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Ekaterini Akarepi August 2009
A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University at Buffalo, State University of New York in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Department of Music
UMI Number: 3372017 Copyright 2009 by Akarepi, Ekaterini All rights reserved
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Copyright by Ekaterini Akarepi 2009
To my parents, Maria and Athanasios, With love and gratitude
While researching and writing this dissertation, I have had the privilege to receive generous assistance from many people. My first and sincerest thanks go to Professor Michael Long, who has guided me through the long and frequently challenging path of dissertation writing with foresight, remarkable patience, and true understanding. I am grateful to Dr. Long for many years of academic motivation and for being a truly inspiring model as a teacher and scholar. I also wish to acknowledge the members of my committee – Professors Charles Smith, Jeffrey Stadelman, and Stephanie Vander Wel – for their guidance and support in various levels and ways through the years. Karen Sausner, Graduate Academic Advisor at the Music Department of the State University of New York at Buffalo, has been extremely helpful in giving advice over practical and yet essential matters. I also wish to thank the librarians of the Music Library at the University at Buffalo, and most notably John Bewley, who accommodated my research needs and requests especially during the last few years when I had moved from Buffalo. My heartfelt thanks extend to Silke Lambert for her editorial assistance and to the Graduate Student Association for offering this service; I remain indebted to Silke for always responding to my editing requests quickly, working beyond her assigned time, and, most especially, for her kind words of encouragement. The support of Professor Yianna Liatsos has been indispensable in completing my dissertation and I remain deeply indebted to her. A dear friend and challenging communicator, Yianna stood as my good angel and critical eye by offering abundant
Above and beyond matters of convention and in a hopefully justifiable tone of heartfelt appreciation. and for never doubting. for withstanding my minor (and some major) crises of confidence. Lastly and most warmly I want to thank my husband Konstantinos Karathanasis for his love and constant encouragement. selflessly. and wisely. Zeta Giannopoulou and Anne-Vale Leibundgut generously looked through my English translations of the regretz texts and provided ample comments and suggestions for improvement.doses of encouragement and sharp questioning. I wish to thank my parents Maria and Athanasios Akarepis and my parents in-law Ariadne and Kyriakos Karathanasis for standing alongside me. patiently. I offer my most special thanks to Zeta for always responding with generosity to my relentless inquiries. v .
.…72 vi .………………………………………………iv LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES ……………………………………………………ix LIST OF TABLES .....………………………………………………………………….………………………………….………………………………………56 La Regretée as an Offspring .15 CHAPTER 2. THE ORBIT OF GHIZEGHEM’S REGRETZ CHANSONS ………39 Echoes of Allez regretz …………….... REPERTORY.…4 Tracing the Regretz Complex ………………………………………………..…..……50 Calling the “Regretz” “Nuit et jour” .……………………………………......43 Sans regretz as a Descendant ...TABLE OF CONTENTS DEDICATION …………………………………………………….………………………………………….……………………xiv ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………xv INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………1 CHAPTER 1....…….68 Echoes and Intersections of Les grans regretz .….………………………………………………60 Loose Intertextualities in Anon’s Tous les regretz and Mon souvenir..…………………………………………41 Chanson Reworkings …………….. ISSUES..1 Intertextuality and Early Music ………………………………………………. APPROACHES ………………………….……………………iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ……………..41 Allez Regretz and Venés regretz .………………………………..….……...xiii LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………….….
………………………………………132 Conclusions..………………………………………………105 Aprez regretz…………..84 CHAPTER 3.………………………………………....136 Discourses with La Rue’s Tous les regretz . THE CROSSROADS OF MILLE REGRETZ ………………………86 Dialogues among the Regretz of Josquin .………..... .……………………………………………………………136 The Referential Aspect of Josquin’s Plus nulz regretz .…………………...…..…90 Threads Across Mille Regretz and Plusieurs Regretz .157 Graftings and Echoes between La Rue’s Dueil et ennuy and Tous les regretz….99 Veiled Allusions of Mille Regretz in Regretz Sans Fin ..….....…………………………121 The “Other Way Around” …………..134 CHAPTER 4.…………………………………………………..113 Textual Echoes Between Mille Regretz and Cent Mille Regretz ….150 Further Subtle Connections . FURTHER MUSICAL ALLIANCES WITHIN THE REGRETZ COMPLEX .….………………………………………………………….…………………………………………….…………………………………………….... Parfons...Concluding Note…………………………………………………………………....…..…………………………………………………………..88 Paths of Connection among Mille.101 Resonances with the Regretz of La Rue…………….……………....……………104 Mille and Plusieurs ………..…..109 Tous les Regretz..………………………………………………………………....154 Josquin’s Regretz à 5 ..…………………………137 Ties with Secretz regretz ...….…........ and Plus Nulz Regretz ..........119 Mille regretz as the Progenitor of Gombert’s Regretz ..…..…………………….163 vii .……..
.199 Localized Intertextualities within the Regretz Texts ..……………………………209 CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………….169 Closing comments ……………………………………………………………….…………………………….193 Literary Archetypes in the Regretz Topos ….………………………………….………180 Literary Roots….. TRANSLATIONS OF REGRETZ TEXTS .………………………….216 APPENDIX..Marguerite of Austria and More Musical Threads.…………………………………………………………………180 Allez regretz and the Emergence of Regretz. THE LITERARY DIMENSION OF THE REGRETZ ……..……………………………………..222 WORKS CITED ………………………………………………………………………227 viii .178 CHAPTER 5..
4a: Ghizeghem. Allez regretz. 1-5.13a: Longueval. 2. bassus m.. cantus. 31-36. 10-14 …………………………………………63 Ex.45 Ex. Allez regretz. Les grans regretz.………………77 ix .. m. Nuit et jour. 15-21 ………………………………………..2b: Compère. m. 2.………………………………………75 Ex.. m. 2.71 Ex. 13-18………….. 1-5. 2.. 2. 2. superius m. Alle regres. 1-12……………………………………………62 Ghizeghem. Alle regres.12a: Longueval. m.1b: Compère. Tous les regretz.. m. m. Mon souvenir. 2.6: Ex. m.5: Ex. 2..3: Weerbeke. Allez regretz.………………………………………76 Ex. 18-23…. 2. Allez regretz...64 Ex. m. 1-10. 16-24 …………………………………………. 4-7.12a: Ghizeghem.11: Ghizeghem. 1-5. 2. 2.13b: Josquin.. m.2a: Ghizeghem. bassus m.47 Ex. m. m.…………55 Ex. Venés regretz. Venés regretz.…………………………………………46 Ex. 1-11…. Sans regretz.……………………69 Ex.. Sans regretz.7: Ex.9a: Ghizeghem. 2.14: Longueval.……………………………………75 Ex.………….10: Anon [Ockeghem].…………………………………………60 Ghizeghem. cantus and tenor.…………. La Regretée. and bassus. La Regretée.………………………62 Ex. 13-22……………………………………………55 Ex. superius m. 12-22 . m...……………………………………………45 Ex.59 Fresneau. 27-33. Nuit et jour. 1-4. 2. 2.4b: Weerbeke. 2. 7-9….…………………………………………. tenor.LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES Ex. bassus.. 2. m.………………………………………75 Ex. m. 2...8: Fresneau. 2.9b: Ghizeghem. 1-6……………………………………………. m.. La Regretée. 2. 2. Alle regres.……………………………………………53 Ex... Mille regretz.1a: Ghizeghem. m. 62-66……………………………….
. 3.………………………………. 18-24. 3. 2. 1-7. 8-16…………………………………………. 1-5………………………………………………..1a: Josquin. m.4: Ex. Mon souvenir.104 La Rue.……. Parfons regretz. m. 3..127 Ex... m.. Plusieurs regretz. 3. 3.94-95 Ex..14b: Gombert. 3. 3... m.97 Josquin. 1-12……………………………79 Ex. 1-14…. 1-10. m.6: Ex. 3.100 Josquin.109 Ex. 17-19……. m.. 16-24……………………………………………. m. m..……………………………………122-123 Ex. 1-3……………………………………………. Regret ennuy.. Mille regretz. Regretz sans fin...…………………………………….. 44-67.14a: Gombert..…………………………………………….. 1-7……………………………………………….129 x . 1-9………………………………………….. 3.………………………………………. Les grans regretz.. superius m.15: Gombert.82 Ex. 13-18.. 3.103 Josquin. m. Aprez regretz.. Mille regretz. 3.... Mille regretz. 3. 36-40..………………………………………92-93 Ex.. Plusieurs regretz. Tous nobles cueurs..……………………………………106-107 La Rue. superius. Plus nulz regretz..5: Ex. Mille regretz. 1-8.. 3.……………………………………….125 Ex. 2..94 Ex.……………………………………. m.15a: Ghizeghem.16: Anon. m..8: Ex.11: La Rue. 3. m.2b: Josquin. m.…………………………………….114-115 Ex. Plusieurs regretz.…. m.……………………………….12: La Rue. superius.3: Ex. Tous les regretz.92 Ex. 3.112 Ex.9: Josquin.. 1-20. 3. Aprez regretz. Mille regretz. 1-19. m.…………………………………………124 Ex. 2.……. 3. m. 1-10..16: Gombert. m. Parfons regretz..15b: Ghizeghem..110 Ex.10: La Rue. m.Ex. Tous les regretz. 1-8…………………………………79 Ex. Regretz sans fin.96 Josquin.………………………………………. 19-23.1b: Josquin.2a: Josquin. O doulx regretz. 20-24.13: Gombert.…………………………………. m. 3..7: Ex. m. 3.
4. m. Dueil et ennuy. 4.. 4. m. 1-5………………………………………………. 22-33………………………………………. m. m.. 4.145-46 Ex. m. m.177 xi . 21-25……………………………………………167 Ex.162 Ex. 24-30………………………………………. m. Plus nulz regretz. 3.144 Ex.. Dueil et ennuy. Plus nulz regretz... m. m. 1-10……………………………………………. m. Plusieurs regretz. 7-18………………………… 152 Ex... Tous les regretz. Secretz regretz. 16-25………………………………………. 4. Pour ung jamais.17: Gombert. 19-29. O doulx regretz.141 Ex.6: Ex. m. m. tenor and bassus.5b: La Rue. 20-24………………………………………. 28-30…………………………………………..9a: Josquin.14a: La Rue.1: Josquin. Secretz regretz.7: Ex. Tous les regretz. 4. Parfons regretz. 31-45………………………. 31-40………………………………………….. m. 4. 4.5a: La Rue. Pour ung jamais. 4.2b: La Rue. 36-40……………………………………………166 Ex.2a: Josquin.160 Ex.. Le cueur la suyt.155 Ex.146 Ex.. m. 4.. Dueil et ennuy. m.143 Ex. 21-30…………………………………………. 4. 151 Ex. 1-6…………………………………………….156 Prioris. m.13: La Rue.161 Ex..11: La Rue. 4.153 Ex.. 37-42…………………………………………. 32-38…………………………………………. m.5c: Josquin.………………………………………130 Ex.. 4.9b: Josquin. m. 1-10…………………………………………. 4. 4. Plusieurs regretz.. 1-11…………………………………………..155 Prioris. Dueil et ennuy.164 Ex..14b: Ghiselin.. 4.. 46-60………………………………………. 4.15a: La Rue.3a: Josquin.. m. m.175 Ex. m.175 Ex. Regretz sans fin. Plus nulz regretz. m. 4.3b: La Rue. 4.10: Josquin.12: La Rue.Ex. 153 Ex.…………. Secretz regretz..4: La Rue. 51-61………………………………………. 4. Dueil et ennuy. 8-11…………………………………………….8: Josquin. Plus nulz regretz. 4.
178 xii . 1-9…………………………………………. 4.. m.15b: Ghiselin.Ex. Le cueur la suyt.
.78 Table 4.200 Table 5.193 Table 5. expelled…………………………………………….... C’est une dangereuse espergne.1: Shared vocabulary among J’amasse ung tresor..1: Scheme of cadences in Les grans regretz and Mon souvenir……………….206 xiii ..2: Regretz sharing the “Imperative+regretz” incipit………………………….3: Regretz summoned vs.4: Prevalent words signifying suffering in the regretz texts ………………….7-8 Table 1..192 Table 5....1: Number of measures per verse setting in Parfons regretz and Plusieurs regretz……………………………………………………………………….2: Major sources of regretz………………………………………………….10-11 Table 2.159 Table 5..LIST OF TABLES Table 1. and Allez regretz………………………………………………….1: List of regretz chansons…………………………………………………….
2: Longueval.1: Weerbeke.LIST OF FIGURES Fig. f. 79v) ….……………………51 Fig. superius (FlorC 2439. 2. Sans regretz. 2. Alle regres. superius (BolC Q19) …………………………………73 xiv .
Prominent literary figures of the fifteenth century such as Jean II de Bourbon and Charles d’Orléans were essential in initiating the regretz as a literary theme. text. xv . which embodies a rhetoric of sorrow and suffering. The poetic texts of the regretz chansons are composed of a shared vocabulary of constants (code-words and themes). This dissertation deals with the referential world of the regretz on the levels of music. prominent musical motives and gestures) to non-apparent intersections of broader shared codes (narratives. The late 1400s witnessed an abundance of regretz. Speculating upon musical connections within the regretz complex may help us in gaining insight into the ways such composers as Compère. extending the discursive context of the “regretz complex” beyond the previously discussed reworkings of such popular chansons as Allez regretz and Mille regretz. these chansons feature the word “regretz” (and/or similar orthographies of the word) in or close to their incipit. Fortuna desperata). well established practices in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Fresneau. and alignment of musical material).ABSTRACT Musical allusion and intertextual play. Yet one can observe musical networking of a less conspicuous kind among chansons whose only apparent means of connection are a shared literary theme and/or word(s) of the incipit. Scrutiny of a group of more than forty regretz chansons considered in the dissertation brings to light intertextual associations of a broad spectrum that ranges from instances of overt relation (shared incipits. and context. musical structures and textures. were especially apparent in the realm of sacred repertory as well as in settings of particular song models (De tous biens plaine.
xvi . Josquin’s Plusieurs regretz and Regretz sans fin. Josquin’s Mille regretz.Ghiselin. Ghizeghem. acknowledged the regretz as a literary topos and shaped them into a cult musical tradition. La Rue. and the later Gombert. Longueval’s Alle regres. Plusieurs regretz and Pour ung jamais. Ghizeghem’s Allez regretz and La Regretée. Regretz chansons discussed at length include. and Weerbeke’s Sans regretz. Compère’s Venés regretz. Parfons regretz. A non-inclusive list of other pieces considered includes Fresneau’s Nuit et jour. Josquin. Ghiselin’s Le cueur la suyt. Longueval. and La Rue’s Tous les regretz. La Rue’s Dueil et ennuy. among others. and Plus nulz regretz. among others.
” it is not adequate to communicate the broad range of significations and nuances of the latter. The regretz chansons that flourished later in the century must have originated as an outcome of the initial regretz exchanges of the aforementioned poets. Notable literary figures of the fifteenth century such as Alain Chartier. and Josquin des Prez.INTRODUCTION The late 1400s witnessed a large number of chansons. which featured the word “regretz” in their incipit or close to their opening verse. The texts of the regretz chansons feature shared narratives and code-words. Although “sorrow” is a close synonym of “regretz. Specifically. Most of these regretz chansons appear in manuscript sources that originated from the Burgundian/Habsburg scriptorium. Jean II de Bourbon. musical. I argue that they are marked by a plural form and a multi-faceted quality. and lament over death or parting. often placed in adjacent folios within prominent chansonniers of the early 1500s. and Charles d’Orléans wrote poems that conveyed the word “regretz” as a means of engaging in dialogic exchanges and initiating the “regretz” as a literary topos. and set by such well-known composers as Alexander Agricola. This dissertation focuses on a specific set of regretz chansons and delineates their distinct textual. Hayne van Ghizeghem. anguish. they are either summoned (“Revenez tous 1 . The meaning of the word “regretz” during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was associated with narratives conveying the kind of sorrow associated with suffering. Pierre de la Rue. and contextual connections.
and presented in duets and in repetition. “tourmenter. 2 .regretz.” “Va t’en regretz.” Scrutiny among the regretz of La Rue and Josquin has led me to speculate on historical tracks of influence between the two composers – an issue of debate in current music scholarship. I have observed threads of connection that hint to cases of self-reference. the shared presence of a four-measure polyphonic block in parallel structural points) suggest that Ghizeghem looks back to his earlier work to compose a sophisticated response.” “Fuyés regretz”). and they feature an extensive vocabulary of suffering and continuity through such constants as “mort. they do not simply convey feelings. set on a fixed rhythmic pattern.” “dueil” (mourning). Within groups of regretz chansons of particular composers. I have thus drawn lines among the regretz of such composers as Ghizeghem.” “Sourdez regretz. the associations between Ghizeghem’s well-known Allez regretz and his later rondeau La Regretée (very intriguing as they involve apart from similarities in their incipits. and Nicolas Gombert. featuring a rising step and falling sixth. In particular. Contrary to the more popular idea of La Rue imitating Josquin. I also observe musical gestures specifically associated with particular subgroups of regretz – such as a shared musical gesture found in the regretz of both Josquin and La Rue. Josquin.” and “cueur. but come across as personified partners.” “Venés regretz”) or expelled (“Allez regretz. I argue that the associations among the regretz of the two composers suggest a path of influence from La Rue to Josquin. I view this gesture as a musical distinctive pattern within the regretz complex. La Rue.
late fifteenth-century composers acknowledged the regretz as a compositional complex. “Literary Intertextualities in 14th-Century French Song.” in Musik als Text: Bericht über den Internationalen Kongreß der Gesellschaft für Musikforschung. and other contextual facets. My use of the concept has been particularly influenced by Kevin Brownlee’s idea that situates early music scholarship within a gamut of intertextuality (intertextual approaches conveying specificity and intentionality versus others engaging in discourses on the level of broader shared practices such as a literary topos or elements of musical structure). Kevin Brownlee. 295-9. Hermann Danuser & Tobias Plebuch (Kassel: Bärenreiter. the chansons can be viewed for their significance in sharing and shaping the regretz topos. and. apart from their individual value and meaning. I find the concept enormously useful for addressing associations that occur on several levels – such as musical versus poetic text.While the application of “intertextuality” in music scholarship has been controversial. ed. 1 3 . I suggest that the regretz chansons must have communicated in a larger or lesser degree. 1998). sources of transmission.1 Through drawing intertextual associations.
various chansons de regretz composed at the time call on “le grans. APPROACHES Tracing the Regretz Complex Leafing through the opening folios of the early sixteenth-century Savoyard chansonnier BrusBR 11239.” Several regretz texts were set by such celebrated Franco-Flemish composers as Alexander Agricola and Pierre de la Rue. as well as addressing the regretz with such commands as “venez. the profusion of regretz chansons in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries is most remarkable.” “sourdez. among others.” and “tous les” regretz. Longueval.” and “fuyés. composed by Hayne van Ghizeghem and Josquin des Prez respectively. have also survived.” “cent mille. the representation of regretz in central sources of Habsburg-Burgundian origin is equally significant (BrusBR 228 and VienNB Mus. one cannot fail to observe the string of chansons on the theme of regretz. ISSUES.” “va t’en. and Weerbeke.” “revenez. Apart from the more widely known Allez regretz and Mille regretz. As unique as MS 11239 can be considered in featuring a series of seven regretz chansons within its opening folios. 18746). Fresneau. Févin. while regretz by composers of a relatively lesser stature such as Richafort.CHAPTER 1 REPERTORY. an undoubtedly appropriate topic for a manuscript whose repertory is especially permeated with sadness.” “plusieurs. This dissertation deals with chansons of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries that feature the word “regretz” (and its variants) in or close to their opening 4 . As a matter of fact.
alignment of musical material. beyond previously discussed instances of intentional borrowing in chanson reworkings modeled after Allez regretz and Mille regretz. narratives. can also be viewed as virtually linked together to a compositional family which I call the “regretz complex. as well as the status of Allez regretz as a cult chanson. to consider the regretz chansons as a “chanson complex” and to investigate threads of interrelation within it. in the course of this discussion.” It is the abundance of regretz chansons in various manuscripts dating from around the early 1500s. etc. while the issue of influence is not central in my discussion – it is not my purpose to establish authorial intention among regretz chansons of individual 5 . and context (sources. prominent musical motives and gestures. Lastly. historical events). which prompted the sprouting of an “Allez regretz” compositional family. stimulate and expand the referential world of the regretz. in the first place. Intertextual threads within the regretz network will be observed on the levels of music. I will develop the idea that on the level of poetry. the regretz must have been viewed as an established literary topos with a welldefined panoply of conceptual archetypes.verse(s). complemented by both apparent and subtle weavings of musical material. During the course of my discussion. apart from their individual significance. authorial discourses. comparable musical structures and textures. which intrigued me. to develop the idea that the regretz. literary text. Indeed. It aims to explore the intertextual dimension of the regretz chansons and. the discursive world of the regretz extends. shared vocabulary) to non-apparent intersections of broader shared codes (themes. their musical settings.). as I will clarify. and in a spectrum that ranges from instances of overt relation (shared incipits.
The symbol ** stands for works of debatable attribution. certainly not surprising for fifteenth-century audiences that were familiar with the tradition of poetic contests on designated refrains. a number of intertextual instances are briefly touched on in the footnotes. it is thus those chansons that exhibit some degree of intertextual association with others that I selectively discuss. These regretz whose incipits carry the Jean Delahaye 1 Pour les regretz As all anonymous regretz chansons are unica. from around the 1460s to the 1540s. The symbol * in the table stands for works that circulate without ascription and are attributed to a composer on the basis of stylistic evidence. 3 On poetic contests upon a set incipit / refrain in the fifteenth century. on the boundaries of this time span – namely. chronologically.composers – in certain instances. 6 . J’ay ung regretz. It was this consistency in the opening line of their poetic texts. 21-22. Yet.” Early Music 31/1 (2003): 20-39. broadly speaking. 2 As the volume of the repertory under consideration is quite substantial. Je n’ay regretz. see Yolanda Plumley. “Playing the Citation Game in the Late Fourteenth-Century Chanson. esp. noticed any hint of musical and or textual associations for the following chansons: Vides regret. The repertory under consideration concerns regretz chansons that were composed. Jean Delahaye’s Pour les regretz and the regretz of Nicolas Gombert – the core regretz repertory I primarily consider dates from the 1470s up to the 1520s. so far. apart from a small number of regretz chansons. A group of forty-eight regretz (see table below1) has formed the starting point of my investigation. it is not feasible to deal with all regretz chansons at length. I have found it appropriate to speculate on possible threads of communication that may have prompted musical and/or textual crossfertilizations.3 that initially intrigued me to explore the intertextual dimension of the regretz network. I include their sources as a further means of identification. and Plain de regret. I have not. Scrutiny of this stock-repertory led me to discover threads of musical and/or textual interconnection among the majority of these chansons.2 A considerable number of regretz chansons feature the word “regretz” in their opening hemistich. Thus. which stand.
1500) FlorBN Magl. Anon. Anon. Honey Meconi.18746 (c. 7 . Allez regretz La Regretée Les grans regretz Mon souvenir Tous les regretz* Allez regretz Va t'en regret Revenez tous regretz Sourdez regretz Va t'en regret Venés regretz Nuit et jour Cent mille regretz** Dueil et ennuy* Secretz regretz Tous les regretz Aprez regretz* Je n'ay regretz* Plusieurs regretz* Pour ung jamais Tous nobles cuers Parfons regretz Plus nulz regretz Mille regretz** Regretz sans fin Plusieurs regretz Sans regretz Tous les regretz Fuyes regretz Dueil et ennuy (soucy) Le cueur la suyt Alle regres Tous nobles cuers Allez regretz Dueil et ennuy (soucy) Venez regretz (sourdez) Vides regret J’ay ung regretz Plain de regret ParisBNF 1596 (late 1490s) Bologna Q 17 (1490s) ParisBNF 1597 (c. 107 bis (c. “Art Song Reworkings: An Overview. Anon. Anon. 1500) ParisBNF1597 (c. XIX.Samling 1848 2o (c. 1525) Table 1.1: List of regretz chansons.Hayne van Ghizeghem Johannes Ockeghem Alexander Agricola Loyset Compère Jehan Fresneau Pierre de la Rue Josquin des Prez Gaspar Weerbeke Antoine Brumel Antoine de Févin Johannes Prioris Johannes Ghiselin Antoine de Longueval Anon. Anon.” Journal of the Royal Musical Association 119/1 (1994): 23. Anon. 1523) MS Ny kgl. 1510-3) VienNB Mus.
composers of the same generation. have each set three to four regretz. are the only non-French/Franco-Flemish composers. Tous nobles cuers. word “regretz” can be divided into two subgroups: in the first. composers of French origin rate second in number. the word “regretz” occupies the third and fourth syllable of the opening four-syllable hemistich and is preceded by the imperative of a verb as an apostrophe demanding action (“allez. and Compère.” etc.). Le cueur la suyt) or in the opening of the second line (Mon souvenir. in the second.1 (cont.4 La Rue stands as the most productive composer of regretz with nine chansons. addressed in the third person. for the most part. Nuit et jour). The status of La Rue as the most prominent composer of regretz chansons has been discussed in relevant scholarship in 4 Ludwig Senfl and Bartolomeo degli Organi.” “parfons” etc. or a preposition (“aprez. of whom five regretz have survived.” “cent mille.Jean Richafort Bartolomeo degli Organi Ludwig Senfl Nicolas Gombert Sur tous regretz Allez regretz Allez Regretz Mille regretz O doulx regretz Regret ennuy traveil Tous les regretz Table 1. who both composed cantus-firmus settings based on Ghizeghem’s Allez regretz. are represented by several regretz. most often of quantity (“mille. followed by Josquin. 8 .” “tous les. Agricola.): List of regretz chansons.” “venés. as well as the later Gombert.” “sourdez. The majority of the regretz were composed by Franco-Flemish composers.).” “sans”) and are. the regretz appear either at a later position of the opening line (Pour ung jamais. the “regretz” are preceded by either an adjective. namely Compère and Josquin. In a few chansons.” “les grans.” “plusieurs. Ghizeghem. yet a few of them.
18746. Bouckaert & E.5 In their majority. Compère. 86-88. see the various writings in the edited anthology The Burgundian-Habsburg Court Complex of Music Manuscripts (1500-1535) and the Workshop of Petrus Alamire. Agricola. 142. See also Meconi. During the late 1480s and up to the late 1490s. compiled as a set of partbooks of five-voice works and dated from 1523. Five manuscript collections. Weerbeke) and. 6 For more information pertaining to the Habsburg-Burgundian scriptorium. Fresneau. Brumel. and Ghiselin). while others were linked with the court of Burgundy. and VienNB Mus. 137. Schreurs (Leuven-Neerpelt: Alamire Foundation. feature a considerable number of regretz chansons. 147-48. Prioris. La Rue. the La Rue-Marguerite connection. Fevin. three are major court chansonniers. For scholarly discussions on the aforementioned sources. eds. “is something that we will never be able to uncover” as Meconi notes (ibid. earlier under Charles the Bold (Ghizeghem). several of these composers were employed as singers and/or composers of the French court (for instance. known as the Basevi Codex and compiled in c. 135. later Philip the Fair (Agricola. (Several sources of the time host a small number of regretz.. subsequently. B. the regretz composers were active in the last two decades of the fifteenth and the first two decades of the sixteenth centuries and had ties with the French and/or the Habsburg-Burgundian courts. a view enshrined in the scholarly literature for more than a century.6 The two remaining regretz sources are the chansonnnier Several of La Rue’s regretz bear evidence of association with Marguerite (to be discussed in Chapters 3 and 4). Pierre de la Rue and Musical Life at the Habsburg-Burgundian Court (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1505-08 for a member of the AgostiniCiardi family in Siena. 2003).association with his employment in the service of Marguerite of Austria. written for Marguerite of Austria sometime between 1508 and 1516. originating from the Habsburg-Burgundian scriptorium: FlorC 2439.) Of these five sources. The Chanson Albums 5 9 . BrusBR 228. see: Martin Picker. 2003). and especially the claim that La Rue was Marguerite’s favorite composer. Yet. Marguerite of Austria. 84). all dating from the first quarter of the sixteenth century.
see Clifford Marion Shipp. the Introduction in Meconi.. stands out as the source containing the greatest volume of regretz.2 lists the regretz chansons that are included in each of the five major sources. Duke of Lorraine (thus known as the Lorraine chansonnier). 18746. copied also c. ed. Basevi Codex: Florence.) Allez regretz Les grans regretz* Va t'en regret* (Compère) Mon souvenir Venez regretz (sourdez) La regretée Table 1. dated from c. BrusBR 228. Herbert Kellman. Table 1. 1999). MS 2439 (Peer: Alamire. FlorC 2439 Dueil et ennuy (La Rue) Sourdez regretz of Marguerite of Austria (Berkeley: University of California Press. grouped together in their opening folios. 1500 or shortly after and possibly originated at the court of René II de Vaudémont. 1960). North Texas State College. 1965). The Treasury of Petrus Alamire. and ParisBNF 1597. BrusBR 11239 ParisBNF 1597 Allez regretz* Venés regretz* Va t'en regret* (Compère) Les grans regretz* Tous les regretz* (Brumel) Tous les regretz* (La Rue) Revenez tous regretz* Dueil et ennuy (soucy) (anon.7 It is worth mentioning that two chansonniers. BrusBR 11239 and VienNB Mus. “A Chansonnier of the Dukes of Lorraine: The Paris Manuscript Fonds Français 1597” (PhD diss. open with a series of regretz.BrusBR 11239. 18746. 7 For a critical discussion of ParisBNF 1597 and transcriptions of its repertory. Music and Art in Flemish Court Manuscripts 1500-1535 (Leuven: Alamire Foundation. 1990). Biblioteca del Conservatorio.2: Major sources of regretz. on the other hand. 10 . on VienNB Mus. 1500 and most likely stemming from North France or Savoy.
Early music scholarship has variously dealt with specific regretz chansons. See David Fallows. 241-252. 18746 Tous les regretz (La Rue) Secretz regretz* Dueil et ennuy* Revenez tous. see Ignace Bossuyt. 9 Besides Irena Cholij’s work on the subject. was the first to notice musical links between two regretz chansons. mentioned later on.” a study of the most important polyphonic models and compositional complexes.Revenez tous regretz Va t'en regret (Agricola) Sans regretz Le cueur la suylt Tous nobles cuers (La Rue) BrusBR 228 VienNB Mus. quite early. “Who composed Mille regretz?” in Essays on music and culture in honor of Herbert Kellman. ed. * marks regretz in adjacent folios. On connections among the two Mille regretz by Josquin and Gombert and Gombert’s Tous les regretz. “Musical Evidence of Compositional Planning in the Renaissance: Josquin’s Plus nulz regretz” JAMS 40 (1987): 5381. 8 11 .9 Otto Gombosi.2 (cont. Barbara Haggh (Paris: Minerva. and Christopher Reynolds. The regretz are listed in order of appearance within each source. 2001).” Tijdschrift voor Muziektheorie 8/2 (2003): 112-122. Meconi has included settings of Allez regretz in her “Art Song Reworkings. regretz Dueil et ennuy (Prioris) Plus nulz regretz Plusieurs regretz (La Rue) Aprez regretz Pour ung jamais* Tous nobles cuers* (La Rue) Va t'en regret* (Compère) Sourdez regretz* Cent mille regretz* Plusieurs regretz* (La Rue) Dueil et ennuy* (La Rue) Je n’ay regretz* J’ay ung regretz Parfons regretz Table 1.8 yet only a handful of studies have viewed regretz as a compositional family that extends beyond the much cited cantus firmus settings of Ghizeghem’s Allez regretz. “Nicolas Gombert and Parody.): Major sources of regretz.
ed. New York: Schirmer. it offers a glimpse into the artistic circle of Marguerite’s court. London University.12 A review of musical settings stemming from Ghizeghem’s Allez regretz is the subject of discussion in Irena Cholij’s scholarly work. 1980). 10 12 . Picker paints Marguerite as a dedicated patroness of arts. rhétoriquers who were imperative in the production of regretz. 165-172. “Fifteenth-and Sixteenth-Century Settings of ‘Allez regretz. 1984).. pointing out her literary heritage and her contacts with Jean Lemaire and Octovien de Saint-Gelais. 11 Picker.” in Studien zur Musikgeschichte: Festschrift für Guido Adler zum 75. 81-101.M.” in Companion to Medieval and Renaissance music. see Picker. 100106.namely Ghizeghem’s Allez regretz and Compère’s Venes regretz. Geburtstag (Wien: Universal-Edition. Mary Beth Winn (Montreal: Editions CERES.11 The two chansonniers are noted for the unusual number of regretz chansons they host. brought to light additional regretz chansons unpublished at that time. “Borrowed Music: ‘Allez regrets’ and the Use of Pre-existent Material. ed. The Chanson Albums. King’s College. Tess Knighton and David Fallows (London: Dent. 12 Picker. Picker’s edition and critical study has been indispensable.13 Cholij mainly deals with cantus firmus and mass reworkings as well as lute arrangements stemming from direct quotation “Ghizeghem und Compère: zur Stilgeschichte der burgundischen Chanson. “More ‘regret’ chansons for Marguerite d’Autriche. in a later regretz study. diss. apart from gathering together transcriptions of the largest group of regretz chansons. He further speculated on the role of the three regretz rondeaux by the court poet Saint-Gelais as farewell songs composed to be performed on the eve of Marguerite’s departure from France after her broken engagement to Charles VIII.10 Martin Picker’s doctoral research and ensuing edition of the celebrated Marguerite of Austria’s chansonniers (BrusBR 11239 and BrusBR 228) brought to attention the special role of Mechelen court as a leading center for the production and dissemination of regretz. compelling scholars to see in them a reflection of Marguerite’s misfortunes and conjure up an image of Marguerite as the ultimate pitiable creature of the early 1500s.’” (M.” in Musique naturelle et musique artificielle: in memoriam Gustave Reese. 1930). 1992). 13 Irena Cholij. for. See also Cholij.
Marvin was the first scholar to address regretz chansons as texts bound together in a larger literary family. 88-99. investigates contextual relationships within the literary and musical regretz networks. and observe correlations among these subgroups. Laubenthal & K. 1995). In her pioneering study.” in Fifteenth Century Studies 1 (1978): 193-215. ed. 1997). Shaped out of literary discourses exchanged between the French court poets Alain Chartier and Jean II de Bourbon. 15 Marvin. the literary historian Mary Beth Marvin and the German musicologist Clemens Goldberg.15 Both Marvin’s and Goldberg’s studies have been indispensable for the progress of my research. 1963]). “Regrets in French Chanson Texts of the Late XVth Century. poetic regretz celebrated a parallel popularity to their musical counterparts. 14 13 . the centers of production of regretz chansons. quite regrettably. Kusan-Windweh (Kassel: Bärenreiter. on the regretz of Ghizeghem and Compère. Howard Mayer Brown has previously listed Allez regretz settings in his copious study on chansons in French popular theater (Music in the French Secular Theater. and speculates about the centers of their production. suggests a genealogy of the regretz chansons. Jahrhunderts (Frankfurt am Main: Lang. and their projected sentiments. 1400-1550 [Cambridge: Harvard University Press. The article is remarkably void of references.14 The emergence of regretz as a major literary and musical topos of the late 1400s has been the outcome of the research of two scholars. Marvin traces the literary roots of regretz.” in Studien zur Musikgeschichte: Eine Festschrift für Ludwig Finscher.of one or more voices of the model chanson and avoids discussion on wider musical cross-fertilizations among regretz. she attempts to classify regretz into two subgroups according to their incipit syntax. Zitat und Paraphrase in den Regrets-Chansons von Hayne van Ghizeghem und Loyset Compère. See also Goldberg’s monograph Das Chansonnier Laborde: Studien zur Intertextualität einer Liederhandschrift des 15. There is also no reference in Cholij’s article of Gombosi’s early discussion. Goldberg. A. mentioned above. serving as valuable sources of thought and model. “Was zitiert Compère? Topos. yet Cholij. Furthermore. fails to cite Brown’s contribution.
Goldberg’s “Was zitiert Compère?” has been the single most thoughtful study on the regretz chansons. Carrying on Marvin’s arguments. I also plan to review the emergence of the term in musicological 14 . but mostly suggests ways in which Allez enhances the meaning of Venés and originates the complexity of the topos of regretz. Furthermore. dueil). versatile late fifteenth century topos in Allez regretz. Seeing the group of late fifteenth and early sixteenth century regretz I examine through the lens of his methodology has been of particular influence in establishing intertextually the complexity of the regretz topos. Compère’s Venés regretz. chansons that conveyed a static. Reading Compère’s Venés regretz against Allez regretz. and Sourdez regretz) which. Goldberg’s arguments are highly thought-provoking. The following discussion aims to illustrate my sense of the “concept ” by presenting its major critical voices. He also discusses earlier regretz. movement. headed by Ghizeghem’s Allez regretz. Goldberg’s use of the concept of “intertextuality” has served as a point of departure for the theoretical foundation of my work. and define a context of reference for my work. tourmenter. fin. The discursive context of Allez vis à vis Venés brings forth regretz as texts that are non-linear but governed by shared principles of time. cuer. Goldberg looks into a group of musically related regretz chansons (Ghizeghem’s La Regretée and Les grans regretz. definitions. linear meaning related to the topos of departir. and uses. and space and also carrying specific structural caesuras and stereotypes (death. share in a tradition molded by literary and contextual associations. such as Delahaye’s Pour les regrets among others. Goldberg explores musical interrelations. Va t’en regret. He traces the source of regretz as a popular.
although drawing from a polyphonic model. 1966). employed to complement discussions of borrowing. 560-75.” a word long adopted in music historiography (August Wilhelm Ambros. Geschichte der Musik. a “rule bound monolith” defining the genre. Italocentric and Hegelian connotations [such as “early/late fifteenth/sixteenth century music.’ and Early Music” in Citation and Authority in Medieval and Renaissance Musical Culture: Learning from the Learned. and Milsom.”]. see. The last part of this chapter revolves around “musical synonyms” of intertextuality – “allusion” and “musical borrowing” – and their implementation in recent and influential discourses on the fifteenth-century chanson.” JAMS 38/3 (1985): 470-523. “Johannes Martini and the Imitation Mass of the Late Fifteenth Century. either coined anew or appropriated from other disciplines. 2005).scholarship and.” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Applied interchangeably with “Parody Mass” to describe a distinct type of sixteenth century mass based on a pre-existing polyphonic model.16 Quite a few of these neologisms have induced debates in scholarly circles in regard to their appropriateness and efficiency of use. “On ‘Parody’ as Term and Concept in 16th-Century Music. allusion. equally debated and in part avoided. 141. The theory of intertextuality joined the terrain of early music studies in the early 1990s. Musicologists have also been recently cautious about the use of “Isorhythm. in particularly. and Peter Burkholder. LaRue et al. “Isorhythm. single out one voice as a cantus firmus. ed. see Bent. musicological studies of early music are unquestionably spiced up with neologisms. and also for reaching the status of a blueprint. influence. 17 The most striking example is “Renaissance.” a term nearly as old as modern musicology itself. 1868).” in Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: A Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese. “Imitation Mass” is yet another word whose use and subsequent meaning have been crowned with confusion. (2001). most specifically.17 intertextuality being a recent yet celebrated addition not bereft of either popularity or polemics. Intertextuality and Early Music As John Milsom has remarked.’ ‘Intertextuality. for instance. Margaret Bent. 16 15 . has criticized the use of the term for being invariably applied and thus acquiring conflicting meanings. Suzannah Clark & Elizabeth Eva Leach (Woodbridge: Boydell Press. and. J. (New York: Norton. ed. 2nd ed. Lewis Lockwood. “‘Imitatio. the word has also been used to characterize late fifteenth century tenor masses. 12: 618-23. in favor of phrasings less susceptible to Burkhardtian. widely used. its use in scholarly writings on early music. which.
performance intertextuality.”18 Intertextuality was introduced to musicology roughly at the same time it made its way into other non-literary studies.19 Two writings pioneered the adoption of intertextuality in discussions of early music. among other representative writings. or even ‘borrowing. 155. in musicological circles at least. intertextuality apparently being the term du jour of the scholarly thought of early nineties: Keith A. 176-89.’ Despite its growing application in the last decade. as examples of non-literary studies that first adopted an intertextual approach. As Milsom puts it “authors have used it to convey a variety of meanings.’ ‘imitation’ (or imitatio).” Theatre Research International 9/2 (1994): 111-17. Akira Kurosawa and Intertextual Cinema (Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press. in the first place. to the extent that one might wonder whether. 1994). Crook acknowledges the broadness and non-intentionality inherent in the theory of intertextuality. 138-140. In the subsequent monograph following his dissertation. 1990). London and New York: Routledge. “Invisible presences. quite a few scholars have been critical of its variable meanings and uses. Graham Allen. Orlando di Lasso’s Imitation Magnificats for CounterReformation Munich (Princeton: Princeton University Press..’”20 In his dissertation-turned-book. it now possesses any single agreed definition. discusses the following. “Orlando di Lasso’s Magnificats ad imitationem” (PhD diss. Its emergence in the vocabulary of early musicology has not been thoroughly ‘innocent. Marvin Carlson. James Goodwin. Crook justifies his use of the term “prompted. 20 David Crook. T. 1994). 1992).” 141. Reader. yet he clearly defines the Milsom. ed. Screening the Text: Intertextuality and the New Wave French Cinema (Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press. “Literature/cinema/television: intertextuality in Jean Renoir’s Le Testament du docteur Cordelier” in Intertextuality: theories and practices. David Crook’s dissertation on the Magnificats of Orlando di Lasso was the first to employ the term. 2000). in his introductory guide to “Intertextuality” (Intertextuality. or entire complexes of works without the terminological difficulties inherent in works such as ‘parody. see Crook. Princeton University. by the need for a more purely descriptive term devoid of previous meaning in music-historical writings (in contrast to imitation) and unencumbered by undesirable connotations in general usage (in contrast to parody)”. 19 18 16 . Crook justifies his adoption of the term for “its broad and non-specific nature: it allows us to analyze relationships between pairs of works. 1991). Worton and Still (Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press. Jefferson Kline. “Imitatio.quotation.
has previously argued against the adoption of the term parody following scholarly debates and objections over its use (Ibid. Allen says.23 Graham Allen. 156). 21 17 . apart from a short definition and passing reference of the concept in the second page of his essay. contrapuntal. I assume.’”21 Michael Allsen. taking the opportunity from Allsen’s essay. Crook. 24 Graham Allen.) 25 Rob C. 156. and its ‘subtext’ (those elements contained in it that signal its relationship to its model)” (Ibid. 22 The Journal of Musicology 11/2 (1993): 174-202.. esp.limiting boundaries of his own approach: to employ intertextuality as a means of highlighting relationships among composition complexes (i.” (Orr. “is. to describe the derivation and transformation of material from a model composition into a newly composed work.And Some Observations on Imitatio in Renaissance Music. though. the adoption of the term had been first suggested by Rob Wegman. an empty signifier when used. frequently. 151-155). Crook discerns three elements of intertextuality: “the derived composition. The remark of critical theorist Mary Orr sounds parallel to Allen’s: “Intertextuality heralded a catch-all term and methodology for the business of comparison and contrast in cultural production. 23 Allsen makes no note to the literary origins and use of intertextuality.25 Following a critical discussion of the theory of musical imitatio and its Crook. its model […]. and textual – shared by musical works. pieces related by common incipits) that go beyond “descriptions of ‘parody technique. “Intertextuality. “Another ‘Imitation’ of Busnoys’s Missa L’Homme armé . Moreover. distinguished authority on intertextuality. has reviewed Allsen’s handling of the concept rather unfavorably.” This Year’s Work in Critical Cultural Theory 3/1 (1993): 48. structural. 175..”22 Intertextuality is prominently featured in the title of Allsen’s study. 169. in his “Intertextuality and Compositional Process in two Cantilena Motets by Hugo de Lantins. Intertextuality.”24 While Allsen and Crook were the first musicologists to apply the concept of intertextuality in their research.” Journal of Royal Musical Association 114/2 (1989): 189-202. Wegman. Allen’s critique of the overuse of the term describes a reality that has been noted by scholars of intertextual theory. albeit without further elaboration apart from the above definition. Intertextuality: Debates and Contexts [Cambridge: Polity Press.e. Allsen does not further exploit the term.” the second study to employ the term. “Parody technique” is used. Orlando di Lasso’s Imitation Magnificats. defends his use of intertextuality to signify “all forms of material – melodic. 2003].
’ as Paris of the late 1960s was labeled. echoes. intertextuality proved to be adaptable to contemporary literary and cultural theories and highly pluralistic in significance and function. borrowing is but one of its possible facets. at least as originally developed in literary theory. to an extent that prominent contemporary scholars. possessing stable and self-contained meaning. multisignified entity. The concept. being treated as a catchy and all-encompassing word. codes. He also hints to the potential of the concept to encompass variable aspects of borrowing. Wegman proposes. From Julia Kristeva’s coinage in ‘the time of theory. as I will address further on. in contrast to the more specific and hugely controversial imitatio. an alternative for influence and imitation. Intertextuality has alerted us to the idea that every text is tangled with other texts. such as 18 . Yet. Any text is involved in a dialogue with other texts. A text is not a closed system. and quotations from other texts. The theory of intertextuality is itself polyphonic. has broader significations. It is of particular note that intertextuality has proved to be a heavily controversial concept in the course of its adoption in early music scholarship. its meaning generated by the intertextual relations the reader traces in it. even though with reservation. Intertextuality is resistant to a single definition. to the subsequent colonizations of her term. intertextuality.application to address musical borrowing in the fifteenth century. but rather an open-ended. the adoption of “intertextuality” as more relevant to discussions of musical borrowing. Part of the problem lies with the fact that the meaning of the term has been misread. and is a tissue of inevitable references. is not a synonym for borrowing.
formulae. bits of social discourse pass into the text and are redistributed within it. As Orr characteristically notes. Michael Riffaterre. Genette. 1977). intersect and neutralize one another. ‘shadowland’ terms of cultural recycling).Allen and Mary Orr. While the concept of intertextuality was appropriated and variedly transformed in the context of literary criticism and beyond. Image-Music-Text (Fontana: London. attempts to organize a critical study of intertextuality that reconsiders the received version of intertextuality as made up from a closed group of canonized voices (Kristeva. underrepresented voices. Barthes. Allen similarly notes that the term has spawned a plethora of definitions and one can only “engage with it as a split. and views the text as “a permutation of texts. an intertextuality in the space of a text” in which “several utterances. 28 Quoted in Orr. Orr.26 Certainly. 29 Barthes. multiple concept. Intertextuality. 27. intertextuality is simply the text. 33. By that. talk about many versions of intertextuality. Intertextuality. which poses questions […] rather than forcing one to produce definite answers” (Allen. The idea of the text being “a tissue of quotations”29 departs from the traditional notion of quotation by opening up intertexts to cultural codes. Intertextuality. systems and discourses. The term was first mentioned in the context of the quoted definition. yet in Kristeva’s theory. palpable intertexts. Kristeva’s ideas remain the most radical. the varied articulations that typify the concept reflect the distinct historical situations and ideological agendas out of which it has emerged. 146. in her monograph. intertextuality “has already been fractured and pulled in different and conflicting directions since it was ‘coined’” (Intertextuality.”27 Roland Barthes’s entry for ‘Texte’ in Encyclopédie universalis (1973) reverberates Kristeva’s voice: “Every text is an intertext. Kristeva’s celebrated definition conveys intertextuality as a ‘productive’ process. 26 19 . Theorists after Kristeva claimed that intertextuality describes the way a text is either engaged in a conversation with other texts (Eco) or caught up in a network of references (Barthes).”28 The intertextual in Barthes and Kristeva does not indicate the concrete presence of specific. 27 Quoted in Orr. The notion that “text is productivity” is fundamental in Kristeva’s theory of intertextuality. she considers texts as always in a process of production. Riffaterre) and highlights “unvoiced modes of intertextual work” (that is. 59). taken from other texts. other texts are present within it to varying degrees and in more or less recognizable forms […]. Fragments of codes. not closed and consumable entities. 1969). model rhythms. in her essay “Le Texte clos” [“The bound text”] in Semeiotikè: recherches pour une sémanalyse (Paris: Points. 59-60). Every text is a new tissue of recycled citations.
“Innovation and Repetition: Between Modern and Postmodern Aesthetics. or text-like segments of the sociolect that shares a lexicon and. Intertextuality. transpires “the instance where a quotation is explicit and recognizable. a syntax with the text we are reading (directly or indirectly) in the form of synonyms. and paradox” (“A Model for Intertextual Analysis” in Semiotics. quotation. 33 Eco.” Daedalus 134/4 (2005): 197. or even conversely.following the tradition of earlier French poststructuralists. 101. 103-108. in the form of antonyms. “is a corpus of texts. renounces the association of intertextual reading with source-hunting and influence and the equivalence of intertextuality with imitation. the first level of Genette’s transtextuality. he states. the intertextual dialogue according to Eco. ed. parody. a notion that resonates with the Allen. and pastiche as well as irony. metaphor. such as Barthes and Kristeva. to a lesser extent.W. ekphrasis.) 32 Allen. constituting arch-enemies of intertextuality. Intertextuality. quotations. 31 30 20 . and allusions. textual fragments. Spinks and John Deely [New York: Peter Lang. 121.”30 Direct quotation and allusion are deemed taboo terms in intertextual theory. C. not to be viewed in terms of sources. Literary theorists exclude direct quotation and allusion as a part of the intertextual process. An intertext. whose literary works are heavily loaded with echoes. hyperbole. plagiarism. The literary theorist Lauro Zavala recognizes the following as “intertextual strategies”: “allusion.”33 While Genette acknowledges intertextual processes performed on the semiotic level of cultural signification. yet the concepts are frequently used in non-literary scholarship dealing with intertextuality. 1995]. embraces the “actual presence of one text within another. Literary critics such as Gérard Genette and Umberto Eco have largely embraced quotation and allusion as instances of determinable intertextual relationships among texts.”32 Similarly.31 Intertextuality.
Genette argues. commentaries. Practically every theoretical movement has assimilated intertextuality. was fueled by poor accessibility (it was partially translated) and a male dominated philosophical establishment (she was viewed as a ‘derivative’ of the male-ruled Tel Quel). in the form of variable textual transformations. While Kristeva coined the term. See Orr. Barthes’s deployment of intertextuality is characteristically poststructuralistic. his own intertextual approach partly functions on the pragmatic level of concrete and direct relationships among texts. whereas Bakhtin’s discussions of the dialogic nature of ‘utterance’ and the heteroglot ability of language. describing her mode of intertextuality as a derivative of the work of the Bakhtin circle. The intertextual. in Barthes’s world. it is still debatable in literary critical circles whether she was the original spearhead behind intertextual theory. according to Orr. Marginalization of her work. Several other possible aspects of transtextuality coexist within a text (joined under the collective term paratextuality).34 Kristeva’s employment of intertextuality is situated in semiotics and psychoanalysis. Canonized studies of intertextuality place the ancestral home of the concept in linguistics and particularly in the theory regarding the differential and relational nature of the linguistic ‘sign’ expressed by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure as early as 1915. notions that are at the heart of the intertextual aspect of language. or a mediator who brought together Saussurean and Bakhtinian models and attempted to combine their insights and major theories. provokes the text to be pluralistic in meaning and open-ended.theories of Kristeva and Barthes. 21 . stem from Eastern-European formalism and cultural studies. 20-23. Intertextuality. marginalia and other material that occupies a text’s threshold. its unity 34 Orr argues that critics of intertextuality have sidelined Kristeva’s contribution. readers’ expectations.
lying “not in its origin but in its destination,” that is, not in the writer, but in the reader. 35 Intertextuality has been grafted in the work of French structuralist theorists, such as Genette and Laurent Jenny. Structuralists employ intertextuality to locate and fix literary meaning, a critical position hardly akin to Kristeva and Barthes. In Genette’s work, hypertextuality, a renaming of the Kristevan term and an element of the five-branched transtextuality, charts intended, self-conscious relations among works in the ‘closed’ system of literature.36 Hypertextual reading is closely bound, according to Genette, with the reader’s literary competence to uncover the hypotext – broadly known as the intertext – a point that is also emphasized in the work of Jenny and Riffaterre. Nonetheless, Riffaterre’s version of intertextuality aims to demonstrate critical certainty. That is to say that, for Riffaterre, intertextual interpretation brings forth unity, rather than disruption of the text’s structure, as Jenny in a deconstructive gesture argues. The diversity that characterizes the theoretical stance and affiliation of canonized writers on intertextuality applies, in addition, to their notion of intentionality in crossing texts. Such radicals as Kristeva, Barthes, and Harold Bloom argue that textual interconnectivity is unavoidable, and that “the citations which go to make up a text are
Barthes, Image-Music-Text, 148. The reader, quoting from Barthes, “is the space on which all the quotations that make up a writing are inscribed without any of them being lost.” The emphasis on the reader is tied with the Barthian notion of the ‘Death of the author,’ a theory that decapitates the writer as originator and considers his output as ‘the-already-written.’ 36 Genette redefines intertextuality as transtextuality, subdividing it into the five following categories: intertextuality, architextuality, metatextuality, paratextuality, and hypertextuality. The varied manifestations and vagaries of Genette’s intertextuality materialize on various levels, such as among texts, within a single text, between text and reader, between text and genre, as well as in the periphery of texts as material objects. For a synoptic presentation of the five types, see Allen, Intertextuality, 98-109.
anonymous, untraceable, and yet already read.”37 In Bloom’s terms, intertextuality is a product of “the anxiety of influence” driven by psychological motivations from the part of the author to prove her independence from earlier authors, yet unconsciously involved in a process of creative “misreading”38 (rewriting). Thus, any text is necessarily an intertext, and any writing a “misreading,” certainly inevitable, but also unintentional. Yet Genette and Jenny, among other theorists, argue that intertextual penetration can operate on either an unconscious or a conscious plane.39 Instances of imitation, parody, citation, montage, and plagiarism, which purists like Kristeva and Barthes, defending shared semiotic codes, discard from the vocabulary of intertextuality, are embraced by Jenny as expressions of explicit intertextuality. A common thread that runs through and unifies the variegated tissues of intertextual discourse is the rhetoric of disruption. Intertextuality, whether employed in Bakhtinian, poststructuralist, structuralist, or feminist readings, disturbs subjectivity, threatening notions of individuality, originality, and unity. Barthes’s vision of intertextuality, centering on the idea that the origin of a text is a plurality of voices, cannot but sound demoniacal from a monologic point of view and upset singular and
Barthes quoted in Allen, Intertextuality, 69. Barthes’s denial of authorial agency during the intertextual process is further recycled, as for instance in his entry for “texte” in Encyclopédie universalis (1973): “The intertext is a field of anonymous formulae whose origin is rarely recoverable, of unconscious or automatic citations without speech marks” (quoted in Orr, Intertextuality, 33). The writer in Barthes’s oeuvre is also referred to as an orchestrator of what is already written rather than its originator, and, even more interestingly, as a spider weaving the intertextual web of the text. (See Barthes 1974, 21.) Kristeva’s brand of intertextuality denies agency and intention, for the author is ruled out of her discussions. It is the texts that transform previous texts within a semiotic process; the author seems to be eliminated altogether. 38 See Bloom, The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973). It remains Bloom’s most infamous study, delineating the creative misreading that emerges out of the antagonistic struggle with one’s predecessors, as a poetic text delivered from a six-part poetic labour (clinamen, tessera, kenosis, daemonization, askesis, and apophrades). 39 Jenny distinguishes between works that are explicitly intertextual, such as imitations and citations, and those in which the intertextual relation is not foregrounded (see Allen, Intertextuality, 112-113).
stable meaning endorsed by monologism. 40 In such a context, the reader is transformed from a ‘consumer’ of stable meaning into a ‘writer,’ and he becomes “the space on which all the quotations that make up a writing are inscribed without any of them being lost.”41 The idea of intertextual space acting as a terrain of clash between monologism and plurality vibrates profoundly in the work of Bakhtin. The concept of dialogism, dominating Bakhtin’s analysis of the polyphonic attributes of the novel, extends to a generalized theory of intertextuality applicable to the system of language that stresses the plurality of utterance, its meaning and logic dependent upon what has previously been said.42 The polyphonic aspect of language entails the social dimension of Bakhtinian intertextuality; it foregrounds variable ideological positions and class conflicts in society which threaten to destabilize authority and unity, as these are expressed by canon and state power.43 A different kind of disruption triggered by the intertextual process, applied not to expanded social conditions but to formal structures within a text, is discussed in the work of Jenny. The intertextual dimension, now defined as a ‘mechanism of
Allen (Intertextuality, 69) mentions Barthes’s reference to the association of plurality with evil in Christian teaching, when employing the words “My name is Legion: for we are many” of the possessed man in the Gospel according to Mark. 41 Ibid., 75. 42 Bakhtin’s theory about the dialogical character of the novel regards literary voices (heroes) within a novel as having their own discursive consciousnesses, which are, in their turn, responses to and calls to other discourses. The theory was first developed in Bakhtin’s literary study on Dostoyevsky (Problemy Poetiki Dostoevskogo [Moscow, 1963]). 43 The idea of intertextuality as a carrier of disruption, undoubtedly Bakhtin-inspired, is at the heart of Kristeva’s vision. Intertextuality demonstrated in Kristeva’s version of dialogic language, termed ‘poetic language,’ “is meant to designate a kind of language which, because of its embodiment of otherness, is against, beyond and resistant to (mono)logic. Such language is socially disruptive, revolutionary even. Intertextuality encompasses that aspect of text which struggles against and subverts reason, the belief in unity of meaning or of the human subject, and which is therefore subversive to all ideas of the logical and the unquestionable.” Allen, Intertextuality, 45.
perturbation,’ Jenny argues, shatters the formal and thematic structure of a work.44 The reader confronts a dithering path too: to either accept the intertextual reference as a segment “integrated into the syntagmatic structure of the text” or recall the source text, “carrying out a sort of intellectual anamnesis.”45 Our contemporary understanding of intertextual theory as conveyed in early music scholarship has been exceedingly limited. Intertextuality seems to have been confined, for the most part, to addressing intentional borrowing and stabilizing affiliation among musical works.46 Largely absent from this restricted approach, as Milsom remarks, “are notions of non-directional, unintentional and (to the listener) essentially meaningless interconnection,”47 elements that are essentially bound with the roots of intertextual theory.
The problem of intertextuality, Jenny says, “is to bind together several texts in one without their destroying each other and without the intertext […] being torn apart as a structured whole.” See Laurent Jenny, “The strategy of form” in French Literary Theory Today: a Reader, ed. T. Todorov (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1982), 45. 45 Ibid., 44. Jenny argues that these two processes “really operate simultaneously in intertextual reading […] studding the text with bifurcations that gradually expand its semantic space” (Ibid., 44-45). 46 Among early music writings with an intertextual touch, not discussed or cited later on, see: Wulf Arlt, “‘Hellas’/‘Las’ in Liedanfängen des 15. Jahrhunderts” in Musik als Text: Bericht über den Internationalen Kongreß der Gesellschaft für Musikforschung, ed. Hermann Danuser & Tobias Plebuch (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1998), 358-361; Vincenzo Borghetti, “Musikalische Palimpseste: Autoritäten und Vergangenheit im ‘art-song reworking’ des 15. Jahrhunderts,” in Autorität und Autoritäten in musikalischer Theorie, Komposition und Aufführung, ed. Laurenz Lütteken & Nicole Schwindt (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2004), 99-118; Paula Higgins, “Love and death in the 15th-century motet: A reading of Busnoys’s Anima mea liquefacta est/Stirps Jesse,” in Hearing the motet: Essays on the motet of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, ed. Dolores Pesce (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 142-168; Vassiliki Koutsobina, “Readings of poetry–readings of music: Intertextuality in Josquin’s Je me complains de mon amy,” Early Music 36/1 (2008): 67-77; Fritz Reckow, “Sonus pulcher ad aliquid: Notizen zur kompositorischen ‘Intertextualität’ im späten Mittelalter” in Musik als Text, 291-294; Murray Steib, “Ockeghem and intertextuality: A composer interprets himself,” in Early musical borrowing, ed. Honey Meconi (New York: Routledge, 2004), 37-63; and Christina Urchuegula, “Intertextualität und historisches Textverständnis in der Musik der Renaissance: Fors seulement—Zwischen Werk und Thema” in Text und Autor, ed. Christiane Henkes and others (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 2000), 115-151. 47 Milsom, “Imitatio,” 144.
Kevin Brownlee, responsive to the varied definitions and expansions of intertextual theory in critical scholarship, considers musicological studies to operate within a spectrum of intertextualities, with its two extremes ranging from textual specificity and apparent intentionality to shared practices beyond textual loci and vague intentionality. In the second extreme, the one less commonly exploited, we cannot easily identify clear links among the intertexts, but we can identify a context, a “discursive world.” As Brownlee puts it, “it is now a question of a gamut of (at times overlapping) types of intertextuality. […] At one end of the spectrum would be the intertextuality most highly marked by a visible authorial or textual intentionality, coupled with an extreme specificity with regard to the model text or texts […]. At the other end of the spectrum would be those kinds of intertextuality in which the model is not a textually specific one. In these cases the model (or the subtext) could be a topos […] a rhetorical figure or procedure, a character, a genre […]. In these cases, intentionality is much less clearly visible.”48 Milsom’s work is among the few scholarly writings that have adopted the second extreme of Brownlee’s spectrum of intertextuality. In his most recent article, Milsom employs intertextuality in an attempt to go beyond “reading against the model” in the sense of surface citations, and confront “deep models” of grammar in fifteenth century contrapuntal practices shared by musical works that are otherwise not overtly and aurally
Kevin Brownlee, “Literary Intertextualities in 14th-Century French Song,” in Musik als Text, 295-9, at 295.
49 27 . among the literary texts of the En attendant chansons. see: Wulf Arlt. 311-313. and Susan Rankin.’” in Musik als Text. 314-318. 300-310.51 He constructs an intricate web of intertexts whose threads extend from musical and textual affiliations within the group of regretz chansons to links initiated by shared verses and related topoi conveyed in See Milson. a shared discourse based on the common topos of Hope and its status as courtly ideology (variations emanating among the various voices of the poems) constitute the core of Brownlee’s intertextual reading. Milsom discusses how musical works of the fifteenth century. not aurally related. transform.” 146-151. such as shared words as symbols. Among other writings on the Esperance complex that demonstrate unintentional and generalized intertextuality. Goldberg in his “Was zitiert Compère?” looks beyond straightforward instances of musical quotation and paraphrasing in a number of late fifteenth century regretz chansons and examines how intertextual links initiate.’” in Musik als Text. See also the relevant discussion in this chapter.’ the Anonymous Rondeau ‘Esperance qui en mon cuer s’embat.related. and comparable syntax and structure. An attempt to reconcile the hardcore polarized approaches described by Brownlee’s spectrum of intertextualities can be seen in the intertextual approach of Clemens Goldberg.’ in Musik als Text.50 Brownlee pinpoints intertextual links. As previously mentioned. but of a sharing in a “general Esperance tradition. 50 Brownlee. and in particular the stretto fuga.” Thus. may be read intertextually on the basis of shared grammar techniques. 51 Clemens Goldberg. “Observations on Senleches’ ‘En attendant esperance. “Literary Intertextualities in the Esperance Series: Machaut’s ‘Esperance qui m’asseüre.49 Another example of intertextual web bound with shared codes that transcend textual loci appears in Brownlee’s discussion on the En Attendant complex of the late fourteenth century. he views these links as manifestations not of internal and thus deliberate responses within the complex. Yet. and reshape the topos of regretz. Senleches und der anonyme Liedsatz ‘Esperance qui mon cuer s’embat. “Machaut.’ Senleches’ ‘En attendant esperance conforte. “Was zitiert Compère?. 14. “Imitatio.
Higgins embraces influence. both bringing forth multiple musical and textual puns within a group of fifteenth century songs related to Dufay’s “Le serviteur hault guerdonnè. “Servants. 53 See Fallows.” touched on variable and to a large extend conflicting aspects of intertextuality that conform to Brownlee’s spectrum of overlapping intertextualities. with individual regretz acting as “partners. mistresses and the fortunes of their families: Influence and intertextuality in the fifteenth-century song. emerging in the context of the Freiburg colloquium on “Fourteenth and Fifteenth century Musical Intertextualities. 28 . dimension of the regretz topos is thus brought forward. among others). 52 “Sind die regrets Ansprechpartner. 337-345.”52 A polyphonic. die kommen und gehen” (Goldberg. In point of fact.” in Musik als Text. and Higgins. personifizierte Gefühle. Goldberg’s reading questions the identity and message of the regretz. under the pen of Goldberg.53 Fallows and Higgins’s approaches converge at most in regard to textual specificity. The scholarly debate between David Fallows and Paula Higgins. a process that progressively alters and develops the identity of the regretz topos from a stereotypical lament over death to a multi-faced state of mind. personified feelings. the regretz network. originated and directed towards various recipients (unapproachable lady. unworthy lady. The texts of the regretz chansons. which come and go. “Was zitiert Compère?. 346-357.” However. transforms into a play. à la Bakhtin.” in Musik als Text. seeing projected in them not a static feeling but multiple ones.‘satellite’ non-regretz chansons. “Le serviteur of several masters. and rival lover. Goldberg regards musical connections and other structural resemblances as an impetus for an interpretation of the evolution of the topos of regretz. Not interested in proving influence or authorial intention.” 93). Goldberg observes. enhance one another through ambiguous meanings and antithetical registers.
homage. Fallows suggests that these stem from “modal archetypes”– a notion of Kristevan origin57– or “from the composers’ tendencies to borrow. Howard Mayer Brown.” 337. various broader.55 argues that the creation of song networks was a localized phenomenon. “Emulation. originating within the Mundus significans of the fifteenth-century musician. apart from highly particularized interrelations (incipits and melodic patterns). a universe of highly symbolic connotations that stimulated conscious interconnections in musical creation and beyond. influenced by Howard Mayer Brown’s seminal article on emulation and intention in fifteenth-century intertextuality. Acknowledging musical interrelations within the serviteur network. 29 .56 Higgins examines. on the other hand. Mistresses.” 347. “Le serviteur. and Homage: Imitation and Theories of Imitation in the Renaissance. arguing against intention in the use of a certain model in preference to another. However. less text-specific threads among pieces of the serviteur network (topos of fortune as agent of affective states.’ which in Higgins’s study identifies with the maitrise. 56 Higgins. Fallows attacks affiliations within a song network. it is Fallows’s approach that is closer to Kristevan and Barthesian notions of intertextuality as non-intentional and author-dissociated. and emulation as primary topics of her intertextual approach. from 54 55 Fallows. “Servants. whose notion of “innocent intertexts” negates the idea of motivation behind the act of borrowing. Competition.” JAMS 35 (1982): 1-48. general musical elements such as signature and direction of melodic motion) that may relate to Brownlee’s pole of less explicit intertextual relations.54 Higgins. 57 Fallows’s view relates to that branch of Kristevan theory arguing that the intertextual dimensions of a text cannot be studied as mere ‘sources’ or ‘influences’ stemming from what traditionally has been styled ‘background’ or ‘context. Somehow heretically to the prevailing Freiburg discourse. in contrast to Fallows. whether consciously or not.
” Early Music History 10 (1991): 15-27. “Weitere Beobachtungen zu ‘Esperance. “Le serviteur. Duration.” Early Music History 19 (2000): 47-79. Desire. She suggests a “servant/mistress” musical intertextuality in the “Serviteur/Fortune” family situated within the cultural code of the courtly lyric tradition. inheriting judgments that seem to go back centuries.” in Citation and Authority in Medieval and Renaissance Musical Culture: Learning from the Learned. Exegesis and Sounding Number in Machaut’s Motet 15. Suzannah Clark and Elizabeth Eva Leach (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press.” (Fallows. 79-93. “Encompassing past and present: quotations and their function in Machaut’s motet.” Early Music History 20 (2001): 1-86. Among recent literature. “Fire. 94-101. For scholarly work on intertextualities in Machaut’s secular music and Ars Subtilior composers. L.other pieces with a particularly distinctive tonal characterization. 58 30 . Recent intertextual studies on the fourteenth century chanson have brought to light Machaut’s role as the initiator of an extensive network of literary and musical citations. “Machaut Reading Machaut: Self-Borrowing and Reinterpretation in Motets 8 and 21.59 The issue is significantly explored in a series of articles by Yolanda Plumley. see: Elizabeth Eva Leach.” a claim that echoes Barthes and Bloom’s notions of the author’s impossibility of being monologic. and Anne Stone. Arlt.) 59 Musicological research is heavily focused on intertextuality in Machaut’s motets. ‘De fortune’ (B23) and Two Related Anonymous Balades. an approach that relates to Barthes’s notion of the intertextual as being author-dissociated and comprised by the entire cultural code. “A Composer at the Fountain: Homage and Irony in Ciconia’s Sus une fontayne. and Alice V. whose scholarship restores musical networking as a central compositional practice in the late fourteenth Yet Fallows sounds skeptical of appropriating the French literary branch of intertextual theory for the study of musical borrowing: “With the point once made that no work exists without a context […] it remains true that just criticism needs to try to sort out some of the various levels. 2005). In that respect the literary critics live in a different world. Welker. “Deception. 319-321. ed. Jacques Boogaart. Death: Machaut’s Motet 10. Senleches”.” Music and Letters 82/3 (2001): 361-390. see Margaret Bent.” 337. An equalization of all statements […] has its philosophical value. Kevin Brownlee. “Fortune’s Demesne: The Interrelation of Text and Music in Machaut’s ‘Il mest avis’ (B22). “Machaut. Susan Rankin.58 Yet Higgins expands the “referential world” of the serviteur network by discussing intertextual associations among songs not explicitly related but drawn together by the topos of Fortune. Clark.’” Musik als Text. but the chief difficulty with the study of medieval music today is that we have still not got round to serious value-judgments. “Observations”.” in Citation and Authority. further developed by composers of the ars subtilior generation.
370.” 61 “Intertextuality in the Fourteenth-Century Chanson. lies in her emphasis on the aural aspect of intertextuality and its performative presentation as a means of encouraging the intertextual competence of the audience.” 338. Mistresses. 60 31 . was a cultural convention of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. “Servants.” Plumley suggests. was meant to be heard and be seen outside the material boundaries of the musical manuscript.60 As Plumley argues. Fallows. The “citation game. by composers as well. expected to initiate discourse.” Music and Letters 84/3 (2003): 355-377. “Intertextuality in the fourteenth-century chanson. defends the view that the written music is the work itself and it contains many vital aspects of the work’s cultural resonance. the performance being the agent that brings forth intertextuality. she attempts to speculate on how composers apparently communicated their echoes and responses. and “Playing the citation game. See Higgins. Although Plumley’s employment of the term “intertextuality” is not so broad as to embrace less deliberate kinds of references in the line of those articulated by the French literary theorists – her use of intertextuality embraces primarily “apparently intentional references” 61 – her approach is not solely bound with proving influence as the impetus for intertextuality. far from being a solitary act practiced by a handful of artists for the sake of influence. may have been “played. 62 Ibid.” an expression of sophistication among members of northern French literary societies engaged in poetry contests.” 356. and Fallows.” 350. 63 Higgins has also defended musical intertextuality as understood in a primarily aural context. a game for the ears as much as for the eyes.63 The point was See “Citation and Allusion in the Late-Fourteenth Century: The Case of Esperance and the En attendant Songs. intertextuality in the form of citation and allusion. from my perspective. on the contrary. Moving beyond identifying musical and textual citations. Plumley’s most significant contribution.century.” Early Music History 18 (1999): 287-363.62 Intertextuality. “Le serviteur..
who.previously laid out by Joyce Coleman. and the connection of borrowing with the rhetoric concept of imitatio. chronology of models and intertexts. such as gesturing. performers would have been able to signal and pointoyer moments of intertextual significance.64 The act of pointoyer. genres in which Franco-Flemish composers demonstrated immense fascination while turning to allusion and quotation as points of departure for a new work. types of models. Musical borrowing in the fifteenth century has been a widely discussed and virtually clichéd subject. 1996). in regard to the performance of lyric poetry. By using some kind of analogous musical rhetoric. 32 . Plumley suggests. and emphasizing alluded messages in the lyrics. and the audience would be able to hear as much as see them. could have been appropriated. to highlight instances of musical citation as well. and ways these models were incorporated into the fabric of novel sacred 64 Public reading and the reading public in late medieval England and France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Earlier literature concentrated on cantus firmus usage. composers’ motives. Prevalent threads of debate in writings dealing with citation and allusion engage with issues of genealogy. argued that skillful readers facilitated the recognition of points of citation by pointing those moments through dramatic emphasis and articulation. typology of borrowing techniques. a rhetoric device praised by celebrated fourteenth century poets such as Christine de Pizan and Eustache Deschamps. grimacing. Musicological scholarship has gone to great lengths in addressing borrowing in the mass and motet of the fifteenth century.
Latin and vernacular religious lyric poetry. 133-54. Jennifer Bloxam’s study on the chanson mass fabricates a cultural framework comprised of sources of theological exegesis. The L’homme armé mass settings. “Arma virumque cano: echoes of a golden age. the progenitor of the “family. and Lockwood. certainly the most prestigious liturgical complex of the later fifteenth century. and devotional painting. Michael Long has added intertextual interpretations to the discourse. “A Composer Looks at his Model: Polyphonic Borrowing in Masses from the Late Fifteenth Century. Sparks. “Chanson to Mass: Polyphonic Borrowing Procedures in Italian and Austro-Italian Sources. M. Cathy Ann Elias. 68 Paradigmatic among recent literature. have sparked quests on the origin and significance of the tune.” JAMS 39 (1986): 255-93. and Context in Late Medieval Music. 1963).” in Antoine Busnoys: Method. “Antoine Busnoys and the L’homme armé tradition. and Todd Evan Sullivan. See. University of Chicago. “Johannes Martini and the Imitation Mass.compositions. linking the L’homme armé tradition with the crusade propaganda and the role of Church in it. “On ‘Parody’” as Term and Concept. 1994).” Tijdschrift van de Koninklijke Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis 46/1 (1996): 5-41. in an attempt to situate the creation of chanson-based mass repertory in the 33 . 1999).65 Prominent in scholarly discussion on quotation in fifteenth century cyclic mass stands a string of discourses on mass settings based on the popular L’homme armé tune.66 Recent discussion has also alerted us to the importance of polyphonic chansons as models for cantus firmus and imitation masses and the extent of dependence of late fifteenth century sacred repertory on polyphonic quotation. “The L’Homme armé Masses of Busnoys and Okeghem. Fragmentation. Northwestern University. and Assimilation of Chansons in the Masses of Gombert. Long. ca.68 65 Earlier notable scholarship on borrowing in fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries mass and motet includes: Edgar H.” the association of the masses with the Burgundian Court and particularly their use for meetings of the order of the Golden Fleece. Cantus Firmus in Mass and Motet.”. 1994). and Lockwood. “Aspects of the ‘L’Homme armé’ Tradition. 1460-ca.” JRMA 100/1 (1974): 97-122. Paula Higgins (Oxford: Clarendon Press.” JAMS 14 (1966): 205-31.” 66 See especially Richard Taruskin. “Techniques of Unification in Early Cyclic Masses and Mass Pairs. Meaning. Murray Steib. “Imitation. Leeman Perkins.. Philip Gossett. Clemens. few have been notable for engaging intertextual approaches or offering provocative suggestions about the discursive role of preexistent texts in diverse musical loci. ed. 67 Notable studies treating polyphonic borrowing practices in “chanson masses” include: Peter Burkholder. 1420-1520 (Berkeley: University of California Press. 1480” (PhD diss.67 While exhaustive studies have centered on borrowing techniques in chanson-based mass. and Crecquillon: a Kaleidoscopic Process” (PhD diss..” JM 3 (1984): 363-96.
“The Counterpoint of Allusion in Fifteenth-Century Masses. “Nicolas Gombert and Parody. 34 . 7-35). a practice sparked by humanistic trends that promoted the “worldliness of sacred affairs” (Reynolds. The study proved influential. a practice carrying rhetorical connotations and an essential element in the development of a mature literary style. Fifteenth century masses. an assessment of the intertextual within the realm of chanson itself has yet to be undertaken. and that there was never any attempt to consider imitation as a “standard technique of the time” (“Emulation. 69 As Bossuyt quite recently put it.”).” in Early Musical Borrowing. 70 Mayer Brown mentions that. Christopher Reynolds has recognized that ‘allusive quotations’ may trigger intertextual readings to informed listeners or act as commentaries to mass texts. as well as much quoted. Seminal in this sense. Competition.” 10). Mayer Brown defends the view that borrowing in the fifteenth century was tied to the Hellenistic practice of learning through imitating. “A Cultural Context for the Chanson Mass. was governed by close relationships among composers and a desire of novice composers to imitate the learned ones. in the early eighties. incorporated musical allusions to secular songs. Reynolds suggests. a learning tool for student composers educated in the maitrise. borrowing was discussed in scholarship on a case by case basis. modeled on Mayer Brown’s central topics of discussion. despite studies focusing on borrowing in the sacred repertory of the fifteenth century and in particular the function of the polyphonic chanson among the initiators of this tradition.” JAMS 45/2 : 228-260). such as Guillaume Crétin northern courtly environment of the late 15th century and subsequently to seek answers on to how the genre was understood in its cultural context (Bloxam.70 His core argument is that borrowing. remains Mayer Brown’s article on theories of imitation in late fifteenth and early sixteenth century chanson. a topic widely debated in the contemporary French humanistic circles.69 Relatively few studies have addressed modes of dialogism within the referential world of the late fifteenth-century chanson. judging from the recurrent aspects of borrowing explored in subsequent scholarship. in particular Mass and Magnificat […] Less attention has been devoted to the secular repertoire” (see Bossuyt. “Up to now the study of parody technique in the Renaissance has focused primarily on sacred music. Imitatio.However. was employed by Burgundian and French rhetoriquers. and Homage. whose invisible texts can be understood as glosses on liturgical themes.
’” esp. “The Counterpoint of Allusion. while ruling out shadowy intertextualities such as those not carrying incipit echoes yet based on subtle borrowing of melodic structure. See Higgins. and cadential patterns. deliberate borrowing.” Meconi and Wegman have argued against assuming a direct connection between the concept of imitatio and the practice of musical borrowing in the fifteenth century. cadences) and reworking of borrowed textual and/or melodic material. “Art Song Reworkings. such as Burkholder. influential composers and pedagogists in their own turn. structural allusions (based on common phrase structure. Mayer Brown’s defense of borrowing as a manifestation of imitatio has been influential for several scholars. Various techniques of borrowing in subsequent derivative works and genres are thoroughly presented in Meconi’s study. Burkholder. “Servants. “Another ‘Imitation. definitely expanding on Mayer Brown’s typology. 196-98. Higgins.72 Meconi. “Johannes Martini”.71 A large part of Mayer Brown’s article is devoted to discussing types of borrowing techniques composers used to gloss one another.” 71 35 . and Reynolds. and Wegman. “Does Imitatio Exist. Honey Meconi’s study of popular chansons and their compositional glosses surveys modes of reworking of secular models and discusses the evolution of borrowing techniques in the secular and sacred realms.and Jean Molinet. Mistresses”. revisions to alter the structure of the model.” See Meconi. Mayer Brown mentions the erudite Johannes Tinctoris’s “habit to use composers as models for his own composition” as an example of conscious engagement with rhetorical imitatio.” Journal of Musicology 12/2 (1994): 152-178. 72 Meconi. and Reynolds. Meconi claims that the rhetoric connotations of imitatio are not relevant in the music of the fifteenth century. use of common musical and/or textual incipits. Instances of borrowing techniques considered include the addition of (canonic) lines beneath the superius or tenor. adopts instances of overt. phrasing. Mayer Brown’s exemplar of a typology of borrowing techniques has been widely adopted in subsequent scholarship. Wegman questions the application of imitatio to the discussion of musical borrowing in the fifteenth century for it runs the risk “of either creating semantic ambiguity or developing an unnecessarily distorted picture of Renaissance music history.
Yet. which welcomed northern composers and encouraged the abandonment of fixed forms. Foremost in the literature on reworking in the fifteenth-century chanson is the question of composers’ motives of borrowing.among them variable patterns of addition or removal of one or more voices. sweet memories. how does one explain the flood of chansons that engage in conversation within the secular realm. combinative works. quodlibets. influence of the contemporary Italian cultural setting. in the mid to late fifteenth century. quite briefly. as a conscious play among composers impelled by composition contests. “Art Song Reworkings” and Meconi. fortunes. when composers erected their sacred polyphonic structures over plainchant foundations. rather mundanely. considers the following motives: intertext chansons as survivors from lost cantus firmus masses. due to reasons of easiness. among others at the time? Meconi has extensively discussed why composers borrowed in the realm of chanson. “Does Imitatio Exist. borrowing. servants. evolved from earlier practices. Unquestionably. as a product of homage or emulation of master and/or teacher composers. duos based on a cantus firmus line. triggered by 73 Meconi. copiously exchanging adieus.73 Her overview. lastly. and good virtues. borrowing as a way to modernize older models. was a cult procedure for composing cantus firmus and cyclic masses. It has been viewed as a habit established for centuries. allusions based on a reworking of a model. her two writings summarizing the speculations commonly encountered in scholarship. inspired by the composers’ intention to engage in an intellectual play with the audience. borrowing as a pedagogical tool. and in cases of self-borrowing. and Latin compositions.” 36 . regrets and sorrows.
Fors Seulement: Thirty Compositions for Three to Five Voices or Instruments from the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. Similarly. RRMMM 36 ((Madison: A-R Editions. thus showcasing the extent of their diaspora and the kinds of transformation these tunes underwent within the context of their intertexts. De tous bien plaine: Twenty-Eight Settings of Hayne van Ghizeghem’s Chanson. ed. Fortuna desperata: Thirty-Six Settings of an Italian Song.” Current Musicology 30 (1980): 7-23. see “Fors seulement and the Cantus Firmus Technique of the Fifteenth Century. 1981).” in Essays in Musicology in Honor of Dragan Plamenac. was considered earlier on by Helen Hewitt.J. Borrowing as a widespread practice that pervaded all forms of fifteenth century material culture is an issue that will be addressed below (see Conclusion). 75 See Martin Picker.74 Lastly. see “The Goddess Fortuna Revisited. Cynthia J. Each of Chapters 2-4 deals with one or Art scholars have discussed at length about motives for borrowing and the extent of borrowing in art production in the Franco-Flemish culture of the fifteenth century. Fors Seulement. one may refer en passant to a number of studies that deal with the networking of particular song models. Cyrus.” molded on fashionable chansons such as De tous biens plaine. Meconi discusses various plausible motives of borrowing in great length. 74 37 . Reese and R. the tune generating the most expansive complex of derivative settings. and Honey Meconi. Snow (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. have gathered together an array of musical responses to the original tunes. the most popular Italian song of the fifteenth century. 1969). and Fortuna Desperata. 2000). RRMMM 37 ((Madison: A-R Editions. the genealogy of Ockeghem’s Fors Seulement.75 The remaining chapters of the dissertation are designed in such a way that the first three principally center on musical intertextualities while the fourth focuses on intertextualities on the level of the poetic texts. whose study emphasized the symbolic function and transformation of the image of Fortuna. G. A series of editions of chanson families.compositional curiosity. amid the scarcity of writings on intertextuality within the late fifteenthcentury chanson. were previously discussed by Julie Cumming. yet she does not refer to the larger cultural and intellectual context that may have endorsed borrowing as a cult practice and whose manifestations were visible in all forms of art in the Franco-Flemish courtly environment. Settings of Busnoys’s Fortuna desperata. Recent Researches in the Music of the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance 14 (Madison: A-R Editions. 91-126. initiated by “Recent Researches in the Music of the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance. 2001).
76 Owen Rees. firstly. Chapter 2 discusses intertextualities stemming from Ghizeghem’s regretz chansons.more particular regretz subgroups. most likely. that although it enjoyed wide reputation in the first half of the sixteenth century.” JRMA 120/1 (1995): 44-76. The main thread of discussion centers on Josquin’s Plus nulz regretz. a chanson. it is here considered along with La Rue’s Tous les regretz and Secretz regretz. unintentional. Chapter 3 focuses on Josquin’s Mille regretz as a point of departure. are to a great extent non-directional and. secondly. the influence of these poets’ notion of the “regretz” as a theme in the text of Allez regretz penned by Jean II de Bourbon. and the taxonomy of code-words and constants of the literary topos of regretz. The discussion relies and expands on the work of Owen Rees. have not been previously discussed and. Chapter 5 considers the literary aspect of the regretz by discussing their origin in the work of such prominent fifteenth-century poets as Alain Chartier and Charles d’Orléans. “Mille regretz as Model: Possible Allusions to ‘The Emperor’s Song’ in the Chanson Repertory. each subgroup revolves around a central regretz chanson and/or composer. does not seem to manifest traces of influence with others. 38 . In particular. which has previously traced allusions of Mille regretz beyond the regretz complex and within Josquin’s own output.76 Chapter 4 deals with musical alliances within the regretz complex which.
39 .). have tended to refer to Allez regretz as a model in passing. “Fifteenth. the progeny of Allez stands out as involving largely chansons derived through direct quotation and/or exhibiting signs of deliberate allusion.2 As I discuss in 1 For a complete list of the over twenty-six manuscripts and tablatures. if not higher.: American Institute of Musicology.. While certain chansons de regretz of Josquin.” Instances of Allez regretz as model for later compositions have been identified in Mayer Brown’s seminal study Music in the French Secular Theater. more often that not. See Cholij.’” Both writings deal with the strict use of (mainly the tenor of) Allez regretz as cantus firmus in compositions of various genres (lute arrangements.CHAPTER 2 THE ORBIT OF GHIZEGHEM’S REGRETZ CHANSONS Ghizeghem’s Allez regretz was undoubtedly regarded as a chanson à la mode in the last quarter of the fifteenth century. demonstrate an equal. 81-2. 2 The only extensive study on the progeny of Allez regretz was undertaken by Irena Cholij. ed. Cholij. 1977). The diaspora of Allez regretz within the genre of Franco-Flemish chanson has been variously discussed. pointing to derivative chansons built up from cantus firmus appropriation. as I will discuss in the following two chapters. Scholars. such as Mille Regretz and Plus nulz regretz. masses. Otto Gombosi was the first to discuss intertextualities springing from Allez regretz in his “Ghizeghem und Compère: zur Stilgeschichte der burgundischen Chanson. musical. 3-5. 1999). “Borrowed Music: ‘Allez regrets’ and the Use of Pre-existent Material”. see Fallows. 186-87.and SixteenthCentury Settings of ‘Allez regretz. Goldberg’s “Was zitiert Compère?” remains the most thoughtful in its holistic approach of the literary. intertextual activity than Allez. Hayne van Ghizeghem: Opera omnia. 1440-1550. yet failing to address Allez regretz as a springboard for subtler forms of influence within the regretz complex. and cultural aspects of Ghizeghem’s chanson. A Catalogue of Polyphonic Songs 1415–1480 (Oxford: Oxford University Press.1 but it was also the archetype for a considerable group of chansons that arose around the late 1400s and early sixteenth century. Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 74 (n. etc. Measure numbers in the discussion that follows refer to the edition in Barton Hudson.p. Not only was it disseminated in an unusually great number of manuscripts and early printed sources. yet neither in extent nor in detail.
to Ghizeghem’s La Regretée and Fresneau’s Nuit et jour. in Brownlee’s words “is much less clearly visible” – among Allez regretz. Marvin’s “Regrets in French Chanson Texts of the Late XVth Century” was the first study to identify regretz chansons as a group based on their text incipits. Les grans regretz. 3 40 . Nuit et jour. and Mon souvenir. less apparent interconnections likely triggered from Allez regretz will be discussed in this chapter. On that other pole of Brownlee’s spectrum. Chansons such as Compère’s Venés regretz and Weerbeke’s Sans regretz relate closely to Allez regretz through direct quotation of melodic incipits and rhythmic gestures rather than complete cantus firmus lines. by means of somewhat inconspicuous associations. ranging from the widely apparent to the less directional. Apart from conspicuous associations.3 Lastly. Four cantus firmus settings by Alexander Agricola. anon’s Tous nobles cueurs. These intertextualities tend to shift towards the other end of Brownlee’s spectrum of intentionality. Her regretz cycle does not include chansons such as La Regretée. chansons that have not previously been regarded as belonging to the cycle of regretz. as a template and have variedly drawn on musical elements from the remaining two parts. and a group of less celebrated regretz chansons. since she only considered texts that include the word regret(z) in their first verse.this chapter. and Ghizeghem’s own Mon souvenir. regretz chansons inspired from Ghizeghem’s original were molded upon a variety of borrowing techniques and demonstrated various levels of intertextual dependence. La Regretée is considered as a regretz chanson in Goldberg’s “Was zitiert Compère?” too. one may notice even subtler kinds of intertextual links – cases where intentionality. Anonymus. commonly the tenor. I have observed that Allez regretz seems to relate. including Ockeghem’s Tous les regretz. I have embraced these and other chansons (such as Tous nobles cueurs) that feature the regretz in subsequent verses (yet close to the first) as belonging in to the regretz complex on the basis of a shared discursive context. and Ludwig Senfl have used one voice of the original Allez regretz. Bartolomeo degli Organi. further.
The transcription to which I refer is in Edward R.. Texturally though. “Burgundian school. The incipit of the model is also quoted at the opening of the superius. 4 41 . 5. Agricola’s setting shares the same number of voices. It has here been used to cover specific attributes of the chanson of the third quarter of the fifteenth century.” The Journal of Musicology 6/4 (1988): 421-47. for instance.p. TourBV 94. “Toward a Typology of the ‘Renaissance’ Chanson. Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 22 (n. Agricola’s Allez regretz projects a higher level of complexity. The serpentine-like weaving of the upper lines obstructs the accentuation of any Surviving sources of the chanson include: Odhecaton A. is now positioned as the lowest voice of a texture that hosts in the two upper parts a densely convoluted duo of a restless superius and a contratenor of at times unusually high passages. 5 The term “Burgundian chanson.” See. The original Allez regretz exhibits an open layout of a graceful superius buttressed by an equally tuneful and balanced tenor. as well as the Lydian modality and an identical scheme of cadences with the prototype Allez. 1970). although maintaining the tessitura of the model. and SgallS 461. Agricola’s Allez regretz was the earliest of the four cantus firmus chanson settings quoting from Ghizeghem’s prototype. and Leeman Perkins. VatG XIII. has been variously criticized for its inappropriateness. 20-21.Echoes of Allez regretz Chanson Reworkings Most likely.5 In contrast to the clarity and refinement of Ghizeghem’s. John Milsom. 181-2. Lerner. Alexandri Agricola: Opera Omnia.” in The Oxford Companion to Music (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. joined together by a discreet contratenor. vol. ed. the two pieces are strikingly dissimilar. Ghizeghem’s tenor is slavishly quoted in the tenor of Agricola’s intertext.4 Apart from a few negligible variances.” rather outmoded in present scholarship. as has its parallel term “Burgundian school. 2002).27. particularly its transparent texture that structurally relies on a superius-tenor pole and a pronounced superius. in the tradition of the so called Burgundian chanson. The cloned tenor.: American Institute of Musicology.
transposed a fifth upwards yet perfectly intact. Altwegg. less winding character and position as the lowest voice. emerges prominently to signify its descent as a borrowed tune. is quoted in the opening of the superius of Senfl’s setting. reflecting a polyphonic quotation of all three voices. the opening of the intertext marked by further short quotations extracted from the incipit and the tenor of the model. It is complemented by an equally overt presentation of the opening tenor phrase now placed in the bassus and a subtle reference to the contour of the two opening measures of Ghizeghem’s contratenor likewise laid in the contratenor. poses as a striking musical moment. 1961). is an additional indication of the immense popularity of Ghizeghem’s chanson that spanned well into the first decades of the sixteenth century. 4 (Wolfenbüttel and Zürich: Möseler. into the altus part of the new setting. The opening three measures of Senfl’s setting as a whole mirror the opening of the model Allez regretz.. 58-9. such as the ascending sixth in measures 22-24 of the bassus that retains the pitch classes as well as the opening rhythm of Ghizeghem’s incipit. Geering & W. Senfl’s setting of Allez regretz. The characteristic incipit gesture of the rising sixth. the sole secular work of the composer using a text in French. eds. 6 42 . owing to its distinct. and the three-measure phrase in the bassus following the signum The edition to which I refer is A. Ludwig Senfl: Sämtliche Werke. which. vol.6 Senfl’s four-part response to the line of Allez regretz settings displays a rather straightforward process: the tenor of the original is transferred. a voice previously silent yet resonating with the opening of the bassus. apparently a motivic trademark mostly reminiscent of the progenitor Allez regretz. the entrance of the complete tenor cantus firmus quotation in the fourth measure of the altus.part but the tenor. Further echoes of prominent motives of the prototype regretz chanson.
CopKB 1848. Cholij. demonstrates a sophisticated adherence to the model Allez regretz. one of the three regretz chansons composed by Compère. is a further indication of Senfl’s plan to show kinship with his model. 117. BrusBR 11239.” 93-94 (mostly on the interaction of the poetic texts). Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 15 (n. 9 Studies considering intertextual affiliations between the two chansons include Gombosi. FlorBN Magl. and structural elements of Allez regretz. Texturally. and skillfully interwoven with newly composed material. 107bis.congruentiae reminiscent of the contratenor line in measures 19-21 of Ghizeghem’s contratenor. Fincher makes a passing reference to Compère’s regretz chansons in Loyset 7 43 . the four voices of the reworking retain their independence. The extent of their dependence on Ghizeghem’s prototype is discussed in Cholij. BrusBR 228. signal Senfl’s reverence to the original Allez regretz and his intention to celebrate and convey his dependence on it. vol. which are included in BolC Q17. considering the evolution of song writing within the four decades that separate the two chansons. ParisBNF1596.p. Although lacking the well-defined contour and grace of the individual parts found Ghizeghem’s chanson. 59-60. “Ghizeghem und Compère”. FlorBN Magl. Goldberg.9 The two remaining cantus firmus settings by Bartolomeo and Anonymous.” 170-171.” 169-70. 5. Loyset Compere: Opera Omnia. ParisBNF1597..8 Venés can essentially be seen as a patchwork made of key melodic. exhibit a similar treatment of Ghizeghem’s quoted tenor and part of the superius as those by Agricola and Senfl. and TourBV 94.: American Institute of Musicology. ed. quoted or paraphrased. a rhythmic homogeneity. and a sense of clarity as a whole. 1972). 8 Venés regretz survives in ten sources: BolC Q17. The textural resemblance of the propagated Allez regretz to the original. “Was zitiert Compère?. Measure numbers pertaining to Venés regretz during my discussion refer to the edition in Ludwig Finscher. Senf’s reworking appears to be closer to Ghizeghem’s than that of Compère (see discussion below). In BolC Q17. ParisBNF22245. “Borrowed music.7 Allez regretz and Venés regretz Venés regretz. it is preceded by its model Allez regretz. “Borrowed music. rhythmic.
13-16). there is only one divergence that occurs in the penultimate cadence as Allez cadences on F and Venés on D. 1450-1518): Life and Works. the superius. The tenor carries.1b. In all three phrases of the first section. yet the core borrowed phrases are imitatively exchanged between the superius and the tenor. the complete first phrase of the original tenor.: American Institute of Musicology. extends a borrowed line above newly composed material in the tenor (see 3rd phrase. m. the tenor first presents quoted material. In most instances. Venés principally extracts melodic material from the tenor of Allez in a rather intricate. Although the part of tenor appears to have the lead in launching the quoted tenor. with both the tenor and bassus citing Ghizeghem’s opening tenor and superius respectively. 235. almost labyrinthine fashion. at times. imitated by the superius. All three voices of Venés regretz are rooted to a certain extent in Allez regretz. Hayne.2. the opening measures of Venés regretz announce their strong dependence on Allez regretz. Compère also observes the original scale degrees of the cadences. appears Compère (c. “Caron.p. esp.” Early Music History 7 (1987): 107-157. Extensive quotation mostly occurs in the first part of the rondeau. Structurally molded on Allez regretz. See also a brief discussion of its poetic text in Gerald Montagna. 2. at first in direct quotation. 44 . which opens on the second half of the second measure in imitation of the tenor an octave higher. in the original scale degrees.1a and Ex. 1964). in 149. Cadential patterns are also identical. later in paraphrase. Musicological Studies and Documents 12 (n.The chansons employ the same mode (Lydian) and quoted material is presented untransposed. As seen in Ex. Venés regretz retains the form of rondeau cinquain with a text of decasyllabic verse. The part of the superius. Compère: A transmission reassessment.
1-5. in the caesura of the first phrase. Venés regretz.later. the second phrase commences with an imitative passage citing the second phrase of the tenor of Allez to eventually cadence by means of a paraphrased line in the tenor while the superius carries on the quoted tune. 45 .1a: Ghizeghem. 2. m. m. In contrast to the first two phrases. Similarly. Allez regretz. 2.1b: Compère. Ex. Ex. it is only the superius that resonates with the quoted tenor in the third phrase of the rondeau. 1-6. to echo the closing cadential passage of the first phrase of the superius of Allez.
2b). 2.The second section of Venés regretz opens with a nearly complete polyphonic quotation in the two lower lines (see Ex.2a: Ghizeghem. which in its turn can be seen as a mirror of the incipit of Allez regretz. m. the second section of Venés does not completely break free from its close bonds with Allez. 2. Apart from that opening snippet of Allez. 2. Ex. The prominent role of the ascending second–descending sixth sequence in the bassus augments when one observes the sequential patterns in the upper parts that incorporate a motive of similar contour (ascending second–descending fourth). superius and tenor. the formerly leading parts of superius and tenor do not introduce further quoted material. distinctive for their contour of a descending sixth.2a and Ex. but in the bassus. starting on the last semibrevis of measure 21 the bassus initiates a string of sequential motives. i. Indeed. Yet. The most interesting musical moment following the signum congruentiae arises in neither of the focal parts.e. Allez regretz. 31-36. 46 .
Ex. the sequence brings to mind a short. m. The sophisticated adherence of Venés regretz on Ghizeghem’s venerated chanson. Suggesting that Compère modeled that particular moment in Venés after the sequential pattern in Allez is certainly a point hard to prove. considering that Venés is consciously modeled on Allez. such as the sequential motive discussed above. is further magnified upon a consideration of the literary facets of the chansons. one can speculate that Compère. or the prominent rising and/or falling scaling fifth figures. drew less elaborate material from the model chanson.2b: Compère. observed as a topographical grid of interpolated musical relations. discreetly apparent in Allez and prominently dispersed in Venés. 2. 16-24. Lastly. yet memorable sequential figure of falling fifths that concludes the second phrase of the superius of Allez. Yet. and having observed that the associations between the chansons move beyond clear-cut quotations of a cantus firmus routine. Venés regretz. inconspicuously. but certainly deliberately. What one observes at first 47 .
10 Allez regretz. He explores the metamorphosis of the regretz topos from a concrete story with a rival in Allez to a stereotyped narrative of mourning over loss. from comparing the incipits of the chansons. regretz. number of syllables. heart. il en est heure Venés sur moy faire vostre demeure C’est bien raison qu’à ce je vous enhorte Car aujourd’huy toutte ma joye c’est morte Et si ne voy nulluy qui me sequeure12 The following presentation of the resemblances and interaction between the two poetic texts is largely influenced by the relevant discussion in Goldberg. we can clearly see that.” 93-94. venés. and caesuras in opening verse). visible in the opening phrases of the chansons. pp. apart from the initial textual counterpoint (“allez”/”venés”). as he argues. vuidiez de ma presence Allez ailleurs faire vostre acointance Assez avez tourmente mon las cueur Remply de dueil pour estre serviteur D’une sans per que j’ay amee d’enfance 11 Venés. is a striking antithesis. taking in consideration the musical bonding between the chansons. apparent in the opening invocation towards the regretz with the words “Allez” versus “Venés. regretz. is fitted to contrasting imagery. “Was zitiert Compère?. 194-99. Goldberg first considers formal resemblances (poetic form. He also unveils a string of archetypal themes shared in both texts (death. and interpret it accordingly as a text that concerns not a case of death but an unfortunate love affair.glance. the openings of the refrains share some striking. vuidiez de ma presence Allez ailleurs faire vostre acointance Assez avez tourmente mon las cueur Remply de dueil pour estre serviteur D’une sans per que j’ay amee d’enfance 11 Allez regretz. venés. Yet. mainly formal. Musical convergence. similarities. while in that of Compère they are implored to arrive. See also the relevant discussion in Chapter 5. Goldberg argues that. are essential elements in the case of subsequent paraphrases of the model text. we can view the narrative of Compere’s text as enhanced by means of its association with that of Ghizeghem. 10 48 . and others). which.” In Ghizeghem’s chanson the regretz are asked to depart. upon comparing the first two verses of the rondeaux (see complete opening stanzas below). il en est heure Venés sur moy faire vostre demeure C’est bien raison qu’à ce je vous enhorte Car aujourd’huy toutte ma joye c’est morte Et si ne voy nulluy qui me sequeure12 Venés.
11 49 .” 12 “Come.” which commonly relates to a suffering state of mind (“Remply de dueil”/“ma joye c’est morte”). Considering Compère’s close musical reliance on Ghizeghem’s rondeau. alas. the textual affiliation of the matching opening verses can be seen as an auxiliary layer of intertextual signification. their passing. 492.” The present translation is based on the translations by Susan Jackson in Allan Atlas. Furthermore. make your dwelling with me || There is good reason for me to implore you || For today all my joy is dead ||And.W. “The Chansons of Loyset Compère: Authenticity and Stylistic Development” (PhD diss. leave my presence || Go and make acquaintance elsewhere || You have tormented my weary heart enough || I am full of sorrow. 1998). the progression of the narratives “Go sorrows.. Anthology of Renaissance Music (New York: W. The Allez/Venés matrix can then be seen as a kind of musical response to a poetic pledge. and Amanda Zuckerman Wesner. being the servant || Of one matchless that I have loved from my childhood. more than an imaginary migration. mostly prevalent in its opening phrases. I do not see a soul who might succor me. the words “faire vostre” are centrally positioned at the opening of the second hemistich. it is time || Come. sorrows. concretely materialized by means of a musical quotation of the model chanson’s central part (the tenor) transformed into the nucleus of Compère’s chanson (in the tenor and complementarily in the superius). come. Harvard University. Henceforth. an intriguing conceptual innuendo weaved in text and music radiates from Allez to Venés: the regretz are poetically set in motion (“allez”/”vénes” – departure/arrival). they both begin with a repetition of the incipit verb (“allez”/”vénes”) and close with nouns of similar “topographical” meaning (“acointance”/”demeure”). Lines of comparable construction are also employed in the following verses. The remaining verses of both opening stanzas elucidate the preoccupation of the narrator with the “regretz.The opening verse in both chansons launches with an imperative verb (“allez”/ “venés”) joined with the word “regretz” and followed by an imperative verb (“vuidiez”/ “venés”). Norton & Company. 1992). 400.
a relatively obscure chanson by Ghizeghem’s contemporary Weerbeke.advances quite differently. par ma conscience Se plus vous voy prouchain de ma plaisance [Do not come back. both chansons engage in a gesture of exhortation that. “L’abit de dueil” [“my heart asks and weeps”/ “the habit of mourning”]) that culminate in an agonizing imploring of regretz to witness the poet’s suffering “ains que je meure” (“before I die”) – death being a customary resolution in its turn. A last point of intersection can be observed in the openings of the final stanzas: N’y tournez plus. Similarly to all regretz chansons modeled on or intertextually associated with Allez. I tend to believe that Sans regretz is also a rondeau. the presence of a rival against whom he expresses feelings of resentment and vengeance. In Allez regretz. yet its designation as such is debatable. apologetic in Venés). darker than the mourning clothes] Here. The 50 . the male lover confronts a complicated situation that involves. demonstrates a close reliance with Allez regretz that extends to a remarkably similar layout and cadences along with quoted motives and loose paraphrases. Sans regretz as a descendant Sans regretz. car. by my conscience If I see you near me more] Mais gardez bien qu’après vous ne demeure L’abit de dueil plus noir que belle meure [But make sure that behind you does not remain The habit of mourning. although eventually developing quite differently (revengeful in Allez. The unfolding of the narrative in Venés regretz sinks into poignant expressions of frustration (“mon cueur sente et pleure”. apart from the commonplace theme of unrequited love. signals a perceivable caesura in the narrative. for.
“Florence. Biblioteca del Conservatorio di Musica Luigi Cherubini. Judging from the length of the phrase. The text set to the fourth phrase is corrupt. 51 . in its single survived source..text of the chanson. the Basevi Codex (FlorC 2439). superius (FlorC 2439.1: Weerbeke. I am inclined to think that a hemistich of five syllables may have been used for the 13 A transcription of Sans regretz is included in Paul G. instead of three. It looks to me that the first section of the chanson consists of four phrases. 2 (PhD diss. Newton. which is relatively short in comparison to the previous ones. North Texas State University. 226. Measures numbers in the related discussion refer to this transcription.” vol. 2. The first three phrases appear to support decasyllabic lines. is incomplete.13 Fig. Sans regretz. Manuscript Basevi 2439: Critical Edition and Commentary. 1968). 79v). Labeling of the piece as a rondeau is rather puzzling. f. though all parts are halfway marked with a signum congruentiae.
is constructed from a balanced superius-tenor duet accompanied by an equally active contratenor and an absence of imitative entrances among parts. is now in conflict. Yet. a disagreement easily mended by the application of musica ficta during the performance. the only divergence being the omitting of the signature of B flat in the superius. Sans regretz illustrates qualities of the conservative facet of the Burgundian chanson as A rondeau layé is an elaborate version of a rondeau cinquain with additional interpolated hemistichs after the second and the fourth lines. 14 52 . Generally. employs a leading tone cadence on F. Texturally. the extra (half) verse placed at the end of the first section may be part of a variant form of the rondeau cinquain. Sans regretz follows the form of an extended poetic rondeau. the point of the middle cadence of the second section is slightly confusing. apart from the penultimate. similar to a rondeau layé. the chansons are mostly comparable. based on the single fragment of the surviving text of Sans regretz. no interjected half verse follows after the second line. for example. occurs on the cadence of the third verse (m. the rhyming scheme of the surviving three lines (a a b) observes the rhyme of the first half of a rondeau cinquain. and in a few instances replicated note for note. In that case. Weerbeke’s chanson. The first cadence of both chansons. In continuation to my discussion above (measure numbers refer to the transcription in P. Individual voices share identical ranges and there is barely any sign of voice crossing. previously parallel to that of Allez regretz. One other possibility in regard to the confusing layout of the rondeau could be that the signum has been misplaced and. the contratenor moves independently from the cadential gesture. on those of Allez. the scheme of cadences. All cadences of Sans regretz. If it takes place on measure 45 – this seems to be the only clearly articulated cadence before the final where all parts are led to a full stop – the opening phrase of the second section appears to be unusually shorter than the closing phrase (eight versus twenty measures). though. are modeled. like its model. instead of at the end of the first section. Sans regretz is similarly written in the Lydian mode.14 Architectonic similarities between Allez regretz and Sans regretz are significant. Instead. Newton). Most likely. In that case. suspending the impression of a complete caesura and propelling towards the opening of the second phrase. 31).fourth phrase.
1505-08.manifested in the work of Ghizeghem. starting from C in accordance with the original pitch classes of Allez. I assume that it was certainly meant to be aurally caught by the audience. with a brief but unmissable quotation of the tenor of Allez in the lower part (see Ex. 25 for a discussion of the earliest sources of Allez regretz). starting from F instead of C. sings a rising sixth motive reminiscent of the incipit of Allez. following the quotation of the tenor of Allez. it survives in a number of earlier sources than Weerbeke’s regretz (Basevi Codex dates from c. was particularly eager to call attention to the tight adherence of his chanson to the widely popular Allez regretz. Ex.15 Indeed. 2. If there indeed existed a direct line of influence between Allez regretz and Sans regretz.2. Sans regretz. n. Although the quoted motive in Sans regretz is transposed. 1-10. see this chapter. nonetheless. Moreover. for it is also partially duplicated in the incipit of the superius. m. m. 1-4). most likely. Sans regretz displays its affiliation with Allez regretz at the outset.3.3: Weerbeke. 15 53 . Weerbeke. it must have originated from Allez for. the contratenor (m. apart from its status as an influential chanson. the superius of Sans regretz lacks the grace of Allez’s leading voice. 5-7).
paraphrase of the same voices in the second phrase of Allez regretz (see Ex. 2. 54 . This brief but witty textual interplay echoes in its musical rendering the two most distinct motives of its model chanson (superius and tenor melodic incipits). I can hardly imagine Weerbeke’s contemporaries missing the reference to Allez regretz. I have not. can be viewed as a reaffirming response to the appeal of “Allez regretz” to “go away” and “vuidiez de ma presence” (“leave my presence”). One may also notice that the superius parts of the third phrase in both chansons begin by using the same pitches. In fact. yet the superius and tenor duet of the complete second phrase strikes me as a free.Right after the execution of the rising sixth motive. which further resonates in the superius.4b). most strikingly in consecutive order. an allusion to the staple melodic gesture of Allez regretz. 2. so far. the composer signals his kinship with the widely known regretz chanson in an exceedingly candid manner. 5-7). With the second quotation (m.4a and Ex. “Sans regretz veul entretenir mon cueur” (“Without sorrows I want to keep my heart”). and rather loose. Weerbeke might have aimed to insure that the reliance upon Ghizeghem would be obvious even if the audience had failed to notice it before then. located further instances of allusion in Sans regretz. The opening verse.
Although the corrupt status of the text of Sans regretz prevents a thorough reading of it. 13-22.4b: Weerbeke.4a: Ghizeghem.Ex. Allez regretz. 12-22. a consideration of the poetic texts of the chansons can only further complement their reliance. m. the surviving verses suggest parallels with the opening verses of Allez regretz: 55 . 2. 2. Lastly. cantus and tenor. Ex. Sans regretz. m.
xvi.2. vuidiez de ma presence Allez ailleurs faire vostre acointance Assez avez tourmente mon las cueur Remply de dueil Sans regretz veul entretenir mon cueur Qui long temps a souffert deuil et langueur Remedy n’ay qu’a ma dame Nature Qui nous16 For instance.17 The underlying resemblances between Allez and Nuit et jour have not been previously considered. Similarly to Ghizeghem’s chanson. Calling the “Regretz” “Nuit et jour” The orbit of chanson intertexts revolving around Allez regretz may possibly include. 56 . Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen/Musicological Studies 27 (Brooklyn: Institute of Mediaeval Music. 1975). where the regretz are ordered to “leave my presence. The 16 The surviving text is translated as: “Without regrets I want to keep my heart || that for a long time has suffered from grief and weakness || there is no remedy that my lady Nature has || which […]..” a stereotyped feeling in courtly love poetry.XIII.27).G. in all probability owing to the fact that the latter has not been recognized as a regretz chanson. The transcription I rely on is in Allan Atlas.” in Weerbeke’s. their siege described in terms of time and intensity (“assez avez” versus “qui long temps”) and effect (“tourmente” vis-à-vis “a souffert”). the English translations of the regretz texts are mine. and twice in CopKB 1848. 30. eds. FlorR 2794. intertextualities are rather veiled beneath a texture unlike that of Allez. as I will now attempt to argue. See also the recent critical edition of Fresneau’s oeuvre: Olivier Carrillo & Agostino Magro.27. both texts seem to display a conspicuous resentment towards regretz. VatG XIII. Belgium: Brepols. vol. “Dueil. is also featured in both opening stanzas (“Remply de dueil” at the beginning of the fourth verse of Allez compared with “a souffert deuil”). 2004). the singer announces. that “without regrets I want to keep my heart. C. Fresneau’s rondeau Nuit et jour.Allez regretz.” The heart is specified as the locus where regretz have previously lain. LonBLR 20 A. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. 17 It survives in the following sources: WashLC L25 (Laborde Chansonnier). Jean Fresneau: Messe et chansons (Turnout. equally decisively.” Unless otherwise noted. The Cappella Giulia Chansonnier (Rome. Furthermore.
Cappella Giulia. etc). although I have not yet located a tune resonant with the tenor line of Nuit et jour within the regretz complex. the key-word “regret” initiating the beginning of the second phrase. the textual incipit reads the word “Perget. Yet. Most interestingly. It may likely have originated as a paraphrase of a cantus firmus.18 Under this light. bassus.” a hollow filled with visual and aural rests in counterpoint to a text that suggests activity and duration (“night and day”). The tenor enters after the completion of the first phrase of the rondeau and moves in longer values than the other two voices. contratenor. the eight-measure long tacet of the part may not have been an innocent compositional choice. 18 57 . the labeling of the tenor line in early sources such as Laborde and FlorR 2794 with the single text “regret” (most likely a reference to the beginning of the second verse of Nuit et jour).5). I suspect that the tenor was probably not sung to the text. In VatG XIII. may not be a scribe’s error. regardless of the origins of the tenor. a role that has been taken over by the bassus in Nuit et jour (see Ex. 1: 124-5. The text of Fresneau’s chanson during the first phrase reads “Nuit et jour sans repos avoir” (“Night and day.” and has been interpreted as being derived from the word “regret” (the opening word of the tenor). where it underpinned the superius. its opening right after the superius sings the word “regret” may also be suggestive of the composer’s intention to highlight the word as particularly significant.27. held and repeated notes. Judging from the suspended rhythmic activity. 2. See Atlas. practically christening the line “regret” (in the fashion of cantus. apart from viewing the tacet tenor as a textual/musical pun. without rest”). and melodic phrases of short range.unusually long silence at the beginning of the tenor in Nuit et jour indicates clearly that the tenor does not have the same function as in Allez regretz. The silenced tenor may have been thought of as a response of contrasting insinuation to “sans repos.
Nuit et jour.A last remark worth making in regard to the second line of Nuit et jour has to do with its close reliance to the third line of Allez regretz (see lines below). is variedly featured in Fresneau’s rondeau. yet the association is rather frail. The rhythmic pattern of the first three measures in both superius lines is also identical. expressions of duration and intensity are used to recount the attack of regretz (“assez avez” versus “nuit et jour” and “sans repos”). Allez regretz. is entirely repeated) stretch its length considerably. 2. 2. the opening of the second phrase in the bassus introduces a rising sixth that could relate to the incipit of 58 . the first two measures echo the rising line of Allez. yet repetitions of the text (the text in the last phrase. the word “tourmente” echoes as the end result of the attack of the regretz. The most intriguing correlations between Allez regretz and Nuit et jour. as I have observed. The superius of Nuit et jour (Ex. undoubtedly the imprint of the celebrated chanson. The incipit of Allez regretz (see Ex. F (an octave lower than the opening pitch of the superius) is the lowest pitch and is heard once in the second section of the rondeau. Interrelations of a broader kind exist between the chansons: both are written in the Lydian mode. vuidiez de ma presence Allez ailleurs faire vostre acointance Assez avez tourmente mon las cueur Nuit et jour sans repos avoir Regret m’atriste et me tourmente The overall dimensions of the chansons also converge to some extent. Similarly to the opening of Sans regretz discussed earlier. Starting in measure 6.1). Likewise. for instance. can be tracked down to a couple of melodic and rhythmic motives. yet neither the medial nor the remaining internal cadences fall in identical pitch classes.5) opens with a phrase barely reminiscent of Ghizeghem’s incipit. with F as the finalis. a rondeau quatrain. is shorter than Allez.
beginning on measure 25. The cell emerges twice in Nuit et jour. m. reverberant of the rhythmic opening of Nuit et jour.Allez. 2.6). Following the signum. A rhythmic quotation of the incipit.5: Fresneau. The positions of 59 . It is composed of a semibrevis–brevis–two minimas(–brevis) rhythmic gesture and is melodically marked by a rising third followed by a falling fourth (see Ex. Nuit et jour. Ex. measure 9 and later measure 21 carry a nearly unaltered presentation in both the superius and the bassus (with variation in the opening pitch of the cell). 1-11 The second melodic/rhythmic cell of Allez that discreetly appears in Nuit et jour is extracted from the third measure of the tenor of Ghizeghem’s chanson.1). 2. is featured in the tenor. 2. the opening two measures of the bassus are not only rhythmically suggestive of the incipit but are also identical in intervallic content (Ex.
I can imagine that they could easily initiate a moment of mental playfulness among the audience who were hearing the echoes of the shared cell sung repetitively according to the layout of the rondeau. shares 60 . a later three-part rondeau by Ghizeghem. 18-23. I have observed. Nuit et jour. A further. Quite interestingly. 19). La Regretée. La Regretée as an offspring Not only did Allez regretz propagate a considerable network of intertexts within the work of Franco-Flemish composers.6: Fresneau. rather minor. Ex. point to be noticed is that the second and third phrases are partly comprised of a joint presentation of the first two measures of the incipit of Allez regretz followed by the cell (see bassus of phrase 2 and superiusbassus duet of phrase 3. the latter in Ex. 2. as I have discussed and will later continue to observe by bringing in further examples. the words of the first stanza of Nuit et jour set to the quoted cell – triste and espoir – are utterly contrasting in meaning.6 below starting on m.the cell. m. share parallel features: reiterations of the cell in Nuit et ejour commence on the third measure of the second and third phrases and are laid out as a duet of the superius and the bassus. 2. but it held a pivotal place within Ghizeghem’s cycle of regretz chansons.
p. ed. brings to mind the beginning of the tenor of Allez. reminiscent of the incipit of Allez Regretz. He notes that the shared opening rhythm is not found in other beginnings of Ghizeghem’s chansons. and motivic variation. which was already fashionable by the 1490s. “Was zitiert Compère?. specifically in Goldberg. The piece. 2-3). and UppsU 76a. Especially when one considers the pitch D (top of a rising sixth) attached to the second phrase (i. Observing then the close ties crowded into the opening of the two chansons. it is important to comment on how noticeable Ghizeghem’s tight reliance on Allez appears early on in La Regretée. What is more.e. 5-7 in the tenor).some striking links with Allez. LonBLR 20 A. to my knowledge. in the level of the narrative. I will argue. additionally. He also notes that Ghizeghem’s regretz chansons exhibit extensive motives characterized by intensified sequences. although not as strikingly evocative as the rising sixth figure.20 The second half of the incipit of La Regretée (m. 1977). part of this line echoes in the contratenor (m. The association of the figure with Allez is further intensified by the resounding of the figure an octave higher in the opening of the superius (see Ex. was modeled on Allez.7). La Regretée circulates in the following manuscript and printed sources: Canti B.: American Institute of Musicology. 19 61 . m. 4-7 in the tenor). not previously considered in scholarship. measure numbers refer to the modern edition of La Regretée in Barton Hudson. Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 74 (n. Les grans regretz. been discussed in scholarship. Egenolff III. the extended line can be seen as rhythmically identical and a close paraphrase of the tenor incipit of Allez Regretz. Goldberg indicates the opening rhythm and the rising sixth gesture in La Regretée as clear citations stemming from Allez regretz. In my discussion.xvi.” 94. with the multiplicity that characterizes the attack of the regretz. ParisBNF 1597. 2. most likely under the composer’s intention to compose a refined and sophisticated response to his earlier piece. apart from. voice motion.. 20 This is the only instance of interrelation linking Allez regretz and La Regretée that has. elements that match. 29-31. Hayne van Ghizeghem: Opera omnia.19 La Regretée commences with a rising sixth figure in the tenor.
the rising sixth figure at measure 15 of the bassus is a straightforward paraphrase of the opening motive. La Regretée.Ex. cells. 2. m. bassus. Furthermore.7: Ghizeghem. La Regretée. Ex. Minor motives. 1-12. and noticeable melodic gestures of Allez are interspersed in the body of La Regretée. 2. 13-18. m.8: Ghizeghem. The musical fertilization of La Regretée with gestural strands of Allez is carried out beyond the opening of the chanson. both chansons 62 . An abundance of descending fifths and fourths in La Regretée responds to the presence of the same intervallic gestures in Allez regretz. For instance.
2. 2. m. from Allez (see Ex. It is not merely on account of the presence of a polyphonic block instead of a single migrated line that I consider this particular instance of appropriation as utterly revealing. the block is situated at the end of the first phrase. Most strikingly. Although taking into account that the locus of the block in Allez makes it aurally more prominent due to the constant repetitions commanded during the performance of the rondeau. In Allez regretz. marked by a cadential–opening phrase pattern in the superiustenor pair and a distinctively tuneful bassus that serves as a chain uniting the closing and opening phrases. 2.employ a short sequential pattern in the superius that leads to the final cadence.9b). in both instances acting as an auditory bridge.9a and Ex. a four-measure long polyphonic chunk of La Regretée is extracted. 10-14. the quotation is still situated in a kind of virtual “pedestal” in La Regretée. What I view as equally important is that Ghizeghem aligns the quoted block (itself having a distinct cadential function) in moments of comparable structural significance in both chansons. it appears at the closing of the first phrase following the signum congruentiae. note for note. Allez regretz. Ex. The profile of the polyphonic quotation can be seen as double-faceted. 63 . the closing of the first phrase after the signum being topographically parallel to the end of the first phrase in Allez. and in La Regretée.9a: Ghizeghem.
21 Even stylistically it sounds significantly advanced. 62-66. Medial cadences fall in the fifth above the finalis. with that of Allez. dates from c. transposed a fourth upwards and with a finalis on B flat. The broader layout of La Regretée is also closely modeled after that of Allez regretz. i. Based on the dating of the surviving sources of La Regretée. F in La Regretée. This pitch is also sung in the same locus in both rondeaux. Final cadences are similarly structured as of the leading-tone type with a descending fifth in the contratenor. C in Allez.e.. 1500. The chanson is composed in the Lydian mode. 64 . the rondeau must have been composed sometime in the late 1480s or most likely in the 1490s. The texture of the chanson is 21 The Lorraine Chansonnier (ParisBNF 1597). showing traces of the work of Ghizeghem’s less conservative contemporary Antoine Busnoys.9b: Ghizeghem. m. The superius of La Regretée shares not only the same lower pitch. various resemblances can be observed. 2. A la-mi-re (according to the gamut). the earliest surviving source of La Regretée. For instance. in the phrase following the signum. Even if the geography of cadences in La Regretée is not entirely modeled after that of Allez. La Regretée. both the first as well as the penultimate phrase of both chansons cadence in F.Ex.
she being the one afflicted with regretz. if his love is rejected. In the opening stanza of La Regretée. the first-person subject adopts a courtly speech act enumerating the virtues of his lady and imploring her to show sympathy toward whom “qui vous ame. yet also a threat that. La Regretée is significantly longer than Allez regretz (eighty versus fifty-four measures) due to longer and more angular phrases and the use of a poetic text following the expanded form of the rondeau cinquain layé. featuring frequent imitation points between the superius and tenor (in the beginning of all phrases but the last) and a rather rhythmically active and tuneful contratenor. instead of directing his message towards the regretz. Moreover. their indirect presence implied by means of their recipient. “la regretée. When compared in regard to their discursive content.considerably more adventurous than that of Allez regretz.” The following verses carry on the poet’s attempt to move his object of desire by an exaggerated reference to her “bon bruit” (“good reputation”) that is rhetorically measured against the highest standards (“dont je voy France honourée et emplie”). he will tarnish her fame. engages in a praise of his beloved one. the poetic text of La Regretée differs considerably from that of Allez regretz. The “regretz” that previously played a central role through their evocation in the opening verse are now virtually excluded. While I do not see explicit intertextual links between La Regretée and Allez regretz in a verbal 65 .” The poet. the poet addresses a courtly plea for the lady’s love that involves a split of paths: further attempts to touch the lady through a reminder of his suffering (“Mais en mon cueur ce mal tais et replie” [“But in my heart this sorrow hides and folds”]). In the last stanza.
this time against his lady. par ma conscience Se plus vous voy prouchain de ma plaisance Devant chascun vous feray tel honneur Que l’en dira que la main d’un seigneur Vous a bien mis a la malle meschance22 S’à vous aymer de bon cueur je m’emplie Amour le veult bonvouloir luy supplie Mais desamplie Vous voye d’ung los qui tarnit votre fame C’est que pitié vostre cueur point n’entame Qui vous est blame Mais en mon cueur ce mal tais et replie23 In Allez regretz. for. well-known chanson. The key words denoting the shifting intentions of the poet/malepersona are “meschance” and “tarnit. By the late 1480s and during the following decade. See also the discussion in Chapter 5. are shot in La Regretée (see lines 3-4).24 Blows. when La Regretée was most likely composed.” 93.” To conclude.and discursive context. pp. car. I tend to believe that La Regretée was consciously modeled on the former. Considering its close reliance on Allez regretz. and the progression of the narrative towards resolution: N’y tournez plus. “Was zitiert Compère?. 195-96.” 24 The presence of a rival as a third person within the narrative of Allez regretz is suggested in Goldberg. the endings of the rondeaux are similar in expressing the poet’s intention. the poet resolves to demand his rival to stay away and warns him with explicitly threatening remarks (see last three verses). the popularity “Do not come back.” 23 “If I am set to love you with good heart || I want to beg for love at your pleasure || But if denied || You will see a praise that will tarnish your fame || It is such a pity that nothing touches your heart || to weaken you || But in my heart this sorrow hides and folds up. although the rondeau concludes with a last attempt to shame her for his suffering. 22 66 . by my conscience || If I see you near me more || Before everyone I will do you such honour || That they will say that a lord’s hand || Has really hone you mischief. the courtly erotic register embodied in the opening stanzas of Ghizeghem’s rondeaux by the image of a soft-spoken subject suffering from unrequited love is later replaced by one that implies revenge.
De tous bien plaine. carries a paraphrase of the superius of the second phrase of none other than the composer’s celebrated De tous biens plaine. and VerBC 757). While borrowed elements of Allez regretz mark La Regretée. cadential patterns. “Art Song Reworkings. 178. the superius. La Regretée undoubtedly held a special place in the composer’s oeuvre. 11-12. prominent melodic gestures.” esp. compositional choices such as the extensive use of imitative entrances. mostly as a polyphonic model. Music in the French Secular Theater. 25 67 . FlorBN Magl. Here. BolC Q17. the Laborde chansonnier from the Loire Valley. Under this consideration. FlorBN BR 229. On the popularity of De tous biens plaine. starting on measure 19. La Regretée. in both La Regretée The argument for the dissemination of Allez regretz is partially made on the grounds of the inclusion of the chanson in an extensive network of surviving sources. and also as a widely disseminated chanson.25 Ghizeghem incorporated diverse elements from his successful chanson (incipit. yet it is not a mere copy but a sophisticated descendant.27. and Mayer Brown.of Allez must have been apparent.1480s up to 1490).26 Quite intriguingly. see the Introduction in Cyrus. Three sources copied during the 1480s. A last but enlightening piece of evidence in that line lies at the beginning of the second phrase of the rondeau. the employment of a longer poetic form. 26 The network of chanson settings based on Ghizeghem’s De tous biens plaine ranks among the largest group of composition complexes stemming from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. and the departure from the old-fashioned polarized texture of the Burgundian chanson point to Ghizeghem’s plan of composing a chanson that follows in the lineage of Allez regretz. and even polyphonic blocks) to compose his new rondeau. The earliest source of Allez regretz is FlorR 2356 of Florentine origin and dated no later than c. which alongside Allez regretz was regarded among the most fashionable chansons during the last quarter of the fifteenth century. It also survives in several manuscripts of the early and mid 1490s: VatG XIII. See also Meconi. FlorR 2794 of Florentine origin. possibly driven by his intention to create a chanson of elevated complexity while trying out new trends. 1480. 137-38. host Allez regretz. and the Ferrarese RomeC 2856 (dating argued c.
The first couple of verses are particularly alike: “De tous biens plaine est ma maistresse || Chascun luy doibt tribut d’honneur” and “La Regretée en tous biens accomplie || D’honneur.27 Loose Intertextualities in Anon’s Tous les regretz and Mon souvenir Intertextualities sprung from Allez regretz that have been discussed so far are. et de grace remplie.10). 27 A considerable degree of relatedness can be observed in the literary texts of the two Ghizeghem chansons. for the most part. de los. yet. 68 . a setting of Tous les regretz that survives anonymously in Ottaviano Petrucci’s Canti B contains motives that. 2. as Picker argues. I have observed various instances that would fall at the opposite extreme of the intertextual continuum.28 Specifically.” 85-6). Apart from the incipit “Tous les regretz. very inconspicuously. 97-101. They tend to be confined to the side of Brownlee’s intertextual continuum that embraces direct quotation and intentionality. They both embody a courtly register that deals with praising a certain lady of “de tous biens” and enumerating her virtues. However. overt and rather undisputable.” 28 Picker has attributed the chanson to Ockeghem (“More ‘regret’ chansons.” no further text is included in its sole source. For instance. the chanson was most likely conceived as a setting to the poem “Tous les regretz” by Saint-Gelais (also set to music by la Rue). A transcription can be seen in ibid. The rhythmic profiles of the shared gestures are also remotely comparable. allude to melodic gestures of Allez regretz. the rising sixth on the second half of the first phrase in the superius of Tous les regretz is evocative of the staple rising sixth of the incipit of Allez (see Ex.and De tous biens plaine. during my pursuit of intertextualities within the regretz network. Canti B. the word “d’honneur” is employed at or just before the point of the paraphrase during the first statement of the refrain.
69 . vuidiez de ma presence Allez ailleurs faire vostre acointance [Go regrets. The two gestures share a similar opening rhythm. Tous les regretz. Not 29 A similar metaphorical passage of regretz takes place in the intertextual space of interaction between the texts of Allez regretz and Venés regretz (see the relevant discussion in this chapter. which “Assez avez tourmente mon las cueur.”29 Subtle signs of intertextual association seem to exist among Allez regretz and the rest of Ghizeghem’s surviving regretz. leave my presence Go and make acquaintance elsewhere] Tous les regretz qui les cueurs tourmentez Venez au mien et en luy vous boutez [All sorrows which torment hearts Come to mine and place yourself in it] It is as if the texts engage in a dialogue that takes the form of a literary “bargain. the regretz. it is intriguing that they treat the theme of regretz in conflicting ways.10: Anon [Ockeghem]. A playful literary pun can be observed when the first two verses of the chansons are read against each other.Ex.” are asked to depart. Their melodic contours also evolve comparably. 2. superius m. namely Mon souvenir and Les grans regretz. 30) recalls the tenor opening of the third phrase in Allez regretz. the poet calls all regretz “qui les cueurs tourmentez” to gather in his own heart. Allez regretz.” Their virtual migration may befall the tormented heart of the person who appeals upon them to “Venez au mien. Upon considering the literary texts of the two chansons. p. 7-9 Later on.” The regretz brought up in Allez regretz are not simply expelled. they are directed to “make acquaintance elsewhere. 49). the superius opening of the third phrase (m. composed of the triple repetition of the opening pitch followed by a rising minor second and a falling fifth. in Tous les regretz. In Allez regretz.
Yet before exploring the links between these two chansons. The upper voices move in similar rhythmic values. The case in discussion is not a plain quotation of a single motive in one part. entails problems during the performance. If it was for the quotation to resound. Two solutions appear feasible to me. I suggest the following rhythmic reworking of the closing passage: the finalis of the cadence in the upper voices to change in to a longa. transposed a sixth higher.previously considered as a chanson de regret – the regretz do not appear until the second line of the stanza – Mon souvenir conveys enough stereotyped literary topoi apparent in regretz chansons to be identified as such. The quotation is readily identified on account of its rhythmic gesture and its distinct arch made up of a tuneful descending sixth followed by an octave leap. 19-20) to shift in one measure.30 The chanson exhibits traces of a close bond with Les grans regretz. diminishing values in half (minima-minima-semibrevis). but also of its context that engages the polyphonic orbit of its surrounding parts (superius and tenor) and a defined structural locus (end of phrase– opening of new phrase). 31 The positioning of the quoted contratenor motive at the closing of the first section of Mon souvenir. 18. the contratenor caesura of the first phrase of Allez (see Ex. a consistency that extends to the opening of the subsequent phrases following the shared contratenor gesture of both Mon souvenir and Allez regretz. I plan to call attention to rather discreet instance of connection between Mon souvenir and the celebrated Allez regretz.31 30 Such literary conventions in Mon souvenir refer to death as a result of the regretz that lie in the heart of the narrator (“Mon souvenir me fait mourir pour les regretz que fait mon cueur”) and to the time scale of “langueur” (“nuyt et jour.” “sans cesser”). the extended contratenor line stretched out on the point of the signum and beyond. Starting on the second half of m. 70 . The second turn of the rondeau commands the repetition of the first section three times in succession and the contratenor cannot be performed literally as it is written.9a respectively). 17. and the three last notes of the descending sixth (m. This is the most straightforward option. 2. the contratenor of Mon souvenir quotes. One option is for the contratenor to discard the quotation and to cadence on a D in brevis on m. These and other literary topoi will be extensively discussed in chapter 5. 2.11 and Ex.
I argued earlier. though.11: Ghizeghem. 71 . 63-64). when it was needed to bridge separate phrases and to create the illusion of continuation during moments of cadential break. the shared polyphonic quotation is one among several links between the chansons. does not seem to openly relate with either La Regretée or Allez regretz. there also identified by its extended polyphonic dimension and its distinct locus (see discussion above on p.32 32 A similar compositional trick appears at the end of the third phrase of Mon souvenir. Why would Ghizeghem choose to propagate an identical polyphonic quotation in three out of his four regretz rondeaux? La Regretée. 2.Ex. was modeled on Allez regretz. Mon souvenir. the persistent positioning of the contratenor quotation close to cadential moments leads me to speculate that the motive was a conventional part of the composer’s grammar. Ghizeghem was pulling in one of his compositional hallmarks. as a convenience. It needs to be noted that the same quotation shared between Mon souvenir and Allez regretz appears in La Regretée. Mon souvenir. Thus. 15-21. m.
in the single surviving source of Alle regres. which reads “Canon unus tonus plu ault. made to accommodate a new text. Intertextualities springing from Les grans regretz are not as daringly visible as those developed within the orbit of Allez. the only regretz chanson that engaged in a faithful cantus firmus appropriation of a part of Les grans regretz. The tenor of Alle regres is borrowed note for note and with minor rhythmic changes. 72 . It survives in ten sources (almost a third of the number for Allez regretz). 33 Regrettably. The latter was a rondeau cinquain while Alle regres is set as a rondeau quatrain. to my knowledge. the tenor. It also never inspired the volume of chanson reworkings that Allez regrets aroused. regretz chanson. Allez regretz. I assume the poetic rondeau of Longueval’s chanson did not relate with that of Allez regretz. does not include the text. Longueval’s Alle regres. Even though the finalis of the chanson is different from that of its model (D versus G. one of which (BrusBR 11239) misattributes its authorship to Agricola. with the exception of one chanson. yet most venerated. It is highly surprising that Alle regres. The latter is.2 below). carries a title that alludes.2. I suppose. yet the Dorian modality is retained). although directly citing from Les grans regretz. the Rusconi Codex (BolC Q19). is copied note for note in the original pitches of the tenor of Les grans regretz.Intersections of Les grans regretz Ghizeghem’s Les grans regretz never enjoyed the unprecedented popularity of Allez regretz. the unique surviving source of Longueval’s chanson.” instructs the performer to transpose it a step higher in order to harmonically match with the surrounding voices (see Fig. to Ghizeghem’s other. A canonic inscription above the part. The direct link of Alle regres with Les grans regretz lies in the tenor part of the chansons.33 from the tenor of Les grans regretz. rather misleadingly.
2007). 34 73 . Blackburn.” in Canons and Canonic Techniques. Similarly. ed. The phrase is discussed in Bonnie J. Yet. 14th-16th Centuries.34 Indeed. the inscription I am freely adopting Finch’s quoted phrase in a metaphorical sense. why would the scribe of Rusconi choose to transfer intact the pitches of the borrowed tenor and rule their transposition to fit in the harmonic context of Alle regres by means of a canon? The inscription is clearly not confined to the typical use of a canon as a rule for the implementation of a conventional canonic procedure (such as the addition of an extra voice at a dictated interval. but the canonic inscription that he discusses is a verse extracted from a psalm and used as a canonic motto. mensural augmentation/diminution. to mark off the pivotal status of the tenor as a part of exceptional significance in comparison to its surrounding voices. a phrase is used as a key to unlock the canonic puzzle. 2. Blackburn & Katelijne Schiltz (Leuven: Peeters. Borrowing the words of the mid-sixteenth century theorist and canon-expert Hermann Finck. in Alle regres.Fig.2: Longueval. unfortunately not revealed. the canon in Alle regres functions as a regula argute revelans secreta cantus. The inscription is to attract the eye and trigger the mind of the knowledgeable singer to recall the tenor part as a familiar and recognizable tune. superius (BolC Q19). most specifically. The text incipit is an additional pointer to Ghizeghem’s lineage and to the intertextual association of Longueval’s chanson with the regretz output of Ghizeghem. Alle regres. The expression is mentioned in the context of one of Finck’s definitions of canon in the early sixteenth century. 303. It is rather used to illustrate a special aspect of the chanson and. etc). “Two Treasure Chests of Canonic Antiquities: The Collections of Hermann Finck and Lodovico Zacconi. His example falling under this definition comes from a Josquin motet.
2. features quite high tessituras (especially in the bassus and also in superius-altus contrapuntal passages such as the one in the second phrase). a gesture that rises to prominence through its double presentation in both the bassus and the superius. The first two measures of the incipit are designed as a retrograde inversion of those of the tenor.above the tenor part “cleverly reveals the secret of the composition” to those musicians seeing Longueval’s chanson in the Rusconi Codex. may owe its contour to the opening of Les grans regretz (Ex. a four-part chanson. The incipit of Alle regres (Ex.12b). Apart from the borrowed tenor and the common use of a rondeau quatrain form. 74 . Les grans regretz is a three-part chanson with independent voices of an ordinary voice range that virtually do not engage in voice crossing or imitative exchanges. 2. The following couple of measures feature a descending fourth similarly to measures 3-4 of the superius of Les grans regretz. there are no further eye-catching similarities between Les grans regretz and Alle regres. Alle regres.12a). Yet one can observe a few discreet instances of intertextual association between the chansons. and instances of voice crossing (see particularly the opening of the chanson). imitative entrances at the beginning of phrases (mostly between superius and bassus).
Ex.13b show the openings of the bassus parts of Alle regres and Mille regretz and reveals that the lines are identical both in their rhythmic progression and melodic shape. the bassus of Mille regretz is strikingly similar to the incipit of Alle regres. 75 . 2. Ex. a chanson that.13a: Longueval. 2. 2.12a: Ghizeghem. also coveys a certain degree of kinship with Les grans regretz. 1-5 (my transcription). More specifically. Besides.13a and Ex. Alle regres. 2.12b: Longueval. 4-7. 1-4. superius m. Les grans regretz. Alle regres. Ex. m. Ex. the only deviation being in the interval bridging measures 2 and 3. bassus m. 2. the incipit of Alle regres is reminiscent of the opening of Josquin’s celebrated Mille regretz. as I will show in Chapter 3.
Measures 3-4 in the tenor feature a falling fourth that duplicates the falling gesture of the superius. 3 and repeated in m. is mostly prevalent in the opening gestures of the second section. especially in the superius and altus. the interval of fourth can be seen as a dominant building material in both Alle regres and Les grans regretz (and in Mille regretz too). 1-5.Ex. 2-3 of the contratenor. 15-17 of the superius.14). 76 . 2. A falling fourth similarly resonates in m. 2. So persistently echoed is the gesture of rising fourth in the first measures of the second section that it can be viewed as a response to the central falling fourth gesture of the borrowed tenor. 37 (right after the sequence of falling fourths). The gestures are similar in their opening with a characteristic dotted semibrevis–minima rhythmic pattern and in their closing with a down-step suspension figure. first heard in m. taking the form of a sequence of rising fourths in both the superius and bassus (Ex. The opening of the incipit of Les grans regretz is composed of a rising fourth from G to C and a falling fourth from B flat to F. the interval of fourth. bassus m. apart from its prominence in the closing of the incipit.13b: Josquin. Mille regretz. Viewed more broadly. In Alle regres. Rising fourths are also featured at the beginning of the fourth phrase. The figure is also repeated in the contratenor at the opening of the second section of the rondeau and rhythmically varied in m.
beginning in the lowest part. tenor. The opening gesture of the second phrase in Alle regres echoes the opening of the tenor in the second phrase of Allez regretz. The distinctive traits of the gesture. 27-33 (my transcription). A last instance of linkage worth adding to the net of alliance between Alle regres and Ghizeghem’s regretz group pertains to the chanson that Longueval’s chanson openly alludes to by way of its text incipit – Allez regretz.Ex. Longueval treats the gesture with an obvious intention to bring it to the fore. starting right after the signum. for he showcases it through imitative entries. m. 2. 77 . and restated in the superius and the altus (bassus and superius entries even reproduce the original pitch classes of the Allez regretz tenor). are evident in Alle regres.14: Longueval. cantus. such as its commencing on the second half of the measure and its rhythmic stability. Alle regres. and bassus (second highest part excluded).
the first four measures of Les grans regretz.15b . Yet. The superius of the second hemistich of Les grans regretz can similarly be seen as an expansion of that of Mon souvenir. G G B flat G Mon souvenir G D B flat G Table 2. Les grans regretz follows a similar path from G to B flat to G. apart from the medial cadence. As seen in Ex. The layouts of the cadences are similarly devised. can be considered as an expanded paraphrase of the compact four-note incipit of Mon souvenir. yet since the second hemistich 78 .15a and Ex.1: Scheme of cadences in Les grans regretz and Mon souvenir. The superius openings of the fourth phrase in both chansons have the same descending direction from D to F and are both four measures long. 2. A few inconspicuous paraphrases of motives are also observed. with a melodic direction from G to F. Medial Third cad. The latter involves a concise motive of an ascending third from G to B flat and a gradual descend of a third cadencing on G. Final cad. 2. any connections between these two chansons of Ghizeghem do not show up explicitly. the complete opening phrase in the superius of Les grans regretz looks to me as if it was discreetly modeled on that of Mon souvenir. also corresponding to a complete hemistich. Furthermore. I have noticed that Les grans regretz is intertextually bound with Mon souvenir. Les grans regretz First cad. The most direct clue of their relatedness is the shared Dorian modality and the rondeau form of a four-line refrain.As previously mentioned.
is longer. m. etc.15b: Ghizeghem. Les grans regretz and Mon souvenir demonstrate further signs of interconnectedness through textual allusion. the two chansons by 79 . it is in their sharing of concrete textual material that the chansons openly intersect. Ex. m. More than that. 2.). both chansons feature the formal structure of a rondeau quatrain. Middle lines of stanzas share common rhyming syllables – words ending in -(u)eur (cueur-cueur. However. the extra syllables (“je porte”) are set to a melismatic passage that leads to the cadence on G. rhyming words in middle lines are of identical lexical word class (nouns) and length (two syllables).15a: Ghizeghem. Ex. 2. As mentioned above. 1-8. superius. 1-12. superius. rigueurlangueur. liqueur-labeur. Mon souvenir. Indeed. Les grans regretz.
They are certainly related by their general courtly tone and an emphasis on the regretz as bearers of suffering. here personified as double-faceted (having a “riguer” and a “doulceur” identity). is an interplay of allusions. in contrast to the narrative of Les grans regretz. by considering the weaving of textual and musical associations within the two Ghizeghem chansons. the poems are only loosely related in their subject matter. or else a contrapuntal intertextuality that materializes in intricate ways beyond an one-to-one matching. a trend that does not converge with the positioning of motivic allusions. more often than not. What we observe then. the poet pledges to recover his memories infected by regretz. However. words of similar meaning are capitalized. identical words are highlighted in bold letters. Interestingly. and those of contrasting meaning are identified by strikethrough).Ghizeghem seem to “interact” by means of an extensive network of shared vocabulary (see texts below. in Mon souvenir. and in contrast to their recurring textual echoes. It is apparent from comparing the poems that textual cross-allusions were not meant to materialize in parallel positions within the layout of the texts. which. words of identical roots are underlined and in bold. centering on the poet’s unending torments as an impetus for a plea of compassion from his lady. occur in equivalent moments of interrelated chansons. 80 .
” 36 Translated as: “My memories make me die || For all the regrets that are in my heart || Night and day I’m in labor || In hope of rescuing them. As in Les grans regretz (refer to Ex. the incipit of Tous nobles cuers (Ex. Les grans regretz tracks a comparable melodic curve. The words “sans cesser” are set in a descending gesture from B flat to G (the conjunction que is set on Translated as: “The great sorrows that I incessantly bear || And night and day much torment my heart || Unless some sustenance comes from you || It is impossible for me to go on.16) opens with an ascending fourth from G to C. In this context. it is worth mentioning that the first couple of measures of the incipit of Tous nobles cuers echo the opening of Allez regretz.Les grans regretz que sans cesser je porte Et nuyt et jour TOURMENTENT tant mon cueur Que se de vous ne vient quelque liqueur Impossibl’est que plus je m’en deporte Mais j’espere que grace l’on m’aporte Pour remede qu’il me vauldra bonheur Aujourd’huy n’est plaisir que me SUPPORTE le cueur m’estraint et me tient en rigueur Alegez moy et me donnez vigueur Qu je vaulx mort a vous je m’en raporte35 Mon souvenir me fait mourir Pour les regretz que fait mon cueur dont nuyt et jour suis en labeur soubz espoir de le secourir Se sans cesser devoye courir Se sçauray je par quel rigueur Sa doulceur me fault descouvrir Et le mettre hors de LANGUEUR En luy donnant port et faveur Sans plus dire ne SOUSTENIR36 An anonymous setting of Tous nobles cuers demonstrates clues of a loose intertextual association with Les grans regretz akin to the instance of free paraphrase between Mon souvenir and Les grans regretz discussed above. 2. || Without ceasing they are led astray || They are known of such harshness. || But I hope that grace will return back to me || as a remedy that will bring me happiness.” 35 81 . || Their sweetness I must uncover || And place them out of suffering || By giving them harbor and favor || Without saying more but supporting. The outline of the second hemistich in Tous nobles cuers (“qui mes regretz voyez”) follows a broad scheme from B flat to G. then raising to A and cadencing in G. composed of a short sequential descending motive from B flat to G and G to E. 2. || Today there is no pleasure to keep me alive || My heart is torturing me and keeps me in harshness || Relieve me and give me strength || or I want death to take me back to you. followed by a descending gesture to F.15a).
I tend to believe that any similarities are rather reflective of the common Dorian mode (with final on G) and conventional melodic patterns governed by the grammar of late fifteenth century chanson. and a rising passage to A that cadences on G. 1-10. and in particular. Ex. withdrawal from life and ultimately death – a narrative of prevalent resonance within the rhetoric of regretz. It involves the outer shaping and melodic direction of sub-phrases. previously discussed in regard to its musical intertextualities with Allez regretz. will now be considered for its textual interconnectedness with Les grans regretz. Tous nobles cueurs. 2. Fresneau’s Nuit et jour. followed by a further descend to D. since I have not observed further signs of relatedness. The kind of interconnection observed in the opening phrases of the chansons is rather vague.16: Anon. I would not argue that Les grans regretz and Tous nobles cuers are intentionally affiliated. superius m. Both chansons are rondeaux quatrains and deal with the torturous pain caused by regrets that leads to despairing actions. The opening verses of the rondeaux are strikingly similar: 82 . elements that are not directly audible and easily recognizable. Not only the topmost parts but also the two lower voices of the chansons display a certain level of relatedness. In fact.pitch A leading to the descending gesture).
” “without rest”]) of the heart of their bearer. Nuit et jour does not allude to death in the same 83 . but with slightly conflicting intentions. locus. conveys the meaning of nourishment for the suffering heart. in the context of the first stanza. the only divergence being their presence in singular form in Nuit et jour. a word which. Le cueur. here also indicating the regretz pinning down the heart as the locus of distress. Le cueur as the locus of the “regretz” is visible at the end of the second verse of Les grans regretz rhyming with the word liqueur of the following verse.” decidedly accentuated by their ceaseless occupation (“sans cesser.” “sans repos” [“without ceasing. behavior. “le cueur m’estraint” (‘my heart is torturing me”). In Nuit et jour. in Nuit et jour. The image of hope is also conveyed in both chansons. Hope is invoked in Les grans regretz (“Mais j’espere que grace l’on m’aporte” [“But I hope that grace will return back to me”]). is not identified within the opening verses. “Regretz” inflicting torment in the heart of the sufferer is also a conventional image in the regretz network (see the key-word “tourmente/nt”). it appears further on in the couplet of the second stanza (“Et plus mon cueur s’en malcontente” [“”the more my heart is unhappy”]). their haunting presence is felt “day and night. A further reference to cueur is present in the last stanza of the chanson. Thus. yet the closing stanza of the chanson not only renounces the intervention of hope (“Aujourd’huy n’est plaisir que me supporte” [“Today there is no pleasure to keep me alive”]) but also implies a fatal ending (“je vaulx mort a vous je m’en raporte” [“or I want death to take me back to you”]). hope is clearly unobtainable: “n’ay plus espoir n’atente” (“so that I have no hope to expect”).Les grans regretz que sans cesser je porte Et nuyt et jour tourmentent tant mon cueur Nuit et jour sans repos avoir Regret m’atriste et me tourmente The regretz share attributes related to time. and effect.
anon. Furthermore. proved to be highly influential on the development of the regretz as a topos and compositional complex. and Translated as: “I am losing my mind and my consciousness || on the bed of cries under the black shade || passing my miserable life || in the chamber of despair. among others. the fact that all of his regretz interrelate. stands for death: J’en pers le sens et le savoir Au lit de plours soubz noire tente Passant ma vie desplaisente En la chambre de desespoir37 Concluding Note The regretz chansons of Ghizeghem. Longueval’s Alle regres.” 37 84 . indicates that by means of this interplay Ghizeghem acknowledged. and Fresneau. The chanson must have held a special position for Ghizeghem too. or. Weerbeke. his Les grans regretz. The last stanza of the chanson is a poetic invocation of withdrawal from life illustrated by metaphors of darkness. More than that. to a greater or lesser degree. I argued for the idea that Allez regretz left its imprint on a greater number of regretz chansons than previously considered.explicit way as Les grans regretz. Mon souvenir. as the earliest regretz composer. Various non-apparent interconnections among Les grans regretz. most particularly his Allez regretz as well as. as the rest of his regretz showcase signs of influence from it. Allez regretz influenced a substantial number of later regretz of such composers as Compère. In this chapter. probably consciously shaped. an imagery that.’s Tous nobles cuers. in my view. the concept of regretz networking. in the second place.
demonstrate discourses on the levels of music and poetic texts that further enrich the intertextual dimension of Ghizeghem’s regretz.others. discussed in this chapter. 85 .
“Josquin and Jean Lemaire. 2nd ed. n. Her arguments against Josquin’s authorship.. 197. whether his authorship is assumed or legitimate. which are characterized by imitative procedures or melodic derivation from precompositional material that is popular in style.” n. arguing that its simplicity. 15. “Nicolas Gombert and Parody. echoing those of Joshua Rifkin. vol. Louise Litterick’s voice has been quite prominent. 3 Litterick. “Josquin (Lebloitte dit) des Prez. It is however on the basis of its style that Picker supports Josquin’s authorship. ed. although not common in Josquin’s secular oeuvre. (2001). “A Singer Named Josquin and Josquin d’Ascanio: Some Problems in the Biography of Josquin des Prez. “Chansons for Three and Four Voices.” unpublished paper.”3 Part of the confusion The expression is included in Luys de Narváez’s vihuela tablature (Los seys libros del delphin de musica. quoted in Bossuyt.2 Among those that reject a Josquinian parenthood for Mille regretz. Scholars have related the occasion for the composition of the chanson with a presumable encounter between Josquin and Charles V in Brussels in 1520 when the latter was heading to Cologne for his coronation. Here Narváez credits Mille regretz to Josquin. 2000). at times.CHAPTER 3 THE INTERTEXTUAL SCOPE OF MILLE REGRETZ If Mille regretz is nowadays regarded among the most famous chansons of Josquin. and transparent texture (Picker.” 112-13. 1958). 1538). 374. it partially owes it to the reputation of its composer. F. divided the musicological circles. 4. ed. See Helmuth Osthoff. Blume.” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. I will consider Mille regretz as a legitimate chanson of Josquin. is in accord with the overall control and refinement of text/music relationship. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Beyond speculations over the fame of the chanson in the early sixteenth century as ‘la cancion del Emperador’1 and its popularity as model for masses and other chansons. it is the debate on the authorship of Mille regretz that has widely circulated and. Sherr (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Josquin Desprez. focus on the stylistic simplicity of the chanson that is “without parallel among his secure four-voice secular works. It is widely assumed that the chanson was written for Charles V.” in Essays 1 86 . 13: 240. 2 Adopting the “official” view expressed in Macey et al. “Chansons for Three and Four Voices. Four chansons re-examined. 7 (Kassel: Bärenreiter. and Rifkin. col.” in The Josquin Companion. motivic economy. quoted in Litterick.
1969). 4 The other source. 1978). A detailed synopsis is similarly presented by Fallows in the New Josquin Edition.” 243. whose claim is founded under the light of the composer’s ever changing biography and reconsideration of works previously attributed to him. le maire’ in one of the two earliest publications of the chanson. also by Lemaire and securely attributed to Josquin. Spanish. Bertelli and Ramakus.” 375 and Fallows’s review in “Who Composed.” 243-44. yet an unknown one and not necessarily the reknown poet Lemaire. remains the only source of the chanson to indicate Josquin as its originator. vol. Daniel Heartz has suggested that the ascription “J. 451-52.” (Ibid. Critical Commentary. Picker’s argument shaped on the basis of aesthetic criteria has recently been questioned by Fallows. vol. Litterick argues that the ascription to Lemaire was certainly a misattribution resulting from confusion of Mille regretz with the “orthographically and aurally similar” Plus nulz regretz. 6 Susato’s publication. 326-329. 87 . 97.4 The most recent scholarly response on the dispute along with a thorough review of previous scholarship is presented by David Fallows in his “Who Composed Mille regretz. 447456. “Chansons for Three and Four Voices. see Litterick. Barbara Haggh (Paris and Tours: Minerve. 242) For a recent synopsis of scholarly discoveries regarding Josquin’s life. in favor of Josquin’s authorship.over Josquin’s authorship is due to a conflicting attribution to ‘J. le maire” refers to the poet’s name.” JAMS 61/2 (2008): 307372. and may have been used in place of the composer’s. see Richard Sherr. “Who Composed Mille regretz. 2 (Florence: La Nuova Italia. is Hans Gerle’s Tabulatur auff die Laudten. “Earlier views on what was ‘Josquinian’ were based. see Pierre Attaingnant. esp. Royal Printer of Music (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. center on the attribution of the chanson to Josquin in Tylman Susato’s print of 1549 and the consideration of the source as more reliable in regard to Josquin’s music. has also been suggested by Rifkin in his unpublished essay “A Singer Named Josquin.”5 Fallows’s arguments. Pierre Attaingnant’s Vingt et sept chansons musicales a quatre parties of 1533. compared with that of Attaingnant. Lemaire. The hypothesis that it indeed meant to indicate the composer. “Who Composed Mille regretz. Gilmore. and Jesse Rodin. “on works that are probably not his. also published in 1533 but without ascription. 11-20. ed.” Fallows indicates. eds.” quoted in Fallows. apart from Narváez’s instrumental arrangement. “Chronology of Josquin’s Life and Career. 28. 307-313. presented to Myron P. L’unziesme livre contenant vingt et neuf chansons. 2001).6 No doubt. ‘“When in Rome…’: What Josquin Learned in the Sistine Chapel. 241-252. and esp. the popularity of Mille regretz close to the middle of the sixteenth century was considerable.. 5 241-52. Not only did it circulate widely in sources of French. On this hypothesis.” in Essays on Music and Culture in Honor of Herbert Kellman. See Fallows.” in The Josquin Companion.
8 My objective in this chapter is to consider the impact of Mille regretz within the network of regretz chansons and to unveil intertextual traces of explicit as well as of a more obscure nature. Critical Commentary. and both placed right after Josquin’s chanson).9 At times. 8 Works explicitly influenced by Mille regretz include: Gombert’s six-part reworking of Mille regretz. My study has been particularly influenced by the work of Owen Rees. 307-11. and a setting for five-parts. unique in its discussion on allusions of Mille regretz beyond the regretz complex. and a substantial group of tablatures. beyond the handful of obvious reworkings of the chanson. has in the past been attributed to Josquin (see note 58). they all come from the composer’s later years. 9 Rees. “Mille regretz as Model: Possible Allusions to ‘The Emperor’s Song’ in the Chanson Repertory. 28. most particularly in chansons of Gombert.10 Most likely. Plus nulz regretz. Critical Commentary. 7 88 . Dialogues among the Regretz of Josquin Apart from Mille regretz. my discussion involves chansons also addressed by Rees. 333-34. For a complete list of related settings. Yet since they survive only in Sources for Mille regretz include eight manuscripts. again by Susato. Morales’s Missa Mille regretz. see New Josquin Edition. 28. and Regretz sans fin.). Susato’s three-part parody of Mille regretz (printed in his 1544 vol. vol. and German origin.Flemish. Josquin’s regretz output includes the following four chansons: Parfons regretz. the two printed editions by Attaingnant and Susato. in those cases. and also on self-allusions within the composer’s own output. I attempt to extend Rees’s observations by bringing in additional instances of shared material and speculating about textual parallels as additional marks of a shared communication. published in his editions of chansons of 1544 and 1549 respectively. see New Josquin Edition. 10 Cent mille regretz. now thought of as a chanson by La Rue. For a complete list of sources. Plusieurs regretz.” JRMA 120/1 (1995): 44-76. and the other in four parts after Josquin’s original.7 but it also sparked explicit responses by esteemed composers of Josquin’s generation such as Morales and Gombert. two additional settings of the responce to the poem. vol. Les miens aussi (one in three parts after his reworking.
he continues. As mentioned above. and Regretz sans fin) are included in Susato’s Le septiesme livre contenant vingt et quatre chansons a cincq et a six parties (1545). Attaingnant’s edition of 1549. mirroring the twostanza poem. 28. they are all free-composed.” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. (However. see New Josquin Edition. remains the most inclusive. it was earlier hosted in Attaingnant’s 1533 edition. For a summary of the varying views. 359. vol. 11 89 . to think of Josquin’s “late style” similarly to that of other composers. and. “little evidence exists for the dating of individual works. Regretz sans fin is in two sections. in their majority. 2nd ed. It has been argued whether the chanson was meant to be performed as a rondeau. Yet. “Motets for Five or More Voices. 12) Extensive use of canons is featured in all chansons but Mille regretz. All five chansons can be regarded as belonging to the later years of Josquin’s output according to their restrained style. 12 The form of the poem as well as of the music of Plus nulz regretz is not straightforward. rigour of technique. Trente sixiesme livre. featuring four regretz of Josquin. In regard to their transmission in shared sources. “Josquin (Lebloitte dit) des Prez. Plus nulz regretz is the most extravagant in its profusion of canonic lines (featuring a double canon in the opening musical phrase).” in The Josquin Companion. Critical Commentary. Plusieurs. As Milsom remarks. 306-07).. as one “characterized by economy of means.11 None of the regretz makes use of a forme fixe. settings of a one-stanza poem reflecting the rhyme of a rondeau. 13 Mille regretz is the only known regretz chanson not included in Attaingnant’s 1549 edition. see discussion on Josquin’s secular works in Macey et al. (2001).13 All three chansons with more that four parts (Parfons. 13: 240. and a concern with the themes of lamentation and commemoration” is an appealing idea. and Plus nulz regretz sets a three-stanza poem that resembles a rondeau but uses a peculiar rhyme scheme. and any chronology based upon style alone is likely to be hazardous” (Milsom.posthumous sources and are not related to a particular occasion – apart from Plus nulz regretz – they cannot be securely dated.
18746 (dated ca. vol. 15 Indeed. 3. and motto gestures are widely divergent. number and structure of voices. and Mellange de chansons by Roy et Ballard (1572). Imitative entrances are at times introduced (see especially the opening of the chanson. 5-6 (Amsterdam: Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis. Mille regretz appears more ascetic in design and structure.” Early Music 31 (2003): 407. especially between lines of the text that rhyme. where all parts but the contratenor engage in imitation). vol. the musical structure can be described as AABBC. nappés.15 For instance. editio altera. 1523 and compiled at the Netherlands court). the quintus featured in canon at the octave with the bassus. Measures numbers and musical examples in the following discussion refer to the following editions for Mille regretz and Parfons regretz respectively: Josquin des Prez: Opera Omnia. Albert Smijers. 63 and vol.” Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis 22 (1971): 18-42. “An expressive detail in Josquin’s Nimphes. a fact that has been used as an argument against its attribution to Josquin. the second poetic line is. the formal structure of Parfons regretz reflects that of its text. The five-line stanza of the poem has an aabba rhyme scheme.16 featuring a four-part texture. in Parfons regretz and in most of his five-voice chansons.Paths of Connection among Mille. Its earliest known source is VienNB Mus. 1118). In its uniqueness. and Plus Nulz Regretz Parfons regretz does not openly reveal signs of connection with Mille regretz. Josquin. 1957). “Einige wiedererkannte Josquins-Chansons im Codex 18746 der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.” (New Josquin Edition. ed.14 Surface elements of the chansons. 3. the complete fourth line replicates the polyphonic setting of the third line. Critical Commentary. Similarly.28. Extensive repetition is also at use. 21-28 is a repetition of m. undoubtedly an example of Josquin’s endeavor to showcase musical/textual correspondence. such as modality. 326) And later on. as Fallows notes. The chanson is also included in the following printed editions: Susato’s Le septiesme livre contenant vingt et quatre chansons a cincq et a six parties (1545). As Patrick Macey points out. “as concerns the song’s 90 . Measured against the facade features of Parfons regretz. 16 Scholarly writings have variously pointed to the stylistic distinctiveness of Mille regretz within Josquin’s oeuvre. A further example of Josquin’s sensitivity to text and syntactic scheme can be observed in his marking of the caesuras within individual lines. Parfons. For more on the source and Josquin’s representation in it. almost no imitative 14 Parfons regretz does not exhibit an extensive network of transmission. See Macey. set on a polyphonic block of the opening verse (m. the chanson “has nothing in common with what is otherwise known of Josquin’s four-voice works. uses a rest after the fourth syllable to observe the caesura of the decasyllabic line. Attaingnant’s Trente sixiesme livre (1549). for the most part. see Jaap van Benthem. Parfons regretz is a five-part chanson.
The incipit of Parfons regretz is shaped in to a perfect arch (G-D-G). related in particular to “union between word and tone”. who first consciously employed it.” 452). however.passages. 2005]. and “simplicity of texts” among others (see “Josquin and Jean Lemaire. 91 .1b below). Picker observes a compliance with Josquin’s style. “Mille regretz as Model. 3. the shape of an arc.19 Despite their common profiles.” n. on the words “brief mes jours definer. the incipits are articulated quite differently.18 The openings of the gestures are rhythmically similar too. 329) On the other hand. it bursts in and saturates the opening texture with imitative entrances in all parts but the contratenor.17 There are. Richard Taruskin points out that it was from Ockeghem.” yet it involves a short motive in contrast to the extensive repetition of longer phrases in Parfons). an emblematic feature of the harmonic profile of Mille regretz. The motive is made of the iteration of five semibreves followed by a brevis (dotted brevis in Parfons). 19 The dactylic rhythm is a stereotyped feature in openings of several late fifteenth century chansons and thus cannot be considered as an adequate sign of relatedness. 18 In Mille regretz. Finally. 17 The Phrygian mode. and is commonly set on the second hemistichs of the opening musical style […] there is nothing comparable […] in the securely ascribed works of Josquin. that Josquin emulated the Phrygian mode (The Oxford History of Music. the arch-shaped gesture opens with a rising fourth (E to A) and proceeds with a gradually falling line that extends to C. in contrast to the Phrygian modality employed in Mille regretz. the incipit is plainly stated in the superius.1a and Ex.. striking parallels between the two regretz chansons. see Rees. “economy of motives”. featuring a pattern of brevis–two semibreves–dotted semibrevis. 529. the edge of the curve drawn lower. composed of an ascending leap (4th in Mille / 5th in Parfons) and a gradual descent (see Ex. 3. and avoidance of repetition of motives/phrases (the only instance of repetition occurs at the closing of the chanson.) No further known chansons of Josquin are written in the Phrygian mode. vol. In Mille regretz. A further shared rhythmic motive can be observed during the opening phrases of the chansons. In Parfons regretz. Their musical incipits follow an almost similar contour. Parfons regretz is written in the Dorian mode with finalis in G. 17. is generally used to embody sentiments of melancholy and seriousness.” (ibid.1 [Oxford: Oxford University Press.
. the motive is stated twice in the superius of Parfons regretz (m. 92 . the motive is prominently displayed in the superius (there is a further statement in the tenor of Mille regretz20) and occurs in parallel structural moments (i. Parfons regretz. 14-15. It is the superius and later on the tenor that carry the motive. setting the words “et lamentable joye. 20 In parallel to the repetition in the tenor of Mille. 1-7. 21 The rhythmic motive is reiterated (extended by an additional brevis) in the second phrase of Mille regretz (“vostre fache amoureuse”). 3.1b: Josquin. it is comparably pronounced in Parfons. 1-19.21 S C T B Ex. Quintus Tenor Bassus Ex. the repetition further extends the rhythmic motive with a cadential melisma at the closing of the first phrase). second hemistich of opening verse).verses of both chansons. 3. m. Mille regretz. Cantus Contrat.1a: Josquin.” In both chansons. 11-12 and m. m. Syllabically enunciated in the words “de vous habandonner” of Mille regretz. similarly to the rhythmic motive in the opening phrase of Mille.e.
): Josquin. m. both its melodic22 and rhythmic profiles faithfully reproduced (see Ex. 23 All parts but the tenor. Parfons regretz. The sigh gesture provides the core melodic material for the ending of Parfons regretz. 93 . the one that opens with the rising step followed by the falling sixth. 3. see Ex. here the descending part of the gesture followed by a rising step.2a). A variant of the gesture is articulated in the superius in duet with the contratenor. 3. the combined gestures move a third apart. For the most part. 1-19. Starting on the second half of m. this last part of the chanson is strikingly saturated by multiple statements of the sigh gesture that round up to nine reiterations occurring in all five voices of Parfons.1b (cont. the contratenor sings a gesture prominently marked by a descending minor sixth preceded by a rising step (labeled ‘sigh’ gesture for the sake of reference. two tempora ahead. which carries one statement of the gesture. that is mostly used in Parfons regretz. The passage is restated in the two lower voices. If the above are only vague instances of allusion. 19 (“et paine douloureuse”) in Mille regretz.Ex.2b). 3. echo the gesture twice. the concluding section of Parfons regretz is particularly telling in its connectedness with Mille regretz.23 Parfons regretz even 22 It is the first version of the gesture. In fact.
24 94 . contratenor. m. 44-67. S C Q T B Ex. 3. Starting on the second half of m. 18-24.imitates the presentation of the gesture in duets. the gesture echoes in three voices simultaneously (superius. and quinta pars).2b: Josquin.57. m.2a: Josquin. 3.24 S C T B Ex. Mille regretz. set at the interval of the third. Parfons regretz. as observed in Mille regretz.
3. 44-67. the quoted lines show a number of parallels: they share an equal number of syllables and occur at the second hemistich of a decasyllabic line.Ex. They are also set syllabically to the shared gesture. Moreover.25 Structurally seen. the word “dueil” falls just before the opening of the gestures. m. semantically related by their bitter tone. A consideration of the poetic texts set to the shared sigh gesture is quite revealing of Josquin’s conscious “self-appropriation.2b (cont. both hemistichs commence with the conjunction “et” and. even more telling.): Josquin.” 95 .” The gestures in Mille and Parfons carry the words “et paine douloureuse” and “et larmes il se noye” respectively. 25 They translate as “painful distress” and “it [my heart] may drown in tears. Parfons regretz.
3. it appears just before the launching of the prominent gesture discussed above (see Ex. right after its statement (m. The motivic cell in question draws a perfect arch. in Mille regretz. adjacent to the articulation of the gesture discussed above. It is articulated in both reiterations of the motive as part of the hemistichs “J’ay si grand dueil” (in Mille) and “Affin qu’en dueil” (in Parfons).27 “Dueil” (“mourning”) is an additional semantic element that further links the shared motive. the motive is repeated in paraphrase. In Mille regretz. composed of a rising fourth / falling fourth. the last note covers a whole measure.2b). 17-19.3: Josquin. The haunting sigh gesture. 3. 27 In Parfons regretz. Thus. 62-65 in bassus). marking the midpoint of Mille regretz with lamenting calls of “paine douloureuse” and so profusely echoing in the concluding part of Parfons 26 The motive starts on the second half of the measure in both chansons. 60-62 in Ex. and is set in semibrevis values. m. Mille regretz.An additional motive of intertextual significance set to the keyword “dueil” is shared between the two regretz chansons of Josquin. 3. Ex. and in Parfons regretz upon the completion of the last repetition of the gesture (m. 96 . with its middle note repeated.26 It is anchored in both chansons in the bassus.3).
If transmission in sources is an indication of popularity. Critical Commentary. 8-16. For dating/review of the source. Plus nulz regretz. see Picker. it mostly circulates independently from the other regretz of Josquin. vol. 29 It is here echoed three tempora ahead. Illumination. 10 (Ex.90/TourBV 94). C B Ex.28 Starting on the second half of m. then Plus nulz regretz must have been significantly popular. Plus nulz regretz is heavily canonic.4: Josquin.” TVNM 37 (1987): 82-110. 343-347. The Chanson Albums.” JAMS 40/1 (1987): 53-81. For an analysis of the piece. For a complete list of sources. Its only shared transmission is in MunBS 1516 (along with Mille regretz) and in Attaingnant’s edition of 1549. “The Brussels/Tournai-Partbooks: Structure. 3. 3.2b. Further intertextual weavings can be observed: the sigh gesture in Plus nulz regretz is set on the second hemistich of a verse as in Mille and Parfons. then in the contratenor. which it sets. breaking free momentarily and resuming. 280-84. Additional imitative passages are exercised throughout the chanson with a capricious freedom in changing pitch and temporal intervals. his Plus nulz regretz. see Leon Kessels. see The Josquin Companion. It opens with a double canon that covers the first line of text (up to m. first in the basssus. the hemistich in The chanson was composed sometime between 1 January 1508 (when Lemaire’s poem on the occasion of the signing of the treaty of Calais. only now in reverse order. was written) and 1511. 46-49). 28. then in the bassus two tempora ahead. first in the contratenor. I would thus consider the claim that “in Plus nulz Josquin eschewed canon” mentioned in the “Josquin” entry of the New Grove Dictionary as a careless oversight. 3. see Reynolds. 9). the date of its earliest transmission in the Brussels/Tournai partbooks (BrusBR IV. Yet. m. the gesture in Plus nulz is similarly echoed. occurs in yet another of Josquin’s chansons de regretz. m.4). the bassus quotes the gesture following the exact rhythmic values as well as the pitch classes of the gesture in Mille.regretz. For an edition. “Musical Evidence of Compositional Planning in the Renaissance: Josquin’s Plus nulz regretz. 28 97 . and Flemish Repertory. In line with the order of the statements of the gesture in Mille.29 The contratenor response even adopts the pitch classes of the first statement of the gesture in the bassus of Parfons (Ex.
They are neither appealed to appear nor are they implored to go away. the regretz in Lemaire’s poem are mentioned five times. “Joinctz et unis n’ayons plus nulz regretz”. The intensity of joy is defined as of a grand scale – it is joy that cannot be described in words (“nothing can be spoken or written” of it. Regretz plus nulz ne nous viennent après”. grans. as the second verse of the opening stanza reads) – that counterpoises the harshness of “grand dueil. 358. see The Josquin Companion. was a signifier of immeasurable sorrow must have been consciously planned. 30 For a transcription and a translation of the poetic text.Plus nulz reads “ne soyent ditz n’escriptz. “Dont noz epritz n’auront regretz plus nulz.31 By quoting the aforementioned gesture that has been so strongly associated with his other regretz chansons. Josquin seems to recall the notion of regretz.” 98 . moyens ne menuz”.” its subject being “joye. but most importantly acknowledges his regretz chansons as an independent and active network.” a feeling that comes in sharp contrast to “dueil” and “paine douloureuse” of Mille regretz. they are simply banished. vol. Plus nulz regretz expresses optimism of an unparalleled degree. Plus nulz regretz is the only surviving regretz chanson of the late fifteenth century that coveys a non-amorous narrative. if only briefly. In counterpoint to a regretz poem that celebrates discharge from sorrow.” Josquin’s compositional choice to musically illustrate this joy with a gesture that in his other two regretz chansons. in part related to the fleeing of the regretz. 28.30 In contrast to all other chansons that invoke the regretz once in their opening verses. 31 See especially the following verses: “Plus nulz regretz. and especially in his infamous Mille. Josquin’s allusion not only communicates a conscious act of momentary evocation and skillful instance of punning between text and music. Critical Commentary.
5. Josquin’s Plusieurs regretz bears a great number of resemblances with Mille regretz that only become visible after focused parallel readings of the chansons. Formal and motivic intertextualities between the chansons are discussed in Chapter 5.Threads Across Mille Regretz and Plusieurs Regretz Similarly to Parfons regretz. Plusieurs regretz à 5 makes use of the Dorian mode. they are written for five voices. m. the earliest source for both chansons is VienNB Mus. To begin with.32 Plusieurs regretz also features canonic voices (the quintus is in canon with the tenor at the 5th) and extensive repetition of complete phrases (2nd and 4th are exact repetitions of 1st and 3rd with new verses.” 407. vol. in the Dorian mode. Both regarded as of Josquin’s late style. though. see Macey. Immediate clues of a potential intertextual association between the two regretz of Josquin are provided in their opening measures. and are structured on an AABBC scheme influenced by the rhyme pattern aabba of their five-stanza poems.18746 (dated 1523). For more on the formal outline of Josquin’s five-voice chanson. 3. and features instances of imitation in openings of phrases that are of longer breath than the concise. 1-7). The three statements of “plusieurs regretz” are symmetrically laid out. is highly contrapuntal. 3. 1-7) are closely related to the superius opening of Mille regretz On the other hand. the setting of the last verse is also repeated). and 2nd/3rd each lasts for 2 tempora). intriguing broader parallels are shared between Plusieurs regretz and Parfons regretz. are rich in canons. The superius of Plusieurs regretz opens with a rather unorthodox treatment of its textual incipit introduced in a threefold musical phrase (Ex. that any allusions between Plusieurs regretz and Mille regretz are veiled beneath surface-structural features that are much divergent. It is interesting. The three cells as a whole (m. they also share transmission in two printed sources (Susato’s Le septiesme livre of 1545 and Attaingnant’s Trente sixiesme livre of 1549). with minima rests dividing melodic gestures of almost equal duration (1st motivic cell expands in 2 1/2 tempora. 32 99 . Measure numbers refer to the edition in Josquin des Prez: Opera Omnia. 15-16. “An expressive detail. short phrases arranged in syllabic style of homophonic texture in Mille regretz.
If the superius opening of Plusieurs regretz was indeed modeled on that of Mille regretz. In a microscopic level. Josquin seems to treat the three parts of the phrase as modular cells that can be rearranged and shuffled around in horizontal and vertical arrangements. so definitely. “mille”) are suggestive of a possible link between the two chansons. The bassus also partially quotes the opening passage. Both regretz feature an incipit of a rising contour (4th/5th) that stretches to pitch A.5: Josquin. m. for Josquin showcases it in imitative entrances at the canonic parts and also in the bassus of Plusieurs regretz. 33 100 . It opens with the second cell of the threefold phrase of the superius (omits the opening rising gesture) followed by the octave leap (cell 3) that. 35 It is only the opening rising gesture (cell 1) that is quoted by the canonic voices. followed by a descending gesture to C. Plusieurs regretz. The second and third cells are taken over by the bassus. a comparison would not show significant visible links (Mille features a leap of a 4th set in longer values and a dactylic rhythm. 3.33 S Q C T B Ex. during the opening of the two lowest voices. Josquin must have been eager to highlight that association. 1-7.34 The potential significance of the related passage is by no means concealed. 3. dominates the opening of Mille regretz. 1-6. 34 Even their text incipits signifying the forcefulness of the regretz by their size (“plusieurs” vs.1a).35 And to further emphasize the importance of the passage and likely provide an additional hint I need to stress that I am mostly considering the overall contour and key-intervals of the related openings. cells 1 and 2 are superimposed. and further expanded with a characteristic octave leap and a descending line of adjacent intervals (3rd/4th). see Ex.(setting of complete first verse. while the incipit in Plusieurs rises in steps and in a more elaborate rhythmic pattern). m. For instance. regarding for instance the opening rising gesture to A.
He has added further remarks regarding the intertextual significance of the passage in Plusieurs. 37 36 101 . Susato’s Le septiesme livre (1545) and Attaingnant’s Trente sixiesme livre (1549). 68-69).” 67. the gesture is here echoed between voices at a distance of 2 tempora. if influenced by Mille regretz. It circulates in only two printed sources.37 Veiled Allusions of Mille Regretz in Regretz Sans Fin Passing moments of cross-fertilization can be observed between Mille regretz and Josquin’s Regretz sans fin. Josquin provides an additional sign to highlight the association of the opening of Plusieurs with the incipit of Mille. Even more. 38 The transmission of Regretz sans fin is exceedingly limited. 3. “Mille regretz as Model.”36 Rees has traced down a further striking moment of relatedness between Plusieurs regretz and Mille regretz. Josquin was particularly cautious to follow the intervallic content of the original gesture. He skillfully distorts its Dorian modality with a definite Phrygian closure at the end of the third statement of “plusieurs regretz. he has chosen to set the second verse of the text as an exact repetition of the complete opening phrase. Similarly to Mille. Shared words and phrases are used in the contexts This point was first observed in Rees.. The concluding passage of Plusieurs (see Ex.” 408). 46-47) (ibid. Macey has discussed cross-relations in the closing section of Josquin’s five-voice chansons as a potential hallmark of his late music (see Macey.10) quotes in its canonic voices (see gesture on the words “ne schavent plus qu’ilz font”) the staple rising step/falling sixth sigh gesture of Mille regretz (set on the words “et paine douloureuse”). most notably the presence of a “sudden harmonic shift caused by the contrast between B natural and e natural accompanying its first note and the b flat which forms its second note” (m. What I find particularly telling is that pitch class B occurs once in its flat inflection.of its lineage. right on the point of the shared gesture.38 The most remarkable type of association between the chansons occurs in their poetic texts. “An expressive detail. Rees has also observed that the second statement of the shared gesture occurring in the quinta pars even matches the pitch classes of the second statement in the bassus of Mille.
most words and expressions of Mille appear to be scattered in the text of the latter chanson (see especially the expression “brief mes jours definer” and its paraphrased echo “brief finer ma vie”). see Chapter 5.” 40 For a translation. 9-12. The most striking moment of textual interrelatedness can be observed between the second half of Mille regretz and the first stanza of Regretz sans fin. the shared expression “grand dueil” bears similarities. The expression in both chansons is part of opening hemistichs (“J’ay si grand dueil” and “Et en grant dueil”) set in syllabic fashion. Plumley. the textual 39 “A thousand sorrows for abandoning you || And leaving your loving face || I have such great sadness and painful distress || That my days will soon be seen to end. for instance. n. in its musical settings. 3. For an edition of Regretz sans fin. for instance. 41 This is regarded as a generally accepted view.” JAMS 45/2 (1992): 228-260.41 Thus. Reynolds. See. among others.” esp. 53. if only vague ones. see Josquin des Prez: Opera Omnia. discusses musical allusions prompted by textual cross-references in the work of Machaut and other composers of the ars subtilior (“Intertextuality in the Fourteenth-Century Chanson. “The Counterpoint of Allusion in Fifteenth-Century Masses. 17-19). Mille regretz de vous habandonner Et d’eslonger vostre fache amoureuse J’ay si grand dueil et paine douloureuse Qu’on me verra brief mes jours deffiner39 Regretz sans fin il me fault endurer Et en grant dueil mes doulans iours user Par ung rapport meschant dont fuz servie Mieulx me vouldroit de brief finer ma vie Qu’ainsi sans cesse telle douleur muer Tout plaisir doncqs ie veulx habandonner Plus nulx soulas ie ne requirs donner Puis qu’il me fault souffrir par seulle envie40 Cues for instances of musical allusion among chansons are often delivered in their texts.of the chansons to register suffering states of mind – though Regretz sans fin is profoundly woeful – which particularly converge in their common determination to abandon life. vol. at 229. 363-69). 102 . Shown below are the texts of the chansons with common expressions highlighted in bold. In contrast to its homophonic single statement in Mille regretz (m.
6. most of the statements of “grand dueil” are set on comparable rhythmic patterns. 3. 3. 1-2). Superius statements of the complete hemistich. Moreover.7. 17-19 in Mille regretz and m. are rhythmically identical. m. 13-18. 3. 4-6) is rhythmically reminiscent of the superius opening of Mille regretz (Ex.quotation in Regretz sans fin is treated in counterpoint and further repeated (Ex. m. m. Yet. 3. 13-19). 17-19 in Regretz sans fin).6: Josquin. dominated by the use of semibrevis and brevis values. Inconspicuous rhythmic allusions can also be seen in the openings of the chansons. 3. the descending part of the incipit of Mille (m. the openings of the chansons seem to engage in a game 103 . Regretz sans fin. S Se xtu s C Q T Ex. m.3. 2-4). Overall. The opening of the quintus in Regretz sans fin (see Ex. m. the latter also duplicated in the bassus at the interval of the fifth below. 2-3) is echoed in the contratenor opening of Regretz sans fin (m.1a. for example. marked by a dactylic opening rhythm (see Ex.
Ex. 1-8. Resonances with the Regretz of La Rue The significance of La Rue as a prominent composer of regretz can hardly be overestimated. 2. 1-3) of the tenor (and subsequently of its canonic “partner” sexta pars) in Regretz sans fin can be seen as a rearrangement of the rhythmic values of the contratenor of Mille regretz (m. 1-3).of rhythmic exchange and shuffling of rhythmic cells. he can undoubtedly be regarded as the most prolific composer of regretz chansons. m. composed of a dactylic pattern (brevis–two semibreves) is transformed in its retrograde form in the openings of the outer voices of Regretz sans fin. the majority of which relate in some way or another to Marguerite. The opening rhythmic pattern (m. With eight surviving chansons centered on the theme of regretz. the opening rhythmic cell of Mille regretz. and Tous les regretz) demonstrate traces of intertextual association with Mille regretz. Taking into consideration the apparently earlier dating of 104 . Three of these chansons (Plusieurs regretz. Regretz sans fin.3: Josquin. Aprez regretz. For instance.
although not entirely dismissible. Tous les regretz belongs among the chansons on texts by Saint-Gelais (1493) that La Rue composed as a gesture of welcome for the young Marguerite shortly after her return from France (ca. occurring in the uppermost voices of the chansons (as well as in the tenor of Plusieurs regretz). see Meconi. 86. The opening of the contratenor (m. Measure numbers in the relevant discussion of Plusieurs regretz. 43 Yet in the following discussion I aim to observe and discuss intertextualities between La Rue and Josquin without attempting to secure immediate ties. the only part not related to the incipit of Mille regretz. Both Plusieurs regretz and Aprez regretz are unica and only survive in BrusBR 228 (dated ca. as well as the superius two tempora ahead in imitation. The resemblance between the opening passages. refer to the edition in Picker. without any doubt.43 Mille and Plusieurs The opening of Plusieurs regretz features extensive cross-referencing with the superius opening of Mille regretz. 42 105 .8). 1-6).” 6364. 339-42. it then descends stepwise to B flat tracking a minor sixth (in fact the order of intervals is identical). set in dactylic rhythm as in Mille regretz. could be seen in connection with the opening of the bassus of Mille (same rhythm and gesture in inversion). most certainly composed before 1508. The Chanson Albums. 3. 1-2). 44 The resemblance between the chansons was first pointed out by Rees in his “Mille regretz as model. 1494).44 All parts apart from the contratenor open with a melodic line that closely resembles that of Josquin’s superius (m. if it ever existed.la Rue’s chansons. is. The possibility that it was Mille regretz that “infected” any of the three regretz of La Rue is rather obscure. must have been prompted by La Rue. 1508). opens with a rising fourth from D to G. and proceeds with an octave leap and a characteristic repeated-note gesture in semibrevis values (see Ex. Pierre de la Rue. For a discussion on the dating of the chanson and the occasion of this composition.42 any potential tangible line of influence with Josquin’s chanson. The tenor for instance.
the confusing dating of Mille regretz hinders further speculations about its composition before of after Plusieurs regretz. The concluding section of Plusieurs similarly duplicates note for note its opening phrase. has not been previously suggested in Josquin’s scholarship. it is tempting to think of Mille regretz as a model for Plusieurs.explic. Both chansons open up with an expression of quantity. 46 The repetitions of the opening passage and recurring echoes of Josquin’s incipit in essentially three out of the five phrases of Plusieurs is also noted by Rees.8: La Rue. m. I have also observed. 45 106 . a date that. ibid. instead of faithfully following the opening of Mille regretz.46 Even the textual incipits provide an additional clue so that they drag the eye and mind to contemplate a potential interrelatedness. that the contratenor.. It that case. 1-10. but is the first to enter with the incipit before further imitative entries in the tenor and the superius. in regard to the concluding section. Ex. In any case. Plusieurs regretz. 3. the “regretz” compete in their manifestation of profusion. previously the only voice that did not carry the opening incipit. partially interrelates with it (the descending sixth as well as the octave leap are omitted). 64. then the fact that the second phrase of Plusieurs regretz is an almost exact repetition of the first widely celebrates the importance of the passage and La Rue’s intention to highlight it further. however. now not only quotes it. The word “plusieurs” resonates with “mille”. the only changes occurring at the closing of the phrase to accommodate a cadence in the finalis. Based on these observations. The bassus of Plusieurs regretz.45 If the first complete phrase is clearly dominated by Josquin’s migrated superius passage. Mille should have been composed sometime in late 1490s.
is later sung by the three lower voices syllabically and in strict homophony (Ex. 1-10.): La Rue. La Rue’s compositional choice is comparable with the change of texture occurring in the second hemistich of Mille regretz. not as conspicuous as the intersection of a great part of Plusieurs regretz with the superius opening of Mille regretz. Thus. m. “De vous habandonner” in Mille regretz is not only set syllabically in contrast to its preceding alluring melisma. rhythmic and melodic elements of the passage are mirrored in that of Plusieurs. can be observed and further attest to the intertextual play between the chansons. all three lower voices of the latter chanson (m. 5-7). m. The second hemistich of Plusieurs regretz. Here. “Qui sur la terre sont. 3. Additional interrelationships. The tenor and partially the bassus in Plusieurs reproduce the melodic shape of the contratenor and the superius of Mille regretz respectively. Plusieurs regretz. 8-10).8 (cont. 3.Ex.8. 107 .” first set in quasi-melismatic gestures. 8-10) are set in the rhythmic pattern of the contratenor of Mille (m.
a compositional choice also followed by La Rue.9).One of the most frequently quoted gestures of Mille regretz. then by the two lower ones. the gesture is sung in duets. 36 of the chanson. in part followed a third above by the tenor.” 64.47 Starting on m. The core voices carrying the gesture in Mille (contratenor and bassus) exchange statements in the same pitch classes. the ascending step/descending sixth occurring on the words “et paine douloureuse” (sigh gesture). they converge significantly in their semantic dimension. 108 . The corresponding verse in Mille regretz conveys comparable sentiments of suffering: “J’ay si grand dueil et paine douloureuse. As Rees has pointed out. Plusieurs regretz shares with Mille regretz the textural scheme of the presentation of the gesture.” Besides. As for the texts of the shared gesture. a comparable presentation of the gesture occurs in Plusieurs regretz. 47 Rees. Yet. partially duplicated in the contratenor. and later by the bassus. in Mille regretz. is also detected in Plusieurs regretz (see Ex. the gesture is first sung by the superius. “Mille regretz as model. first by the two upper voices. its link with “douleurs” in the second verse of Plusieurs regretz should also be noted. The fourth verse of the opening stanza of Plusieurs regretz addresses the impact of sorrows (“douleurs”) on the poet: “Me tourmentant de si piteuse sorte” (“Tormenting me so piteously”). it is not only the gesture that seems to be of importance. the word “douloureuse” resonates with “piteuse” in its rhyming and shared role as register of the intensity of despair. 3.
The Chanson Albums. 3. 3. Plusieurs regretz. 48 Measure numbers refer to the edition in Picker. 19-22) similarly to Mille regretz. 36-40. Aprez Regretz The sigh gesture occurs in La Rue’s Aprez regretz.48 This first statement likewise follows the exact pitches and rhythmic values of that in Mille regretz. duets).10. Presented mainly by the superius and in duet at the tenor.9: La Rue. 109 . It is hosted in the second part of the second phrase and it is first introduced by the contratenor (see Ex. the second statement begins at almost the same number of tempora ahead as in Mille regretz.Ex. where it also partially embraces relevant aspects of its presentation as observed in various instances previously discussed (repetition in other voices. 347-50. m. m.
particularly in the case of Aprez regretz.” echoed in a threefold presentation of the shared gesture. m. 3.S C T B Ex. What makes it more fascinating. Preceding “souvenir” is the word “dueil” followed by the conjunction “et” in direct matching with the text of Mille regretz right before the presentation of the gesture (see opening verses of Aprez vs. is the word set to it and its adjacent text. La Rue’s consistent reliance upon the sigh gesture is undeniably intriguing. 3rd line of Mille below). 16-24. The word in question is “souvenir.10: La Rue. 110 . Aprez regretz.
Aprez regretz il se fault resjouyr Chassant tristesse et deuil et souvenir [“After sorrowing. in the context of Aprez regretz. And while “souvenir” as a carrier of memories related to “tristesse et deuil” (beginning of verse) is. By virtue of the grafting sigh gesture. to be chased away. whose opening closely resembles that of Mille regretz. the dactylic rhythm of the two opening measures. Besides. as is also the harmonic progression with a semitone rise in the 111 . the staple shared gesture. “souvenir” embodies its signified as a bearer of memories. resonating with the latter by means of its meaning – that is. is an embodiment of the past and an aural signifier of the regretz in particular. In contrast to Plusieurs regretz. it can be said that the gesture itself. the word is the textual embodiment of the migrated gesture. yet their presence is materialized by means of the gesture as a musical topos. too. is not a word innocent of meaning and interpretation. engages in a counterpoint of contrast: the “regretz” are meant to go away. one must rejoice Chasing sadness and mourning and memories”] J’ay si grand dueil et paine douloureuse “Souvenir. sung in homophony. Taking in consideration the various migrations of gesture within the regretz of Josquin and la Rue. its counterpart. memories. the opening of Aprez regretz does not bear any conspicuous signs to suggest a connection. It is due to the shared “souvenir / paine douloureuse” gesture discussed above that I am impelled to compare the opening of Aprez regretz with that of Mille regretz for possible parallels. is notable.” in the context of Aprez regretz.
nor of an intervallically consistent descent. the underlying shape of the motive brings to mind the opening superius motive of Mille regretz. all voices of Aprez regretz but the tenor sing a motive composed by a rising fourth and a conjunct descent. 3. Following the gesture set on the opening hemistich. thread of connection. Aprez regretz.49 The harmonic gesture is particularly striking. a compositional habit frequently employed by Josquin (see “et paine douloureuse” of his Mille regretz). m.11: La Rue. Ex. 35) also opens homophonically and in dactylic rhythm. 3. Although neither rhythmically or textually similar. 1-5. Parts enter in duets (first the two lower voices. more so since the B flat in Aprez Regretz is a signed B-fa. albeit subtle. Further scrutiny of the openings reveals an additional.11]. 49 112 . then the two upper voices). E to F in Mille).lowest voice (A to B flat in Aprez [see Ex. The second section of Aprez regretz (m. and is accompanied in the contratenor by a 1-6-7-1 progression similar to 1-6-2-1 in Mille.
12. the phrase (m. individual sub-phrases match in 50 Rees. In fact.” 72. 3. see Picker. As seen in Ex. an octave leap leads to the second hemistich. but proceeds differently following the octave leap. 51 The part of bassus opens with a paraphrase of the motive.52 Even more. set syllabically in a series of semibrevis of repetitive pitches and a subsequent descent. “Mille regretz as model. 52 The part of contratenor in Tous les regretz shares an identical opening with the superius. 180-83. provide further specifics regarding the allusion apart from this observation.50 He does not. 113 . the opening motive of Tous les regretz shares a comparable contour with the incipit of Josquin’s chanson. The Chanson Albums. 2-6) seems to correspond to a substantial part of the Tous les regretz incipit and even beyond. For an edition of Tous les regretz. Its underlying orbit is remarkably similar to that of Mille regretz. however. The opening section of Tous les regretz displays an all-pervading imitative texture. has called attention to a possible link with la Rue’s Tous les regretz. if for a moment we discard the gesture of the opening fourth in Mille regretz (m. in his study of the referential world of Mille regretz. uses a motive that recalls the incipit of Mille regretz. woven out of entries of the initial motive in the intervals of the octave and the fifth. the incipit of La Rue’s chanson tracks a descending sixth filled in with crotchets. as Rees mentions.Tous les Regretz Rees. 1).51 Even though its texture stands in contrast to the concise and mostly homophonic presentation of the Mille regretz opening. The latter.
m. 114 .Ex. 3. Tous les regretz. 1-20.12: La Rue.
g. Moreover. 16). 17-19). The opening motive in La Rue’s chanson shares its overall pitches with that of Josquin’s. their parallel textual positions: e.Ex. the virtual omission of the particular interval is compensated for at the beginning of the second phrase in La Rue’s chanson. 115 . 3. the bassus sings the gesture A-D-D-C. Tous les regretz. m.): La Rue. the semibrevis gesture in the tenor of Tous les regretz(m. as was just shown.13.12 (cont.. The motive is repeated an octave higher in the tenor (m. The gestures in both La Rue’s and Josquin’s chansons are repeated at a distance of two semibreves later. unmistakably reminiscent of the E-A-A-G incipit of Mille regretz. the pitch 53 Other obscure similarities between the openings of Tous les regretz and Mille regretz are particularly suggestive of their intertextual association. 1-20. In addition. the second gesture (repetitive pitches and falling third articulated in semibreves) occurs in both chansons at the second hemistich. Starting on m . resembles that of Mille regretz excluding the opening fourth gesture.5-6). in continuation of the A-D-D-C motive (starting on m. 10-13) echoes the one in the superius of Mille regretz (m. The second half of the second phrase features in the bassus.53 If the opening motive of Tous les regretz. a gesture that is rhythmically identical with the second half of the opening phrase in Mille regretz.
classes of the gesture in Tous les regretz are almost identical with those in the superius of Mille regretz (excluding the second note). To summarize, the overall structure of the complete phrases (2nd phrase in the two lower voices of Tous les regretz and 1st phrase in the superius of Mille regretz) share a number of attributes: both begin similarly with a rising fourth and a subsequent descent and also feature similar gestures in their second hemistichs. The kinship between the phrases is not visibly apparent; it is rather largely obscured due to the elaborate falling figure and subsequent octave leap in Mille regretz, features that are nonetheless echoed in the first phrase of Tous les regretz. To put it in other words, when both the first and second phrases of Tous les regretz are considered against the opening superius phrase of Mille regretz, they demonstrate a kinship that integrates every motivic element of the latter. These intertextualities are veiled and would most probably go unnoticed if it were not for the textual incipits of the chansons referring to regretz that prompted their parallel scrutiny. Yet, they are not sufficient to prove a direct influence between the chansons. One the other hand, the texts of the chansons demonstrate signs of correspondence, which could have prompted either of the two composers to allude, albeit discreetly, to the regretz chanson of the other. Tous les regretz conveys the distress of a lover who has parted from his beloved. The reason of his separation is not explicitly stated (“Car j’ay perdu celle” [“Because I have lost her”]). It could presumably be death. Yet, it may also be that she abandoned him, as is the case in Mille regretz (“vous habandonner et d’eslonger”). In any case, the narrator in both chansons suffers due to a kind of “departure.” In similar fashion, the
Regretz are invoked in profusion in both poems. “Mille regretz” competes with “tous les regretz qui les cueurs tourmentez” (“All sorrows which torment hearts”) as they are summoned to intervene. In fact, in Tous les regretz, the regretz are called upon persistently: “Venez au mien” (“Come to mine [my heart])“; “Venez doncques et plus rien ne doubtez” (“Come then and you will no longer doubt anything”); “Venez et vous diligentez” (“Come and hasten”). It is however in the poets’ resolution and ultimate desire that the parallel narratives culminate; death is commonly seen in both texts as an unavoidable path. In Mille regretz, this is stated firmly and concisely in the two concluding verses. In Tous les regretz, death is implored more that once in both the first and last stanzas. In both chansons, death as resolution is preceded by an expression of the narrator’s suffering that serves to justify his state of mind and to portray death as a natural denouement. Seen below are the two concluding verses of Mille regretz and their parallel verses in Tous les regretz (3rd verse of 1st stanza, 4th verse of 3rd stanza respectively).
J’ay si grand dueil et paine douloureuse Qu’on me verra brief mes jours deffiner Pour abregier le surplus de ma vie J’ay triste soing qui veult que je desvye54
Could we assume, based on their parallel textual segments and overall comparable narratives, that the texts of Tous les regretz and Mille regretz were consciously related?55 The two poems are among a few regretz whose authors are known. Both were written by
The first line translates as “To cut short what’s left of my life” and the second as “I have a sad care so that I want to die.” 55 I have previously emphasized that issues of influence and deliberate modeling are not of primary concern in my current research. Any speculation on the possibility of direct cross-borrowing within the regretz network is meant to raise questions rather than attempt to secure conscious ties.
famous literary auctoritates; Mille regretz by Jean Lemaire de Belges, court poet and historiographer of Marguerite of Austria, and Tous les regretz by Octavien de SaintGelais, who, although never employed by her, is also associated with Marguerite by means of a group of farewell regretz chansons he composed on the occasion of her departure from France in 1493.56 Since 1504, the time he was appointed as court historiographer at her Savoy court, Lemaire engaged in writing poetical works dedicated to his patroness, Marguerite.57 As her court historiographer, he may well have been aware of the regretz chansons written for her by Saint-Gelais. Such a hypothesis acquires further merit if we also take into consideration that Lemaire, apart from Mille regretz, penned additional poems dealing with “regretz,” such as Plus nultz regretz (1508) and Les Regretz de la Dame Infortunée (1506), the latter in the tradition of associating regretz with the misfortunes of Marguerite, initiated by Saint-Gelais. In any case, if a conscious string of influence between the two poems existed, it must have originated with Lemaire, whose involvement with Marguerite begins after Saint-Gelais’s death (d. 1502). In the same line, if musical intertextualities between Tous les regretz and Mille regretz are deliberate, and not intersected by means of a third intermediary chanson, it must have been Josquin who alluded to La Rue. Based on stylistic evidence (dependence on the rondeau form, melismas), Tous les regretz belongs to the earlier chanson output of La Rue. Besides, as Picker has argued, Tous les regretz
Picker considers the following rondeaux, Tous nobles cueurs, Le cueur la suy, and Tous les regretz in “More ‘regret’ chansons,” 81-101. 57 During the first couple of years of his employment he wrote for her La Couronne Margaritique, a poetic biography of her, and Premier epître de l’Amant Vert, an imaginary letter from her parrot, the “green lover,” lamenting her absence; a few years later, he wrote Les Regretz de la Dame Infortunée for the death of her brother, Philippe. See Picker, The Chanson Albums, 16.
was most likely composed around the time Saint-Gelais wrote the poem, to be performed at a farewell event dedicated to Marguerite.58 Josquin, on the other hand, although never officially employed by Marguerite, may have come to know La Rue’s chanson by means of his association with Lemaire,59 who in turn was in Marguerite’s service at the time Marguerite’s chansonnier MS 11239 was compiled, in which Tous les regretz was prominently featured.60
Textual Echoes Between Mille Regretz and Cent Mille Regretz In line with my previous discussion on textual resemblances between Mille regretz and La Rue’s regretz chansons, a last regretz chanson to be considered is Cent mille regretz.61 Similarly to Lemaire’s poem, the text of the chanson consists of a single
Picker, ibid., 16. Meconi has similarly argued for a date close to the writing of the poem (see this chapter, n. 42). 59 Picker’s claim that Josquin was a friend of Lemaire is perhaps overstated (no evidence provided) (Picker, The Chanson Albums, 16). For certain, there must have been some kind of professional contact (see Picker, “Josquin and Jean Lemaire”). Not only had the artists previously collaborated (e.g. at the creation of Plus nulz regretz written by Lemaire to celebrate the Treaty of Calais, initiated by Marguerite, and set to music by Josquin), but it is seems that Lemaire was thinking very highly of Josquin’s composition skills. For instance, in a later version of his poem La plainte du desiré, written to commemorate the death of Louis of Luxembourg (1503), Lemaire invokes Josquin, along with other composers such as Agricola and Hilaire Penet, to compose a lament, an invitation, it has been suggested, realized in Cueurs desolez, presumably authored by Josquin. For a discussion on the attribution of Cueurs desolez to Josquin, see “Josquin (Lebloitte dit) des Prez,” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed. (2001), 13: 226. Besides, the poet, describing the music of his time in “La Description du Temple de Venus” of his La Concorde des Deux Langages, praises Josquin, among such composers as Agricola, Ockeghem, and Compère, for creating music of “les verbes coulourez” (Picker, The Chanson Albums, 16-17). 60 According to Picker, BrusBR 11239 is of Savoyard origin, most probably compiled before Marguerite’s marriage to Philibert II le Beau, duke of Savoy in 1501, or during her years of residence in Savoy (15011507), and passed to her possession after the death of her husband. See Picker, The Chanson Albums, 5-7. 61 The chanson was attributed to Josquin in Attaingnant’s 1550 collection. It is featured as the first piece in VienNB Mus.18746 and transmitted anonymously. Attribution to La Rue comes in its earliest surviving source, the superius partbook VatP 1982 (ca. 1513-23). Stylistic evidence suggests a La Rue authorship. See Bernstein, “Chansons Attributed to Both Josquin des Prez and Pierre de la Rue: A Problem in Establishing Authenticity,” in Proceedings of the International Josquin Symposium, ed. Wilem Elders (Utrecht: Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, 1986), 125-52, esp. 131-35.
stanza, in keeping with the trendy abandonment of the rondeau form in chansons of the late fifteenth/early sixteenth century.
Cent mille regretz me poursuivent sans cesse Deuil me conduict et plaisir me delaisse Et fortune si tres mal me promene Que ma langueur vault pis que mort soudaine Pouisqu’il est force qu’ainsi je vous delaisse62
Typical of courtly poetry, Cent mille regretz is filled with sadness, registered with expressions of inconsolable grief, unavoidable parting, and a veiled suggestion of death. The lyrical self’s state of mind projected in Cent mille regretz is strikingly replicated in the narrative of Mille regretz and articulated by a shared vocabulary. For instance, the word “dueil” is reiterated, while expressions such as “je vous delaisse” (used twice), “mort soudaine,” and “langueur” in Cent mille regretz reverberate with the following in Mille regretz of parallel meaning: “de vous habandonner,” “brief mes jours deffiner,” and “paine douloureuse.” Needless to say, the textual incipits of the chansons are so intriguingly alike that I am tempted to interpret this an obvious signal of allusion from the part of the poet of Cent mille regretz. “Cent mille regretz” is an explicit paraphrase of “Mille regretz”; this fact, taken into consideration along with the shared vocabulary and related narratives of the chansons, suggests that the poems must have engaged in some kind of communication.63
Translated as: “One hundred thousand regrets pursue me without ceasing || Grief governs me and pleasure forsakes me || And fortune so unkindly charts my course || That my debility is worse than sudden death || Since I am thus forced to abandon you” (translation in Meconi, “Style and Authenticity in the Secular Music of Pierre de la Rue” [PhD diss., Harvard University, 1986], 209). 63 During the fourteenth century French literary societies held poetry contests, where poets competed in composing ballades upon a shared refrain. Poetry competitions were organized in particular by the Cour
but also openly reworked Josquin’s compositions. Plumley’s idea of literary intertexts as products of citation contests is also central in her “Intertextuality in the 14 th century chanson. Nicolas. this was mentioned by the theorist Hermann Finck in his Practica musica (1556) (see George Nugent and Eric Jas. . she mentions poetry contests flourishing in as late as 1469.Mille regretz as the Progenitor of Gombert’s Regretz Nicolas Gombert must have been a devout follower of Josquin. Yet. See Plumley. and rhythmically varied into a thick texture. 1975). The latter he worked into a triple canon. For an edition of Mille regretz.65 Gombert’s reworking of Mille regretz resembles an intricate and dense patchwork largely woven out of motives of Josquin’s model.” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. with eight out of his ten masses based on preexisting models. who was presumably his teacher during the latter’s last years in Condé. Gombert’s déploration on the death of Josquin cited the cantus firmus “Circumdederunt” which Josquin previously employed in his sixpart chanson Nymphes. vol. For he not only composed a déploration on the death of the composer. 369). see Nicolas Gombert. 64 On the possibility of Gombert being a pupil of Josquin. All six parts are saturated with melodic snippets of quoted material. 2nd ed. arranged in quotation and variably transposed. there is an apparent amoureuse. nappés. paraphrased. We might imagine that certain contests engaged the writing of new poems upon a shared incipit instead of a refrain or asked for a paraphrase on a given incipit or theme – “Mille regretz” and “Cent mille regretz” may be the outcomes of such a contest. Opera omnia. ed.” 21-22.. Gombert composed reworkings of his teacher’s chansons Mille regretz and En l’ombre d’ung buissonet.64 An expert of the parody technique. most likely in tribute to Josquin’s preoccupation with canonic structures.” Here. an aristocratic institution in Paris. “Playing the citation game. “Gombert. when famous poets such as Villon and Charles d’Orléans competed in “Concours de Bloison” the refrain “Je meurs de soif aupres de la fontaine” (ibid. elongated with short melismas. 121 . 160-63. Distribution of migrated fragments within larger sections (corresponding to settings of individual verses) is clearly deliberate and skillfully planned. 65 Ibid. 11. 10: 118-19). It was printed in Susato’s collection of Josquin’s chansons of 1545.. in the early fifteenth century where poems were composed on designated refrains. along with two other laments by Flemish composers. 120-21. Joseph SchmidtGorg. Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 6 (Rome : American Institute of Musicology.
threaded into an extensive grid of imitative entries. m. “the original composition is not transplanted or integrated as such in a new polyphonic complex. are so pervasive that the opening section of Gombert’s reworking has swollen to fifteen measures. 66 As Ignace Bossuyt also observes. Ex.freedom in Gombert’s redistribution of material within individual sections. set on the words “Mille regretz. 122 . 1-14.13: Gombert.” 114). 3. Echoes. 3.” is built on material drawn from the first four measures of Josquin’s. Mille regretz.13).66 For example. but serves as the starting point for a wholly new composition” (“Nicolas Gombert and Parody. Gombert transforms “his model into a complex contrapuntal whole” by drawing material from all voices. the opening section of Gombert’s (Ex.
13 (cont. All voices but the sextus 123 . Intense borrowing occurs throughout Gombert’s parody. m. 7-9). 3. Mille regretz.): Gombert. the polyphonic passage set on the words “Et d’eslongier” (Ex. Imitative calls at the beginning of phrases are saturated with motives at times drawn from the bassus of Josquin’s model (instead of the superius. 3. For instance.14a) draws extensively from Josquin’s four-note bassus motive (m. which is most commonly borrowed).Ex. 1-14.
though. m. 3. Opera omnia. a chanson that also bears signs of allusion to Josquin’s Mille regretz (see discussion in the following paragraph). 20-24. in imitative entries at the unison (Ex. Mille regretz. 3. features a motive that also circulates in another regretz chanson of Gombert. which further echoes in imitative entries.14a.68 The motive is featured in the two lower parts of Gombert’s Mille regretz. An edition of Regret ennuy is in Gombert. 3. sextus and bassus. 142-45. 20 of Regret ennuy (Ex.14b). vol. It mirrors the rhythm and interval structure of the rising fifth gesture opening in m. 11.14a: Gombert. is that the sextus. The regretz in question is his five-part Regret ennuy. 67 68 The tenor and the bassus quote the motive during the second statements of the hemistich.feature echoes of the bassus motive in its original pitch classes. 124 .67 What is most interesting. C Q A T S B Ex. m. 21-23). the sole voice not drawing material from Josquin’s model during this particular phrase.
As Rees has shown. “Mille regretz as Model. whose dependence on Mille regretz is quite remarkable. 9. being used in the setting of almost every phrase of text” (ibid.70 If Gombert conceived Regret ennuy as a responce to Tousiours souffrir. Tousiours souffrir demonstrates the most “concentrated reliance” on Josquin’s Mille regretz. Regret ennuy. by means of This is the only instance of shared pitch classes (A.. The opening motive of Mille “dominates the whole chanson.69 and in inversion with further statements of the motive in the cantus and sextus. Regret ennuy. It is also in retrograde with the bassus of Gombert’s reworking of Mille regretz starting on m. I have only observed a single notable point of association shared among Regret ennuy and the two Mille regretz chansons. 51). Rees. then the latter. imitatively distributed to all five parts of the chanson in an orderly fashion from highest to lowest. B flat.14b: Gombert. Apart from the fleeting and rather inconspicuous moment of intersection discussed above. is an inversion of the bassus opening motive of Josquin’s chanson.Ex. 70 69 125 . 19-23. Tousiours souffrir. bears the inscription “responce” and is preceded by another chanson of Gombert. and G). Owen Rees has tracked down some striking evidence that hints to such a connection. Although other shared gestures suggesting reliance of Regret ennuy on Josquin’s chanson have not been observed. m. 3.” 51 and 55. The opening four-note gesture of Regret ennuy. as published in Susato’s edition of 1549.
13). The opening of O doulx regretz (Ex.its close resemblance with Josquin’s Mille regretz.” 63. vol. The openings also follow a similar harmonic progression. All parts of O doulx regretz begin with motives of a retrograde structure. 17-19 in Ex. Opera omnia. 72 Even the harmonic functions of the shared gestures coincide. Apart from Regret ennuy and Mille regretz. Gombert composed two other regretz: O doulx regretz and Tous les regretz.72 In fact.71 Both regretz commence in an exclamatory fashion to introduce the regretz by means of a sequence of chordal writing in dactylic rhythm (brevis/two semibrevis). In addition to displaying a rhythmic and harmonic resemblance. the third measure returns to the harmonic identity of the first. 126 . The central measures of the related 71 The resemblance as an instance of loose and likely unconscious connection is also briefly mentioned in Rees. The opening pitches (C and E) are the finalis of the modes (Ionian and Phrygian respectively). 97-99. 11. Even though that is not exactly the case with the opening gestures of Mille regretz. The palindromic gesture in the bassus of O doulx regretz is echoed in the bassus of Mille regretz (opening of third phrase.15) resembles in its rhythmic structure and homophonic texture that of Josquin’s Mille regretz. Examining their intertextual dimensions may provide further clues in tracing the impact of Josquin’s Mille regretz in Gombert’s regretz output. those of the contratenor and the bassus begin and end with the same pitches. functions as a conceptual bridge to virtually allude to an intertextual play between Josquin’s chanson and Gombert’s Regret ennuy. See an edition of O doulx regretz in Gombert. 3. m. the intertextual association at that particular moment goes beyond the single echo of the bassus line. “Mille regretz as Model. 3. the entire polyphonic motive set on the words “J’ay si grand dueil” matches the melodic profile of the opening of O doulx regretz.
at the beginning of a phrase) can be indicative of an explicit connection. the chanson employs a dense contrapuntal writing of shorter values (mostly minimas). The fourth part (superius of Mille regretz and tenor of O doulx) features a descending minor third made up of the exact same pitch classes (C to A). the fact that shared passages occur in parallel moments (opening three measures. Ex. A-A. C-C. and later. apart from the opening measures. homophonic writing with motives of longer rhythmic values happens only during the opening of O doulx regretz. m. O doulx regretz. It is as if the 127 . I am led to believe that we have here some strong indications of conscious affinity. If then the opening – whose text carries the word “regretz” – is so stylistically distinct from the remaining chanson and yet closely similar with that of Mille regretz. 18 of Mille regretz and m. Such kinds of interrelations between Mille regretz and O doulx regretz are rather marginal and are only loosely suggestive of Gombert’s reliance or broader reference to Josquin’s chanson. E-E in Mille regretz). 1-3.15: Gombert. 2 of O doulx regretz) are identical in their arrangement of the three parts to form triads and to echo the same pitches in repetition (FF and A-A in O doulx regretz. Yet. 3.passages (m. Even more.
Gombert not only borrowed the polyphonic opening of Josquin’s Mille regretz and transplanted it to the very beginning of his own regretz chanson.opening of O doulx regretz “exposes” its migrated status by means of its contrast in style with what follows – declamation is used as a rhetoric device to point out and “elevate” a passage of importance.74 The rising fourth incipit assumes the role of a generative cell that. but right up to the closing of the section. 1-19). Now. but also celebrated his allusion and reverence to his teacher by weaving and developing the melodic cells of the quoted passage into the complete grid of the song. 1-3 of tenor (C-C-A-C) with the opening motive of the second phrase (starting on m. 74 Measure numbers refer to the edition in Gombert. Opera omnia. considering the opening section of the chanson (m. pervades the overall texture of the chanson. 11. 11). varied in its rhythm and further development. 3. The only instance of intersection I have located occurs with O doulx regretz. one can observe a textbook example of Gombert’s intricate counterpoint. by being presented in variable facets of paraphrasing.73 From this perspective. for instance. 19-38) composed of a rising fourth and a descent. Tous les regretz commences with a stepwise rising fourth resounding in all six parts in imitative entries (see Ex. the opening. and opening bassus motive (C-F-F-C) with scattered motives in the 3rd and 4th phrase (m. superimposed along gestures set to the second hemistich. vol. m. In fact. is echoed profusely not only during the initial measures. albeit quite limited. Set to fit in the textual incipit “Tous les regretz. it is my impression that most motives of O doulx regretz derive from the melodic cells of the three opening measures. 175-80.” the rising fourth motive.16). viewed as the springboard for the composition of the chanson. Compare. acquires an even higher significance. 73 128 . The thread of intertextual associations within Gombert’s regretz output includes a consideration of those arising from his Tous les regretz.
The haunting presence of the opening motive of Tous les regretz is similarly noticeable in O doulx regretz.16: Gombert.Ex. commences on pitch class G. The first statement of the shared motive. Tous les regretz. m. in both chansons. And even though the two renderings of the motive differ in intervallic structure due to the use of B flat in O doulx regretz. whose third phrase (m. 1-9. 3. 19-32) features a motive beginning with a stepwise rising fourth (see Ex. 3. the fact that a great number of reiterations of the motive employ the G-A-B(flat)-C version (see 129 .17).
the motive is set on the hemistich “Pour mon tresor.” This phrase.13: Gombert. 2. 13. O doulx regretz. when read against the 130 . For instance. In O doulx regretz. Moreover.especially both superius parts) leads me to think that the choice of these particular pitch classes may not be coincidental but suggestive of some connection between the two regretz. 19-29. Nevertheless. one may also observe that certain reiterations of the motive are mostly comparable. Ex. upon closer scrutiny. 24-26) is identical both in its rhythmic structure and intervallic order to the statement of the motive in the altus of Tous les regretz starting on m. m. the most intriguing clue in regard to a possible thread of allusion stemming from the use of the shared motive in O doulx regretz and Tous les regretz lies in the parallel reading of the texts attached to the two regretz. the second statement of the motive in the superius of O doulx regretz (m.
Francis Maes (Leuven. as pointed out by Marvin. The origin of the regretz. 76 Bruno Bouckaert. Most specifically. 75 131 . In her significant work on the literary dimension of the regretz chansons of the late fifteenth century.” engage in an interplay triggered by a shared musical gesture in Gombert’s regretz chansons is in itself intriguing.textual incipit “Tous les regretz. see the opening part of Chapter 5. 77 The possibility that he may have owned a university degree is all too plausible considering that the young singers of the chapel whom he was directing used to be sent to study at places such as the university of Leuven (see ibid.” in The Empire Resounds. “Nicolas Gombert’s First Book of Four-Voice Motets: Anthology or Apologia?” in The Empire Resounds.. It would be compelling to speculate whether Gombert was aware of the early literary connection between “tresor” and “regretz.75 Observing that these words. and most especially in a series of poetical responses between the famous poets Alain Chartier.” Gombert was highly regarded for his compositional skills and was.”76 Judging from his important position in the court chapel as maître des enfants and his canonry at the prestigious Tournai Cathedral. 47-48. I find it reasonable to assume that he must have been well educated. Marvin has brought to light a quite intriguing “regretz-tresor” bonding inherent in the emergence of the regret as a poetic motif. Jean de Bourbon. together with Thomas Crecquillon. to parallel See “Regrets in French Chanson Texts. 42) For an account of Gombert’s status and fame at his own time. “regretz” and “tresor. “The Capilla Flamenca: the Composition and Duties of the Music Ensemble at the Court of Charles V. Belgium: Leuven University Press. Music in the Days of Charles V. see Alan Lewis. the interplay between the words “tresor” and “regretz” and their semantic interconnection is of particular importance. 1999). “the most renowned composer in the service of Charles V.” For more on the literary origins of the regretz.” It was then grafted in Jean de Bourbon’s bergerette “J’amasse ung tresor de regres.” 195-97. is traced in the genre of complainte. ed. 1424) with the expression “tresor de regres.” which in turn instigated a rather ironic response by Charles d’Orléans whose opening verses read: “C’est une dangereuse espergne. The “regretz–tresor” association was first initiated in Chartier’s Complainte (ca.77 It is also tempting to think that Gombert consciously set the two words. and Charles d’Orléans. Marvin argues. 1515-1558. 40. d’amasser tresor de regres. originally related by literary convention.” reveals further signs to argue for an intertextual communication of the chansons.
Its earliest transmission occurs in the third layer of Laborde with a suggested date of 1480s. Rees suggests that there is also the possibility of both Mille regretz and Les grans regretz drawing upon “a similar motivic convention or archetype.” 79 The majority of its sources date from the 1490s.melodic motives with the intention to showcase his erudition and competence in the literary tradition of his immediate past.1a).80 The gesture is particularly significant in Les grans regretz since it breaks away from the mode of the piece (G Dorian) and recalls. Mille regretz could potentially have had an influence on some of Josquin’s own regretz chansons and certainly on a few of Gombert’s regretz chansons. judging by its appearance in surviving sources and its stylistic facets. A Catalogue.12 and Ex. 132 . The “Other Way Around” In some of the regretz chansons intertextually related with Mille regretz. momentarily. there is. a piece that most likely predates Mille regretz. The superius parts also feature comparable incipits. see Fallows. “Mille regretz as Model. the possibility that it was Josquin’s chanson that acted as the archetype for further allusions cannot be discarded. 80 Rees. Yet.”78 The chanson in question is Ghizeghem’s Les grans regretz. 255.79 It is in the openings of the chansons that signs of interconnectedness are mostly observed. the Phrygian modality of Mille regretz (see Ex. “Mille regretz as Model. For a list of sources.” 47. 1.” 47. Rees has pointed out that an unusual harmonic gesture. composed of a rising fourth (which in Les grans regretz is gradually reached with the 78 Rees. as Rees has suggested. a case of intertextual association in which “the modeling may well have operated the other way round. links the openings of the chansons. commencing with the progression of a rising semitone in the lower parts. 3.
the hopeless situation driving the suffering characters to putting an end to their lives is commonly illustrated: If Mille regretz explicitly engaged in grafting Les grans regretz. Their parallel openings can. suggest of a certain degree of relatedness. the second measure made up by two semibrevis of the same pitch. scarcely differs from the concluding verse of Mille regretz. I need to note that these instances of intertextual relationship cannot securely account for a conscious affiliation between the chansons. and overall scheme of narrative.” 340). 82 Translated respectively as “Or I want death to take me back to you” and “That my days will soon be seen to end. Josquin also composed two instrumental reworkings of Ghizeghem’s De tous biens plaine (see Litterick. but equally decidedly. less forthrightly.”82 The latter. Les grans regretz features a dactylic rhythmical pattern at the opening of the tenor that resonates with the contratenor and bassus of the opening two measures of Mille regretz. although different in length. one can easily observe that both chansons. though certainly more affirmative in its intention.” 81 133 .81 An additional hint of relatedness may surface from scanning the literary components of the chansons. progress towards the same resolution. it was not the only instance of a Josquin-Ghizeghem intertextual alliance. “Qu je vaulx mort a vous je m’en raporte. suggests death as the outcome to an unbearable situation.” the concluding line of Les grans regretz. but one that arises out of shared musical stereotypes within the regretz network.addition of crotchets). “Chansons for Three and Four Voices. and followed by a gradual descending gesture of a fifth. In considering the poetic text of Les grans regretz against that of Mille regretz. however. “Qu’on me verra brief mes jours definer. form. Additionally. probably not direct. doubled in another voice.
” 134 . in all regretz of Josquin but his Regretz sans fin. was likely involved with the music of La Rue. composed of a rising step and a gradually falling sixth. Indeed. contrary to the widely accepted idea of Josquin acting as an influential figure for La Rue. and rhythmic patterns. Migrations of this gesture are also observed in La Rue’s Plusieurs regretz and Aprez regretz. on his part.83 Conclusions The impact of Mille regretz within the regretz complex is undeniable. melodic motives. threads of association noticed between Mille regretz and Tous les regretz – the latter belonging to the earlier output of La Rue – suggest that Josquin. Beyond apparent allusions in the work of Gombert. inconspicuous gestures. Moreover. Parfons regretz. “Le cueur m’estraint et me tient en rigueur” (Les grans regretz). and Plus nulz regretz. chansons which also intersect with Mille regretz by way of a substantial network of paraphrased motives. Mille regretz seems to engage in a wide network of intertextual associations with various regretz chansons of La Rue as well as Josquin’s own regretz. Within Josquin’s own regretz group. A shared gesture. chansons which appear connected by means of shared incipits. and similarly positioned. threads of interrelation are observed among Mille regretz. and instances of textural interplay. as Jesse Rodin has recently observed “the revised biographical picture invites us to perceive Josquin in a new position relative to his contemporaries […]” for he “did not emerge fully formed from the head of Zeus – 83 Translated as “I have such great sadness and painful distress” and “My heart is torturing me and keeps me in harshness.“J’ay si grand dueil et paine douloureuse” (Mille regretz). is prominently featured.
” 358.”84 84 Rodin.like everyone else. “When in Rome…. 364. he absorbed musical ideas from all around him in the process of developing a distinctive compositional voice. 135 .
Critical Commentary. Yet my quest for threads of connections within the regretz complex has brought to light several instances of correlations with Plus nulz regretz. 173. 3 The Josquin Companion. Plus nulz regretz “did not infect others. as Fallows has previously commented. neither chanson reworkings nor cantus firmus masses or motets openly influenced by Plus nulz regretz are known to have been composed by contemporary composers of Josquin or his posteriors. 2 Remarked in Meconi. vol. Critical Commentary. The latter dates from ca. Pierre de la Rue. In LonBLR A41-4 and FlorC 2442.”3 Indeed.2 It is thus quite surprising.28. For a modern edition. La Rue’s chanson Tous les regretz demonstrates a remarkable network of interconnections with Plus nulz regretz that 1 For a complete list of sources. Plus nulz regretz must have been regarded as one of Josquin’s most celebrated chansons in the first half of the sixteenth century. BrusBR 228 is the core musical source for Plus nulz regretz and also stands out as the only source to include the complete poem. and 3 intabulations. The Chanson Albums. vo. 136 . it is prominently positioned in the opening folios (fol. 2v-4 respectively). this means that the popularity of Plus nulz regretz rose remarkably soon after its composition in early 1508. 3 printed sources.CHAPTER 4 FURTHER MUSICAL ALLIANCES WITHIN THE REGRETZ COMPLEX The Referential Aspect of Josquin’s Plus nulz regretz Judging from its wide dissemination in contemporary sources. see The Josquin Edition. 28. 280-84. where it is featured as the only chanson with a composer’s ascription attached in the otherwise anonymous collection. If the dating is correct. that despite its popularity. especially in La Rue’s regretz chansons. 343-347. an extensive transmission without parallel in Josquin’s secular oeuvre. see Picker. 3v-4 and fol. It survives in 20 manuscripts.1 Its special status stands out in BrusBR 228. 368. 1510 and it is most likely of French origin.
6 As Reynolds stressed. and Prioris’s motet chanson Dueil et ennuy / Quoniam tribulatio. “Unifying Techniques in Selected Masses of Josquin and La Rue: A Stylistic Comparison. 1976). 172-83. Blackburn (London: Oxford University Press. La Rue. cantus firmi.4 Contrary to the general pattern of influence between the two composers pointed out by Meconi. Rubsamen. Edward E. which supports a high estimation of La Rue for the work of Josquin. Picker’s analysis of Plus nulz regretz (pp. 5 See Meconi. Walter H. Other regretz to be intertextually considered with Plus nulz regretz include La Rue’s Secretz regretz. see Meconi. La Rue. Discourses with La Rue’s Tous les regretz Canonic writing of an overtly free but intrinsically idiosyncratic nature is actively pursued in both Plus nulz regretz and Tous les regretz. and paths of modeling. eds. 169-72. it is more precise to think of multiple canons. such as the frequent use of canonic writing and coordination of music form with poetic structure. 369-400.” in Josquin des Prez: Proceedings of the International Josquin Festival-Conference held at the Julliard School at Lincoln Center in New York City. Chanson albums. Josquin’s Regretz sans fin. 72-73) is mostly focused on discussing its distinctively consistent melodic direction and its strong sense of harmonic progression that differs from La Rue’s motivic/harmonic organization (esp. each one – For a discussion on similarities and differences between La Rue and Josquin. Lowinsky and Bonnie J. 4 137 .” confined mainly to the two lower voices. 21-25 June 1971. 72. 6 Picker. Termed by Picker “a quasicanon. the canonic element in Plus nulz regretz permeates all eight musical phrases (here a phrase equates to a verse setting) and materializes in varying relationships of temporal and pitch intervals among the canonic voices. especially in regard to settings of shared texts. when compared with that of Secretz regretz).exceeds generic musical norms and shared musical features common in the style of Josquin and La Rue.5 the interrelations between Plus nulz regretz and Tous les regretz considered along the contextual facets of the chansons suggest a path of influence originating from La Rue. See also.
to an “Musical Evidence of Compositional Planning in the Renaissance. canons.and in certain verses a double canon – unfolding at the opening of a new phrase.7 Yet. Josquin designs the opening double canon to cover 7 measures. . not only the canonic structure. 7. the settings of the first and last couple of verses (1. See ibid. a feature that is also applied to Josquin’s chanson. is governed by a concentric symmetry. 8 7 138 . The canonic element in La Rue’s Tous les regretz is realized independently within individual phrases and with freedom in regard to the choice of voices involved. For instance. in Tous les regretz the canon of the second verse between the two lower voices lasts for 7 measures. 55-66. b a b a / 3rd stanza). as in Plus nulz regretz. described by Reynolds as “concentric. Motivic mirroring is mostly realized by means of rhythmic variation and inversion of voices so that motives set in upper voices are later heard in the lower ones. Thus a wider grid of musical elements. Canonic instances differ in regard to their temporal span. the motives in the first half of the chanson recur in reversed order in the second half (A B C C B A). . and motives. Reynolds argues that Josquin was conscious of reflecting the symmetrical rhyme and circular structure of the poem in the concentric structural order of cadences. 8) use double canons and are realized at the interval of the fourth. No apparent symmetrical design seems to rule the canonic writing in Tous les regretz. Yet a certain degree of organization can be observed. A symmetrical organization governs the order of canons. Similarly. esp. Thus. one that mirrors. while the opening canon expands over 4 measures. 16) employs a four-measure motive.”8 Most notably.” 56-57. the scheme of canonic planning in Plus nulz regretz is anything but erratic. c b c b. as Reynolds demonstrates.. 2. b c b c / 1st stanza . A concentric organization applies to the poetic scheme too (A B A B A). yet the canonic opening in the two lower voices of the third phrase (beginning on m. while those of the 4th and 6th verses have canons at two different pitch intervals. The structural hierarchy that governs the canonic writing is also in correspondence with the concentric order of the rhyming pattern of the text (a b a b.
The settings of their opening verses feature canonic writing: a double canon in Plus nulz regretz divided among the upper and lower voices (see Ex. three measures before the medial cadence on D in Plus nulz regretz. i. the concluding phrases of the two sections of the rondeau.e.extent. Momentary cadences also occur a few measures before a strongly articulated cadence. occur not only at the closing of each verse but can be observed within duets in the middle of a verse setting. In overall. the textural layout of both Josquin’s as well as La Rue’s chansons can be viewed as a patchwork made up of multiple. mostly free. The opening phrases of the corresponding sections (i. Due to the dense contrapuntal weaving among voices. some relatively developed and others obscure. in Plus nulz regretz. In Tous les regretz.e. yet their dorian modality is not clearly established until the end and modal ambiguity is apparent. Likewise. the rondeau structure of the chanson.1). For instance. all cadences but the final are on F and mostly on A. Both chansons are written in the D-dorian mode. three measures before the medial cadence in Tous les regretz. in both chansons. the chansons share a remarkable number of facets of musical alliance. several cadences occur on A. each lasting for a couple of measures. an inconclusive pause on A occurs between the cantus and tenor. the third and the fifth. cadences. Apart from their noticeable textural intersection. Similarly. canonic passages. a canonic interplay 139 . 4. Not all five verses are set in canonic phrases. the cantus and tenor are led to a transient cadence on A. feature short imitative entrances. Several motivic interrelationships pervade the texture of the chansons. first and fourth) use canonic imitation at the octave between the superius and the tenor.
10-13 in Tous les regretz and m. The two motives feature the same pitch classes (after the two semiminimas. Right after. in both the two lower canonic voices of Plus nulz regretz and in the cantus and tenor of Tous les regretz. the second hemistichs are set. the opening of the bassus motive in Plus nulz regretz bears some resemblance with the incipit of Tous les regretz.between cantus and tenor in Tous les regretz (see Ex. on identical motives. 7-9 in Plus nulz regretz). and close with a downward movement (A to D in Plus nulz regretz.12). 3. Although not explicitly comparable. Moreover. similar gestures that also carry similar rhythmic values. 9 140 . 9-10 in the tenor). G to C in Tous les regretz filled in with crotchets). momentarily disturbed by an instance of minor paraphrasing (m.9 Observe that the superius on the penultimate measure of the cadence in both chansons shares the same cadential gesture. the only divergence being the rhythmic variation on the second and third reiteration of pitch class C. the statements of the shared motive in the two tenors are lined up in bringing the opening phrases into a cadence (see m. pitch classes G and A are inversed).
Again.1: Josquin. In both chansons. 4. The first gesture is set syllabically. The affiliation between the tenors of the chansons is carried on in the settings of the second verses. commences in the second half of a measure. The second gesture. and shows similar rhythmic patterns and melodic contours in both chansons (rising/falling shape). begins with a 141 . but the tenor parts demonstrate parallel melodic curves and rhythmic patters. no direct similarity is observed. Plus nulz regretz.Ex. 1-10. the tenor is divided into two melodic gestures matching with the hemistichs of the verse. m. likewise syllabic and starting off in the second half of a measure.
10 The correspondence between the chansons of Josquin and La Rue is nowhere more evident than in the settings of their third verses. 10 The imitative entrance of the tenor in Plus nulz regretz is temporarily obscured in the first half of m. Most notable though. 4. Josquin also builds the setting of verse 4 (m. Both settings are heavily imitative with entries not only occurring in all four parts but also following an identical framework of intervals (tenor enters a fifth above the bassus. whole tone in Tous les regretz) and proceeds to a gradual descent (sixth versus fourth). contratenor at the octave. followed by echoes in the tenor. 4. is openly echoed in the two upper voices of Tous les regretz.10 with pitch c instead of B. the second hemistichs of the third verses make use of paraphrased melodic cells of the core motive.2b).rising step (semitone in Plus nulz regretz vs. and superius a fifth above). 142 . is the fact that the two lower parts engage in imitation.2a). beyond the striking resemblance of the tenor gestures. featured in imitative entrances in Plus nulz regretz (see Ex. demonstrating a scheme identical to the opening entries in the bassus parts. and in paraphrase (D-D-C-F-E) in the two lower voices (see Ex. The opening motive D-F-F-E (and its transposition A-C-C-B). Furthermore. 22 onwards) on the core D-F-F-E motive and various melodic transformations of it.
4.2a: Josquin. 143 . m. 16-25.Ex. Plus nulz regretz.
Tous les regretz.2b: La Rue. Extensive dependence on the core motive occurs further on in Plus nulz rergetz with a reworked version of it prominently featured in the fifth and sixth verses.Ex. pugniz” (see Ex. 21-30. and later on at the opening of the sixth phrase on the setting of the words “Batuz. The transformed version of the motive (D-F-E-D) is predominant at the opening of the fifth section following the signum. this time in Tous les regretz. 4.3a for paraphrased instances of the core motive in settings of the fifth and sixth verses). Looking for additional swaps of the transformed motive. m. 4. I think that remnants of it can be observed in the 144 .
Plus nulz regretz. carry a gesture whose outline can be reduced to A-C-B-A (G). 4.section following the signum (see Ex. 145 . Ex. m. 31-45.3a: Josquin. in imitation.3b). First the tenor and then the cantus. 4.
4.Ex. 31-40.): Josquin. 31-45. Ex. Tous les regretz.3b: La Rue. 146 . m. 4. m.3a (cont. Plus nulz regretz.
As previously mentioned. official poet in the Burgundian court. part of which is Tous les regretz. was commissioned by Lemaire. First. 12 Picker describes the poetic form as a “reduced rondeau lacking a refrain” (ABAAB) (Picker. In fact. and her earlier study. a period less than two months after its completion.Not only do the imitative and motivic frameworks of Plus nulz regretz and Tous les regretz share a number of obvious correspondences but. a political poem commemorating the Treaty of Calais that sealed the alliance between England and the Habsburg-Burgundian empire after the engagement of Archduke Charles and Mary Tudor. Pierre de la Rue. Chanson albums.11 Their texts. which was at the time under Marguerite’s regency. is now securely attributed to Saint-Gelais. although ascribed to Henri Baude in Canti B. contextual facets seem to bring the chansons together in a kind of virtual discourse. their strikingly opposing narratives were prompted by occasions in which Marguerite of Austria played a definite role and whose common core incident was that of an engagement. it is worth noting that they belong among a small number of chansons whose poetic texts are securely attributed to venerable poets of the time – Lemaire and Saint-Gelais. the other resembling to a certain extent the structure of a rondeau.” Le Moyen Français 5 (1979): 65-80.13 Plus nulz regretz. Tous les regretz was written as a farewell poem by Saint-Gelais to Marguerite on the event of her departure from the French court after her broken engagement to Charles VIII. The complete poem survives only in one early poetic edition (La pompe funeralle des obseques du feu Roy dom Phelippes … par Jehan Lemaire Belgijen) printed on 15 February 1508. “Octavien de Saint-Gelais: Complainte sur le depart de Marguerite. 72). see Mary Beth Winn. Plus nulz regretz is attached to the end of Lemaire’s De la nouvelle aliance d’Angleterre. 11 147 . 13 On the Complainte for Marguerite.” Bibliothèque d’humanisme et Renaissance: Travaux et documents 39 (1977): 23-32. see Meconi. one a definite rondeau. 144. The text of Tous les regretz. “Regret Chansons for Marguerite d’ Autriche by Octavien de Saint-Gelais. For a list of poetic sources of the complete text. even more so.12 were written by the celebrated rhétoriqueurs for the purpose of specific courtly occasions.
If a reader of the chansonnier was meant to single out certain chansons on the grounds of material insignia. If a line of influence had indeed occurred. was added on a separate leaf. for studies on VienNB Mus.6. pl. the chansons share transmission in VienNB Mus.15 Furthermore. Tous les regretz is the opening chanson. The shared transmission of the chansons in BrusBR 228 is overtly highlighted by means of their positioning and the use of special scribal marks of identification. for. For a facsimile illustration. 18810 (ca.Shared sources of transmission amplify the connections between Plus nulz regretz and Tous les regretz. Ave sanctissima Maria. 1510). the extensive network of shared musical devices and peripheral contexts of composition and transmission make it hard to escape the likely conclusion of a La Rue-Josquin connection. 3.14 Plus nulz regretz stands out as the only chanson with an authorial ascription. 16. sources of correspondingly German and French origin.. 141. Chanson Albums. before the initial Marian motet. 148 . see ibid.16 The evidence reviewed so far to suggest a close bond between the chansons is overwhelming. 16 For a dating/repertory of FlorC 2442. it was originally the first piece of the opening gathering of the manuscript. Even though no distinct instances of exact quotation exist to securely confirm a conscious influence. see NJE. and according to Picker.. based on the chronological evidence of sources 14 15 Picker. both Tous les regretz and Plus nulz regretz would be among those chansons to attract the eye. 1530) and in FlorC 2442 (ca. it must have originated from La Rue. 28 commentary. vol. with the name “JOSQUIN DES PRES” appearing on an illuminated ornamental sort of rolling papyrus on the upper left corner of the folio. see ibid. 18810.
Josquin. 1499-1501). the earliest surviving source of Tous les regretz dating from ca. a possible La Rue-to-Josquin path of reference is all the more intriguing. Studies on the stylistic differences/similarities between Josquin and La Rue are cited in Meconi. may have reached Marguerite’s hands as Meconi. n.”17 Under this light. Plus nulz regretz was composed fifteen years after Tous les regretz. Pierre de la Rue. BrusBR 11239. he might have considered it appropriate to showcase a certain line of influence from Marguerite’s “favored” composer. with La Rue in his own way trying to match or outdo Josquin. For. or at least one that was officially linked with the court. in contrast to what seems to have been an established pattern. 14. She discusses at length La Rue’s tendency to model some of his masses and motets on Josquin’s. 183. Meconi suggests a “kind of one-sided competition. and that La Rue had written more than one piece intended for her. If Josquin was also aware of La Rue’s special relationship with Marguerite through his employment at the court at times she was also there (1493-1497. 17 149 . 172-180). Why would Josquin resolve to make reference to La Rue? Did he intend to compose his regretz as a hopeful response to La Rue’s regretz of suffering? In discussing possible patterns of influence in the work of La Rue and Josquin. 1500 or slightly later. having reached a high status by the early sixteenth century and having been granted the Burgundian-controlled provostship of Condé (starting in 1504). La Rue in this specific case seems to have provided Josquin with a model for inspiration.and the incidents that prompted the composition of the chansons. was all too well aware that he was commissioned by the Habsburg-Burgundian court to set Lemaire’s poem specifically written for a political event of special importance. and his choice to set religious texts and use cantus firmi also employed by Josquin (esp.
“Plus nulz regretz” [“All sorrows” vs. as his stylistic fingerprints pervade the chanson. with whom Josquin likely had contact in 1505 when he set to music the poet’s Soubz ce tumbel written on the death of Marguerite’s pet parrot. See Picker. a not consistently reliable manuscript. exercised with freedom in changing temporal and pitch intervals and also obscured by momentary paraphrasing of motives. Pierre de la Rue. The text of the chanson. 19 The piece survives in 3 sources: BrusBR 228. an interplay that may have propelled Josquin to deliberately cultivate a musical connection with La Rue. and VienNB Mus. “Style and Authenticity. or even somehow got to know Tous les regretz. “Three Unidentified Chansons by Pierre de la Rue in the Album de Marguerite d’Autriche. the two lower voices of another regretz chanson by La Rue. Chanson albums. 150 . 18810 (ca. “No more sorrows”]). Similarly to Josquin’s chanson.” Musical Quarterly 46 (1960): 329-43. the composer may have come to know more on La Rue’s output and connection with the court. 192-94. (The two latter sources provide the alternative title Carmen. as Picker first suggested. may have been written by Marguerite.” 90-91. at 334. See the relevant discussion in Meconi. see Picker. For a detailed stylistic description of Secretz regretz. the two lower voices of Plus nulz regretz are closely related by means of idiosyncratic canonic writing. It is easy to argue on a secure attribution to La Rue. MunU 328-331 (dated from 1527 or before). For an edition.19 are also bound in canonic relationship that is likewise inconsistent in its 18 BrusBR 11239 is problematic regarding its ownership and exact dating.18 Through Lemaire.) Only Vienna 18810. his Secretz Regretz. Ties with Secretz regretz As mentioned above. he would have hardly missed the intriguing pun of antithesis between the two incipits (“Tous les regretz” vs. 135-7. contains an attribution. 1533). In that case. see Meconi.early as 1504 or as late as 1506.
using the pattern of a dotted semibrevis–2 semiminimas–2 minimas). 6v-7.21 The stepwise falling gesture on the words “Par grief tournens” (opening of the second phrase of Secretz regretz in the bassus and imitated by the tenor in a ladder scheme. regretz. 4. 1-6. 16-18 of Revenez tous. regretz / Quis det ut veniat (see especially the first couple of tempora of the motive that are rhythmically identical. see Ex.4: La Rue. mostly in cadential closures at the end of phrases. m.5a) is echoed in inverted form (ascending direction) later on in the piece on the words “Par le secours” 20 21 Yet the canon in Secretz Regretz is consistent in its pitch interval (fifth). 151 . Secretz regretz shares a couple of parallel motives with Plus nulz regretz. Both chansons feature imitative entrances on the shared motive in an ascending order of presentation from the lower to the upper voices. 4.4 and Ex. Revenez in fol. They are both hosted in the opening gathering of BrusBR 228 (Secretz in fol.temporal alignment and momentarily breaking free. 4. 19v-20).20 Ex. The bassus parts of both chansons. 4. The opening motive of Secretz regretz bears an inconspicuous resemblance with the opening motive of Agricola’s Revenez tous. Further echoes of the motive occur in m. Secretz regretz.1). later in imitation with the tenor. open at the fifth above the finalis with a gesture that is rhythmically identical (for a duration of 3 semibreves) and progresses on the same scale degrees (see Ex.
5c). 22 La Rue’s choice to set the openings of the second and fifth verses with the same gesture corresponds to both their common rhyme and shared opening word (“par”). the opening expression “Mais maintenant” sets about to profess the arrival of “espoir” with which “sommes garniz” (“we are adorned”). 4. Secretz regretz. 53-57. 4. see Ex. the gesture in its ascending version and with the exact same rhythmic values (3 semibreves–1 brevis starting on the second half of the measure) can be seen in the opening of verse 7. 4. In Plus nulz regretz. The verse initiated by the inverted form of the gesture in Plus nulz regretz can be seen as engaging in both semantic and musical counterpoint with the original descending statement in La Rue’s chanson. 152 .5b). Syllabically emphasized by the ascending statement of the shared gesture. tenor and bassus. both the intervallic order and the temporal distance between the bassus-tenor imitation is duplicated (both statements begin with a semistep.5a: La Rue. Ex. m. 22 The second statement of the gesture does not begin on the same pitch class as the first. 7-18. first in the bassus and followed in a ladder-scheme and exact temporal distance in the tenor (m. that in itself an ‘inverted’ sentiment compared to the “grief tourmens” of Secretz Regretz and introduced by means of a melodic descent in an explicit stroke of word painting. however. the tenor takes over in the last tactus over the bassus).(Ex.
5b: La Rue. Secretz regretz. 4.5c: Josquin. 153 . m. 51-61. m. Plus nulz regretz. Ex. 37-42. 4.Ex.
154 . a similar. 63-73). progressing within three measures from a dorian opening to a rest on E (see Ex. The duet of the two lower parts. refer to Ex.2).It is worth mentioning that. 23 These are the only regretz chansons of Josquin that set a text of eight verses (all other regretz poems have a single stanza of a quatrain or cinquain rhyme). following the descending and ascending fourth motives. Lastly. 3. is next imitated by the two upper parts. 140. caused by the interchanging of semibrevis and brevis values.23 The latter commences with a dragging and somber polyphonic opening. the bassus parts (second hemistichs of the second and seventh verses in La Rue and Josquin’s chansons respectively) are set on a gesture composed of a rising fourth and a stepwise descent of a seventh or octave (the gesture is more melismatic and twisted in La Rue).7 in Chapter 3). It is here rhythmically consistent (solely built on semibreves) and of a somewhat varied order of pitches (the second instead of the first pitch is repeated). Further Subtle Connections Inconspicuous instances of motivic correspondence can be observed between Plus nulz regretz and Josquin’s utterly doleful Regretz sans fin. gradually falling octave repeated twice in both the bassus and the tenor brings Plus nulz regretz to a closure (m. built on a D-D-F-E motive in the bassus and duplicated in the tenor a fifth above (A-A-CB). 4. A motive of identical pitch classes animated by imitative entrances at the fifth and the octave is employed at the setting of the third verse of Plus nulz regretz (see discussion on p. The rhythmic profile of the motive undergoes minor transformations in each statement.
40-43.6). is reminiscent of a recurrent gesture heard in the third and fourth verses of Cent mille regretz (see esp. The tenor carries the text and melody of the plainchant responsory verse Quoniam tribulatio.25 a motetchanson not immediately recognized as a regretz – the “regretz” are only mentioned near 24 Translated as “It would be better to end my life quickly. 4. tenor m. 25 Apart from BrusBR 228 (fol. The musical bond of the tenors is all the more compelling after a parallel reading of the texts which reveals that the abundant “espoir” of Plus nulz regretz (“d’espoir sommes garniz”) is arranged in a virtual clash with the profoundly inconsolable longing for death declared in Regretz sans fin (“Mieulx me vouldroit de brief finer ma vie”). 32-38. bassus 42-45 and elsewhere). New York University. 155 . is also cited in Regretz sans fin (see tenor in setting of fourth verse in Ex. only one concordance of the chanson is found (FlorC 2439. composed of a triple reiteration of pitch class G and a leap of a fourth to C. whose message (“For trouble is near and there is none to help”) underlines the sorrowful narrative of the rondeau text.The distinctive gesture comprising a rising fourth and a falling seventh featured in the two lower parts of the seventh verse of Plus nulz regretz (Ex. Regretz sans fin.5c). 32-39). 4. “The complete works of Johannes Prioris” (PhD diss. fol. Chanson albums. see Richard Mark Wexler. In fact. The musical examples refer to the edition of Dueil et ennuy in Picker. additional migrations of which are heard in the two regretz of La Rue previously discussed.” The bassus line carrying this particular text (m. 4.6: Josquin. 253-57.. 265-7. 25-28 and m. For a stylistic description. the two tenors are even more explicitly interrelated by the use of identical pitches. 1974). Both of the motives shared by Regretz sans fin and Plus nulz regretz are also fleetingly present in Johannes Prioris’s Dueil et ennuy / Quoniam tribulatio. 22v-23). 32v-33).24 Ex. m. followed by a repetition of the four-note motive a step above (A A A D) and concluding with a gradually falling fifth.
4. a rising fourth and descending stepwise seventh gesture of similar rhythmic opening as in Plus nulz regretz (bassus m.” 156 . The contratenor opening echoes the opening measures of the contratenor in Regretz sans fin (refer to Ex. The chanson’s plaintive opening (see Ex. sorrow and pain. such as the association of the “regretz” with dueil and paine. 1-5.7) sets out a D-F-F-E incipit that is reminiscent in its syllabic setting and rhythmic pattern of the D-F-F-E motive of Plus nulz regretz and Regretz sans fin. Secondly. worry. the common 26 “Dueil et ennuy soucy regret et paine. Dueil et ennuy.the end of the first verse and in singular form. 2.7: Prioris. additional statements bearing a similar opening with the contratenor and heard later in Regretz sans fin (see bassus and quintus on the words “Qu’ainsi sans cesse”). In fact. m. feature an even closer affinity with the contratenor opening of Prioris’s chanson. 4.26 Yet the narrative conveys a number of literary stereotypes detected in regretz texts. 4. Ex. 56-59 in Ex.” translated as “Mourning and grief.7). causing the affected narrator to “me plains et tourmente” (“cry and torture myself”) and ultimately summon him to death (“qui ma vie a fin maine”).5c. see esp.
semibrevis–dotted minima–semiminima pattern) is featured in the cantus of Dueil et ennuy (m. The shared earliest transmission of the chansons in VienNB Mus. J’ay ung regretz and Parfons regretz are featured in neighboring folios (separated by Josquin’s Plaine de dueil). a few years after Josquin’s death.8: Prioris. a source that was compiled in 1523. As mentioned in Chapter 3 (see n. may serve as an additional sign of connection. Dueil et ennuy. Josquin’s Regretz à 5 Examination of parallel compositional threads between Parfons regretz and Plusieurs regretz. The first four are Cent mille regretz. apart from being composed for the same number of parts. and develop in a A A B B C form in response to the rhyming pattern of their texts (a a b b a).8). 18746. but hosts a series of regretz in the opening folios. like BrusBR 11239. 8-11. Plusieurs regretz. 27 157 . 4. 8-11 in Ex. reveals several shared attributes that suggest. are written in the Dorian mode. Dueil et ennuy (attributed to la Rue). they are both settings of a single stanza rondeau cinquain. the only regretz chansons of Josquin for five voices. It contains not only a substantial number of regretz chansons. m. Ex. 4. 32). and Je n’ay regretz (which is a unicum). at least Josquin’s conscious recognition of regretz as a literary topos and a compositional complex.27 VienNB Mus. if not explicit associations. 18746 is counted among three major chansonniers coming from the Habsburg-Burgundian court scriptorium (the other two are FlorC 2439 and BrusBR 228). the two chansons share a number of broader characteristics. It is a set of partbooks of five-voice works owned by and most likely compiled for the music collector Raimund Fugger the Elder of Augsburg.
on the other hand. The second verse.Comparing the proportional measurements and durations of longer musical phrases that correspond to settings of individual verses. the sense of synchronized closure is obscured in Parfons regretz. breaks free from the strict formal squareness of Plusieurs. usually between two of the voices. longest part of the chanson are not as clearly delineated. repeats only a part of the setting of the first verse (10 vs. and the last verse clearly breaks into two equal shorter sections (the second being a direct repetition of the first). follows the phrasing of 158 . As seen in the table. 3. 18 measures). Symmetrical durations of the sort clearly featured in Plusieurs are also tweaked in Parfons. not as apparent as in Plusieurs. Segments of equal duration within the chansons reflect phrases of exact repetition. Inner repetitions in the last. the rest prolonged into the opening measures of a new phrase or ended earlier. The settings of the third and subsequently the fourth verses are shorter than those of the first and second. while the last parts (settings of the fifth verse) are significantly longer in both chansons. the middle phrases (2. for instance. for instance. Contrapuntal interlocking within the polyphonic texture near the closing of phrases leads to cadences. and. The segmentation of the setting of verse 5. Parfons regretz appears somewhat longer than Plusieurs regretz (67 versus 60 measures). the settings of verses 2 and 4 are designed note for note on those of verses 1 and 3. the formal planning is particularly consistent in the case of Plusieurs regretz. which I have suggested to be 8+8+3+3+2. for the most part. but fluctuations of duration among phrases are to some extent compensated. 4) are slightly shorter in Parfons. I have observed that these are relatively equivalent (see table below). Thus. Parfons regretz. but the first and last phrases last longer.
5 in Chapter 3). The incipits of both chansons open with a rising fifth (stepwise in Plusieurs.1 Parfons regretz Plusieurs regretz 18 12 v.3 8 9 v. additional voice(s) entering in m.1 and Ex. the opening measures in both chansons showcase a similar polyphonic scheme: contrapuntal interplay between two voices for m. Plusieurs regretz opens with a threefold repetition of the first hemistich and a single statement of the second hemistich. a gradual descending fourth starting from the pitch class of the finalis. that is. 3. the two regretz chansons display schemes of reversed order. the second round of 8 measures echoes the melodic phrase of the first.) Several other traits related to the musical vocabulary (motives) and syntax (order and assignment of imitative entrances) are particularly suggestive of Josquin’s intention to create an alliance of some sort among his five-voice regretz chansons. now a fifth lower. 1-2. With respect to the treatment of the text of the first verse. Parfons 159 .2 10 12 v. (Total number of measures in last column to the right. and the quintus as the last voice to sing in canon with one of the lower voices. leap in Parfons) and imitative entrances in most of their opening voices (refer to Ex.5 23 (8+8+3+3+2) 18 (8+8+2) 67 60 Table 4. Those parts that open independently of the imitative counterpoint – mostly the contratenors – feature a countermotive of similar melodic direction. v. 3.4 8 9 v. Beyond instances of loose motivic association.1: Number of measures per verse setting in Parfons regretz and Plusieurs regretz. 3.the bassus (and partially that of the tenor and the quintus).
4.takes up the two hemistichs in a retrograde motion of the “three to one” repetition.9a: Josquin.9b). a matching intervallic mirror of which can be seen in the canonic voices of Plusieurs (m. Plusieurs regretz. 26-28). opening with a single statement of the first hemistich and a threefold repetition of the second. Ex. 24-30.9a. The setting of the third verse in Plusieurs regretz is headed by a four-note palindromic motive (A B B A) whose echoes animate not only the first hemistich but also part of the second (see Ex. 160 . though now featuring a semitone interval (A Bflat Bflat A). see also the inversion of the motive in the tenor and quintus on the words “envers ceulx que”). 24-26 and m. 4. 4. A parallel motive is heard at the same structural moment in Parfons regretz (see Ex. m.
28-30. and echoed thereafter at the repetition of the concluding section of the chanson. imitated by the canonic quintus. in a stream of multiple statements of the gesture. In Chapter 3 I noted the prominence of a rising (half) step and gradually falling sixth motive of a consistent rhythmic pattern (named sigh gesture) within the regretz of Josquin and also several others of La Rue and Gombert. Compared with such a profusion of statements. A single statement is featured first by the tenor (m.2b). 4.Ex. 46-49 in Ex. during its concluding section. see Ex. in what sounds as an exuberant contrapuntal weave of lamenting calls that embody the liquefied imagery of the text – “et larmes il se noye” (translated as “and in tears it may drown”). 4. as previously noticed (Chapter 3. pp. engages.9b: Josquin. While there is no doubt that in Parfons regretz Josquin brings the gesture to prominence by means of its profuse 161 .10). the presentation of the sigh gesture in Plusieurs regretz appears rather sparse. 3. 93-95. Parfons regretz. Parfons regretz. m.
yet it is emphasized at a key structural moment. S Q C T B Ex. as it leads the tenor to a closure.10: Josquin. the final cadence. 162 . Plusieurs regretz. a final echo of the gesture in the quintus (partially duplicated in the bassus) is sung above a series of triplets in the contratenor and long drones in the superius and tenor.repetitions. its stature in the last section of Plusieurs regretz is revealed discreetly. m. A last piece of evidence of Josquin’s intention to emphasize the sigh gesture is noticed in the prolonged closing of Plusieurs regretz. which in turn accentuate the melodic and rhythmic prominence of the gesture. 4. 46-60.
For an edition of the chanson. In similar fashion. The chansons share a number of broader characteristics such as a layout of five parts. The second hemistich is reached by a leap (octave versus sixth). 3. 195-99. 28 163 . Dueil et ennuy is widely attributed to La Rue. n.Graftings and Echoes between La Rue’s Dueil et ennuy and Tous les regretz Signs of intertextual linkage between Tous les regretz and Dueil et ennuy28 are observed in their opening melodic motives which reveal comparable melodic contours and similar rhythmic activity. a D-Dorian modality. subsequently progressing to a gradual descent. see Meconi. 18746).12). both settings begin on A tracking a stepwise descent of a sixth and a fifth respectively. Chanson albums. a canonic structure with the fifth voice entering ad longum at the fifth. the rhythms proceed during the course of the incipit from longer to shorter values (minimas and semiminimas are commonly used in the descending gesture). Observing the melodic progression of the superius for instance (see opening of Dueil et ennuy in Ex. and a 5-line single stanza. 4. Pierre de la Rue. see Picker. For a list of studies assigning attribution to La Rue. Although transmitted anonymously (BrusBR 228 and VienNB Mus.11 and Tous les regretz in Ex. 46. Their incipits display a mirrorrelationship (Dueil tracks a falling fifth from A to D and Plusieurs follows an opposite direction from D to A). An ascending octave is also variously featured during the settings of their first verses. I have observed that Dueil et ennuy bears inconspicuous similarities with Josquin’s Plusieurs regretz. 327.
4.Ex. 1-10. It is particularly telling that the repetition of the line in Dueil. Dueil et ennuy. m.11: La Rue. during the repetition of the complete opening superius line. transcribed a whole step lower. The characteristic octave leap in the two higher voices of Tous les regretz that bridges the two hemistichs may not match intervalically with the leap at the corresponding point in Dueil et ennuy. 7). however. an octave instead of a sixth is used (m. is copied note-for- 164 .
then the intertextual link between the opening motives of Tous les regretz and Dueil et ennuy is all the more strengthened. both pieces exhibit imitative activity between duets of adjacent voices. If that is a plausible hypothesis. 7). the first phrase measures 12 1/2 vs. The polyphonic texture during the course of the opening verse is rather sparse. Although only Dueil et ennuy is built on a canon. I wonder whether the repetition of the complete verse in the superius was used as a conduit for restoring the intervallic character at the caesura of the verse and thus emphasizing. The third and fifth verses of Tous les regretz and Dueil et ennuy respectively – parts of structural correspondence as both lead to the 165 . Both chansons are written in the dorian mode with a finalis on D. a few macroscopic traits can be noted. contrapuntally supported by the superius.note. by means of the change. 13 breves correspondingly). whose imitative entry occurs relatively late (m. Setting five-line stanzas. Instances of motivic resemblance between the two chansons of La Rue are not only apparent in their opening parts. they feature comparable lengths (50 vs. the permanence of the octave. Similarly thin is the presentation of the incipit motive in the tenor. the last phrase measures 14 breves in Dueil et ennuy and 15 in Tous les regretz. Considering the parallel opening motives as a point of departure for further scrutiny of the possible links between the two La Rue chansons. with the first complete phrase of the superius conveyed into a duet with the altus. 54 breves) and also closely equivalent lengths of individual verse settings (for instance. The repetition of the complete opening line in only a single voice is also not particularly typical of La Rue. apart from the point of caesura in the middle of the verse.
the most signifying moment. see Ex. 4. First attached to the four syllables of the first half of the verse (“Pour abregier” / “Car en mon cas”). 4. Since apart from this 166 .” openly alluding to La Rue’s earlier chanson of the same incipit. both musically and textually. m. 4. Nevertheless. The verse opens with the words “Tous les regretz.12: La Rue. this motive occurs variedly both in its original rhythmic values (semibrevis [Tous]/minima [Dueil]–2 minimas– semibrevis) and also disguised in subtle rhythmic and melodic paraphrases within the texture of the related parts (see the segment of Tous les regretz in Ex. In addition.13). in Dueil et ennuy occurs in the setting of its third verse.12 below for the related section in Dueil et ennuy). 36-40.2b. Dueil et ennuy. Ex. 4. the arrival of “Tous les regretz” is strikingly emphasized by a synchronized syllabic exclamation on a series of repetitive pitches set on minimas that form major triads and harmonically progress from the fifth to the finalis (see Ex.closure of a section (end of first rondeau section / end of chanson) – reveal the prominence of a common motive (A C C B).
13: La Rue. 2) positioned as the opening chanson of the manuscript after a dedicatory motet to Virgin Mary and Dueil et ennuy (no. 167 . Tous les regretz (no. to call attention to the text and make the polyphonic exclamation serve as a musical signifier of its allusion. 21-25. an additional sign of La Rue’s intention to primarily highlight the first hemistich (“Tous les regretz”). Ex. quite unusually. I tend to believe that La Rue intended.single instance of syllabic writing Dueil et ennuy is entirely contrapuntal. the grafting of the expression “Tous les regretz” in the latter chanson serves to confirm it. 6) featured shortly after and preceded by another regretz of La Rue (Secretz regretz). by means of the change in texture. Dueil et ennuy. If the few instances of motivic intersection discussed above hinted to a possible link between Tous les regretz and Dueil et ennuy. omit the second hemistich. For contemporary readers of the 29 The canonic voices of Dueil et ennuy. 4.29 Both chansons are found in BrusBR 228. m.
that he was somehow involved. 168 . as a smart act of self-promotion through self-reference within a prestigious volume of secular works by several of his contemporary colleagues. especially due to his extensive representation. see Meconi. and possibly acknowledging a line of shared tradition embodied in the common regretz topos as it is conveyed in the two chansons. They were particularly private. I assume it is likely. The textual grafting could have served. the manuscript was compiled before March 1516 (see “Style and Authenticity. eds. Is there a possibility that La Rue was involved in the preparation of the manuscript? Most likely Alamire’s scriptorium was made up of members of the court personnel. “Openings: The Alamire Manuscripts after Five Hundred Years. see Meconi. from La Rue’s part. the time of La Rue’s resigning from his post as singer of the chapel (he must have left the court by late May at the latest. 43-44). 13). B. In general. 117-24. this figure making him the most extensively represented composer (composers next represented in rate of frequency include Agricola and Compère with four chansons each).chansonnier. 31 BrusBR 228 contains 15 chansons attributed to La Rue in concordant sources. 30 The manuscript must have been accessible mainly to Marguerite and her immediate court circle (including musicians of her chapel). a chanson elevated by means of its position in the manuscript and its adornment with illuminated borders and capital letters standing for the naming of parts. According to Meconi.30 the “nested” textual allusion within Dueil would surely bring to mind Tous les regretz. all adorned with daisies and pearls – both “marguerites” in French – obviously in honor of its owner.” in The Burgundian-Habsburg Court Complex.” 7-10). Marguerite. I imagine that it would have been a small step for the reader of the manuscript to conform to the call of Dueil et ennuy by turning over to its opening pages. which undoubtedly paid homage to his oeuvre. Since La Rue resided at the court at the time Alamire and his scribes were working on the chansonnier.” in The Burgundian-Habsburg Court Complex of Music Manuscripts (1500-1535) and the Workshop of Petrus Alamire. 2003). For a discussion of the possible uses of the manuscripts originated from the Alamire scriptorium. intended for the personal library collections of people who commissioned them or to whom there were offered. Pierre de la Rue. chansonniers served not as tools for direct performance but mostly as political gifts or reference points from which performers memorized chansons. Bouckaert & E. “The function of the Habsburg-Burgundian Court Manuscripts. Schreurs (Leuven-Neerpelt: Alamire Foundation.31 From that point. reading up on Tous les regretz. as its opening section spans from the secular works of his early maturity (1490s) to those of the early 1500s. The possibility that they were chapel musicians is even higher (see Herbert Kellman.
70. “More ‘regret’ chansons. see ibid. The composition of a complainte by the court poet Saint-Gelais on the eve of her departure as a sign of farewell is suggestive of the importance of the event – dressed with not only political formality but also with some degree of cultural splendor. She is “celle qui est des parfaictes la fleur. 69) and in two manuscript collections with Saint-Gelais’s work.”34 32 For the particulars of the treaty indicating with absolute detail the way Marguerite was to be handed in.”33 Marguerite’s presence in Le cueur la suyt is all too apparent.Marguerite of Austria and More Musical Threads Marguerite’s unfortunate departure from the French court in May 1493 due to her broken betrothal with Charles VIII. The complete rondeau text survives anonymously in several literary manuscripts (see Winn. 72.” a direct allusion to the floral connotations of her name.. 33 Ibid. and association with Marguerite in “Regret Chansons. “Le cueur la suyt. must have provided the ground for a farewell ritual suitable to her status as a royal person and a symbol of pacification between the French and the Netherlandish courts. “Octavien de Saint-Gelais: Complainte. the first stroke of unhappiness in her long line of future misfortunes. In the lengthy allegorical poem titled “La nuict après que la claire bussine. For a discussion of Saint-Gelais’s complainte. Le cueur la suyt.. Three sorrowing ladies (Noblesse. see Winn. Another Trace in the Life of Johannes Ghiselin-Verbonnet. ibid. 84. For a transcription of the text. Beaulté. and Prudence) supposedly visit the poet in a dream and each sings a “chanson piteuse” in the form of a rondeau (Tous nobles cueurs. esp. whom Fortune has taken away from the lamenting poet – who in his turn declares that “the lady’s ‘valeur’ will never be forgotten and that his heart will follow her as she departs. Chanson on a Text for Marguerite d’Austriche. Tous les regretz).” 34 Mary Beth Winn.” Saint-Gelais expresses his “regretz et plaintz” at Marguerite’s departure.” Musica Disciplina 32 (1978): 69-72.” Winn was first to discuss the rondeaux interpolated into the allegorical poem. 169 .32 The rondeau cinquain Le cueur la suyt was one of the three rondeaux written for the occasion by Saint-Gelais and allegedly sung.” 81. see Picker. by Beaulté “en triste voix et lamentable. their regretz dimension. according to his allegorical poem in which it was hosted.
Johannes.A single musical setting of Le cueur la suyt composed by the Flemish composer Johannes Ghiselin (fl 1491-1507)35 demonstrates a series of intertextual threads with Pour ung jamais. The poems intersect in the first hemistichs of their third stanzas. the texts are profusely replete with a vocabulary evocative of languish (indicated by underlined words in poems below). 9: 813-14. “Three unidentified chansons. see Clytus Gottwald. C. but. penned by her. a regretz chanson by La Rue whose text is not merely associated with Marguerite.” 331. where “Fortune” is mutually summoned. Bibl. MS 15072). 2nd ed. most intriguingly. His affiliation with the French court may have started quite earlier. the sorrowful context of the regretz theme triggered by an abandonment of some sort and conveyed by grievous expressions of ultimate languish are unmistakably present. For his biography. he was employed by the French court (Louis XII). since Crétin cites his name (Verbonnet) along with other French court musicians in his Déploration on the death of Ockeghem (1495). which is. “Ghiselin. furthermore. 331). Livre des Ballades (Brussels. 36 In arguing about Marguerite’s authorship. Picker brings evidence related to a literary source of her private library. A four-voice setting of the poem (essentially a reworking of La Rue’s with an added voice below the superius) appears in Regensburg cod.. As of 1501. 120 (“Pernner Codex”) under the suggestive title Fraw Margretsen Lied (ibid. 35 Contemporary records indicate that Ghiselin was active in Ferrara and Florence in the early 1490s.36 Even though no extensive reference occurs between the texts of the chansons. 170 .” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. musically bridged by a shared motive (see below). (2001). See Picker. Roy. Apart from this intriguing moment of convergence. which hosts the poem (without its middle stanza and with slight variants) entitled as Chanson faite par semadams.
Le cueur la suyt et mon oeil la regrete Mon corps la plainct mon esperit la guecte Celle qui est des parfaictes la fleur dont à jamais j’ay ordonné ung pleur perpetuel en pensée segrecte Tous en font dueil et chascun la soubhaicte Plusieurs en ont dure complaincte faicte Car elle avoit gaigné de meintz seigneur Pour ung jamais ung regret me demeure Qui san cesser nuyt et jour à toute heure Tant me tourmente que bien vouldroy morir Car ma vie est fors seulement languir Parquoy fauldra en la fin que je meure D’en eschapper l’atente n’est pas sceure. but are also positioned in parallel textual positions (second hemistich of opening line and first hemistich of second line in third stanza). || To escape the waiting isn’t certain || Because my weary heart labors so much in sadness || That I can not endure such grief || And so I have to hide myself from people || With the result… || Of my fate I thought myself to be in control || Then this cursed sorrow when I dwell || Overtook me to make me die || I was abandoned. as in most regretz chansons. 39 Besides. but later. In fact. night and day. || Everyone is in mourning || and each and everyone claims her ||Several harsh laments have been made || For she had gained the lord’s hand. Car mon las cueur en tristesse labeure Tant que ne puis celle douleur souffrir Et sy m’est force devant gens me couvrir Parquoy fauldra en la fin que je meure De mes fortunes pensoie estre au deseure. it makes me wonder whether there “My heart follows her and my eyes lament her || My body cries for her and my spirit guards her || She who is the most perfect of flowers || Of whom forever I have ordered a a perpetual crying in secret thought. at every hour || Torments me so much that I would gladly die || Because my life is nothing but a languishing || With the result that in the end I must die. 37 171 . || Fortune weakens from our sight || Not without sorrow for her perfect beauty || But of two goods one must choose the best || Her value will not be forgotten ||Wherever she goes or she is placed. sans nul plaisir.” 236. the regretz are only called on in the singular (see also the verb form regrete).39 Such a textual correspondence seems too structured to have occurred by coincidence. without ceasing. seule.” 38 “One sorrow forever stays with me || Which. Mais de deux biens prandre fault le meilleur Sy ne sera en obly sa valeur En quelque part qu’elle aille ou qu’on la mecte37 Yet the regretz do not visibly appear in the incipit. Quant ce regret mauldit ou je demeure Me couru sus pour me faire morir. without any diversion || With the result…” Translated in Meconi. Delaissee fuz. an irregularity to their prevailing appearance in plural form. alone. “Style and Authenticity. Parquoy fauldra a la fin que je meure38 Fortune l’a de noz veues fortraicte Non sans regret pour sa beaulté parfaicte. It is suggestive that not only are they mentioned twice in each chanson.
Could Marguerite have written Pour ung jamais following the model of the regretz poem Saint-Gelais composed for her? Marvin has suggested that Marguerite brought Saint-Gelais’s Complainte with her to the Netherlands court upon her departure.41 Here again. their musical interrelationships present an additional dimension to their common intertextual grid. suggest a deliberate relationship of some sort. “Le cueur la suyt. Le cueur la suyt seems a more plausible inspiration than the other two rondeaux since it is this chanson that most directly alludes to Marguerite’s presence (see the floral association noted earlier). The second phrase of Le coeur opens in the superius with an 172 .40 Saint-Gelais may have presented the manuscript of the Complainte to Marguerite as a material gift of adieu to complement his literary creation in her honor. Considering also that the regretz are structurally aligned within the poems.may have existed a line of direct intersection between the texts of the chansons beyond the suggestion that they share in a common regretz literary tradition. we may speculate that she may have turned to Saint-Gelais’s poem as a source of inspiration when recounting her own misfortunes à la regretz in Pour ung jamais. Moreover. If the textual associations shared between Pour ung jamais and Le cueur la suyt. Taking into account that the Complainte is the earliest documented regretz written for Marguerite and assuming that she owned a manuscript of it.” 70. I’ve also observed that Le cueur la suyt shares weaker intertextual connections with Compère’s Sourdez regretz and Richafort’s Sur tous regretz. we may further speculate about Marguerite’s intention to showcase her dependence on the Complainte by treating the signifiers-regretz as explicit markers. mostly contextual rather than motivic. the chansons are mostly related in the intersection of their broader 40 41 Winn.
and also in the bassus and tenor. above a lively bassus of instrumental character. Ghiselin’s setting lasts for 55 breves versus 56 breves of La Rue’s. on the other arpeggiated gesture from D to A. The length of the chansons is remarkably similar too. enters. 15-17) in the superius of Le cueur la suyt echoes that on “les miens plus piteulx” (m. set on longer rhythmic values and followed by a melismatic gesture that rises to B flat and gradually falls to D. 173 . neither of the chansons suggests the employment of a forme fixe.” 84. (Further paraphrased echoes in Sur tous regretz occur in the superius in m. 13-14 and 18-19. 42 Picker. taking into consideration that Saint-Gelais’s text is a rondeau and also that a medial cadence is possible to occur at the closing of the third verse with the addition of a fermata. all the more so since the texts of the chansons intersect in their shared lamenting theme over the parting of a lady. “More ‘regret’ chansons. They are both three-voice rondeaux and of G-Dorian modality (no additional stanzas survive in their musical manuscripts – in fact. The gestures open with the same pitches and carry a similar rhythmic pattern. The tight imitation between the upper voices commonly occurs at the interval of fifth and is realized with freedom in changing temporal intervals and order of entries. 8-9) in the superius of Sur tous regretz. Le cueur la suyt is transmitted without additional text apart from a single 5-line stanza and without a signum to mark a rondeau division. Written for three voices. the additional strophes attached to Sourdez in BrusBR 228 belong to Les grans regretz). Picker argues that. their textures are surprisingly comparable in featuring a nearly canonic relationship – more in Pour ung jamais than in Le cueur la suyt – between the superius and tenor. gestures). The opening phrase of Sourdez tracks a similar melodic progression. Judging from their readings in the surviving musical sources. The thread between Le cueur la suyt and Sur tous regretz concerns a passing motivic resemblance: the gesture set on the words “mon esprit” (m. the possibility that Ghiselin composed his setting with the intention to be performed as a rondeau grows more likely. in imitation of the arpeggiated figure. The tenor. Their shared transmission in FlorC 2442 as well as their possible common origin by composers active in the locale of the French court during the 1480s are indicators of a potential thread of influence.) Lastly all three chansons are also strikingly related in the level of their texts (see discussion in the last section of Chapter 5). Yet.42 La Rue.elements of musical structure than by means of shorter building materials (motives. a fifth below the superius. in both chansons.
Certain shared cadential tendencies are also observed.14a) on pitch class G (seventh scale degree). demonstrates a more progressive formal choice. “More ‘regret’ chansons. the third scale degree of the G-Dorian (Ex. is in some way reminiscent of the shared refrain line of the ballade. comes across as more suitable for the opening of the third verse in comparison to the melismatic cadential gesture lined in the first hemistich (m. which. Chanson albums.43 Both chansons are written in the Dorian mode with a finalis on G (Ghiselin) or A (La Rue). MS 15072) may indicate that Marguerite was indeed attempting to model her poem on the formal aspects of the ballade. 2728) sounds more definite for the closing of the second verse. 25-28). that is. composed with a refrain verse at the closing line of each of the three five-line stanzas. 4. 44 The transcription is included in Picker. m.44 the cadence at the end of the second verse falls on B flat. 24-25 (Ex.hand. Examination of the second cadences opens the ground for discussion about possible adjustments in the aligning of text in Pour ung jamais. 22). opening syllabically with repetitive pitches of longer values and in tight imitation between the upper voices. In addition.45 Yet the double-leading cadence that occurs a couple of measures ahead on pitch class C (m.14b. when applied reveal parallel cadential patterns with Le cueur la suyt. In La Rue’s setting. The fact that the poem is included in a literary manuscript of her private library titled Livre des Ballades (Brussels. only the first cadence occurs at the finalis. the second cadence occurs in m. According to Picker’s transcription of Ghiselin’s chanson. Roy. 43 174 . by setting Marguerite’s text in a strophic form. the text itself. For instance. 4. 45 See edition in Picker. Yet.” 93-96. 368-70. Bibl. Measure numbers refer to this transcription. the motive set on the words “que bien vouldroy” (c´´-c´´-c´´-b-´g´). according to the transcription made by Picker after BrusBR 228.
Ex. 175 . 4.14a: La Rue.Ex. Pour ung jamais. m.14b: Ghiselin. 4. m. 20-24. 22-33. Le cueur la suyt.
The gesture in the tenor currently aligned with the opening of the third verse (m. m. 21 in Le cueur la suyt). 29 in superius) appears to match in rhythm and contour with the cantus / tenor motives of most other verse openings (note.15b. 28. In accordance with the reconstructed alignment of the text. a shifted opening of the third verse that would be set to the C-C-C-B-G motive (m. composed mostly of semibreves). thus matching with its corresponding cadence in Le cueur la suyt. that the opening measures of the second and fourth verses share a similar rhythmic pattern with the shifted opening of the third verse. beginning on the second scale degree 46 No additional cadences in Le cueur la suyt use this gesture in the tenor. 24-28) sounds rather like a paraphrase of the preceding gesture (m. In Pour ung jamais it is extensively used as a cadential gesture in the tenor. As seen in Ex. 27 in Pour ung jamais vs. they both open with motives that are closely related. 22-24). the two incipits are rhythmically alike (the only minor variant occurs in the opening of the third tempus of the motive) and share an almost exact melodic contour. In fact. the cadence at the closing of the second verse falls on the third scale degree of the A-Dorian (pitch class C). for instance. 4. subsequently shifting the opening of the third verse.I suspect that the closing of the second verse was meant to occur later in m. Moreover. 4. the two cadences do not only fall in the same scale degree but also share identical gestures in the tenor during the penultimate measure of the cadence (see m.46 The intertextual network between Pour ung jamais and Le cueur la suyt may be further reflected in the musical incipits of the chansons.15a and Ex. Indeed. meant to duplicate the preceding text (“nuyt et jour à toute heure”) rather than convey a new opening motive. 176 .
15a: La Rue. Yet. 4. In both chansons. The archetypical character of the motive is undeniable. which presents a paraphrased version of the motive an octave below (the opening pitch class of both the tenor and the bassus begins at the fifth above the finalis). 1-11. indeed.and progressing with a rising semitone and an almost identical gesture of a falling fourth. m. 177 . presenting the motive in strict imitation at the fifth below the superius and accompanied by the bassus. it sounds rather common. the fact that the incipits are part of a wider grid of shared motivic and textural elements is indicative of a connection that did not merely occur without any sort of compositional planning. Ex. the tenor begins similarly. Pour ung jamais.
Ex. the chansons. m. I speculated on a likely string of communication from La Rue to Josquin – viewing the intersection between Tous les regretz and Mille regretz as arising from the former chanson – the intertextual discourses between La Rue’s regretz chansons (especially his Tous les regretz) and Plus nulz regretz further attest to the suggestion that Josquin may have been engaged with the regretz of La Rue. Yet it appears to possess intertextual associations with La Rue’s Tous les regretz and Secretz regretz as well as with Josquin’s own Regretz sans fin. If. 1-9. and sources of transmission. Le cueur la suyt. 4. Apart from shared overall features.15b: Ghiselin. Closing comments Plus nulz regretz has not been recognized for its referential dimension. motivic interrelationships. I have speculated. in Chapter 3. must 178 .
have participated in a virtual interplay of parallel contextual facets. 179 . intersecting in their common association with Marguerite of Austria.
Laidlaw. Chartier.. connected his notion of regretz with the “lament over death. 36.”2 In what seems the first documented appearance of the regretz in the literary tradition of the early fifteenth century. ‘“Regrets’ in French Chanson Texts. 924 Pb). Goldberg remarks. The significance of regretz as a code-word is underlined in the incipit of his Complainte. Alain Chartier: The quarrel of the belle dame sans mercy (New York. commencing with a Complainte contre la mort (ca. the ballade “Quant je ne voy ma doulce dame en vie” and the rondeau “Joye me fuit et desespoir me chace.” 195. unique in its exploit of the literary facets of the regretz chansons.. 2004). it is mentioned in Joan McRae. “Was zitiert Compère. The Poetical Works of Alain Chartier (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. situates the origin of the regretz as an emerging theme of the late medieval French lyric poetry in the work of the poet Alain Chartier (ca. seems to have variously implored the regretz. including that of death. 3 Goldberg. 1424) in which he writes: “Je faiz tresor de regrez que j’ amasse. 325. 2 1 180 . 4 I have borrowed the term “Departir-Topos” from Goldberg (ibid. 89) and use it to express the theme of parting and separation in a broader sense as the result of various causes. 1440). 1390-ca. NY: Routledge. ed. as Marvin points out.C. The complete poem is included in J.3 The association of the regretz with the topos of departir4 in Chartier’s oeuvre is further manifested in his later short lyric poems.CHAPTER 5 THE LITERARY DIMENSION OF THE REGRETZ Literary Roots Mary Beth Marvin’s scholarship. fr. 1974).1 Chartier.” poems that deal with Marvin.” 89. which reads: “La complainte et regretz maistre alain chartier contre la Mort que luy a tollu sa maistresse” (from the late fifteenth century manuscript BNF ms.” thus employing it as a synonym of mourning.
sentement et savoir || Plourer a part. ‘“Regrets’ in French Chanson Texts. The poet of the cult chanson Allez regretz penned a bergerette that bears witness to its affiliation with the regretz of Chartier in its incipit with the expression “J’amasse ung tresor de regres.” Indeed. yet the interpretations of Marvin and Goldberg differ in their consideration of the driving force and cause that addressed the return of the regretz.” which characteristically combines the regretz with the word “tresor. the reference to crying (“plourer” / “plours”).” Observe the opening with the personal “Je” and the use of the shared verb “perdre” followed by the words “sens/sentement” and “savoir” and. while in the rondeau he confesses that “Plains et regrez sont mon plus riche avoir. The beginning of the second strophe of the ballade. Marvin interprets the opening verses of the Duke of Bourbon as See Marvin. Pierre Champion. 1966). 8 Translated as: “I gather a treasure of regrets || that my beloved sends me || but until I see her || they do not leave from my deep thoughts. the latter openly paraphrases that of Chartier (only the opening lines are quoted below7): J’amasse ung tresor de regres Que ma tant amee m’envoie Mais jusqua ce que je la voye Ne partiront de mes segres8 Here the ‘regrets’ are certainly not triggered by death. 7 For access to the complete poem. begins as follows: “J’ay perdu cuer.the sorrow caused by the death of his lady. Marvin refers to Charles d’Orléans.” It is remarkably similar to the opening of the third stanza of Fresneau’s regretz chanson “Nuit et jour” which reads: “J’en pers le sens et le savoir || Au lit de plours. 2 (Paris: Honoré Champion. Poésies. c’est mon oeuvre commune.” 6 5 181 .” 195.” Marvin traces the next step in the lineage of regretz as a literary topos in the work of Jean II de Bourbon (1426-1488). in the second verse. are identified early on in Chartier’s notion of regretz: “Mon cuer la plaint et mon regret ne cesse”6 he cries out in the ballade. ed.” that are stereotypical of the regretz topos. as I will later discuss. 346. vol. the third verse of which includes the reference of the regretz. such as “ne cesse” and “mon plus riche.5 Expressions of constant movement and abundant quantity.
”11 He plainly indicates that he hides the cause of his regretz. “Ses griefz maulx” refers. Taking into consideration the complete poem instead of only the opening lines. I tend to agree with Marvin’s interpretation. 11 The word “celle” functions here not as a pronoun but as a verb (third person singular of “celer. to my understanding.” which is probably a reference to billets-doux as messengers of a heart treasure. situates the regretz in a reverse context: they (“regres”) illustrate the sorrow of the lady herself who gives proof of her affection by means of a “tresor de regres.an expression of the Dame’s unresponsiveness. An air of mystery is registered with the narrator’s forthright question over the dwelling of the regretz in his “segres.” 90. this being undoubtedly an anticipated effect of anyone afflicted by regretz and also an indication of his strong feelings for her. I think. 10 182 . but a guarantor for the affection of the lady. on the other hand.” which translates as “to keep a secret/to say nothing”). The following lines can only be an indication of unrequited love: 9 Marvin. ‘“Regrets’ in French Chanson Texts. Goldberg continues.” 196. Goldberg. are here not painful. as a locus of his deepest thoughts. to the negative shade and the abominable qualities of the lady.” the latter used. and not to her sorrow as Goldberg sees it. “La cause pourquoy? je la celle.10 The addressed regretz.9 Goldberg’s reading. even though I still find its meaning rather ambiguous. They drive the poet to death (“qui me font mourir”). “Was zitiert Compère.
” and crying is apparently his only response. Christopher Page stressed the importance of chivalric culture in understanding the milieu of the fifteenth century chanson. The adherence of chanson texts of the mid and late fifteenth century to past rhetorics of chivalric imagery and courtly love ideals have often been described by means of negative hues (see especially Walter Kemp.” acquires particular meaning when one takes into consideration the form of the poem. Julius Caesar). which requires the repetition of the opening lines after “après.” The final line. plus d’elle est pres Mon cueur. Ses griefz maulx qui me font mourir C’est pour garder l’onneur de celle Qui ne me daigne secourir. 12 183 . the more she is close to my heart. The knight’s ardor for honor and praise of women was driven by a narcissistic and exhibitionist masculinity. || The more she leaves. all aspects of the chivalric culture from the twelfth century on were nostalgic.” 13 In the fifth chapter of his Discarding Images: Reflections on Music and Culture in Medieval France (Oxford: Clarendon Press. dont mon povre oeil lermoye12 He suffers because he is destined to guard her honor even though she does not deign to help him – a rhetoric of chivalric connotations alluding to the male lover as an eternal servant and faithful guard of a noble lady’s heart and honor. 1993). Page also addresses the association of chivalry with the ethics of perfection and the erotic. “Car quant j’ay assez plaint. As Page notes. après. the more my heart is close to her.” It is only then that the narrator confirms his crying and suffering as an outcome of his habit to amass “ung tresor de regres. Burgundian Court Song in the Time of Binchois (Oxford: Clarendon Press.13 His situation is helpless. thus my poor eyes weep. in fact. and underlines the central importance of love as stimulus to ambition and honor. for “the more she leaves. Plus l’eslongne. 1990). reference to crying as an effect of her indifference is made twice in the closing lines: with the word “lermoye” and at the last line with the word “plaint. Kemp’s view of chivalry in the burgundian culture as escapist and nostalgic is outdated.La cause pourquoy? je la celle. In fact.” The literary exchanging of regretz among courtly poets around the mid 1400s is next witnessed in the work of Charles d’Orléans (1394-1465) and most explicitly in his to Translated as: “What is the reason? I hide it || Her sorrowful troubles that make me die || They are to guard the honor of her || who does not condescend to rescue me. as it was based on models from the distant past (Hector.
and others). The responce opens with a didactic tone in paraphrasing the incipit of the earlier poem. responses addressed to Charles (Fredet.” in Book and Text in France. and for a list of studies on the ms. 17 The regretz are brought upon in various other instances in the poetic work of Charles d’Orléans. Both poems appear in the autograph manuscript of Charles d’Orléans. As Goldberg remarks.Jean II de Bourbon’s bergerette. see n. Described by Jane Taylor as “a sort of common place book. “Courtly Gatherings and Poetic Games: ‘Coterie’ Anthologies in the Late Middle Ages in France.” 16 Goldberg. 347. 2007).17 For a transcription of the complete poem.” the cumulative manuscript grew to become a collection of grand dimensions that treasured not only Charles’s “own poetic self but a collective memory refracted through his own.M. see Charles d’Orléans. both works open with the verb 14 184 . Jehan de Bourbon. Poésies. the responce situates the regretz in a context other than one of death. the risk of amassing a “tresor de regres” obviously refers to the discovery of the apparently illegal affair alluded in Jean’s poem.” 90. Secile. Adrian Armstrong and Malcolm Quainton (Aldershot: Ashgate. 25458) contains numerous poems written by Charles in response to earlier texts of fifteenth century poets and.14 C’est une dangereuse espergne D’amasser tresor de regres Qui de son cueur les tient trop pres Il couvient que mal lui en preigne15 Similarly to the earlier poem that set in motion the poetic dialogue between Jean II de Bourbon and Charles d’Orléans revolving around regretz within the material boundaries of the latter’s manuscript. the responce positioned right after Jean’s bergerette. Charles’s poem addresses the psychological facets of risk and distress enveloped by the regres.” See Jane H. composed by members of his court and visitors that were “filled in” in the available empty space in between his ballades. Nevers. 1400-1600 Poetry on the Page. Taylor. “Was zitiert Compère. The manuscript was progressively expanded with the addition of poems not only from Charles’s hand but others. eds. The manuscript (BNF fr. reversely. 15 Translated as: “It is a dangerous habit || to amass a treasure of regrets || whoever holds them too close to his heart || is taken over by suffering. In a poetic dialogue between the rather unknown poet Fredet and Charles. 17-18. Could this be a direct warning directed to Jean II de Bourbon? In Goldberg’s view. 10.16 The choice of the verb “couvient” to illustrate the resulting burning that will eventually torment the lover who holds the “tresor de regres” too close to his heart has a moralistic hue.
Lyrics of the French Renaissance (New Haven. although the function of regretz as a new embodiment of laments over death is observed in much lyric poetry set to music by several composers mostly active in the Burgundian-Habsburg and French courts in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. qui furent onc au monde” and “Dueil et ennuy. Madame fille unique de feu Roy Charles”.” previously attached to regres. viewed against the “writerly” poetic canon authored by male poets such as Ronsard. the regretz acquire a formation of regretz and. regret. sur la mort du roy Charles IX. son espoux.” the regretz are evoked in a lament-overdeath context along with the stereotyped imagery of mourning: “De regretz. public mourning. the regretz.. 820). are portrayed as “regretz privez. || Est escript: Cy gist vrayement || Le tresor de tous biens mondains. Various complaintes that were written in the sixteenth century to lament the deaths of kings.” In Charles’s ballade “J’ay fait l’obseque de ma Dame. incorporate the word “regretz”: “Des regretz d’une dame de Rouen estant à I’article de la mort.19 Yet. The opening of Fredet’s poem reads: “Je regrecte mes dolans jours || Comme celluy la qui tousjours || ne fait que desirer sa mort. among which are the following regretz: “Tous les regretz. but the poem also quotes the opening verses of well-known chansons. the word “tresor. or regret upon the death of a loved one. || Et tout entour. moult richement. “Female Complaintes. Furthermore. or noblemen. “Des regrets douloureux et pleurs lamentables de tres-haute et tres-verteuse dame.” “Les regrets” was one of the titles that were employed to designate “myriad songs in the voices of anonymous French women lamenting bad fortune in life and love” (Van Orden. detached from death as an inspiration. Et je regrecte mon argent || Que j’ay delivré franchement || Cuidant de vous donner secours. royne de France. Not only regretz are profusely echoed in Marot’s complainte. and City Women in Late Sixteenth-Century France. even though in the poetry of Charles d’Orléans and Jean II de Bourbon.” which is part of his Complainctes and included in his first collected volume under the title L’Adolescence Clémentine (published in 1538). 185 .” 18 On the genre of Complainte and its connection with the renaissance genre of Elegy. “Female Complaintes: Laments of Venus. Elizabeth d’Autriche. avec les doulences des dames de la court” (ibid.” Charles d’Orléans opens his responce as such: “Se regrectez vos dolans jours. variously stated in Charles’s autograph manuscript. descending from the Latin planctus. see Kate van Orden. Charles’s incipit quotes that of Fredet.The genre of Complainte. similarly to the exchange of tresor de regres discussed above. queens. London: Yale University Press. and modeled to prescribe an official attitude and to create a sense of communal.” “regret cappitaine. 19 The most interesting complainte worth mentioning in connection with the regretz chanson complex is Clément Marot’s “Complaincte d’une Niepce sur la Mort de sa Tante. 65.” and “regret merencolieux. soucy. see Norman Shapiro. tous de lermes pains. “Les regrets des Princesses & Dames de la Court sur le decez de tresillustre Princesse.18 seems to relate not only to Chartier’s early reference but also to several other literary echoes of regretz. for the most part. Queens. postdate the regretz complex of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. which. On the female complainte of the sixteenth century as a “counterculture” of oral transmission and popular song form dimensions. 2002).” 818).” Interestingly. Goldberg argues that. se repentant de s’estre mal gouvernee durant sa jeuness”.” Renaissance Quarterly 54/3 (2001): 801-845.” “regret angoisseux. et peine. is here used in reference to the deceased dame. the regretz are also encountered in other narratives.
is also observed.” 90. in the rather isolated case of the rondeau Pour les regrets.22 While it is the only regretz chanson hosted in the chansonnier.20 The two “dialogic” poems. 23 As Goldberg remarks. Ibid. 22 For a critical edition of the chansonnier. The early embodiment of the regretz as a synonym for mourning. eventually evolves and develops a multifaceted quality and various constants. The manuscript facsimile of the chansonnier is published as Chansonnier Nivelle de la Chaussée (Bibliothèque nationale. as I will discuss. quotes the polyphonic opening of its preceding chanson. The chansons following Pour les regrets are: Puis quil convient que le depart se face and Comment suis je de voistre cuer. “J’amasse ung tresor de regrez” and “C’est une dangereuse espergne. “Was zitiert Compère. however. Vmc. 89. Johannes Delahaye: Chansons in Loire Valley Sources (Paris: Minerve. ed. with references to death as desirable outcome and sole means of comfort. Puis qualtrement ne puis avoir. by chansons of Delahaye that treat the topos of departir in their texts. they are barely regarded as a real topos. see Jane Alden. the former carries on the rhetoric of sorrow in virtue of the departure addressed in Pour les regrets.23 Goldberg. 1984) along with an Introduction by Paula Higgins that mainly addresses the provenance of the manuscript on the basis of authorial representation (composers and poets) and physical traits (decoration. he will take himself another.” Delahaye’s rondeau survives in the Nivelle chansonnier. as seen in Chartier’s poem. 57. Pour les regretz seems to belong among a few regretz chansons that do not exhibit conspicuous musical alliances with others within my regretz complex. Rés. The humorous text engages the topos of departir as such: when the singer cannot see his lady. the earliest stages of the regretz as an emerging topos. the regretz arise in connection with the topos of departir. Pour les regrets. set to music by the rather petit maître Jean Delahaye.21 Death is here not explicitly expressed. as Goldberg remarks. as Goldberg notes.new dimension by breaking free from the mournful context of Chartier’s. etc). whose text is utterly humorous. ms.” showcase. which in the texts of later regretz chansons. All four are the only chansons in Nivelle penned 21 20 186 . it is interestingly neighbored. inscriptions. Paris. constants that are also met in the regretz topos. a theme that is also conveyed in various regretz chansons. ca 1460) (Geneva: Minkoff. I have not observed any instances of interconnection between Delahaye’s chanson and any of the regretz. 2001). and mourning communicates the despair of the narrator for not being able to see his “seulle amour. although setting a text that is highly sorrowful.
The dating of Nivelle circa 1460-65 situates Pour les regrets as probably the earliest surviving regretz text set to music. vii. see the relevant discussion in Higgins. The four identified poems are Villon. all notably associated with the literary circle of Charles d’Orléans at his Blois court and actively engaged in the literary contests that he hosted there. n. In fact. This is possibly an indication from the part of the scribe of the shared topos among them. Chansonnier Nivelle.25 Undoubtedly. attest to the significant growth of the regretz topos in his literary circle. xi. Antoine de Cuise. Charles thus stands as an intermediary link between Nivelle – and indirectly Pour les regrets – and the regretz as an emerging literary theme.The literary pen behind the authorship of Pour les regretz is not known. His prominent appropriation of the regretz as discussed above in regard to his J’amasse ung tresor de regres.24 More than that. vi). the latter mentioned above in regard to his literary exchanges with Charles d’Orléans. the court of Blois has been suggested as a possible point of origin for Nivelle. 17). only four poets have been identified. indicates by a single composer to have been copied successively. and Fredet (ibid. Chansonnier Nivelle. 24 For a list of these manuscripts. Yet its relative obscurity as a chanson of scant representation in contemporary sources. And although it would have been impossible in the absence of documented evidence to securely associate Pour les regrets with the Orléans court. 187 . especially those that featured the regretz on their incipits (see this chapter. the likelihood that the text of the chanson originated by a poet under Charles’s immediate circle of influence seems plausible. by a composer of limited reputation. 25 Higgins.. Charles played a key role in the early stages of the emergence of the regretz as a literary theme. although Nivelle shares numerous concordances with poetry manuscripts that originated in or around the Loire Valley and neighboring regions. Jacques of Savoy. considered alongside the numerous references to regretz as a major theme in his autograph manuscript.
that Pour les regrets probably never had a major impact on the founding and evolution of the regretz.26 Indeed, it is particularly telling that the chanson does not exhibit any signs of interconnection with other regretz chansons. Allez regretz, on the other hand, has passed down in musicological scholarship as the earliest regretz chanson and, together with Mille regretz, as the indisputably most popular and exceedingly influential regretz chanson. 27 The text of Allez regretz was penned by Jean II de Bourbon, whose prominent involvement in the early literary exchanges of “tresor de regres” was previously discussed. It can be viewed as the fourth poem, after those of Chartier, Charles d’Orléans, and Jean II de Bourbon, written around the mid 1400s in the line of virtual poetic discourse consisting of poems that prominently featured the regretz in their opening lines. It would be tempting to consider Allez regretz to have been prompted by Charles’s C’est une dangereuse espergne, in turn written in response to Jean’s earlier J’amasse ung tresor de regres, and thus see the two poets bound in a threefold reciprocal creative momentum. Indeed, the imperative “Allez” in Jean’s poem, a forthright command addressed to the regretz to “go away,” may have been evoked in response to Charles’s warning against Jean’s “dangerous habit of gathering regres,” and in confession of the resulting torment he (Jean) suffered because of his earlier habit to gather the regres that his beloved had sent (“envoye”) him. It is certainly not impossible that Jean may have felt compelled to counter Charles’s poetic retort.
It appears as a unicum in the Nivelle chansonnier. For a discussion on the popularity of Allez regretz, see Chapter 2, p. 39-40, and n. 25.
Virtual threads of communication can be located within the two poems of Jean II de Bourbon and that of Charles d’Orléans (see table 5.1 for a comprehensive presentation of the intertextual instances). “Le Cueur,” a recurrent word in all three works, is used exclusively to outline the topographical boundaries where the regretz reside. It signifies, in other words, the locus of the regretz, and in this function it can mostly be seen in the C’est une dangereuse espergne and Allez regretz. Thus Jean’s call to the regretz to “make their acquaintance somewhere else” because they have greatly tormented “mon las cueur” echoes Charles’s warning against the regretz which cause suffering to whoever “de son cueur les tient trop pres.” Moreover, the verb “tourmente,” another shared tag of Allez regretz, resonates with “leurs tourmens segres” of Charles’s poem, which refers to the torments caused by the regretz. Reference to torment in J’amasse ung tresor materializes in a physical way, in the form of cries (“lermoye” and “plaint”). A third constant observed in the first two poems is the word “segrez.” In J’amasse ung tresor, “segrez” acquires the role of “cueur” as the place of deep thoughts where the regretz dwell. In the responce by Charles d’Orléans, the word appears in conjunction with “tourmens” and refers to the eventual consequences of the one who amasses regretz, that is, secret torments. The theme of warning is evident in the second and third poems. Charles’s response comes as a warning against Jean’s habit to accumulate regretz, while Jean’s counter-response communicates a much stronger warning, a threat really, against a third person who is, in all likelihood, a rival. Another thread of association among all three regretz poems is their shared rhetoric of hyperbole. Their common resort to some sort of
extreme reaction or consequence is articulated by means of exaggerated expressions. In J’amasse ung tresor for instance, “Ses griefz maulx qui me font mourir” conveys the male persona’s resort to death as a measure of his uttermost feelings. The expression “Non pas assez nuysans, mais tres” in Charles’s poem refers to the destructive nature of the regretz that are “not just harmful, but worse than that.” Hyperbole materializes in C’est une dangereuse espergne in the form of an extreme reaction, as the male persona expresses his intention to harm the one (“he”) who will dare to come back (the identity of “he,” the third person in Allez regretz, is discussed later on in p. 193). The word that is used to express his threat is “honneur” (“vous feray tel honneur”) and it is employed in a negative, ironic sense to denote honor of another kind. Interestingly, it brings to mind “l’onneur,” associated in Jean’s earlier poem with the moral quality of his beloved. Apart from conspicuously shared utterances, various expressions of striking contrast juxtaposed among the three poems create an intriguing intertextual play. To begin with, the incipits of Jean’s poems are obviously antithetical, each evoking a completely contradictory attitude towards the regretz in comparison to the other. Revulsion towards the regretz in the latter (“Allez regretz, vuidiez de ma presence”) suggests a surprisingly wide turn from the poet who seemed to have previously treasured them (“J’amasse ung tresor de regrez”). The contrast between J’amasse ung tresor and Charles’s responce materializes in the conceptual pair of hiding versus revealing. The action of hiding in the former text is plainly stated by the poet: “je la celle.” What is it that he hides? Apparently, it is his reason for keeping his regretz locked in his “segrez.” By contrast, an aura of exposure
transpires in the responce. Charles thinks of his claims against the regretz as utterly truthful and as such he claims that “Se je mens, que l’en m’en repreigne” (“If I lie, let me repeat it”). Not only does he have no intention to lie (“mens”), but he also insists on his statements (“repreigne”). Further on, his insistence on truth is verbalized in the verse “On saura leurs tourmens segres” (“We will know all of his secret torments”); here Charles implies that Jean’s torments due to his habit to “D’amasser ung tresor de regres” will eventually be publicly revealed. Surprisingly, the concluding line of the responce further articulates Charles’s insistent rhetoric of exposure: “Qui ne m’en croira, si l’apreigne” (“Whoever does not believe me, will find out”). And if one wonders how and where Charles’s claims against Jean’s habit come into being, there is virtually no other literary place to look but Jean’s Allez regretz. By considering the latter as a counter-responce to Charles, this concluding line can be seen as its virtual outset.
J’AMASSE UNG TRESOR CUEUR TOURMENTER SEGREZ
C’EST UNE DANGEREUSE ESPERGNE
Qui de son cueur les tient trop pres leurs tourmens segres
plus d’elle est pres mon cueur
Assez avez tourmente mon las cueur Assez avez tourmente mon las cueur
Ne partiront de mes segrez Ses griefz maulx
leurs tourmens segres Il couvient que mal lui en preigne C’est une dangereuse espergne d’amasser tresor de regres Non pas assez nuysans, mais tres malle meschance N’y tournez plus
WARNING HYPERBOLE/ EXAGGERATION
Ses griefz maulx qui me font mourir Il n’est point doleur que la moye
Qu est cellui qui point soit ne en France qui endurast ce mortel deshonneur; Se plus vous voy prouchain de ma plaisance devant chanscun vous feray tel honneur vous feray tel honneur mortel deshonneur Allez regretz, vuidiez de ma presence Allez ailleurs N’y tournez plus Que l’en dira que la main d’un seigneur Vous a bien mis a la malle meschance Remply de duel
HONNEUR AMASS VS. EXPEL HIDE VS.
C’est pour garder l’onneur de celle J’amasse ung tresor de regrez
La cause pourquoy? je la celle
On saura leurs tourmens segres Qui ne m’en croira, si l’apreigne
REFERENCE TO PAIN/TEARS
mon povre oeil lermoye; j’ay assez plaint
Table 5.1: Shared vocabulary among J’amasse ung tresor, C’est une dangereuse espergne, and Allez regretz.
Ghizeghem’s Allez regretz has been crucial to the growing significance of the regretz as a topos.Allez regretz and the Emergence of Regretz As Goldberg argues in his notable study of the Ghizeghem-Compère regretz chansons. sourdez en habondance Vides regret 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table 5.28 Apart from its wide dissemination and its extensive popularity as a compositional model (discussed in Chapter 2). regretz Venés. This was first pointed out in Marvin. “Was zitiert Compère.” 197.2: Regretz sharing the “Imperative+regretz” incipit. regretz.” 91.” 193 . TEXTS THAT BEGIN WITH IMPERATIVE VERB + REGRET(Z) Allez regretz NO. venés Fuyes regretz Alle regres Venez regretz. She calls attention to the “dramatic” and “catchy” hues of the particular grammatical structure. 28 29 Goldberg.” The regretz network considered in this dissertation includes eight chansons that.29 This structure is composed of an imperative followed by the word “regretz. venés. similarly to Allez regretz. OF MUSICAL SETTINGS 5 COMPOSERS Ghizeghem Agricola Senfl Bartolomeo degli Organi Anonymous Agricola Compère Agricola Compère Compère Févin Longueval Anonymus Anonymus Va t’en regret Revenez tous regretz Sourdez. begin with a verb of movement in the imperative mood (va t’en. as the word “regretz” is particularly emphasized and was probably employed to “attract the attention of the public. sourdez. ‘“Regrets’ in French Chanson Texts. the literary text of Allez regretz appears as the earliest regretz poem in a line of chanson texts with an incipit that features a shared grammatical structure. etc) followed by the regretz.
The first stanza.The text of Allez regretz as the earliest influential regretz set in music and thus the musical starting point of the regretz intertextual network demands a thorough consideration of its narrative and its representation of the regretz concept.” 197-8. Moreover. and his threats against the regretz (stanza 3). as Ghizeghem’s setting sparked off a remarkable web of musical intertextualities with other early regretz (see Chapter 2). his anger conveyed in the language of “the aristocratic honor code” (stanza 2). being the servant Of one matchless that I have loved from my childhood Make him suffer longer this offence Where is he not born in France Who would endure this mortal disgrace Do not come back. ‘“Regrets’ in French Chanson Texts. vuidez de ma presence Allez ailleurs faire vostre acointance Assez avez tourmente mon las cueur Remply de duel pour estre serviteur D’une sans per que j’ay amee d’enfance Go sorrows. leave my presence Go and make acquaintance elsewhere You have tormented my weary heart enough I am full of sorrow. is reminiscent 30 Marvin. 194 . a discussion of the ways the text of Allez regretz communicates with that of its musically-related chanson Venés regretz will enhance our understanding of the earlier notions of the regretz topos. car. for. by my conscience If I see you near me more Before everyone I will do you such honor That they will say that a lord’s hand Has really done you mischief Fait lui avez longuement ceste offence Qu est cellui qui point soit ne en France Qui endurast ce mortel deshonneur N’y tournez plus.30 Her interpretation situates the emergence of the regretz as an embodiment of sorrow and grief caused by the loss of love. par ma conscience Se plus vous voy prouchain de ma plaisance Devant chanscun vous feray tel honneur Que l’en dira que la main d’un seigneur Vous a bien mis a la malle meschance Marvin’s analysis of the rondeau highlights the elements of its narrative: the unhappy lover’s address to the regretz that “have arisen from unrequited love” (stanza 1). Allez regretz. probably with the exception of the lover’s intention to discard the regretz.
praise of the lady) that are characteristic of the discourse of courtly love. Yet. see Leonard Johnson. long lasting love. Poets as Players: Theme and Variation in Late Medieval French Poetry [Stanford. Yet. After the reading of the second strophe. is apparently unapproachable.” as well as the slap in the face threatened to be given in public to the person hidden behind “vous. In regard to this point. abiding to the rules of courtly love. adored ever since childhood. which Goldberg sees as the culmination of the narrative. discloses ominous blows not towards the regretz. how is the poet’s resentment towards the regretz justified? I would think that a faithful servant. as it mainly refers to the earlier troubadour poetry and poets of the langue d’oil (for a short discussion and references. and not to the regretz. would continue declaring his passionate devotion and. Goldberg offers a highly intriguing suggestion.32 The insult hinted at by “morter deshonneur. to a real. I need to point out that the propriety of term has been questioned. “Was zitiert Compère. would not have taken bold action to relieve his sorrow. third person. Marvin’s interpretation. It may be the case that they are not only meant to merely personify the poet’s 31 The two ending lines of the first stanza project a number of commonplaces (servant. I think. in general. As he notes.” 92. the opening refrain moves in “familiar ground”: the lover is tormented by recurring tortures of regretz caused by the fact that the lady. as claimed in Marvin’s analysis. but towards that third person. the returning regretz in the refrain are to be seen under a new light.of the rhetorics of amour courtoise31 and fits. 1990]. 32 Goldberg. Goldberg argues.” suggest the presence of a rival. who in all possibility must have been a competitor of the lovestricken poet. who seems to have caused a “mortel deshonneur. indeed. Stanford University Press. 38-40). most likely. 195 .” The complete second strophe. as it seems to be the case in Allez regretz. The pronoun “lui” refers. the narrative caesura that lies in the opening of the first strophe (“Fait lui avez longuement”) creates a momentary disruption of meaning.
which in Allez regretz were asked to go. 93. The regretz topos has associations with the topos of dueil. the regretz in Venés regretz are multi-faced. The same pattern is featured in the second line. Initially they embody mourning and later. is a further indication of their multiplicity. where the repetition of “allez” is followed by a reference to space (“ailleurs”). Similarly to Allez regretz.” lined up with “cueur” and positioned Ibid. they connote a call to the listeners to bestow consolation to the narrator. are appealed to come in Venés regretz. a unique element of the regretz topos. The regretz. tags related with time (temporal motives). is no more a worthy object of his regretz. 34 Ibid. pp. but also his sorrow after realizing that the lady. the regretz in their plurality – as feelings of pain that grow and transform themselves to rage – become to a certain extent multi-faced. the caesura breaks the decasyllabic verse in 4+6 syllables. see Chapter 2. Their plural form.pain of unfulfilled love. 92. His recurring regretz considered in the context of the recitation of the complete rondeau may also reflect his rage over the rival.33 Goldberg has identified the following constants that are intrinsic in Allez regretz as elements of the topos of regretz: a rhetoric of “action versus location” in the refrain. The narrative in the latter is less complicated and the theme of regretz is conveyed more conspicuously and in line with the earlier notion of the regretz as expressive of mourning over loss of one’s beloved. who was first openly portrayed as worthy of his suffering. the regretz are partners and personified feelings that come and go. after their recurring echoes materialize according to the realization of the rondeau plan. and mostly in the opening lines. Goldberg has brought additional evidence attesting to the multi-faceted quality of the regretz in the form of parallel readings of the texts of Allez regretz versus that of Venés. and the words “tourmente” and “dueil” to signify the male persona’s state of mind. The first hemistich is imperative to the action (“Allez”). 43-47). The concept of “tourmenter. As Goldberg remarks.34 The constant of “action versus location” can be observed in the opening line. yet although dueil expresses a feeling. 33 196 . while the second indicates location (“ma presence”). The most striking moment in their parallel reading lies right on their incipits. regretz (for a discussion of the musical intertextualities between the chansons.
early on in the refrain.” which. The threefold presentation of the opening imperative “Venés” structurally recalls the repetition of “Allez” and similarly projects a notion of continuity.” registers a strong expression of endurance. as well as the use of vocabulary and assonances stressing the phoneme “A” (allez. the same verb of action (“venés”) is followed by “demeure. in parallel to “acointance” of Allez regretz. Allez regretz features a remarkable number of expressions that indicate time and most specially endurance and continuity. The expression “j’ay amee d’enfance” is also suggestive of continuity and duration. the second strophe opens with the word “tournez. as is likewise the word “tourmente. ailleurs. while the ending. “Qui endurast ce mortel deshonneur. is a signifier of location. one can only forcibly scare away. in the context of Allez. Motives of time. “longuement. acointance).” is featured in the opening of the first strophe. expresses the recurring tortures of regretz that. action. The opening line of the refrain integrates expressions of action and time (“venés” vs.” another utterance related to time and continuity. As a matter of fact. can also be observed in the text of its musical intertext. The opening lines for instance convey a sense of aural stability by means of the repetition of the same verb (“allez”). the interrelation of “demeure” and “acointance” to convey the positioning of regretz is further highlighted when one considers the overall syntactic and 197 . Venés regretz (see text and translation below). Dueil signifies the pain and suffering felt at the loss of the beloved. Lastly. “heure”) while in the second verse.” An adverb of duration. parallel to those displayed in the text of Allez regretz. and location.
The reference to death (“je meure”) in the closing verse as an irrefutable outcome is only one of multiple appeals to death suggested in the rondeau. which in turn points to a sort of ending of mortal life. regretz.structural resemblance of the second verse in both poems. “belle meure” in connection with “dueil” and “noir” likewise recalls an imagery of mourning. 492. the latter employs a common motif of chansons dealing with sorrow and lovesickness –that of death. because I must wear them. in the refrain of Venés regretz. “ailleurs” / “sur moy”). come. Delay no more for my mind drifts If you wish to see me before I die37 A comparison of the first hemistichs suggests contrast (“allez” / “venes”. 37 The translation is based on those by Susan Jackson in Atlas. Venés. alas. is implied as the actual space of “demeure. it is time Come. I do not see a soul who might succor me To this end that my heart asks and weeps the pain that it has and under which it labors I am constrained to open the great door to you But make sure that behind you does not remain The habit of mourning. sorrows. “Dueil” refers to mourning. “The Chansons of Loyset Compère.36 The words “morte” and “fin” openly evoke Death. I assume that the expression “ouvrir la grant porte” may have been used to trigger religious associations with the gates of the kingdom of heaven. make your dwelling with me There is good reason for me to implore you For today all my joy is dead And. 35 198 . darker than the mourning clothes Full of tears.” which. alludes to the Last Hour. and Zuckerman Wesner. apart from the rhyming words. In the first place. 93. the expression “il en est heure. which are however identical in meaning.” charged with a religious connotation. il en est heure Venés sur moy faire vostre demeure C’est bein raison qu’à ce je vous enhorte Car aujourd’huy toutte ma joye c’est morte Et si ne voy nulluy qui me sequeure A celle fin que mon cueur sente et pleure Le mal qu’il a et en quoy il labeure Je suis contraint vous ouvrir la grant porte Mais gardez bien qu’après vous ne demeure L’abit de dueil plus noir que belle meure Plain de larmes affin que je la porte Ne tardez plus car mon sens se transporte Si vous voulez me voyr ains que je meure Come. venés.35 Another connection pointed out by Goldberg is “le cuer. The second hemistichs are almost identical. Anthology of Renaissance Music.” 400. Similarly. 36 Ibid.” Apart from these time-space references that are shared in textual counterpoint between Allez regretz and Venés regretz.
the regretz were bound to convey the sorrows of the lovesick poet caused by parting and/or denial.The list of themes identified so far in the texts of the earlier regretz chansons Allez regretz and Venés regretz provide a general picture of the regretz topos. their meaning is ambiguous and in virtue of that ambiguity. Literary Archetypes in the Regretz Topos REGRETZ SUMMONED VS. they are implemented in to participating in the network of regretz chansons. the regretz appear as personified actors. and governed by concepts of movement and transformation (“amasser”/ “allez”/ “venés”). but most frequently he summons them (see table). at times he expels them. Instead of being fixed. this notion of diversion – “Kommen oder Gehen” as Goldberg describes it – enhances the multi-faced character of the regretz. and enhancing the interplay between music and text. Beyond mere feelings. nonlinear. such as Chartier and Jean II de Bourbon. to the rondeaux that inspired musically related settings (Allez regretz and Venés regretz). 199 . This ambiguity of the regretz is also reflected in the attitude of the poet/male persona towards them. Undoubtedly. and non-static. playing a part in the intertextual bonding of the literary regretz. EXPELLED. From the regretz of mid fifteenth century poets. occupying their local architectural place in the opening line of the poem. carrying a deceiving multi-faced mask. One of the central concepts developed in Goldberg’s “Was zitiert Compère?” concerns the identity of regretz as multi-faced.
I think. the poet engages strong language to express his determination of taking action against the regretz. with no dissembling || and with dispatch lay low my heart || that it may drown in mourning and tears”).” See also the ending verses of the one-stanza Parfons regretz. regretz Sourdez. their gathering is invoked to assist the suffering male persona in ending his life. sourdez Table 5. the poet calls the regretz “trompeur” (deceiver) and vows to beat them (“A la parfin batu seras” [“In the end you will be beaten.In chansons that convey banishment. At times. they are solicited to assist in the mourning process and serve him in the expression of his hitherto silent pain. REGRETZ EXPELLED Allez regretz Va t’en regret Aprez regretz Sans regretz Fuyés regretz 38 See for instance the opening of Saint-Gelais’s Tous les regretz that reads “Tous les regretz qui les cueurs tourmentez || Venez au mien et en luy vous boutez || Pour abregier le surplus de ma vie.38 REGRETZ SUMMONED Revenez tous. 200 . He invokes threats and makes public his intention to punish them. regretz Venes regretz Tous les regretz Tous nobles cuers Parfons regretz Regretz sans fin Tous le regretz (qu’oncques) O doulx regretz Venez regretz.3: Regretz summoned vs. Va t’en regret employs. where the poet pleads the regretz to “vous hastez sans point dissimuler || Pour promptement mon cueur executer || Affin qu’en dueil et larmes il se noye” (translated as “Make haste. When regretz are summoned. should they not leave him or dare to return. in other words. expelled. deceiver”]). the fiercest wording. they are meant to act as partners to his sorrow – that in itself is an indication of their personified identity.
As I have previously discussed. The word “perdu(e)” (lost) is shared among several regretz that bemoan the loss of a lady (Sourdez. in which allegorical figures were featured as actors in a virtual stage. Instead. Parting in these chansons comes as the result of either death or unspecified circumstances likely associated with insuperable class-distinction. Venus. Openness. […] Their lovers are more often unfaithful than dead […] The women frequently show anger at having been abandoned rather than resignation. and Foul Mouth).” Such conditions differ from those conveyed in regretz. I would cite the parade of personified seductive sexual forces in the Roman de la rose (Fair Welcome.” 90. “L’ami perdu” as an archetype of sixteenth-century chansons related with the topos of dueil. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: Readership and Authority in the First Roman de la rose (Cambridge: CUP. Pour les regretz). the regretz as they come across in late fifteenth-century chansons are not merely representative of feelings of sorrow. “the laments are most often expressed by the women left behind.PARTING. 41 As the most famous literary paradigm of allegory and personification in the French medieval literature. On the function of personification in the Rose. 220-227. sourdez. In the chansons Mille regretz and Cent mille regretz. Sur tous regretz. the regretz are offered as evidence of the poet’s sorrow after his unavoidable departure. 38. is discussed in Dorothy Packer. “Au Boys de Dueil and the Grief-Decalogue Relationship in Sixteenth-Century Chansons. Fear. 19-54.” Journal of Musicology 3/1 (1984). esp. Tous les regretz.” and “délaisser” (to abandon). and particularly with the secular chanson Au boys de dueil and its religious contrafacta.40 REGRETZ AS PERSONIFIED PARTNERS. Jealousy. 40 39 201 . regretz. Pity. as Goldberg suggests. “habandonner. The rising of regretz as the outcome of a lady’s loss is explicitly manifested in such chansons as Revenez tous and Venez regretz. the poet’s Goldberg. see David Hult. Several regretz chansons deal with the topos of departir. Danger. Packer mentions. Shame. and esp.41 Direct language is employed by the poet to converse with them. “Was zitiert Compère. In these chansons about a lost sweetheart. the regretz come across as personified partners. following in the tradition of the French allegorical poetry of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 1986).39 The vocabulary of parting is articulated with words such as “eslonger” (to leave away). Thus in Va t’en regret. the latter are mostly sung in the masculine voice and express the male narrators’ true sorrow for having to abandon their ladies. for instance.
Regret ennuy).” REGRETZ AND UNREQUITED LOVE. The second strophe of Venés regretz is overly expressive of the physical character of the regretz. they are capable of not only dwelling in “dueil” but even take possession of the mourning clothes he intended to wear. in Plusieurs regretz. je vous ouvre la porte. Although unrequited love is not widely present as a defining cause for the arrival of the regretz. Sourdez. Lastly. the lady’s unresponsiveness as well as her pitilessness are hinted at in a few chansons as being responsible for the residing of the regretz in the poet’s heart (see Va t’en regret.”42 The four-line text of Tous les regretz hints at the lady’s pitilessness indirectly. regretz. a physical gesture following a greeting of welcome metaphorically facilitates the entrance of the regretz in the poet’s residence (heart): “Venez a moy. avoiding any explicit reference to her qualities or attitude: by gathering “Tous les regretz qu’oncques furent au monde” in his heart. which appear to become corporeal as the poet threatens them and explicitly conveys his revulsion towards them while enumerating their harmful qualities. the lovesick poet hopes to make it break so that his lady beholds its sight.” 202 . Tous les regretz [qu’oncques]. In the second stanza of Va t’en regret. force est que je le voye || Souvent requiers que a moy parler je l’oye || Celle qui a le voloir de mon cueur || Riens ne s’en fait dont ay fort doleur || Qui me contraint soyez se hault quoy l’oye. the heartbroken victim of the regretz alludes to his lady’s unresponsiveness while shedding tears at the fact that he “often asks to hear her speaking to him. yet nothing comes of this.subjective “I” is forthrightly directed at the “vous” of the regretz. for instance. 42 “Quant m’en souvyent.
the function of the regretz as a synonym of mourning over the loss of the lady is not a widely explicit idea in the regretz complex. “Jay sans cesser qui ma vie a fin maine” (Dueil et ennuy soucy). the invocation of death may act on a metaphorical level to convey the extent of the lover’s languishing. Taking into consideration the emergence of the regretz in the genre of Complainte as well as their association with the lament over death as observed in the work of Chartier. are implored to lament a lady’s death. renouncement of happiness. Death is implored to set the male persona free from his sorrow and suffering. it is not surprising that death appears as a major theme in the literary texts of several regretz chansons. sourdez that the regretz. Nevertheless. 203 . Such an association materializes in several regretz chansons. In point of fact. Projecting a subtle variation of the former narrative – or a reverse. Revenez regretz in particular showcases a language stocked with a quintessential imagery of mourning – sighs. and Mon souvenir. Regretz sans fin. the most prevalent manifestation of death in connection with the regretz emerges in the form of the redeemer. one may say – the regretz in certain chansons do not precede the status of death. cries. It is only in two chansons. Lastly.MORT. Furthermore. and loss of sense and hope. Dueil et ennuy soucy. they are appealed to arrive for the purpose of facilitating the male persona’s intention and longing to die (see Tous les regretz and Venés regretz). Instead. most evidently in Pour ung jamais. attached to the male persona’s desire for death is often an expression that projects dispatch: “brief mes jours definer” (Mille regretz). Revenez regretz and Venez regretz. “mort soudaine” (Cent mille regretz). In Cent mille regretz. elements that are embodied in the figure of the regretz. in line with their literary origins.
more cruel – than the latter. 44 43 204 . featured in half of the regretz chansons for which a text survives. H. It either registers the grief and sorrow that comes as an outcome of the regretz or pairs with the regretz to intensify the narrative of suffering. quarrel. Whether the loss occurred through a misunderstanding. the extremity of his “langueur” is compared with the effect of a sudden death (“ma langueur vault pis que mort soudaine”). “Dueil. “grand dueil et paine douloureuse”. Mitterand (Paris: Larousse. “deuil et langueur”. caused. is implied as a word of its own meaning. Dubois. J. The second stanza of Venés regretz opens with the following verses directed to the regretz: “Mais gardez bien qu’après vous ne demeure l’abit de dueil plus noir que belle meure.” fn.1). in part. “deul et desplaisance”. the use of “dueil” in Venés regretz reflects the contemporary understanding of the word in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries to denote the process of inner mourning and grief after the loss of a loved one. Dauzat. As part of a rhetoric that projects dolor of the highest degree. Indeed.196. and “dueil et douleur. by the assailing of “one hundred thousand sorrows.for instance. dueil meant the sharp emotion or pain of sorrow rather than mourning and its exterior garments as implied in the modern use of deuil” (Packer.”43 Here. metaphorically. “dueil et ennuy”. “dueil” is also interweaved with a vocabulary of comparable nuances: “dueil et larmes”. Quoting from Packer who cites from the Nouveau dictionnaire etymologique et historique by A. distinct from that of the actual rituals of mourning.” therefore. see p.44 “Dueil” is a stereotypical word in the regretz complex.” THE ORATORY OF SUFFERING. 1971): “Dueil indicated the tormenting grief felt at the loss of one dearly loved.” DUEIL. “Au Boys de Dueil. the habit of “dueil” is measured against the mourning clothes and it is portrayed as darker – and. Undoubtedly. the majority of regretz are infused with a language conveying profuse sorrow and deep melancholy. or death. themes that have been For a translation.
2007). Grief and bereavement were major motifs in the lyric poetry of Christine de Pizan. 47 “Sourdez. see Jean-François Kosta-Théfaine. 46 “Douleur” (suffering of the body or soul) is generally considered as the meaning of dueil in the sixteenth century. and joy. See Packer. On this subject. Le Chant de la Douleur dans les Poesies de Christine de Pizan (Nantes: Editions du Petit Véhicule.”48 Furthermore.46 Thus in Sourdez regretz. loss of hope. among others.widely explored earlier in the poetry of Christine de Pizan. and Charles d’Orléans. The table outlines conventional expressions of sorrow interpolated in the regretz complex.45 One of the major literary labels of sorrow in the regretz complex is the word “douleur. and the torments of fin’amors.” “Douleur” in the context of the regretz poems is expressive of pain.1. sorrow is alluded by means of various expressions that convey unhappiness. “Au Boys de Dueil. “douleur” is summoned to surround the piteous lover’s heart. and expressed through the stereotypical vocabulary of the courtly tradition. most likely. “douleur” is also implied to reside in his “las cueur. François Villon.” n.47 in Pour ung jamais ung regret. avironnez mon cueur || Tout de souspirs de paine et de douleur” 48 “Car mon las cueur en tristesse labeure || Tant que ne puis celle douleur souffrir” 45 205 . of the heart rather than somatic. regretz. the communal grief of public figures. The twin motifs deuil and douleur in her work were linked with her personal bereavement due to her widowhood.
” Besides. TOURMENTER. Almost a third of the regretz texts that I have considered employ the word “tourmenter. “Tourmenter” is another prevalent code-word signifying suffering within the regretz complex. I assume that 206 .4: Prevalent words signifying suffering in the regretz texts.” among others. It commonly indicates affliction that befalls the narrator as an outcome of the regretz. [Plusieurs regretz] “me tourmentant de si piteuse sorte”. Pour ung jamais). Tous les regretz. [Les grans regretz] “tourmentent tant mon cueur. a motif that echoes in stock expressions such as: “Regret m’atriste et me tourmente” (Nuit et jour).Pain/distress/grief Douleur/dolant Debility/languish Langueur/languir Despair Loss/absence of pleasure/joy Desespoir Plaisir me delaisse N’est plaisir Passant ma vie desplaisente Tout plaisir doncqs ie veulx habandonner Desplaisance Je renonce a plaisance Toutte ma joye c’est morte N’ay plus espoir De m’espjoyr n’ay jamais esperance Chassant tristesse J’ay triste soing Mon las cueur en tristesse labeure Regret m’atriste Pour les regrets Plusiers regretz Pour ung jamais Mille regretz Regretz sans fin Tous les regretz qu’oncques Mon souvenir Sourdez regretz Cent mille Sans regretz Dueil et ennuy soucy Pour les regretz Nuit et jour Absence of hope Sadness Table 5. Plusieurs regretz. as the majority of these texts have been set to music more than once (Allez regretz.
For instance. Reference to the heart in the regretz poems commonly emerges in association with “tourmenter. In particular. performed. regretz. 207 . surround my heart”). It is especially intriguing that in regretz texts fashioned in the rondeau form. The ballade Pour ung jamais cites the word “tourmente” in the third verse of the opening stanza. The following expressions illustrate this idea: “Assez avez tourmente mon las cueur” (Allez regretz). as either a desired or intended state. “Et nuyt et jour tourmentent tant mon cueur” (Les grans regretz). I have also noticed that references to death. avironnez mon cueur” (“Arise. emerge in the closing lines of stanzas.50 CUEUR.49 This observation leads me to think that the regretz topos not only featured a panoply of archetypical words and themes. followed by the second.the exposure and prominence of “tourmenter” as a word of significance within the regretz topos must have been further enhanced by means of the multiple settings that were composed. “tourmenter” always lies in the refrain. regrets. “Prennez 49 This consistency in regard to the actual location of “tourmenter” applies also to non-rondeau texts. the heart stands for the target of their action. and most consistently at the concluding line of the regretz chansons. “Pour promptement mon cueur executer” (“And with dispatch lay low my heart”. and circulated in manuscript sources near and after the turn of the fifteenth century. 50 Here I only speculate on an issue that would need further research before one reaches any conclusions. Apart from the regretz which are positioned in or close to the opening line and the word “tourmenter” featured in the refrain. I have observed that the third line of the refrain appears as the most likely position. The function of the heart as the primary residence of the regretz – “cueur” acting as a locus or virtual target for the regretz to direct their arrows – is plainly illustrated in the following verses: “Sourdez. but it may also have been governed by a sort of stylized syntax in regard to the likely arrangement of its stock vocabulary. “tourmens” in the single five-line stanza chanson Secretz regretz is positioned in the second line.” If the regretz embody those personified agents among whose primary functions is to cause distress. Parfons regretz). “Tous les regretz qui les cueurs tourmentez” (Tous les regretz).
” Multiple expressions of duration are juxtaposed in certain chansons. “sans fin” / “sans repos. Revenez tous. “Sans cesser” is featured as the most frequently used temporal expression. the suffering narrator engages in a brooding monologue which culminates in the second stanza with an imagery of ultimate despair: he is losing his “mind and conscience on the bed of cries” (lit de plours). Tous les regretz qu’oncques). can be observed. A profuse array of expressions denoting duration suggests that the regretz are distinguished for their tenacity and constant attack. It is worth mentioning.mon cueur en sa dolleur parfonde” (“Take my heart in its profound grief”. “à toute heure” / “en ample heure”. “Mon souvenir me fait mourir pour les regretz que fait mon cueur. Tears in connection with bereavement and lament due to death are variously alluded in the regretz: “Aprez sa mort que n’avoit deservie en luy donnant larmes habondance” (“After her death that led in giving him cries in abundance”. “longtemps” / “longhement”.” TEARS. In the rondeau Nuit et jour. The majority of the regretz poems are suffused with a rhetoric of temporal persistence associated with the language of suffering. both metaphorical and literal. thus further emphasizing the ruthless character of the regretz. As an archetypal utterance of the courtly love discourse denoting a somatic symptom of psychological suffering. TEMPORAL DIMENSION OF SUFFERING. Crying as a long-lasting gesture is portrayed in Sur tous regretz: “je plains et plaindrai” (I lament and will lament). “mon cueur sente et pleure” (Venés regretz). “larmes” in the regretz complex refers either to the male persona’s act of mourning or to his despair caused by lovesickness. followed by “nuyt et jour”. regretz). Multiple references to the act of crying. apart from Nuit et jour and Les 208 .
170-71). pp.grans regretz which both interpolate the expressions “sans cesser” and “nuyt et jour. 2. and Le coeur la syut / Pour ung jamais (Ch. 55-56). 4. 51 209 . 3. 119-20). 2.” Localized Intertextualities within the Regretz Texts Beyond the taxonomy of code words and themes I outlined as prominent constants within the literary topos of regretz. Les grans regretz / Mon souvenir (Ch. both texts abound with expressions of anguish and sorrow as signifiers of the male persona’s misfortune. 101-102). I suggest that these constants. 116-17). pp. certain striking instances of textual affinity serve to showcase the general and extensive interconnections. 166-67). the closely related overall discourse shared between the chansons is not surprising. apart from their overall significance. 79-81). the second verse of which reads: “Qui [ung regret] sans cesser nuyt et jour à toute heure. The exploration of the constituents of the regretz topos required a macroscopic consideration of narrative. 3. Allez regretz / Nuit et jour (Ch. I would point to specific textual linkages among subgroups of regretz chansons. 3. p. pp. Here. 57-58). To begin with. pp. Mille regretz / Tous les regretz (Ch.” the abundance of temporal endurance in Pour ung jamais. I have addressed instances of textual affinity as an additional intertextual dimension to chansons that musically intersect. Dueil et ennuy / Tous les regretz (Ch. are locally realized in individual regretz and also weave out paths of intertextual play among the regretz. Emblematic of the regretz topos. pp. These brief discussions of intertextuality on the level of the regretz text include the following pairs: Allez regretz / Sans regretz (Ch. 2. on the other hand. While it is not feasible to present an exhaustive analysis of intertextuality among the texts of my regretz complex. pp. Les grans regretz / Nuit et jour (Ch. vocabulary. Mille regretz / Cent mille regretz (Ch. Mille regretz / Regretz sans fin (Ch.51 Consider the texts of Cent mille regretz and Regretz sans fin. 2. 4. pp. 82-84). pp. Although their narrative themes do In previous chapters. and conceptual references.
while “Pouisqu’il” opens their closing verses. in Regretz sans fin. Their opening lines demonstrate an abundance of parallels (see texts below). the expressions are also comparable in regard to their placement at the end of the fourth verse. The verbs that are employed in the first verse of each.” as references to death that additionally project a sense of urgency.” “plaisir. an interesting reversal of meaning takes place: while in Cent mille regretz. 210 . “plaisir” abandons the narrator/male persona. it is he who abandons it.” and “langueur” / “douleur.” “Mort soudaine” interconnects with “brief finer ma vie. Apart from the staple “regretz” positioned in the first hemistich. “Sans fin” also mirrors the expression “sans cesse” that occurs at the closing of the opening line of Cent mille regretz. A shared vocabulary of either identical or synonymic words contributes to the intertextual grid of the chansons: “dueil.” “delaisse” / “habandonner. “me poursuivent” and “me fault endurer. as the shared “plaisir” is linked with verbs of similar denotation. their portrayal as “cent mille” and “sans fin” suggests quantity. Additional interplay between the chansons in regard to the placing of shared vocabulary can be observed: “dueil” is positioned at the first hemistich of the second verses.not exhibit signs of direct correspondence – Cent mille regretz recounts the attack of the regretz as an outcome of parting and Regretz sans fin suggests a “rapport meschant” (“malicious rumor”) as the cause of the poet’s infliction – the chansons intersect closely as a result of their sharing of textual material. the latter recurring yet again at the closing of the first stanza of Regretz sans fin. Furthermore.” register infliction and are placed in the second half of the verse.
Cent mille regretz me poursuivent sans cesse Deuil me conduict et plaisir me delaisse Et fortune si tres mal me promene Que ma langueur vault pis que mort soudaine Pouisqu’il est force qu’ainsi je vous delaisse52 Regretz sans fin il me fault endurer Et en grant dueil mes doulans iours user Par ung rapport meschant dont fuz servie Mieulx me vouldroit de brief finer ma vie Qu’ainsi sans cesse telle douleur muer Tout plaisir doncqs ie veulx habandonner Plus nulx soulas ie ne requirs donner Puis qu’il me fault souffrir par seulle envie53 Cent mille regretz seems to function as a focal regretz chanson in my current discussion of textual intertextualities. Translated as: “I must suffer with unending regrets || And pass my doleful days in great grief || Because of malicious rumor about me || It would be better to end my life quickly || Than thus endlessly endure such grief || So I wish to abandon all pleasure || I do not want to be given any more solace || Since I must suffer through envy alone. bears evidence of an intertextual association with Cent mille regretz (see poetic text and translation below). As I briefly argued in Chapter 3.” “fortune.” and “sans cesser.” 211 . the chanson may be viewed as engaging in textual communication with Mille regretz.” “dueil. n. the two verses are indistinguishable apart from a reworking of the opening “que ma” changed to “ceste. The most intriguing point of connection between the two poems involves the sharing of a complete line: the penultimate verse of Cent mille regretz. as the verses intersect on a 52 53 For a translation of Cent mille regretz. Furthermore. 62. “Que ma langueur vault pis que mort soudaine. see Chapter 3. Indeed.” An interesting instance of textual cross-play occurs in the second lines of the chansons.” recurs as the opening verse of the second stanza of Dueil et ennuy. Dueil et ennuy. the text of a third regretz chanson.” Shared vocabulary that resonates between the chansons includes such words as “plaisir” / “plaisance.
conceptual level. bone. sorrow and pain Have moved away my worldly pleasure So I cry and torture myself And there is no longer much expectation in hope See how Fortune walks by me I have no thought to give me joy to uplift me My fantasy is of plain pleasure That always presents itself in front of me This suffering is worse than sudden death For there is no blood. Another intriguing parallel occurs in reference to fortune. who is also the composer of Regretz sans fin.” so that “fortune me promene” mirrors the expression “fortune me pourmaine. worry. the musical settings happen to circulate in sources dated within a relatively narrow chronological 54 I have not been able to identify a translation for either “pourmaine” or a matching infinitive (pourmener?) in dictionaries of medieval French. “eslongé ma plaisance”). The shared word is accompanied in both chansons by verbs of similar “sound. thus. 212 . nerve nor vein Which one feels roughly and forcefully To be brief without never lying to you Without ceasing I live a life which fades away There is no doubt that the close textual affinity between Cent mille regretz and Regretz sans fin. nerf ny vaine Qui rudement et tresforte ne s’en sente Pour abregier sans qu’en rien je vous mente Jay sans cesser qui ma vie a fin maine Mourning and grief. the image of pleasure is portrayed as one that deserts the poet (“plaisir me delaisse” vs. otz. char. and also in a smaller scale with Dueil et ennuy. flesh. Apart from the fact that the musical setting of Cent mille regretz was in the past attributed to Josquin.”54 Dueil et ennuy soussy regret et paine Ont eslongé ma plaisance mondaine Donc a par moy ie me plains et tourmente Et en espoir nay plus ung brin d’actente Veez la comment fortune me pourmaine Je n’ay pensée qui me joye me ramaine Ma fantasie est desplaisirs plaine Car a tout heure devant moy se presente Ceste langueur vault pis que mort soubdaine Puis qu’il n’y a sang. is particularly striking suggesting that the chanson texts may have been related either by common authorship or emulation. Both “plaisir” and “plaisance” are linked with verbs that convey parting. I wonder whether “pourmaine” could be a misspelling of “promene.” as in that case the expression “fortune me promene” would be jointly featured in both Dueil et ennuy and Cent mille regretz.
38 and n. that the poems themselves may also have been penned sometime in the early sixteenth century. Both lines open with a conjunction that denotes reason (“Car” vs. 213 . While no evidence exists to confirm that one of the poems was deliberately modeled on the other. In both chansons. the object of “perdu” is the “dame” of the male persona. Profound suffering is variously illustrated in both poems.” the shared occurrence of “souspirs” positioned exactly at the same point in both texts (third and fourth syllables of the second verse) is particularly interesting.” “paine. An interesting instance of a close textual relationship can be observed between Sourdez regretz and Sur tous regretz.” which functions as the recipient of the “regretz. function in parallel to the perpetual 55 See Chapter 3. Both chansons also carry an expression of duration in their concluding verses to signify the extent of the suffering (“en ample heure” / “longtemps”). the textual linkage between the two chansons owes much to their shared participation in the regretz topos. where the shared key word “perdu(e)” reveals the core of the narrative. The focal point of intersection between the texts occurs at their third lines.” Apart from the common “cuer.” and “douleur” in the second verse of Sourdez regretz.55 It is possible. Most apparent is that the evocation of “souspirs. “puis que”). it justifies the gathering of the regretz that appear in the incipit. “Perdu” functions as a point of arrival. portrayed in Sur tous regretz as his “amiable ligueur. then. Apart from the chansons previously discussed. several additional regretz intersect with each other by means of a common narrative and a shared body of code words. n.frame of thirty years (1520s-1550s). as symptoms of a rather unbearable anguish.61.
” The translation is taken from Wesner. while announcing the rise of the regretz. avironnez mon cueur Tout de souspirs de paine et de douleur Puis qu’ainsy est qu’ay ma dame perdue J’aimasse mieux jamais ne l’avoir veue Pour en estre si longtemps en langheur56 Sur tous regretz.” 214 . penetrating my weary heart || for I have lost the gentle companion || who I lament much and will always lament. and Charles d’Orléans. and beyond an overall consideration of major literary labels shared among the regretz. regrets.” as the “regretz” are preceded by utterances that stress the consonants “s” and “r” (and occuring in the first syllable. or even transformed (as in the reversal of meaning attached to the word “plaisir” in Cent mille 56 Translated as: “Arise. surround my heart || with all sighs. Finally. “Sur tous regretz” resonates with the sound of “sourdez regretz. code words and archetypical expressions are not only extensively mirrored among certain regretz. regretz. 57 “Above all regrets mine weep most piteously || uttering sighs. paraphrased (by the use of synonyms instead of the same words).state of mourning that is conveyed in the last verse of Sur tous regretz. thus defining the parameters of the regretz topos. pain and grief || since it is true that I have lost my lady || I would have preferred never to have seen her || for having languished for so long. From the earliest instances of regretz in the poetry of Chartier. The Chansons of Loyset Compère. the opening hemistichs of the two regretz engage in a kind of aural interplay. les miens plus piteulx pleure Jetans souspirs transpersans mon lasceur Car j’ay perdu l’amiable ligueur Que tant je plains et plaindrai en ample heure57 The specific cases of intertextual play among regretz that I have discussed above are particularly enlightening in demonstrating the extent of textual affiliation within what I have called the regretz complex. They are in certain cases virtually aligned within the textual space. Jean II de Bourbon. Sourdez. 392. too).
Textual intertextualities are thus not static.regretz and Regretz sans fin). 215 . but organically embedded within the framework of the topos.
to which Goldberg had called attention. Ghizeghem. not only did he set in music a regretz poem popular at the time (“Allez regretz”). but all of his regretz chansons. for instance. that we may now reconsider our understanding of La Regretée as a later work in its discursive context within the regretz of Ghizeghem. as was shown in Chapter 2. are so apparent and more extensive than first noticed.CONCLUSION The majority of discussions developed in this dissertation deal with facets of musical and textual intertextuality among regretz chansons of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. interrelate to a greater or lesser degree. must have been particularly committed to openly recognizing his fascination with the regretz as a poetic theme. To consider the individual regretz in isolation from their referential world is to deprive them of their cultural significance as intertexts and ‘players’ within a network shaped up by literary codes and cultural practices. The specific interrelations between Allez regretz and La Regretée. and also exchanged extensive threads of musical connection. The evidence presented suggests that the regretz communicated. on the level of their poetic texts. in a great extent. among others. 216 . The popularity of Allez regretz as a widely appropriated model is also further supported by its intertextual ties with such chansons as Weerbeke’s Sans regretz and Fresneau’s Nuit et jour. Tracking down or speculating upon musical connections within the regretz complex may help us to gain insight into the ways regretz composers acknowledged and shaped the regretz as a significant literary topos and cult musical tradition.
and Gombert. one that was composed of an array of archetypical vocabulary signifying. in a great extent. La Rue. each regretz chanson can also be 217 . has been shown to share intertextual bonds with La Rue’s Tous les regretz. The subtle intertextualities explored in Chapter 4 possess the potential to add new layers of meaning to individual regretz chansons. a rhetoric of sorrow and suffering. Finally. beyond their close intertextual bonds on the levels of music and text. launched an extensive network of musical and textual intersections in the regretz of Josquin. Josquin’s Plus nulz regretz. and also between La Rue’s Pour ung jamais and Ghiselin’s Le cueur la suyt. Apart from their individual meaning and standing within a composer’s oeuvre. previously unexplored. contribute to our understanding of the affiliation of Marguerite of Austria with the regretz milieu. previously thought of as a ‘solitary’ chanson. the regretz constituted a literary topos.Mille regretz. such intertextualities suggest that both prominent composers were aware of the cult status of regretz and were eager to further contribute to its literary and musical consumption.and early sixteenth-century French and Franco-Flemish composers recognized the significance of the regretz as a literary topos and acknowledged the poetic ties among the regretz by means of musical connections. In conclusion. the intertextualities explored in this dissertation attest to the idea that late fifteenth. Moreover. Motivic paraphrases of melodic incipits and a shared core gesture circulate especially among the majority of Josquin’s regretz and certain regretz of La Rue. the central regretz chanson treated in Chapter 3. intertextual links between Tous les regretz and the anonymous Dueil et ennuy.
viewed and appreciated for its contemporary significance as a participant in a culturally relevant topos and thereby, quite likely, as part of the regretz compositional complex. When dealing with issues of intertextuality within a group of compositions linked by a shared theme, it is most plausible that further scrutiny will uncover additional works and associations. Especially in regard to the textual dimension of the regretz, Marvin called attention to the existence of various literary manuscripts that include a wealth of regretz poems.1 Indeed, the literary significance of the regretz topos, scarcely developed in music scholarship, awaits further exploration. Looking, by way of illustration, at the text of the early sixteenth-century cult chanson Au boys de dueil, one may notice a verse relevant to this study: “Venez regretz, venez tous en mon cueur.”2 The first four verses of the third stanza of Au boys de dueil, which open with the above reference to regretz, were used in an anonymous four-voice polyphonic setting that survives in Attaingnant’s Trente et deux chansons musicales a quatre parties of 1529.3 The grafting of part of Au boys de dueil, a chanson popular for its “continuous integration into musical, literary, and religious life throughout the sixteenth century,” into a new chanson beginning with the words “Venez regretz” might be viewed as an indication of the popularity of the regretz topos. It may be possible that an early sixteenth-century composer familiar with the more popular “Venez regretz” of Compère extracted those particular regretz verses from Au boys de dueil motivated by a desire to engage in the regretz cult tradition.
Marvin, ‘“Regrets’ in French Chanson Texts,” n. 27. She refers to the following literary manuscripts in Bibliothèque Nationale: fr. 1719, 1722, nouv. acq. fr. 477, and 7559. 2 See Packer, “Au boys de dueil,” 3. 3 Mentioned in ibid., 5.
Interesting for future research are the musical and poetic intersections within the regretz complex viewed against the wider background of intertextual bonds among other artifacts of late fifteenth-century and early sixteenth-century Franco-Flemish material culture. Intertextuality, and most specifically the practice of allusion, was not only manifested in music and poetry. French and Flemish manuscript illuminators indulged in intertextual play as well. Not only do we observe close affinities in technique, landscape, and decorative conventions among manuscript miniatures, but the extensive reemployment of identical patterns, figures, and complete pictures.4 If certain instances of intertextual bond within the regretz chansons can be read as exchanges among composers interested in showcasing their sharing in a common culture and/or under a common patron, the same can likely be said of artists. For instance, the musical and textual associations between Pour ung jamais and Le cueur la suyt, regretz, enhanced by their participation in a virtual interplay of parallel contextual facets and further intersection in their common association with Marguerite of Austria, can been
Susie Nash, Between France and Flanders: Manuscript illumination in Amiens (London & Toronto: The British Library and University of Toronto Press, 1999), esp. 105-6. The same technique applies to painting. I have, for instance, traced a string of paintings that not only employ the same figure (exotic-looking man with a thick long beard and a turban) but, most interestingly, appropriate it in similar iconographic narratives. Beginning with two paintings dating from around 1465, the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus by the Louvain-based Dieric Bouts and the Crucifixion by Justus van Ghent, the shared figure later appears in Justus’s Communion of the Apostles (1474) and the folios of a celebrated Books of Hours, that of Mary of Burgundy (ca. 1470-75). The circulation of the cult figure among the four works of art brings to mind the migration of the shared sigh gesture observed in the regretz of La Rue and Josquin. See Otto Pächt, Early Netherlandish Painting from Rogier van der Weyden to Gerard David (New York: Harvey Miller, 1997), 146; Thomas Kren, “Revolution and Transformation: Painting in Devotional Manuscripts, Circa 14671485,” in Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe, ed. Thomas Kren and Scot McKendrick (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003), 137-8.
seen as manifestations of the same cultural orbit which encouraged the visual discourse among painters, manuscript illuminators, and tapestry designers.5 Artistic exchange of ideas and imagery within the circles of painters and illuminators was natural and even inevitable. Not only were many active in both fields, interacting in common artists’ guilds, but they also joined forces in the creation of ephemeral works for lavish festivities of the Burgundian court during the mid and late 1400s.6 Beyond exchanging patterns, a practice which, apart from matters of convenience, suggests the level of esteem that allusion enjoyed within the Burgundian material culture, artists engaged in apparent and extensive borrowing of figures, narratives, and architectural spaces within artifacts of an interdisciplinary field.7 It may also be argued that the fascination of artists with building intertextual bonds, a practice
The extent of fascination with borrowing in the Franco-Flemish artistic sphere of the mid and late fifteenth century becomes evident when one considers the extensive circulation of patterns (iconographical sketches) in an interdisciplinary stratum. In a period when conventions of copyright were out of the question, “patterns were borrowed, exchanged, rented or even illegally seized by painters, illuminators, glass-painters, tapestry designers and specialists in yet other media.” See James Douglas Farquhar, Creation and Imitation: The Work of a Fifteenth-Century Manuscript Illuminator (Fort Lauderdale, FL.: Nova/NYIT University Press, 1976), 65-71. 6 Thomas Kren and Maryan W. Ainsworth, “Illuminators and Painters: Artistic Exchanges and Interrelationships,” in Illuminating the Renaissance, 35-57, esp.35-36. 7 One of the most fascinating and widely celebrated cases of intertextual alliance can be observed among three artworks of diverse media dating from the mid to late fifteenth century: Jan van Eyck’s Virgin with Canon van der Paele (1436), Gérard Loyet’s acclaimed golden statuette ensemble of Saint George and Charles the Bold (dating from 1471 and now in the treasury of St. Paul’s Cathedral in Liege), and a manuscript illumination of Lieven van Lathem found in a prayer book of Charles the Bold (for an illustration of Lathem’s illumination and relevant discussion, see Hugo van der Velden, The Donor’s Image: Gerard Loyet and the Votive Portraits of Charles the Bold, [Turnhout: Brepols, 2000], 124-25). All three artifacts address the same iconographical narrative. The duet of figures in Loyet’s statuette has been “extracted” from the right part of van Eyck’s painting. The iconographic resemblances, shared themes, and contexts of production between the two group compositions of saint/donor are striking. Both works of art were the result of commissions by donors and were to be displayed as tokens of their gratitude. Most interestingly, while van Eyck’s composition faithfully adheres to the iconographic paradigm of the sacra converzatione, in which the presentation of the donor by the saint is directed to a hierarchically elevated figure (God, Christ, Virgin Mary, mystery), that third person, visually absent in the statuette, is virtually suggested by the outward gestures of saint and donor as van der Velden has discussed (The Donor’s Image, 122-24). The intertextual dimension in this case extends beyond the boundaries of the material object.
shared among musicians/poets of the same chronological and geographical resonance, functioned as a means of shaping and building upon a Franco-Flemish cultural heritage.
APPENDIX TRANSLATIONS OF REGRETZ TEXTS
This is not a comprehensive list of regretz texts and their translations; it contains only those for which English translations are not readily available. The list is organized in alphabetical order according to the incipit.
Aprez regretz il se fault resjouyr Chassant tristesse et deuil et souvenir Car j’ay la grace de celle que j’amoye Riens en ce monde certes je ne vouldroye Fors tousjours estre pres d’elle a monplaisir
After sorrow, one must rejoice Chasing sadness, and mourning, and memories For I have the grace of her whom I loved In truth I would wish for nothing in this world Except to have always the pleasure of being with her She has made me languish for a long time In a much great doubt that she made me to hate But now she wants me to rejoice
Bien longhement elle m’a fait languir En trop grant doubte qu’elle me deubt hayr Mais maintenant veult que je me resjoye
A tousjour mais je la veulx bien servir Elle le vault plus que aultre, sans mentir Et par ainsi vivrons tousjours en joye Puis que s’amour m’a donné et ottroye Sans plus avant penser a desplaisir
But I want to always serve her well Frankly she wants that more that anything else And thus we will always live in joy Since her love was given to me and provided Without further thinking of unhappiness
Dueil et ennuy me persecutent tant Que mon esprit à comporter s’estent Tous les regretz que l’on scaroit penser Et n’est vivant qui en sceut dispenser Car en mon cas personne riens n’entend
Pain and grief persecute me much That my mind can not think of how to bear All the sorrows that one would think of And it is not alive but to provide [them?] Because in my case, nothing matters
praise. worry. bone. nerf ny vaine Qui rudement et tresforte ne s’en sente Pour abregier sans qu’en rien je vous mente Jay sans cesser qui ma vie a fin maine Mourning and grief. char.Dueil et ennuy soussy regret et paine Ont eslongé ma plaisance mondaine Donc a par moy ie me plains et tourmente Et en espoir nay plus ung brin d’actente Veez la comment fortune me pourmaine Je n’ay pensée qui me joye me ramaine Ma fantasie est desplaisirs plaine Car a tout heure devant moy se presente Ceste langueur vault pis que mort soubdaine Puis qu’il n’y a sang. en tous biens accomplie D’honneur. nerve nor vein Which one feels roughly and forcefully To be brief without never lying to you Without ceasing I live a life which fades away La Regretée. and grace I implore you Very humbly that it pleases you my lady To not have disdain of him who loves you With heart and soul Wishes to offer you mind and tongue For the good reputation that in you multiplies Of which I see France honored and fulfilled Reason makes me To name you above all women If I am set to love you with good heart I want to beg for love at your pleasure But if denied You will see a praise that will tarnish your fame It is such a pity that nothing touches your heart So that it weakens you But in my heart this sorrow hides and folds 223 . with all goods supplied Filled up with honor. et de grace remplie Je vous supplie Très humblement qui’il vous plaise Madame N’avoir desdaing se ce lui qui vous ame De cueur et d’ame A vous louer sens etlangue desplye Pour le bon bruit qui en vous multiplie dont je voy France honourée et emplie Raison me plie Avous nommer se jamais le fut femme S’à vous aymer de bon cueur je m’emplie Amour le veult bonvouloir luy supplie Mais desamplie Vous voye d’ung los qui tarnit votre fame C’est que pitié vostre cueur point n’entame Qui vous est blame Mais en mon cueur ce mal tais et replie Sorrowful one. otz. flesh. sorrow and pain Have moved away my worldly pleasure So I cry and torture myself And there is no longer much expectation in hope See how Fortune walks by me I have no thought to give me joy to uplift me My fantasy is of plain pleasure That always presents itself in front of me This suffering is worse than sudden death For there is no blood. de los.
Le cueur la suyt et mon oeil la regrete Mon corps la plainct mon esperit la guecte Celle qui est des parfaictes la fleur dont à jamais j’ay ordonné ung pleur perpetuel en pensée segrecte Tous en font dueil et chascun la soubhaicte Plusieurs en ont dure complaincte faicte Car elle avoit gaigné de meintz seigneur My heart follows her and my eyes lament her My body cries for her and my spirit guards her She who is the most perfect of flowers Of whom forever I have ordered a A perpetual crying in secret thought Everybody is in mourning and each and everyone claims her Several harsh laments have been made For she had gained the lord’s hand Fortune weakens from our sight Not without sorrow for her perfect beauty But of two goods one must choose the best Her value will not be forgotten Wherever she goes or she is placed Fortune l’a de noz veues fortraicte Non sans regret pour sa beaulté parfaicte. Mais de deux biens prandre fault le meilleur Sy ne sera en obly sa valeur En quelque part qu’elle aille ou qu’on la mecte Les grans regretz que sans cesser je porte Et nuyt et jour tourmentent tant mon cueur Que se de vous ne vient quelque liqueur Impossibl’est que plus je m’en deporte Mais j’espere que grace l’on m’aporte Pour remede qu’il me vauldra bonheur Aujourd’huy n’est plaisir que me supporte le cueur m’estraint et me tient en rigueur Alegez moy et me donnez vigueur Qu je vaulx mort a vous je m’en raporte The great sorrows that I incessantly bear And night and day much torment my heart Unless some sustenance comes from you It is impossible for me to go on But I hope that grace will return back to me as a remedy that will bring me happiness Today there is no pleasure to keep me alive My heart is torturing me and keeps me in harshness Relieve me and give me strength or I want death to take me back to you Mon souvenir me fait mourir Pour les regretz que fait mon cueur dont nuyt et jour suis en labeur soubz espoir de le secourir Se sans cesser devoye courir Se sçauray je par quel rigueur Sa doulceur me fault descouvrir Et le mettre hors de langueur En luy donnant port et faveur Sans plus dire ne soustenir My memories make me die For all the sorrows that are in my heart Night and day I’m in labor In hope of rescuing them Without ceasing they are led astray They are known of such harshness Their sweetness I must uncover And place them out of suffering By giving them harbor and favor Without saying more but supporting 224 .
and unhappiness Is the fee of a stiff conqueror how much it takes to implore for pleasure To pay for love is not what one thinks 225 . plaisir et honneur me osteront Car pour le veul ilz m’en emporteront Venez a moy.Nuit et jour sans repos avoir Regret m’atriste et me tourmente Tant que n’ay plus espoir n’atente A chose que je puisse voir Plus m’en souvient a dire voir Et plus mon cuer s’en malcontente J’en pers le sens et le savoir Au lit de plours soubz noire tente Passant ma vie desplaisente En la chambre de desespoir Day and night without rest A sorrow makes me sad and torments me much As long as I have no more hope nor waiting To see something The more I remember the truth to say the more my heart is unhappy I am losing my mind and my conscience on the bed of cries under the black shade passing my miserable life in the chamber of despair O doulx regretz mon singulier plaisir Que i' ay voulu en ce monde choysir Pour mon tresor et plaisance mondaine Pencez a moy une foys la semaine Et mescripuez si vous auez loysir Sweet sorrows. je vous ouvre la porte Puisque je pers celle par qui seront En moy sans fin leur demeure y feront Amour le veult et aussi m’y enorte Et que de sens et raison me deporte Conclusion: ilz me demeureront The many sorrows found on earth And the sorrows that afflict men and women Are as pleasures compared to those I bear Tormenting me so piteously That my mind knows no longer what it does Fear pleasure and honor combat against me since they will carry me away from my will Come to me. I open the door to you Since I’m losing her for they will be Within me without end they will make their residence Love wants and also urges me And of my senses and reason deports me Conclusion: They will dwell in me Regret ennui traveil et desplaisance Est le loyer du transi conquerant Combien quil soit iouyssance requerant Louyer damour nest pas ce que lon pense Sorrow. labor. my only delight That I have wanted to choose in this world As my treasure and worldly pleasure Think of me once per week And write to me if you have the time Plusieurs regretz qui sur la terre sont Et les douleus qu’hommes et femmes ont N’est que plaisir envers ceulx que ie porte Me tourmentant de si piteuse sorte Que mes espris ne schavent plus qu’ilz font Craincte. grief.
regretz. come back. je vous convie Revenez tost j’ay de vous veoir envie Plus que jamais je veuil vostre acointance Car de tous pointz je renonce a plaisance Puis que la mort a ma dame ravie Tousjours sera de mes souspirs servie Aprez sa mort que n’avoit deservie En luy donnant larmes habondance Je ne fay plus extime de ma vie Mon povre sens a tous coupz se devie Entre les gens ne scay ma contenance De m’espjoyr n’ay jamais esperance Puis qu’a deul est ma personne asservie All sorrows. I invite you Come back quickly I have an urge to see you More than ever I want your acquaintance For in every way I renounce happiness Since death has stolen my lady She will always be served with my sighs After her death that led In giving him cries in abundance I don’t respect my life any longer My poor senses drift all the time Among the people I do not know my place There is no hope of rejoice Since mourning has enslaved myself 226 .Revenez tous.
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