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(1725-Amended 1735) By

Jonathan Swift was born on November 30, 1667 in Dublin, Ireland. He was the son of Protestant Anglo-Irish parents and his ancestors had been Royalists, and all his life he would be a High-Churchman. His father, also Jonathan, died a few months before he was born, upon which his mother, Abigail, returned to England, leaving her son behind, in the care of relatives. In 1673, at the age of six, Swift began his education at Kilkenny Grammar School, which was, at the time, the best in Ireland. Between 1682 and 1686 he attended, and graduated from, Trinity College in Dublin, though he was not, apparently, an exemplary student. In 1688 William of Orange invaded England, initiating the Glorious Revolution: with Dublin in political turmoil, Trinity College was closed, and an ambitious Swift took the opportunity to go to England, where he hoped to gain promotion in the Anglican Church. In England, in 1689, he became secretary to Sir William Temple, a diplomat and man of letters, at Moor Park in Surrey. There Swift read extensively in his patron's library, and met Esther Johnson. It was there, too, that he began to suffer from Meniere's Disease, a disturbance of the inner ear which produces sickness and dizziness, and which was little understood in Swift's day. In 1690, at the advice of his doctors, Swift returned to Ireland, but the following year he was back with Temple in England. He visited Oxford in 1691: in 1692, with Temple's assistance, he received an M. A. degree from that University, and published his first poem: on reading it, John Dryden, a distant relation, is said to have remarked "Cousin Swift, you will never be a poet." In 1694, still anxious to advance himself within the Church of England, he left Temple's household and returned to Ireland to take holy orders. In 1695 he was ordained as a priest in

the Church of Ireland, the Irish branch of the Anglican Church, and the following year he returned to Temple and Moor Park. Between 1696 and 1699 Swift composed most of his first great work, A Tale of a Tub, a prose satire on the religious extremes represented by Roman Catholicism and Calvinism, and in 1697 he wrote The Battle of the Books, a satire defending Temple's conservative but besieged position in the contemporary literary controversy as to whether the works of the "Ancients" the great authors of classical antiquity were to be preferred to those of the "Moderns." In 1699 Temple died, and Swift traveled to Ireland as clergyman and secretary to the Earl of Berkeley. In 1700 he was instituted Vicar of Laracor provided, that is, with what was known as a "Living" and given a regular payment in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. These appointments were a bitter disappointment for a man who had longed to remain in England. In 1701 Swift published his first political pamphlet, supporting the Whigs against the Tories. 1704 saw the anonymous publication of A Tale of a Tub, The Battle of the Books, and The Mechanical Operation of the Spirit. In 1707 Swift was sent to London as emissary of Irish clergy seeking remission of tax on Irish clerical incomes. His requests were rejected, however, by the Whig government and by Queen Anne, who suspected him of being irreligious. While in London he met Esther Vanhomrigh, who would become his "Vanessa." During the next few years he went back and forth between Ireland and England, where he was involved largely as an observer rather than a participant in the highest English political circles. In 1708 Swift met Addison and Steele, and published his Bickerstaff Papers, satirical attacks upon an astrologer, John Partridge, and a series of ironical pamphlets on church questions, including An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity. In 1710, which saw the publication of "A Description of a City Shower," Swift, disgusted with their alliance with the Dissenters, fell out with Whigs, allied himself with the Tories, and became the editor of the Tory newspaper The Examiner. Between 1710 and 1713 he also wrote the famous series of letters to Esther Johnson which would eventually be published as The Journal to Stella. In 1713 Swift was installed as Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin a promotion which was, again, a disappointment. The Scriblerus Club, whose members included Swift, Pope, Congreve, Gay, and Arbuthnot, was founded in 1714. In the same year, much more unhappily for Swift, Queen Anne died, and George I took the throne. With his accession the Tories fell from power, and Swift's hopes for preferment in England came to an end: he returned to Ireland "to die," as he says, "like a poisoned rat in a hole." In 1716 Swift may or may not have married Esther Johnson. A period of literary silence and personal depression ensued, but beginning in 1718, he broke the silence, and began to publish a series of powerful tracts on Irish problems. In 1720 he began work upon Gulliver's Travels, intended, as he says in a letter to Pope, "to vex the world, not to divert it." 1724-25 saw the publication of The Drapier Letters, which

gained Swift enormous popularity in Ireland, and the completion of Gulliver's Travels. The progressive darkness of the latter work is an indication of the extent to which his misanthropic tendencies became more and more markedly manifest, had taken greater and greater hold upon his mind. In 1726 he visited England once again, and stayed with Pope at Twickenham: in the same year Gulliver's Travels was published. Swift's final trip to England took place in 1727. Between 1727 and 1736 publication of five volumes of Swift-Pope Miscellanies. "Stella" died in 1728. In the following year A Modest Proposal was published. 1731 saw the publication of Swift's ghastly "A Beautiful Young Nymph Going to Bed." By 1735, when a collected edition of his Works was published in Dublin, his Meniere's Disease became more acute, resulting in periods of dizziness and nausea: at the same time, prematurely, his memory was beginning to deteriorate. During 1738 he slipped gradually into physical and mental weakness, and finally suffered a paralytic stroke: in 1742 guardians were officially appointed to care for his affairs. Swift died on October 19, 1745.


Gullivers Travel is the story of Lemuel Gulliver and his voyage around the world. This story is divided into four parts or books, each about different place. It became a children classics soon after it publication. But it is not fair to declare it only a childs classic as it was read and admired by even adults also. It is more than just a fairy tale. It is a superb satire on mankind in general and English politics in particular. Every land which Gulliver visits is a wonderful land. Actually, every voyage undertook by Gulliver has an allegorical importance also. As it describe one or another aspect of human nature. Gullivers experiences at every place are strange, exciting and amazing. A thorough study of four books is required to feel the full magic of Swifts writings.

At the start of the first voyage it is told that Gulliver gets the job of a surgeon in the ship called Antelope. Their journey started from Bristol on the 4th of May, 1699. Their ship is overtaken by storm and Gulliver swims and reaches to the coast in an exhausted condition. When Gulliver gains senses the book attains all the elements fit for a Child-Classic. He has reached the land called Lilliput. The very information that the human beings there are six-inches high, fill us with thrill and wonder. No doubt, Swift here employs imagination and fiddle with the famous

travelogue material written for commercial purpose. The first part of the book is full of comic elements and shows the light hearted aspect of the book. In fact, the very idea that the human beings there are of six inches size is comic and laughs producing. A dwarf among the common human beings creates fun and laughter but a human being of six inches create laughter accompanied by wonder. The way nine hundred Lilliputians pull Gulliver and the way ladders are used to feed him with buckets are really enthralling. The huge bulk of Gulliver among the Lilliputians can be imagined by the fact twenty vehicles with meat hardly make two or three mouthfuls for Gulliver and ten vessels full of liquor make a single draught for him. One feels amusement to know that six hundred beds are combined to make a bed for Gulliver. The battle between Lilliputians and Blefuscu also gives light heartedness to the first part. It is funny and enjoyable to see a huge man capturing the enemys ship with one stroke. Our imagination is put to test by telling that the tallest horses and oxen are between four and five inches in height. Some of the customs of this land are surprising as well as funny. For example; the burial of dead with their heads downwards, with a concept that they would rise on their feet and their particular way of writing, create humour. The dominating element Book 1 is amusing and comic but to miss out the serious element would be unjust. Behind every comic incident there is a satire and serious purpose also. One of such comic event is the activity of Rope-dancing. This is practiced by those who want high posts in the imperial court. The person jumping the highest is granted the highest position. There is also a ceremony of awarding coloured threads to the candidates who can leap over the sticks. In fact, this is a direct criticism on the ridiculous ways of the British Government and the way high public and political offices were awarded to the undeserving people. Filmnop of Lilliput is often thought as the prime minister of England from 1715 to 1717 and then from 1721 to 1742. The coloured thread is a mocking reference by Swift of those rewards which were granted to favourities of the king without any distinction. The account of dispute between Big-Endians and the Little-Endians is actually a comment on the history of religious controversy in England. Moreover, the reference to the high heels and low heels is an allusion to the political parties. We also witness a conspiracy which was a well organized plan to remove Gulliver from the sight. This is obviously a satire on the court intrigues. However, in the view of the dangers faced by him, Gulliver first escapes to Blefuscu and then succeds in returning to England on 13th April, 1702.

On the 20th June 1702, Gulliver starts his second voyage on adventure. On the 16th of June 1703, they catch sight of an island. Gulliver goes on a small boat to explore this island. Soon, he witnesses the people of the island. He finds himself Lilliputians in the land of giants. Here again, Swift employs the technique of contrast between the littleness of our world and the gigantic standards of the land called Brobdingnag.

Gulliver is captured by farmer how brought to him to his home. Here Gulliver is looked after gently and soon the family reconciles with him. Certain events and situations take place in farmers house, which are everlasting for their humour. For example, the youngest son of the farmer lifts Gulliver by the legs and throws him in the air. Here he is saved by farmer. The incident where two rates (equal to the size of dogs in real world) attacks Gulliver who saves himself with a sword. When Gulliver is displayed in the public, he is carried on the horse-back, whose movements are like the tossing of a ship in the storm. There is also a comic incident when a school boy aims a hazelnut at Gullivers head and how he escapes it. Soon the fame of Gulliver reaches to court and the king brings him, where he immediately becomes favourite of the queen. The dwarf of the queen becomes jealous of Gulliver and plays many tricks on him. All this adds to the comic appeal of the book. Once, he succeeds in throwing Gulliver into a large bowl of cream. The details of the event where Gulliver is fixed in the bone from which marrow has been taken out are also source of fun and laughter. On another occasion, the dwarf catches a number of flies and releases them under Gullivers nose, which causes a lot of uneasiness for him. The events with a dog, a monkey and his sticking in the cow-dung, all show Swifts ability of creating visual humour. The part ll of the book is full of satire on the English system and general humanity. All the efforts made by Gulliver to prove himself a human being end in smoke and the king takes him for a disgusting vermin. A mild satire is also found on belles and beaux of the age and their scandalous activities. Swift proves a point that the English nation as a whole is suffering from dead conscious and wants to live a life of spiritual stagnation. However, views of the king test patience of the upper English class. The kings view is that in England, ignorance, idleness and vice are the proper qualifications for a candidate to be elected by the House of Commons. According to him, laws in England are interpreted by those whose interest lies in corrupting and confusing them. Similarly, there is irony in Gullivers remark to the king for having confined education as he did not take any interest in learning the method of manufacturing gun-powder. Actually, Swift wants to stimulate the dead conscious of the rulers who do not hesitate to use violence for their superiority. However, when Gulliver starts to become restless at the beginning of the third year of his stay at Brobdingnag, he was able to leave the country of the giants through good luck. He is carried over the sea by an eagle and then by an incident fell down into a ship and reached England. This part of the book ends on an interesting note that Gulliver takes some time to adjust to the small things in England.

Gulliver had stayed for ten days with his family, when the captain of a ship (Hope-Well) offered him a surgeons job. He wants to set out for East Indians. They sailed away on 5th August, 1705, after three days of voyaging Gullivers ship is attacked by the pirates. They deprived of him of his belonging and after five days his boat touched a new island. Here, he is astonished to see the

giant floating island appearing in the sky. Through a chained seat, he is lifted on the island (Laputa) and is presented before the king. The people of this island are fond of music and mathematics. After a brief introduction of the people and their shapes, Swift introduces comic incidents. At dinner many dishes were brought before Gulliver who was surprised to see them cut into geometrical shapes. When Gulliver leaves Laputa and reaches Lagado, Swift is found here at his mocking best. Some of the comic ideas are; a project for extracting sun beams from cucumber, efforts for restoring human excrement to its original food, a method of buklding houses from roofs to the foundation, a blind man mixing colours for the painters, the research by a physician resulting in the death of dog, various experiments such as softening the marble for pillows and breeding sheep with no wool on their body. New methods for teaching grammar and mathematics are also quite amusing. The idea that the students have to eat the wafer with the written text, with a fasting stomach, catches the attention of the modern researchers. Part lll of the book is also full of some of the very serious criticism. First of all the general human attitude is criticized by the writer. The men are so much consumed in thoughts that they have servants who draw their attention towards anything worth noting. Their too much attention to their professions has resulted in the degenerates values of the women. The women find lovers among strangers and freely make love with them. Academy of Lagado is parody of Londons Royal Society. The projects listed above are the sheer wastage of time, money and labour. The suggestion by one of the professors that the favourities of kings should be given suitable medicine to stimulate their memories so that they may not forget their promises, is bitter pill to swallow for the politicians of the time. The suggestion, to impose taxes according to the merit of the people, is again an example where Swifts satire crosses the boundaries of nations and turns towards the human race similarly, irony is found in the scheme to teach the ministers that how to judge the candidates for the certain jobs. In fact, what is ignored in England is ironically listed by Swift taking the advantage of voyage genre. This part of the book also contains Gullivers visit to the island of Glubbdubdrib. Here, he comes to know that the governor had the ability to call dead people to life. He suggests different names such as; Alexander the Great, Hannibal, Pompey, Brutus, Aristotle etc. Swift has used this device to ridicule the blunders and dishonesty committed by historians to get favours and cheap fame. Similarly, Swift also condemns the greatness of those people whom historical lies has made great. In this part of the book, the most touching event, perhaps the sight of the immortals in Luggnage. Here, he is told about a group of people who are immortal. Gulliver considers them very fortunate. However, he is soon disillusioned by the miserable condition of the immortals called Struldbrugs. They are condemned with the life of weariness, fever and fret. Thus, Swift again turns universal in his aims and ridicules every human being who ever wishes to live eternity.

Gulliver left Luggnage and reaches Japan, from where, he arrives his native country on 20th April 1710, after the absence of five and half years.

After a stay of about five months, Gullivers spirit inspired him to undertake a journey on Adventure on the 7th September, 1710. Again, a mishap put him on a new island. Here, he is captured by strange creatures but is saved by the horses. He was really surprised to see the behavior of the horses with him and also with each other. These horses neigh as if they were talking. Gulliver is so much surprised that he thinks they are magicians in the guise of horses. However, Gulliver is able to pick two words from their conversation; Yahoo and Houyhnhnms. The horses are able to persuade Gulliver to follow them. The introductory chapter of the final book contains two surprising elements. Houyhnhnms, who are horses (physically), behave in a logical way; Yahoos (outwardly human) behave like brutes. Thus, the final episode of the Gullivers Travels cut across all the barriers of time, place and races, turning towards the boasting of man to be crown of all the creations. However, Gulliver with his abilities is able to convince the Houyhnhnms that he is a better yahoo and they treat him kindly. The very word Houyhnhnm means perfection according to the language of this country. They are shown so perfect logic as well as moral wise that there is no word in their language for a lie or falsehood. Later in the book, when Gulliver tries to establish his superiority by telling them the way horses are treated in his land, he has to face bitter criticism by the master of the Houyhnhnms. First of all he declines to believe that yahoos (human beings) have got ability to give logic and think. He also finds fault in Gullivers body. In fact, this reversal of roles is Swifts method of satire. Satire is also found in Gullivers own description of the people of his own country. According to him many people are ruined by the litigation. Many people spend all their money on drinking, gambling and sexuality. A lot of people in modern England were guilty of murder, theft, robbery, forgery, rape, sodomy and so on. This follows Gullivers description of the wars in which monarchs indulge, just to prove their superiority over the other lands or nations. The evils of drinking and prostitution were also very common. Doctors were busy in making money than curing diseases. They employed methods to prolong the ailments. The satire found in this section on physicians and politician still holds good for many countries of the world. The exposure of the politicians who can do anything to become ministers and chief ministers show the corruption prevailing in them. When Gulliver has completed the description of his land, certain habits of Yahoos are narrated as a comparison to the human beings. The lust, drinking, love of stones and love for the satisfaction of the senses, is obviously a satire on humanity. Gulliver is so much depressed at all this that he indentifies human beings with Yahoos and finds inferior to them. A sever satire is found when a meeting is called and suggestion is made to exterminate Yahoos as they cannot be

cured. All this has an adverse affect on the psyche of Gulliver who begins to think himself a Yahoo. He cannot bear the sight of his own reflection. He develops so much hatred for his own race that he begins to imitate the gait, gesture and voice of the Houyhnhnms. The final nail in the coffin of Gullivers dignity proves the decision of Houyhnhnms to expel him from their land. Thus, Gulliver returns to England, disgusts his family and begins to live in the company of horses. The final decision of Gulliver has been a subject of heated controversy. It has also been called misanthropy of Swift. But, while declaring this verdict, we should have three points in mind: 1) Houyhnhnms are not ideal (lack emotions). 2) Yahoos are not human beings (lack logic and differ in shape). 3) Gulliver is not Swift. Answer to all the above questions solves the trouble of the charge and the purpose of Swift for writing Gullivers Travels. (In short, Gullivers Travels is not merely an adventure story or childrens classic but is equally popular in adults due to its moral purpose. Behind the disguise of this narrative, Swift satirizes the pettiness of human nature. He wants moral reformation of man and his society.)

Jonathan Swift is undoubtedly is a great artist. He had to face unreasonable and prejudiced criticism in the hands of his contemporaries, because he had unveiled the brutality of man which was hidden under the mask of humanism. Swifts age was full of vices of corruption but still the people were satisfied. Swift gives us a true picture of the man of that age in Gullivers Travels. In the last voyage, his satire becomes very bitter when he presents horses more reasonable than man. Swift is notorious for being misanthropist in the last part of the Gullivers Travels. Swift has to face the allegation of being misanthropist for during whole of his life. It is because the critics attributed Gullivers blunders to Swift. But, he makes his aim in Gullivers Travels clear in his letter to Alexander Pope. He says, The chief end of all my labour is to vex the world, rather than divert it. Secondly, he declares that He has ever hated all the nations, professions and communities and all his love for individuals. He hates men but loves man. He hates the animal like vices in man; the crown of creation. He was shocked to see the follies of men of his age and didnt consider this reasonable. But, this does not mean that he hates mankind, as he writes to Pope, I tell you after all that I dont hate mankind; it is you others, who hate them, because you would have them reasonable animals and are angry or disappointed because they are not reasonable. This means he does not hate mankind but considers them unreasonable and wants to reform them by his condemnation. The central meaning of this statement by Swift is that he is not a misanthropist.


Gulliver, in the last voyage, became a misanthropist is undeniable and indisputable. In the fourth voyage, Gulliver reaches a country of animals, ruled by animals. There were two categories of animals living the rein; ugly and repulsive brutes Yahoos and intelligent and rational Houyhnhnms. The former appears to him nasty and obnoxious, so the feelings of disliking develop in his heart for them. On the other hand, his meeting with Houyhnhnms proves a nice experience. They secure him against Yahoos, treated him kindly and took him to their state. Naturally, this kind of behavior created a sort of fondness in Gullivers heart for them and their way of life. Up to that time nothing was objectionable, but his fault began, when he is so bewitched of Houyhnhnms that he also started hating men. As Houyhnhnms hate Yahoos and Gulliver equating Yahoos with men also began hating men. He developed a general hatred against all men. All the subsequent incidents, his hatred against the captain and his family, etc. reflect his misanthropy. The blunder committed by Gulliver is that he over idealized Houyhnhnms. Actually, he was fed up of mans corruption and could not bear it. He found Yahoos slave of emotions, sensuality and sentimentality. But, he found Houyhnhnms in comparatively better condition than Yahoos. They lack call types of corruption that yahoos had. In fact, the Houyhnhnms lack any kind of emotions and have pure intellect thats why he also started thinking that remedy of all the vices of man is to get rid of his emotions. In the result, when he was forced to return to his native country, it was natural for him to hate his fellowmen. But, finding no other way, he slowly reconciled himself to this world. Shakespeares character King Lear also started hating all human beings. But, he learns a lot from experience and when his daughter nurses him much, he changes his views. So we cannot accuse Shakespeare of being Misanthropist. So, if Gulliver during the course of the book changes and grows mad, it doesnt mean that creator too changes with his creation and grows mad. In fact, part 4 has been completely misunderstood. Misidentifying Gulliver with Swift, we think as if Swift in the form of Gulliver had started hating Yahoos. But, this is wrong. In fact, part 4 has complex meaning and is full of irony. However, it is a fact that Gulliver became misanthropist. But can we assign Gullivers misanthropy to Swift? Gulliver may have close resemblance with Swift in the first three voyages. He preaches his ideas. But in last voyage, he does not speak for Swift but for himself. Contrary to previous voyages, here, he too becomes a victim of Swifts satire. Gulliver should have rejected both the Houyhnhnms and Yahoos as both were short of being man. But, somehow he is amazed by the rationality of Houyhnhnms and started loving and obeying them. As, Yahoos were opposite to Houyhnhnms he started hating them. The more he loved Houyhnhnms more he went away from man. Swift never approved his choice and gave him sever psychological punishment. In fact, Swift condemns his wrong choice. Swift never asks us to follow the way of life either Houyhnhnms or Yahoos. Since, Gulliver too is severely punished by Swift; we cannot attach his fault with Swift. Gulliver in the end committed another fault of pride. Following Houyhnhnms way of life, he


actually degraded himself from the level of human beings. But, opposite to it he fell a victim of pride and started hating man, and therefore, became victim of Swifts irony, Gulliver speaks purely for himself in part 4 and not for Swift. In short, Gullivers Travels is a complicated book symbolically stands for the mystery of human nature. Gulliver may be a misanthrope, but we cant equate him with Swift, who throughout remained a philanthropist. He condemned Gullivers attitude in the fourth voyage. His Gullivers Travels gives a definite message to us. He advises us to keep a balance between rationality and sensuality. As if we choose anyone of them, we will be either a Yahoo or a Houyhnhnm and not a man.



Gullivers Travels is one of the best knows works of Jonathan Swift. This book is vastly seen as a Child book, a Travelogue, a Novel and a Fantasy depicting voyage. But, the real value of the book is in the satire that we find in this book. In order to feel the intensity of satire found in Gullivers Travel, let us first have a true understanding of the term satire. Dryden claimed that The true end of the satire is the amendment of the vices. Defoe thinks it is reformation. The satirist is a man who takes responsibility to ensure and ridicule the follies and vices of the society. Thus satire is a kind of protest against the corruption of the society. Swift wrote Gullivers Travels to vex the world rather than divert it. To achieve his satirical intentions, Swift has given a number of contrasts. In Lilliput Gulliver is a giant, while is Brobdingnag, his himself is a dwarf. In part one of the book, we find comic as well as serious, personal as well as impersonal satire. There are elements of comic satire in Part one, where a lot of effort is spent to make Gulliver drink and eat. Gullivers action of capturing fifty enemy ships, burial of dead with heads downward and the manner of writing are all comic. But the bitter satire in the first book mainly is to satirize the British system of selecting rulers and lack of democracy. In Lilliput, important office is usually filled by the applicant who can jump the highest and decorations are awarded to the best leaper and creeper. It is clearly to bring out the way of governing in Swifts time. The offices and favours were granted to favourities rather than awarding to the best and deserving ones. Similarly, the conflict between the Big-Endians and the Little-


Endians and the High-heelers, is a bitter comment on religious anarchy and opposition for the sake of opposition. Moreover, leg pulling and conspiracies of in the politics are also highlighted through the tricks against Gulliver. In the Brobdingnage, the role of Gulliver changes and now he himself becomes a Lilliput here. The opening chapters of this book are filled with humour and laugh. The tricks played by a dwarf on Gulliver really create fun and laughter. Most of the criticism occurs in chapter 6 and 7 of this part. Gulliver describes European civilization to Brobdingnage king, including Englands political legal institutions. He explains in detail how the system works and also narrates some of the personal habits of the ruling class. From this detail the king is able deduce that every society and political power is corrupt in Gullivers country. The king declared most of the people of Gullivers country as disgusting vermin. The satire there is more direct and bitter. The main focus of social criticism in the voyage to Laputa is on intellectual. Swift satirizes people like scholars, philosophers and scientists who indulge in theoretical works only and ignore practical aspects of life. Here, different experiments are shown by Swift to highlight the useless pursuits of these classes of people. Swift satirizes the method of investigation, where plotters decide first who is to be accused and prepare evidence against him then. Satire on rest of the humanity is also found in this part, when Swift mocks the idea of immortality. There, the immortal creatures are presented as utterly miserable and ugly. Swifts satire reaches its climax and becomes the most bitter in the last voyage. The final chapters seem to prove that the human race is really ugly and that the man has very low position in the chain of being. In the final book, Gulliver meets Houyhnhnms, the horses, who posses reason and appear to him to be perfect creatures. An extreme contrast to these animals is Yahoos, who are very much like human beings but are leading a life like beasts. This book seems to argue that reason is the only quality which can elevate man to his ultimate potential. But ironically, this quality is possessed by Houyhnhnms, where as Yahoos are bestial. This voyage contains Swifts clear attack on human pride. In fact, human race is cut into two parts: the Houyhnhnms possess reason and benevolence and selfish appetites and brutish awareness is left for the Yahoos. To sum up, we may say that Gullivers Travels is an excellent specimen of Swifts satire. Some critics try to find faults in the final solution of the problem. But, it should again be mentioned that it is not Swifts solution. In fact, like a true satirist, Swift leaves conclusion to the judicious reader. As we travel with Gulliver through the voyages, Swift peels away our false appearances layer by layer. In short, in Gullivers Travels Swift continues to vex the world rather than divert it.



In prose, style is a special way of presenting ideas i.e. how a writer says something. The analysis and assessment of style involves examination of a writers choice of words, his figures of speech, the shape of his sentences, the shape of his paragraphs, in short every aspect of his language and the way he uses it. As far as, Swift as a literary artist is concerned, he is vastly regarded as an original, authentic and intellectual writer, who always remained blind of the charm of fame. Swifts writings never limited to the cheap purpose of gaining popularity. In fact, a theological and intellectual current always flows through his pages. His purpose was not to get imaginative insight only. He always tried to be practical. Swifts prose style is often considered as near perfect. Most of the critics accept his style as the highest achievement of English prose. He writes in a clear, precise and exact style which is absolutely free of any kind of empty talk. Aitkin rightly says; Swifts style is very near perfection, clear, pointed, precise. The thorough analysis of his prose style would show a kind of ease with which he is able to communicate his ideas in an unambiguous manner. He had gifted ability to create the mood--humorous or grave, gay or cynical, playful or tender---- in fact, whichever he wanted to give to his readers. He finds no difficulty at all in finding the exact words to express what he wanted to express. His words are like the words of a great orator or an advocate who tries to convince us with his impressive thoughts. The most impressive thing about his prose style is that he is a conscious artist and knows exactly what he wants to do. Hence, the reader is not only interested in his writings but also is convinced by the clarity of his vision. He is master in masking the underplaying satire with humour also. As regard Gullivers Travels, Swifts style is both sentimental and logical. It shows intensity of expressions and rapidness of mind. It is full of images and clarity of diction. Swift has artistically used the technique of contrast in the Gullivers Travels. In first voyage, it is the smallness while in the voyage to Brobdingnage everything is depicted in a high scale. However, behind this veil of huge structures the man is still small always considering on utilitarian basis. In the voyage to Laputa, the contrast is not in the physical form but a selfish sincerity to ones profession is shown. Here men are too busy that even they have no time to give attention to rational as well as emotional aspects of man. However, through all these contrasts it is hinted that despite of physical differences the psychology of man is one and the same. However, it does not mean that Swift neglects the aesthetic beauty of his prose style in Gullivers Travels. We do find allusions and solid metaphors when they are needed. In fact, Swifts style was well in accordance with his thoughts. He never tried to use elaborated language or ambitious sentences or word to impress the readers with his vast learning. The hallmark of this book is that the facts keep coming before the eyes of the readers without too much verbal complexity. To understand Swifts intentions not much scholarly knowledge is required. His writing


is free from any absurdities of style, diction and references to ancient Greek or Roman religious or another mythology. In the end, it can be said that Swift deserve praise for easy and safe communication. His chief quality is that he instructs but never persuades. His works shows the highest power of genius as applied to the literary creations. Even the severest of the critics have not denied the originality of his work. Perhaps we cannot find better words than that of Henry Craik to describe his style: His works occupy a place altogether unique in our own or any other literature.


Undoubtedly, Gullivers Travels is the most favourite work of Jonathon Swift. In it he has mixed the ideas of adventure, fantasy, wonder and shock to capture the readers attention. But like all the mature works the aspect of entertainment is not neglected. Hence, the Gullivers Travels is not entertainment for the sake of entertainment. Reading the book but ignoring the purpose behind it, would be a great injustice to this great satirical work of its age. In order to comprehend the idea behind Gullivers Travels one needs to look into the background behind this adventurous tale. The Martinis is Sariblerus Club made of such notables as Pope, Arbuthnot and Gay proposed to satirize the follies and vices of learned, political, scientific and modern men. Each of the members was given a topic and Swift was to satirize the numerous and popular books describing voyage to faraway lands. Swift kept the form of the voyage book but expanded his target thus achieving a feat which has rarely been achieved in literature. Mainly, Gullivers Travels is known for its unforgiving satire. But as every satirist is idealist at heart thus the purpose of satire in it is not to degrade but to shame men out of their follies. One of the main purposes in writing this book was to finish the pride of man. There is a strong attack on politics, religion and flaws of human nature. His purpose seems to be an effort to stir his readers to view themselves as he viewed human beings. He saw men as creatures that were not fulfilling their obligations to be truly great. They were just trying to show themselves great. We must acknowledge that Swift succeeds in his purpose remarkably well. The metaphors used by Swift enhance the appeal of his work. Firstly, he took great pains to create the atmosphere of genuine travelogue. We are told that Gulliver was a seaman. First he is seen as a ships surgeon and then caption ships. All this provides a sense of realism. The four books of the Gullivers Travels are also presented on parallel way. The voyages I and II focus on


criticism of various aspects of English society, while last two voyages are more preoccupied with human nature itself. Over all it leads to self-realization. The metaphors used in each voyage serve Swifts purpose quite well. The small size of Lilliputians is to satirize the self-imposed grandeur, rank, politics, and international wars. Where the Lilliputians highlight the pettiness of human pride and pretensions, the relative size of Brobdingnagians highlights the rough behavior of human. In the boyage to Laputa, Swift points out that an excess of speculative reasoning can be negative as it takes us away from practical realities of life. Finally, the Houyhnhnms as the representative of perfect reasoning devoid of passions serve dual role for Swifts purpose. The domestic animals showing more humanity than humans throws light on the defects of human nature in the form of Yahoos. However, Swift does not wish us to be like Houyhnhnms, nor are they like ideal of human nature. He uses them to show that how reason not with love, compassion and sympathy is inadequate to deal with many aspects of human nature. Swift also achieved the purpose of exposing social behavior, pretension, futility of institutions and the court intrigues. Ewald rightly says: As a satire, the main purpose of Gullivers Travels is to show certain shortcomings in 18th century English society. In the first voyage, changing nature of court favours, the rope dancing and the stick climbing illustrate this point. The references about high heels and low heels and then quarrel between Big-Endians and SmallEndians highlight political and religious conditions of that age in England. In the voyage to Brobdingnage, Swift masterfully uses Gulliver as a nave spokesman of European Civilization. However, the way the kin ridicules him and makes fun of him clear indication of writers command in using irony for his purpose. But, Swift does not preach an ideal world in the form of Brobdingnage. In the third voyage, the pseudo-intellectualism and love for eternal life are mocked by Swift. In the book four, rational Houyhnhnms are contrasted to the brutal Yahoos. Gulliver idealizes Houyhnhnms. No doubt, they have pure reason but they are not human. Of course they remain ideal for humans until Swift exposes them as dull, unfeeling creatures, thoroughly inhuman and bloodless. To conclude, we may say that Gullivers Travels is vastly considered as a tragic and pessimistic work of Swift. But when one reaches the philosophy of the writer, the view is totally reversed. What actually was Swifts philosophy and purpose behind this book is crystal clear in the concluding parts of this book. In fact, Swift created the whole of Gullivers Travels in order to give the reader a new moral lens. In short, the book is full of such deep human philosophy whose understanding can enhance our knowledge of the world and man.


Jonathan Swift is a great satirist, moralist and above all an unforgettable literary figure. His age was full of corruption, follies and social evils. As a sensitive satirist Swift considered it his own responsibility to awake the society and make them aware about their follies and absurdities. He wanted to make his society pure from these evils. For this purpose he adopted the form of a travelogue because in those days travel books were very popular. It was his brilliant idea so that his message could reach the maximum number of people. The poets and writers of his age were also busy in reforming people by their writings. They presented the ideal world Utopia before their readers and inspired them to follow all the good rules and regulations so that the world could become an ideal world. They only described the good habits which they wanted in their countrymen and totally neglected the vices which were prevailing in the society. But, Swift as a satirist by nature could not forget or ignore the follies and vices of the people. So he adopted a new method. He never presented any ideal in his book Gullivers Travels. He exposed the vices of the people so that they could remove them from their society and made their life an ideal one. He did not present a Utopian World but a Mock Utopian. His purpose was not different from that of his contemporaries but he tried to gain it through a different way. Hence, he has to face many false charges and criticism because the people were not ready to admit their mistakes and vices. He gave his readers real picture of his society and as reality is always bitter so he was even charged as a misanthropist. But, the fact is that instead of presenting a Utopian World, he had presented the true picture which is very corrupted. He hated men but love man. He had not only described dark aspects of his countrymen but he had also given them an ideal world which is free from all the vices. He had a reformatory and corrective aim behind his sever criticism as every satirist is an idealist from the core of his heart. When we go through the different voyages of Gulliver we find the human busy in all sort of negative activities. In the first voyage, we come across the dwarf of only 5 or 6 inches. They are kind, generous, intelligent and hospitable. Here, Swifts aim is to show the lack of these qualities in the English people. But, he criticizes the Lilliputians desire of expanding their country by enslaving the free people of nearby island, Blefuscu. In this voyage, the political institutions and politicians are condemned for they are busy in all mal-practices and never care about the people whose destiny is that their hand. The kings were also the sheep of the same flock. They prefer their favourities and select those officials which are best in deceiving others. So the world of Lilliputians had some good qualities but on the other hand they have a lot of follies in them. In the second voyage, Swift again presents the picture of human vulgarities through giants of Brobdingnage. In this voyage, the new moneyed classes are criticized for their lust for more and more wealth. They run after money, as dogs after bone. They give so much importance to materialistic pursuits that they are ready to adopt any way fair or foul. Here, Swift changes his method a bit and satirizes the English politicians, kings, scientists, lords and so on. He does this not


only through the words of Gulliver but by the king of Brobdingnage also. The king unveils the so called nobility of English and calls their society a heap of vices, rebellions, conspiracies, cruelty, hypocrisy, meanness, malice, envy and vulgarities and so on. He condemns the wars which were fought on useless issues. Here we can say that the main purpose of Swift in second voyage is to keep human beings away from lust of money and fighting. In the third voyage, there is less bitter satire. Here Swift presents the stupidities of his society in a comical way. We are amused to see scientists busy in useless experiments. They are trying to remove opposition among the politicians by operating the mind of two leaders of the opposition parties. However, there is a sever attack on the historians who give false information about past great personalities without investigation. The mans desire of immortality is also condemned through immortals of Lagado. Finally, in the last voyage, Swifts satire becomes most scathing and offensive. This is the most complicated part of the book. Here Gulliver finds Houyhnhnms (horses) gentle and free from all the vices but Yahoos (human beings) mischievous and obnoxiou. Gulliver finds Houyhnhnms rational and noble whereas Yahoos nasty and shameful. So naturally he starts likin Houyhnhnms and disliking Yahoos. He equates Yahoos with man and thus begins to hate all the men. Here some critics make mistake that Swift is giving man an ideal way of life in the shape of Houyhnhnms. But this is a wrong notion, because, Gulliver too is severely criticized by Swift in this part for his over idealization of the Houyhnhnms. The aim of Swift here is to awake conscience of all mankind to become well behaved with each other. In the end, we can say that Swifts Gullivers Travels doesnt present a Utopian world rather a mock Utopian. Every satire of Swift moves us greatly and we start feeling guilty. Here it is right to say that Swift has described all the mal-practices of the people and preach them to reform themselves. In short, Swift instead of giving and ideal world has described a world full of vices and in this way he urges his reader to remove these vices and become ideal.