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By K. Sai Vishnu K.

Nagarjuna

Overview

Introduction

Transmission of Energy Receiver Tank Valves Cylinder

Applications

Introduction
Meaning: Pneuma+Tics Study of systems operated under air pressure Advantages: 1. Components are lighter 2. Air is cheap

3. Explosion proof
4. Easily transportable 5. Variable speed

Transmission of energy
Accomplishment of work requires the application of kinetic

energy.
In a Pneumatic system, energy is stored in a potential state.

Compressor Filters
Pressure Switch

Pressure Regulator Valves

Cylinder Safety Relief Valve

Receiver Tank

Positive Displacement Compressor


Parts:
1. 2. 3. 4.

Bicycle Pump

Movable member Piston Crank shaft Inlet & Outlet ports

Functioning:

1. As the crankshaft pulls the piston down, an increasing volume is formed within the housing 2. When pressure differential between the compressor chamber and discharge line is high enough, the discharge valve opens, leading to outlet

Control of Pressure and Energy


Energy:
1. If energy is not under control, useful work will not be done

and machinery or machine operators might be harmed


2. Energy can be controlled relatively easily by using valves.
Pressure:

1. Control of pressure is a crucial task in pnuematics.

2. Control of pressure is required after the compressor as a safety for the system 3. Control of pressure after an air receiver tank is necessary so that an actuator receives a steady pressure

Filters
A Pneumatic filter is a device which removes contaminants from a

compressed air stream


By using a "media" type that traps particulates filtering can be done. Primary Pneumatic filters

will remove particles as small as 5 micrometres from the air. Secondary filters are used for a variety of applications and can remove particles as

small as 50 nanometres in size

Components of Compressor

1. 2.

1. 2. 3.

1.

2.

Filters: They consists of, series of filer apparatus that remove the dust Removal of dust is required to avoid damage to the components Pressure switch: System pressure is sensed with a spring-loaded piston Electrical signals are used As pressure in the receiver tank rises, it forces the piston upward Safety relief valve: Failure of a control system to function properly, a positive displacement compressor system is generally equipped with a safety relief valve. A spring holds the poppet firmly on its seat
Pressure Switch

Safety Relief Valve

Receiver tank
1. Energy delivered by a compressor is stored in air receiver tank in the form of compressed air. 2. Intermittent compressor operation in this manner is a power saving benefit for the system.

Pressure regulator
1. A pressure regulator is positioned after a receiver tank and is used to

portion out this stored energy to each leg of the circuit. 2. Air from the receiver can flow through the valve to a point downstream. Receiver Tank Pressure Regulator

Valves
Valves control the switching and routing of the

air in a pneumatic system. Valves have to control the flow of compressed air, they also have to control the flow of exhaust air to the atmosphere. There are two main types of valves used in pneumatic switching circuits, the 3/2 valve and the 5/2 valve.
4 2

3 1 2 5 1 3

3/2 Valve
The 3/2 valve is used to control items such as single acting cylinders which have a single input. t to atmosphere. The number 3 signifies that the valve has three ports, whilst the

number 2 signifies that the valve


has 2 directions or states
.

5/2 Valve
The 5/2 valve is used to control items such as double acting cylinders which have two inputs.
PRESSURE OR MECHANICAL FORCE

The number 5 signifies that the


valve has five ports, whilst the number 2 signifies that the valve
EXHAUST AIR RETURN AIR PRESSURE SOURCE

has 2 directions or states.

PRESSURE OR MECHANICAL FORCE EXHAUST AIR RETURN

OR- Shuttle valve


The OR element, or Shuttle valve, is used whenever at least one of several different signals is required without exhausting that signal through the exhaust ports of the other devices.

Input 1 0ff on

Input 2 0ff Off

Output 0ff On

Off
On

On
On

On
on

AND- Shuttle valve


The

AND element, for multiplication functions, is used whenever 2 or more signals are required to be present before the desired function can begin
Input 1 0ff off 0n on Input 2 off 0n off on Output 0ff 0ff 0ff on

Flow Control Valve Control Pressure


Relief Valves & Regulators valve is also known as speed

This

control valve Flow Control Allows free flow in one direction but Check Valves (used on restricts flow in the other directioncompressor) In the valve shown the free movement of air is from right to left and controlled flow is from left to right. Flow Controls Screw in this works just as a nozzle in a water pipe air speed can The Needle Valves be adjusted by using screw Defect:speed of the air will be deceased by minimum 5%
FIRST Kickoff - 2007 jrg www.PneumaticFanatics.org

The Pneumatic Cylinder or Linear Actuator


Speed Valve Piston and Rod Clevis

One Touch Quick Connect Fitting

Cylinder Body

Pneumatic Mounting Bracket

Cylinder Force = Pressure x Piston Area

Single Acting Cylinder


In a single acting cylinder, the piston is forced out by the pressure of the air. When the air supply is removed and the air inside the cylinder is allowed to escape, the piston moves back, driven by the force of a spring.

Double Acting Cylinder


The double acting cylinder has two air connections. When compressed air is applied to one connector and the other connector is allowed to exhaust to atmosphere (i.e.. the air is allowed to escape freely), the piston is driven to one end of the cylinder. This type of cylinder gives greater power on the return stroke than the single acting cylinder, and also ensures that the piston is effectively locked in position at both ends of its stroke.

Transmission of air
1.When the air supply is given to the valve, it will be directed in such a way that ,it helps for the positive displacement of the piston

2. During the negative displacement of the piston, the air coming out of the cylinder will be directed to the exhaust of the valve and passed out.

Try the circuit

Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder 3/2 Push button valve 3/2 lever Flow Control Valve Or- Shuttle Valve And- Shuttle Valve 3/2 Valve 5/2 Valve

Try the circuit

Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder 3/2 Push button valve 3/2 lever Flow Control Valve Or- Shuttle Valve And- Shuttle Valve 3/2 Valve 5/2 Valve

Try the circuit

Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder 3/2 Push button valve 3/2 lever Flow Control Valve Or- Shuttle Valve And- Shuttle Valve 3/2 Valve 5/2 Valve

Try the circuit

Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder 3/2 Push button valve 3/2 lever Flow Control Valve Or- Shuttle Valve And- Shuttle Valve 3/2 Valve 5/2 Valve

Try the circuit

Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder 3/2 Push button valve 3/2 lever Flow Control Valve Or- Shuttle Valve And- Shuttle Valve 3/2 Valve 5/2 Valve

Try the circuit

Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder 3/2 Push button valve 3/2 lever Flow Control Valve Or- Shuttle Valve And- Shuttle Valve 3/2 Valve 5/2 Valve

Try the circuit

Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder 3/2 Push button valve 3/2 lever Flow Control Valve Or- Shuttle Valve And- Shuttle Valve 3/2 Valve 5/2 Valve

Try the circuit

Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder 3/2 Push button valve 3/2 lever Flow Control Valve Or- Shuttle Valve And- Shuttle Valve 3/2 Valve 5/2 Valve

Try the circuit

Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder 3/2 Push button valve 3/2 lever Flow Control Valve Or- Shuttle Valve And- Shuttle Valve 3/2 Valve 5/2 Valve

Try the circuit

Single Acting Cylinder Double Acting Cylinder 3/2 Push button valve 3/2 lever Flow Control Valve Or- Shuttle Valve And- Shuttle Valve 3/2 Valve 5/2 Valve

To vary the speed , we have to use Flow Control Valve We have to use two 3/2 Push Button Valves, since one has to assigned to flow control valve

Explanation
Perfect answer

To vary the speed , we have to use Flow Control Valve We have to use two 3/2 Push Button Valves, since one has to assigned to flow control valve

Explanation
Wrong Answer

Applications of Pneumatics

How to create artificial blood?


The

method by which artificial blood is created using pneumatics is Pneumatic

Dust System
Components required are: Air line tubing, Permanent air red liquid , Compressed air duster, Tape. Since we are using permanent liquid care should taken , otherwise red colour will spoil the clothes

Thank you

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