 303 0.150 424 641 0.230 630 1016 0.300 806 1426
0.075 308 356 0.150 598 748 0.230 894 1176 0.300 1147 1639
0.150 86 324 0.300 128 591 0.450 141 803 0.600 139 958
0.150 132 356 0.300 209 655 0.450 249 898 0.600 271 1086
0.150 194 387 0.300 322 719 0.450 406 994 0.600 468 1303
0.138 240 369 0.275 420 691 0.410 558 1058 0.550 682 1603
0.113 251 329 0.225 466 723 0.340 659 1181 0.450 833 1703
0.150 142 423 0.300 225 780 0.450 269 1071 0.600 292 1297
0.125 223 385 0.250 398 724 0.380 547 1018 0.500 668 1365
0.113 271 361 0.225 502 685 0.340 711 1060 0.450 898 1538
0.088 368 363 0.175 713 764 0.260 1034 1202 0.350 1364 1679
0.113 203 368 0.225 369 696 0.340 513 984 0.450 639 1267
0.075 329 324 0.150 642 676 0.230 964 1056 0.300 1241 1464
0.175 218 438 0.350 347 808 0.530 420 1111 0.700 460 1347
0.163 265 422 0.325 448 786 0.490 579 1092 0.650 678 1339
0.138 280 357 0.275 504 673 0.410 686 979 0.550 856 1457
0.125 333 337 0.250 618 679 0.380 881 1113 0.500 1108 1609
0.113 387 350 0.225 736 751 0.340 1065 1202 0.450 1368 1704
0.150 122 378 0.300 193 698 0.450 231 960 0.600 251 1163
0.125 269 374 0.250 491 708 0.380 689 1001 0.500 857 1318
0.113 320 350 0.225 601 667 0.340 861 1001 0.450 1098 1437
0.100 370 323 0.200 710 669 0.300 1029 1064 0.400 1339 1500
0.088 416 330 0.175 809 692 0.260 1177 1084 0.350 1559 1508
0.075 509 348 0.150 1002 718 0.230 1516 1112 0.300 1961 1528
0.063 719 372 0.125 1427 760 0.190 2155 1164 0.250 2824 1584
0.200 244 495 0.400 375 910 0.600 432 1245 0.800 450 1500
0.163 311 418 0.325 541 783 0.490 720 1095 0.650 868 1354
0.100 543 339 0.200 1057 709 0.300 1552 1111 0.400 2037 1545
0.200 284 403 0.400 455 743 0.600 552 1022 0.800 611 1239
0.188 337 390 0.375 568 725 0.560 727 1005 0.750 855 1362
0.175 397 375 0.350 697 703 0.530 938 1047 0.700 1136 1586
0.150 413 321 0.300 758 699 0.450 1058 1152 0.600 1335 1675
0.163 375 387 0.325 669 729 0.490 911 1024 0.650 1119 1399
0.150 438 369 0.300 804 699 0.450 1122 1057 0.600 1417 1546
112
∅ 23 – 34 mm Material: 1.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

060 900 23 10.2 1.25 1.7 0.45 0.36 3.181 -1268
061 570 23 12.2 1 1.5 0.50 0.50 2.277 -1240
061 800 23 12.2 1.25 1.65 0.40 0.32 2.845 -1240
061 950 23 12.2 1.5 1.85 0.35 0.23 3.412 -1302
063 871 25 10.2 1 1.7 0.70 0.70 3.124 -1299
064 399 25 12.2 0.7 1.6 0.90 1.29 2.000 -1256
064 800 25 12.2 0.9 1.6 0.70 0.78 2.570 -1256
065 100 25 12.2 1 1.65 0.65 0.65 2.855 -1296
065 134 25 12.2 1.25 1.75 0.50 0.40 3.567 -1246
065 300 25 12.2 1.5 1.95 0.45 0.30 4.278 -1346
071 500 28 10.2 0.8 1.75 0.95 1.19 3.266 -1094
071 750 28 10.2 1 1.9 0.90 0.90 4.081 -1296
072 000 28 10.2 1.25 1.95 0.70 0.56 5.100 -1260
072 102 28 10.2 1.5 2.1 0.60 0.40 6.118 -1296
072 700 28 12.2 1 1.85 0.85 0.85 3.812 -1285
072 850 28 12.2 1.25 1.95 0.70 0.56 4.763 -1322
073 200 28 12.2 1.5 2.05 0.55 0.37 5.714 -1247
075 250 28 14.2 0.8 1.8 1.00 1.25 2.797 -1300
075 600 28 14.2 1 1.8 0.80 0.80 3.495 -1300
075 920 28 14.2 1.25 1.9 0.65 0.52 4.367 -1320
076 100 28 14.2 1.5 2.05 0.55 0.37 5.237 -1341
082 252 31.5 12.2 1 2.1 1.10 1.10 5.059 -1268
081 502 31.5 12.2 1.25 2.15 0.90 0.72 6.322 -1297
081 516 31.5 12.2 1.5 2.25 0.75 0.50 7.584 -1297
082 800 31.5 16.3 0.8 1.85 1.05 1.31 3.486 -1092
083 400 31.5 16.3 1.25 2.05 0.80 0.64 5.443 -1300
083 700 31.5 16.3 1.5 2.15 0.65 0.43 6.529 -1268
084 200 31.5 16.3 1.75 2.3 0.55 0.31 7.614 -1252
084 850 31.5 16.3 2 2.5 0.50 0.25 8.697 -1300
087 800 34 12.3 1 2.25 1.25 1.25 6.031 -1219
088 045 34 12.3 1.25 2.35 1.10 0.88 7.536 -1341
088 200 34 12.3 1.5 2.4 0.90 0.60 9.040 -1316
089 320 34 14.3 1.25 2.3 1.05 0.84 7.136 -1329
089 370 34 14.3 1.5 2.35 0.85 0.57 8.560 -1291
090 400 34 16.3 1.5 2.3 0.80 0.53 8.008 -1282
Dimensional Tables
113
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.113 563 356 0.225 1088 750 0.340 1599 1182 0.450 2075 1652
0.125 378 341 0.250 710 650 0.380 1024 935 0.500 1299 1344
0.100 541 324 0.200 1054 680 0.300 1546 1066 0.400 2029 1484
0.088 794 371 0.175 1565 767 0.260 2299 1186 0.350 3068 1628
0.175 449 365 0.350 805 687 0.530 1106 988 0.700 1360 1475
0.225 336 506 0.450 522 932 0.680 610 1277 0.900 645 1541
0.175 372 395 0.350 654 741 0.530 881 1038 0.700 1066 1287
0.163 433 378 0.325 786 715 0.490 1090 1009 0.650 1358 1353
0.125 563 315 0.250 1081 670 0.380 1587 1066 0.500 2040 1501
0.113 840 378 0.225 1639 789 0.340 2429 1232 0.450 3172 1708
0.238 353 381 0.475 561 702 0.710 670 963 0.950 733 1165
0.225 520 391 0.450 885 729 0.680 1152 1013 0.900 1357 1398
0.175 621 322 0.350 1152 707 0.530 1635 1156 0.700 2061 1668
0.150 843 396 0.300 1618 839 0.450 2347 1329 0.600 3053 1865
0.213 496 403 0.425 855 752 0.640 1126 1050 0.850 1345 1294
0.175 652 350 0.350 1209 664 0.530 1716 1079 0.700 2164 1563
0.138 799 351 0.275 1543 741 0.410 2237 1169 0.550 2938 1636
0.250 441 523 0.500 691 964 0.750 813 1323 1.000 871 1600
0.200 483 420 0.400 844 787 0.600 1123 1102 0.800 1362 1364
0.163 636 361 0.325 1190 687 0.490 1696 1009 0.650 2161 1454
0.138 859 343 0.275 1659 725 0.410 2406 1147 0.550 3159 1607
0.275 595 432 0.550 965 800 0.830 1187 1102 1.100 1328 1339
0.225 711 362 0.450 1267 680 0.680 1729 1006 0.900 2122 1505
0.188 889 341 0.375 1671 739 0.560 2372 1194 0.750 3055 1706
0.263 390 455 0.525 603 837 0.790 697 1146 1.050 732 1382
0.200 675 386 0.400 1227 730 0.600 1698 1031 0.800 2128 1316
0.163 839 330 0.325 1599 637 0.490 2317 1021 0.650 2988 1448
0.138 1069 334 0.275 2081 700 0.410 3040 1096 0.550 4014 1524
0.125 1418 370 0.250 2788 767 0.380 4178 1188 0.500 5447 1636
0.313 646 435 0.625 1012 801 0.940 1192 1097 1.250 1276 1323
0.275 827 399 0.550 1416 745 0.830 1851 1036 1.100 2194 1473
0.225 959 333 0.450 1760 714 0.680 2472 1178 0.900 3102 1713
0.263 795 409 0.525 1375 764 0.790 1814 1067 1.050 2174 1353
0.213 921 338 0.425 1704 653 0.640 2404 1072 0.850 3042 1555
0.200 896 346 0.400 1671 657 0.600 2366 1004 0.800 3021 1450
114
∅ 34 – 56 mm Material: 1.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

091 000 34 16.3 2 2.6 0.60 0.30 10.669 -1282
093 705 35.5 18.3 0.9 2.05 1.15 1.28 5.002 -1057
094 100 35.5 18.3 1.25 2.25 1.00 0.80 6.944 -1277
094 400 35.5 18.3 2 2.65 0.65 0.33 11.097 -1328
099 440 40 14.3 1.25 2.65 1.40 1.12 10.480 -1230
099 460 40 14.3 1.5 2.75 1.25 0.83 12.572 -1318
099 829 40 14.3 2 2.9 0.90 0.45 16.754 -1265
100 500 40 16.3 1.5 2.7 1.20 0.80 12.019 -1304
100 800 40 16.3 2 2.9 0.90 0.45 16.017 -1304
101 750 40 18.3 2 2.85 0.85 0.43 15.190 -1284
102 530 40 20.4 1 2.3 1.30 1.30 7.115 -1039
102 900 40 20.4 1.5 2.6 1.10 0.73 10.665 -1319
103 227 40 20.4 2 2.8 0.80 0.40 14.211 -1279
104 200 40 20.4 2.25 2.95 0.70 0.31 15.981 -1259
104 700 40 20.4 2.5 3.15 0.65 0.26 17.751 -1299
110 411 45 22.4 1.25 2.85 1.60 1.28 11.448 -1245
110 500 45 22.4 1.75 2.95 1.20 0.69 16.018 -1307
110 900 45 22.4 2.5 3.35 0.85 0.34 22.863 -1322
115 977 50 18.4 1.25 2.85 1.60 1.28 16.257 -905
116 200 50 18.4 1.5 3.3 1.80 1.20 19.504 -1221
116 650 50 18.4 2 3.45 1.45 0.73 25.994 -1312
116 902 50 18.4 2.5 3.65 1.15 0.46 32.479 -1301
117 200 50 18.4 3 3.95 0.95 0.32 38.958 -1289
117 395 50 20.4 2 3.4 1.40 0.70 25.059 -1299
117 600 50 20.4 2.5 3.6 1.10 0.44 31.310 -1276
118 400 50 22.4 2 3.3 1.30 0.65 24.028 -1246
118 500 50 22.4 2.5 3.6 1.10 0.44 30.020 -1317
119 860 50 25.4 1.25 2.85 1.60 1.28 13.948 -1020
120 102 50 25.4 1.5 3.1 1.60 1.07 16.733 -1224
120 300 50 25.4 2 3.3 1.30 0.65 22.299 -1326
120 800 50 25.4 2.5 3.5 1.00 0.40 27.859 -1275
121 000 50 25.4 3 3.85 0.85 0.28 33.412 -1301
128 420 56 28.5 1.5 3.45 1.95 1.30 20.951 -1191
128 500 56 28.5 2 3.6 1.60 0.80 27.921 -1303
129 050 56 28.5 3 4.05 1.05 0.35 41.840 -1283
Dimensional Tables
115
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.150 1422 364 0.300 2776 760 0.450 4084 1186 0.600 5370 1644
0.288 464 433 0.575 723 797 0.860 843 1093 1.150 897 1321
0.250 742 415 0.500 1295 778 0.750 1723 1089 1.000 2089 1348
0.163 1487 352 0.325 2891 737 0.490 4261 1157 0.650 5562 1611
0.350 918 412 0.700 1480 761 1.050 1806 1048 1.400 2013 1271
0.313 1130 381 0.625 1957 712 0.940 2587 993 1.250 3106 1505
0.225 1501 372 0.450 2852 795 0.680 4128 1270 0.900 5301 1797
0.300 1091 388 0.600 1905 727 0.900 2535 1016 1.200 3073 1392
0.225 1547 351 0.450 2939 752 0.680 4254 1204 0.900 5462 1707
0.213 1504 329 0.425 2871 703 0.640 4161 1122 0.850 5377 1586
0.325 574 428 0.650 889 788 0.980 1033 1079 1.300 1088 1302
0.275 1051 411 0.550 1867 773 0.830 2537 1086 1.100 3107 1351
0.200 1479 323 0.400 2838 669 0.600 4117 1064 0.800 5356 1500
0.175 1774 340 0.350 3457 712 0.530 5126 1114 0.700 6672 1548
0.163 2219 370 0.325 4357 766 0.490 6473 1189 0.650 8499 1639
0.400 1057 504 0.800 1644 928 1.200 1918 1272 1.600 2037 1536
0.300 1371 393 0.600 2465 740 0.900 3374 1043 1.200 4191 1317
0.213 2328 352 0.425 4515 741 0.640 6633 1165 0.850 8656 1625
0.400 768 329 0.800 1195 606 1.200 1395 828 1.600 1480 998
0.450 1399 429 0.900 2216 791 1.350 2644 1085 1.800 2878 1311
0.363 1848 360 0.725 3289 677 1.090 4467 1050 1.450 5495 1571
0.288 2424 371 0.575 4594 795 0.860 6578 1273 1.150 8512 1805
0.238 3238 425 0.475 6304 888 0.710 9225 1386 0.950 12151 1922
0.350 1797 365 0.700 3220 687 1.050 4392 988 1.400 5440 1475
0.275 2352 347 0.550 4477 742 0.830 6485 1185 1.100 8348 1677
0.325 1666 352 0.650 3022 664 0.980 4188 938 1.300 5217 1372
0.275 2429 337 0.550 4624 721 0.830 6699 1154 1.100 8622 1636
0.400 866 416 0.800 1348 766 1.200 1573 1051 1.600 1670 1269
0.400 1260 453 0.800 2058 840 1.200 2548 1162 1.600 2885 1417
0.325 1774 393 0.650 3218 743 0.980 4460 1049 1.300 5556 1349
0.250 2306 322 0.500 4424 669 0.750 6418 1064 1.000 8348 1500
0.213 3227 363 0.425 6315 755 0.640 9346 1176 0.850 12261 1626
0.488 1480 490 0.975 2292 902 1.460 2659 1236 1.950 2806 1492
0.400 1938 421 0.800 3384 790 1.200 4503 1105 1.600 5458 1369
0.263 3265 333 0.525 6322 703 0.790 9267 1107 1.050 12088 1547
116
∅ 60 – 100 mm Material: 1.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

131 000 60 20.5 2 4.1 2.10 1.05 38.242 -1303
131 298 60 20.5 2.5 4.2 1.70 0.68 47.786 -1319
131 410 60 20.5 3 4.4 1.40 0.47 57.324 -1303
131 800 60 25.5 2.5 4.1 1.60 0.64 44.320 -1305
132 100 60 25.5 3 4.3 1.30 0.43 53.163 -1272
133 192 60 30.5 2.5 4 1.50 0.60 40.115 -1329
133 500 60 30.5 3 4.2 1.20 0.40 48.117 -1276
133 750 60 30.5 3.5 4.55 1.05 0.30 56.110 -1303
138 220 63 31 1.8 4.1 2.30 1.28 32.573 -1306
138 500 63 31 2.5 4.15 1.65 0.66 45.214 -1301
138 720 63 31 3 4.4 1.40 0.47 54.234 -1325
139 000 63 31 3.5 4.7 1.20 0.34 63.247 -1325
144 400 70 25.5 2 4.5 2.50 1.25 51.150 -1152
146 300 70 30.5 2.5 4.7 2.20 0.88 59.715 -1330
146 598 70 30.5 3 4.8 1.80 0.60 71.633 -1306
147 700 70 35.5 3 4.7 1.70 0.57 65.661 -1326
147 980 70 35.5 4 5.2 1.20 0.30 87.480 -1248
150 800 70 40.5 4 5.1 1.10 0.28 78.305 -1265
151 100 70 40.5 5 5.9 0.90 0.18 97.792 -1293
153 010 71 36 2 4.6 2.60 1.30 45.078 -1314
153 100 71 36 2.5 4.5 2.00 0.80 56.326 -1264
153 240 71 36 4 5.3 1.30 0.33 90.018 -1314
159 400 80 31 2.5 5.3 2.80 1.12 81.874 -1251
159 606 80 31 3 5.4 2.40 0.80 98.222 -1287
160 100 80 31 4 5.8 1.80 0.45 130.891 -1287
160 640 80 36 3 5.3 2.30 0.77 92.159 -1294
160 685 80 36 4 5.7 1.70 0.43 122.804 -1275
161 212 80 41 2.25 5 2.75 1.22 63.925 -1240
161 500 80 41 3 5.2 2.20 0.73 85.190 -1323
161 700 80 41 4 5.6 1.60 0.40 113.508 -1282
162 000 80 41 5 6.3 1.30 0.26 141.787 -1303
169 300 90 46 2.5 5.7 3.20 1.28 90.032 -1264
169 500 90 46 3.5 5.8 2.30 0.66 125.968 -1272
169 645 90 46 5 6.6 1.60 0.32 179.789 -1264
174 700 100 41 4 6.8 2.80 0.70 200.275 -1301
Dimensional Tables
117
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.525 2352 415 1.050 3857 769 1.580 4806 1061 2.100 5458 1326
0.425 2812 343 0.850 5063 686 1.280 6961 1153 1.700 8630 1703
0.350 3509 388 0.700 6642 832 1.050 9524 1332 1.400 12281 1888
0.400 2709 359 0.800 4927 679 1.200 6816 1016 1.600 8541 1496
0.325 3367 339 0.650 6418 725 0.980 9301 1158 1.300 11992 1637
0.375 2689 382 0.750 4937 725 1.130 6916 1026 1.500 8699 1394
0.300 3322 322 0.600 6374 669 0.900 9245 1064 1.200 12026 1500
0.263 4424 357 0.525 8637 745 0.790 12747 1164 1.050 16710 1614
0.575 2295 526 1.150 3572 969 1.730 4175 1328 2.300 4431 1603
0.413 2738 383 0.825 4954 724 1.240 6833 1021 1.650 8517 1342
0.350 3568 345 0.700 6754 666 1.050 9684 1074 1.400 12488 1531
0.300 4577 354 0.600 8873 745 0.900 12982 1173 1.200 16997 1637
0.625 2443 412 1.250 3826 759 1.880 4505 1039 2.500 4824 1253
0.550 3282 424 1.100 5616 791 1.650 7318 1101 2.200 8705 1355
0.450 3804 354 0.900 6984 670 1.350 9749 1033 1.800 12307 1509
0.425 3783 373 0.850 7002 709 1.280 9876 1006 1.700 12499 1421
0.300 5537 343 0.600 10809 715 0.900 15905 1117 1.200 20913 1549
0.275 5560 329 0.550 10894 684 0.830 16172 1065 1.100 21187 1473
0.225 8644 369 0.450 17134 755 0.680 25707 1159 0.900 33858 1581
0.650 2903 540 1.300 4497 994 1.950 5219 1362 2.600 5505 1644
0.500 2936 408 1.000 5128 765 1.500 6823 1070 2.000 8271 1325
0.325 5886 352 0.650 11446 737 0.980 16868 1157 1.300 22020 1610
0.700 3732 431 1.400 6020 796 2.100 7344 1097 2.800 8188 1331
0.600 4305 376 1.200 7519 704 1.800 10005 984 2.400 12127 1421
0.450 6106 358 0.900 11598 767 1.350 16681 1227 1.800 21559 1738
0.575 4224 392 1.150 7439 735 1.730 10004 1031 2.300 12192 1321
0.425 5973 330 0.850 11403 706 1.280 16530 1126 1.700 21360 1591
0.688 3254 495 1.375 5128 912 2.060 6078 1254 2.750 6573 1518
0.550 4216 413 1.100 7489 777 1.650 10134 1092 2.200 12465 1357
0.400 5936 325 0.800 11389 669 1.200 16519 1064 1.600 21488 1500
0.325 8903 370 0.650 17482 766 0.980 25972 1189 1.300 34099 1639
0.800 4294 517 1.600 6680 952 2.400 7796 1305 3.200 8276 1576
0.575 5237 380 1.150 9483 717 1.730 13097 1012 2.300 16322 1284
0.400 8832 338 0.800 17188 709 1.200 25225 1111 1.600 33104 1546
0.700 7200 366 1.400 12898 689 2.100 17595 987 2.800 21791 1472
118
∅ 100 – 200 mm Material: 1.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

174 750 100 41 5 7.2 2.20 0.44 250.230 -1277
175 590 100 51 2.7 6.3 3.60 1.33 120.314 -1243
176 000 100 51 3.5 6.3 2.80 0.80 155.895 -1253
176 275 100 51 4 6.5 2.50 0.63 178.116 -1279
176 500 100 51 5 7 2.00 0.40 222.523 -1279
176 900 100 51 6 7.7 1.70 0.28 266.881 -1304
183 308 112 57 3 6.7 3.70 1.23 167.989 -1130
183 400 112 57 4 7.2 3.20 0.80 223.876 -1303
183 750 112 57 6 8.1 2.10 0.35 335.486 -1283
005 215 125 41 4 8.2 4.20 1.05 335.918 -1195
189 050 125 51 4 8.4 4.40 1.10 313.759 -1306
189 190 125 51 5 8.5 3.50 0.70 392.056 -1299
189 302 125 51 6 9.4 3.40 0.57 470.297 -1514
190 252 125 61 5 8.3 3.30 0.66 358.240 -1316
190 508 125 61 6 8.7 2.70 0.45 429.708 -1292
190 700 125 64 3.5 8 4.50 1.29 243.002 -1292
190 998 125 64 5 8.2 3.20 0.64 346.916 -1312
003 097 125 71 6 8.4 2.40 0.40 381.861 -1276
199 158 140 72 3.8 8.7 4.90 1.29 330.005 -1221
199 400 140 72 5 9 4.00 0.80 434.011 -1312
202 698 150 61 5 10.1 5.10 1.02 565.721 -1313
005 216 150 61 6 10.25 4.25 0.71 678.661 -1313
203 073 150 71 6 10 4.00 0.67 630.814 -1309
001 038 160 82 4.3 9.9 5.60 1.30 489.219 -1206
207 898 160 82 6 10.3 4.30 0.72 682.231 -1292
000 127 180 92 4.8 10.8 6.00 1.25 692.651 -1138
213 742 180 92 6 11.1 5.10 0.85 865.497 -1209
000 489 200 102 5.5 12.5 7.00 1.27 981.059 -1231
Dimensional Tables
119
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.550 9422 346 1.100 17934 741 1.650 25839 1183 2.200 33441 1675
0.900 5139 519 1.800 7906 955 2.700 9092 1306 3.600 9487 1574
0.700 5706 405 1.400 9966 760 2.100 13261 1064 2.800 16074 1317
0.625 6729 374 1.250 12280 708 1.880 17084 1001 2.500 21422 1318
0.500 9247 323 1.000 17740 669 1.500 25732 1064 2.000 33473 1500
0.425 12939 363 0.850 25322 755 1.280 37476 1176 1.700 49165 1627
0.925 5320 452 1.850 8362 833 2.780 9891 1144 3.700 10649 1385
0.800 7750 421 1.600 13535 790 2.400 18011 1105 3.200 21831 1369
0.525 13060 333 1.050 25287 703 1.580 37068 1107 2.100 48353 1547
1.050 8625 376 2.100 14146 695 3.150 17598 959 4.200 20016 1253
1.100 9815 454 2.200 15907 839 3.300 19516 1157 4.400 21884 1407
0.875 11233 365 1.750 20124 687 2.630 27491 988 3.500 34000 1475
0.850 17275 392 1.700 31973 781 2.550 44952 1283 3.400 57073 1858
0.825 11078 387 1.650 20045 730 2.480 27647 1030 3.300 34460 1365
0.675 13799 332 1.350 26210 664 2.030 37779 1066 2.700 48720 1515
1.125 8638 530 2.250 13423 975 3.380 15646 1337 4.500 16573 1614
0.800 10899 388 1.600 19819 733 2.400 27419 1036 3.200 34360 1337
0.600 13292 337 1.200 25500 647 1.800 36988 995 2.400 48114 1405
1.225 9653 502 2.450 14988 925 3.680 17452 1267 4.900 18464 1530
1.000 12189 426 2.000 21288 798 3.000 28327 1117 4.000 34335 1383
1.275 14460 438 2.550 23891 813 3.830 29989 1125 5.100 34372 1373
1.063 16448 370 2.125 29404 697 3.190 40055 994 4.250 49496 1487
1.000 15936 381 2.000 28787 720 3.000 39583 1015 4.000 49350 1378
1.400 12339 498 2.800 19107 917 4.200 22161 1256 5.600 23358 1516
1.075 16287 400 2.150 29055 753 3.230 39522 1059 4.300 48726 1318
1.500 13903 459 3.000 21773 846 4.500 25621 1161 6.000 27458 1405
1.275 16799 402 2.550 28967 752 3.830 38079 1050 5.100 45584 1297
1.750 20106 501 3.500 31331 923 5.250 36637 1265 7.000 38983 1529
120
∅ 20 – 50 mm Material: 1.4923 (X 22 CrMoV 12 1)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t t’ l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

055 660 20 10.2 1.5 1.75 0.25 0.17 2.652 -1199
061 952 23 12.2 1.5 1.85 0.35 0.23 3.412 -1302
065 500 25 12.2 1.5 1.95 0.45 0.30 4.278 -1346
072 104 28 10.2 1.5 2.05 0.55 0.37 6.118 -1188
073 250 28 12.2 1.5 2.05 0.55 0.37 5.714 -1247
076 300 28 14.2 1.5 2.05 0.55 0.37 5.237 -1341
083 900 31.5 16.3 1.5 2.15 0.65 0.43 6.529 -1268
084 400 31.5 16.3 1.75 2.3 0.55 0.31 7.614 -1252
084 801 31.5 16.3 2 2.5 0.50 0.25 8.697 -1300
088 400 34 12.3 1.5 2.4 0.90 0.60 9.040 -1316
089 500 34 14.3 1.5 2.35 0.85 0.57 8.560 -1291
090 600 34 16.3 1.5 2.3 0.80 0.53 8.008 -1282
091 200 34 16.3 2 2.6 0.60 0.30 10.669 -1282
094 600 35.5 18.3 2 2.65 0.65 0.33 11.097 -1328
099 464 40 14.3 1.5 2.75 1.25 0.83 12.572 -1318
099 860 40 14.3 2 2.9 0.90 0.45 16.754 -1265
100 700 40 16.3 1.5 2.7 1.20 0.80 12.019 -1304
100 734 40 16.3 2 2.9 0.90 0.45 16.017 -1304
101 800 40 18.3 2 2.85 0.85 0.43 15.190 -1284
103 100 40 20.4 1.5 2.6 1.10 0.73 10.665 -1319
103 600 40 20.4 2 2.8 0.80 0.40 14.211 -1279
104 300 40 20.4 2.25 2.95 0.70 0.31 15.981 -1259
104 800 40 20.4 2.5 3.15 0.65 0.26 17.751 -1299
110 600 45 22.4 1.75 2.95 1.20 0.69 16.018 -1307
111 000 45 22.4 2.5 3.35 0.85 0.34 22.863 -1322
116 400 50 18.4 1.5 3.3 1.80 1.20 19.504 -1221
116 654 50 18.4 2 3.3 1.30 0.65 25.994 -1176
116 903 50 18.4 2.5 3.65 1.15 0.46 32.479 -1301
117 204 50 18.4 3 3.95 0.95 0.32 38.958 -1289
117 450 50 20.4 2 3.4 1.40 0.70 25.059 -1299
117 700 50 20.4 2.5 3.6 1.10 0.44 31.310 -1276
118 405 50 22.4 2 3.3 1.30 0.65 24.028 -1246
118 600 50 22.4 2.5 3.6 1.10 0.44 30.020 -1317
120 104 50 25.4 1.5 3.1 1.60 1.07 16.733 -1224
120 500 50 25.4 2 3.3 1.30 0.65 22.299 -1326
Dimensional Tables
121
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.063 719 372 0.125 1427 760 0.190 2155 1164 0.250 2824 1584
0.088 794 371 0.175 1565 767 0.260 2299 1186 0.350 3068 1628
0.113 840 378 0.225 1639 789 0.340 2429 1232 0.450 3172 1708
0.138 761 376 0.275 1470 791 0.410 2131 1245 0.550 2799 1739
0.138 799 351 0.275 1543 741 0.410 2237 1169 0.550 2938 1636
0.138 859 343 0.275 1659 725 0.410 2406 1147 0.550 3159 1607
0.163 839 330 0.325 1599 637 0.490 2317 1021 0.650 2988 1448
0.138 1069 334 0.275 2081 700 0.410 3040 1096 0.550 4014 1524
0.125 1418 370 0.250 2788 767 0.380 4178 1188 0.500 5447 1636
0.225 959 333 0.450 1760 714 0.680 2472 1178 0.900 3102 1713
0.213 921 338 0.425 1704 653 0.640 2404 1072 0.850 3042 1555
0.200 896 346 0.400 1671 657 0.600 2366 1004 0.800 3021 1450
0.150 1422 364 0.300 2776 760 0.450 4084 1186 0.600 5370 1644
0.163 1487 352 0.325 2891 737 0.490 4261 1157 0.650 5562 1611
0.313 1130 381 0.625 1957 712 0.940 2587 993 1.250 3106 1505
0.225 1501 372 0.450 2852 795 0.680 4128 1270 0.900 5301 1797
0.300 1091 388 0.600 1905 727 0.900 2535 1016 1.200 3073 1392
0.225 1547 351 0.450 2939 752 0.680 4254 1204 0.900 5462 1707
0.213 1504 329 0.425 2871 703 0.640 4161 1122 0.850 5377 1586
0.275 1051 411 0.550 1867 773 0.830 2537 1086 1.100 3107 1351
0.200 1479 323 0.400 2838 669 0.600 4117 1064 0.800 5356 1500
0.175 1774 340 0.350 3457 712 0.530 5126 1114 0.700 6672 1548
0.163 2219 370 0.325 4357 766 0.490 6473 1189 0.650 8499 1639
0.300 1371 393 0.600 2465 740 0.900 3374 1043 1.200 4191 1317
0.213 2328 352 0.425 4515 741 0.640 6633 1165 0.850 8656 1625
0.450 1399 429 0.900 2216 791 1.350 2644 1085 1.800 2878 1311
0.325 1573 309 0.650 2854 599 0.980 3955 1001 1.300 4927 1472
0.288 2424 371 0.575 4594 795 0.860 6578 1273 1.150 8512 1805
0.238 3238 425 0.475 6304 888 0.710 9225 1386 0.950 12151 1922
0.350 1797 365 0.700 3220 687 1.050 4392 988 1.400 5440 1475
0.275 2352 347 0.550 4477 742 0.830 6485 1185 1.100 8348 1677
0.325 1666 352 0.650 3022 664 0.980 4188 938 1.300 5217 1372
0.275 2429 337 0.550 4624 721 0.830 6699 1154 1.100 8622 1636
0.400 1260 453 0.800 2058 840 1.200 2548 1162 1.600 2885 1417
0.325 1774 393 0.650 3218 743 0.980 4460 1049 1.300 5556 1349
122
∅ 50 – 90 mm Material: 1.4923 (X 22 CrMoV 12 1)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t t’ l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

120 900 50 25.4 2.5 3.5 1.00 0.40 27.859 -1275
121 100 50 25.4 3 3.85 0.85 0.28 33.412 -1301
128 598 56 28.5 1.5 3.45 1.95 1.30 20.951 -1191
128 700 56 28.5 2 3.6 1.60 0.80 27.921 -1303
129 100 56 28.5 3 4.05 1.05 0.35 41.840 -1283
131 100 60 20.5 2 4.1 2.10 1.05 38.242 -1303
131 300 60 20.5 2.5 4.2 1.70 0.68 47.786 -1319
131 412 60 20.5 3 4.4 1.40 0.47 57.324 -1303
131 900 60 25.5 2.5 4.1 1.60 0.64 44.320 -1305
132 200 60 25.5 3 4.3 1.30 0.43 53.163 -1272
133 194 60 30.5 2.5 4 1.50 0.60 40.115 -1329
133 600 60 30.5 3 4.2 1.20 0.40 48.117 -1276
133 830 60 30.5 3.5 4.55 1.05 0.30 56.110 -1303
003 085 63 31 1.8 4.1 2.30 1.28 32.573 -1306
138 600 63 31 2.5 4.15 1.65 0.66 45.214 -1301
138 850 63 31 3.5 4.7 1.20 0.34 63.247 -1325
146 400 70 30.5 2.5 4.7 2.20 0.88 59.715 -1330
146 600 70 30.5 3 4.8 1.80 0.60 71.633 -1306
147 800 70 35.5 3 4.7 1.70 0.57 65.661 -1326
148 050 70 35.5 4 5.2 1.20 0.30 87.480 -1248
150 600 70 40.5 4 5.1 1.10 0.28 78.305 -1265
151 200 70 40.5 5 5.9 0.90 0.18 97.792 -1293
153 012 71 36 2 4.6 2.60 1.30 45.078 -1314
153 200 71 36 2.5 4.5 2.00 0.80 56.326 -1264
153 400 71 36 4 5.3 1.30 0.33 90.018 -1314
159 500 80 31 2.5 5.3 2.80 1.12 81.874 -1251
159 660 80 31 3 5.4 2.40 0.80 98.222 -1287
160 650 80 36 3 5.3 2.30 0.77 92.159 -1294
160 660 80 36 4 5.7 1.70 0.43 122.804 -1275
161 230 80 41 2.25 5 2.75 1.22 63.925 -1240
161 475 80 41 3 5.2 2.20 0.73 85.190 -1323
161 800 80 41 4 5.6 1.60 0.40 113.508 -1282
162 100 80 41 5 6.3 1.30 0.26 141.787 -1303
169 400 90 46 2.5 5.7 3.20 1.28 90.032 -1264
169 600 90 46 3.5 5.8 2.30 0.66 125.968 -1272
Dimensional Tables
123
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]
0.250 2306 322 0.500 4424 669 0.750 6418 1064 1.000 8348 1500
0.213 3227 363 0.425 6315 755 0.640 9346 1176 0.850 12261 1626
0.488 1480 490 0.975 2292 902 1.460 2659 1236 1.950 2806 1492
0.400 1938 421 0.800 3384 790 1.200 4503 1105 1.600 5458 1369
0.263 3265 333 0.525 6322 703 0.790 9267 1107 1.050 12088 1547
0.525 2352 415 1.050 3857 769 1.580 4806 1061 2.100 5458 1326
0.425 2812 343 0.850 5063 686 1.280 6961 1153 1.700 8630 1703
0.350 3509 388 0.700 6642 832 1.050 9524 1332 1.400 12281 1888
0.400 2709 359 0.800 4927 679 1.200 6816 1016 1.600 8541 1496
0.325 3367 339 0.650 6418 725 0.980 9301 1158 1.300 11992 1637
0.375 2689 382 0.750 4937 725 1.130 6916 1026 1.500 8699 1394
0.300 3322 322 0.600 6374 669 0.900 9245 1064 1.200 12026 1500
0.263 4424 357 0.525 8637 745 0.790 12747 1164 1.050 16710 1614
0.575 2295 526 1.150 3572 969 1.730 4175 1328 2.300 4431 1603
0.413 2738 383 0.825 4954 724 1.240 6833 1021 1.650 8517 1342
0.300 4577 354 0.600 8873 745 0.900 12982 1173 1.200 16997 1637
0.550 3282 424 1.100 5616 791 1.650 7318 1101 2.200 8705 1355
0.450 3804 354 0.900 6984 670 1.350 9749 1033 1.800 12307 1509
0.425 3783 373 0.850 7002 709 1.280 9876 1006 1.700 12499 1421
0.300 5537 343 0.600 10809 715 0.900 15905 1117 1.200 20913 1549
0.275 5560 329 0.550 10894 684 0.830 16172 1065 1.100 21187 1473
0.225 8644 369 0.450 17134 755 0.680 25707 1159 0.900 33858 1581
0.650 2903 540 1.300 4497 994 1.950 5219 1362 2.600 5505 1644
0.500 2936 408 1.000 5128 765 1.500 6823 1070 2.000 8271 1325
0.325 5886 352 0.650 11446 737 0.980 16868 1157 1.300 22020 1610
0.700 3732 431 1.400 6020 796 2.100 7344 1097 2.800 8188 1331
0.600 4305 376 1.200 7519 704 1.800 10005 984 2.400 12127 1421
0.575 4224 392 1.150 7439 735 1.730 10004 1031 2.300 12192 1321
0.425 5973 330 0.850 11403 706 1.280 16530 1126 1.700 21360 1591
0.688 3254 495 1.375 5128 912 2.060 6078 1254 2.750 6573 1518
0.550 4216 413 1.100 7489 777 1.650 10134 1092 2.200 12465 1357
0.400 5936 325 0.800 11389 669 1.200 16519 1064 1.600 21488 1500
0.325 8903 370 0.650 17482 766 0.980 25972 1189 1.300 34099 1639
0.800 4294 517 1.600 6680 952 2.400 7796 1305 3.200 8276 1576
0.575 5237 380 1.150 9483 717 1.730 13097 1012 2.300 16322 1284
124
∅ 90 – 200 mm Material: 1.4923 (X 22 CrMoV 12 1)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t t’ l
0
h
0
h
0
/t h
0
’/t’ at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

169 800 90 46 5 6.6 1.60 0.32 179.789 -1264
174 704 100 41 4 6.8 2.80 0.70 200.275 -1301
174 752 100 41 5 7.2 2.20 0.44 250.230 -1277
175 591 100 51 2.7 6.3 3.60 1.33 120.314 -1243
176 002 100 51 3.5 6.3 2.80 0.80 155.895 -1253
176 300 100 51 4 6.5 2.50 0.63 178.116 -1279
176 600 100 51 5 7 2.00 0.40 222.523 -1279
177 000 100 51 6 7.7 1.70 0.28 266.881 -1304
183 310 112 57 3 6.7 3.70 1.23 167.989 -1130
183 320 112 57 4 7.2 3.20 0.80 223.876 -1303
183 800 112 57 6 8.1 2.10 0.35 335.486 -1283
188 970 125 41 4 8.2 4.20 1.05 335.918 -1195
189 052 125 51 4 8.4 4.40 1.10 313.759 -1306
189 200 125 51 5 8.5 3.50 0.70 392.056 -1299
190 253 125 61 5 8.3 3.30 0.66 358.240 -1316
190 510 125 61 6 8.7 2.70 0.45 429.708 -1292
001 490 125 61 8 7.5 10 2.00 0.33 536.796 -1301
190 701 125 64 3.5 8 4.50 1.29 243.002 -1292
001 526 125 64 5 8.3 3.30 0.66 346.916 -1353
004 718 125 64 8 7.5 10 2.00 0.33 519.800 -1338
192 600 125 71 6 8.4 2.40 0.40 381.861 -1276
192 904 125 71 8 7.4 9.8 1.80 0.32 470.633 -1306
193 194 125 71 10 9.2 11.5 1.50 0.25 584.586 -1368
199 160 140 72 3.8 8.7 4.90 1.29 330.005 -1221
199 444 140 72 5 9 4.00 0.80 434.011 -1312
202 700 150 61 5 10.1 5.10 1.02 565.721 -1313
203 075 150 71 6 10 4.00 0.67 630.814 -1309
002 858 150 81 8 7.5 10.7 2.70 0.43 719.402 -1295
001 242 160 82 6 10.3 4.30 0.72 682.231 -1292
208 310 160 82 10 9.4 12.6 2.60 0.34 1067.576 -1326
213 744 180 92 6 11.1 5.10 0.85 865.497 -1209
213 937 180 92 10 9.4 13.3 3.30 0.41 1354.537 -1324
000 212 200 82 8 7.6 13.6 5.60 0.79 1523.868 -1300
003 095 200 92 10 9.5 14.3 4.30 0.51 1804.099 -1314
218 909 200 92 12 11.4 15.6 3.60 0.37 2163.894 -1327
Dimensional Tables
125
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N][N/mm
2
]
0.400 8832 338 0.800 17188 709 1.200 25225 1111 1.600 33104 1546
0.700 7200 366 1.400 12898 689 2.100 17595 987 2.800 21791 1472
0.550 9422 346 1.100 17934 741 1.650 25839 1183 2.200 33441 1675
0.900 5139 519 1.800 7906 955 2.700 9092 1306 3.600 9487 1574
0.700 5706 405 1.400 9966 760 2.100 13261 1064 2.800 16074 1317
0.625 6729 374 1.250 12280 708 1.880 17084 1001 2.500 21422 1318
0.500 9247 323 1.000 17740 669 1.500 25732 1064 2.000 33473 1500
0.425 12939 363 0.850 25322 755 1.280 37476 1176 1.700 49165 1627
0.925 5320 452 1.850 8362 833 2.780 9891 1144 3.700 10649 1385
0.800 7750 421 1.600 13535 790 2.400 18011 1105 3.200 21831 1369
0.525 13060 333 1.050 25287 703 1.580 37068 1107 2.100 48353 1547
1.050 8625 376 2.100 14146 695 3.150 17598 959 4.200 20016 1253
1.100 9815 454 2.200 15907 839 3.300 19516 1157 4.400 21884 1407
0.875 11233 365 1.750 20124 687 2.630 27491 988 3.500 34000 1475
0.825 11078 387 1.650 20045 730 2.480 27647 1030 3.300 34460 1365
0.675 13799 332 1.350 26210 664 2.030 37779 1066 2.700 48720 1515
0.500 22799 339 1.000 44284 708 1.500 64785 1108 2.000 84629 1538
1.125 8638 530 2.250 13423 975 3.380 15646 1337 4.500 16573 1614
0.825 11391 405 1.650 20611 765 2.480 28428 1079 3.300 35433 1362
0.500 23443 338 1.000 45535 707 1.500 66615 1106 2.000 87019 1536
0.600 13292 337 1.200 25500 647 1.800 36988 995 2.400 48114 1405
0.450 22678 338 0.900 44138 658 1.350 64660 1009 1.800 84525 1399
0.375 35942 353 0.750 70798 725 1.130 105229 1115 1.500 1381021525
1.225 9635 502 2.450 14988 925 3.680 17452 1267 4.900 18464 1530
1.000 12189 426 2.000 21288 798 3.000 28327 1117 4.000 34335 1383
1.275 14460 438 2.550 23891 813 3.830 29989 1125 5.100 34372 1373
1.000 15936 381 2.000 28787 720 3.000 39583 1015 4.000 49350 1378
0.675 23766 352 1.350 45331 678 2.030 65426 978 2.700 84211 1361
1.075 16287 400 2.150 29055 753 3.230 39522 1059 4.300 48726 1318
0.650 36468 333 1.300 70741 697 1.950 103379 1093 2.600 1349411520
1.275 16799 402 2.550 28967 752 3.830 38079 1050 5.100 45584 1297
0.825 37743 348 1.650 72166 671 2.480 104347 1030 3.300 1346121453
1.400 30338 396 2.800 53021 744 4.200 70379 1044 5.600 84741 1305
1.075 39552 351 2.150 74144 672 3.230 105346 1027 4.300 1341751473
0.900 53428 348 1.800 103089 733 2.700 150010 1154 3.600 1952201613
126
∅ 200 – 250 mm Material: 1.4923 (X 22 CrMoV 12 1)
Article Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t t’ l
0
h
0
h
0
/t h
0
’/t’ at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [N/mm
2
]

000 436 200 102 5.5 12.38 6.88 1.25 981.059 -1210
219 400 200 102 8 13.1 5.10 0.64 1426.016 -1304
004 014 200 102 12 11.3 15.4 3.40 0.36 2012.423 -1326
002 226 200 102 14 13.1 16.9 2.90 0.29 2331.832 -1326
003 739 200 112 14 12.9 15.6 1.60 0.21 2129.412 -790
223 110 225 112 8 7.5 14.5 6.50 0.93 1721.243 -1285
001 030 250 127 7 6.7 14.8 7.80 1.21 1873.549 -1101
226 660 250 127 10 16.4 6.40 0.64 2794.326 -1306
003 913 250 127 12 11.25 17.3 5.30 0.54 3142.758 -1311
004 175 250 127 14 13.1 18.55 4.55 0.42 3658.086 -1321
002 618 250 127 16 20 4.00 0.25 4465.057 -1306
Dimensional Tables
127
9
Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N][N/mm
2
]
1.720 19415 488 3.440 30399 899 5.160 35762 1234 6.880 38315 1492
1.275 27679 384 2.550 50362 727 3.830 69787 1027 5.100 87404 1334
0.850 53088 335 1.700 102553 685 2.550 149344 1079 3.400 1944071507
0.725 69822 353 1.450 136621 731 2.180 201549 1134 2.900 2640031563
0.400 40143 215 0.800 79488 439 1.200 118174 670 1.600 156338 911
1.625 33348 457 3.250 56219 854 4.880 71819 1193 6.500 83197 1472
1.950 27287 444 3.900 43146 822 5.850 51201 1132 7.800 55075 1376
1.600 43384 385 3.200 78891 728 4.800 109145 1028 6.400 1367731337
1.325 57731 375 2.650 107399 716 3.980 151423 1023 5.300 1915911333
1.138 73747 348 2.275 140980 670 3.410 203283 1026 4.550 2627761447
1.000 91125 376 2.000 179173 778 3.000 265169 1206 4.000 3501391660
128
Dimension Tables for SCHNORR “K” Disc Springs 9.5
Non-slotted springs
Article Ordering Dimensions Spring Load F and Deflection s
No. at s ≈ 0.75 h
0

D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t F s

[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [N] [mm]

241200 9.8 6.2 0.2 0.4 0.20 1.00 23 0.15
241400 12.8 7.2 0.25 0.5 0.25 1.00 29 0.19
241600 15.8 8.2 0.25 0.55 0.30 1.20 23 0.23
241700 18.8 9.2 0.3 0.65 0.35 1.17 31 0.26
241800 18.8 10.2 0.35 0.7 0.35 1.00 51 0.26
241900 21.8 12.3 0.35 0.75 0.40 1.14 46 0.30
242100 23.7 14.3 0.4 0.9 0.50 1.25 81 0.38
242200 25.7 14.3 0.4 0.90 0.50 1.25 63 0.38
242300 27.7 17.3 0.4 1 0.60 1.50 80 0.45
242500 29.7 17.4 0.4 1.1 0.70 1.75 83 0.53
242600 31.7 20.4 0.4 1.1 0.70 1.75 81 0.53
242800 34.6 20.4 0.4 1.1 0.70 1.75 61 0.53
242900 34.6 22.4 0.5 1.2 0.70 1.40 118 0.53
243000 36.6 20.4 0.5 1.3 0.80 1.60 110 0.60
243100 39.6 25.5 0.5 1.3 0.80 1.60 110 0.60
243200 41.6 25.5 0.5 1.4 0.90 1.80 113 0.68
243300 46.5 30.5 0.6 1.5 0.90 1.50 153 0.68
243400 51.5 35.5 0.6 1.5 0.90 1.50 135 0.68
243500 54.5 40.5 0.6 1.5 0.90 1.50 141 0.68
243600 61.5 40.5 0.7 1.8 1.10 1.57 176 0.83
243700 67.5 50.5 0.7 1.7 1.00 1.43 161 0.75
243800 71.5 45.5 0.7 2.1 1.40 2.00 185 1.05
243900 71.5 50.5 0.7 2.1 1.40 2.00 218 1.05
244000 74.5 55.5 0.8 1.9 1.10 1.38 211 0.83
244100 79.5 50.5 0.8 2.3 1.50 1.88 228 1.13
244200 79.5 55.5 0.8 2.3 1.50 1.88 263 1.13
244300 84.5 60.5 0.9 2.5 1.60 1.78 359 1.20
244400 89.5 60.5 0.9 2.5 1.60 1.78 288 1.20
244500 89.5 65.5 0.9 2.5 1.60 1.78 335 1.20
244600 94.5 75.5 1 2.2 1.20 1.20 325 0.90
244700 99.0 65.5 1 2.6 1.60 1.60 292 1.20
244800 99.0 70.5 1 2.6 1.60 1.60 332 1.20
244900 109.0 70.5 1.25 2.7 1.45 1.16 357 1.09
245000 109.0 75.5 1.25 2.7 1.45 1.16 398 1.09
Dimensional Tables
129
9
∅ 9.8 – 109 mm
Weight/ Ball-Bearing Type Ball-Bearing Dimension
1000 pcs.


Outer dia. Inner dia.

[kg]
0.068 623(EL3) 10 3 – –
0.167 624(EL4) 13 4 – –
0.275 625(EL5) 634(R4) 16 5 4 –
0.487 626(EL6)635(R5) 16 6 5 –
0.526 607(EL7) 19 7 – –
0.684 608(EL8)627(R7) 22 8 7 –
0.862 609(EL9) 24 9 – –
1.105 6000 629(R9) 26 10 9 –
1.132 6001 28 12 – –
1.406 6200 30 – 10 –
1.422 6002 6201 32 15 12 –
1.894 6300 35 – – 10
2.103 6003 6202 35 17 15 –
2.805 6301 37 – – 12
2.783 6203 40 – 17 –
3.282 6004 6302 42 20 – 15
4.486 6005 6204 6303 47 25 20 17
5.059 6205 6304 52 – 25 20
4.822 6006 55 30 – –
9.121 6007 6206 6305 62 35 30 25
8.505 6008 68 40 – –
12.99 6306 72 – – 30
10.90 6207 72 – 35 –
11.99 6009 75 45 – –
18.40 6307 80 – – 35
15.78 6010 6208 80 50 40 –
19.05 6209 85 – 45 –
23.86 6308 90 – – 40
20.36 6011 6210 90 55 50 –
19.57 6012 95 60 – –
33.64 6309 100 – 45
29.44 6013 6211 100 65 55 –
52.80 6310 110 – – 50
47.17 6014 6212 110 70 60 –
130
∅ 114 – 358 mm
Non-slotted springs
Article Ordering Dimensions Spring Load F and Deflection s
No. at s ≈ 0.75 h
0

D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t F s

[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [N] [mm]

245100 114 90.5 1.25 2.45 1.20 0.96 398 0.90
245200 119 75.5 1.25 2.8 1.55 1.24 320 1.16
245300 119 85.5 1.25 2.8 1.55 1.24 393 1.16
245400 124 90.5 1.25 3 1.75 1.40 445 1.31
245500 129 85.5 1.25 3.2 1.95 1.56 405 1.46
245600 129 95.5 1.25 3.2 1.95 1.56 500 1.46
245700 139 90.5 1.25 3.25 2.00 1.60 354 1.50
245800 139 101 1.25 3.25 2.00 1.60 429 1.50
245900 149 95.5 1.5 3.2 1.70 1.13 379 1.28
246000 149 106 1.5 3.2 1.70 1.13 450 1.28
246100 159 101 1.5 3.5 2.00 1.33 412 1.50
246200 159 111 1.5 3.5 2.00 1.33 477 1.50
246300 169 111 1.5 3.8 2.30 1.53 470 1.73
246400 169 121 1.5 3.8 2.30 1.53 546 1.73
246500 179 121 2 4.2 2.20 1.10 864 1.65
246600 179 126 2 4.2 2.20 1.10 928 1.65
246700 189 121 2 4.3 2.30 1.15 759 1.73
246800 189 131 2 4.3 2.30 1.15 858 1.73
246900 198 131 2 4.5 2.50 1.25 812 1.88
247000 198 141 2 4.5 2.50 1.25 923 1.88
247100 213 151 2.25 4.5 2.25 1.00 941 1.69
247200 223 161 2.25 4.6 2.35 1.04 942 1.76
247300 228 161 2.25 4.95 2.70 1.20 1036 2.03
247400 238 161 2.25 5.25 3.00 1.33 1021 2.25
247500 248 171 2.5 5 2.50 1.00 1005 1.88
247600 258 171 2.5 5.5 3.00 1.20 1106 2.25
247700 268 181 2.5 5.7 3.20 1.28 1155 2.40
247800 278 181 2.5 6 3.50 1.40 1155 2.63
247900 288 191 2.75 5.75 3.00 1.09 1145 2.25
248000 298 191 2.75 6.35 3.60 1.31 1307 2.70
248100 308 202 3 6.1 3.10 1.03 1300 2.33
248200 318 212 3 6.2 3.20 1.07 1302 2.40
248300 338 232 3 6.6 3.60 1.20 1415 2.70
248400 358 242 3 7 4.00 1.33 1424 3.00
Dimensional Tables
131
9
Weight/ Ball-Bearing Type Ball-Bearing Dimension
1000 pcs.


Outer dia. Inner dia.

[kg]
36.49 6015 115 75 – –
64.71 6311 120 – – 55
52.28 6213 120 – 65 –
54.75 6016 6214 125 80 70 –
71.28 6312 130 – – 60
57.31 6017 6215 130 85 75 –
85.11 6313 140 – – 65
69.58 6018 6216 140 90 80 –
120.1 6314 150 – – 70
100.5 6020 6217 150 100 85 –
138.5 6315 160 – – 75
118.9 6021 6218 160 105 90 –
149.2 6316 170 – – 80
127.7 6022 6219 170 110 95 –
213.1 6317 180 – – 85
197.8 6024 6220 180 120 100 –
258.3 6318 190 – – 90
227.1 6221 190 – 105 –
270.0 6319 200 – – 95
236.4 6026 6222 200 130 110 –
310.9 6224 6320 215 – 120 100
328.0 6030 6321 225 150 – 105
359.2 6226 230 – 130 –
423.8 6032 6322 240 160 – 110
494.5 6228 250 – 140 –
572.2 6034 6324 260 170 – 120
598.7 6230 270 – 150 –
682.7 6036 6326 280 180 – 130
783.7 6038 6232 290 190 160 –
883.0 6328 300 – – 140
995.2 6040 6234 310 200 170 –
1034 6236 6330 320 – 180 150
1112 6044 6238 6332 340 220 190 160
1281 6048 6240 6334 360 240 200 170
132
∅ 9.8 – 94.5 mm
Slotted springs
Article Ordering Dimensions Spring Load F and Deflection s
No. at s ≈ 0.75 h
0

D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0W
/t F s

[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [N] [mm]

241150 9.8 6.2 0.15 0.6 0.45 1.00 13 0.35
241350 12.8 7.2 0.2 0.65 0.45 0.92 18 0.35
241650 15.8 8.2 0.25 0.75 0.50 0.74 20 0.40
241675 18.8 9.2 0.25 1 0.75 0.97 20 0.55
241750 18.8 10.2 0.25 1.05 0.80 1.15 24 0.60
241850 21.8 12.3 0.25 1.25 1.00 1.47 24 0.75
242050 23.7 14.3 0.3 1.3 1.00 1.21 25 0.75
242150 25.7 14.3 0.3 1.4 1.10 1.19 28 0.80
242250 27.7 17.3 0.35 1.45 1.10 1.03 31 0.80
242450 29.7 17.3 0.35 1.55 1.20 1.30 32 0.90
242550 31.7 20.4 0.35 1.55 1.20 1.30 33 0.90
242750 34.6 20.4 0.4 1.65 1.30 1.10 32 1.00
242850 34.6 22.4 0.35 1.55 1.20 1.18 32 0.90
242950 36.6 20.4 0.4 1.9 1.50 1.44 35 1.10
243050 39.6 25.5 0.4 1.9 1.50 1.22 37 1.10
243150 41.6 25.5 0.45 2.05 1.60 1.13 39 1.20
243250 46.5 30.5 0.45 2.05 1.60 1.11 44 1.20
243350 51.5 35.5 0.45 2.1 1.65 1.26 47 1.25
243450 54.5 40.5 0.45 2.15 1.70 1.75 53 1.30
243550 61.5 40.5 0.55 2.55 2.00 1.21 54 1.50
243650 67.5 50.5 0.5 2.6 2.10 1.36 78 1.60
243750 71.5 45.5 0.6 2.9 2.30 1.47 74 1.70
243850 71.5 50.5 0.6 2.9 2.30 1.83 127 1.70
243950 74.5 55.5 0.6 2.9 2.30 1.31 91 1.70
244125 79.5 50.5 0.7 3.1 2.40 1.36 83 1.80
244150 79.5 55.5 0.7 2.9 2.20 1.51 127 1.65
244250 84.5 60.5 0.75 3.15 2.40 0.87 78 1.80
244350 89.5 60.5 0.8 3.3 2.50 1.08 104 1.90
244450 89.5 65.5 0.8 3.4 2.60 1.35 189 1.95
244550 94.5 75.5 0.8 3.45 2.65 1.39 206 2.00
Dimensional Tables
133
9
Weight/ Ball-Bearing Type Ball-Bearing Dimension
1000 pcs.


Outer dia. Inner dia.

[kg]
0.050 623(EL3) 10 3 – –
0.130 624(EL4) 13 4 – –
0.280 625(EL5) 634(R4) 16 5 4 –
0.440 626(EL6) 635(R5) 16 6 5 –
0.320 607(EL7) 19 7 – –
0.420 608(EL8) 627(R7) 22 8 7 –
0.660 609(EL9) 24 9 – –
0.700 6000 629(R9) 26 10 9 –
0.984 6001 28 12 – –
1.200 6200 30 – 10 –
1.270 6002 6201 32 15 12 –
1.650 6300 35 – – 10
1.500 6003 6202 35 17 15 –
2.280 6301 37 – – 12
1.920 6203 40 – 17 –
2.500 6004 6302 42 20 – 15
2.840 6005 6204 6303 47 25 20 17
3.070 6205 6304 52 – 25 20
3.200 6006 55 30 – –
6.050 6007 6206 6305 62 35 30 25
5.500 6008 68 40 – –
9.600 6306 72 – – 30
8.200 6207 72 – 35 –
7.580 6009 75 45 – –
16.26 6307 80 – – 35
14.50 6010 6208 80 50 40 –
13.00 6209 85 – 45 –
18.10 6308 90 – – 40
16.00 6011 6210 90 55 50 –
13.30 6012 95 60 – –
134
Dimension Tables for SCHNORR “Z” Disc Springs 9.6
Article Desig- Ordering Dimensions Weight/ Stress
No. nation 1000 pcs. σ
OM
D
e
D
i
t l
0
h
0
h
0
/t at s = h
0
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] – [kg] [N/mm
2
]

248500 Z 1 9.53 4.96 0.4 0.7 0.30 0.75 0.154 –1687
248600 Z 2 12.7 6.55 0.5 0.9 0.40 0.80 0.348 –1574
248700 Z 3 12.7 6.55 0.6 1 0.40 0.67 0.419 –1888
248800 Z 4 17.46 9.7 0.6 1.1 0.50 0.83 0.750 –1318
248900 Z 5 17.46 9.7 0.7 1.2 0.50 0.71 0.877 –1538
249000 Z 6 19.05 8.13 0.7 1.3 0.60 0.86 1.241 –1342
249100 Z 7 19.05 8.13 0.8 1.4 0.60 0.75 1.370 –1533
249200 Z 8 19.05 9.7 0.8 1.35 0.55 0.69 1.267 –1526
249300 Z 9 19.05 9.7 0.9 1.45 0.55 0.61 1.429 –1717
249400 Z 10 25.4 11.3 0.9 1.7 0.80 0.89 2.766 –1314
249500 Z 11 25.4 11.3 1 1.8 0.80 0.80 3.081 –1460
249600 Z 12 25.4 11.3 1.25 1.9 0.65 0.52 3.867 –1483
249700 Z 12a 28 13 1 1.9 0.90 0.90 3.666 –1376
249800 Z 12b 28 13 1.25 2.1 0.85 0.68 4.564 –1624
249900 Z 12c 28 13 1.5 2.2 0.70 0.47 5.462 –1605
250000 Z 13 34.92 16.18 1.25 2.4 1.15 0.92 7.117 –1412
250100 Z 14 34.92 16.18 1.5 2.6 1.10 0.73 8.517 –1620
250200 Z 15 34.92 16.18 2 2.8 0.80 0.40 11.38 –1571
250300 Z 16 38.1 19.35 1.5 2.9 1.40 0.93 9.574 –1818
250400 Z 17 38.1 19.35 2 3.1 1.10 0.55 12.79 –1905
250500 Z 18 38.1 19.35 2.5 3.4 0.90 0.36 16.13 –1948
250600 Z 19 50.8 25.8 2 3.5 1.50 0.75 22.77 –1461
250700 Z 20 50.8 25.8 2.5 4 1.50 0.60 28.38 –1827
250800 Z 21 50.8 25.8 3 4.2 1.20 0.40 33.87 –1753
250900 Z 22 60.33 25.8 2 4 2.00 1.00 35.66 –1275
251000 Z 23 60.33 25.8 2.5 4.5 2.00 0.80 44.57 –1594
251100 Z 24 60.33 25.8 3 4.6 1.60 0.53 53.30 –1530
Dimensional Tables
135
9
Deflection s , Load F and Stress σ

at s = 0.25 h
0
s = 0.50 h
0
s ≈ 0.75 h
0
s = 1.00 h
0

s F σ s F σ s F σ s F
c
σ

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N] [N/mm
2
]

[mm] [N][N/mm
2
]
0.08 97 535 0.15 171 1005 0.23 231 1412 0.30 283 1753
0.10 146 511 0.20 255 959 0.30 340 1342 0.40 412 1662
0.10 230 569 0.20 415 1074 0.30 571 1515 0.40 712 1892
0.13 181 449 0.25 313 840 0.38 413 1175 0.50 497 1453
0.13 263 490 0.25 470 923 0.38 639 1299 0.50 789 1619
0.15 255 419 0.30 439 783 0.45 576 1091 0.60 688 1345
0.15 352 451 0.30 622 847 0.45 839 1188 0.60 1028 1639
0.14 335 463 0.28 602 873 0.41 824 1230 0.55 1023 1534
0.14 453 498 0.28 830 943 0.41 1156 1334 0.55 1457 1787
0.20 423 424 0.40 722 790 0.60 939 1101 0.80 1114 1354
0.20 543 449 0.40 948 840 0.60 1261 1176 0.80 1529 1469
0.16 714 385 0.33 1336 756 0.49 1896 1043 0.65 2426 1769
0.23 552 453 0.45 939 846 0.68 1218 1177 0.90 1441 1448
0.21 866 474 0.43 1559 893 0.64 2138 1258 0.85 2658 1718
0.18 1081 409 0.35 2046 838 0.53 2933 1117 0.70 3783 1922
0.29 898 470 0.58 1522 875 0.86 1962 1217 1.15 2310 1495
0.28 1291 487 0.55 2294 916 0.83 3104 1286 1.10 3818 1659
0.20 1818 411 0.40 3489 873 0.60 5060 1054 0.80 6582 1953
0.35 1683 630 0.70 2842 1175 1.05 3651 1633 1.40 4285 2006
0.28 2391 531 0.55 4442 1009 0.83 6268 1435 1.10 7980 2059
0.23 3459 502 0.45 6686 1059 0.68 9757 1327 0.90 12752 2341
0.38 2095 459 0.75 3706 863 1.13 4994 1211 1.50 6121 1504
0.38 3695 525 0.75 6784 995 1.13 9470 1410 1.50 11955 1916
0.30 4565 442 0.60 8759 920 0.90 12705 1221 1.20 16526 2062
0.50 2211 429 1.00 3672 797 1.50 4631 1103 2.00 5341 1349
0.50 3703 483 1.00 6467 904 1.50 8605 1264 2.00 10431 1647
0.40 4278 395 0.80 7979 791 1.20 11295 1067 1.60 14419 1858
136
137
Chapter 10
Security Elements for
Bolted Connections
138
Security Elements for Bolted Connections
10.1 Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washers (Rib Washers) .................................. 139
Dimension Table for “S” Series Serrated Safety Washers (Rib Washers)................. 140
Dimension Table for “VS” Series Serrated Safety Washers (Rib Washers) .............. 142
10.2 Load Washers ......................................................................................................... 143
Heavy Duty Safety Washers-HDS as per DIN 6796 .................................................. 143
Dimension Table for HDS Washers as per DIN 6796................................................ 144
10.3 SCHNORR High Load Safety Washers “HS” ............................................................ 146
Dimension Table for “HS” Washers.......................................................................... 146
139
10.1 Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washers
(Rib wa s hers)
Very often our disc springs are considered
for use as serrated safety washers for bolted
con nec tions to maintain a preload and pre-
vent loosen ing. High quality disc springs are
too ex pen si ve for this application and the
sizes of normal disc springs do not match
screw and bolt sizes. We have therefore
developed special safety elements for this
application.
These serrated safety washers are in the
form of a disc spring which is serrated on
both sides and of trapezoidal cross section.
Their diameters are matched to screw di-
men si ons. The outer diameter of the washer
is matched to the head diameter of pan-head
and hexagon socket head cap screws. As a
result, the serrated safety washer can be
used with practically any screw and bolt
type, including those with rescessed heads.
The only ex cep ti on are counter sunk screws.
The ingenious form of the Ori gi nal Schnorr
Serrated Safety Was her combines the ad-
van tages of security through friction and
mechanical locking. They offer the following
advantages to the designer:
Figure 42
Bolt with SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washer loose and
tigh te ned
10
1. The shape of the cross section en su res
the locking effect is at the outside dia me-
ter which ensures the greatest re si stance
to loosening.
2. High resistance to vibration due to po si-
ti ve locking of the serrations.
3. The closed ring form results in a high
degree of pretensioning, i.e. an ex cel lent
frictional connection.
4. Concentric application of for ce elimi nates
bending in the bolts.
5. Sliding surfaces allow tigh te ning wi t hout
damaging the surfaces.
6. No splitting during tigh te ning with proper
transitional radius between bolt shaft and
bolt head.
7. Suitable for captive fitting on a wide range
of bolts (combi bolts for which a range
with special dimensions is availa ble).
8. Universal application mi ni mi ses stocks.
9. Schnorr Serrated Safety Washers can be
sup p lied in a variety of materials and
dif fe rent finishes.
The Original Schnorr Serrated Safety Was her
is availa ble in two series:
The “S” series is suitable for normal duty and
available for screws of size M1.6 to M36. The
reinforced serrated safety washer of the “VS”
series is thicker, and therefore achieves hig-
h er preten sioning loads. The inner and outer
diameters are the same as for the “S” series.
These washers are available for screws M 5
to M 30.
The Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety
Was her is protected by patents at home and
abroad.
140
Dimension Table for “S” Series Serrated Safety Washers (Rib Washers)
Designation for an Original SCHNORR Ser-
ra ted Safety Washer type “S” size 8 in spring
steel: Serrated Safety Washer S 8 FSt.
Figure 43
Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washer type “S”
Article Size d
1
d
2
s h h Weight Packaging for bolts
No. (Nominal) H14 h14 max. min. (7.85 kg/dm
3
) [pcs. per metric imperial
[mm] [mm][mm][mm][mm][mm][kg/1000 pcs.] box] [mm] [inch.]
402300 1.6 1.7 3.2 0.35 0.6 0.38 0.013 2000 1.6
404400 2 2.2 4 0.35 0.6 0.39 0.021 2000 2
406800 2.5 2.7 4.8 0.45 0.9 0.49 0.039 2000 2.5
409400 3 3.2 5.5 0.45 0.9 0.51 0.049 2000 3
1
/8"
411200 3.5 3.7 6 0.45 0.9 0.52 0.055 2000 3.5
412700 4 4.3 7 0.5 1.0 0.59 0.085 1000 4
5
/32"
414500 5 5.3 9 0.6 1.1 0.73 0.167 1000 5
3
/16"
416300 6 6.4 10 0.7 1.2 0.82 0.200 1000 6
418100 6.35 6.7 9.5 0.7 1.2 0.79 0.150 1000
1
/4"
419200 7 7.4 12 0.7 1.3 0.89 0.355 1000 7
420400 8 8.4 13 0.8 1.4 0.98 0.392 1000 8
5
/16"
423000 10 10.5 16 1 1.6 1.21 0.750 1000 10
3
/8"
425100 11.1 11.6 15.9 1 1.6 1.18 0.595 500
7
/16"
426200 12 13 18 1.1 1.7 1.31 0.879 500 12
427900 12.7 13.7 19 1.1 1.8 1.33 0.976 500
1
/2"
429100 14 15 22 1.2 2.0 1.52 1.641 500 14
9
/16"
430700 16 17 24 1.3 2.1 1.63 1.984 500 16
5
/8"
432400 18 19 27 1.5 2.3 1.85 2.970 250 18
Security Elements for Bolted Connections
141
Article Size d
1
d
2
s h h Weight Packaging for bolts
No. (Nominal) H14 h14 max. min. (7.85 kg/dm
3
) [pcs. per metric imperial
[mm] [mm][mm][mm][mm][mm][kg/1000 pcs.] box] [mm] [inch.]
433800 19 20 30 1.5 2.5 1.98 4.100 250
3
/4"
435100 20 21 30 1.5 2.5 1.94 3.742 250 20
436600 22 23 33 1.5 2.7 2.08 4.507 100 22
7
/8"
437900 24 25.6 36 1.8 2.9 2.32 5.910 100 24
439200 25.4 27 38 2 3.1 2.52 7.449 100 1"
440300 27 28.6 39 2 3.1 2.52 7.369 100 27
441500 30 31.6 45 2 3.6 2.78 10.78 100 30 1
1
/8"
442730 36 38 54 2.5 4.2 3.38 21.28 50 36 1
3
/8"
Article No.: Valid for normal execution (spring
steel, hardened, blackened)
h max.: Maximum dimension as de li ver ed
h min.: Minimum height after loading test
Available Spring steel as per DIN EN
10132-4;
materials: corrosion resistant steel 1.4301;
spring bronze CuSn8.
Available blackened, (Standard),
finishes: browned, phos pha ted,
zinc-plated, cadmium-plated
10
142
Dimension Table for “VS” Series Serrated Safety Washers (Rib Washers)
Figure 44
Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washer type „VS“
Designation for an Original SCHNORR Ser ra -
ted Safety Washer type “VS” size 16 of spring
steel with a mechanically zinc-plated, yel -
low-chromat ed surface:
Serrated Safety Washer VS 16 FSt mech Zn8 cC.
Article No.: Valid for normal execution (spring
steel, har de ned, blackened)
h max.: Maximum dimension as de li ver ed
h min.: Minimum height after loading test
Available Spring steel as per DIN 10132-4;
materials: corrosion resistant steel 1.4301;
spring bronze CuSn8.
Available blackened, (Standard),
finishes: browned, phos pha ted,
zinc-plated, cadmium-plated
Article Size d
1
d
2
s h h Weight Packaging for bolts
No. (Nominal) H14 h14 max. min. (7.85 kg/dm
3
) [pcs. metric imperial
[mm] [mm][mm][mm][mm][mm][kg/1000 pcs.] per box] [mm] [inch.]
414600 5 5.3 9 1 1.3 1.07 0.273 1000 5
3
/16"
416400 6 6.4 10 1 1.4 1.08 0.300 1000 6
420500 8 8.4 13 1.2 1.7 1.32 0.615 1000 8
5
/16"
423100 10 10.5 16 1.5 2 1.64 1.167 1000 10
3
/8"
426300 12 13 18 1.5 2.1 1.65 1.223 500 12
429200 14 15 22 1.5 2.2 1.76 2.089 500 14
9
/16"
430800 16 17 24 2 2.6 2.21 3.142 250 16
5
/8"
432500 18 19 27 2 2.7 2.27 4.041 250 18
435300 20 21 30 2 2.8 2.34 5.066 250 20
436700 22 23 33 2 3.0 2.42 6.117 100 22
7
/8"
438000 24 25.6 36 2.5 3.4 2.87 8.865 100 24
440400 27 28.6 39 2.5 3.5 2.91 9.731 100 27
441600 30 31.6 45 2.5 3.8 3.12 14.380 100 30 1
1
/8"
Security Elements for Bolted Connections
143
10
Load Washers
The term “load washer” is used to describe a
spring element in the form of a disc spring
which achieves its locking effect solely by
means of the frictional connection. These are
intended to compensate for loosening of the
screwed con nection, e.g. due to setting, by
maintaining a sufficiently high pretension in
the connection with spring force. They are
therefore especially suitable for primarily
axially loaded, short bolts. They provide no
effective security against un s crewing due to
alternating lateral loading.
Schnorr Load Washers offer the following
advanta ges:
1. High axial load
2. Optimum compensation for setting in the
joint
3. Reduction of the dynamic loading of the
screw due to higher elasticity of the joint
4. Uniform concentric loading eli mi na tes
ben ding in the bolt
5. Greater safety with high degree of spring
action
6. Suitable for captive fitting on a wide range
of bolts (combi bolts)
10.2
Heavy Duty Safety Washers (HDS) as per
DIN 6796
These HDS washers have been specifically
developed for high-strength bolts in the
strength classes 8.8 – 10.9 as per DIN ISO
898 Part 1 (SAE Grade 5). The loads of the
washers have been matched to these bolts
and are 70 to 90% of the bolt load in the flat
state.
These high loads naturally require large
cross-sections, which is why the outside
diameter of the load washer is considerably
larger than that of our Original SCHNORR
Serrated Safety Washers. As a result, the
area requir ed for a design with load washers
cannot be ignored.
As a highly progressive load increase
occurs at the end of the spring deflection
when the washer is flattened, the load has
been indicated as double the calculated value
in the following table. Tests have shown that
these values are compar able with the measur-
ed values.
The HDS washers contained in the table
conform to DIN 6796, Edition October 1987
“Conical spring washers for bolted con-
nections.” The test specifications are laid
down in DIN 267 Part 26 “Fasteners; tech ni-
cal spe ci fi ca ti ons for elements made of spring
steel for bolted connections.”
144
Dimension Table for HDS Washers as per DIN 6796
Figure 45
HDS Washer
Designation of a load washer size 8 of spring
steel: HDS Washer DIN 6796-8 FSt.
Article No.: Valid for the normal exe cu t i on in
spring steel, hardened, blank and
oi led
h max.: Maximum height as delivered
h min.: Minimum height after the setting
test as per DIN 267 part 26
Spring Load: Double the calculated spring
for ce in the flat condition for a
de flec tion h
min
– s
Test Load: Proof load for setting test as
per DIN 267 part 26
Article Size d
1
d
2
s h h
No. (Nominal) H 14 h14 max. min.
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]
700000 2 2.2 5 0.4 0.6 0.5
700100 2.5 2.7 6 0.5 0.72 0.61
700200 3 3.2 7 0.6 0.85 0.72
700300 3.5 3.7 8 0.8 1.06 0.92
700400 4 4.3 9 1 1.3 1.12
700500 5 5.3 11 1.2 1.55 1.35
700600 6 6.4 14 1.5 2 1.7
700700 7 7.4 17 1.75 2.3 2
700800 8 8.4 18 2 2.6 2.24
700900 10 10.5 23 2.5 3.2 2.8
701000 12 13 29 3 3.95 3.43
701100 14 15 35 3.5 4.65 4.04
701200 16 17 39 4 5.25 4.58
701300 18 19 42 4.5 5.8 5.08
701400 20 21 45 5 6.4 5.6
701500 22 23 49 5.5 7.05 6.15
701600 24 25 56 6 7.75 6.77
701700 27 28 60 6.5 8.35 7.3
701800 30 31 70 7 9.2 8
Security Elements for Bolted Connections
145
10
Technical specifications: as per DIN 267 part 26
Material: Spring steel to DIN EN 10132-4 or DIN 17221
Surface finish: Blank and oiled
Other materials and surface finishes availa ble on request.
Spring Load Test Load Weight for bolts
(7.85 kg/dm
3
) metric imperial
[N] [N] [kg/1000 pcs.] [mm] [inch]
628 920 0.050 2
946 1540 0.089 2.5
1320 2350 0.143 3
1
/8"
2410 3160 0.248 3.5
3770 4050 0.385 4
5
/32"
5480 6700 0.687 5
3
/16"
8590 9400 1.434 6 (
1
/4")
11300 13700 2.527 7
14900 17200 2.993 8
5
/16"
22100 27500 6.201 10
3
/8"
34100 40000 12.05 12 (
1
/2")
46000 55000 21.58 14
9
/16"
59700 75000 29.61 16
5
/8"
74400 95000 37.93 18
93200 122000 47.63 20 (
3
/4")
113700 152000 62.04 22
7
/8"
131000 175000 90.88 24
154000 230000 110.5 27 (1")
172000 280000 166.9 30 1
1
/8"
146
SCHNORR High Load Safety Washers „HS“
This safety washer is in principle a HDS
washer with a smaller outer diameter than
those in DIN 6796.
A notable feature of these washers is the
slightly curved form, which provides a pro-
gres si ve ly increasing cha rac te ri stic curve.
Despite the smaller outside dimensions, this
makes it possible to achieve the same load as
the HDS washers as per DIN 6796.
These washers are primarily used when
the space availa ble is insufficient for stand-
ardized load washers.
Dimension Table for “HS” Washers
Figure 46
Original SCHNORR High Load Safety Washer “HS”
10.3
Designation of a SCHNORR High Load Safe ty
Washer size12 of spring steel:
Safety Washer HS 12 - FSt.
Article Size d
1
d
2
s h h
No. (Nominal) H 14 h14 max. min.
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]
416320 6 6.4 12 1.5 1.9 1.64
416520 8 8.4 17 2 2.55 2.21
423220 10 10.5 21 2.5 3.15 2.75
426400 12 13 24 3 3.75 3.27
429320 14 15 28 3.5 4.35 3.8
430900 16 17 30 4 4.95 4.31
433750 18 19 33 4.5 5.5 4.8
435320 20 21 36 5 5.95 5.3
436620 22 23 40 5.5 6.7 5.9
439150 24 25 45 6 7.3 6.45
440100 27 28 50 6.5 8 7
442650 30 31 58 7 8.9 7.65
Article No.: Valid for the normal exe cu t i on in
spring steel, hardened, phosphat-
ed and oi led
h max.: Maximum height as delivered
h min.: Minimum height after the setting
test as per DIN 267 part 26
Spring Load: Double the calculated spring
for ce in the flat condition for
a de flec tion h
min
– s
Test Load: Proof load for setting test as
per DIN 267 part 26
Security Elements for Bolted Connections
147
Spring Load Test Load Weight Packaging for bolts
(7.85 kg/dm
3
) [pcs. per metric imperial
[N] [N] [kg/1000 pcs.] box] [mm] [inch]
8920 9400 0.943 2500 6 (
1
/4")
15100 17200 2.438 1000 8
5
/16"
23200 27500 4.915 500 10
3
/8"
34800 40000 7.194 250 12 (
1
/2")
44800 55000 11.61 100 14
9
/16"
62800 75000 14.50 100 16
5
/8"
72600 95000 19.36 100 18
92200 122000 25.33 100 20 (
3
/4")
120000 152000 35.07 100 22
7
/8"
135000 175000 50.28 50 24
155000 230000 66.94 50 27 (1")
180000 280000 101.0 50 30 1
1
/8"
Technical specifications: as per DIN 267 part 26
Material: Spring steel to DIN EN 10132-4 or DIN 17221
Surface finish: Phosphated and oiled
Other materials and surface finishes availa ble on request.
10
148
149
Supplement
Standards
DIN EN 10048 Hot-rolled narrow steel strip – Tolerances on dimensions and shape
DIN EN 10140 Colled rolled steel
DIN 2092 Disc springs; calculation
DIN 2093 Disc springs; dimensions and quality specifications
DIN 7521 Steel forgings; technical terms of delivery
DIN 17221 Hot rolled steels for quen ched and tempered springs
DIN EN 10132-4 Cold-rolled narrow steel strip for heat-treatment
Part 4: Spring steels and other applications
DIN EN 10151 Wire and strip of stainless steels for springs
DIN EN 10269 Steel and nickel alloys for fasteners with specified elevated and/or low
temperature properties
DIN EN 1652 Copper and copper alloys– Plate, sheet, strip and circles for general
purposes
DIN EN 1654 Copper and copper alloys – Strip for springs and connectors
DIN 50938 Alkaline blackening (black finishing) of iron ma te ri als
DIN 50942 Phosphating of metals
DIN 50960 Electroplated and chemical coatings; designation and specification in
tech ni cal documents
DIN EN 10258 Cold-rolled stainless steel narrow strip and cut lengths – Tolerances on
dimensions and shape
DIN EN 10029 Hot rolled steel plates 3 mm thick or above; Tolerances on dimensions,
shape and mass
DIN EN 10088-2 Stainless steels
150
Supplement
Further Sources
[1] Dubois, Fr.: Über die Festigkeit der Ke gel scha le
Dissertation, Zürich 1917
[2] Almen, J.O.; László, A.:The Uniform-Section Disk Spring
Trans. ASME 58 (1936), S. 305 – 314
[3] Hertzer, K. H.: Über die Dauerfestigkeit und das Setzen von Tel ler fe dern
Dissertation TH Braunschweig 1959
[4] Lutz, O.: Zur Berechnung der Tellerfeder
Konstruktion 12 (1960) 2, S. 57 – 59
[5] Schremmer, G.: Über die dynamische Festigkeit von Tellerfedern
Dissertation TH Braun schweig 1965
[6] Bühl, P.: Zur Spannungsberechnung von Tel ler fe dern
DRAHT 22 (1971) 11, S. 760 – 763
[7] Schremmer, G.: Die geschlitzte Tellerfeder
Konstruktion 24 (1972) 6, S. 226 – 229
[8] Bühl, P.: Maximale Höhen bei Tellerfedern aus Son der werk stof fen
DRAHT 25 (1974) 2, S. 63 – 65
[9] Bühl, P.: Mechanische Schwingungen bei Tel ler fe der säu len
DRAHT 28 (1977) 2, S. 48 – 53
[10] Curti, G.; Orlando, M.: Ein neues Be rech nungs ver fah ren für Tellerfedern
DRAHT 30 (1979) 1, S. 17 – 22
[11] Bühl, P.: Tellerfedern – gedreht oder fein ge schnit ten
DRAHT 31 (1980) 5, S. 295 – 299
[12] Curti, G.; Orlando, M.; Vereinfachtes Ver fah ren zur Be rech nung von Tellerfedern
Podda, G.: DRAHT 31 (1980) 11, S. 789 – 792

[13] Niepage, P.: Vergleich verschiedener Verfahren zur Be rech nung von Tel ler fe dern
DRAHT 34 (1983) 3, S. 105 – 108 und 5, S. 251 – 255
Please send your Enquiry Sheet to: Schnorr Corporation
4355 Varsity Drive Suite A
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Fax 734-975-0408
Phone 734-677-2683
eMail sales@schnorr.com
Internet http://www.schnorr.com
151

Please refer any questions to: Schnorr Corporation 4355 Varsity Drive Suite A Ann Arbor, MI 48108 Phone 734-677-2683 Fax 734-975-0408 eMail: sales@schnorr.com Internet: http://www.schnorr.com

© Adolf Schnorr GmbH + Co. KG 2003 All rights reserved. Reprinting, in full or part, is only possible with express permission and acknowledgement of the source. Compiled by Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Eberhard Fromm and Ing. (grad.) Wolfgang Kleiner. We reserve the right to make technical changes without notice. All information is published to the best of our knowledge and has been checked with great care. However, we can accept no responsibility for errors or omissions. We reserve the right to supply features other than those specified. Art.-No. 900 507 / 04.03 Production: Hela Werbung, Heilbronn

2

Introduction

p. 5

Theoretical basis This part contains the theoretical basis for the calculation and design of disc springs. You only need to consult chapter 1–2 if you yourself are specifying a special spring size or wish to analyse an existing spring with regard to load and stress.

Basic Calculation with Examples

p. 13

1

Design and Operation Limits

p. 29

2

Possible Combinations

p. 35

3

Practical use of disc springs This part answers questions resulting from the practical use of disc springs. It is best to select a disc spring by consulting the tables in chapter 9.

Manufacture

p. 41

4

Tolerances

p. 49

5

Application

p. 55

6

Materials

p. 65

7

Special Types

p. 77

8

Dimensional Tables

p. 81

9

Firm grip for bolts by SCHNORR®-Serrated Safety Washers (Rib washers) and SCHNORR HDS Load Washers

Security Elements for Bolted Connections

p. 137 10

Supplement

p. 149

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is a mirror of SCHNORR’s endeavours. The 1942 issue. SCHNORR would like to acknowledge and thank all of its colleagues at the Technical Universities of Braunschweig and Darmstadt for their suggestions and developments in the field of disc springs. SCHNORR has constantly raised the quality of its products and researched solutions to customer problems. the development of the SCHNORR® Handbook for Disc Springs. Manager Adolf Schnorr GmbH + Co. which had its origin in the 1930s.Foreword SCHNORR has now manufactured Disc Springs for over 60 years. as it has been for many decades. KG 4 . This period has been marked by extraordinary technical developments and Disc Springs have found many new and important applications due to their special characteristics and advantages. already contained characteristic diagrams for 21 standard springs as well as application and installation standards and instructions for empirically based spring calculations. Dieter Jentsch. Each new issue revised the technical content to conform to the state of the art. 60 years ago. Looking back. Their continued collaboration will ensure that the SCHNORR® Handbook continues to be the source of technical advise on Disc Springs. In order to meet customer requirements.

The importance this invention achieved is unknown. Today this tends to denote a disc spring of inferior quality. A spring stack can consist of either single springs or parallel spring sets. Dubois develop the theory on which the calculation of the disc spring is based in his dissertation “The Strength of the Conical Shell” [1] at the ETH in Zurich. it is still an old established machine component. Almen and László. However.1861 to be precise) Julien Francois Belleville of Dunkirk was granted French Patent Number 52399 for a spring design which already contained the principle of the disc spring.Introduction A disc spring is a conical shell which can be loaded along its axis either statically or dynamically. The original inventor is not known. 1995 5 . it still took several decades until this was adopted in practice. but more than 130 years ago (on 26. The loads are normally applied to the upper inner edge and the lower outer edge. published a simplified method of calculation [2] which allowed a quick and practically correct method for calculating disc springs. The Story of the Disc Spring Although the disc spring has found a wider application during the last few decades. For a long time disc springs continued to be calculated – if at all – in accordance with the theory of the flat perforated plate. Either a single spring or a stack of springs can be used. but the fact that even today France and the Anglo Saxon countries still speak of “Belleville Springs” infers a broad dissemination of this or similar springs. Not until 1917 did Fr. Then in 1936 two Americans. This is no wonder considering that in the last century neither the theoretical conditions for calculations nor the necessary materials for manufacture were available. SCHNORR was and is substancially involved in the development of disc springs.12. which still reflects the not always satisfactory design and function of springs at that time. Disc springs are available either with or without contact flats. 1940 As these two documents substantiate.

Due to the nearly unlimited number of possible combinations of individual disc springs. From that time on SCHNORR has manufactured disc springs and continually opened up new applications with its many domestic and foreign customers. 6. 4. force transmission is abso lutely concentric. 5. where the disc spring is especially ad van tage ous because of the large num ber of variations possible with the same spring size. Initially he produced only for his own needs. 8. Provided the permissible stress is not exceeded. the disc spring has a number of advantageous properties. After the war the conditions were created for the introduction of the disc spring into all areas of technology. Stock keeping is minimised. the disc spring had been introduced into numerous areas of technology. Calculation methods and material technology were further developed. new applications were quickly found in machine. With suitable arrangement. already began to experiment with the disc spring in the 1920s. Because the springs are of an annular shape. a large damping effect may be achieved. Technological development is often advanced rapidly in time of war. engine and motor vehicle manufacture. its excellent damping characteristics with multiple parallel layers were utilised for the suspension of artillery breeches. with which he had made himself a name. who had founded a mechanical workshop in 1908. he went about producing these springs himself. of which the following should be named: 1. The disc spring was no exception and its spreading was strongly promoted by the Second World War. but the demand had already increased so greatly by the early 1930s that he decided to give up toolmaking for customers and devote himself entirely to the manufacture of the “SCHNORR Spring”. 2. Adolf Schnorr. its spring characteristic can be designed to be linear or regressive and with a suitable arrangement also progressive. He needed high-quality springs for precision tools. As he was unable to procure them anywhere. and had come across the disc spring after a long search. no impermissible relaxation occurs. the characteristic curve and the column length can be further varied within additional limits. Depending on the dimensional relationships. 6 . as the individual spring sizes can be combined universally. Starting with applications in the construction of cutting and presswork tools. For example. On the basis of these excellent properties. 3. Features of the Disc Spring Compared with other types of springs. Very large loads can be supported with a small installation space. High service life under dynamic load if the spring is properly dimensioned. the disc spring has been adopted in nearly all areas of technology during the last several decades. 7.Introduction In the meantime.

then their forces add up (chapter 3).e. Guide The surface of guide elements in dynamic disc spring applications always has to be harder than the disc springs themselves. Also the spring force rises in the last part of the load/ deflection curve more than calculated. Different types of stacking in one spring stack can be used to generate a progressive character line. when the spring is loaded in between two parallel planes.5).Checklist for disc spring design Due to the relatively simple geometrical shape the complexity of disc springs in production and application is very often underrated. the most important aspects are summarized here. which means their deflections add up. Then it is very difficult to find better substitutes. The maximum allowable limit is given by the reference stress σom. They so to speak have to be pressed even. since the leverage changes due to the never ideally even surfaces (see chapter 1. Dynamic loading Most of the disc springs only can bear a limited dynamic load. Stacking Disc springs can be stacked „face to face“ (series arrangement).2 and chapter „diagrams“). There are possibilities for mistakes in outlining a disc spring solution.2). because most of the times the installation space is fixed. which is not allowed in dynamic loading. otherwise 7 . because these normally are pressed flat quite fast. Spring force The calculation of the force of a disc spring is based on a model by Almen and László. can be estimated from fatigue diagrams (chapter 2. Static loading In the design of a new disc spring a certain stress level should not be surpassed for static loading.2). The various possibilities of stacking disc springs can be combined in a stack.7). i. or they can be stacked in the same sense (parallel arrangement). A minimum of 55 HRC is advisable. which is to be expected under a certain load condition. It is necessary to pay attention to the weaker parts in a combined stacking though. The main difficulty is to realize these in the design stage to get an optimum disc spring solution. With a correct design these problems are easy to avoid. The life time depends on the load span as well as on the load level (chapter 2. It is also necessary to preload disc springs in a dynamic application to at least 15% to 20% of their maximum deflection. Thus the force in loading direction is higher and in unloading direction lower than the calculated force. setting losses (chapter 2.1). The number of cycles. Yet there is a slow rise at the beginning of the measured load/deflection curve. which inevitably cause faulty design or even failures later on. because disc springs never are perfectly symmetrical. to avoid compression-tension alternating stresses in the beginning of the deflection range of the spring (chapter 2. If necessary a deflection limitation has to be provided. Since for most of the designers the disc spring is not daily bread and to many the rules for disc spring design are little known. Applying suitable lubrication (MoS2 containig grease) can reduce the hysteresis effect. Its value should not exceed the value of the tensile strength Rm of the material to avoid plastic deformations of the spring. The latter induces increased friction and a stronger hysteresis effect (chapter 6. Its accuracy in the usable range of the character line of the spring is very good.

Hydrogen embrittlement During the application of certain chemical or electrochemical processes (such as galvanic coating) hydrogen can get into the material and can cause delayed brittle fractures. This cannot be avoided entirely by thermal treatment. In general special materials have a lower tensile strength and most of the times a different Young’s modulus compared to the standard spring steels.4). It is always used as long as there are no particular circumstances. in plastic deformation (setting losses). the stack can be stabilized by dividing it with guide washers. 8 . which means that the spring forces are lower (chapter 7). This effect usually can be neglected for a „normal“ spring stack. Too high temperatures may have a tempering offset. are to be preferred. which as a rule of thumb should have a thickness of at least one and a half times the guide diameter (chapter 6. Therefore the length of a spring stack should not exceed three times the value of the outer diameter.4). Temperature The different materials have different temperature ranges (see table chapter 7. in extreme cases. Wrong guide clearance also can change the dynamics of loading in a detrimental way (chapter 6. Stack length Friction and other influences make a spring stack move unevenly. If it is longer. which again results in a loss of force and. Material The best material for disc springs is standard spring steel. It deflects more on the side of the loading. but not for long stacks.Introduction the surfaces can be damaged. which may necessitate a special material. This again causes uneven movement during the deflection of the spring.1).3). Therefore springs out of these materials generally cannot be designed with the same free height. The characteristics will be changed and even fatigue cracks can occur (chapter 6. Such materials are only available in a limited variety of thicknesses (table chapter 7. Also almost all high alloy steels may show stress corrosion cracking at high working stresses. Corrosion Disc springs can be protected against corrosion either by suitable coatings or by using corrosion resistant materials.4). Thus processes. which do not bear this risk.

Almen and A.0 mm of spring steel and all technically possible special materials. material. dimensions and quality specifications. Such springs of- . László [2] which has been proven in practice for many years. It has been modified in the last few years to include disc springs with contact flats. we also supply many disc springs in special sizes from 3. DIN 2092 covers the standard calculations based on a paper by J. These standards are governing our production and are also basic for the pre sent SCHNORR ® Handbook for Disc Springs. DIN 2093 contains 3 dimensional series for disc springs differentiated by outer diameter. guide clearance and the testing of disc springs. Details of these requirements can be found in chapter 2 and 4 – 7. for which we also apply the quality regulations of DIN 2093. dimensions.O. Besides these. calculation and ● DIN 2093 Disc Springs.0 mm in diameter and up to a thickness of 80.Standards for Disc Springs For disc springs the following 2 standards are applicable: ● DIN 2092 Disc Springs. The technical data for all these springs of standard spring steel can be found in the tables in chapter 9. These also include the springs of the ”Z“ series with dimensions in inches and the ”K“ series intended for the special purpose of preload9 ing ball bearings. we manufacture many more spring sizes in accordance with our works standard.0 mm to 1000. Disk Springs from the SCHNORR Product Range The SCHNORR® Production Programme In addition to springs as per the dimensions contained in DIN 2093. thickness and h0/t ratio. permissible set. permissible stress. New editions of both of these appeared in January 1992. It also contains comprehensive quality requirements for type.

in each individual case the practicality of production must be examined. However. experience and resources in the calculation and design of disc springs. when we will gladly offer our knowledge. These are detailed in chapter 10 together with Load Washers as per DIN 6796. We have developed our Original SCHNORR® Serrated Safety Washers for this purpose.Introduction fer the advantage of being optimally adapted to the respective requirements. and the final decision always remains ours. From section “Features of the Disc Spring” it can also be seen that the characteristics of the disc spring are also excellently suited for locking screw. 10 . We recommend you contact our Technical Consulting Service in the design stage.

K2. F2. L3 Lc N R W N/mm Nmm mm mm mm Unit mm mm mm mm N/mm N N N N N 2 Designation Outside diameter Inside diameter Diameter at the root of slots in a disc spring Diameter of centre of rotation Young’s modulus Spring force of a single spring Spring force for deflections s1. L2. cross-section and position of reference points b) with contact flats Symbols and Units Symbols De Di Dw D0 E F F1. F2. s2.K3.Diagram of a Disc Spring a) without contact flats Figure 1 Single spring. F3 Calculated length of the spring stack or set when springs are flat Number of cycles to failure Spring rate Spring work 11 . s3 Calculated spring force of a single spring when flat Spring force of a spring set or stack Force lost in setting Constants for calculations (see chapter 1) Unloaded length of the spring stack or spring sets Length of the loaded spring stack or spring set for forces F1. F3 Fc Fges ∆F K1.K4 L0 L1.

3) Calculated stress Calculated stress at points OM. II. s2. F2.Introduction Symbols h0 h0’ i l0 n s s1. σIII. σII. calculated h0’ = l0 – t’) No. of single springs or sets in series in a stack Height of an unloaded single spring No. I. III and IV as per figure 1 Calculated maximum stress for springs with dynamic loads Calculated minimum stress for springs with dynamic loads Stress range for the working stroke of dynamically loaded springs Maximum stress for fatigue resistance Minimum stress for fatigue resistance Permissible stress range for fatigue resistance mm mm mm mm mm mm N/mm2 12 . of parallel springs in a set Deflection of a single spring Deflections relative to loads F1. F3 Deflection of a spring set or stack Thickness of individual Reduced spring thickness for springs with contact flats (group 3) Friction factors Diameter ratio Poisson's ratio (for spring steel = 0. s3 sges t t’ wM. σIV σo σu σh σO σU σH = σ O – σ U N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm 2 Unit mm mm Designation Cone height of an unloaded single spring (calculated h0 = l0 – t) Cone height of an unloaded spring with reduced thickness t’ (and contact flats. wR δ = De/Di µ σ σOM. σI.

Basic Calculation Chapter 1 13 .

............................................................Basic Calculation 1.............5 Disc Springs of Special Materials ............................................................................................ 17 Spring Work..1 Calculation for a Single Spring .......3 Disc Springs without Contact Flats ................................................................................................................................... 15 Spring Force....................................................................4 Disc Springs with Contact Flats and Reduced Thickness ..................................8 Calculation Examples ................................................................................................................ 18 1........ 24 14 ......... 16 Stress Calculations................6 Spring Parameters for Dimensions and Calculation .....................2 Equations for Calculations ....................................................................................7 Characteristics of a Single Spring ......................... 17 Spring Rate ....... 19 1.......................................... 18 1................... 21 1............................................................................................................. 15 Characteristics .......... 15 1.............................. 22 1.......................................................... 21 1................

1. Figure 2 Position of the centre of rotation and point OM 1.2 Equations for Calculations These are valid for all disc springs: Characteristics Formula 2 Formula 3 δ = De / Di  δ − 1   1  δ  K1 = • π δ +1− 2 δ − 1 ln δ δ −1 −1 6 ln δ K2 = • π ln δ K3 = 3 δ −1 • π ln δ C1 C  +  1  + C2  2 2 2 2 Formula 4 Formula 5  t'     t with C1 =  1 l0 t' 3   5 l0 t' 3   • − +  • − +   4 t t 4  8 t t 8 2 Formula 6 K4 = − 15 . the spring cross-section is rectangular with sharp corners and the spring remains in one plane during deflection. The load is applied at points I and III. There is residual stress in the spring after being manufactured and heat treated and can be ignored. Formula 1 D0 = De − Di ln De / Di Although today there are more accurate methods of calculation [10] [12] [13].1 Calculation for a Single Spring The calculations of Almen and László assume that a spring flank rotates arround a centre of rotation during deflection. there is no reason to abandon the simple and convenient formulas of DIN 2092. 1 The rotation of the cross section is the reason for the various stresses and the spring effect. For standard dimensions they produce values which correspond well to the measured results. The calculations assume that Young’s modulus ‘E’ remains linear for the material. placed in the centre of the spring flank at diameter D0.

The limitations and extent of this are explained in greater detail in chapter 1. decreases with increasing stroke. Figure 3 Spring characteristic cur ve with respect to ho/t and s/ho 16 . as can be seen in figure 3. t’ and h0’ must be used (h0’ = l0 – t’): Formula 8b F= 4E t'4 s   h' s   h' s   • K2 • K2  0 −   0 −  +1 4 2 4 2 t'   t' t'   t' 2 t'   1− µ K1 • De The force of a disc spring does not increase linearly with the deflection. formula 7 provides values which correspond closely to the measured values. the rate. i. For steel springs with dimensions in accordance with DIN 2093. Its pitch.Basic Calculation Spring Force Formula 7 F= 4E t4 s s   h s h • • K2 • K2 •  0 −   0 −  + 1 4 4 2 2  t t   t 2t   t 1− µ K1 • De For disc springs manufactured to group 1 and 2 (chapter 4) K4 = 1: Formula 8a F= 4E t4 s  h s h s  • •  o −   o −  + 1   2 2 t   t 2t   1− µ K1 • De t  t   For disc springs manufactured to group 3 with contact flats and reduced thickness. See also chapter 1.e. Young’s modulus ‘E’ is virtually independent of the heat treatment condition and tensile strength of the material. but is always regressively curved. The rate of curvature is determined exclusively by the ratio h0/t.

s2 can be approximated by means of the following simple formula: Formula 15 R= F2 − F1 s2 − s1 17 . the following formula is obtained for spring rate R: Formula 14 2   h  2 dF 4E t3 h s 3  s     = • • K2 • K2  0  − 3 • 0 • +    + 1 4 4 ds 1 − µ2 K1 • D2 t t 2 t     t  e     R= The spring rate between any two adjacent points. Positive values are tensile stress and negative values are compressive stress. Formula 11 Formula 12 σlll = − Formula 13 σlV = − Here 4E = 905 495 N / mm2 1 − µ2 also applies to spring steel.Stress Calculations Formula 9 σOM = − Formula 10 4E t2 s 3 • • K4 • • 2 t π 1− µ K1 • D2 e 1  4E t2 s s h σl = − • • K4 • K4 • K2  0 −  + K3  2  t 2t  t 1 − µ K1 • D2  e σll = −  4E t2 s s h • • K4 • K4 • K2  0 −  − K3  2 2  t 2t  t 1 − µ K1 • De   4E 1 s t2 s h • • K4 • • K4 • (K2 − 2K3 ) •  0 −  − K3  2  t 2t  δ t 1− µ K1 • D2  e  4E 1 s t2 s h • • K4 • • K4 • (K2 − 2K3 ) •  0 −  + K3  2  t 2t  δ t 1− µ K1 • D2  e member that this the calculated stress is a nominal value and that the actual stress is considerably lower. s1 and F2. as it is considerably influenced by the ever-present internal stress. It is important to re- Spring Rate Through differentiation of the spring load F in accordance with the deflection s. F1.

1. we manufacture all springs with a slightly reduced disc thickness. Therefore.Basic Calculation Spring Work The work done by a disc spring can be obtained by integrating formula 7 for the load F according to the deflection s: Formula 16 W = F • ds = 0 ∫ S 2E 1− µ 2 • 2 2  s h  s  • K 2 •   • K 2 •  0 −  + 1 4 4 2  t   t 2t  K 1 • De    t5 For a limited area of application it can be integrated between the two deflections s1 and s2. This applies to all disc springs in production groups 1 and 2 (see chapter 2). the lever arms are shortened even further. in virtually all springs compared to the values calculated with formula 7. Figure 4 Cross-section of a disc spring in group 2 18 . This reduction in the lever arm length is also an explanation for the fact that the permissible deviations for the spring loads for groups 1 and 2 are considerably larger toward the plus than the minus side. as is specified for springs in groups 1 and 2. the application of load in practice always takes place via slightly shortened lever arms (figure 4). with a thickness of up to 6. Due to the h/H tolerance for the outer and inner diameters.3 Disc Springs without Contact Flats For disc springs without contact flats K4 = 1 and h0 = l0– t. This results in an increase in the spring load by the factor De − Di De' − Di' This conditions takes the standard DIN 2093 into consideration in that the thickness tolerances toward the minus side are clearly larger than toward the plus side. i. Because of the rectangular cross-section with rounded corners.e.0 mm.

springs with reduced thickness inevitably have an increased flank angle and a greater cone height h0’ than springs of the same nominal dimension without reduced thickness. ● The spring load for a reduced-thickness spring must be the same at s = 0. The dimension t’ is specified for those disc springs contained in DIN 2093. The reduced thickness t’ is specified in accordance with the following conditions: ● The overall height l0 remains unaltered. The corresponding springs of our factory standard are also manufactured in the same manner. DIN 2093 specifies small contact surfaces at points I and III in addition to the rounded corners. For springs with different stress sOM. Figure 5 shows a schematic cross-section of a spring in group 3 as per DIN 2093.94 C 0.96 1 For other springs the factor for t’/t is dependent on the dimensional ratio δ and h0/t from figure 6. The mean factor t’/t is: Series t’/t A 0. ● The width of the contact flats is to be approximately 1/150 of the outside diameter. When calculating disc springs with contact flats and reduced thickness. The curves were calculated for disc springs with σOM = –1600 N/mm2. reduce friction at the guide rod. the factor K4 must be calculated using formula 6.4 Disc Springs with Contact Flats and Reduced Thickness For disc springs with a thickness of more than 6. Therefore. This is in turn compensated for by a reduction in the spring thickness from t to t’. Figure 7 shows the characteristic curves for springs of the series A. Figure 5 Cross-section of a disc spring in group 3 19 . B and C as per DIN 2093 with and without contact flats and reduced thickness. particularly for spring stacks.0 mm.1. we would ask you to contact our Technical department. As the overall height is not reduced. and t replaced with t’ and h0 with h0’ = l0 – t’ in the equations 7 to 16. the characteristic curve is altered and becomes more curved. The result is a considerable reduction in the lever arm length and a corresponding increase in the spring load. These contact flats improve definition of the point of load application and.94 B 0.75 h0 as for an unreduced spring.

Fc is valid for springs without contact flats (continuos line). 20 .Basic Calculation Figure 6 Factor t’/t for disc springs with sOM = –1600 N/mm2 Figure 7 Calculated characteristics for disc springs with and without contact flats.

ho/t = De/t = If at all possible. 21 . For very thin disc springs (De/t > 50) the formula results in spring forces which are too high. This is brought about by the rectangular cross-section and by the rounded edges (chapter 1) and results in the calculation of too low a load.75. the shortening of the lever arm must be considered when calculating the force... the parameters above should be within the following values: δ = 1.4.1.5 h0/t = 0. but that the value of 0.3 De/t = 16.. In all such cases please consult us. 1 1.5 Disc Springs of Special Materials When special materials are used with different ‘E’ moduli and Poisson’s ratio µ. smaller values of h0/t and De/t also apply and vice-versa.1.. For very narrow disc washers with a ratio of diameters of De/Di < 1.75. formula 7 can be used without restriction.40 For smaller values δ. it is recommended that the corresponding ‘E’ modulus is used..6 Spring Parameters for Dimensions and Calculation Disc springs are determined essentially by the following three parameters: δ = Outside diameter De Innendurchmesser Di Cone height l0 – t Disc thickness t Outside diameter De Disc thickness t For steel springs with dimensions within these limits. however this is more or less balanced out again by radii and crosssection-related shortening of the lever arm. This is justified with the fact that formula 7 for steel with E = 206 000 N/mm2 and µ = 0..3 provides loads 8 – 9% higher.2.91 for 1–µ2 be retained.

3 is not suitable for long spring stacks. as the value h0/t increases. From the dependence of the characteristic curvature from the ratio h0/t. If. such springs should only be used alone. 22 . a spring calculation cannot predict this in a satisfactory manner. as these increase with increasing cone height h0. This means that springs can be developed with an almost horizontal characteristic. this type of spring with h0/t > 1. On the other hand.Basic Calculation 1. the _ curve becomes more regressive. for example. For h0/t < 0.7 Characteristics of a Single Spring The value h0/t determines the amount of curvature of the spring characteristic (figure 3). Here. At h0/t = √2 the curve has a nearly horizontal segment (at s = h0 it has a horizontal tangent). however. the force of the flattened disc spring increases linearly. follows that Figure 8 Characteristic of a sin gle disc with different height h0 the characteristic curve of disc springs of the same dimensions changes when they are formed to a different height. at the same height h0. Conversely. then a first step in the form of a change in the free height may already produce the desired load/deflection diagram. which gives very little load increase with deflection. a thinner disc will have a more regressive characteristic curve than a thicker disc (figure 8). as individual springs within the stack may move unevenly and be overloaded.4. As a result. However. the permissible stress must be observed. the characteristic is almost linear.

Therefore. because the disc springs roll on each other or on the abutments. for which certain design conditions must be given (figure 9).75 h0 which deviates from the calculated value. Under certain conditions the spring must be loaded beyond the flat position. This results from the shift in the load points to smaller lever arms. the spring force reaches a maximum and then decreases again. 1 Figure 9 Spring loaded beyond the flat position For the normal arrangement of disc springs a progressive increase in the spring force occurs at deflections of s > 0._ At h0/t > √2. In some cases the decreasing segment of the curve is utilised. 75 to 80 % of the spring deflection is utilised. it is recommended that only approx.75 h0 in DIN 2093 (figure 10). For this reason. Figure 10 Calculated and actual characteristic 23 . the spring force is only indicated at s ≈ 0.

8 Calculation Examples The section ”Diagrams“ contains the characteristics for all springs in our standard range.75.4 x 1.650 0.325 0.25 0. Example 1: Checking Fatigue Life of a Disc Spring Given: Spring 45 x 22. In spite of this we show several examples of the calculation and checking of disc springs below.0 s [mm] 0. l0 = 3.980 1.4 x 1. With the help of these four points the load and stress relative to the deflection may be drawn. Therefore the spring is fatigue resistant as σo< σO. we obtain σU= 450 N/mm2 with a maximum stress of σO = 920 N/mm2.75. l0 = 3.64 mm σu = 450 N/mm² σo = 804 N/mm² From the fatigue diagram for group 2 springs figure 19.05 mm The following values may be obtained from the diagram (figure 12): s1 = 0.Basic Calculation 1.05 mm 24 .05 mm Preload F1 = 1580 N Final load F2 = 2670 N Frequency f = 1000/min To be determined: Is the stress within the acceptable range – what is the estimated fatigue life. Figure 12 Diagram for spring 45 x 22.5 0. l0 = 3. The ”life lines“ also allow the fatigue life to be estimated for various working strokes.75 1. s2 = 0.4 x 1.2 we can obtain the following data: s/h0 0.300 F [N] 1524 2701 3659 4475 s [N/mm²] 433 814 1148 1421 Figure 11 Disc spring 45 x 22. Solution: From the tables of section 9.34 mm.75 mm.

75 1.0 F [N] 1338 2058 2367 2469 With these 4 points the spring diagram can be drawn.5 mm Spring outside diameter De = 60 mm (selected because of the favourable De/ Di ratio). Selected: Disc spring 60 x 30.Example 2: Disc Springs with a high h0 /t Ratio Given: Guide diameter 30 mm Installed length l1 Preload F1 Working defl.0 1.9 mm 2000 N min. One obtains the following values: s/h0 0.25 0. 4 and 5: K1 = 0. s2 – s1 Spring load F2 = = = = 4.5 x 1.5 mm 1 Required: Suitable Disc Spring Dimensions Solution: Spring inside diameter Di = 30.688 K2 = 1. Figure 14 Diagram for spring 60 x 30.5 mm h0/t = 1. s = 0.365 The stress σOM can be checked using formula 9: σOM = –1048 N/mm² This value lies well under the limit of –1600 N/mm².212 K3 = 1. δ = 1.5 1.0 s [mm] 0.5 h0. l0 = 3.5 mm.5 0.25h0. the spring will therefore not set.75h0 and s = h0. Figure 13 Disc spring 60 x 30. preferably for the 4 deflections s = 0.967 Calculation: First the factors are calculated using formula 3. Because of the very small load range and the small installed length only a spring with a high h0/t ratio is suitable.5 x 1.05 mm 2500 N max.5 2.5 mm. Now the spring loads can be calculated to formula 8a. s = 0. l0 = 3.333. 1.5 mm 25 .5 x 1.

439. From the formula 3 to 5 we first calculate the constants K1 to K3: K1 = 0. h0/t = 0.15 mm F2 = 2390 N L0 L1 s1 F1 By utilising the fatigue life diagram in figure 19 we can see that the expected life will be in the order of 1.05 Final load = 7.5 mm and h0’ = 5. Constant K4 can be calculated from formula 6: K4 = 1.90 mm = 2.0 mm = 4. Figure 17 shows that point III is the dominant one.315 K3 = 1.6 mm. From figure 6 and considering d and h0/t the reduction factor t’/ t can be obtained: t’/t = 0. this gives: s1: s2: σu = 843 N/mm² σo = 1147 N/mm² The deflection of a single spring is not sufficient.61 mm s2 – s1 = 0.6 mm h0= 4. the reduced thickness is not considered and we use the values of t and h0. therefore two in series must be used.05 mm F2 = 2400 N s2 = 1.Basic Calculation One can read and for Deflection F1 = 2100 N s1 = 1.1 mm.000. δ = 2.0537 Figure 15 Disc spring 200 x 82 x 12 mm 26 .000 cycles.958 Therefore t’ = 11.05 and s2 = 1. Example 3: Calculation of a Disc Spring with Contact Flats Given: Disc spring 200 x 82 x 12 mm.541 The static design can be checked by the calculation of σOM. This arrangement gives: Unloaded length: Preloaded length: Preloaded deflection: Preload: Deflection s2 = s1 + 1.383 Required: The spring characteristic and the stresses σII and σIII Although this spring is to our works standard we show below how the calculations are made and results can be checked in the tables section 9.56 mm To check the fatigue life we must use the stresses at s1 = 1.1 mm = 2100 N = 3.755 K2 = 1. l0 = 16. This gives: σOM = –1579 N/mm² As the acceptable value for σOM is 1600 N/mm².575 mm. the spring is correct.2.

11 and 12 the spring force and both stresses can be calculated: s/h0 s [mm] F [N] σII [N/mm2] σIII [N/mm2] 0. Finally the value of the stress σOM for the reduced thickness can be checked: σOM’ = σOM · K4 · t’/t σOM’ = –1595 N/mm² 27 .1 Figure 16 Spring force and stresses for spring 200 x 82 x 12 mm.6 mm Now from formula 8b.15 66924 416 389 0. t’ = 11.5 l0 = 6.75 3.6 235503 2011 1366 With this spring the greater values of stress are on the inner diameter which should be used.5 2.3 127191 890 747 0.45 182737 1421 1072 1.0 4.25 1.

28 .

Design and Operation Limits Chapter 2 29 .

........................................................................................................................................................................................... 32 Minimum Preload to Prevent Superficial Cracks ................... 31 Static Design ....................................................................................................... 33 30 ...... 31 2..........................................2 Permissible Stress for Dynamic Loads ............................. 31 Permissible Stress ..........................................................Design and Operation Limits 2...... 31 Critical Stress Affecting Dynamic Failure........... 32 Permissible Stress .............................1 Allowable Stress for Static or Quasistatic Loads ......................................

please consult us. non-changing loads b) Disc springs are subject to occasional load changes at greater time intervals and less than 10. 31 . the respective applicable yield point values must be used. The stress σOM at point OM defined in formula 9 applies here.1 Allowable Stress for Static or Quasistatic Loads Static Design Static or rarely changing loads exist when: a) Disc springs carry only static.2 Permissible Stress for Dynamic Loads Dynamic loads occur in disc springs when the load continuously changes between a preload deflection s1 and a deflection s2. when the stresses in certain areas exceed the yield strength.2. dynamically loaded disc springs can be divided into two groups by service life (see also DIN 50100): a) Disc springs with longer life. Under the influence of a change in stress of σh. These disc springs are intended to achieve a limited number of load cycles in the range between 104 ≤ N < 2 · 106 before failure. These disc springs are intended to withstand load cycles of at least 2 · 106 and more without breaking. For spring steel as per DIN EN 10132-4 and DIN 17221 the tensile strength is Rm≈1600 N/mm2. If a considerably longer life is required. For this reason. Its value should not exceed the tensile strength Rm of the material used. As these springs have been manufactured for years with this overall height l0.000 load cycles during the planned service life. Permissible Stress Plastic de for ma ti ons occur. Disc springs are normally designed with an overall height l0. b) Disc springs with a limited service life. Disc springs as per DIN 2093 and our factory standards listed in the tables in chapter 9 were designed according to an earlier method using the stress at point I. It may be that only an endurance test can provide exact information. we have not changed the height. Reference stress is σOM. With these types of springs there is the possibility of slight setting in use. some of these springs exceed the permissible stress at the point OM. For other materials. 2 2. so that they can be flattened under static or rarely changing loads without the overall height l0 reducing by more than the permissible tolerance.

In dependency on the dimensional ratios δ = De/Di and h0/t and the relative deflection s/h0. which causes a plastic deformation in the region of crosssectional point I (see section 4. To avoid these the tensile stress must be balanced out by applying a suitable prestress. 32 . This results in residual tensile stress at this point in the unloaded spring.20 h0. Figure 17 Decisive point of crosssection to be used to determine fatigue life We recommend calculating the stress for both points using formulas 11 and 12 . dynamically loaded disc springs should be preloaded to at least s = 0. the calculated tensile stress on the underside of the spring are the determining factors. Whether point II or point III is decisive can be derived figure 17 for springs with and without contact flats. Minimum Preload to Prevent Superficial Cracks After heat treatment all disc springs are going to be scragged or prestressed. as fatigue cracks always start here.4). When loaded there is then a change from tensile to compressive stress which can result in the formation of cracks during dynamic loading. the largest stress range σh may occur at both point II and point III. Therefore.Design and Operation Limits Critical Stress Affecting Dynamic Failure For disc springs carrying dynamic loading.15 to 0. Use the larger value to determine fatigue life using the applicable diagrams (figure 18 – 20).

These groups are divided by the disc thickness as follows: Group 1: t less than 1. The diagrams are applicable to single springs and spring stacks with up to 10 single springs stacked in series. 2 Figure 18 Fatigue resistance diagram for group 1 It should be noted that in practice the type of loads applied in many cases deviates from a nearly sinusoidal frequency.20 h0 (page 32). These provide standard values of the permissible stress range σH for N ≥ 2·106.25 to 6 mm Group 3: t over 6 to 14 mm These diagrams were developed from laboratory tests on test machines with an even sinusoidal load by means of statistical evaluation.Permissible Stress The stress calculated for the working range of the spring is compared with the fatigue diagrams in figure 18 – 20. operating at room temperature with hardened and perfectly finished inner or outer guides and minimum preload deflection of s1 = 0. 33 . non-shotpeened disc springs. In the case of an impact-type load cycle and as the result of natural frequencies. The values of the diagrams may only be used for these types of loading under inclusion of the appropriate safety factors. A fatigue diagram is indicated for each of the 3 manufacturing groups as per DIN 2093.25 mm Group 2: t = 1.15 to 0. N = 5·105 and N = 105 load cycles in dependency on the minimum stress σU for dynamically loaded. This means that for a large enough sample a failure rate of 1% can be expected due to fatigue. Intermediate values for other load cycles can be estimated. whereby a survival rate of 99% was assumed. the actual material load- ing is considerably greater than the calculated value.

for spring stacks with more than 10 or with multiply parallelstacked individual springs. Figure 19 Fatigue resistance diagram for group 2 Figure 20 Fatigue resistance diagram for group 3 34 .Design and Operation Limits For disc springs of materials others than those specified in DIN 2093. In such cases additional safety factors must also be applied and we recommend that you consult us. and in the case of other unfavourable influences of a chemical or thermal nature. sufficient data to predict fatigue are not yet available.

Possible Combinations Chapter 3 35 .

.........................1 Possible Combinations of Single Springs ....................................3 Stacks in Parallel ... 39 36 ..........................5 Progressive Spring Characteristics ...................................................................... 38 3...2 Stacks in Series .................................... 37 3..... 37 3..................................................... 38 3................Possible Combinations 3..................4 Stacks from Spring Sets ....................................

In principle the following possibilities exist (figure 21): ● Single-series spring stack (series stacking) ● Parallel springs in spring sets (parallel stacking) ● Spring stack of parallel sets in series 3 Figure 21 Schematic representation of characteristic lines possible with springs of the same size in different combinations The determination of the characteristic for assembled disc springs stack is based on the characteristic of the single spring (figure 21. chart a). Fges = F sges = i · s Spring Deflection: Formula 18 Unloaded Stack Length: Formula 19 L0 = i · l0 37 .1 Possible Combinations of Single Springs The shape of the disc spring as a conical disc allows single springs to be combined in different ways. the characteristic of a spring combination can be varied in almost any way desired and adapted to the requirements. 3.2 Stacks in Series A stack of “i” springs in single series (figure 21. not the load. As a result. chart b) results in the following without considering friction: Spring Load: Formula 17 Only the deflection is multiplied by the number of springs in series.3.

For “i” sets in series and “n” springs in parallel following results without considering friction: Spring Load: Formula 23 With this arrangement the spring load is proportional to the number of disc springs in parallel. For springs in Group 3 with contact flats and reduced disc thickness.Possible Combinations 3.4 Stacks from Spring Sets This is the combination of parallel sets in series (figure 21. where as the deflection remains as for a single spring. t must be replaced with t’ in formula 22. Spring Deflection: Formula 21 sges = s Unloaded Set Height: Formula 22 L0 = l0 + (n – 1) · t 3. chart c) results in the following without considering friction Spring Load: Formula 20 Fges = n · F In this case the spring load must be multiplied by the number of springs in parallel. while the deflection is proportional to the number of sets. In formula 25 t must be replaced with t’ if necessary. Fges = n · F Spring Deflection: Formula 24 sges = i · s Unloaded Stack Length: Formula 25 L0 = i · [l0+(n – 1) · t] 38 . chart d).3 Stacks in Parallel A set of “n” single springs in parallel (figure 21.

the di scs of the 1. chart b).3. 3 Figure 22 Various types of spring characteristics With a spring stack as shown in figure 23. as shown schematically in figure 23.e. the rate of the characteristic increases instead of (as it is typical for disc springs) decreasing (figure 22). The characteristic of such a spring stack results in the addition of the individual characteristics. Such characteristic curves can be achieved in various ways. 2 and 3-fold layering will be flattened in sequence when a load is applied. The same results can be achieved by combining springs of different thickness to form a stack (figure 23. this overloading can be prevented with a smaller cone height or with spacer sleeves or rings to limit the deflection. Figure 23 Progressive characteristic with disc springs 39 . chart a. However. In this case it must be considered that the spring sets stacked 1 or 2-fold or the thinner single discs are subjected to very high stresses if disc springs as per DIN 2093 or the SCHNORR Factory standard have been selected. i.5 Progressive Spring Characteristics In many cases it is a requirement that the spring load increases progressively as the deflection increases.

By inserting intermediate rings of differing thicknesses. We will be glad to make the appropriate calculations for you.Possible Combinations Other ways of obtaining a progressive characteristic are shown in figures 24 to 26. Care must be taken to ensure that the permissible stress is not exceeded for springs without spacer rings (section 3 of the stack). Figure 25 Spring arrangements for a progressive characteristic Figure 26 shows a stack consisting of disc springs of 3 different thicknesses. If you should have a requirement for similar spring arrangements. the disc springs of a group of 2 disc springs with a flat washer between them first deflect until they all 3 parts lie parallel. please consult our Technical Consulting Service. As a result. With this arrangement as shown in figure 25. the deflection of a spring stack consisting of disc springs of the same thickness can be limited in steps. Here external rings are used as spacers to limit the deflection to protect the thinner springs from overloading. the spring rate increases with increasing deflection (figure 24). Figure 24 Spring arrangements for a progressive characteristic A progressive characteristic can also be obtained by combining disc springs with flat washers. as it moves toward its original state. Figure 26 Spring arrangements for a progressive characteristic 40 . From this point on the two disc springs act as a parallel pair and the flat washer is unloaded again. Washers and disc springs may also have different thicknesses or be arranged so that 3 or more layers result.

Chapter 4 Manufacture 41 .

..........................Manufacture 4............................................................................ 47 Dacromet Coating .................................................................................................................................... 47 Mechanical or Peen Plating ............. 46 Nickel ................ 43 4.................................................................................. 47 Metal Spray .....................................................................................................................................................................2 Fine Blanked or Turned Disc Springs? .............................................. 45 4.3 Heat Treatment ..............................................................4 Scragging or Presetting ...................................................................................................................................................................5 Shot Peening .............................................................................. 46 Metallic Surface Treatment.................................................................................................................................................... 47 42 ............................................................ 43 4................ 46 Zinc .......... 45 4............................................. 46 Phosphating ......................................................1 Classification by Group .............................................................. 45 4....................................................................................................................................................................6 Corrosion Protection ......... 46 Browning..................................................................................................................................... 46 Electroplating .... 46 Cadmium............................... 47 Chemical Nickel Plating......

DIN 2093 specifies 3 manufacturing groups: Group 1: Thickness t less than 1. Special sizes are also assigned to the appropriate group if production is possible or no other production method has been agreed upon. Corners radiused Cold or hot formed. which are turned or ground to obtain their final shape. Corners radiused.25 to 6 mm Group 3: Thickness t more than 6 to 14 m For these groups the following manufacturing methods are specified: Group 1: ● Stamped. ● Cold formed. and thus lie in the same direction as the maximum stress.2 Fine Blanked or Turned Disc Springs? For group 2 manufacture the standard allows the following alternative: ● Fine blanked ● Cold formed ● Corners rounded The machining method is left to the manufacturer’s discretion. as we still consider this the best method. unless it is expressly specified by the customer.4.1 Classification by Group The large dimensional range in which disc springs are made requires very different production methods. Cold formed. 4 4. The manufacturing process is shown schematically for the three groups in figure 27. whereas stamping grooves (which also result during fine blanking!) run at a right angle to the maximum stress. De and Di turned. During turning the unavoidable machining grooves result in the circumferential direction. 43 . The methods employed range from simple stamping and stamping with extra machining to hot forged and rolled rings. With contact flats and reduced thickness Group 3: All SCHNORR disc springs as per DIN 2093 and our factory standards are made to these requirements.25 mm Group 2: Thickness t from 1. If fine-cut springs are required to reach the life expectancy laid down in DIN 2093. Machined all over. ● Corners rounded Group 2: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Stamped. there is clear evidence that these turned springs are more suitable for the highest demands. This means that the user can specify which version is to be supplied! The group 2 springs we deliver are exclusively turned on the inside and outside diameter. which leads to a much lower impact strength[11].

Manufacture Figure 27 The manufacturing process of several groups 44 .

0 4 4.4 Scragging or Presetting After heat treatment each spring is flattened at least once. hardness is related inversely to disc thickness. 45 . and at the same time a high degree of toughness and optimal fatigue resistance. This enables a so-called bainite stage to ensure that the springs attain the highest strength.5 Shot Peening It has been shown that shot peening can be very beneficial to springs subjected to dynamic loads. Tensile stress results on the upper side. This reduces the overall height by means of plastic deformation.3 Heat Treatment Heat treatment is of major importance for properties of a spring.75 h ). For this reason. Shot peening produces compressive stress at the surface which partially counteracts internal tensile stress resulting from setting. Therefore. the limit deviations for the spring force are not exceeded. Further plastic deformation is thereby avoided during later loading of the spring. It can considerably improve the working life far in excess of the values shown in figures 18. we heat treat all springs of ordinary spring steel – as long as they are not manufactured of springhard material – using an isothermal annealing. 19 and 20. With the springs we manufacture. According to DIN 2093 each disc spring must be scragged so that following loading equivalent to twice the spring force F(s = 0. surface bonding by means of shot peening is not recommended for springs carrying static loads. According to DIN 2093 the hardness of disc springs should be 42 – 52 HRC. 4. Therefore shotpeened springs will generally set more than usual. which counteracts the compressive stress caused by subsequent loadings and so reduces the stress peaks.4.

It is placed higher than steel in the electrochemical series. The most effective is yellow chromating. the designation for phosphate treatment is: Surface coating as per DIN 50942 Fe/Znph r10 f. which is then coated with a corrosion-resistant oil.6 Corrosion Protection In practice the presence of corrosive media is so common and the forms of attack so numerous that it is not possible to deal with the entire problem in detail here. but is only rarely used now for environmental protection reasons. i. in the case of the formation of a local element (e. For this reason the nickel must always be a dense. ● Cadmium also offers very good corrosion protection. As it lies lower than steel in the electrochemical series at room temperature. The most important surface treatment methods are: Phosphating This is the standard process generally applied to all low alloy steels unless otherwise agreed. applications. but a lso out of doors. disc springs of these types of steel must be protected against corrosion with a suitable surface treatment. More information on corrosion-resistant steel can be found in section 7. at a damaged point in the nickel coating) nickel acts as a cathode and the base metal is attacked. therefore this Metallic Surface Treatment Metals for Surface Treatment ● Zinc is by far the most commonly used coating metal.g.e. which should always be chosen over clear chromating. We must refer you to the literature in the supplement. 46 . Primarily for inside Browning This process simply produces an oxidised surface. which is then impregnated with corrosion-protection oil. Therefore. A wide range of methods are available for this purpose from which the best suited must be selected for each individual case. The protection achieved in this way is sufficient in the vast majority of all cases. A zinc phosphate layer is produced on the surface. ● Nickel is resistant to a large number of media and is frequently used as a coating metal. it forms a so-called cathodic protection and is attacked first by corrosion. non-porous coating. The corrosion resistance is not as good as phosphating. It can only be established here that ordinary spring steel must offer no corrosion protection of their own.3. With a chromated surface the onset of corrosion can be significantly delayed.Manufacture 4. no additional protection is required. According to DIN 50960. treatment is mostly used where a phosphate coating or its abrasion is a problem. if the springs are installed with weather protection. DIN 50960 defines browning as follows: Surface coating as per DIN 50938 Fe/A f.

The usual layer thickness is 8 µm. we only use elec tropla ting if it is specified as mandatory or there is no other alternative. the adhesion is inferior to mechanical zinc coating and it may become delaminated during dynamic loading. sprayed zinc coatings are relatively thick and have a granular surface which also makes them excellently suited as a base for paints. and a so-called promoter and the coating metal (preferably zinc) is added in powdered form. Dacromet Coating This is an inorganic silver-grey metallic coating of zinc and aluminium flakes in a chromatic compound. hard layer with sharp contours and outstanding corrosion and abrasion resistance. Designation of a galvanically produced 8 µm thick zinc coating with transparent chro ma ting is: Surface coating as per DIN 50961 Fe/Zn 8 cB.g. a nickel-phosphor alloy is precipitated onto the surface with a chemical method. e. However. Therefore. This powder is deposited on the surface and is compacted by the peening bodies. As a rule. Post plating bake is also no guarantee that this risk is completely elimi nated. Chemical Nickel Plating With this treatment. It is of particular importance that no hydrogen embrittlement can occur when the process is carried out properly. which can then be chromated like a galvanic coating. when treating high-tensile steels – such as those always used for disc springs and lock washers – the danger of hydrogen embrittlement cannot be excluded with the current state of technology. An even. Designation of a mechanically applied 8 mm thick zinc coating with yellow chromating is: Surface coating mech Zn 8 cC. The coating is usually applied in layers with a thickness of 15 – 30 µm. glass beads. With the usual processing technology there is absolutely no possibility of hydrogen embrittlement. mat coating results. 4 Metal Spray This treatment is primarily for disc springs with diameters above 150 mm which cannot be mechanically zinc plated. 47 . however thicknesses of up to 40 µm are possible. also known as “electroless nickeling”.Electroplating With electroplating virtually any metal can be precipitated as a surface coating. Mechanical or Peen Plating With this process the parts to be treated are moved in a barrel together with peening bodies. This results in a thick. Dacromet-treated springs exhibit excellent resistance in a salt spray test. The parts are treated in a barrel or on racks and the coating then baked on at over 280°C. However.

48

Tolerances
Chapter 5

49

Tolerances
5.1 Diameter Tolerances ........................................................................ 51 5.2 Thickness Tolerances ...................................................................... 52 5.3 Overall Height Tolerances ................................................................. 52 5.4 Load Tolerances ............................................................................. 52 Single Disc Springs.................................................................................................... 52 Spring Stacks............................................................................................................. 53 5.5 Permissible Setting .................................................................................................. 54

50

Disc Springs Tolerances The following maximum deviations are laid down in DIN 2093.04 1.30 0 / –0.22 0.57 / 0 +0.21 0 / –0.12 0 / –0.30 / 0 +0.15 0 / –0.60 0.52 0 / –0.5). De or Di [mm] De For the concentricity the tolerances applied are: for De to 50 mm: 2 · IT 11 for De over 50 mm: 2 · IT 12 Permissible deviation in mm Di Concentricity over 3 to 6 over 6 to 10 over 10 to 18 over 18 to 30 over 30 to 50 over 50 to 80 over 80 to 120 over 120 to 180 over 180 to 250 over 250 to 315 over 315 to 400 over 400 to 500 0 / –0.40 0 / –0.46 0 / –0.26 5 51 . however. if they deviate greatly from the DIN springs. In general we also apply these tolerances to special sizes. They are valid for all SCHNORR disc springs as per the DIN and our works standards.63 +0. and for the inner diameter Di it is H12.57 0 / –0. This applies.32 0.18 / 0 +0.70 0.35 / 0 +0.18 0 / –0.92 1.35 0 / –0.46 / 0 +0.80 0.15 0.14 1. wider tolerances must be specified. 5.63 / 0 0.26 0.12 / 0 +0.21 / 0 +0.40 / 0 +0.15 / 0 +0. the tolerance field h12 is applied.52 / 0 +0. for example.25 0 / –0.25 / 0 +0. please consult us. If closer tolerances are required than those specified in DIN 2093.18 0. to our ball-bearing disc springs (section 8.1 and 9.1 Diameter Tolerances For the outside diameter De.

15 +0.25 to 3.30/–0.25 to 2. 5.10 For springs in group 3 the tolerance is applied to the reduced thickness t’.25 1.3 Overall Height Tolerances t [mm] Group 1 Group 2 < 1.05/–0.6 to < 1.30 To ensure the specified spring forces.4 Load Tolerances Single Disc Springs For single disc springs the following maximum deviations are allowed: Tolerances for F at the test length lP = l0 – 0.2 Thickness Tolerances Tolerances allowed in DIN 2093 are as follows: t or t’ [mm] Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 0.15/–0.12 +0.0 > 6.0 > 6. 52 . hardened.0 +15 % /–7. ground and polished plates.75 h0 Group 1 < 1.0 to 16.05 +0.0 to 6.08 +0.5 % Group 2 1.0 to 6.0 > 3.8 to 6.04/–0.10/–0.0 Tolerance for t [mm] +0.30/–0.Tolerances 5. This should be carried out with the spring pressed between two lubricated.25 to 3.10/–0.0 +10 % /–5 % Group 3 > 6. DIN 2093 allows the overall height tolerance to be slightly exceeded.5 % > 3.15 +0.0 to 3.20/–0.06 +0. Measurements are always taken in loading direction.0 Tolerance for lo [mm] +0. Group 3 5. We use the thickness to ensure that spring loads are within tolerance and therefore will in some cases deviate from the above figures.02/–0.2 to 0.03/–0.25 +25 % /–7.0 to 16.0 to 16.0 > 2.8 > 3.10 +0.6 > 0.25 1.0 +5 % /–5 % t [mm] With a single spring the spring force must be checked at the height l0 – s.09 +0.

5% Group 3 min. 90% min.92.4.5 h0 must at least reach the percentage of the loading characteristic shown in the table (figure 28). 90% min. the stack should be loaded with twice the spring force F(s = 0. During unloading the measured spring force at the length L0 – 7.5% min. 95% min. 90% 53 .75 h ).For the determination of the variation between loading and unloading.5% min.92. Before testing. The stack is fitted with a guide rod as described in section 6. 87. a stack of 10 springs in single series is used. 85% Group 2 min. 95% min.3 and abutment plates inserted at both ends as per section 5. 0 5 Figure 28 Test points on the loading/unloading characteristic curve Series A Series B Series C Group 1 min.

and relaxation as a loss in load ∆ F if the spring is installed at a constant length l. Creeping is described as a loss of length ∆l which the spring suffers under a constant load F. we recommend you contact our Technical department. because it best reflects all other influences. Figure 29 Permissible relaxation for disc springs of Ck steel Figure 30 Permissible relaxation for disc springs of chrome and chromevanadium-alloy steel as per DIN EN 10132-4 and DIN 17221 54 . For disc springs the stress distribution in the crosssection also plays a role determined by the dimensional relationships δ and h0/t. Approximate values for the permissible relaxation of disc springs under static loads are provided in figure 29 and 30.5 Permissible Setting All springs experience a loss of load or relaxation in the course of time. If working temperatures above 100°C occur.Tolerances 5. Depending on the installation situation. which is primarily dependent on the occurring stress and the temperature-time curve. the load loss may occur as creeping or relaxation. The relaxation can therefore be related to stress σ OM.

Chapter 6 Application 55 .

........4 Guide Elements and Abutments ...... 61 Calculation of Friction as per DIN 2092...............................................Application 6.... 57 6......... 57 6.............2 Alignment of Spring Stacks ...... 60 The Magnitude and Factors Influencing Friction...................................................... 60 Causes of Friction .................. 64 56 .............................................................................. 58 6..1 Spring Stacks and their Features .......................................................................................................................................................3 Guide Clearance ............................ 62 Lubrication ............................................................................ 64 The Effects of Friction ............................... 59 6.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Friction ............................................

considerable warming must be expected with 2 or more springs in parallel. In order to achieve this goal. This also has the effect of centralising the springs and reducing friction. the abutments of a disc spring stack should contact the outside diameter. 6 Figure 31 Division of a long spring stack 6. Particularly in the case of dynamic loading. then it should be divided into 2 or possibly 3 partial stacks with suitable washers. The reason for this is a certain smoothing effect at both the contact edges and the touching spring flanks. This automatically keeps the stack length short. With an increasing number of disc springs.2 Alignment of Spring Stacks Within a spring stack the disc springs do not always move evenly (figure 32). Therefore. with dynamic loads. These washers should be guided as exactly as possible (figure 31). the friction and the uneven deflection of individual discs within the stack increases.1 Spring Stacks and their Features The best spring arrangement is the one which uses the least number of individual springs. the outside diameter should always be as large as possible. In order to keep the friction within reasonable limits. Whenever possible. This naturally leads to overloading at one end of the stack with consequential reduction in fatigue life. If it is not possible to avoid a longer stack. especially with multiple layering. It is therefore better to have long stacks arranged vertically rather than horizontally. the first breaks occur at an end of the spring stack in most cases. 57 . The friction is usually somewhat less in a vertically arranged stack than in the horizontal installation position. We recommend L0 < 3 · De as the approximate stack length. After alignment the spring stack should not be completely relaxed.6. With a dynamically loaded stack there is a running in period during which the friction is reduced. If it is not possible to align the stack for design reasons. however this is only possible at both abutments with an even number of individual springs or spring sets. the stack should be compressed flat once or twice. we recommend that the spring stack be aligned on the guide rod with a “vee bar” and then maintained in position with a light preload. This is also the reason why. This procedure has been found most satisfactory in practice for minimizing friction in spring stacks. no more than 2 or 3 springs should be stacked in parallel unless a large friction loss is expressly desired.

Di or De to 16 mm over 16 to 20 mm over 20 to 26 mm over 26 to 31.5 to 50 mm over 50 to 80 mm over 80 to 140 mm over 140 to 250 mm Clearance 0.5 mm over 31.0 mm 1. because it offers design and economic advantages. For the clearance between the guide and the spring DIN 2093 recommends the following values.Application Figure 32 Example of the uneven deflection within a spring stack 6.6 mm 58 .3 mm 0.6 mm 0.3 Guide Clearance Disc springs always need a guide element to prevent lateral movement. The guide can be on the outside De or the inside Di of the springs.2 mm 0. but inside guidance on a bolt or shaft is preferred to the outside guidance in a sleeve.8 mm 1.4 mm 0.5 mm 0.

For dynamic applications we recommend lubrication with a high pressure grease containing MoS2. The same holds true for an outside guide where the contact point is above the horizontal. this re duction is mostly very small and with stan dard springs is covered by the gui de clearance laid down in table on page 58. For static applications guides may be unhardened. Howe ver. 59 . Figure 33 With the rectangular spring cross section jamming at the guide pin during deflection is prevented On compression the spring cross-section turns about a centre of rotation S on the diameter D0 (figure 33). there is no reduction in the in side dia me ter. e.These values represent the difference in the diameters. with high-speed spindles.4 Guide Elements and Abutments The guide elements and abutments should be hardened if possible to a minimum of 55HRC and a minimum case depth of 0. ground. In order to avoid jamming of the individual disc springs on the guide bolt or in the guide sleeve.g. 6 6. if possible. All four corners are slightly rounded with a radius of approximately t/8. The calculations to determine the variations in the diameter are very easy today and we recommend you contact our Technical department if you require additional information on this subject. The surface of the guide rod should be smooth and. If in the unloaded condition the contact point of the spring on the guide is below a horizontal through point S. For springs with a ratio of h0/t > 1 this is not always the case and a reduction of the inner diameter must be expected. Under certain conditions this guide clearance can be reduced. the spring cross-sections must be designed to be rectangular (figure 33).8 mm.

4.5 Friction Due to friction. The internal friction through elastic deformation of the material. 3. it is often necessary to calculate the friction and take this into consideration. This only occurs with the end springs in the stack. It occurs with each deflection of the material and cannot be altered. Friction of the springs on the guide due to axial movement of the springs during deflection. the actual loads obtained when loading and unloading the spring stack may deviate from the figures calculated. 60 . The first three types of friction occur with single springs and single series spring stacks.Application 6. as there is no relative movement between the other springs to each other. Figure 34 Friction in disc springs Therefore. It is therefore a fact that friction with disc springs is always greater than with coil springs. Friction between springs in the case of parallel stacking. but at times required for application reasons. These variations are in many cases inconvenient. 2. Friction on the end abutments through the radial movement between the spring and the abutment surface. Causes of Friction The total friction with disc spring stacks arises because of 4 different components (figure 34): 1.

A frequently underrated influence is the surface treatment.The Magnitude and Factors Influencing Friction The amount of friction depends on very many factors: Geometric factors: ● ● ● ● Shape of the cross section Radii on the corners Amount of guide clearance Surface roughness of the springs and guide elements Material of the springs and guide elements Hardness of the springs and guide elements Surface protection of the springs Type of lubricant Material factors: ● ● ● ● Assembly factors: ● Number of parallel stacked springs ● Length of the spring stack Load dependant factors: ● Length of spring stroke ● Speed of loading (frequency) 6 The value of the different factors on the total friction varies considerably from case to case and we can only give the following indications: The geometric factors have already been mentioned in section 6. zinc plated springs have less friction than those phosphated. For example. It is known from experience that relatively large deflection s/h0 or (s2 – s1)/h0 cause more friction than smaller deflections. 61 . it is not possible to derive an exact calculation for friction in disc spring stacks. with an increase in proportion to the number of parallel springs. however.3. With parallel stacking the greatest friction is between the springs. These fac tors should all be considered for high frequency spring applications. be reduced by means of a suitable grease (see page 64). Because of the large number of influences. This can.

This must be obtained through an additional calculation. from many tests with various spring sizes a figure has been derived of ± 2. This omits the internal friction and the friction on the guide rod (section 6. 9 % ± 8.. Therefore. – unloading). DIN 2092 gives the following values: 62 . For the friction coefficients wM and wR. 6 % ± 6. percentile addition. 3 % ± 4..12 % ± 10.Application However..5 Nos. The values below for surface and edge friction to DIN 2092 give a relatively wide range. although this process is theoretically correct. For completeness we have shown this calculation method below.5% per parallel spring (+ loading. Issue 1/92 gives a method of calculating the friction FR on spring load. it is our opinion that.. 1 and 3).15 % Figure 35 shows the principal load variations for one to 4 springs in parallel. This results in the following values: Influence of friction on spring load 1 single spring 2 in parallel 3 in parallel 4 in parallel 5 in parallel ± 2. The following formula applies: Formula 26 FgesR = F n 1 ± wM(n − 1) ± wR Where: F n wM wR – + = = = = = = Calculated spring load to formula 7 Number of springs in parallel Coefficient of surface friction Coefficient of edge friction On loading On unloading With n = 1 formula 26 describes relationships for a single spring between 2 flat plates..... in the end it does not provide any better results than the consideration of the friction with a simple. Figure 35 Influence of friction on spring force for various parallel stackings Calculation of Friction as per DIN 2092 DIN 2092...

.42. –7.. +12. –4...020 0.70 –2..030 0....35.66 +1.26 –4. –0..41 +1.. –5.85 +3.005.015 wM wR 0. +5. + = Increase in load when loading / – = Reduction in load when unloading n=1 Series A Series B Series C +3.04 0..91..41 +2.91 n=2 +3...02.. which are considerably easier to understand: Alteration of the calculated spring load through the friction is in %.04.76 +4....63.67.03.36 –3..70 –3..21.. +6...71 –1.85.17..Series par DIN 2093 Series A Series B Series C 0..19.. +2.003. +6.. –7.38.38 –2..96.0. –5. –1. formula 26 provides the following numbers.0..0..38 –1...09 –2. +8....66 6 These results are presented in figure 36.0.01.. –2.25.05 0... +1.0.002..0. Figure 36 Friction for disc springs as per DIN 2092 63 ...01.09. +4..03 When calculated with these values.31 n=3 +4. +8.99..38. –9...53....91 +2.17 –3.

As well as reducing friction.e. It must be added when loading the spring and subtracted when the spring is unloaded. Between the actual loading and unloading curve there is a hysteresis loop. i. it modifies the spring loads. However. single stacked disc springs should be prefered and good lubrication is essential. with springs for damping. it can prevent galling of one spring on another when stacked in parallel. This frictional work is turned into heat and with high frequency dynamic loading this can be considerable. ● Slip paints are based on MoS2 and are an elegant solution to providing permanent lubrication. 64 . It also provides a high degree of corrosion resistance. especially with central lubrication or an assured continuous oil supply. The choice of the correct lubricant is therefore often of decisive influence. In such cases. it can help prevent corrosion. The Effects of Friction Friction mainly affects the deflection of the spring. With spring energy storage the hysteresis is a total loss and cannot be recovered.Application Lubrication The large variation in figure 36 shows the influence of lubrication on the friction. The lubricants which may be used are: ● Oil is frequently used for springs in machine construction. this hysteresis effect is useful and the frictional work is a measure of the damping. The effect of the number of parallel springs on the hysteresis is shown in figure 35. Similarly. ● Grease is more suitable if relubrication is difficult or cannot be done on a regular basis.

Materials Chapter 7 65 .

........................................................ 70 Nickel and Cobalt Alloys........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 ...................Materials 7........................................................................ 68 C 67S.......................................................................... 68 Corrosion Resistant Steels ................................ 70 NIMONIC 90..... 68 X 7 CrNiAl 17 7 ................................................................................................................ 68 X 10 CrNi 18-8 .....................2 Standard Materials ................................................................. 72 66 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 71 INCONEL X 750 and INCONEL 718 .... C 75S.......................................................................................................................... 69 Steels for Higher Temperatures................................................................................................................................................................................................. 68 C 60S .................................................... 70 CuSn 8 ... 67 7....................................................................................... 70 CuBe 2 .......................................................................................................................................................................................3 Materials for Special Requirements .............4 Table of Material Properties ....................... 68 51 CrV 4...........................................................................................................................................................................................1 General Requirements ................................................. 71 DURATHERM 600 ............ 71 7...... 68 7. 69 X 39 CrMo 17-1 .................................................................................................................................................................... 69 X 22 CrMoV 12 1........................ 70 Copper Alloys.........................................................................................

but it is temperature dependent and this must be taken into consideration at higher working temperatures (figure 37). The ‘E’ of steel is practically not affected by heat treatment. An important property of spring material is Young’s Modulus (E). therefore most springs are made of steel. spring materials should have the highest tensile strength and a high elastic limit. a high degree of purity. This allows the manufacture of cold formed springs which will not break through the greatest unforeseen overloading. As in each case a small design is desired. In addition to high strain in the elastic region. the tensile strength. heat resistance or anti-magnetic properties where special materials will be required. Moreover.7. For a high fatigue strength.1 General Requirements The essential of a spring is that it has the quality to react to loading by elastic deformation. a homogenous structure and a smooth carbon-free surface are presupposed. These requirements are fulfilled very well by steel. Therefore. for example. materials with high elasticity are necessary. Apart from this there will be the requirement in some cases for corrosion resistance. From this material constant is derived a linear relationship between load and deflection. 7 Figure 37 Temperature dependence of ‘E’ and related reduction in load 67 . there must also be sufficient plasticity. a high fatigue limit is required which is however not a characteristic value of the material as.

making it unsuitable for completely non-magnetic springs. Whereas the material in the soft condition is hardly magnetic.Materials Materials for disc springs are principally supplied in the following forms: ● ● ● ● Cold rolled strip as per DIN EN 10140 Hot rolled strip as per DIN EN 10048 Plate as per DIN EN10029 Forgings as per DIN 7521 and 7526 In the tables on pages 72 to 75 list the properties of all the materials from which disc springs are manufactured. Therefore.8159): This is a chrome vanadium refined alloy steel of the highest quality. 7. springs can only be supplied to this thickness. the material is normally not available thicker than 2. ● 51 CrV 4 (1. which allows use up to 250°C (with a suitable reduction in load). in general. if absolutely Corrosion Resistant Steels ● X 10 CrNi 18-8 (1. these materials can be processed in the spring-hard condition. it cannot be hardened in the usual way. necessary. the cold working process will make it more or less magnetic again. for example our “K” springs for preloading ball bearings. hot rolled and forgings as per DIN 17221 for the manufacture of disc springs. These materials. It is available in cold rolled form as per DIN EN 10132-4. In fact. We use them for our Original Schnorr Serrated Safety Washers and Load Washers as per DIN 6796 where the loading is only static. These springs have a lower overall height than comparable sizes made of standard materials resulting in lower spring force.4310): This chrome nickel alloyed steel as per DIN EN 10151 is the material most used for corrosion resistant springs. have lower tensile strength than standard materials and should only be specified.2 Standard Materials ● C 60S: Both types are quality steels as per DIN EN 10132-4. ● C 67S and C 75S: These high grade steels as per DIN EN 10132-4 are used for cold formed springs to group 1. 7. This must be taken into consideration using these materials. For lightly loaded springs.5).5 mm. Considerable cold forming is necessary and the strength reduces with increasing thickness. The relaxation is less than for non-alloyed steel (see section 5. but by cold forming it can obtain the strength required for disc springs. The following notes give clarification of this. 68 . Because of its austenitic structure with ferritic inclusions. It has very good through-hardening capability and is therefore suitable for making springs up to 50 mm thick.3 Materials for Special Requirements Special requirements such as corrosive or high temperature enviroments often require the use of materials designed for these applications.

4568): This steel as per DIN EN 10151 precipitation hardened produces an austenitic/ferritic structure.4923): This heat treatable chrome-molybdenum steel has been used very successfully for heat resistant disc springs. Figure 38 shows the mechanical properties and Young’s modulus ‘E’ with respect to temperature.4401): The strength of this material is somewhat less than either of the two forgoing. Although also contained in DIN 17224. ● X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 (1.● X 7 CrNiAl 17 7 (1.5 mm thickness if no other material is available. A disadvantage compared to steel 1. We therefore only recommend its use for springs over 2. 69 . it is often difficult to obtain and therefore only seldom used. Steels for Higher Temperatures When considering springs for use at higher working temperatures it must be remembered that both tensile strength and Young’s modulus ‘E’ are reduced compared with the values at room temperature.5 to 6 mm thickness are made from strip or plate. ● X 22 CrMoV 12 1 (1. For thicker springs. Springs of 1. Not withstanding that it offers higher corrosion resistance and lowest magnetism.4310 is the lower corrosion resistance and sensitivity to stress corrosion. forged rings can be used. It will also be processed in the work hardened condition and may be hardened by subsequent heat treatment. 7 Figure 38 Yield stress and ‘E’ modulus of steel X 22 CrMoV 12 1 with respect to temperature. It should be noted that with a chrome content of 12% this steel is not corrosion resistant.

● CuBe 2 (2. This must be considered in the spring calculation and allows their use in applications where very low spring loads are required. Because of the material composition they have outstanding corrosion resistance to many media. Unfortunately. These materials are very tough. It has very good corrosion resistance and may be used at very low temperatures nearing absolute zero. Therefore.4122): Here we have a chrome-molybdenum alloyed heat treatable martensitic steel which is also suitable for corrosion resistant springs. The tensile strength is certainly lower than spring steel and the ‘E’ modulus is only 55% of the value for steel. They are therefore only used where no other material is suitable due to technical considerations. at these temperatures both the tensile strength and ‘E’ are reduced. Moreover. ● CuSn 8 (2. they are corrosion-resistant against many media. All these alloys are very expensive and often hard to work.Materials ● X 39 CrMo 17-1 (1. Nickel and Cobalt Alloys From the large number of nickel-chrome and nickel-chrome-cobalt based alloys some have achieved importance for disc springs. In order to achieve the required properties. this steel must be hardened to higher values which raises the question of stress corrosion. Young’s modulus ‘E’ is only 60% of that for steel. which obtains its spring properties from cold working. Copper Alloys Copper alloys are absolutely non-magnetic and have very good electric conductivity. Against this are the outstanding fatigue properties. Because of the molybdenum it may be used up to 400°C. However.1030): Tin bronze as per DIN EN 1654 is an alloy of copper and tin. These characteristics make them suitable for many disc spring applications. titanium and/or niobium/tantalum they are precipitation hardenable. the probability of more set in the spring must be considered. and as a rule have long deliveries. in the light of current technical knowledge we cannot completely discount the possibility of delayed brittle fracture. 70 . that is to say they have high strength and a low elastic ratio. By alloying with aluminium. With correct spring proportions this is good over the total spring travel.1247): Beryllium copper is an outstanding spring material. However. This heat treatable alloy has strength values comparable with steel.

● NiCr 15 Fe 7 TiAl (Inconel X 750) (2. NIMONIC and INCONEL are trade names of Inco Alloys International. It can be used at very high temperatures (600°C and over). The hardening process is difficult and expensive.4969): These nickel-chrome-cobalt alloy gives the least problems in processing and is therefore the most often used.4669) and NiCr 19 NbMo (Inconel 718) (2. The very high price of this alloy limits its use to very special applications. It has very good heat resistance and can be used up to 700°C with suitable dimensioning.4668): These nickel-chrome alloys are practically cobalt-free. ● DURATHERM 600: This is a heat treatable alloy of the cobalt-nickel series with outstanding mechanical properties. At a tem pe ra ture of 0°C the material is non-magnetic. and are therefore used in reactor applications.4632. DURATHERM is a trade name of Vacuumschmelze GmbH in Hanau.● NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti (Nimonic 90) (2. The application is limited and only used in special cases. 2. 7 71 .

4568 1..-No.8.0 14.015 max.35 0.4669 2.15.21.4668 70.05. 1.. Corrosion Resistant Steel X 10 CrNi 18-8 301 X 7 CrNiAl 17-7 631 X 5 CrNiMo 17-12-2 316 X 5 CrNi 18-10 304 Heat Resistant Steel X 22 CrMoV 12-1 – X 39 CrMo 17-1 – Copper Alloys CuSn 8 – CuBe 2 – Nickel and Cobalt Alloys NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti HEV6 (Nimonic 90) 5829C (AMS) NiCr 15 Fe 7 TiAl 688 (Inconel X 750) 5542L (AMS) NiCr 19 NbMo 5596J (AMS) (Inconel 718) Duratherm 600 – Nickel and Cobalt Alloys (contd..70.0..4669 2.0.0 Balance S 0.0 12 P 0. 0.60.55 0.0 P 0.1.02 max.4969 Balance 2.55.0 max.1030 DIN EN 1654 7.1..0.5. 2.55 0.35 0. 0.0..2. 1.. Mn 0.17...4122 DIN EN 10088-2 0.07 Si 0...4 – Cr 18. 2.0.47. 1...0.4668 – 2.1231 1.0.70..40 max. 0..10 0.10 max.1211 1.40.4401 1.0.0.0 max. 0.90 0..0 max 1.1 Co 15.Materials 7.015 max.18..4632 / 2.4 Table of Material Properties Short Name Steel for Normal Applications Spring Steel C 60S C 67S C 75S 51 CrV 4 AISI ASTM Mat.4310 1....0 max.5 max.1248 1...73 0..015 max.70.0 0.0. 0.020 max. Standard Chemical Analysis in % C 1060 1070 1078 6150 1.0.7 max. 2.5 Be – 1.90 0.65 0..0 max.0..47.0...21.0....0.40 0..0..15..24 1. – 0.35 max.90 0.0 17..) NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti HEV6 (Nimonic 90) 5829C (AMS) NiCr 15 Fe 7 TiAl 688 (Inconel X 750) 5542L (AMS) NiCr 19 NbMo 5596J (AMS) (Inconel 718) Duratherm 600 – – 1.0 1.006 max. 1.5 2.8....0.0.41 B 0. 0.4923 DIN EN 10269 0. 0. – 0...4969 2.0.65....0 max.57. 0...4301 1.....4632 / 2.21.0. 2.0 max.60.0 max. 1.90 max.0 min. 0.60.07 max. 50.80 0.15.09 max.1247 DIN EN 1654 – Ni 2.15..8159 DIN EN 10132-4 DIN EN 10132-4 DIN EN 10132-4 DIN EN 10132-4 DIN 17221 DIN EN 10151 DIN EN 10151 DIN EN 10151 DIN EN 10151 0....015 max.33.01.03 max.45 Sn 2.0... – – 72 .015 max. 40.

..2 Nb + Ta – 0.025 0.0 2.20 16.17.70.2 max.0 max. 0.9..5. 0. 0...03 Cu Balance Balance Al 1...2.90.9 – 73 .3 Ti 2.15 max.5 6.5 – Ni max.2.030 0. 0.15 1...5 – 0.40 – 6.3 4 – – 0. 0...18.0...10 – max.0 C 0.8.7.. – W – – – 3. 0. 0..025 0... 0.015 0.11 11.11 max.0..0.0..2 max.0.20 – – – – Mo max.50 max.25..0 8. 5. 0.040 Ni + Co – max.. 0...8.9.12. 0. 0.025 0. 0..10.02. 8.045 0..19. 1..025 0.5 N – – max..0...10...025 0.0. 0..2.0..0.13 max..8.5 – S max...35 0.0..5....015 0.7 Fe 1.40 max.13.. 7 0.5 0.5 17.80.045 0.0..40 max. 0.8 10..0 Cr max.1.3.80 15. 0.....8 – 2.030 0.7 – Mo – – 2.35 max.1.0..0 16..5 V – – – 0..1.20 0.1. 0. 0.08 0.5 max..025 0. – Zr 0.2.0 16.0. 1.025 0.10 max.5. Si 1..015 0.3.40 max.10 max.35 max.015 0.1. 0.40 max.025 0.0. 0.18. 0.90.08 max..0.040 0.19..015 0.40 0. 0.00 0.20 0.1.0 Balance – Cu 0.0.10 max.1.25 0.10..8.40..0 max..P max.7..025 0.5..0.30. Mn 1.045 0.40 max.3 max.0 max.75 0...3.5 max.2 4.25..

85 7.95 7.4568 DIN EN 10151 X 5 CrNiMo 17-12-2 316 1.1030 DIN EN 1654 CuBe 2 – 2.7 7.18 8.1248 1.1231 1.4669 (Inconel X 750) 5542L (AMS) NiCr 19 NbMo 5596J (AMS) 2.Materials Short Name Steel for Normal Applications Spring Steel C 60S C 67S C 75S 51 CrV 4 AISI ASTM Mat.85 7.7 8.4301 DIN EN 10151 Heat Resistant Steel X 22 CrMoV 12-1 – 1.8 8.28 8.85 7.4923 DIN EN 10269 X 39 CrMo 17-1 – 1.90 7.50 190 195 180 185 216 215 115 135 220 214 199 220 186 190 176 179 209 212 110 131 216 207 195 215 180 180 171 171 200 205 – 125 208 198 190 208 – 171 – – 190 200 – – 202 190 185 202 74 .4122 DIN EN 10088-2 Copper Alloys CuSn 8 – 2.3 8.19 8.1211 1.4668 (Inconel 718) Duratherm 600 – – 7.90 7. REF Standard Physical and Mechanical Properties Density E-modulus in kN/mm2 Kg/dm3 at RT 100 200 300 °C °C °C °C 7.4401 DIN EN 10151 X 5 CrNi 18-10 304 1.4632 / 2.-No.4310 DIN EN 10151 X 7 CrNiAl 17-7 631 1.90 7.1247 DIN EN 1654 Nickel and Cobalt Alloys NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti HEV6 2.8159 DIN EN 10132-4 DIN EN 10132-4 DIN EN 10132-4 DIN EN 10132-4 DIN 17221 Corrosion Resistant Steel X 10 CrNi 18-8 301 1.4969 (Nimonic 90) 5829C (AMS) NiCr 15 Fe 7 TiAl 2.85 206 206 206 206 202 202 202 202 – – – 196 – – – – 1060 1070 1078 6150 1.

400 °C – – – –

500 °C – – – –

600 °C – – – –

Working Temperature N/mm2 –20...+100 –20...+100 –20...+100 –50...+200

Tensile Strength mm 1150–1750 1200–1800 1200–1800 1200–1800

Thickness range

Availability

0.2...7.0 0.1...2.5 0.1...1.5 0.3...80

easy easy easy easy

– – – – 179 190 – – 193 179 179 195

– – – – 167 – – – 187 170 174 188

– – – – – – – – 178 158 167 –

–200...+200 –200...+300 –200...+200 –200...+200 –50...+500 –50...+400 –50...+100 –260...+200 –200...+700 –200...+600 –200...+600 –200...+550

1150–1500 1150–1700 1000–1500 1000–1500 1200–1400 1200–1400 590–690 1270–1450 ≥ 1100 ≥ 1170 ≥ 1240 1150–1550

0.2...2.5 0.2...4.0 0.2...1.6 0.2...1.6 1.5...20 0.3...6.0 0.1...6.0 0.1...2.5 to 6.35 to 6.35 to 6.35 0.1...2.0

easy less easy difficult less easy easy easy easy easy difficult difficult difficult difficult 7

The values quoted for E-modulus and tensile strength are for reference only. The range of working temperature and thickness only serve as an indication. The heat treatment and the hardness of disc springs made from heat resistant steels is deviating from the standards mentioned above.

75

76

Special Types
Chapter 8

77

..............Special Types 8................................... 79 8....................................................................................... 79 8..............................3 Disc Springs with Trapezoidal Cross-Section ......................2 Slotted Disc Springs ..............1 Disc Springs for Preloading Bearings ........ 80 78 ..................

8 Figure 39 Slotted Disc Spring 79 . the outside diameter must be increased to compensate. designed a special range of disc springs for this purpose – our “K” springs for ball bearings.2 Slotted Disc Springs The inclusion of slots on either the inner or outer diameter creates a lever which works on the unslotted portion of the spring. We will be pleased to send our special “K” Spring leaflet on request.5). if necessary. the springs can be used to accommodate the build up of tolerances or thermal movements within the assembly.1 Disc Springs for Preloading Bearings With every ball bearing there is radial play so it may function correctly. It is most important with this type of spring that the permissible stresses in the annular portion are not exceeded and. the load and dimensional tolerances of DIN 2093 (chapter 5) do not apply. This special design generates very small loads and will accommodate large deflections (section 9. This radial play or clearance can cause considerable noise at high speeds. In addition to the normal range “slotted” springs are available up to a diameter of 95 mm. 8. SCHNORR has. The resulting spring has a softer characteristic with a large deflection and in proportion to the outside diameter smaller spring loads. in close cooperation with SKF in Schweinfurt. Similarly.8. For the dimensions of “K” Disc Springs please see section 9.5. In many cases it is possible to achieve a quiet running bearing assembly by the use of a suitable disc spring to apply an axial load to the bearing. This has the effect of reducing the spring load and increasing the deflection (figure 39). Because of the different dimensions of these springs compared with “normal” disc springs.

The classic example is the automotive clutch spring. but these will also increase the overall stack length and require more space. a trapezoidal spring will give less deflection.1 and the dimension tables section 9. This can be increased by including intermediate rings. The equal compressive stresses on the upper surface result in more set. An exact calculation is given in [7].Special Types Taking these limitations and a few design features into account. The deflection of the fingers is only a small percentage of the total deflection and can be ignored.3). With the same installation space and under consideration of the permissible stresses. A similar distribution of the tensile stresses at points II and III to give the optimum fatigue life can also be achieved with a rectangular cross-section spring if the ratios δ and h0/t are correctly chosen [5] [6]. The loads generated depend to a large extent on the shape of the slots or the corresponding fingers. Figure 40 Disc Spring with trapezoidal cross section 80 . 8. Notable are the slotted ball bearing preload springs which give extremely low loads (see section 8. It is therefore possible to design a spring which is relatively fatigue free over the complete deflection range with relatively little increase in load towards the end of the stroke. no more favourable spring data (more force or more deflection) can be achieved with disc springs with a trapezoidal crosssection than with springs with a square crosssection.2. the trapezoidal crosssection offers no advantages. The main advantage of the trapezoidal cross-section disc spring is the ability to limit the stroke without additional parts. this type of spring has many possible applications. The first approximation for the calculation of slotted disc springs can be achieved by considering the lever arm and the formula in section 1. In this regard therefore. These few advantages and the higher manufacturing costs are the reasons why the trapezoidal disc spring is of no practical importance today.3 Disc Springs with Trapezoidal Cross-Section By the use of a trapezoidal cross-section it is possible to equalise the stresses on the spring upper and lower surfaces. The advantageous tensile stresses on the lower surface contribute to a better fatigue life. If you need to consider the use of slotted Disc Springs we recommend you contact our Technical department so the design and manufacture may be discussed. Compared with a standard spring having a similar angle on the top surface.

Chapter 9 Dimensional Tables 81 .

..............1 Explanation of the Tables .............................................................................5 Dimension Tables for SCHNORR “K” Disc Springs ...................................................................................... 84 9..Dimensional Tables 9...........3 Dimension Tables for Corrosion Resistant SCHNORR Disc Springs ......... 83 9.................................................................. 98 9........4 Dimension Tables for Heat Resistant SCHNORR Disc Springs ............................................... 128 9............................................................ 108 9................... 134 82 ........... 83 Article Reference .....................2 Dimension Tables for SCHNORR Disc Springs .......................................6 Dimension Tables for SCHNORR “Z” Disc Springs ................... 83 Load and stress specifications ..

Figure 41 Cross section with main dimensions Article Reference Reference for a Disc Spring with De = 40 mm. When considering the use of special sizes or springs from special materials we recommend you leave the work to us. s = 0. This allows the relevant graphs for load and stress to be accurately drawn.5 mm: Disc Spring 40 x 20. the underside at point II or III whichever is the greater. With the help of the drawn graph for stress and the fatigue life diagrams (figures 18 – 20) the expected dynamic life may be obtained without calculation.3 and are therefore only valid for Disc Springs from spring steel to DIN EN 10132-4 and DIN 17221 (e.1 Explanation of the Tables The following tables list the springs to DIN 2093 as well as those to Schnorr Works Standards. We will be pleased to go through the necessary calculations quickly.4 mm and t =1.25 h 0. For lower tensile strength the free height h0 and the overall height l0 must be amended (see chapters 1 and 2).g. Di = 20.9. At s = 0.5 h0. The use of other materials necessitates recalculation with the correct value for Young’s modulus ‘E’.75 h0 is the tensile stress on 9 83 . For dynamic application the calculation in section 2.75 h0 and s = h0. 51 CrV 4 or C 67S). The article number quoted is for normal manufacture from spring steel with phosphate finish.2 must be completed. Static or infrequently loaded springs may be compressed to the flat condition (see section 2.75 h0.5 or for a spring to DIN 2093: Disc Spring DIN 2093-B 40 or with the article number: Disc Spring 012800 Load and stress specifications The load and the corresponding stresses are given for the four points s = 0. All sizes are normally kept in stock and the heavy type does not indicate a better delivery.75 h0 the actual characteristic progressively increases from that calculated (see sections 1. Spring load F and the corresponding stress s are calculated exactly for the rounded values. Those to DIN 2093 are shown in heavy type. s = 0. It should be noted that from s = 0. All values are based on a Young’s modulus ‘E’ of 206000 N/mm2 with µ = 0. The quoted stress at s = 0.7 and figure 10).4 x 1. The prefix A. at no cost and advise you of the possibilities of manufacture. DIN 2093 quotes rounded values for the deflection s.1). B and C show the corresponding series.

5 0.95 1 1.450 0.20 0.70 1.044 0.25 0.345 0.5 0.2 5.3 0.40 0.6 0.2 6.5 0.6 l0 [mm] 0.8 0.50 1.374 0.45 h0/t [kg] 0.5 12.373 0.2 6.38 1.2 4.6 0.5 0.5 0.83 0.2 4.2 6.4 0.9 1.55 0.Dimensional Tables 9.308 0.35 0.00 0.20 0.25 0.65 0.30 0.266 0.85 1 0.2 6.676 0.2 3.45 0.30 0.6 0.45 0.30 0.7 0.95 0.4 0.35 0.109 0.58 0.80 0.25 0.50 1.415 0.5 12.425 0.2 5.5 0.3 0.8 0.2 0.35 0.2 4.70 0.157 0.2 5.75 0.2 4.25 0.20 0.25 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.2 5.75 0.2 7.83 0.2 3.4 0.29 0.9 0.35 0.75 0.055 0.6 0.17 0.00 0.95 0.40 0.1 1 1.20 0.7 0.45 0. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] –1623 –710 –1332 –1421 –1003 –1505 –1605 –1147 –1311 –1365 –1384 –1441 –957 –1531 –1595 –1228 –1343 –1841 –1619 –1700 –1544 –1853 –1288 –1250 –1388 –1666 –1018 –1293 –1551 –1079 –1226 –1324 –1373 –1275 –1377 C B A C B A C B A C B A 84 .38 1.708 0.2 5.107 0.85 1 0.5 0.2 4.4 0.7 0.58 0.55 0.75 0.243 0. De [mm] 000100 000200 000300 000400 000550 000600 000700 000800 000900 001000 001100 001200 001300 001400 001500 001600 001700 001800 001900 002000 002100 002200 002300 002050 002500 002700 002750 002800 002900 003000 003100 003200 003300 003500 003600 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12.25 0.85 0.3 0.193 0.2 t [mm] 0.211 0.45 0.00 0.05 1.67 0.2 3.50 1.00 0.15 0.3 0.05 h0 [mm] 0.50 0.2 4.170 0.35 0.382 0.251 0.488 0.8 0.2 7.2 7.70 0.29 0.40 0.55 0.2 6.50 0.2 3.75 0.80 0.5 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 3.30 0.5 0.35 0.588 0.2 4.310 0.75 0.346 0.2 5.2 5.6 0.2 Dimension Tables for SCHNORR Disc Springs Article No.2 0.30 0.2 6.70 0.093 0.2 3.4 0.25 0.7 0.553 0.080 0.2 3.50 0.4 0.1 0.126 0.43 1.2 6.75 0.214 0.30 0.828 0.4 0.35 0.85 0.57 1.297 0.75 0.468 0.55 0.8 0.2 5.5 0.40 0.40 0.7 0.35 0.665 Weight/ 1000 pcs.35 0.5 12.2 5.50 1.45 0.25 0.50 1.064 0.2 4.5 0.2 5.

038 0.500 0.340 0.25 h0 s = 0.100 0.300 0.175 0.150 0.400 0.190 0.063 0.050 0.250 0.200 0.125 0.260 0.113 0.300 0.200 0.300 0.125 0.050 0.125 0.225 0.250 0.250 0.075 0.250 0.150 0.150 0.088 0.150 0.100 0.380 0.088 0.175 0.100 0.550 0.300 0.300 0.063 0.175 0.100 0.230 0.260 0.125 0.300 0.500 0.200 0.450 0.125 0.200 0.125 0.175 0.450 0.250 0.088 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N][N/mm2] 0.300 0.400 0.190 0.150 0.230 0.300 0.450 153 30 126 238 42 142 269 108 220 357 232 377 63 257 418 206 352 694 424 641 404 699 337 160 363 855 131 338 1040 181 321 499 704 334 519 1753 733 1290 1832 1251 1621 1750 1158 1698 2028 1322 1803 1169 1591 1749 1205 1687 2358 1596 1990 1569 1795 1444 1542 1388 1957 1274 1363 1836 1202 1199 1625 1865 1331 1307 85 .050 0.063 0.075 0.150 0.063 0.125 0.088 0.260 0.150 0.340 0.075 0.340 117 26 105 186 39 119 210 98 182 282 192 297 58 213 329 178 282 557 350 502 324 547 270 152 291 673 123 279 813 175 280 409 555 291 426 1187 600 1057 1281 1044 1325 1218 951 1168 1447 1084 1280 980 1303 1238 988 1122 1600 1291 1350 1249 1417 955 1284 1105 1419 1061 1101 1341 998 992 1093 1291 1100 1060 0.260 0.075 0.230 0.225 0.250 0.113 0.088 0.410 0.350 0.063 0.100 0.075 0.230 0.350 0.225 84 750 20 433 79 750 130 792 33 753 89 938 147 749 82 697 133 663 195 884 140 760 206 778 48 702 155 912 228 749 141 714 208 671 405 954 263 923 361 828 239 894 394 1007 200 568 130 932 215 791 457 864 106 770 210 787 547 826 154 735 221 711 302 630 395 789 229 787 314 752 0.063 0.400 0.200 0.340 0.250 0.350 0.075 0.190 0.260 0.088 0.250 0.400 0.110 0.125 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.200 0.100 0.350 0.200 0.260 0.190 0.300 0.260 0.200 0.300 0.175 0.450 0.300 0.138 0.75 h0 s = 1.400 0.350 0.380 0.350 0.275 0.150 0.088 0.230 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.225 0.075 0.230 0.190 0.∅ 6 – 15 mm Deflection s.150 0.150 0.113 45 12 46 69 21 52 78 51 75 104 79 110 30 88 122 85 116 224 150 196 134 214 111 84 120 239 68 120 284 101 133 171 214 138 178 343 233 401 365 409 501 343 378 285 410 405 359 380 485 343 385 293 421 493 372 475 531 245 506 420 403 418 419 390 401 383 269 358 424 400 0.350 0.100 0.113 0.100 0.175 0.175 0.190 0.

33 0.00 0.2 8.740 0.40 0.024 1.8 0.1 1.75 0.4 1.4 0.20 0.7 0.15 1.71 0.2 8.2 8.5 22.213 1.9 1 0.45 0.888 1.40 0.8 0.6 0.55 1.50 1.33 0.69 0.40 0.2 9.1 1.9 1.799 2.25 1 1.2 10.9 1 1.50 0.35 1.2 10.5 0.2 10.40 0.610 1.50 0.50 0.2 8.524 0.654 0.15 1.45 0.913 2.073 1.3 1.6 0.2 8.651 0.2 6.2 8.45 1.8 0.61 0.5 mm Article No.25 1.876 1.20 1.2 8.4 1.3 1.50 0.2 8.55 0.5 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 6.2 8.2 9.25 1.8 1.60 0.7 0.30 0.2 8.2 10.80 0.8 0.25 0.2 8.8 1 0.2 8.60 0.1 1.5 0.7 0.181 2.850 1.3 1.2 10.573 1.2 11.574 1.05 1.2 6.35 1.40 0.40 0.672 0.75 h0 [mm] 0.45 1.81 0.05 1.75 0.55 0.55 1.63 1.40 1.7 1 0.64 0.4 0.39 1.762 1.17 0.2 10.444 0.6 0.35 0.55 1.55 0.40 1.25 l0 [mm] 1.999 1.978 0.50 0.2 6.1 1.57 0.418 1.786 0. De [mm] 003700 003800 003900 004100 004300 004400 004500 004600 004700 004800 004900 005000 005100 005200 005300 005400 005500 005550 005600 005700 005800 005900 006000 006100 006200 006300 006400 006500 006600 006700 006800 006900 007000 007100 007200 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 22.50 0.25 1.2 6.61 0.2 11.70 0.2 1.5 22.45 0.55 0.2 9.20 1.50 h0/t [kg] 0.9 0.2 1.Dimensional Tables ∅ 15 – 22.2 10.2 8.93 0.55 0.677 0.8 1.2 0.65 0.40 0.65 0.7 0.1 1.394 1.55 0.393 1.57 0.002 0.6 0.60 0.79 0.2 1.75 1.79 0.41 0.65 0.50 1.4 1.55 1.2 8.2 8.45 0.2 t [mm] 0.353 0.2 8.5 0.45 1.2 6.63 0.55 0.814 Weight/ 1000 pcs.60 0.778 0.5 0.8 0.776 1.55 0.191 1.4 1.197 1.60 0.7 0.30 0.40 0.752 1.7 0.2 11. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] –1428 –1646 –1881 –988 –1333 –1555 –1580 –1555 –816 –1021 –1225 –1310 –1361 –1101 –1412 –1468 –1468 –1052 –1363 –1558 –1202 –1302 –1373 –1416 –1574 –1024 –1386 –1560 –1733 –1560 –1969 –1418 –1178 –1276 –1534 C B A C B A C B A C B A 86 .60 0.361 1.

300 0.113 0.300 0.300 0.300 0.450 0.410 0.340 0.380 0.410 0.650 0.500 0.150 0.300 0.163 0.490 0.200 0.550 0.150 0.100 0.260 0.250 0.350 0.125 0.225 0.300 0.300 0.125 222 256 367 84 172 254 308 363 85 130 191 236 286 140 255 309 425 121 233 451 214 262 315 374 494 141 304 412 544 548 890 857 240 306 693 328 479 523 399 420 461 343 386 319 350 382 253 333 417 434 292 388 440 421 382 432 416 398 311 374 422 421 452 484 379 484 427 488 412 383 0.138 0.400 0.138 0.113 0.113 0.800 0.490 0.340 0.325 0.400 0.450 0.550 0.340 0.410 0.230 0.200 0.530 0.325 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.225 0.250 411 727 474 909 689 997 131 735 304 790 461 871 579 749 697 820 126 583 206 646 317 708 414 600 523 745 222 769 446 815 564 660 814 824 186 809 417 792 865 814 342 797 442 775 557 748 685 696 917 823 219 776 547 793 754 856 1010 920 1050 809 1708 1030 1695 877 370 897 533 771 1330 815 0.410 0.325 0.500 0.490 0.75 h0 s = 1.600 0.450 0.380 578 666 982 155 412 641 825 1004 139 245 400 550 733 265 594 791 1181 214 572 1254 413 570 751 949 1288 254 745 1045 1418 1531 2507 2576 425 710 1952 1195 1291 1423 1018 1115 1238 1218 1287 791 885 980 1034 1256 1056 1135 1124 1309 1106 1126 1295 1103 1080 1048 1147 1336 1067 1112 1206 1300 1301 1665 1381 1227 1083 1316 0.163 0.600 0.500 0.500 733 844 1261 165 503 798 1059 1319 137 267 462 672 912 288 725 984 1537 223 699 1631 453 668 921 1201 1648 268 929 1323 1815 1976 3222 3340 444 855 2509 1734 1624 1800 1220 1377 1539 1749 1831 944 1070 1195 1580 1803 1279 1412 1624 1842 1333 1387 1826 1327 1320 1300 1690 1944 1283 1394 1520 1646 1821 2310 1843 1478 1335 1825 9 87 .250 0.275 0.380 0.275 0.300 0.25 h0 s = 0.138 0.175 0.380 0.088 0.600 0.600 0.175 0.550 0.200 0.275 0.100 0.450 0.650 0.150 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N][N/mm2] 0.500 0.550 0.550 0.138 0.125 0.400 0.550 0.410 0.275 0.100 0.650 0.250 0.300 0.Deflection s.300 0.350 0.700 0.150 0.450 0.125 0.138 0.225 0.400 0.075 0.450 0.600 0.380 0.163 0.500 0.250 0.380 0.100 0.125 0.200 0.600 0.275 0.200 0.400 0.450 0.300 0.300 0.550 0.200 0.200 0.100 0.138 0.250 0.600 0.400 0.400 0.150 0.410 0.450 0.300 0.410 0.125 0.150 0.138 0.150 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.275 0.450 0.275 0.100 0.

65 1.60 0.00 0.80 0.25 1.3 16.85 1.25 1.65 0.472 2.90 0.2 10.359 3.60 0.9 1 1.7 1.051 3.95 0.526 4.40 0.95 2.80 0.25 1.38 1.50 1.15 2.70 0.939 2.2 2.2 12.76 0.2 12.72 0.85 0.8 1.10 0.90 0.48 0.95 2.05 1.25 1.8 1 1.5 31.317 5.19 0.Dimensional Tables ∅ 23 – 31.70 0.268 7.29 0.166 5.384 6.75 1.7 1.9 2.25 1.64 0.25 1.75 2 l0 [mm] 1.75 h0 [mm] 0.1 2.443 7.2 12. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] –1173 –1257 –1320 –1466 –1500 –1556 –1806 –1467 –1834 –1834 –1371 –1238 –1238 –1573 –1720 –1622 –1078 –1277 –1419 –1490 –1415 –1583 –1676 –1282 –1282 –1702 –1562 –1250 –1349 –1448 –1077 –1442 –1730 –1570 –1923 C B A C B A C B A 88 .2 12.7 0.70 0.33 0.55 1.2 12.753 2.192 2.57 1.14 0.60 0.255 2.75 0.2 8.43 1.9 1 0.50 0.05 0.8 2.5 1.994 2.270 2.2 12.172 2.90 0.80 0.468 4.05 2.5 0.3 16.37 1.90 0.2 1.2 12.2 12.70 0.78 0.25 1 1.8 0.105 1.70 0.6 1.2 12.2 14.60 0.4 2.47 0.5 31.3 16.5 1 1.5 1 1.68 0.2 14.83 0.6 1.807 3.5 31.70 0.15 2.645 2.8 1.2 12.75 h0/t [kg] 1.7 0.95 0.75 0.2 10.2 14.2 12.3 t [mm] 0.442 5.219 3.5 0.52 0.94 0.1 2.56 0.70 0.1 2.2 8.5 31.2 10.062 5.2 14.8 1 1.527 3.2 10.85 2 1.70 0.2 16.31 0.605 Weight/ 1000 pcs.2 12.95 0.10 0.55 0.85 2.5 31.546 8.2 10.80 0.5 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 8.90 0.5 31.543 2.9 1 1.717 5.8 1.85 0.501 3.35 1.2 10.2 8.5 1 0.5 0.3 16.760 3.68 0.75 0.2 10.70 0.057 6.5 mm Article No.78 0.65 1.2 12.25 1.75 1.5 1.25 1.789 4.5 31.80 0.9 1.6 1.2 10.45 2.95 0. De [mm] 007400 007500 007600 007700 007800 007900 008000 008100 008200 008350 008600 008700 008800 008900 009000 009100 009200 009300 009400 009500 009600 009700 009800 009900 010000 010100 010200 010300 010400 010500 010650 010700 010800 010900 011000 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 25 25 25 25 25 25 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 31.035 6.2 12.832 3.233 4.25 0.75 1.6 1.75 1.80 0.

Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.25 h0 s = 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.75 h0 s = 1.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N][N/mm2] 0.200 0.188 0.175 0.175 0.188 0.175 0.163 0.150 0.150 0.125 0.188 0.225 0.175 0.200 0.175 0.138 0.238 0.225 0.200 0.175 0.238 0.213 0.188 0.250 0.200 0.213 0.163 0.275 0.238 0.213 0.263 0.225 0.225 0.175 0.188 279 332 391 507 463 538 870 475 863 1159 492 331 367 585 848 1040 348 512 737 1003 590 844 1149 435 476 907 1033 587 761 1033 384 791 1260 1391 2199 397 384 251 315 469 451 422 429 399 473 397 499 389 500 357 425 375 385 327 424 467 451 406 515 414 513 371 426 385 351 448 449 501 382 481 0.400 0.375 0.350 0.350 0.375 0.350 0.325 0.300 0.300 0.250 0.375 0.450 0.350 0.400 0.350 0.275 0.475 0.450 0.400 0.350 0.475 0.425 0.375 0.500 0.400 0.425 0.325 0.550 0.475 0.425 0.525 0.450 0.450 0.350 0.375 448 733 560 714 687 595 909 723 802 877 964 849 1627 923 872 813 1630 868 2250 994 870 745 515 919 644 730 1021 938 1573 792 2007 898 553 692 872 718 1339 735 1899 911 992 870 1519 849 2159 883 681 950 832 776 1634 968 1970 795 951 788 1343 723 1912 774 594 825 1409 844 2314 950 2669 814 4239 1020 0.600 0.560 0.530 0.530 0.560 0.530 0.490 0.450 0.450 0.380 0.560 0.680 0.530 0.600 0.530 0.410 0.710 0.680 0.600 0.530 0.710 0.640 0.560 0.750 0.600 0.640 0.490 0.830 0.710 0.640 0.790 0.680 0.680 0.530 0.560 544 717 925 1249 1055 1325 2320 1217 2331 3338 1168 601 868 1359 2232 2910 661 1135 1853 2745 1266 2089 3065 801 1107 2246 2854 1170 1800 2697 687 1923 3249 3905 6148 1007 988 1046 1241 1221 1204 1511 1152 1404 1586 1041 1265 1031 1312 1320 1410 947 1004 1225 1478 1204 1200 1423 1304 1086 1369 1281 1091 1009 1276 1132 1194 1354 1310 1607 0.800 0.750 0.700 0.700 0.750 0.700 0.650 0.600 0.600 0.500 0.750 0.900 0.700 0.800 0.700 0.550 0.950 0.900 0.800 0.700 0.950 0.850 0.750 1.000 0.800 0.850 0.650 1.100 0.950 0.850 1.050 0.900 0.900 0.700 0.750 602 842 1119 1536 1273 1629 2955 1536 3000 4320 1436 635 1050 1647 2814 3821 723 1337 2322 3511 1482 2590 3949 859 1342 2785 3680 1309 2207 3413 722 2359 4077 5036 8054 1221 1214 1563 1820 1512 1487 2159 1446 2010 2178 1295 1519 1268 1624 1895 1988 1149 1226 1797 2074 1480 1491 2049 1577 1344 1703 1806 1320 1254 1838 1363 1478 1689 1826 2267

9

89

Dimensional Tables

∅ 34 – 50 mm
Article No. De [mm] 011100 011200 011300 011400 011500 011600 011700 011850 011900 012000 012100 012200 012300 012400 012500 012600 012700 012800 012900 013000 013100 013250 013300 013400 013500 013600 013700 013800 013900 014000 014100 014200 014300 014400 014500 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 35.5 35.5 35.5 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 12.3 12.3 12.3 14.3 14.3 16.3 16.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 14.3 14.3 14.3 16.3 16.3 18.3 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.4 22.4 22.4 22.4 18.4 18.4 18.4 18.4 18.4 20.4 20.4 22.4 22.4 25.4 25.4 t [mm] 1 1.25 1.5 1.25 1.5 1.5 2 0.9 1.25 2 1.25 1.5 2 1.5 2 2 1 1.5 2 2.25 2.5 1.25 1.75 2.5 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 2 2.5 2 2.5 1.25 1.5 l0 [mm] 2.25 2.35 2.5 2.4 2.55 2.55 2.85 2.05 2.25 2.8 2.65 2.75 3.05 2.8 3.1 3.15 2.3 2.65 3.1 3.15 3.45 2.85 3.05 3.5 2.85 3.3 3.5 4.1 4.4 3.5 3.85 3.6 3.9 2.85 3.1 h0 [mm] 1.25 1.10 1.00 1.15 1.05 1.05 0.85 1.15 1.00 0.80 1.40 1.25 1.05 1.30 1.10 1.15 1.30 1.15 1.10 0.90 0.95 1.60 1.30 1.00 1.60 1.80 1.50 1.60 1.40 1.50 1.35 1.60 1.40 1.60 1.60 h0/t [kg] 1.25 0.88 0.67 0.92 0.70 0.70 0.43 1.28 0.80 0.40 1.12 0.83 0.53 0.87 0.55 0.58 1.30 0.77 0.55 0.40 0.38 1.28 0.74 0.40 1.28 1.20 0.75 0.64 0.47 0.75 0.54 0.80 0.56 1.28 1.07 6.006 7.477 8.948 7.074 8.465 7.911 10.57 4.952 6.865 10.97 10.40 12.45 16.63 11.89 15.89 15.04 7.067 10.53 14.06 15.72 17.52 11.34 15.89 22.77 16.13 19.31 25.79 32.14 38.35 24.85 30.97 23.82 29.68 13.82 16.54 Weight/ 1000 pcs. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] –1201 –1322 –1442 –1435 –1572 –1658 –1790 –1042 –1258 –1611 –1213 –1299 –1455 –1392 –1571 –1712 –1024 –1359 –1733 –1595 –1871 –1227 –1396 –1534 –892 –1204 –1338 –1784 –1873 –1371 –1543 –1511 –1653 –1006 –1207

C B A

C B A C B A

C

90

Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.25 h0 s = 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.75 h0 s = 1.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N][N/mm2] 0.313 0.275 0.250 0.288 0.263 0.263 0.213 0.288 0.250 0.200 0.350 0.313 0.263 0.325 0.275 0.288 0.325 0.288 0.275 0.225 0.238 0.400 0.325 0.250 0.400 0.450 0.375 0.400 0.350 0.375 0.338 0.400 0.350 0.400 0.400 637 815 1097 913 1224 1291 2097 458 731 1864 904 1114 1800 1224 1972 2182 565 1109 2175 2336 3351 1041 1524 2773 757 1379 1918 3703 5043 1966 3008 2247 3261 854 1242 429 394 321 461 447 495 445 427 409 393 406 376 393 430 375 365 422 431 484 392 470 497 433 383 325 423 259 407 530 397 373 466 364 410 447 0.625 0.550 0.500 0.575 0.525 0.525 0.425 0.575 0.500 0.400 0.700 0.625 0.525 0.650 0.550 0.575 0.650 0.575 0.550 0.450 0.475 0.800 0.650 0.500 0.800 0.900 0.750 0.800 0.700 0.750 0.675 0.800 0.700 0.800 0.800 998 789 1395 734 1982 730 1546 858 2192 841 2313 933 4003 952 712 786 1277 766 3576 837 1459 750 1929 702 3363 855 2102 802 3663 825 4030 810 876 776 1953 810 4041 920 4481 835 6453 997 1620 914 2701 814 5320 815 1178 597 2184 779 3392 609 6733 917 9546 1138 3478 745 5601 817 3924 872 6044 806 1328 755 2028 828 0.940 1175 0.830 1825 0.750 2725 0.860 1990 0.790 2997 0.790 3163 0.640 5803 0.860 831 0.750 1699 0.600 5187 1.050 1780 0.940 2550 0.790 4781 0.980 2758 0.830 5195 0.860 5642 0.980 1018 0.860 2616 0.830 5730 0.680 6544 0.710 9359 1.200 1891 0.980 3659 0.750 7716 1.200 1375 1.350 2606 1.130 4586 1.200 9315 1.05013688 1.130 4702 1.010 7902 1.200 5222 1.050 8510 1.200 1550 1.200 2512 1083 1026 1225 1190 1186 1316 1527 1076 1073 1332 1033 981 1392 1122 1359 1333 1067 1134 1314 1339 1573 1253 1148 1296 817 1069 1054 1529 1824 1048 1330 1220 1324 1035 1145 1.250 1258 1.100 2162 1.000 3397 1.150 2347 1.050 3704 1.050 3908 0.850 7498 1.150 884 1.000 2059 0.800 6747 1.400 1984 1.250 3061 1.050 6096 1.300 3281 1.100 6580 1.150 7171 1.300 1072 1.150 3201 1.100 7258 0.900 8456 0.95012243 1.600 2007 1.300 4475 1.00010037 1.600 1459 1.800 2837 1.500 5603 1.60011673 1.40017650 1.500 5745 1.35010098 1.600 6329 1.40010817 1.600 1646 1.600 2844 1304 1255 1807 1464 1472 1635 2150 1302 1329 1878 1253 1207 1988 1376 1948 1946 1283 1410 1646 1871 2219 1514 1421 1825 984 1293 1577 2244 2590 1295 1922 1509 1920 1251 1397

9

91

5 2 2.04 44.95 1.19 65.04 95.1 3.70 1.77 55.31 0.37 1.1 4.86 39.10 2.65 4.80 1.40 1.56 0.3 4.65 1.5 25.6 6.85 27.95 2.80 2.5 2 3 2 2.4 3.35 1.76 0.10 2.15 4.81 41.83 0.94 47.20 52.70 0.3 h0 [mm] 1.5 4 2.92 Weight/ 1000 pcs.5 3 2.60 1.5 3 1. De [mm] 014600 014700 014800 014950 015000 015100 015200 015300 015400 015500 015600 015700 015800 015900 016050 016100 016200 016300 016400 016500 016600 016700 016800 016900 017000 017100 017200 017300 017400 017500 017600 017700 017800 017850 017900 B A C B A 50 50 50 56 56 56 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 63 63 63 63 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 25.4 4.7 5 4.2 4.3 4.80 0.13 77.11 88.43 1.24 1.5 4.70 0.77 22.55 1.8 5.5 30.2 5.53 71.60 2.57 0.2 5.50 2.72 0.00 1.70 1.80 1.90 1.54 84.25 0.8 2.60 1.25 4.5 35.52 32.1 5.85 53.01 130.40 2.40 1.80 1.75 1.31 0.63 82.5 30.0 91.20 2.69 57. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] –1408 –1760 –1659 –1174 –1284 –1565 –1284 –1376 –1560 –1527 –1592 –1572 –1782 –1834 –1315 –1360 –1679 –1524 –1135 –1430 –1502 –1615 –1845 –1813 –1700 –1295 –1246 –1594 –1233 –1321 –1480 –1497 –1626 –1311 –1363 C B A C B A C B 92 .30 2.12 0.40 1.43 1.9 5.5 30.60 0.90 0.80 1.5 36 36 36 31 31 31 36 36 41 41 t [mm] 2 2.5 28.8 4.80 0.30 h0/t [kg] 0.01 98.5 28.30 0.25 3 l0 [mm] 3.30 0.Dimensional Tables ∅ 50 – 80 mm Article No.10 1.66 56.10 32.6 4.70 2.53 44.1 5.1 5.5 20.5 3 4 3 4 2.5 3 3.4 28.13 50.5 3 3.5 35.15 44.5 31 31 31 31 25.05 0.60 2.4 25.70 0.50 2.6 4.70 0.9 4.50 2.20 2.78 59.5 20.57 38.5 6.3 5.45 3.5 40.86 62.45 0.9 4.21 86.4 25.16 47.5 5.5 40.96 0.5 20.40 0.10 1.85 20.6 5.5 30.55 0.5 25.7 4.5 3 2.92 121.53 0.57 0.10 1.40 2.09 27.5 30.72 0.3 4.5 3 3 4 4 5 2 2.7 6.5 1.40 1.9 63.

650 2861 0.800 14157 837 1.850 8234 909 0.625 2408 0.35023923 1.20023351 0.28011615 1.450 8757 0.13018225 1.325 4142 0.525 2318 0.750 12574 937 1.525 7319 0.600 3755 0.460 2621 1.88010369 1.475 5715 1000 1.05015025 1.700 10359 815 1.580 4737 1.700 3678 0.83012044 1.900 5379 685 0.900 6145 914 0.250 7847 735 1.625 4531 0.750 8904 1.550 8214 897 0.50023528 2.900 8981 904 0.50012451 2.050 4762 1.400 9360 2.900 16634 925 0.65021400 2.700 3491 810 0.20027245 2.70014106 2.800 9006 1.200 6297 883 1.60026712 2.400 8391 0.450 4891 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N][N/mm2] 0.60030376 1.100 5380 1.850 9407 953 0.450 3018 0.450 3447 0.050 13677 823 1.760 4237 1.800 3335 778 0.98011441 1.10015218 1.738 3698 0.70016792 1.30012844 1421 1677 1987 1470 1349 1806 1273 1736 2145 1471 1922 1600 1703 2123 1629 1355 1606 1826 1235 1501 1426 1628 2114 1974 2016 1620 1306 1877 1312 1265 1920 1556 1895 1652 1417 9 93 .880 4441 1.500 4755 2.050 3802 758 0.350 5399 0.300 4432 980 1.525 4676 0.900 9997 1.58019447 2.20020535 2.10024791 2.000 8152 1.50 h0 s ≈ 0.475 3447 0.310 7179 1.100 7239 1.300 11544 0.438 2942 0.800 8031 1.70014698 1.80015825 1.600 22728 946 1.100 15168 799 1.25 h0 s = 0.200 4438 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.950 6950 2.350 7302 1.350 4463 1.375 6591 0.35012536 1.73010539 1140 1332 1418 1217 1090 1281 1049 1165 1486 1190 1334 1285 1358 1507 1351 1086 1280 1296 1024 1225 1148 1310 1486 1399 1465 1342 1055 1332 1081 1028 1343 1268 1310 1369 1145 1.950 6081 847 0.400 1910 0.050 9063 0.413 4495 0.210 6611 1.250 3771 748 1.050 8376 814 1.050 9007 928 0.350 1949 0.20044495 2.525 5028 0.950 2766 1.825 8352 812 0.600 5379 1.588 2364 0.03011936 1.600 5426 2.800 8070 2.000 5054 754 0.30014752 2.350 3473 0.425 5083 0.675 5401 0.10014152 2.40019545 2.28013269 1.24011803 1.550 8163 0.500 2894 0.425 4449 0.400 5933 785 1.875 5270 773 0.150 7838 814 1.800 16099 877 0.58012316 1.75 h0 s = 1.80030919 1.40011519 1.350 9196 909 1.65015002 1.400 7379 0.975 2259 889 0.650 7895 795 1.10015640 1.80010289 1.488 1458 0.700 6437 938 0.575 4450 430 494 424 483 415 371 409 297 414 451 369 486 502 437 536 410 477 383 406 475 433 493 430 411 458 532 402 393 425 393 378 487 362 544 434 0.Deflection s.950 5144 1.90033672 1.430 8195 1.175 3658 986 0.275 4255 0.500 6725 1.400 5898 1.58011453 1.350 8342 1.

75 0.80 4.8 628.3 346.9 803.70 0.60 0.20 2. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] –1738 –1679 –1246 –1363 –1558 –1465 –1574 –1191 –1235 –1512 –1764 –1663 –1174 –1284 –1505 –1177 –1317 –1426 –1492 –1573 –1698 –1850 –1273 –1415 –1708 –1730 –1709 –1615 –1203 –1293 –1675 –1345 –1462 –1548 –1733 C B A C B A 7.75 3.5 4 5 6 3 4 6 4 4 5 6 5 6 8 3.37 1.5 8.78 0.8 168.49 1.50 3.6 139.13 0.6 596.34 1.50 3.9 7.2 6.9 479.5 5 8 6 8 10 3.55 0.1 315.4 11.80 2.30 2.2 6.3 177.42 1.5 10.6 391.0 222.00 3.2 C B A 7.40 1.5 7.6 10.1 338.7 332.90 3.00 3.3 10.3 329.28 0.80 4.55 0.80 4.00 3.60 2.80 0.2 6.50 2.06 0.6 200.70 3.80 0.50 2.6 9.2 7.29 0.57 0.05 1.75 6.40 4.5 94 .0 676.7 9 11.74 125.20 1.2 10.7 3.3 7 7.9 120.0 565.41 0.5 8.4 547.5 5 4 5 2.90 4.80 0.4 9 9.5 89.8 357.80 0.0 248.20 4.7 6 7 7.9 8 8.60 3.8 12 2.6 221.8 8.5 465.7 5.50 4.3 242.80 0.00 2.30 0.20 3.5 3.90 4.8 5 8 5 6 6 8 6.2 529.45 1.5 7.3 10.8 10.20 5.60 h0’/t’ [kg] 112. Ordering Dimensions De Di t t’ l0 h0 [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] 018000 018100 018200 018300 018400 018500 018600 018750 018800 018900 019000 019150 019250 019300 019450 019500 019600 019700 019850 019900 020050 020100 020200 020300 020400 020550 020600 020700 020850 020900 021000 021100 021250 021350 021400 A C B A 80 80 90 90 90 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 112 112 112 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 140 140 140 150 150 150 150 41 41 46 46 46 41 41 51 51 51 51 51 57 57 57 41 51 51 51 61 61 61 64 64 64 71 71 71 72 72 72 61 61 71 71 4 5 2.55 1.Dimensional Tables ∅ 80 –150 mm Article No.30 0.7 433.9 9.41 0.20 2.2 8.6 425.30 4.2 8.80 0.4 177.80 0.00 h0/t 0.50 2.90 3.1 262.8 8.9 377.5 C B A 7.4 9.28 1.80 3.6 Weight 1000 pcs.1 155.29 0.56 0.20 2.71 0.2 663.40 0.

500 16335 1591 3.000 25338 1559 2.100 36339 1.975 5834 0.400 17752 1.688 12345 0.400 56254 1832 4.750 1.725 34434 1.700 13924 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.250 1.200 29122 1655 1.600 111056 1870 3.500 1.950 1.350 124124 3.450 42963 1.800 1.975 13063 0.900 2.700 50722 2.000 16213 22928 6585 10416 21617 15219 22937 7410 9823 15341 25810 32937 9038 13341 30215 13943 16265 22931 31514 25526 36336 65305 13231 21924 59520 36302 59149 84219 14773 20982 59967 25021 34161 36189 64684 924 924 938 792 814 818 823 902 749 894 942 897 889 778 777 685 856 787 770 938 911 893 961 816 833 959 908 829 911 787 895 848 814 913 954 1.380 19829 2.200 62711 1987 3.060 32328 2.000 1.480 51304 1.000 41170 1624 3.500 9091 1491 2.875 12238 0.900 19789 0.600 1.900 11064 1470 3.600 1.750 1.Deflection s.650 48022 2.325 15292 1.650 1.375 1.200 108813 1634 5.200 24547 1414 2.950 85926 2.450 2.850 17027 1.200 8157 1553 2.300 35207 1426 4.050 8501 1.000 1.200 0.600 30867 0.630 29950 1.500 17487 1387 2.825 19538 0.650 22874 1.200 19560 1.700 5624 0.100 2.930 30705 2.600 1.450 2.400 1.150 17346 3.880 14189 1.000 27920 2.75 h0 s = 1.500 31354 2.750 8673 0.600 45456 3.900 18199 1508 4.000 33965 2.550 44307 3.500 22060 1431 3.600 2.700 43952 2028 3.600 64028 1619 2.300 65207 1718 2.850 1.100 1.680 17201 3.800 8714 0.000 89851 1314 1460 1286 1116 1295 1144 1344 1237 1049 1255 1337 1418 1220 1090 1243 945 1179 1103 1264 1312 1290 1436 1319 1151 1326 1366 1314 1284 1250 1101 1284 1172 1138 1277 1357 2.750 41201 1944 3.650 2.630 8613 2.125 8514 0.425 11821 0.200 19729 1150 4.400 1.800 31903 1.000 12014 0.800 7639 0.180 93765 3.800 46189 1683 2.980 31059 3.800 163035 1766 4.500 56737 1752 4.550 8726 0.000 112487 1711 9 95 .550 17061 0.225 9514 1.280 33682 2.800 58370 1580 4.400 2.875 4779 0.800 4232 0.400 7684 1.930 10493 2.400 85251 3.250 1.100 0.700 2.800 15843 1298 3.625 5836 0.000 35296 486 439 509 421 382 437 374 490 399 476 496 424 483 415 363 370 463 420 349 500 481 415 522 433 391 504 470 401 495 419 467 458 435 487 501 1.600 48155 3.950 1.625 15800 1.250 20674 2.400 2.900 37342 1363 3.380 15422 2.400 20251 2.000 40786 1826 3.000 33843 1363 3.880 43812 3.125 10096 0.250 2.000 14615 0.650 31118 0.800 85494 1.200 21518 1349 2.50 h0 s ≈ 0.400 110547 1688 1.25 h0 s = 0.800 55098 1406 4.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N][N/mm2] 0.300 1.200 20721 1.100 13070 2.500 11267 0.000 1.500 37041 1432 2.900 120218 2034 4.250 1.

20 5. Ordering Dimensions De Di t t’ l0 h0 [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] 021500 021600 021650 021750 021800 021850 021950 022000 022100 022200 022300 022400 022500 022600 022650 022700 022800 022900 023000 023100 023200 023300 023350 023400 023500 023600 023700 023750 023800 023900 024000 024100 150 150 160 160 160 180 180 180 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 225 225 225 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 81 81 82 82 82 92 92 92 82 82 82 92 92 92 102 102 102 102 102 112 112 112 112 112 112 102 102 127 127 127 127 127 8 10 4.51 0.39 0.56 0.00 8.00 5.3 6 10 4.2 13.1 16.25 19.10 4.61 0.75 0.6 9.1 9.Dimensional Tables ∅ 150 – 250 mm Article No.5 16.00 5.88 0.81 0.5 9.8 13.46 0.20 3.4 13.5 11.5 8 10 12 14 12 14 16 6.21 0.4 17 11.70 3.5 15.87 0.1 18.80 h0/t h0’/t’ [kg] 0.8 18.27 1.64 0.7 14.50 5.10 7.30 0.3 1363 1708 2044 2380 1870 2173 2493 1450 1754 2631 3075 3683 1909 2678 3205 3732 4273 Weight 1000 pcs.45 732.8 6 10 8 10 12 10 12 14 5.36 0.5 11.44 0.2 9.49 0.9 17.6 7.6 14.5 13.5 8 12 10 12 7 10 12 14 16 7.4 14 7.00 7.20 5.60 4.1 12.6 11.4 16.60 4.5 14.6 15.50 2.3 862.66 0.40 1.4 15.60 4.60 5.20 4.5 19 6.25 16.5 14.6 9.44 1.00 7.3 13.80 7.50 3.5 11.8 6.2 679.00 7.50 0.8 9.9 10.80 4.44 0.47 0.20 4.6 11.8 3.19 0.65 1.93 0.2 12.6 15 21.8 1089 705.29 0.1 19.85 0.5 1381 1554 1962 2351 1840 2208 2537 999.50 4.80 7.00 6.2 13.60 5.81 0.2 11.50 6.60 5. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] –1739 –1779 –1189 –1333 –1753 –1159 –1192 –1576 –1415 –1581 –1595 –1679 –1737 –1743 –1213 –1409 –1772 –1611 –1884 –1726 –1689 –1550 –1119 –1267 –1489 –1459 –1542 –1086 –1406 –1766 –1596 –1893 C B A C B A C B A C B A C B A 96 .3 13 9.5 11 11.30 5.7 9.8 492.6 18 11.38 1.27 0.25 17 9.9 908.10 6.5 7.72 0.1 18.

125 17203 0.500 120738 794 4.880 70788 3.000 180141 1887 5.200 27966 1450 5.550 37417 825 3.375 51105 1.Deflection s.700 112942 1781 3.250 36111 4.150 289181 3.100 22731 877 2.275 16558 1.800 54284 1356 7.000 217625 1444 8.900 267295 890 2.50 h0 s ≈ 0.400 12162 1.100 305100 5.380 41051 2.900 42527 810 3.400 55136 1.950 26895 1.800 57955 892 2.480210942 4.800 175145 851 2.350 383017 1409 1342 1238 1110 1341 1201 1036 1201 1177 1233 1421 1315 1393 1484 1247 1254 1468 1227 1492 1358 1281 1260 1138 1177 1137 1207 1163 1116 1244 1503 1221 1429 3.500 178214 1896 6.650 78034 4.000 126387 5.400 93239 1.025 95633 1.600 91252 1559 5.250 119053 5.925 34518 0.250 64497 2.650 156021 1063 2.000 149323 1490 7.780 89663 2.500 162061 1804 4.550 28552 742 2.050 66983 1.830 37533 3.550 35029 1.200 21843 3.100 199476 943 2.500 133130 691 3.150 195830 2.000 88141 837 3.630 138564 4.400 33367 1.100 136873 943 1.500 50260 1377 3.625 32870 1.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N][N/mm2] 0.600199269 3.500 96120 846 2.100 127401 766 2.200 137688 3.800 492058 2031 9 97 .100 346888 2072 7.000 38423 1507 5.100 60013 842 2.500 90206 886 3.600 235503 2011 5.630 257208 2.800 106099 1036 2.050 72257 0.150 183020 3.400 139548 864 2.250 55412 842 2.700 105268 1.600 317399 1554 5.750 171016 6.750 50088 1.25 h0 s = 0.200 374993 2094 4.250 30431 790 1.100 44930 1278 4.750 19817 1.500 30882 910 2.450 182737 4.500 334227 1782 2.550 14646 1.000 160223 1528 6.000 142462 1547 7.000 97282 865 3.825 87633 1.000 125417 4.000 46850 1.750 176156 813 1.500 82002 1451 5.100 48147 1383 6.300 257630 1879 5.130 129569 3.200 248828 4.200 235610 1739 4.200 145357 3.850 63876 985 1.750 93357 739 2.300 127191 890 2.750 96216 836 3.750 51871 1.250 139128 4.800 18832 904 2.200 73913 1.800 401294 1730 7.600 179858 1844 4.200 251108 1736 3.000 56867 1.650 26442 3.450 140941 516 399 491 420 390 476 396 437 450 329 416 490 400 445 494 475 546 357 445 490 387 395 446 450 415 462 303 438 471 563 444 413 1.600 171214 1651 4.875 91033 0.775 23582 1.330 44594 4.000 227317 1720 7.250 182962 5.75 h0 s = 1.875 50547 1.750 73563 1.200 92176 1455 5.850 50466 5.150 66924 1.200 76378 4. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.600 23022 1494 4.050 184092 938 3.800 100014 928 2.400 58757 1.050 103781 1.400 206697 815 3.800 255443 1985 4.080267623 5.

2 0.5 0.274 0.5 12.45 0.309 0.65 0.2 0.463 0.7 0.25 0.179 0.8 0.85 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.83 0.35 0.60 0.35 0.2 5.252 0.25 0.253 0.70 0.429 0.2 6.395 0.2 5.75 0.2 5.55 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.2 4.8 0.35 0.220 0.2 5.50 1.357 0.42 0.2 3.00 0.25 0.2 5.2 6.4 0.15 0.55 0.085 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.63 0.7 0.047 0.5 0.2 4.7 0.2 3.2 7.40 1.29 0.35 0.5 0.2 3.2 0.00 0.5 0.7 0.42 0.607 0.55 0.65 0.38 0. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1497 -655 -1228 -983 -1638 -925 -1110 -1480 -1058 -1209 -1007 -1064 -1064 -883 -1177 -1177 -1132 -1061 -1061 -1120 -1120 -1424 -1221 -1188 -1152 -1281 -1281 -939 -1192 -1192 -995 -1131 -1221 98 .2 5.2 6.85 0.42 0.40 0.5 0.45 0.45 0.35 0.131 0.728 Weight/ 1000 pcs.4 0.75 0.3 0.20 0.2 4.2 3.Dimensional Tables 9.706 0.323 0.70 1.3 0.202 0.36 1.4 0.2 5.310 0.2 7.5 0.25 0.066 0.2 5.2 t [mm] 0.5 0.166 0.2 7.098 0.442 0.112 0.4 0.25 0.65 0.25 0.165 0.9 1.38 1.15 0.2 5.5 0.5 12.4 0.3 0.486 0.113 0.3 0.2 6.6 l0 [mm] 0.3 Dimension Tables for Corrosion Resistant SCHNORR Disc Springs Article No.5 0.057 0.85 0.05 h0 [mm] 0.3 0.85 0.8 0.40 1.50 1.6 0.3 0.29 0.2 0.25 0.2 3.387 0.2 0.40 1.25 0.8 0.17 0.67 0.2 4.5 0.2 0.45 h0/t [kg] 0.3 0.55 0.2 0.2 4.25 0.6 0.00 0.504 0.386 0.2 0.6 0. De [mm] 024 650 025 250 025 400 025 700 026 300 026 700 027 100 027 400 028 910 029 101 029 301 029 602 029 701 030 290 030 800 031 000 032 040 032 500 032 704 033 400 033 500 034 200 034 550 035 040 035 103 035 400 035 601 038 353 038 600 039 040 039 500 039 800 039 971 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12.5 0.63 0.60 0.2 0.2 4.25 0.45 0.2 4.5 0.31 1.80 0.95 1 1.85 0.5 14 14 14 15 15 15 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 3.2 3.2 4.95 0.4 0.70 0.25 0.6 0.2 6.05 0.4 0.223 0.35 0.2 3.5 12.85 0.361 0.

350 0.063 0.125 0.100 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.188 0.188 0.063 0.075 0.450 0.250 0.150 0.25 h0 s = 0.138 0.150 0.400 0.113 0.225 0.200 0.100 0.300 0.188 0.075 0.125 0.125 0.038 0.100 0.188 0.250 0.338 0.150 0.150 0.75 h0 s = 1.150 0.200 0.200 0.150 0.050 0.263 0.200 0.063 0.100 0.250 0.075 0.250 0.100 0.100 0.038 0.275 0.188 0.125 0.088 0.200 0.125 0.050 0.250 0.250 0.113 0.063 0.063 0.150 0.300 0.300 0.∅ 6 – 15 mm Material: 1.150 0.088 0.300 0.125 0.225 0.050 0.200 0.250 0.4310 (X 10 CrNi 18-8) Deflection s.338 116 25 101 133 347 38 88 203 95 174 213 149 225 56 165 249 173 232 324 244 342 317 373 264 147 285 529 120 271 640 170 270 395 1125 553 965 966 1584 954 897 1124 883 1046 1122 845 998 890 928 968 911 971 1105 889 1018 1161 996 892 1178 1027 1117 973 1016 1049 924 906 998 0.413 0.063 0.175 0.050 0.075 0.550 0.175 0.188 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.225 0.175 0.350 0.088 0.200 0.075 0.113 0.200 0.350 0.075 0.200 0.450 0.500 0.300 0.150 0.300 0.150 0.150 0.250 0.250 0.100 0.263 0.225 81 20 77 91 239 32 64 143 79 129 147 108 155 47 119 172 137 166 224 175 237 232 258 194 126 209 362 103 204 436 150 214 293 786 400 691 612 999 695 636 772 643 611 710 546 629 647 656 608 659 589 696 574 640 825 624 633 860 730 708 710 725 670 678 655 625 0.188 0.188 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.225 0.063 0.175 0.113 0.375 0.113 43 12 44 47 125 21 36 76 50 73 77 59 81 30 65 90 83 90 117 95 124 130 135 108 81 117 187 66 117 224 98 129 166 412 215 370 290 471 377 337 405 349 321 336 289 296 350 347 300 355 265 328 303 300 438 314 336 467 387 336 386 387 320 370 353 333 0.150 0.063 0.250 0.100 0.125 0.050 0.225 0.125 0.338 0.350 0.263 0.125 0.263 0.050 0.125 0.088 0.050 0.063 0.450 148 29 122 173 451 41 110 261 105 213 278 188 293 61 208 324 200 293 421 309 444 392 484 327 156 353 692 127 329 841 175 312 485 1617 676 1299 1353 2226 1154 1120 1615 1068 1566 1573 1240 1403 1079 1198 1365 1174 1411 1554 1298 1437 1447 1408 1332 1423 1282 1563 1175 1258 1458 1109 1180 1499 9 99 .150 0.188 0.225 0.100 0.400 0.

1 0.2 t [mm] 0.926 1.695 0.36 0.40 0.05 1.65 0.6 0.5 0.2 1 1.45 1.817 1.35 1.4 0.2 6.1 1.634 1.998 Weight/ 1000 pcs.35 0.469 1.15 1.50 0.702 0.104 1.789 1.45 1.5 h0 [mm] 0.6 0.75 0.61 0.5 0.4 0.30 0.8 0.098 1.811 0.35 1.35 0.053 1.662 1.30 0.50 0.40 0.35 0.7 0.50 0.55 0.38 0.05 1.2 10.4 1.55 0.71 0.Dimensional Tables ∅ 15 – 20 mm Material: 1.45 0.042 0.35 0.9 1 0.33 0.35 1.2 9.20 1.403 0.2 1.4310 (X 10 CrNi 18-8) Article No.2 10.9 0.878 1.464 0.30 0.63 1.029 1.60 0.60 0.50 1.7 0.1 1.35 1.55 0.801 0.50 0.2 1.8 0.40 h0/t [kg] 0.2 6.8 1 0.5 0.20 0.910 1.2 6.2 6.7 0.60 0.2 8.69 0.5 0.8 0.00 0.2 8.2 6.2 8.2 8.43 0.60 0.2 8.2 8.7 0.00 0.635 1.2 8.56 0.25 1.042 0.30 1.45 0.2 8.6 0.2 8.40 0.454 1.2 1.6 0.9 1.9 1 1.2 10.50 0.8 0.45 1.2 6.2 8.4 1.30 0.7 0.35 1.430 1.7 0.55 0.029 1.65 0.7 1 0.00 0.50 0.05 1 1 1.576 0. De [mm] 040 130 040 950 041 301 041 700 042 400 042 601 043 750 044 000 044 101 044 201 044 400 045 800 046 003 046 252 046 400 046 505 046 924 047 070 047 300 047 691 047 910 048 050 048 098 048 051 051 100 052 270 051 450 051 701 051 761 052 803 052 804 053 500 053 701 053 901 054 380 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 5.2 9.2 10.228 1.6 0.2 6.2 9.7 0.35 1.60 0.56 0.33 1.2 8.71 0.17 0.849 0.2 8.226 1.38 1.35 0.15 1.25 0.69 0.1 l0 [mm] 1.2 10.2 1.05 1.2 6.60 0.2 8.35 1.838 2.2 8.67 0.50 1.05 1 1.93 0.5 0.45 0.8 0.2 8.687 0.572 0.2 8.79 0.45 0.3 1.773 0.262 1.2 10.50 0.65 0.1 1.2 8.3 1.25 1.50 0.677 0.70 0.30 1. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1108 -1176 -1129 -1152 -1138 -1301 -911 -1230 -1116 -1093 -1230 -753 -941 -1129 -1208 -1255 -1015 -1184 -1218 -1184 -970 -1257 -1257 -858 -1108 -1201 -1161 -1306 -1188 -944 -1046 -1279 -1308 -1162 -1279 100 .

300 0.450 0.250 0.200 0.500 0.225 0.088 0.500 0.175 0.488 0.150 0.400 598 324 448 622 615 918 161 488 603 771 1098 133 259 448 652 885 280 640 859 1306 217 679 1386 236 440 649 819 1166 1309 260 415 902 1168 1281 1705 1564 1228 1297 1456 1262 1485 1125 1270 1235 1296 1490 871 987 1184 1457 1663 1179 1241 1398 1526 1230 1279 1513 991 1224 1218 1324 1559 1549 1184 1184 1286 1405 1364 1530 9 .600 0.088 0.263 0.125 0.450 0.400 0.225 0.488 0.75 h0 s = 1.500 0.325 0.300 0.650 0.338 0.150 0.Deflection s.175 0.075 0.413 0.300 0.163 0.163 0.075 0.088 0.175 0.488 0.275 0.150 0.413 0.450 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.325 0.075 0.163 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.075 0.225 0.150 0.150 0.338 0.300 0.400 0.350 0.300 0.450 0.413 0.125 0.150 0.375 0.225 0.225 0.263 0.250 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.300 0.125 0.225 0.500 0.263 0.600 0.113 0.150 0.300 0.175 0.300 0.338 0.650 0.113 0.375 0.250 0.550 0.175 0.413 0.500 0.450 0.125 0.113 0.175 0.263 0.450 0.325 0.088 0.600 0.250 0.125 0.375 0.100 101 174 134 145 181 172 251 81 167 175 211 294 82 126 186 229 278 136 213 259 353 117 227 374 125 208 254 268 363 371 137 172 295 351 354 463 315 391 313 290 302 332 368 388 302 275 324 294 323 352 336 317 384 350 328 330 406 388 326 327 398 384 325 349 318 389 375 388 366 294 327 0.450 0.250 0.375 0.138 0.275 0.138 0.350 0.600 0.300 0.275 0.275 0.100 0.300 466 281 359 485 474 704 150 398 470 591 838 135 238 389 537 705 257 518 676 998 207 550 1059 224 400 552 660 926 1013 247 360 726 918 985 1305 1096 1005 876 1018 890 1057 930 1023 860 923 1069 730 817 903 962 1139 974 925 964 1093 1020 1028 1083 822 1010 993 890 1066 1093 981 968 1031 989 968 1092 0.300 0.550 0.150 0.150 0.375 0.525 0.150 0.450 0.250 0.200 327 223 261 340 329 483 127 295 330 406 572 122 200 308 402 508 215 381 481 683 180 405 725 193 332 429 482 665 704 213 285 531 651 679 895 680 726 589 629 578 667 678 728 576 583 680 538 595 653 629 687 709 658 623 694 746 730 687 601 735 715 611 659 682 716 698 732 696 608 691 0.125 0.300 0.25 h0 s = 0.100 0.375 0.088 0.200 0.350 0.700 0.263 0.550 0.350 0.500 0.138 0.550 0.600 0.300 0.225 0.650 0.138 0.450 0.350 0.350 0.600 0.

2 10.2 12.30 0.65 0.870 3.35 0.55 1.9 1 1.2 10.2 8.40 0.6 1.987 2.389 3.2 12.00 0.80 0.75 1.7 0.2 10.2 12.2 8.6 1.2 11.65 1.56 0.919 3.2 12.40 0.2 14.95 2.911 4.2 12.75 0.25 h0 [mm] 0.10 0.78 0.70 0.56 0.70 1.33 0.05 2.95 1.25 1.60 0.191 6.75 1.2 14.45 0.25 0.8 1.271 2.2 11.352 2.70 0.24 0.83 0.264 2.862 2.25 1.6 1.5 0.60 0.80 0.25 1.60 0.9 1 0.90 0.7 1.95 0.486 7.90 0.75 h0/t [kg] 0.2 12.1 1.70 0.25 1.373 5.81 0.6 1.6 0.4310 (X 10 CrNi 18-8) Article No.924 1.17 1.9 2.5 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 25 25 25 25 25 25 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 31.2 10.37 1.8 1.052 2.2 10.2 8.929 3.5 22.75 0.2 10.480 5.406 1.5 0.72 0.2 11.5 31.873 2.52 0.75 1.60 0.05 1.40 0.45 1.90 0.781 Weight/ 1000 pcs.2 14.9 1 1.188 5.80 0.95 0.4 1.78 0.23 0.29 0.50 2.2 12.80 0.25 0.637 2.8 1 1.2 12.65 1.6 1.5 0.2 12.501 3.45 0.2 10.37 1.5 1 0.6 1.95 0.60 0.232 6.Dimensional Tables ∅ 20 – 31.2 12.1 2.55 1.9 1.15 2.337 2.55 1.5 22.55 1.2 t [mm] 1.25 1. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1090 -1090 -1086 -1177 -1132 -1082 -1159 -1217 -1159 -1384 -1230 -1153 -1353 -1127 -1184 -1181 -1142 -1142 -1178 -1133 -1224 -995 -1178 -1145 -1178 -1305 -1202 -1133 -1182 -1182 -1200 -1219 -1153 -1179 -1179 102 .60 0.90 0.95 2.19 0.5 1 1.25 1.2 12.277 3.2 12.65 1.613 3.36 0.70 0.5 1.5 31.70 0.40 0.205 2.94 0.887 5.660 4.10 0.7 0.14 0.2 8.8 1.2 12.5 l0 [mm] 1.8 0.25 1.838 2.5 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 10.65 0.50 0.85 1.60 0.65 1.25 1 1.8 1 1.554 2.5 1 1.32 1.721 1.25 0.586 4.2 10.2 12.95 1.5 mm Material: 1.65 0.32 0.269 2.2 10. De [mm] 055 280 055 650 057 710 057 903 058 050 058 950 059 210 059 400 059 504 060 460 060 600 060 901 001 922 061 600 061 951 063 872 064 400 064 900 065 104 065 129 065 400 071 600 071 752 072 001 072 105 072 750 072 860 073 300 075 260 075 700 075 925 076 160 082 253 081 505 082 303 20 20 22.2 14.30 1.351 4.65 0.7 1.

450 0.950 0.400 0.550 1.275 0.413 0.800 0.225 0.350 0.525 0.600 0.525 0.500 0.600 0.475 0.150 0.750 0.238 0.338 0.113 0.175 0.375 0.325 0.750 1877 2703 431 830 1949 584 818 1087 1278 1235 1356 1986 1491 1942 2936 1301 617 1020 1299 1952 2698 702 1298 2254 2922 1439 2071 2811 834 1303 2068 3573 1270 2030 2924 1389 1440 1364 1231 1405 1126 1238 1442 1523 1395 1405 1502 1382 1349 1480 1341 1401 1170 1230 1365 1553 1060 1271 1517 1696 1365 1421 1487 1454 1240 1322 1461 1218 1368 1551 9 .163 0.550 0.275 0.700 0.150 0.900 0.400 0.375 0.525 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.700 0.300 0.300 0.525 0.563 1420 2036 413 687 1485 528 698 892 1012 1027 1074 1520 1181 1480 2221 1051 582 837 1039 1500 2046 642 1097 1799 2246 1231 1629 2153 778 1075 1616 2758 1133 1646 2278 1011 1058 1132 995 1010 929 914 952 1047 1130 961 1075 1063 969 1078 899 1161 944 917 969 1120 876 921 1051 1208 1114 981 1063 1203 1001 917 1042 1002 914 1085 0.113 0.413 0.250 0.800 0.475 0.450 0.750 0.150 0.700 0.200 0.175 0.200 0.300 0.138 0.450 0.400 0.150 0.488 0.75 h0 s = 1.450 0.675 0.250 0.700 0.600 0.100 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.225 0.325 0.338 0.300 0.488 0.275 0.225 0.088 0.450 0.450 0.900 0.200 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.238 0.650 0.188 0.163 0.400 0.750 0.675 0.650 0.563 0.350 0.400 0.375 959 1365 359 518 1012 435 544 667 725 779 769 1041 846 1008 1498 770 500 626 752 1034 1385 536 846 1300 1548 963 1157 1477 661 808 1139 1912 923 1212 1599 653 691 827 712 645 676 659 639 635 809 636 682 750 618 697 625 847 674 650 609 717 638 662 643 763 802 603 674 876 715 625 659 727 618 672 0.600 0.525 0.175 0.550 1.188 103 487 688 233 297 520 271 322 380 395 450 419 539 461 518 760 430 322 356 415 539 706 338 497 715 807 573 624 765 422 463 609 1003 570 680 851 316 338 450 380 308 366 354 341 292 433 336 324 396 295 338 332 460 359 344 286 344 346 356 292 360 431 318 319 475 382 328 312 393 329 310 0.350 0.300 0.800 0.175 0.063 0.650 0.713 0.900 0.100 0.500 0.100 0.250 0.825 0.225 0.675 0.263 0.175 0.125 0.075 0.600 0.Deflection s.300 0.488 0.350 0.200 0.375 0.000 0.600 0.700 0.225 0.450 0.200 0.188 0.450 0.713 0.225 0.300 0.163 0.175 0.150 0.350 0.25 h0 s = 0.188 0.350 0.125 0.138 0.563 0.450 0.600 0.950 0.325 0.

3 14.698 7.580 16.69 0.25 2 1.65 1. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -993 -1108 -1153 -1138 -1182 -1108 -1219 -1197 -1208 -1174 -1165 -1165 -961 -1161 -1207 -1118 -1198 -1150 -1185 -1185 -1167 -944 -1199 -1162 -1144 -1180 -1167 -1188 -1202 -822 -1110 -1193 -1182 -1181 -1160 104 .3 14.5 l0 [mm] 1.25 1.4 18.15 1.9 1.5 31.5 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 16.5 2.90 0.5 35.35 2.44 3.899 17.34 1.95 3.3 18.385 10.710 32.40 1.4 t [mm] 0.43 0.5 2 2 1 1.9 2.15 2.25 1.65 1.05 0.3 12.189 12.20 0.83 0.946 5.12 0.3 18.4 20.60 1.28 0.30 1.4 20.10 0.85 2.90 1.275 7.783 8.72 0.811 8.50 1.4 2.732 9.4 22.60 0.8 2.88 0.85 3.84 0.216 10.942 14.124 11.65 3.60 1.65 2.3 16.80 0.75 0.73 0.5 31.4 20.25 1.3 20.3 16.011 26.4 20.3 12.20 0.4 20.90 1.25 2.5 – 50 mm Material: 1.80 0.3 18.20 0.584 6.212 11.8 1.5 1.25 1.457 16.35 2.10 0.32 0.25 1.30 0.28 1.3 2.30 1.3 2.85 1.45 0.25 2.669 33.65 1.300 10.3 16.75 2.9 2.25 1.4 18.5 35.9 2.4 22.3 16.10 h0/t [kg] 1.923 6.3 14.5 31.397 18.4 3.15 1.57 0.70 0.5 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 35.46 0.332 16. De [mm] 082 801 083 370 083 800 084 493 084 800 087 900 088 046 088 300 089 321 089 400 090 500 091 100 004 543 094 000 093 683 099 423 099 461 099 833 100 503 100 801 101 755 102 531 103 000 103 500 103 953 104 465 110 412 110 501 110 901 115 970 116 300 116 653 116 901 117 400 117 703 31.26 1.5 2 1.80 0.3 14.15 2.85 1.33 1.3 16.31 0.5 2 2.73 0.4 18.3 16.5 2 2.3 14.123 Weight/ 1000 pcs.5 2 0.40 0.43 1.31 0.434 23.85 2 2.60 0.53 0.3 16.752 12.4 20.679 20.95 3.40 1.45 1.6 h0 [mm] 1.321 8.85 0.433 15.5 1.577 5.3 2.6 2.3 18.3 3.5 1.00 0.65 0.5 1.Dimensional Tables ∅ 31.5 2 2.70 0.6 2.31 0.55 0.3 16.187 7.4 18.05 0.4 22.65 2.5 31.4310 (X 10 CrNi 18-8) Article No.746 16.7 2.323 25.75 2.25 2.25 1.75 2 1 1.45 3.80 1.25 0.5 1.3 12.25 0.35 2.05 2.584 7.3 2.132 7.45 0.25 1.

850 1.275 0.850 1.400 0.225 0.700 0.638 0.750 0.450 0.675 0.650 0.363 0.100 701 1909 2859 3841 5213 1221 2099 2968 2081 2911 2891 5139 858 1799 5322 1926 2972 5073 2940 5227 5146 1041 2973 5125 6385 8133 1949 4011 8283 1417 2754 5259 8146 5206 7989 1257 1149 1317 1385 1487 1203 1339 1557 1230 1413 1318 1495 1201 1225 1464 1156 1368 1634 1265 1552 1442 1184 1228 1364 1407 1490 1458 1197 1477 907 1192 1428 1641 1341 1525 9 .500 0.975 0.400 1.50 h0 s ≈ 0.150 1.638 1.300 0.825 0.275 105 373 590 803 1023 1357 619 792 917 761 881 858 1361 444 603 1423 878 1082 1437 1044 1480 1439 549 1006 1416 1698 2123 1011 1312 2228 735 1339 1768 2319 1720 2251 413 321 300 304 337 396 363 303 372 307 314 331 394 377 320 375 347 338 353 319 299 389 374 294 309 336 481 357 320 299 390 328 337 332 315 0.375 0.650 0.400 1.750 0.288 0.450 1. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.050 0.675 0.825 0.275 0.863 0.525 0.600 1.600 0.213 0.000 0.300 0.450 0.600 1.800 0.163 0.788 0.788 0.275 0.375 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.238 0.450 0.125 0.600 0.550 0.500 1.350 0.Deflection s.800 0.425 0.800 0.200 0.250 0.100 0.563 0.650 1.263 0.163 0.450 0.675 0.200 0.825 667 1512 2207 2925 3948 1140 1765 2351 1733 2293 2264 3908 808 1459 4058 1728 2471 3925 2426 4044 3968 987 2417 3940 4861 6164 1836 3229 6324 1334 2530 4268 6311 4203 6173 1042 862 928 997 1080 997 942 1071 970 975 913 1078 994 990 1052 953 903 1155 924 1095 1020 981 987 968 1013 1081 1210 948 1059 753 986 954 1157 899 1078 1.938 0.188 0.550 0.350 0.313 0.300 0.225 0.900 1.050 0.225 0.050 0.550 577 1083 1530 1992 2667 969 1355 1684 1316 1631 1599 2656 692 1074 2767 1416 1873 2729 1823 2812 2747 850 1786 2716 3308 4170 1573 2359 4321 1144 2121 3148 4396 3081 4284 761 608 580 636 697 728 677 649 695 593 598 691 725 707 670 692 648 723 661 684 639 716 703 608 647 696 884 673 673 550 719 616 723 625 674 0.138 0.900 0.625 0.200 0.425 0.700 0.525 0.300 1.288 0.488 0.325 0.488 1.213 0.575 0.200 1.413 0.425 0.413 0.700 0.325 0.850 0.900 0.575 0.325 0.650 1.600 0.800 1.75 h0 s = 1.488 1.525 0.900 1.313 0.175 0.725 0.400 0.263 0.350 1.25 h0 s = 0.250 1.600 0.450 0.050 0.100 0.938 0.213 0.638 0.325 0.400 0.150 1.900 0.163 0.625 0.250 0.150 0.900 0.550 0.250 0.350 0.650 1.863 1.200 0.825 0.088 0.

1 4.88 1.50 2.5 25.20 h0/t [kg] 0.15 4.05 4.5 28.95 3.235 49.5 2.00 1.5 l0 [mm] 3.6 4.5 4.5 1.1 3.495 28.168 22.31 1.6 4.419 46.25 1.5 2 2.25 2.4 22.64 0.60 1.05 0.30 1.3 3.62 0.5 2.60 1.582 21.001 65.65 0.12 1.5 31 31 25.80 2.4 25.07 0.389 52.7 4. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1132 -1198 -928 -1113 -1206 -1160 -1083 -1185 -1185 -1093 -1186 -1208 -1187 -1183 -1047 -1209 -1195 -1149 -1137 -1209 -1150 106 .00 2.4310 (X 10 CrNi 18-8) Article No.80 1.55 1.5 2 2 2.311 17.5 1.20 2.586 92.5 2.10 1.5 20.30 0.5 3.66 1.60 2.5 2.28 0.28 1.800 14.5 5.7 h0 [mm] 1.10 1.85 3.3 5.8 2.157 33.30 1.5 30.370 Weight/ 1000 pcs.Dimensional Tables ∅ 50 – 90 mm Material: 1. De [mm] 118 401 000 227 119 950 120 103 120 400 120 801 128 599 128 600 131 001 003 158 131 801 113 193 138 221 138 503 144 401 146 250 153 014 153 110 159 600 161 220 169 200 50 50 50 50 50 50 56 56 60 60 60 60 63 63 70 70 71 71 80 80 90 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 22.479 61.5 36 36 31 41 46 t [mm] 2 2.249 57.5 30.44 1.28 24.5 2 2.1 4 4.027 45.3 3.25 0.1 4.5 2 2.652 30.30 1.878 28.4 25.60 1.60 1.5 1.4 28.4 25.6 2.789 84.50 2.45 3.80 1.266 46.30 0.646 39.65 0.2 5.60 2.5 20.40 1.95 1.471 41.4 25.65 2.

950 1.400 0.525 0.650 1.300 1.325 0.75 h0 s = 1.200 1.500 0.575 0.000 2.600 1.250 1.738 0.100 1.800 1594 2325 829 1206 1698 2207 1416 1854 2251 2357 2593 2573 2196 2620 2338 3141 2778 2810 3571 3590 4109 320 306 378 412 358 293 446 383 378 274 327 348 478 349 375 385 491 371 392 501 470 0.650 0.800 2.700 0.300 1.250 0.800 0.800 1.100 1.825 1.575 1.488 0.475 1.600 1.125 1.200 1.500 2.238 1.100 2.950 3.163 1.000 1.400 0.300 1.413 0.213 2.975 0.500 0.600 2. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.300 1.400 3992 6376 1505 2439 4251 6141 2546 4309 4592 5986 6523 6595 3992 6529 4308 7003 4994 6529 7028 6420 7460 852 1049 955 1056 954 968 1124 1005 965 1001 923 933 1207 928 945 1001 1238 973 997 1263 1186 1.550 0.375 0.950 1.150 0.000 1.200 0.550 0.200 2.050 0.975 0.500 2.400 1.725 1.550 1.50 h0 s ≈ 0.650 0.800 0.975 0.325 0.275 0.463 1.800 0.25 h0 s = 0.650 0.625 0.100 1.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.Deflection s.500 2.600 1.200 4993 8251 1598 2761 5317 7988 2685 5223 5223 7530 8174 8325 4241 8150 4617 8330 5268 7914 7835 6748 7920 1248 1487 1153 1288 1227 1364 1356 1244 1206 1460 1360 1267 1457 1220 1139 1232 1494 1205 1210 1524 1433 9 107 .650 2.750 1.400 0.400 0.600 2.825 1.200 1.775 0.388 0.750 1.875 1.600 2892 4425 1290 1969 3080 4234 2194 3238 3691 4308 4715 4724 3418 4741 3661 5374 4303 4907 5760 5549 6393 604 656 697 764 675 608 820 718 699 605 617 659 880 658 690 719 904 695 724 922 865 0.

20 0.5 0.2 6.2 3.45 h0/t [kg] 0.4 0.161 0.2 5.4 0.5 0.63 0.43 0.42 0.2 7.05 0.8 0.20 0.2 3.8 0.315 0.00 0.2 4.95 0.431 0.473 0.2 5.4 0.2 6.75 0.67 0.10 0.40 0.7 0.710 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 6.196 0.351 0.30 0.2 4.7 0.5 0.60 0.376 0.083 0.36 0.25 0.4 0.30 0.3 0.5 0.45 0.35 0.2 6.7 0.2 5.05 0.2 4.688 0.2 3.05 1 1.40 0.7 0.2 5.25 0.30 0.217 0.00 0.35 0.5 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 3.348 0.8 0.55 0.6 0.2 3.55 0.6 0.38 1.85 0.00 0.2 t [mm] 0.4 0.2 4.4 0.55 0.754 0.5 0.25 0.2 8.85 0.67 0.20 0.63 0.781 0.7 0.128 0.30 0.2 4.5 0.40 0.452 0.35 0.558 0.4 0. De [mm] 024 670 025 600 025 800 027 000 027 300 028 900 029 100 029 300 029 600 029 700 030 700 030 900 032 200 032 400 032 702 033 300 033 450 034 100 034 500 035 041 035 300 035 600 038 500 039 000 039 475 039 700 039 970 040 100 040 949 041 300 041 600 042 300 042 600 043 749 043 900 6 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12.8 0.2 4.5 0.50 0.2 6.301 0.7 0.25 0.669 0.2 8.Dimensional Tables 9.245 0.6 0.15 0.5 0.05 h0 [mm] 0.83 0.60 0.2 5.110 0.17 0.95 1.05 1 1 1.6 0.50 0.31 1. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1098 -1351 -1081 -1221 -1221 -1164 -1330 -1108 -1170 -1170 -1295 -1295 -1245 -1168 -1168 -1232 -1232 -1343 -1343 -1306 -1207 -1409 -1312 -1312 -1094 -1244 -1343 -1219 -1293 -1242 -1268 -1252 -1193 -1102 -1353 108 .492 0.2 8.65 0.60 0.40 1.4 Dimension Tables for Heat Resistant SCHNORR Disc Springs Article No.7 0.70 0.65 0.2 6.85 0.25 0.660 0.40 0.6 l0 [mm] 0.6 0.20 0.25 0.268 0.418 0.38 0.50 0.05 1.80 0.3 0.55 0.174 0.85 0.31 1.25 0.2 6.38 0.95 1 1.25 0.55 0.214 0.2 5.75 0.046 0.2 4.678 Weight/ 1000 pcs.5 12.9 1.5 12.75 0.7 0.2 5.378 0.5 0.15 0.452 0.2 7.60 0.4 0.096 0.5 0.25 0.35 0.30 0.592 0.40 0.2 5.50 1.2 5.65 0.8 0.42 0.385 0.828 0.3 0.38 1.8 0.33 0.30 0.2 3.5 0.8 0.42 0.2 8.

088 0.350 0.230 0.063 0.300 0.350 0.100 0.230 0.250 0.150 0.380 0.250 0.075 0.410 0.230 0.225 0.150 0.250 0.125 0.190 0.175 0.175 0.200 0.230 0.050 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.410 0.190 0.088 0.125 0.200 0.150 0.050 0.340 84 107 136 92 154 99 185 223 158 235 174 261 181 246 343 260 362 283 395 274 255 560 283 678 178 284 415 483 296 375 503 506 616 179 418 932 1061 1063 987 1017 971 1150 1235 929 1097 1021 1065 1002 1068 1215 978 1120 1044 1096 981 923 1229 1117 1154 1017 997 1098 1206 1105 963 1119 979 1012 1178 1125 0.260 0.380 0.113 0.150 0.500 0.350 0.100 0.350 0.230 0.225 54 80 95 67 108 83 135 154 112 162 124 180 143 173 234 183 247 200 270 202 179 379 213 456 157 224 307 342 233 273 356 343 414 158 309 593 761 673 699 642 707 672 781 601 692 722 669 724 648 765 631 704 737 686 696 652 779 798 737 746 721 688 748 798 648 692 636 646 862 801 0.125 0.150 0.075 0.100 0.150 0.450 103 127 181 115 205 110 223 290 196 306 217 339 209 306 440 322 464 352 506 342 316 723 343 879 183 326 506 625 339 468 650 643 799 185 510 1300 1429 1488 1233 1428 1175 1723 1730 1364 1543 1318 1501 1291 1552 1709 1428 1580 1394 1549 1465 1286 1719 1383 1604 1219 1298 1649 1720 1351 1426 1601 1388 1407 1417 1397 9 109 .113 28 46 49 37 56 52 76 80 62 85 68 94 86 94 123 100 129 109 141 113 98 196 122 234 103 135 173 182 140 151 189 180 213 103 175 282 407 319 370 307 384 353 369 318 326 382 330 390 292 360 333 330 389 345 370 344 369 426 352 407 389 367 346 430 344 319 332 309 469 426 0.260 0.250 0.063 0.150 0.275 0.075 0.110 0.063 0.190 0.063 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.100 0.190 0.200 0.190 0.175 0.125 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.340 0.063 0.∅ 6 – 16 mm Material: 1.150 0.250 0.075 0.400 0.125 0.250 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.150 0.500 0.110 0.125 0.300 0.138 0.200 0.150 0.100 0.050 0.063 0.25 h0 s = 0.063 0.150 0.075 0.400 0.125 0.075 0.125 0.260 0.300 0.550 0.300 0.075 0.088 0.250 0.300 0.190 0.038 0.550 0.150 0.175 0.250 0.080 0.050 0.300 0.100 0.190 0.250 0.300 0.400 0.75 h0 s = 1.138 0.063 0.190 0.260 0.088 0.250 0.250 0.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1) Deflection s.075 0.063 0.200 0.450 0.275 0.050 0.230 0.125 0.100 0.190 0.300 0.038 0.025 0.125 0.125 0.200 0.

00 0.35 0.432 1.25 1.40 0.2 8.003 1.2 8.56 1.947 2.2 10.2 8.65 0.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1) Article No.4 1.30 0.30 0.56 0.69 0.2 10.230 1.856 1.593 1.30 1.56 0.769 1.791 1.8 0.81 0.9 1 1.887 1.2 10.33 0.1 1.8 1.30 0.6 0.80 0.17 0.05 1.20 0.15 1.2 8.60 0.9 1 0.60 0.80 0. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1227 -1202 -1353 -828 -1035 -1242 -1329 -1242 -1117 -1303 -1340 -1303 -1245 -1185 -1219 -1321 -1277 -1306 -1306 -959 -1279 -1295 -1279 -1231 -1199 -1199 -1195 -1294 -1245 -1190 -1275 -1339 -1275 -1319 -1353 110 .55 0.75 0.5 0.2 8.9 0.1 1.2 6.2 1 1.40 0.35 0.71 0.594 1.60 0.25 0.4 1.35 0.195 1.292 2.1 1.72 0.45 0.197 1.35 1.9 1 0.015 0.45 0. De [mm] 044 102 044 202 044 300 045 700 046 000 046 250 046 300 046 500 046 925 047 100 047 400 047 690 048 000 048 100 050 980 051 250 051 400 051 700 051 760 052 741 053 400 053 700 053 900 054 375 055 300 055 640 057 709 057 900 058 000 059 100 059 200 059 360 059 503 060 430 060 500 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 22.368 0.45 1.7 0.2 8.25 0.30 0.50 0.490 2.2 11.2 11.2 8.55 0.60 h0/t [kg] 0.417 1.2 t [mm] 0.35 1.65 1.2 8.5 0.2 10.6 0.2 10.7 0.7 1 0.2 1.394 1.370 1.3 1.60 0.55 1.2 6.5 0.7 0.2 11.55 1.32 1.45 1.212 2.9 1 l0 [mm] 1.2 6.2 8.60 0.2 10.5 22.990 0.45 0.2 8.20 1.2 9.8 0.50 0.32 0.40 0.026 1.652 1.903 1.8 0.7 0.94 0.2 8.2 9.685 0.35 0.25 1.65 0.6 0.213 2.2 8.4 1.78 0.5 1.5 23 23 23 23 23 23 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 8.790 0.2 6.25 1.5 22.771 1.2 8.20 0.33 1.8 0.75 1.3 1.6 h0 [mm] 0.826 2.65 0.2 1.24 0.2 8.55 1.60 0.2 10.850 1.766 2.38 0.076 1.1 1.45 1.25 1.5 0.93 0.1 1.70 0.6 1.45 1.2 8.6 1.50 0.4 0.45 0.50 0.937 2.50 1.8 1 0.547 Weight/ 1000 pcs.2 6.2 10.2 10.63 0.35 1.8 0.14 0.45 0.35 1.70 0.7 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.17 1.79 0.3 1.64 0.Dimensional Tables ∅ 16 – 23 mm Material: 1.536 1.

450 0.150 642 0.150 424 0.300 322 0.300 758 0.650 0.100 0.340 0.225 601 0.450 487 630 894 141 249 406 558 659 269 547 711 1034 513 964 420 579 686 881 1065 231 689 861 1029 1177 1516 2155 432 720 1552 552 727 938 1058 911 1122 946 1016 1176 803 898 994 1058 1181 1071 1018 1060 1202 984 1056 1111 1092 979 1113 1202 960 1001 1001 1064 1084 1112 1164 1245 1095 1111 1022 1005 1047 1152 1024 1057 0.230 0.225 466 0.450 0.450 0.175 809 0.600 0.340 0.150 0.340 0.450 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.250 398 0.380 0.400 0.380 0.300 0.150 0.530 0.700 0.113 0.250 618 0.600 0.350 0.450 0.350 347 0.075 0.300 0.175 713 0.400 375 0.600 630 806 1147 139 271 468 682 833 292 668 898 1364 639 1241 460 678 856 1108 1368 251 857 1098 1339 1559 1961 2824 450 868 2037 611 855 1136 1335 1119 1417 1358 1426 1639 958 1086 1303 1603 1703 1297 1365 1538 1679 1267 1464 1347 1339 1457 1609 1704 1163 1318 1437 1500 1508 1528 1584 1500 1354 1545 1239 1362 1586 1675 1399 1546 9 111 .138 0.300 225 0.650 0.600 0.450 0.700 0.175 0.113 0.300 804 634 641 748 591 655 719 691 723 780 724 685 764 696 676 808 786 673 679 751 698 708 667 669 692 718 760 910 783 709 743 725 703 699 729 699 0.350 697 0.125 0.150 1002 0.150 0.250 491 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.380 0.138 0.300 209 0.125 0.530 0.150 183 220 308 86 132 194 240 251 142 223 271 368 203 329 218 265 280 333 387 122 269 320 370 416 509 719 244 311 543 284 337 397 413 375 438 333 303 356 324 356 387 369 329 423 385 361 363 368 324 438 422 357 337 350 378 374 350 323 330 348 372 495 418 339 403 390 375 321 387 369 0.225 736 0.225 369 0.188 0.650 0.075 0.550 0.113 0.300 0.800 0.340 0.163 0.560 0.450 0.125 1427 0.325 541 0.400 455 0.250 0.075 0.450 0.325 448 0.300 0.Deflection s.200 0.450 0.088 0.075 0.600 0.200 1057 0.163 0.490 0.088 0.450 0.400 0.75 h0 s = 1.300 0.300 128 0.550 0.063 0.113 0.490 0.275 420 0.450 0.410 0.150 598 0.300 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.100 0.340 0.190 0.325 669 0.150 0.490 0.230 0.375 568 0.125 0.750 0.150 0.230 0.163 0.150 0.175 344 0.25 h0 s = 0.500 0.600 0.200 710 0.350 0.225 502 0.260 0.410 0.300 193 0.500 0.200 0.113 0.275 504 0.600 0.350 0.260 0.800 0.500 0.260 0.230 0.088 0.175 0.600 0.600 0.

3 h0 [mm] 0.05 2.25 1.3 12.50 1.3 2.65 0.23 0.5 34 34 34 34 34 34 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 10.8 1 1.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1) Article No.714 2.70 0.55 1.31 0.2 12.3 16.812 4.8 1.124 2.763 5.72 0.322 7.2 10.5 0.84 0.50 0.60 0.2 12.05 1.536 9.88 0.3 16.19 0.85 1.5 1.5 0.78 0.80 0.95 1.29 0.25 1 1.32 0.56 0.5 31.75 1.90 1.90 0.80 0.136 8.90 0.56 0.57 0.5 1.3 14.37 1.181 2.2 10.95 2.9 1.266 4.2 12.486 5.100 6.25 1.52 0.50 1.35 2.3 2.2 12.85 0.25 0.5 1 1.90 0.64 0.278 3.567 4.560 8.35 0.3 16. De [mm] 060 900 061 570 061 800 061 950 063 871 064 399 064 800 065 100 065 134 065 300 071 500 071 750 072 000 072 102 072 700 072 850 073 200 075 250 075 600 075 920 076 100 082 252 081 502 081 516 082 800 083 400 083 700 084 200 084 850 087 800 088 045 088 200 089 320 089 370 090 400 23 23 23 23 25 25 25 25 25 25 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 31.443 6.845 3.15 2.7 1.37 1.5 1.90 0.2 16.3 12.5 l0 [mm] 1.10 0.081 5.85 0.45 0.10 0.797 3.412 3.584 3.1 1.80 0.Dimensional Tables ∅ 23 – 34 mm Material: 1.95 0.2 12.25 0.05 0.80 h0/t [kg] 0.40 0.2 12.25 1.36 0.2 10.059 6.570 2.6 1.70 0.2 14.5 31.15 2.2 12.855 3.7 0.5 0.3 t [mm] 1.85 0.3 16. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1268 -1240 -1240 -1302 -1299 -1256 -1256 -1296 -1246 -1346 -1094 -1296 -1260 -1296 -1285 -1322 -1247 -1300 -1300 -1320 -1341 -1268 -1297 -1297 -1092 -1300 -1268 -1252 -1300 -1219 -1341 -1316 -1329 -1291 -1282 112 .65 1.3 14.2 10.5 1 0.5 31.367 5.000 2.1 2.2 12.8 1.65 1.040 7.05 2.529 7.5 1.25 2.50 0.75 1.5 31.45 0.35 2.4 2.55 0.008 Weight/ 1000 pcs.614 8.5 31.3 16.70 0.2 12.2 12.43 0.05 0.5 31.277 2.5 31.85 1.85 2.55 1.95 2.2 14.70 0.9 1 1.40 0.2 12.30 1.65 0.2 14.65 0.70 1.25 1.2 14.53 3.5 2.5 1 1.25 1.2 12.25 1.25 1.3 12.8 1 1.9 2.00 0.31 0.6 1.7 1.2 12.65 0.40 0.118 3.60 0.10 0.75 1.2 10.25 1.697 6.25 1.237 5.2 12.031 7.495 4.25 1.50 0.25 1.75 2 1 1.8 1.25 1.

450 0.680 0.300 0.138 0.225 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.640 0.600 0.550 1.450 0.710 0.550 0.790 0.410 0.75 h0 s = 1.550 1.500 1.830 0.425 0.530 0.113 0.213 0.560 0.275 0.600 0.500 0.680 0.650 0.680 0.163 0.950 0.200 0.175 0.450 0.Deflection s.650 0.900 0.213 0.125 0.263 0.450 0.050 0.125 0.400 0.113 0.530 0.188 0.400 0.750 0.800 0.300 0.700 0.000 0.700 0.225 0.250 0.490 0.530 0.850 0.380 0.525 0.163 0.200 563 378 541 794 449 336 372 433 563 840 353 520 621 843 496 652 799 441 483 636 859 595 711 889 390 675 839 1069 1418 646 827 959 795 921 896 356 341 324 371 365 506 395 378 315 378 381 391 322 396 403 350 351 523 420 361 343 432 362 341 455 386 330 334 370 435 399 333 409 338 346 0.200 0.525 0.175 0.700 0.400 0.500 0.380 0.163 0.400 1088 710 1054 1565 805 522 654 786 1081 1639 561 885 1152 1618 855 1209 1543 691 844 1190 1659 965 1267 1671 603 1227 1599 2081 2788 1012 1416 1760 1375 1704 1671 750 650 680 767 687 932 741 715 670 789 702 729 707 839 752 664 741 964 787 687 725 800 680 739 837 730 637 700 767 801 745 714 764 653 657 0.200 0.410 0.313 0.250 1.790 0.225 0.450 0.275 0.800 2075 1299 2029 3068 1360 645 1066 1358 2040 3172 733 1357 2061 3053 1345 2164 2938 871 1362 2161 3159 1328 2122 3055 732 2128 2988 4014 5447 1276 2194 3102 2174 3042 3021 1652 1344 1484 1628 1475 1541 1287 1353 1501 1708 1165 1398 1668 1865 1294 1563 1636 1600 1364 1454 1607 1339 1505 1706 1382 1316 1448 1524 1636 1323 1473 1713 1353 1555 1450 9 113 .225 0.275 0.325 0.225 0.175 0.380 0.138 0.340 0.150 0.700 0.500 0.550 0.600 1599 1024 1546 2299 1106 610 881 1090 1587 2429 670 1152 1635 2347 1126 1716 2237 813 1123 1696 2406 1187 1729 2372 697 1698 2317 3040 4178 1192 1851 2472 1814 2404 2366 1182 935 1066 1186 988 1277 1038 1009 1066 1232 963 1013 1156 1329 1050 1079 1169 1323 1102 1009 1147 1102 1006 1194 1146 1031 1021 1096 1188 1097 1036 1178 1067 1072 1004 0.900 0.088 0.750 1.850 0.410 0.263 0.450 0.475 0.138 0.100 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.350 0.225 0.650 0.100 0.325 0.900 0.450 0.250 0.275 0.680 0.175 0.640 0.325 0.900 1.260 0.350 0.940 0.830 0.340 0.350 0.238 0.350 0.375 0.530 0.275 0.490 0.350 0.600 0.550 0.175 0.250 0.050 0.490 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.125 0.25 h0 s = 0.425 0.250 0.800 0.625 0.100 0.

31 0.4 3.4 25.30 1.257 19.190 7.1 3.95 3.95 1.4 22.10 0.70 0.95 1.12 0.4 25.70 0.30 0.45 3.65 0.3 16.46 0.028 30.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1) Article No.85 3.85 2.35 2.25 2.448 16.25 2 1.3 14.5 3.572 16.4 25.4 20.45 0.6 2.85 1.45 0.45 1.65 2.951 27.4 25.05 2.35 10.4 18.5 28.Dimensional Tables ∅ 34 – 56 mm Material: 1.45 3.85 3.10 1.751 11.33 1.28 1.75 2.6 2.80 0.44 1.5 35.3 18.3 14.60 1.30 0.28 0.7 2.5 2 2 1 1.60 1.412 20.15 2.981 17.85 3.05 h0/t [kg] 0.85 1. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1282 -1057 -1277 -1328 -1230 -1318 -1265 -1304 -1304 -1284 -1039 -1319 -1279 -1259 -1299 -1245 -1307 -1322 -905 -1221 -1312 -1301 -1289 -1299 -1276 -1246 -1317 -1020 -1224 -1326 -1275 -1301 -1191 -1303 -1283 114 .5 2 2.5 1.00 0.4 28.60 1.4 22.5 3 2 2.20 0.26 1.4 20.65 3.00 0.75 2.5 3 1.3 18.90 0.95 3.25 1.4 18.32 0.5 2 2.921 41.6 4.669 5.83 0.3 3.65 0.20 0.9 1.3 20.73 0.9 2. De [mm] 091 000 093 705 094 100 094 400 099 440 099 460 099 829 100 500 100 800 101 750 102 530 102 900 103 227 104 200 104 700 110 411 110 500 110 900 115 977 116 200 116 650 116 902 117 200 117 395 117 600 118 400 118 500 119 860 120 102 120 300 120 800 121 000 128 420 128 500 129 050 34 35.4 22.5 2 1.3 2.059 31.4 22.5 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 56 56 56 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 16.019 16.40 0.30 1.479 38.948 16.4 18.85 2.73 0.80 0.30 1.40 0.4 20.8 2.840 Weight/ 1000 pcs.43 1.65 1.4 25.25 1.85 1.80 0.05 h0 [mm] 0.018 22.28 1.90 1.859 33.25 1.3 14.20 0.4 18.310 24.5 1.504 25.958 25.15 0.28 1.3 16.4 20.754 12.25 1.002 6.3 3.211 15.665 14.25 2.34 1.60 1.40 1.15 1.4 20.733 22.69 0.5 t [mm] 2 0.5 35.95 3.5 2 3 l0 [mm] 2.115 10.4 18.07 0.65 1.6 3.40 1.3 3.3 18.097 10.80 0.28 0.944 11.4 20.9 2.3 18.60 1.299 27.017 15.44 0.994 32.5 2 2.5 28.25 0.863 16.5 2 2.020 13.80 1.4 22.5 1.480 12.10 1.65 2.30 1.6 2.60 1.

940 0.625 0.800 0.460 1.980 0.650 5562 1.050 12088 1644 1321 1348 1611 1271 1505 1797 1392 1707 1586 1302 1351 1500 1548 1639 1536 1317 1625 998 1311 1571 1805 1922 1475 1677 1372 1636 1269 1417 1349 1500 1626 1492 1369 1547 9 115 .250 0.050 0.300 1088 1.400 0.200 1.980 0.975 0.800 0.600 1480 1.350 1.900 0.900 5462 0.200 0.090 0.860 0.163 0.213 0.450 0.900 5301 1.600 2037 1.650 8499 1.350 0.275 0.225 0.25 h0 s = 0.313 0.425 0.450 0.950 2806 1.200 3073 0.600 5458 1.575 0.650 0.800 0.900 0.300 0.830 0.000 2089 0.400 0.600 0.238 0.800 5356 0.150 8512 0.600 0.450 5495 1.500 0.300 0.175 0.325 0.225 0.213 0.450 0.700 0.050 0.850 12261 1.490 1.300 5217 1.213 0.600 2885 1.860 0.650 0.488 0.150 897 1.575 0.425 0.325 0.800 0.550 0.650 0.600 5370 1.680 0.710 1.750 0.400 0.325 0.425 0.400 0.640 1.450 0.640 0.325 0.100 8622 1.100 3107 0.325 0.300 5556 1.600 0.700 0.640 1.900 0.400 0.150 0.475 0.525 2776 723 1295 2891 1480 1957 2852 1905 2939 2871 889 1867 2838 3457 4357 1644 2465 4515 1195 2216 3289 4594 6304 3220 4477 3022 4624 1348 2058 3218 4424 6315 2292 3384 6322 760 797 778 737 761 712 795 727 752 703 788 773 669 712 766 928 740 741 606 791 677 795 888 687 742 664 721 766 840 743 669 755 902 790 703 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.200 0.200 4191 0.790 4084 843 1723 4261 1806 2587 4128 2535 4254 4161 1033 2537 4117 5126 6473 1918 3374 6633 1395 2644 4467 6578 9225 4392 6485 4188 6699 1573 2548 4460 6418 9346 2659 4503 9267 1186 1093 1089 1157 1048 993 1270 1016 1204 1122 1079 1086 1064 1114 1189 1272 1043 1165 828 1085 1050 1273 1386 988 1185 938 1154 1051 1162 1049 1064 1176 1236 1105 1107 0.490 1.800 0.830 0.950 12151 1.725 0.530 0.75 h0 s = 1.288 0.Deflection s.400 5440 1.200 0.800 2878 1.500 0.600 1670 1.700 6672 0.550 0.350 0.400 0.350 0.288 0.850 5377 1.980 0.100 8348 1.830 1.300 0.680 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.275 0.550 0.000 8348 0.850 8656 1.200 1.250 3106 0.750 0.163 0.275 0.250 0.363 0.263 1422 464 742 1487 918 1130 1501 1091 1547 1504 574 1051 1479 1774 2219 1057 1371 2328 768 1399 1848 2424 3238 1797 2352 1666 2429 866 1260 1774 2306 3227 1480 1938 3265 364 433 415 352 412 381 372 388 351 329 428 411 323 340 370 504 393 352 329 429 360 371 425 365 347 352 337 416 453 393 322 363 490 421 333 0.200 0.400 2013 1.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.

8 4.20 2.8 2.45 0.324 44.305 97.5 20.234 63.7 5 5.40 1.75 2.60 1.15 4.159 122.5 35.30 2.7 4.80 h0/t [kg] 1.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1) Article No.40 0.110 32.30 0.30 1.8 h0 [mm] 2.4 4.57 0.60 0.1 4.5 3 4 3 4 2.2 4.20 2.90 2.5 36 36 36 31 31 31 36 36 41 41 41 41 46 46 46 41 t [mm] 2 2.1 4.789 200.68 0.5 40.925 85.3 5.5 3 3 4 4 5 2 2.05 0.40 1.50 1.5 30.30 3.66 0.9 4.28 0.5 5 4 l0 [mm] 4.4 4.32 0.3 5.25 0.222 130.77 0.80 0.80 2.18 1.242 47.8 5.33 1.326 90.5 30.20 1.65 1.1 5.5 40.891 92.5 31 31 31 31 25.5 1.6 6.10 0.5 3 3.320 53.70 1.05 2.573 45.26 1.968 179. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1303 -1319 -1303 -1305 -1272 -1329 -1276 -1303 -1306 -1301 -1325 -1325 -1152 -1330 -1306 -1326 -1248 -1265 -1293 -1314 -1264 -1314 -1251 -1287 -1287 -1294 -1275 -1240 -1323 -1282 -1303 -1264 -1272 -1264 -1301 116 .60 2.20 1.28 0.50 2.508 141.3 4 4.5 2 2.214 54.5 20.60 0.5 4.6 4.47 0.30 1.2 4.275 Weight/ 1000 pcs.804 63.247 51.7 5.2 5.5 4 2.30 0.20 1.20 1.018 81.40 0.22 0.6 6.5 30.80 0.25 3 4 5 2.5 3.5 30.5 3 2.4 5.786 57.30 1.7 5.715 71.80 2.5 35.078 56.34 1.3 5.3 5.73 0.10 1.480 78.5 3 3.55 4.5 5.70 2.70 38.5 3 2.80 1.47 0.60 1.633 65.43 1.64 0.28 0.163 40.661 87.2 5.43 0.30 1.60 2.00 1. De [mm] 131 000 131 298 131 410 131 800 132 100 133 192 133 500 133 750 138 220 138 500 138 720 139 000 144 400 146 300 146 598 147 700 147 980 150 800 151 100 153 010 153 100 153 240 159 400 159 606 160 100 160 640 160 685 161 212 161 500 161 700 162 000 169 300 169 500 169 645 174 700 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 63 63 63 63 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 90 90 90 100 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 20.787 90.5 25.115 48.8 6.150 59.30 1.12 0.5 30.88 0.874 98.40 1.190 113.7 4.70 1.66 0.Dimensional Tables ∅ 60 – 100 mm Material: 1.032 125.117 56.1 4.792 45.5 25.

200 8705 1.300 12192 1.200 16997 2.500 0.525 0.350 1.900 0.300 0.75 h0 s = 1.800 12307 1.50 h0 s ≈ 0.825 0.950 1.790 1.800 21791 1326 1703 1888 1496 1637 1394 1500 1614 1603 1342 1531 1637 1253 1355 1509 1421 1549 1473 1581 1644 1325 1610 1331 1421 1738 1321 1591 1518 1357 1500 1639 1576 1284 1546 1472 9 117 .650 8517 1.300 34099 3.100 0.200 8276 2.350 0.600 1.500 4824 2.700 2352 2812 3509 2709 3367 2689 3322 4424 2295 2738 3568 4577 2443 3282 3804 3783 5537 5560 8644 2903 2936 5886 3732 4305 6106 4224 5973 3254 4216 5936 8903 4294 5237 8832 7200 415 343 388 359 339 382 322 357 526 383 345 354 412 424 354 373 343 329 369 540 408 352 431 376 358 392 330 495 413 325 370 517 380 338 366 1.850 0.688 0.575 0.800 21559 2.Deflection s.130 0.325 0.680 1.880 1.400 0.100 21187 0.900 1.280 0.300 16322 1.730 1.450 0.400 1.400 0.900 33858 2.280 2.100 1.300 4431 1.263 0.800 0.300 1.650 0.060 1.400 3857 5063 6642 4927 6418 4937 6374 8637 3572 4954 6754 8873 3826 5616 6984 7002 10809 10894 17134 4497 5128 11446 6020 7519 11598 7439 11403 5128 7489 11389 17482 6680 9483 17188 12898 769 686 832 679 725 725 669 745 969 724 666 745 759 791 670 709 715 684 755 994 765 737 796 704 767 735 706 912 777 669 766 952 717 709 689 1.600 1.050 16710 2.830 0.300 22020 2.600 5505 2.325 0.200 2.625 0.900 1.550 0.150 0.850 0.800 1.200 0.275 0.150 0.550 0.600 8541 1.325 0.100 5458 1.200 20913 1. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.100 4806 6961 9524 6816 9301 6916 9245 12747 4175 6833 9684 12982 4505 7318 9749 9876 15905 16172 25707 5219 6823 16868 7344 10005 16681 10004 16530 6078 10134 16519 25972 7796 13097 25225 17595 1061 1153 1332 1016 1158 1026 1064 1164 1328 1021 1074 1173 1039 1101 1033 1006 1117 1065 1159 1362 1070 1157 1097 984 1227 1031 1126 1254 1092 1064 1189 1305 1012 1111 987 2.600 0.050 0.700 21360 2.350 1.300 0.400 0.450 0.200 12026 1.700 8630 1.150 0.240 1.400 12127 1.650 1.200 0.600 0.350 0.650 1.050 1.980 2.980 1.000 0.600 21488 1.580 1.800 0.550 0.100 0.400 12281 1.500 0.400 12488 1.050 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.600 0.800 8188 2.280 1.575 0.425 0.425 0.700 0.25 h0 s = 0.900 0.500 8699 1.700 12499 1.700 0.250 1.425 0.525 1.413 0.900 0.980 2.375 1.375 0.300 0.200 12465 1.650 1.600 33104 2.730 1.225 0.650 0.730 1.650 1.200 0.750 6573 2.000 8271 1.800 1.700 0.850 1.575 0.800 0.400 1.450 1.300 11992 1.750 0.

1 8.50 2.059 Weight/ 1000 pcs.002 346.5 4 5 6 3 4 6 4 4 5 6 5 6 3.30 0.60 4.00 5.25 10 9.3 10.80 2.651 865.240 429.8 5 5 6 6 4.72 1.85 1.881 167.40 3.861 330.40 0.30 6.4 8.00 1.28 1.40 3.40 1.7 7.20 2.918 313.8 11.219 682.7 8 8.25 0.70 0.721 678.23 0.5 9.011 565.90 4.27 250.230 120.20 4.8 6 5.30 2.80 0.2 8.60 2.2 6.70 3.67 1.5 5 6 3.876 335.29 0.70 3.3 6.7 9 10.20 3.00 5.57 0.314 155.5 l0 [mm] 7.Dimensional Tables ∅ 100 – 200 mm Material: 1.4122 (X 39 CrMo 17-1) Article No.9 10. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1277 -1243 -1253 -1279 -1279 -1304 -1130 -1303 -1283 -1195 -1306 -1299 -1514 -1316 -1292 -1292 -1312 -1276 -1221 -1312 -1313 -1313 -1309 -1206 -1292 -1138 -1209 -1231 118 .10 4.35 1.2 8.1 12.7 3.708 243.80 1.02 0. De [mm] 174 750 175 590 176 000 176 275 176 500 176 900 183 308 183 400 183 750 005 215 189 050 189 190 189 302 190 252 190 508 190 700 190 998 003 097 199 158 199 400 202 698 005 216 203 073 001 038 207 898 000 127 213 742 000 489 100 100 100 100 100 100 112 112 112 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 140 140 150 150 150 160 160 180 180 200 Ordering Dimensions Di [mm] 41 51 51 51 51 51 57 57 57 41 51 51 51 61 61 64 64 71 72 72 61 61 71 82 82 92 92 102 t [mm] 5 2.80 0.759 392.116 222.814 489.3 6 4.5 h0 [mm] 2.231 692.3 6.4 8.70 4.29 0.056 470.297 358.50 3.1 10.4 8.25 4.989 223.486 335.44 1.50 3.66 0.05 1.916 381.10 7.40 4.7 6.00 h0/t [kg] 0.10 0.63 0.523 266.71 0.661 630.5 7 7.2 8.33 0.00 5.64 0.10 4.45 1.005 434.497 981.20 2.895 178.3 8.

500 17934 7906 9966 12280 17740 25322 8362 13535 25287 14146 15907 20124 31973 20045 26210 13423 19819 25500 14988 21288 23891 29404 28787 19107 29055 21773 28967 31331 741 955 760 708 669 755 833 790 703 695 839 687 781 730 664 975 733 647 925 798 813 697 720 917 753 846 752 923 1.000 2.200 3.075 1.000 2.800 0.100 1.500 1.25 h0 s = 0.250 4.830 5.050 2.100 1.550 0.400 1.000 5.750 1.480 2.000 1.700 3.800 2.200 2.900 0.150 3.225 1.880 1.200 2.125 2.650 2.000 0.400 1.200 4.600 2.875 0.630 2.550 3.500 3.500 3.600 1.400 1.50 h0 s ≈ 0.75 h0 s = 1.925 0.000 2.100 0.780 2.830 3.400 1.300 6.500 3.425 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.000 33441 9487 16074 21422 33473 49165 10649 21831 48353 20016 21884 34000 57073 34460 48720 16573 34360 48114 18464 34335 34372 49496 49350 23358 48726 27458 45584 38983 1675 1574 1317 1318 1500 1627 1385 1369 1547 1253 1407 1475 1858 1365 1515 1614 1337 1405 1530 1383 1373 1487 1378 1516 1318 1405 1297 1529 9 119 .800 2.580 3.000 3.850 1.700 4.280 2.800 3.750 9422 5139 5706 6729 9247 12939 5320 7750 13060 8625 9815 11233 17275 11078 13799 8638 10899 13292 9653 12189 14460 16448 15936 12339 16287 13903 16799 20106 346 519 405 374 323 363 452 421 333 376 454 365 392 387 332 530 388 337 502 426 438 370 381 498 400 459 402 501 1.300 2.150 3.675 1.000 1.900 4.600 4.200 1.190 3.550 2.063 1.700 2.700 1.200 3.200 2.550 2.800 1.800 0.Deflection s.300 2.275 1.000 4.600 1.450 2.850 0.625 0.400 3.600 1.825 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.500 0.050 1.125 0.380 2.000 5.100 4.275 1.000 1.400 4.500 1.250 1.000 5.100 2.650 1.030 3.100 7.525 1.250 25839 9092 13261 17084 25732 37476 9891 18011 37068 17598 19516 27491 44952 27647 37779 15646 27419 36988 17452 28327 29989 40055 39583 22161 39522 25621 38079 36637 1183 1306 1064 1001 1064 1176 1144 1105 1107 959 1157 988 1283 1030 1066 1337 1036 995 1267 1117 1125 994 1015 1256 1059 1161 1050 1265 2.350 2.680 3.700 0.250 1.500 2.850 1.700 3.400 3.230 4.100 4.

4 20.4923 (X 22 CrMoV 12 1) Article No.4 20.5 2 2.65 2.958 25.3 16.2 12.5 1.37 0.26 0.2 10.3 16. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1199 -1302 -1346 -1188 -1247 -1341 -1268 -1252 -1300 -1316 -1291 -1282 -1282 -1328 -1318 -1265 -1304 -1304 -1284 -1319 -1279 -1259 -1299 -1307 -1322 -1221 -1176 -1301 -1289 -1299 -1276 -1246 -1317 -1224 -1326 120 .20 0.504 25.310 24.95 3.10 1.53 0.70 0.85 1.3 3.95 1.45 0.017 15.4 20.35 3.65 1.20 0.75 2.9 2.25 0.15 2.5 1.30 1.69 0.665 14.4 22.5 2.45 0.44 1.2 14.278 6.44 0.90 0.994 32.018 22.50 0.4 18.55 0.3 2.32 0.733 22.751 16.4 2.3 3.3 12.4 20.211 15.4 3.529 7.4 22.6 3.31 0.5 2 2.65 0.05 2.55 0.714 5.34 1.4 25.95 3.3 h0 [mm] 0.80 1.25 0.097 12.1 3.2 12.35 2.5 1.3 20.65 0.15 0.412 4.43 0.669 11.60 1.80 0.73 0.5 1.040 8.4 18.028 30.75 1.5 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 10.6 2.614 8.5 1.65 1.863 19.190 10. Ordering Dimensions De Di t t’ l0 [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] 055 660 061 952 065 500 072 104 073 250 076 300 083 900 084 400 084 801 088 400 089 500 090 600 091 200 094 600 099 464 099 860 100 700 100 734 101 800 103 100 103 600 104 300 104 800 110 600 111 000 116 400 116 654 116 903 117 204 117 450 117 700 118 405 118 600 120 104 120 500 20 23 25 28 28 28 31.35 0.5 31.31 0.6 3.5 1.5 1.560 8.4 22.2 12.75 2 1.4 18.981 17.5 1.70 0.65 2.23 0.95 3.5 2 2 1.Dimensional Tables ∅ 20 – 50 mm Material: 1.3 2.40 1.5 2 1.5 3 2 2.3 3.4 20.4 18.45 0.46 0.697 9.83 0.3 14.33 0.3 16.80 0.3 16.65 3.3 16.37 0.05 2.07 0.85 0.5 31.6 2.2 16.572 16.8 2.479 38.60 0.5 1.90 0.55 0.4 1.5 1.90 1.5 1.299 Weight/ 1000 pcs.7 2.3 14.30 1.5 34 34 34 34 35.5 2 1.5 2 2.754 12.60 0.30 0.85 2.25 0.40 0.3 14.3 16.17 0.80 0.25 2.4 22.008 10.85 1.10 1.30 0.10 0.9 2.5 1.019 16.15 2.3 18.57 0.5 2 2 1.85 1.65 0.652 3.43 0.95 2.4 25.20 0.30 h0/t [kg] 0.37 0.059 31.75 2.55 0.020 16.118 5.05 2.3 18.237 6.

Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.25 h0 s = 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.75 h0 s = 1.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.063 0.088 0.113 0.138 0.138 0.138 0.163 0.138 0.125 0.225 0.213 0.200 0.150 0.163 0.313 0.225 0.300 0.225 0.213 0.275 0.200 0.175 0.163 0.300 0.213 0.450 0.325 0.288 0.238 0.350 0.275 0.325 0.275 0.400 0.325 719 794 840 761 799 859 839 1069 1418 959 921 896 1422 1487 1130 1501 1091 1547 1504 1051 1479 1774 2219 1371 2328 1399 1573 2424 3238 1797 2352 1666 2429 1260 1774 372 371 378 376 351 343 330 334 370 333 338 346 364 352 381 372 388 351 329 411 323 340 370 393 352 429 309 371 425 365 347 352 337 453 393 0.125 0.175 0.225 0.275 0.275 0.275 0.325 0.275 0.250 0.450 0.425 0.400 0.300 0.325 0.625 0.450 0.600 0.450 0.425 0.550 0.400 0.350 0.325 0.600 0.425 0.900 0.650 0.575 0.475 0.700 0.550 0.650 0.550 0.800 0.650 1427 1565 1639 1470 1543 1659 1599 2081 2788 1760 1704 1671 2776 2891 1957 2852 1905 2939 2871 1867 2838 3457 4357 2465 4515 2216 2854 4594 6304 3220 4477 3022 4624 2058 3218 760 767 789 791 741 725 637 700 767 714 653 657 760 737 712 795 727 752 703 773 669 712 766 740 741 791 599 795 888 687 742 664 721 840 743 0.190 0.260 0.340 0.410 0.410 0.410 0.490 0.410 0.380 0.680 0.640 0.600 0.450 0.490 0.940 0.680 0.900 0.680 0.640 0.830 0.600 0.530 0.490 0.900 0.640 1.350 0.980 0.860 0.710 1.050 0.830 0.980 0.830 1.200 0.980 2155 2299 2429 2131 2237 2406 2317 3040 4178 2472 2404 2366 4084 4261 2587 4128 2535 4254 4161 2537 4117 5126 6473 3374 6633 2644 3955 6578 9225 4392 6485 4188 6699 2548 4460 1164 1186 1232 1245 1169 1147 1021 1096 1188 1178 1072 1004 1186 1157 993 1270 1016 1204 1122 1086 1064 1114 1189 1043 1165 1085 1001 1273 1386 988 1185 938 1154 1162 1049 0.250 0.350 0.450 0.550 0.550 0.550 0.650 0.550 0.500 0.900 0.850 0.800 0.600 0.650 1.250 0.900 1.200 0.900 0.850 1.100 0.800 0.700 0.650 1.200 0.850 1.800 1.300 1.150 0.950 1.400 1.100 1.300 1.100 1.600 1.300 2824 3068 3172 2799 2938 3159 2988 4014 5447 3102 3042 3021 5370 5562 3106 5301 3073 5462 5377 3107 5356 6672 8499 4191 8656 2878 4927 8512 12151 5440 8348 5217 8622 2885 5556 1584 1628 1708 1739 1636 1607 1448 1524 1636 1713 1555 1450 1644 1611 1505 1797 1392 1707 1586 1351 1500 1548 1639 1317 1625 1311 1472 1805 1922 1475 1677 1372 1636 1417 1349

9

121

Dimensional Tables

∅ 50 – 90 mm Material: 1.4923 (X 22 CrMoV 12 1)
Article No. Ordering Dimensions De Di t t’ l0 [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] 120 900 121 100 128 598 128 700 129 100 131 100 131 300 131 412 131 900 132 200 133 194 133 600 133 830 003 085 138 600 138 850 146 400 146 600 147 800 148 050 150 600 151 200 153 012 153 200 153 400 159 500 159 660 160 650 160 660 161 230 161 475 161 800 162 100 169 400 169 600 50 50 56 56 56 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 63 63 63 70 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 90 90 25.4 25.4 28.5 28.5 28.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 25.5 25.5 30.5 30.5 30.5 31 31 31 30.5 30.5 35.5 35.5 40.5 40.5 36 36 36 31 31 36 36 41 41 41 41 46 46 2.5 3 1.5 2 3 2 2.5 3 2.5 3 2.5 3 3.5 1.8 2.5 3.5 2.5 3 3 4 4 5 2 2.5 4 2.5 3 3 4 2.25 3 4 5 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.85 3.45 3.6 4.05 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.3 4 4.2 4.55 4.1 4.15 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.7 5.2 5.1 5.9 4.6 4.5 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.7 5 5.2 5.6 6.3 5.7 5.8 h0 [mm] 1.00 0.85 1.95 1.60 1.05 2.10 1.70 1.40 1.60 1.30 1.50 1.20 1.05 2.30 1.65 1.20 2.20 1.80 1.70 1.20 1.10 0.90 2.60 2.00 1.30 2.80 2.40 2.30 1.70 2.75 2.20 1.60 1.30 3.20 2.30 h0/t [kg] 0.40 0.28 1.30 0.80 0.35 1.05 0.68 0.47 0.64 0.43 0.60 0.40 0.30 1.28 0.66 0.34 0.88 0.60 0.57 0.30 0.28 0.18 1.30 0.80 0.33 1.12 0.80 0.77 0.43 1.22 0.73 0.40 0.26 1.28 0.66 27.859 33.412 20.951 27.921 41.840 38.242 47.786 57.324 44.320 53.163 40.115 48.117 56.110 32.573 45.214 63.247 59.715 71.633 65.661 87.480 78.305 97.792 45.078 56.326 90.018 81.874 98.222 92.159 122.804 63.925 85.190 113.508 141.787 90.032 125.968 Weight/ 1000 pcs. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1275 -1301 -1191 -1303 -1283 -1303 -1319 -1303 -1305 -1272 -1329 -1276 -1303 -1306 -1301 -1325 -1330 -1306 -1326 -1248 -1265 -1293 -1314 -1264 -1314 -1251 -1287 -1294 -1275 -1240 -1323 -1282 -1303 -1264 -1272

122

Deflection s, Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.25 h0 s = 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.75 h0 s = 1.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] 0.250 0.213 0.488 0.400 0.263 0.525 0.425 0.350 0.400 0.325 0.375 0.300 0.263 0.575 0.413 0.300 0.550 0.450 0.425 0.300 0.275 0.225 0.650 0.500 0.325 0.700 0.600 0.575 0.425 0.688 0.550 0.400 0.325 0.800 0.575 2306 3227 1480 1938 3265 2352 2812 3509 2709 3367 2689 3322 4424 2295 2738 4577 3282 3804 3783 5537 5560 8644 2903 2936 5886 3732 4305 4224 5973 3254 4216 5936 8903 4294 5237 322 363 490 421 333 415 343 388 359 339 382 322 357 526 383 354 424 354 373 343 329 369 540 408 352 431 376 392 330 495 413 325 370 517 380 0.500 0.425 0.975 0.800 0.525 1.050 0.850 0.700 0.800 0.650 0.750 0.600 0.525 1.150 0.825 0.600 1.100 0.900 0.850 0.600 0.550 0.450 1.300 1.000 0.650 1.400 1.200 1.150 0.850 1.375 1.100 0.800 0.650 1.600 1.150 4424 6315 2292 3384 6322 3857 5063 6642 4927 6418 4937 6374 8637 3572 4954 8873 5616 6984 7002 10809 10894 17134 4497 5128 11446 6020 7519 7439 11403 5128 7489 11389 17482 6680 9483 669 755 902 790 703 769 686 832 679 725 725 669 745 969 724 745 791 670 709 715 684 755 994 765 737 796 704 735 706 912 777 669 766 952 717 0.750 0.640 1.460 1.200 0.790 1.580 1.280 1.050 1.200 0.980 1.130 0.900 0.790 1.730 1.240 0.900 1.650 1.350 1.280 0.900 0.830 0.680 1.950 1.500 0.980 2.100 1.800 1.730 1.280 2.060 1.650 1.200 0.980 2.400 1.730 6418 9346 2659 4503 9267 4806 6961 9524 6816 9301 6916 9245 12747 4175 6833 12982 7318 9749 9876 15905 16172 25707 5219 6823 16868 7344 10005 10004 16530 6078 10134 16519 25972 7796 13097 1064 1176 1236 1105 1107 1061 1153 1332 1016 1158 1026 1064 1164 1328 1021 1173 1101 1033 1006 1117 1065 1159 1362 1070 1157 1097 984 1031 1126 1254 1092 1064 1189 1305 1012 1.000 0.850 1.950 1.600 1.050 2.100 1.700 1.400 1.600 1.300 1.500 1.200 1.050 2.300 1.650 1.200 2.200 1.800 1.700 1.200 1.100 0.900 2.600 2.000 1.300 2.800 2.400 2.300 1.700 2.750 2.200 1.600 1.300 3.200 2.300 8348 12261 2806 5458 12088 5458 8630 12281 8541 11992 8699 12026 16710 4431 8517 16997 8705 12307 12499 20913 21187 33858 5505 8271 22020 8188 12127 12192 21360 6573 12465 21488 34099 8276 16322 1500 1626 1492 1369 1547 1326 1703 1888 1496 1637 1394 1500 1614 1603 1342 1637 1355 1509 1421 1549 1473 1581 1644 1325 1610 1331 1421 1321 1591 1518 1357 1500 1639 1576 1284

9

123

5 3.056 358.80 0.29 0.43 0.796 243.33 0.37 h0’/t’ [kg] 179.4 9.5 5 8 7.586 330.05 1.6 14.633 584.5 7 7.3 15.10 4.00 5.002 346.275 250.00 4.50 2.30 2.789 200.80 2.32 0.63 0.2 3.10 3.80 0.00 2.3 6.8 11.3 12.868 1804.861 470.231 1067.20 2.005 434.70 0.40 3.5 6 10 9.4 6.8 7.4923 (X 22 CrMoV 12 1) Article No.5 8.70 2.80 1.02 0.314 155.4 6 10 9.40 0.60 5.989 223.79 0.708 536.895 178.60 2.70 3.00 2.7 7.876 335.881 167.6 1.00 1.240 429.537 1523.40 0.3 6.50 3.66 0.2 8.6 10 9.30 3.4 8 7.230 120.3 10 8.6 11. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1264 -1301 -1277 -1243 -1253 -1279 -1279 -1304 -1130 -1303 -1283 -1195 -1306 -1299 -1316 -1292 -1301 -1292 -1353 -1338 -1276 -1306 -1368 -1221 -1312 -1313 -1309 -1295 -1292 -1326 -1209 -1324 -1300 -1314 -1327 124 .67 0.60 0.35 1.25 1.32 0.916 519.7 10.497 1354.011 565.70 4.30 5.30 2.70 0.90 4.66 0.1 10 10.60 2.5 8.33 0.814 719.2 6.40 1.29 0.3 13.523 266.5 4 5 6 3 4 6 4 4 5 5 6 8 7.Dimensional Tables ∅ 90 – 200 mm Material: 1.28 1.1 8.2 8.72 0.5 6 8 7.894 Weight/ 1000 pcs.7 10 8 8.486 335.3 8.41 0.918 313.60 4.70 3.51 0.50 4.8 5 5 6 8 7.4 8.4 10 9.1 13.20 3.10 0.7 6.402 682.099 2163.44 1.6 6.23 0.759 392.30 2.20 4.50 3.721 630.10 4.80 1.800 381.80 2. Ordering Dimensions De Di t t’ l0 h0 h0/t [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] 169 800 174 704 174 752 175 591 176 002 176 300 176 600 177 000 183 310 183 320 183 800 188 970 189 052 189 200 190 253 190 510 001 490 190 701 001 526 004 718 192 600 192 904 193 194 199 160 199 444 202 700 203 075 002 858 001 242 208 310 213 744 213 937 000 212 003 095 218 909 90 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 112 112 112 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 140 140 150 150 150 160 160 180 180 200 200 200 46 41 41 51 51 51 51 51 57 57 57 41 51 51 61 61 61 64 64 64 71 71 71 72 72 61 71 81 82 82 92 92 82 92 92 5 4 5 2.116 222.576 865.33 1.34 0.5 12 11.45 0.7 3.7 9 10.85 0.

050 25287 2.000 34335 1383 5.825 0.000 3.000 1.300 1346121453 5.200 3.600 1349411520 5.750 70798 2.150 3.500 34000 1475 3.275 1.100 45584 1297 3.425 0.075 0.275 0.600 33104 1546 2.625 0.450 14988 2.700 0.600 1952201613 9 125 .525 1.500 3.600 9487 1574 2.825 0.375 1.875 0.200 20016 1253 4.300 1341751473 3.480 4.550 28967 1.000 84629 1538 4.400 1.075 0.000 49350 1378 2.700 10649 1385 3.500 1381021525 4.800 53021 2.000 45535 1.925 0.400 48114 1405 1.380 2.000 44284 2.100 17934 1.030 3.400 1.680 3.350 1.650 72166 2.100 48353 1547 4.900 0.050 1.830 2.000 87019 1536 2.450 0.75 h0 s = 1.550 23891 2.880 1.700 48720 1515 2.700 25225 17595 25839 9092 13261 17084 25732 37476 9891 18011 37068 17598 19516 27491 27647 37779 64785 15646 28428 66615 36988 64660 105229 17452 28327 29989 39583 65426 39522 103379 38079 104347 70379 105346 150010 1111 987 1183 1306 1064 1001 1064 1176 1144 1105 1107 959 1157 988 1030 1066 1108 1337 1079 1106 995 1009 1115 1267 1117 1125 1015 978 1059 1093 1050 1030 1044 1027 1154 1.600 0.000 21288 2.480 2.100 1.900 18464 1530 4.200 25500 0.650 20045 1.850 25322 1.200 15907 1.800 17188 1.700 2.000 17740 0.800 1.125 0.500 16573 1614 3.100 14146 2.800 21791 1472 2.350 45331 2.150 29055 1.300 34460 1365 2.200 2.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N][N/mm2] 0.580 3.950 3.600 13535 1.130 3.675 0.400 21884 1407 3.700 49165 1627 3.300 35433 1362 2.650 20611 1.000 2.800 7906 1.800 103089 709 689 741 955 760 708 669 755 833 790 703 695 839 687 730 664 708 975 765 707 647 658 725 925 798 813 720 678 753 697 752 671 744 672 733 1.650 2.030 1.500 1.780 2.350 26210 1.100 0.700 84211 1361 4.000 33473 1500 1.800 0.850 8362 1.200 33441 1675 3.000 0.200 21831 1369 2.830 3.550 0.650 1.250 12280 1.500 0.Deflection s.25 h0 s = 0.230 2.100 34372 1373 4.000 28787 1.100 1.400 9966 1.50 h0 s ≈ 0.400 12898 1.825 1.500 0.900 44138 0.800 84525 1399 1.280 2.630 2.750 20124 1.150 74144 1. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.900 8832 7200 9422 5139 5706 6729 9247 12939 5320 7750 13060 8625 9815 11233 11078 13799 22799 8638 11391 23443 13292 22678 35942 9635 12189 14460 15936 23766 16287 36468 16799 37743 30338 39552 53428 338 366 346 519 405 374 323 363 452 421 333 376 454 365 387 332 339 530 405 338 337 338 353 502 426 438 381 352 400 333 402 348 396 351 348 0.500 21422 1318 2.700 0.800 16074 1317 2.600 84741 1305 4.300 70741 2.500 1.400 0.300 48726 1318 2.480 1.300 2.500 1.675 1.225 1.230 1.250 13423 1.

64 0.Dimensional Tables ∅ 200 – 250 mm Material: 1.412 1721.64 0.832 2129.3 15.36 0.4 13.55 4.21 0.243 1873.40 2.50 7.10 3. Ordering Dimensions De Di t t’ l0 h0 h0/t [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] 000 436 219 400 004 014 002 226 003 739 223 110 001 030 226 660 003 913 004 175 002 618 200 200 200 200 200 225 250 250 250 250 250 102 102 102 102 112 112 127 127 127 127 127 5.6 7.4923 (X 22 CrMoV 12 1) Article No.38 13.758 3658.21 0.1 18.93 1.086 4465.9 15.5 8 12 14 14 8 7 10 12 14 16 12.54 0.55 20 6.549 2794.5 6.8 16.326 3142.9 12.60 6.00 1.4 11.5 14.42 0.057 Weight/ 1000 pcs.80 6.29 0.7 14. Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] -1210 -1304 -1326 -1326 -790 -1285 -1101 -1306 -1311 -1321 -1306 126 .88 5.3 13.1 16.30 4.016 2012.059 1426.90 1.1 11.25 h0’/t’ [kg] 981.25 0.40 5.25 17.423 2331.

800 79488 3.880 38315 1492 5.600 1.900 2640031563 1.500 83197 1472 7.138 1.75 h0 s = 1.800 3.600 156338 911 6.275 0.725 0.900 43146 3.700 102553 1.325 1.550 50362 1.440 30399 2.100 87404 1334 3.275 140980 2.000 3501391660 9 127 .450 136621 0.880 5.850 4.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N][N/mm2] 1.650 107399 2.400 1944071507 2.200 78891 2. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.200 4.000 19415 27679 53088 69822 40143 33348 27287 43384 57731 73747 91125 488 384 335 353 215 457 444 385 375 348 376 3.830 2.410 3.550 2627761447 4.625 1.980 3.000 179173 899 727 685 731 439 854 822 728 716 670 778 5.180 1.300 1915911333 4.720 1.400 1.850 0.800 55075 1376 6.950 1.160 3.250 56219 3.25 h0 s = 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.400 1367731337 5.Deflection s.000 35762 69787 149344 201549 118174 71819 51201 109145 151423 203283 265169 1234 1027 1079 1134 670 1193 1132 1028 1023 1026 1206 6.550 2.

16 1.60 1.7 2.5 54.7 27.65 0.Dimensional Tables 9.25 0.5 71.35 0.7 h0 [mm] 0.3 2.4 0.4 0.30 0.60 0.3 17.6 0.5 30.2 9.5 75.5 75.20 0.00 2.5 61.60 1.50 1.20 1.05 0.5 99.17 1.70 0.75 h0 F s [N] [mm] 23 29 23 31 51 46 81 63 80 83 81 61 118 110 110 113 153 135 141 176 161 185 218 211 228 263 359 288 335 325 292 332 357 398 0.45 h0/t 1.25 0.5 40.05 1.4 1.75 1.00 1.38 0.75 1.68 0.50 1.50 1.6 41.5 70.4 0.50 1.4 0.5 89.2 1.80 0.00 1.5 84.20 1.35 0.75 0.3 14.8 18.8 0.60 1.5 79.88 1.5 65.3 2.5 94.5 74.10 1.60 1.25 1.5 50.8 18.5 2.90 1 1.7 31.5 35.68 0.38 0.5 67.90 1.5 50.40 1.2 8.09 1.7 0.5 79.26 0.53 0.25 1.5 0.9 0.20 1.20 1.5 2.40 0.5 60.4 25.7 0.60 0.90 0.75 1.7 2.6 36.8 0.3 1.7 0.4 0.5 51.5 1.25 0.0 99.35 0.53 0.23 0.5 55.5 0.5 1.70 0.10 1.90 1.9 0.75 1.9 0.13 1.60 1.2 12.50 0.5 25.1 1.7 29.3 1.3 14.5 0.5 65.78 1.30 0.60 1.68 0.25 1.5 50.78 1.60 0.57 1.43 2.5 45.83 1.70 0.2 2.60 1.5 60.68 0.5 71.09 128 .6 2.60 1.35 0.00 1.8 23.80 1.83 0.19 0.6 34.55 0.8 21.45 0.7 0.0 Di t l0 [mm] [mm] [mm] 6.2 0.5 89.7 0.9 1 1 1 1.4 0.20 1.70 0.78 1.00 1.50 1.20 0.00 1.50 1.1 1.5 40.4 22.8 0.50 0.25 0.1 2.9 2.4 20.14 1.13 1.90 0.53 0.8 15.20 1.6 2.40 1.20 1.5 2.8 12.7 34.15 0.1 1.7 25.4 20.5 70.6 46.8 1.5 0.4 0.45 1.6 0.4 20.16 Spring Load F and Deflection s at s ≈ 0. Ordering Dimensions De [mm] 241200 241400 241600 241700 241800 241900 242100 242200 242300 242500 242600 242800 242900 243000 243100 243200 243300 243400 243500 243600 243700 243800 243900 244000 244100 244200 244300 244400 244500 244600 244700 244800 244900 245000 9.0 109.88 1.38 1.3 0.3 17.40 1.2 7.6 39.1 1.80 0.90 0.2 10.5 1.5 0.5 55.5 0.6 0.5 Dimension Tables for SCHNORR “K” Disc Springs Non-slotted springs Article No.60 1.0 109.26 0.53 0.

80 47.40 15.068 0.505 12.57 33.99 10. Inner dia.894 2.684 0.167 0.275 0.822 9.86 20.805 2.422 1.486 5.783 3.526 0.406 1.487 0.059 4.103 2. [kg] 0.78 19.99 18.64 29.17 129 Ball-Bearing Type Ball-Bearing Dimension Outer dia. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 – 15 – 17 – – 20 25 – 30 35 40 – – 45 – 50 – – 55 60 65 – 70 – – 4 5 – 7 – 9 – 10 12 – 15 – 17 – 20 25 – 30 – – 35 – – 40 45 – 50 – – 55 – 60 – – – – – – – – – – – 10 – 12 – 15 17 20 – 25 – 30 – – 35 – – 40 – – 45 – 50 – 623(EL3) 624(EL4) 625(EL5) 634(R4) 626(EL6)635(R5) 607(EL7) 608(EL8)627(R7) 609(EL9) 6000 629(R9) 6001 6200 6002 6201 6300 6003 6202 6301 6203 6004 6005 6006 6007 6008 6204 6205 6206 6302 6303 6304 6305 6306 6207 6009 6307 6010 6208 6209 6308 6011 6012 6013 6014 6210 6309 6211 6310 6212 10 13 16 16 19 22 24 26 28 30 32 35 35 37 40 42 47 52 55 62 68 72 72 75 80 80 85 90 90 95 100 100 110 110 9 .∅ 9.862 1.282 4.36 19.44 52.105 1.121 8.8 – 109 mm Weight/ 1000 pcs.132 1.05 23.90 11.

30 2.25 5 5.25 1.5 5.30 2.25 2.33 1.70 3.46 1.25 2.2 3.15 1.5 3.5 4.24 1.3 4.40 2.75 h0 F s [N] [mm] 398 320 393 445 405 500 354 429 379 450 412 477 470 546 864 928 759 858 812 923 941 942 1036 1021 1005 1106 1155 1155 1145 1307 1300 1302 1415 1424 0.5 1.8 2.25 1.16 1.2 6.03 1.33 1.25 1.75 1.20 3.2 4.88 1.46 1.45 2.30 2.7 6 5.5 85.53 1.8 3 3.25 2.25 1.5 4.63 2.25 2.00 2.40 2.56 1.75 3 3 3 3 2.50 3.5 75.20 2.33 1.6 4.5 106 101 111 111 121 121 126 121 131 131 141 151 161 161 161 171 171 181 181 191 191 202 212 232 242 1.5 95.70 1.16 1.2 4.20 1.65 1.00 3.28 1.5 2.95 1.25 1.55 1.60 1.5 90.20 3.3 4.20 1.88 1.50 1.25 3.25 2.5 85.10 3.00 2.35 6.50 1.25 1.2 3.00 3.90 1.33 2.5 1.28 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.5 2.73 1.1 6.09 1.25 3.5 2.15 1.88 2.25 1.31 1.00 1.2 3.00 1.50 1.25 1.40 1.00 h0/t 0.50 3.96 1.95 2.73 1.70 2.30 2.6 7 h0 [mm] 1.13 1.70 3.00 2.35 2.24 1.25 1.25 2.5 2.65 1.60 3.8 4.07 1.5 3. Ordering Dimensions De [mm] 245100 245200 245300 245400 245500 245600 245700 245800 245900 246000 246100 246200 246300 246400 246500 246600 246700 246800 246900 247000 247100 247200 247300 247400 247500 247600 247700 247800 247900 248000 248100 248200 248300 248400 114 119 119 124 129 129 139 139 149 149 159 159 169 169 179 179 189 189 198 198 213 223 228 238 248 258 268 278 288 298 308 318 338 358 Di t l0 [mm] [mm] [mm] 90.75 2.03 2.5 1.25 1.28 1.10 1.73 1.8 3.00 2.50 1.76 2.33 Spring Load F and Deflection s at s ≈ 0.20 2.73 1.00 1.95 5.5 4.40 1.53 1.50 2.56 1.00 130 .Dimensional Tables ∅ 114 – 358 mm Non-slotted springs Article No.10 1.20 1.20 1.5 101 95.5 1.25 1.55 1.69 1.04 1.5 90.31 1.50 2.13 1.25 2.75 6.70 2.60 4.2 3.60 1.

5 572.0 236.0 359.75 71.7 682.2 127.3 227.11 69.9 328.31 85.Weight/ 1000 pcs.1 100.5 138.7 883.2 1034 1112 1281 Ball-Bearing Type Ball-Bearing Dimension Outer dia.28 54. Inner dia.1 197.7 213.2 423.71 52.8 494. [kg] 36.4 310.0 995.8 258.7 783.28 57.58 120. 75 – – 80 – 85 – 90 – 100 – 105 – 110 – 120 – – – 130 – 150 – 160 – 170 – 180 190 – 200 – 220 240 – – 65 70 – 75 – 80 – 85 – 90 – 95 – 100 – 105 – 110 120 – 130 – 140 – 150 – 160 – 170 180 190 200 – 55 – – 60 – 65 – 70 – 75 – 80 – 85 – 90 – 95 – 100 105 – 110 – 120 – 130 – 140 – 150 160 170 6015 6311 6016 6017 6018 6020 6021 6022 6024 6213 6214 6312 6215 6313 6216 6314 6217 6315 6218 6316 6219 6317 6220 6318 6221 6319 6026 6030 6226 6032 6228 6034 6230 6036 6038 6040 6044 6048 6326 6232 6328 6234 6236 6238 6240 6330 6332 6334 6324 6322 6222 6224 6320 6321 115 120 120 125 130 130 140 140 150 150 160 160 170 170 180 180 190 190 200 200 215 225 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 340 360 9 131 .5 118.9 149.2 598.49 64.1 270.

80 1.45 0.45 h0 [mm] 0.36 1.9 1.5 67.6 0.5 mm Slotted springs Article No.6 0.97 1.5 40.2 10.6 2.75 0.65 1.00 0.8 – 94.75 0.75 h0 F s [N] [mm] 13 18 20 20 24 24 25 28 31 32 33 32 32 35 37 39 44 47 53 54 78 74 127 91 83 127 78 104 189 206 0.9 2.5 30.35 0.5 55.60 2.5 61.15 1.5 55.05 2.5 40.3 14.8 0.60 1.5 74.6 0.10 1.21 1.5 35.75 1 1.40 0.30 1.51 0.7 27.25 0.26 1.35 0.5 84.65 0.10 1.5 94.20 1.4 20.65 h0W/t 1.05 1.10 1.5 t l0 [mm] [mm] 0.3 17.6 34.45 0.45 0.3 0.10 1.75 0.4 0.55 0.6 0.92 0.5 71.30 1.3 20.8 0.5 60.9 3.6 46.00 0.2 12.50 0.9 3.6 36.55 2.4 0.47 1. Ordering Dimensions Di De [mm] [mm] 241150 241350 241650 241675 241750 241850 242050 242150 242250 242450 242550 242750 242850 242950 243050 243150 243250 243350 243450 243550 243650 243750 243850 243950 244125 244150 244250 244350 244450 244550 9.20 1.30 2.50 1.4 1.47 1.19 1.5 79.90 0.25 1.5 0.25 0.35 0.36 1.00 1.7 29.00 1.55 0.Dimensional Tables ∅ 9.70 1.5 51.8 12.3 14.70 1.3 3.44 1.65 1.8 18.4 3.7 25.2 0.5 71.03 1.20 1.4 25.30 2.55 1.9 2.30 1.50 1.1 2.5 89.15 2.60 0.3 1.5 50.74 0.90 1.80 0.15 0.5 6.45 0.6 39.5 79.35 0.55 1.5 54.65 1.9 2.80 1.5 89.3 0.90 1.5 50.4 0.5 25.83 1.70 2.6 41.4 22.45 0.95 2.20 1.70 1.60 1.5 45.00 132 .13 1.90 1.10 1.80 0.35 0.50 2.15 3.45 1.25 1.8 15.1 2.4 20.30 2.3 17.2 8.75 0.7 0.40 2.5 65.2 7.55 1.30 1.5 50.7 31.22 1.21 1.60 1.35 0.10 2.87 1.8 21.45 0.00 2.2 9.5 60.18 1.7 0.05 2.75 1.80 1.35 1.20 1.50 1.8 23.7 34.8 0.11 1.39 Spring Load F and Deflection s at s ≈ 0.08 1.8 18.40 2.25 0.25 0.20 2.5 75.31 1.

200 1.270 1.280 0.650 1. [kg] 0.920 2.840 3.500 2.070 3.580 16.26 14.50 13. Inner dia.700 0.420 0.130 0.200 6.200 7.500 2.050 5.Weight/ 1000 pcs.00 13.600 8.050 0. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 – 15 – 17 – – 20 25 – 30 35 40 – – 45 – 50 – – 55 60 – – 4 5 – 7 – 9 – 10 12 – 15 – 17 – 20 25 – 30 – – 35 – – 40 45 – 50 – – – – – – – – – – – – 10 – 12 – 15 17 20 – 25 – 30 – – 35 – – 40 – – 623(EL3) 624(EL4) 625(EL5) 626(EL6) 607(EL7) 608(EL8) 609(EL9) 6000 6001 6002 6003 634(R4) 635(R5) 627(R7) 629(R9) 6200 6201 6300 6202 6301 6203 6004 6005 6006 6007 6008 6204 6205 6206 6302 6303 6304 6305 6306 6207 6009 6307 6010 6208 6209 6308 6011 6012 6210 10 13 16 16 19 22 24 26 28 30 32 35 35 37 40 42 47 52 55 62 68 72 72 75 80 80 85 90 90 95 9 133 .984 1.30 Ball-Bearing Type Ball-Bearing Dimension Outer dia.10 16.440 0.320 0.00 18.280 1.660 0.500 9.

38 33.154 0.1 1.80 0.80 0.4 1.8 25.18 16.53 Weight/ 1000 pcs.766 3.05 25.3 11.70 1.Dimensional Tables 9.462 7.9 3.10 0.46 17.4 0.25 1 1.96 6.081 3.5 0.67 0.15 1.7 0.13 22.60 h0/t – 0.7 12.75 0.40 0.61 0.5 2 1.30 Stress σ OM at s = h0 [N/mm2] –1687 –1574 –1888 –1318 –1538 –1342 –1533 –1526 –1717 –1314 –1460 –1483 –1376 –1624 –1605 –1412 –1620 –1571 –1818 –1905 –1948 –1461 –1827 –1753 –1275 –1594 –1530 134 .5 3 0.90 0.4 2.7 11.85 0.35 25.2 4 4.57 53.80 0.5 2 2.370 1.40 1.87 35.50 0.83 0.68 0.1 38.77 28.348 0.55 0.47 0.50 1.40 1.38 9.13 8.55 0.7 0. Designation De [mm] 248500 248600 248700 248800 248900 249000 249100 249200 249300 249400 249500 249600 249700 249800 249900 250000 250100 250200 250300 250400 250500 250600 250700 250800 250900 251000 251100 Z 1 Z 2 Z 3 Z 4 Z 5 Z 6 Z 7 Z 8 Z 9 Z 10 Z 11 Z 12 Z 12a Z 12b Z 12c Z 13 Z 14 Z 15 Z 16 Z 17 Z 18 Z 19 Z 20 Z 21 Z 22 Z 23 Z 24 9.750 0. [kg] 0.3 1.66 44.867 3.90 0.50 0.35 19.92 34.517 11.80 1.52 0.9 0.00 2.90 1.89 0.33 60.55 9.8 50.93 0.8 50.36 0.92 34.73 0.267 1.75 0.75 0.33 60.8 25.7 17.8 25.8 0.5 4.4 28 28 28 34.60 0.8 25.6 h0 [mm] 0.55 0.7 0.117 8.9 1 1.564 5.30 0.6 2.00 0.419 0.666 4.40 0.18 19.50 1.4 25.7 1.65 0.80 0.6 0.86 0.5 2 2.8 60.7 8.35 19.05 19.92 0.8 0.5 4 4.33 Ordering Dimensions Di t l0 [mm] [mm] [mm] 4.9 1 1.8 2.1 50.2 2.8 1.1 2.69 0.9 1.60 0.241 1.7 9.53 12.8 25.45 1.80 0.7 9.05 19.55 6.25 1.9 2.5 3 2 2.3 13 13 13 16.6 Dimension Tables for SCHNORR “Z” Disc Springs Article No.60 0.35 1.8 0.92 38.574 12.40 0.10 0.18 16.2 1.1 3.4 25.20 2.71 0.05 19.5 1.429 2.25 1.13 9.1 38.4 3.46 19.877 1.00 1.6 0.79 16.3 11.

70 3783 1.55 1023 0.55 0.10 3818 0.10 7980 0.75 h0 s = 1.45 0.45 0.28 0.60 688 0.68 1.50 789 0.21 0.85 2658 0.60 1028 0.15 0.00 5341 2.83 0.00 h0 s F σ s F σ s F σ s Fc σ [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N] [N/mm2] [mm] [N][N/mm2] 0.50 11955 1.28 0.60 14419 1753 1662 1892 1453 1619 1345 1639 1534 1787 1354 1469 1769 1448 1718 1922 1495 1659 1953 2006 2059 2341 1504 1916 2062 1349 1647 1858 9 135 .90 1.53 0.15 0.40 4285 1.30 0.14 0.35 0.35 0.41 0.38 0.30 0.90 1441 0.64 0.00 0.80 171 255 415 313 470 439 622 602 830 722 948 1336 939 1559 2046 1522 2294 3489 2842 4442 6686 3706 6784 8759 3672 6467 7979 1005 959 1074 840 923 783 847 873 943 790 840 756 846 893 838 875 916 873 1175 1009 1059 863 995 920 797 904 791 0.00 10431 1.30 283 0.23 0.20 16526 2.49 0.60 0.86 0.55 0.40 412 0.50 h0 s ≈ 0.60 1.80 1114 0.83 0.38 0.20 0.08 0.20 0.65 2426 0.13 0.33 0.75 0.15 2310 1.50 497 0.60 0.Deflection s .50 1.43 0.15 0.40 0.80 6582 1.50 6121 1.05 0.28 0.30 0.10 0.45 0. Load F and Stress σ at s = 0.30 0.13 0.40 97 146 230 181 263 255 352 335 453 423 543 714 552 866 1081 898 1291 1818 1683 2391 3459 2095 3695 4565 2211 3703 4278 535 511 569 449 490 419 451 463 498 424 449 385 453 474 409 470 487 411 630 531 502 459 525 442 429 483 395 0.60 1.20 0.13 1.40 0.20 0.20 231 340 571 413 639 576 839 824 1156 939 1261 1896 1218 2138 2933 1962 3104 5060 3651 6268 9757 4994 9470 12705 4631 8605 11295 1412 1342 1515 1175 1299 1091 1188 1230 1334 1101 1176 1043 1177 1258 1117 1217 1286 1054 1633 1435 1327 1211 1410 1221 1103 1264 1067 0.25 h0 s = 0.10 0.40 712 0.90 12752 1.16 0.38 0.70 0.23 0.80 1529 0.13 0.28 0.50 0.75 0.58 0.23 0.41 0.68 0.20 0.55 1457 0.30 0.29 0.50 0.50 1.38 0.40 0.25 0.14 0.45 0.25 0.18 0.00 1.

136 .

Security Elements for Bolted Connections Chapter 10 137 .

142 10.............1 Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washers (Rib Washers) ..............................................Security Elements for Bolted Connections 10..........3 SCHNORR High Load Safety Washers “HS” ..................... 143 Heavy Duty Safety Washers-HDS as per DIN 6796 ...................................................... 144 10....................................... 140 Dimension Table for “VS” Series Serrated Safety Washers (Rib Washers) ...................................... 146 Dimension Table for “HS” Washers......................... 139 Dimension Table for “S” Series Serrated Safety Washers (Rib Washers).................................................................................... 143 Dimension Table for HDS Washers as per DIN 6796...................................................2 Load Washers ................ 146 138 .........

The only exception are countersunk screws. Figure 42 Bolt with SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washer loose and tightened 6. Their diameters are matched to screw dimensions. 9.10. 10 139 . Universal application minimises stocks. 8. 3. 4. The closed ring form results in a high degree of pretensioning. 2. and therefore achieves higher pretensioning loads. 7. The Original Schnorr Serrated Safety Washer is available in two series: The “S” series is suitable for normal duty and available for screws of size M1. the serrated safety washer can be used with practically any screw and bolt type. The reinforced serrated safety washer of the “VS” series is thicker. The outer diameter of the washer is matched to the head diameter of pan-head and hexagon socket head cap screws. The ingenious form of the Original Schnorr Serrated Safety Washer combines the advantages of security through friction and mechanical locking. These serrated safety washers are in the form of a disc spring which is serrated on both sides and of trapezoidal cross section. an excellent frictional connection.6 to M36. Schnorr Serrated Safety Washers can be supplied in a variety of materials and different finishes. As a result. Sliding surfaces allow tightening without damaging the surfaces. These washers are available for screws M 5 to M 30. Suitable for captive fitting on a wide range of bolts (combi bolts for which a range with special dimensions is available).e. We have therefore developed special safety elements for this application. They offer the following advantages to the designer: 1. 5. The shape of the cross section ensures the locking effect is at the outside diameter which ensures the greatest resistance to loosening. High quality disc springs are too expensive for this application and the sizes of normal disc springs do not match screw and bolt sizes. High resistance to vibration due to positive locking of the serrations.1 Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washers (Rib washers) Very often our disc springs are considered for use as serrated safety washers for bolted connections to maintain a preload and prevent loosening. including those with rescessed heads. Concentric application of force eliminates bending in the bolts. The inner and outer diameters are the same as for the “S” series. i. No splitting during tightening with proper transitional radius between bolt shaft and bolt head. The Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washer is protected by patents at home and abroad.

39 0.4 13 10.7 3.4 12 8.8 1 1 1.2 4 2. (7.1 12 12.2 1. min.9 0.52 1.45 0.6 1.35 0.9 1.750 0.7 6 4.9 0.7 9.1 1.6 0.3 0.18 1.7 4.0 1.9 13 18 13.4 10 6.3 9 6.1 1.98 1.021 0.5 3 3.167 0.039 0.0 2.3 7 5.6 0.63 1.4 1. Figure 43 Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washer type “S” Article Size d1 d2 s h h Weight Packaging 3 No.5 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 1 1 /8" 5 3 /32" /16" /4" 1 5 /16" /8" 7 /16" 3 14 16 18 9 /2" /16" 5 /8" 140 .013 0.6 15.879 0. (Nominal) H14 h14 max.641 1.6 0.38 0.49 0.7 19 15 22 17 24 19 27 0.31 1.2 5.45 0.5 3.59 0.7 0.984 2.6 1.355 0.73 0.085 0.5 0.5 0.055 0.976 1.6 2 2.5 7.85 0.970 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 500 250 for bolts metric imperial [mm] [inch.21 1.392 0.35 0.35 7 8 10 11.85 kg/dm ) [pcs.] box] 402300 404400 406800 409400 411200 412700 414500 416300 418100 419200 420400 423000 425100 426200 427900 429100 430700 432400 1.8 2.200 0.150 0.82 0.5 4 5 6 6.79 0.33 1.52 0.7 1.3 1.595 0.3 1.Security Elements for Bolted Connections Dimension Table for “S” Series Serrated Safety Washers (Rib Washers) Designation for an Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washer type “S” size 8 in spring steel: Serrated Safety Washer S 8 FSt. per [mm] [mm][mm][mm][mm][mm][kg/1000 pcs.2 1.7 0.1 1.89 0.] 1.45 0.5 3 3.7 14 16 18 1.5 16 11.2 2.2 1.1 2.7 0.8 3.049 0.6 2 2.51 0.

910 7.8 2 2 2 2.1 3.1 3.28 Available materials: Available finishes: 250 250 100 100 100 100 100 50 for bolts metric imperial [mm] [inch. per [mm] [mm][mm][mm][mm][mm][kg/1000 pcs.08 2. (Standard). spring bronze CuSn8.94 2.98 1. browned. corrosion resistant steel 1.6 45 38 54 1.] box] 433800 435100 436600 437900 439200 440300 441500 442730 19 20 22 24 25. blackened) h max.32 2. (7.6 36 27 38 28.Article Size d1 d2 s h h Weight Packaging No.4 27 30 36 20 30 21 30 23 33 25.6 39 31.52 2.6 4.2 1.38 4.507 5.5 1.78 3.9 3.5 1.5 1.: Minimum height after loading test Spring steel as per DIN EN 10132-4.52 2. cadmium-plated 10 141 .5 2.449 7.7 2.5 2. phosphated. (Nominal) H14 h14 max. zinc-plated.369 10. blackened.742 4.85 kg/dm3) [pcs. min.78 21.] 3 /4" /8" 20 22 24 27 30 36 7 1" 11/8" 13/8" Article No.5 2.:Valid for normal execution (spring steel.4301.: Maximum dimension as delivered h min.100 3. hardened.

08 1.3 1.4 8.6 31. (7.91 3.041 5.3 6.8 1.76 2.64 1.34 2. min.273 0.4301.] per box] 414600 416400 420500 423100 426300 429200 430800 432500 435300 436700 438000 440400 441600 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 5.5 13 15 17 19 21 23 25. (Standard).27 2.117 8.300 0.4 3.87 2. (Nominal) H14 h14 max.223 2. blackened.4 1.2 1.7 2.615 1.6 2.066 6.6 9 10 13 16 18 22 24 27 30 33 36 39 45 1 1 1.0 3.5 2.865 9.089 3.380 Available materials: Available finishes: 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 500 250 250 250 100 100 100 100 for bolts metric imperial [mm] [inch.5 1.12 0.8 3. yellow-chromated surface: Serrated Safety Washer VS 16 FSt mech Zn8 cC. Figure 44 Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washer type „VS“ Article Size d1 d2 s h h Weight Packaging [pcs. blackened) h max.2 2.:Valid for normal execution (spring steel.] 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 3 /16" /16" /8" /16" /8" 5 3 9 5 7 /8" 11/8" Article No.: Maximum dimension as delivered h min.5 2 2 2 2 2.6 28.1 2.4 10.5 1.5 1.731 14.: Minimum height after loading test Spring steel as per DIN 10132-4. zinc-plated.5 2. hardened.142 4.32 1.42 2.85 kg/dm3) [mm] [mm][mm][mm][mm][mm][kg/1000 pcs. cadmium-plated 142 .21 2.5 3. phosphated.07 1. No.Security Elements for Bolted Connections Dimension Table for “VS” Series Serrated Safety Washers (Rib Washers) Designation for an Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washer type “VS” size 16 of spring steel with a mechanically zinc-plated. browned.65 1.167 1. spring bronze CuSn8. corrosion resistant steel 1.7 2 2.

short bolts. Edition October 1987 “Conical spring washers for bolted connections. Uniform concentric loading eliminates bending in the bolt 5.8 – 10. Tests have shown that these values are comparable with the measured values. e.” 10 143 . They provide no effective security against unscrewing due to alternating lateral loading. These high loads naturally require large cross-sections. due to setting. These are intended to compensate for loosening of the screwed connection. Schnorr Load Washers offer the following advantages: Heavy Duty Safety Washers (HDS) as per DIN 6796 These HDS washers have been specifically developed for high-strength bolts in the strength classes 8. The HDS washers contained in the table conform to DIN 6796.” The test specifications are laid down in DIN 267 Part 26 “Fasteners. Greater safety with high degree of spring action 6. the area required for a design with load washers cannot be ignored. Optimum compensation for setting in the joint 3. High axial load 2. Suitable for captive fitting on a wide range of bolts (combi bolts) As a highly progressive load increase occurs at the end of the spring deflection when the washer is flattened. 1. which is why the outside diameter of the load washer is considerably larger than that of our Original SCHNORR Serrated Safety Washers. by maintaining a sufficiently high pretension in the connection with spring force. As a result. the load has been indicated as double the calculated value in the following table. Reduction of the dynamic loading of the screw due to higher elasticity of the joint 4. The loads of the washers have been matched to these bolts and are 70 to 90% of the bolt load in the flat state. They are therefore especially suitable for primarily axially loaded.10.g.2 Load Washers The term “load washer” is used to describe a spring element in the form of a disc spring which achieves its locking effect solely by means of the frictional connection.9 as per DIN ISO 898 Part 1 (SAE Grade 5). technical specifications for elements made of spring steel for bolted connections.

7 3.04 4.3 5.5 4 4.3 1.15 6.4 7.: Maximum height as delivered h min. hardened.6 3.3 8 Article No.05 7.75 8.35 9.: Minimum height after the setting test as per DIN 267 part 26 Spring Load: Double the calculated spring force in the flat condition for a deflection hmin– s Test Load: Proof load for setting test as per DIN 267 part 26 144 .5 1.65 5.6 6.8 3.85 1.35 1. [mm] 0.92 1.77 7.5 6 6.7 2 2.5 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 28 31 d2 h14 [mm] 5 6 7 8 9 11 14 17 18 23 29 35 39 42 45 49 56 60 70 s [mm] 0.4 7.4 10.6 0.5 3 3.95 4. Figure 45 HDS Washer Article No.75 2 2.58 5. [mm] 0.5 0.43 4.6 0.5 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 d1 H 14 [mm] 2.55 2 2.2 3.5 3 3.4 8.2 h min.3 6. blank and oiled h max.4 0.2 3.5 5 5.06 1.12 1.2 1.2 2.72 0.3 2.5 0.8 1 1.:Valid for the normal execution in spring steel.72 0.Security Elements for Bolted Connections Dimension Table for HDS Washers as per DIN 6796 Designation of a load washer size 8 of spring steel: HDS Washer DIN 6796-8 FSt.8 6.7 4.08 5. 700000 700100 700200 700300 700400 700500 700600 700700 700800 700900 701000 701100 701200 701300 701400 701500 701600 701700 701800 Size (Nominal) [mm] 2 2.61 0.25 5.5 7 h max.24 2.

5 3 3.527 2. 145 .434 2.85 kg/dm3) [kg/1000 pcs.88 110.089 0.] 0.385 0.9 metric [mm] 2 2.050 0.61 37.93 47.248 0.58 29.5 166.687 1.993 6.05 21.04 90.63 62.Spring Load [N] 628 946 1320 2410 3770 5480 8590 11300 14900 22100 34100 46000 59700 74400 93200 113700 131000 154000 172000 Test Load [N] 920 1540 2350 3160 4050 6700 9400 13700 17200 27500 40000 55000 75000 95000 122000 152000 175000 230000 280000 Weight (7.5 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 for bolts imperial [inch] 1 /8" 5 3 /32" /16" (1/4") 5 3 /16" /8" (1/2") 9 /16" 5 /8" (3/4") /8" (1") 11/8" 10 7 Technical specifications: Material: Surface finish: as per DIN 267 part 26 Spring steel to DIN EN 10132-4 or DIN 17221 Blank and oiled Other materials and surface finishes available on request.143 0.201 12.

A notable feature of these washers is the slightly curved form.8 5. which provides a progressively increasing characteristic curve.64 2. 416320 416520 423220 426400 429320 430900 433750 435320 436620 439150 440100 442650 Size (Nominal) [mm] 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 d1 H 14 [mm] 6.8 4.75 3.5 5 5.5 3 3.21 2.4 8. [mm] 1.5 6 6.Security Elements for Bolted Connections 10.65 Article No. [mm] 1.3 5.31 4.27 3.:Valid for the normal execution in spring steel.5 4 4. phosphated and oiled h max.9 h min. Figure 46 Original SCHNORR High Load Safety Washer “HS” Article No.: Minimum height after the setting test as per DIN 267 part 26 Spring Load: Double the calculated spring force in the flat condition for a deflection hmin– s Test Load: Proof load for setting test as per DIN 267 part 26 146 .5 2 2.55 3. Despite the smaller outside dimensions.5 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 28 31 d2 h14 [mm] 12 17 21 24 28 30 33 36 40 45 50 58 s [mm] 1.5 5. These washers are primarily used when the space available is insufficient for standardized load washers.45 7 7.5 7 h max. this Dimension Table for “HS” Washers makes it possible to achieve the same load as the HDS washers as per DIN 6796.4 10.FSt.3 8 8.35 4. Designation of a SCHNORR High Load Safety Washer size12 of spring steel: Safety Washer HS 12 .3 SCHNORR High Load Safety Washers „HS“ This safety washer is in principle a HDS washer with a smaller outer diameter than those in DIN 6796.15 3.75 4.95 6.7 7.95 5. hardened.: Maximum height as delivered h min.9 2.9 6.

438 4.85 kg/dm3) [kg/1000 pcs.Spring Load [N] 8920 15100 23200 34800 44800 62800 72600 92200 120000 135000 155000 180000 Test Load [N] 9400 17200 27500 40000 55000 75000 95000 122000 152000 175000 230000 280000 Weight (7.94 101. per box] 2500 1000 500 250 100 100 100 100 100 50 50 50 for bolts metric imperial [mm] [inch] 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 (1/4") 5 /16" 3 /8" (1/2") 9 /16" 5 /8" (3/4") 7 /8" (1") 11/8" 10 Technical specifications: Material: Surface finish: as per DIN 267 part 26 Spring steel to DIN EN 10132-4 or DIN 17221 Phosphated and oiled Other materials and surface finishes available on request.36 25.28 66.] 0.915 7.0 Packaging [pcs.61 14.33 35.50 19. 147 .07 50.194 11.943 2.

148 .

technical terms of delivery Hot rolled steels for quenched and tempered springs Cold-rolled narrow steel strip for heat-treatment Part 4: Spring steels and other applications Wire and strip of stainless steels for springs Steel and nickel alloys for fasteners with specified elevated and/or low temperature properties Copper and copper alloys– Plate. designation and specification in technical documents Cold-rolled stainless steel narrow strip and cut lengths – Tolerances on dimensions and shape Hot rolled steel plates 3 mm thick or above. shape and mass Stainless steels DIN EN 10132-4 DIN EN DIN EN DIN EN DIN EN DIN DIN DIN DIN EN DIN EN 10151 10269 1652 1654 50938 50942 50960 10258 10029 DIN EN 10088-2 149 . sheet. dimensions and quality specifications Steel forgings. calculation Disc springs. Tolerances on dimensions. strip and circles for general purposes Copper and copper alloys – Strip for springs and connectors Alkaline blackening (black finishing) of iron materials Phosphating of metals Electroplated and chemical coatings.Supplement Standards DIN EN DIN EN DIN DIN DIN DIN 10048 10140 2092 2093 7521 17221 Hot-rolled narrow steel strip – Tolerances on dimensions and shape Colled rolled steel Disc springs.

G. G. S..: Bühl. Zürich 1917 Almen. 305 – 314 Hertzer. S.: Tellerfedern – gedreht oder feingeschnitten DRAHT 31 (1980) 5. S.: Bühl.O. S. G. Orlando. O. J. Vereinfachtes Verfahren zur Berechnung von Tellerfedern Podda. G. G. 105 – 108 und 5.:The Uniform-Section Disk Spring Trans. S.schnorr.: Ein neues Berechnungsverfahren für Tellerfedern DRAHT 30 (1979) 1. 57 – 59 Über die dynamische Festigkeit von Tellerfedern Dissertation TH Braunschweig 1965 Zur Spannungsberechnung von Tellerfedern DRAHT 22 (1971) 11. MI 48108 Fax 734-975-0408 Phone 734-677-2683 eMail sales@schnorr. P. M.: Über die Festigkeit der Kegelschale Dissertation. 760 – 763 Die geschlitzte Tellerfeder Konstruktion 24 (1972) 6. Orlando.com 150 .: Schremmer. P.: Lutz. M. S. Fr. 226 – 229 Maximale Höhen bei Tellerfedern aus Sonderwerkstoffen DRAHT 25 (1974) 2. S.: Über die Dauerfestigkeit und das Setzen von Tellerfedern Dissertation TH Braunschweig 1959 Zur Berechnung der Tellerfeder Konstruktion 12 (1960) 2. ASME 58 (1936).com Internet http://www..: Schremmer. S.. S. K. H.: Bühl. P. S. 63 – 65 Mechanische Schwingungen bei Tellerfedersäulen DRAHT 28 (1977) 2. 17 – 22 [11] Bühl.: DRAHT 31 (1980) 11. László. 251 – 255 Please send your Enquiry Sheet to: Schnorr Corporation 4355 Varsity Drive Suite A Ann Arbor. P. S.: Vergleich verschiedener Verfahren zur Berechnung von Tellerfedern DRAHT 34 (1983) 3.Supplement Further Sources [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Dubois. A. P.. 48 – 53 [10] Curti. 295 – 299 [12] Curti. 789 – 792 [13] Niepage.

151 .

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