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Physics I Quantity

% Error % Uncertainty Distance (Linear displacement) Elapsed Time Instantaneous Speed Average Speed Acceleration Final Speed Original Speed Elapsed Time ∆x ∆t V Vavg a V2 V1 ∆t

Symbol

Formula

% Error = ( |A-M| ) x 100 /A % Uncertainty = (Uncertainty x 100) / Measurement ∆x = xf - xo ∆t = t2 - t1 V = ∆d / ∆t (with t approaching zero seconds)

Vavg = (total distance traveled)/(total elapsed time)

a = ∆V/∆t = (V2 - V1) / (t2 - t1) V2 = V1 + a∆t V1 = V2 - a∆t ∆t = (V2 - V1) / a

Kinematic Equations:

Final Velocity Displacement Final Velocity Displacement Elapsed Time

====>

V2 ∆x V2 ∆x ∆t

(Uniform Acceleration)

V2 = V1 + a∆t ∆x = V1∆t + 0.5(a∆t2) V22 = V12 + 2a∆x ∆x = 0.5(V2 + V1)∆t ∆t = (V2 -V1) / a

**Free Fall from Rest
**

Final Velocity Displacement Final Velocity Displacement Elapsed Time Elapsed Time

V1 = 0.0 m/s V2 ∆x V2 ∆x ∆t ∆t

g = -9.8 m/s2 V2 = g∆t ∆x = 0.5(g∆t2) V22 = 2g∆x ∆x = 0.5(V2 )∆t ∆t = (V2) / g ∆t = Sq. root of (2∆x/g)

Dynamics

Force (Newton's 2nd Law) Friction Newton's Third Law Weight Normal Force Coefficient of Friction

Equations

F = Force Ff . Fg = Fw Fn µ F = ma Ff = µFn FAB = -FBA Fg = Fw = mg Fn = FwCos θ µ= Ff / Fn

Atwood Machine

Net Force Acceleration Net Force Mass 1 Mass 2 Total Mass Mass Difference Fnet a Fnet M1 M2 Mtot ∆M Fnet = (M1- M2)g = ∆Mg a = (Fnet ) / (M1+ M2) Fnet = (M1+ M2)a

. .

Mtot = M1+ M2 ∆M = M1- M2

Force and Acceleration on an incline

Angle of Incline Acceleration (net) Accelerating Force Normal Force Vertical Acceleration Horizontal Acceleration

θ a Fa FN ay ax

θ

= Sin-1(Opp/adj) a = gsin θ Fa = Fw (Sin θ) FN = Fw (Cos θ) ay = gsinθsinθ ax = gsinθcosθ

Projectile Motion

(No Air Resistance!) ax = 0.0 m/s2, ay = 9.8 m/s2 x = horizontal, y = vertical Down vectors are negative in Value! Up vectors are positive in value! Horizontal Motion (Acceleration is in the vertical direction only!) Subscript "o" means time is 0.0 seconds Formulas require ay to be positive 9.8 m/s2. (The negative value has already been entered into the formulas for acceleration!)

x2 = x1 + Vx1t

Vertical Motion

Vx2 = Vx1 Vy2 = Vy1 - gt

ax = 0.0 m/s2

V2y2 = V2y1 - 2g∆y

y2 = y1 + Vy1t - 0.5gt2 Projectile Terms and Units: x2 x1 Vx1 Vx2

Final Horizontal Position (meters) Initial Horizontal Position (meters) Initial Horizontal Velocity (m/s) Final Horizontal Velocity (m/s)

**∆x = x2 - x1 = Vx1t x1 = x2 - Vx1t
**

Vx1 = (x2 - x1) / t = Vx2 Vx2 = Vx1 = (x2- x1) / t

ax y2 y1 Vy1 Vy2 ∆y ay t

Horizontal Acceleration (m/s2) Final Vertical Position (m) Initial Vertical Position (m) Initial Vertical Velocity (m/s) Final Vertical Velocity (m/s) Change in Vertical Position (m) Earth's Gravitational Acceleration (m/s2) Time of "flight" (s)

**ax = 0.0 m/s2 ∆y = y2 - y1= Vy1t - 0.5ayt2 y1 = y2 - Vy1t + 0.5ayt2
**

Vy1 = Vy2 + ayt Vy2 = Vy1 - ayt ∆y = (y2 - y1)

ay = g = -9.8 m/s2 t = (Vy2 - Vy1) / ay

Projectile Launched

θ V1 Vx2 Vy1 R (if, y2 = y1)

at angle θ

Angle of Launch from the horizontal (degrees) Resultant Launch Velocity Horizontal Launch Velocity (Component) Vertical Launch Velocity (Component) Maximum Horizontal Distance traveled (or Range) in meters

**from the horizontal
**

θ = tan -1 (Vy1 / Vx1) V21 = V2y1 + V2x1 Vx2 = V1 . Cos θ Vy1 = V1 . Sin θ R = (V21 Sin 2θ) / g Units: P = kg.m/s P = mV J = F.t ∆(mV) = m(Vf - Vo) F.t = ∆(mV) m1V1 + m2V2 + m3V3 + ..... m1V'1 + m2V'2 + m3V'3 + .....

m1V1 + m2V2 + m3V3 + ..... = m1V'1 + m2V'2 + m3V'3 + .....

Momentum

P J ∆P J = ∆P Ptot = ΣmnVn P'tot =ΣmnV'n Ptot =P'tot

(Linear)

Momentum Impulse Change in Momentum Impulse = Change in Momentum Total Initial Momentum Total Final Momentum Conservation of Momentum

J = N.s

Explosions and Collisions:

Type: Elastic Collision Inelastic Collision Explosion

Momentum Formulas m1V1 + m2V2 = m1V'1 + m2V'2 m1V1 + m2V2 = (m1 + m2)V'f 0 = m1V'1 + m2V'2 + m3V'3 + .....

**Work and Energy
**

Work Gravitational Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Work Work Total Energy (system) Conservation of Energy

(Linear Mechanical System) W Ep Ek W W ΣE Initial Total Energy = (Σ E)i W = F.d Cos θ Ep = Fw(h) = mgh Ek = (0.5)mv2 W = ∆Ek + ∆Ep W = ∆Ek + ∆Ep = (0.5mv2 + mgh)f (0.5mv2 + mgh)i ΣE = Ek + Ep + heat (ΣE)i = (ΣE)f or (Ek + Ep + heat)i = (Ek + Ep + heat)f

Conservation of Energy Final Total Energy = (ΣE)f

Basic and intermediate physics formulas.

Basic and intermediate physics formulas.

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