No. 685,957.

APPARATUS
(No Model.)

N. TESLA.
FOR THE UTILIZATION
(Application filed Mar. 21, 1901.)

Patented Nov. 5, 1901.
OF RADIANLENERGY.

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grounded contime interval. radiations of the above kind are permitted to The second terminal or armature of the confall upon an insulated conducting-body con. theformel. reference being duetiug-body exposed to the rays or streams had to the drawings accompanying and form. and under the conditions supplying positi ve or negative electricity to 45 hereinafter specified an indefinite accum u. matter. My own experiments above precautions should be the more rigor25 and observations. to an insulated metal plate or other confollowing is a specification. As the rays or supposed streams of mat1 5S 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 roo .Furthermore. .UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.153. dated November (No modsl. so that the instrument may withwhich the rays impinge is negatively elecnri. of Manhattan. taking IS of electricity. r To all Wh071l1 it may concern: operation or control of mechanical or elecBeit known thatI. during.ously observed the slower the rate of chargelusions more in accord with the theory here. l. or the llke=-possess the prop.ing and the smaller the time interval during tofore advanced by me that sources of such which the energy is allowed to accumulate in radiant energy throw off with great velocity the condenser. APPARATUS SPECIFICATION FOR THE UTILIZATION forming part of L!3tters :Patent OF RADIANT ENERGY. have invented certain new and denser.Serial No. NIKOLA 'l'ESLA.ing and may leave no perceptible electrifisidered to be ether vibrations of extremely cation when discharging instantaneously.with the greatest care.No.of radiant matter. or nearly so. These radiations are generally con. cathodic.means electricity of the required sign will be denser so long as the insulated body is ex. may manifest itself in a pow.termiUtilization of Radiant Energy. 1901. 52.) Application filed March.denser may be connected to one of the poles nected to one of the terminals of a condenser of a battery or other source of electricity or 40 while the other terminal of thesame is made to any conducting body or object whatever of by independent means toreceive orto carry such properties or so conditioned that by its away electricity a current flowsinto the con. lead me to con.1897.'. 1901.1-. OF NEW YORK. 35 Mypresent application is based npon a dis. I use.even if not so.21.ing positive and the latter negative electric50 erful discharge. in the city. parIO ing a part of the same. T'he insulated plate or conminute particles of matter which are strongly dueting-body should present as large a sur30 electrified. 5. Y. and therefore capable of charging face as practicable to the rays or streams of an electrical condnetor.. toconstrnct the same .: or. In 20 small wave lengths. N.supplied to the terminal.re 11. fu. A simple way of posed to the rays. NIKOLA TESLA. and State In applying my discovery I provide a conS of New York. by preference.rnishlowed to act.every possible precaution in insulating the lady noticeable when the conductor upon armatures.071. rate to the condenser. the surface should be clean and covery which I have made that when rays or preferably highly polished or amalgamated. county.' as is well k. 685.llown. This energy after a suitable height in theatmosphere or to a. eriy of charging and discharging conductors the best quality of mica as dielectric. Obviously the they are propagated. It is very important. No. tionate to the area exposed. the discharge being particu. which may be utilized for the ity. which the rays a. I having ascertained that the amount may \1tany rate discharge an electrified con.stand great electrical pressures without leakfied.of energy conveyed to it per unit of time is ductor either by carrying off bodily its charge under otherwise identical conditions proporor otherwise. Roentgen rays. conducting the atmosphere through which February 23. preferably of considerable electrouseful Improvements in Apparatusfor the static capacity. residing at the borough other ways.the terminal is to connect the same either to 1ation of electrical energy in the condenser an insulated conductor supported at some takes place. duetor. and in explanation of the practice I have found that the best results phenomena noted it has been assumed by are obtained with condensers treated in the some authorities that they ionize or render manner described in a patent granted to me .of which the nab. however. and connect one of its . ticularlv in view of the fact that electrical It is well known that certain radiationsenergy is generally supplied at a veryslow such as those of ultra-violet light. 577.a citizen trical devices or rendered nsefnlin many of the United States.957.

out my discovery I now refer to Fig. a retractile spring b. This latter may be any form of circuit-controller. 1. A suitable reflector may be provided for concentrating and directing the radiations. this being the 1I10st. which may be considered as a vast reservoir of negative electricity. impinging upon the plate P. containing a source of current Band a receiving or translating device D. as I have aetuallyobserved. which is pivoted to armature a. Fig. In order to utilize for any useful purpose the energy aeeum alated in the condenser. and in which' Figure 1 is a diagram showing the general nrrangement of apparatus as usnally employed.95'7 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 convey a positlve charge to the first condenser-terminal. This permits a flow of current which energizes the magnet J\I. which in this case is shown as consisting of an electromagnet :1\1. 2 is a similar diagram illustrating more ill detail typical forms of thedevices or elements used in practice. and consequently charged to a relatively very high potential. causing it to draw down the armature a and impart a partial rotation to the ratchet-wheel tv. I furthermore COIlnectto the terminals of the same acirouit including an instrument orapparatus which it is desired to operate and another instrument or device for alternately closing and opening the clrcuit. and operate the latter. the device d is shown as composed of two very thin conducting-plates t t'. which breaks down more or less suddenly when a definite difference of potential is reached at the terminals of the condenser and returns to its original state IIpon the passage of the discharge. including a suitable receiver. which may be actuated either by the stored energy or by independent means. The terminals '1' '1" of the condenser are also connected to a circuit which includes a device R to be operated and a circuit-controlling device cZ of'the character above referred to. convenient way of obtaining. dispensing with the necessity of providing an artificial source.he elementsis identical to Fig. The plates t t' are connected in series with a working circuit. reference is made to Fig. To im prove their action.negative electricity. placed in close proximity and very mobile. P the i usulated plate or cond ueting . 2. The opposite terminal of. without. to which reference is now made. a current flows into the condenser. a feeble current flows continuously into the condenser. With the stoppage of the current the plates t t' cease to be attracted and separate. may consist of two fixed electrodes separated by a minnte airgap 01' weak dielectric film. is best explained as follows: The sun. and Figs. thus restoring the circuit to its original condition. provided with a spring-pawl ». I believe. The apparatus being arranged as shown. however. the condenser being connected to the ground. As Illustrative of the manner in which the several parts or elements of the apparatus in one of its simplest forms are to be arranged and connected for useful operation. 3 shows a modified form of apparatus used in connection with an artificial source of radiant energy. in which the source S of radiant energy is a special form of Roentgen tube devised by 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 lIS 120 125 130 .body which is exposed to the rays.a movable armature a. from which the ail' may be exhausted. but in the present case the former instead of performing itself thewhole work only serves the purpose of alternately opening and closing a local circuit. almost indefinitely. with fixed 01' movable parts 01' electrodes. This phenomenon. moving the wheel io. "When the radiations of the sun or other radiant source fall uponplate P. and P' another plate or conductor which is grounded. 3 and 4 are diagram matieal represen tationsof modified arrangements suitable for special PUI'poses. In this flg ure. As the current ceases the armature is retracted by the spring b. as well as other sources of radiant energy. in which C is the condenser. throws off min ute particles of matter positively electrified. 1.685. even to the point of rupturing the dielectric. Still another modification is shown in Fig. In illustration of n particular form of apparatus which may be used in carrying. all being joined in series. until the potential therein rises sufficiently to attract and bring into contact the two plates i t'. Fig. as shown. communicate continuously an electrical charge to the same. and thereby close the circuit connected to the two condenser-terminals. A magnet R and circuit-controller dare arranged as in-the previous figures. The controller cZ. which in this instance may be an arc emitting copiously ultra-violet rays. as illustrated. If the t er generally device cl be of such character that it will operate to close the circuit inwhich it is included when the potential in the condenser has reached a certain magnitude. which. and inasmuch as these supposed particles are of an inconcei vably small radius or curvature. which in the general arrangement of t. they should be inclosed in it receptacle. which is connected to the plate or conductor above mentioned. the accumulated icharge will pass through the circuit. which also includes the receiver R. it will be found that when the radiations of the Run or of any other source capable of producing the effects before described fall upon the plate P an accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser C will result. and a ratchet-wheel ui. this charging of the condenser may continue. as above explained. I usually connect the second termiual of the condenser to the ground. 4. My discovery will be more fully understood f'rom the following description and annexed drawings. either by reason of extreme flexibility or owing to the character of their support. if desired.

. the stored energy is discharged closed.nals.be operated by' a given rise of potential in the c1erstoodthat any form of circuit-closer which condenser.ergy. it will be nn. comprising in combination. what I electromotive force.circuit connected with the condenser-termiployed. which oper. acondenser.. the condenser may be used in lieu ofthedevice 7. It apparatus may be very greatly varied with5 may be excited by attaching itto one of tile out departure from the iuvention. results in an accumulation Icuit connected with the condenser-terminals. Furthermore. In in. The source S maybe any in the condenser. comprising in combination. a condenser. An apparatus for utilizing radiant ensegments. a local eirbefore explained. ive of the desired result.which a circuit-controller therein dependent for opgoes on as long as the circuit including the eration on a given rise of potentialin the conprimary p is interrupted. An apparatus for utilizing radiant enthe same.r I 685.apparatus therein adapted to be operated or controller comprising a fixed terminal or controlled by the discharge of the condenser. trary speed by any suitable means. comprising in combination. 10 prove entirely ineffective. 2 aluminium. the plateP and condenser-terminal T.cuit connected with the condenser-terminals. as set forth. with and also that thespecialdetails of construction a plain polished snrface on the front side.the condenser when the local circuit is closed. a circuit-controller therein and means ing the rays to fall upon the plate P only adapted to be operated by the discharge of during those periods when they are product. 45 form of Roentgen or Lenard tube. . generally of specifically:describedwith reference to Fig. as for charging the other armature. a local 50 symmetrical alternating currents are em. a condenser. a condenser.by the discharge of the accumulated energy trieity to plateP. usnallyof a much greater for charging the other armature. but whatever apparatus claim is__: be. independent means 30 tive electricity from the plate P'. a circuit and the primary p of a transformer and a circuit. rays or streams of matter are emitted from 3. An apparatus for utilizing radiant encepted or their intensity varied in any man. one to be operated or controlled by the discharge to an insulated plate P and the other to a of the condenser when the local circuit is 25 grounded plate P'. An apparatus for utilizing radiant ensecondary s to induced currents. provision should be made for allow. The working or one armature of which is subjected to the acdischarge circuit connected to the terminals tion of rays or radiations. as set forth. a local cirn umber of turns.one terminal of which is ISU bjected to the aeaUy varying the current exciting the source. The terminals of the a circuit-controller therein and means adapted condenser being connected. independent means 20 is a secondary 8. which may be rotated at an arbi.as by periodically in terru pting or rythmic. independent means T T' of tho condenser includes in this case for charging the other armature. through the primary p. and apparatus therein adapted to be operated tricity the rays should convey negative elec. and the other of that if the terminal T' is connected to a plate which is connected with the ground. comprising in combination. when the tube S is excited closed. used it is important that the tube be ex1. one terminal of which is subjected to the ae40 It is clear from what has been stated above tionof rays or radiations. while one terminal of which is subjected to the aeterminalT' is contlnuously receiving nega-I tion of rays or radiations. An apparatus for ntilizing radiant enhausted to a high degree. Evidently if the as set forth. An apparatus for utilizing radiant enobvious from the theory of action that in ergy.denser. in the form of half a sphere. If ordinary which is connected with the ground.a local 60 action upon the receiver R. having but one terminal lc.one armature of which is subjected to the aed uctive relation to the primary wire or coil p tionof rays or radiations. as indicated. nected a receiver R. 'of a wheel.ergy. 55 radiations of the source be stopped or inter6. roo 105 IIO !IS I20 125 130 . of electrical energy in the condenser. comprising in combination.ergy. An apparatus for utilizing radiant ell- 70 75 80 85 90 9:. Whenever the cir. ner. anddeviees operated by the diswill respond to or be set in operation when a charge of the condenser when the local circuit 65 predetermined amount of energy is stored in is closed. tion of rays or radiations and the other of there will be corresponding changes in the which is connected with the gronnd. and devices operated by the discharge 35 cuit is closed owing to the rotation of the of the condenser when the local circuit is terminal t'. to the ends of which is con. a circuit supplying positive instead of negative elec. a circuit-controller therein adapted to effects produced. which con vey a positi ve charge to ergy. order to be very effective the electricalimone terminal of which is subjected to the acpulses exciting it should be wholly or at least tion of rays or radiations and the other of preponderatinglyof one sign. but it is 5. as set forth. and arrangementof the several parts of the from Which the streams are thrown off.a condenser. terminals orany generator of sufficiently high Having described my invention. This. this giving rise in the 4. comprising in combination a condenser. and thus signals circuit connected with the condenser-termimay be transmitted and many other useful nals. ate the receiverR. as set forth.957 8 me. IS brush t and a movable terminal t'in the shape as set forth . as otherwise it might ergy. with conducting and insulating 2.

957 ergy. having one ter. as set forth. a local circuit connected with Witnesses: the condenser-terminals. elevated conducting-plate.controller therefor which is RICHARD DONOVAN.A. M. a receiver therein. which is adapted NIKOLA TESI. to receive the rays from a distant source of 5 radiant energy.1 685. and a circuit .adapted to be operated by It given rise of pominal connected to earth and the other to an tential in the condenser. comprising a condenser. LAWSON DYER. .

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