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. As with other forms of energy pollution(such as heat and light pollution), noise pollution contaminants are not physical particles, but rather waves that interfere with naturally-occurring waves of a similar type in the same environment. Thus, the definition of noise pollution is open to debate, and there is no clear border as to which sounds may constitute noise pollution. In the most narrow sense, sounds are considered noise pollution if they adversely affect wildlife, human activity, or are capable of damaging physical structures on a regular, repeating basis. In the broadest sense of the term, a sound may be considered noise pollution if it disturbs any natural process or causes human harm, even if the sound does not occur on a regular basis. The prevailing source of artificial noise pollution is from transportation. In rural areas, train and airplane noise can disturb wildlife habits, thereby affecting the manner in which animals in areas around train tracks and airports hunt and mate. In urban areas, automobile, motorcycle, and even entertainment noise can cause sleepdisruption in humans and animals, hearing loss, heart disease (as a result of stress), and in severe cases even mental instability. A notable exception to the rule is the electric, or hybrid-electric, automobile.Hybrid vehicles are so quite, in fact, that legislation is pending to actually make them louder. This is in response to numerous injuries in which pedestrians, unaware of a hybrid vehicle's presence, have been struck by such vehicles in parking lots and pedestrian crosswalks. Although most developed nations have government agencies responsible for the protection of the environment, no nation has a single body that regulates noise pollution. In the United States, regulation of noise pollution was stripped from the federal Environmental Protection Agency and passed on the the individual states in the early 1980's. Although two noise-control bills passed by the EPA are still in effect, the agency can no longer form relevant legislation. In the United States, Canada, Europe, and most other developed parts of the world, different types of noise are managed by agencies responsible for the source of the noise. Transportation noise is usually regulated by the relevant transportation ministry, health-related work noise is often regulated by health ministries and worker's unions, and entertainment noise such as loud music is a criminal offense in many areas. As the bodies responsible for noise pollution reduction usually view noise as an annoyance rather than a problem, and reducing that noise often hurts the industry financially, little is currently being done to reduce noise pollution in developed countries
Human health Noise health effects describe problems in both health and behavior. Unwanted sound (noise) can damage physiological and psychological health. Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects. Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems, whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at times panic attacks.
Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. When one species begins speaking louder. and interfering the use of the sounds in communication especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. suggesting that they sing at night because it is quieter. or preparations of net-bubbling. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss. which in the case of endangered species may be part of the path to extinction. and their message can propagate through the environment more clearly. to which the phenomenon is often attributed. causing the whole ecosystem to eventually speak louder. If creatures do not "speak" loud enough. sapping resources normally devoted to other activities and thus lead to profound genetic and evolutionary consequences. Zebra finches become less faithful to their partners when exposed to traffic noise. who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise. Noise also makes species communicate louder. These unheard voices might be warnings. Wildlife Health Noise can have a detrimental effect on animals. A comparison of Maaban tribesmen. Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstratesignificantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers. The same study showed that daytime noise was a stronger predictor of nocturnal singing than night-time light pollution. increasing the risk of death by changing the delicate balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance. which is called Lombard vocal response. . Scientists and researchers have conducted experiments that show whales' song length is longer when submarine-detectors are on. This could alter a population's evolutionary trajectory by selecting traits. to a typical U. it will mask other species' voice.S. A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found that in urban areas households are willing to pay approximately four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressurenoted above as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease. finding of prey. though differences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age 79. European Robins living in urban environments are more likely to sing at night in places with high levels of noise pollution during the day. An impact of noise on animal life is the reduction of usable habitat that noisy areas may cause. Noise pollution is also a cause of annoyance. their voice will be masked by anthropogenic sounds. Noise pollution has caused the death of certain species of whales that beached themselves after being exposed to the loud sound of military sonar (see also Marine mammals and sonar). Acoustic overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing.
FAA sponsored residential retrofit (insulation) programs initiated in the 1970s has also enjoyed success in reducing interior residential noise in thousands of residences across the United States. use of traffic controls that smooth vehicle flow to reduce braking and acceleration. and tire design. meteorology. Costs of building-in mitigation can be modest.Mitigation And Control Of Noise Technology to mitigate or remove noise can be applied as follows: There are a variety of strategies for mitigating roadway noise including: use of noise barriers. Reconsideration of operations. Aircraft noise can be reduced to some extent by design of quieter jet engines. has demonstrated benefits for residential populations near airports. which was pursued vigorously in the 1970s and 1980s. limitation of vehicle speeds. a national anti-noise pollution organization. traffic operations and hypothetical mitigation. Decibel levels of common sounds DB 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 74 90 100 110 120 146 Environmental Condition Threshold of hearing Rustle of leaves Broadcasting studio Bedroom at night Library Quiet office Conversational speech (at 1m) Average radio Light traffic noise Subway train Symphony orchestra Rock band Aircraft takeoff Threshold of pain . shock mounting assemblies and physical barriers in the workplace. that is capable of addressing local topography. An important factor in applying these strategies is a computer model for roadway noise. regularly lobbies for the enforcement of noise ordinances at all levels of government. Changes include redesign of industrial equipment. Noise Free America. such as altering flight paths and time of day runway use. limitation of heavy vehicles. Exposure of workers to Industrial noise has been addressed since the 1930s. provided these solutions are sought in the planning stage of a roadway project. alteration of roadway surface texture. This strategy has brought limited but noticeable reduction of urban sound levels.
the best control method is to reduce noise levels at the source. Duration 8 hours 4 hours 2 hours 1 hours 30 minutes 15 minutes 7 minutes 4 minutes 2 minutes 1 minutes 30 seconds Instantaneous rupture of membrane dB 90 93 96 99 102 105 108 111 114 117 120 150 Noise-control techniques There are four fundamental ways in which noise can be controlled: reduce noise at the source. block the path of noise. and protect the recipient. Noise levels at construction sites can be controlled using proper construction planning and scheduling techniques. the best control method is to reduce noise levels at the source. There are four fundamental ways in which noise can be controlled: reduce noise at the source. doubling the speed increases . In general. Most of the vehicular noise comes from the movement of the vehicle tires on the pavement and wind resistance. along with creating temporary barriers to physically block the noise. For example. increase the pathlength. Beyond this 'safe' time continuing exposure over a period of a year will lead to hearing loss.Permitted noise levels Ambient Noise Levels dB Zone Silent Zone Residential Zone Commercial Zone Industrial Zone Day-time 50 55 65 70 Night-time 40 45 55 70 A standard safe time limit has been set for exposure to various noise levels. can contribute to reducing noise pollution. increase the path-length. Locating noisy aircompressors and other equipment away from the site boundary. and protect the recipient. Traffic volume and speed also have significant effects on the overall sound. one of the best methods of noise source reduction is the regular and thorough maintenance of operating machinery. poorly maintained vehicles can add to the noise levels. In general. However. block the path of noise. However.
or as the case may be. 1999 inviting objection and suggestion from all the persons likely to be affected thereby.The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules. 528(E) dated the 28th June. sub-section (1) and clause (b) of sub-section (2) of section 6 and section 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act. 2. AND WHEREAS the objections and suggestions received from the public in respect of the said draft rules have been duly considered by the Central Government. it is considered necessary to regulate and control noise producing and generating sources with the objective of maintaining of ambient air quality standards in respect of noise. 1986. Short-title and commencement :(1) These rules may be called the Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules. WHEREAS a draft of Noise Pollution (Control and Regulation) Rules. namely:The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules. 1986 (29 of 1986). therefore.O. generator sets. the Central Government hereby makes the rules for the regulation and control of noise producing and generating sources. industrial activity. public address systems. (c) "authority" means and includes any authority or officer authorized by the Central Government. vehicular horns and other mechanical devices have deleterious effects on human health and the psychological well being of the people. Definitions : In these rules. inter-alia. unless the context otherwise requires :(a) "Act" means the Environment (Protection) Act. or any other officer nor below the rank of the Deputy Superintendent of Police designated for the maintenance of the ambient air quality standards in respect of noise under any law for the time being in force. 2000. in exercise of the powers conferred by clause (ii) of sub-section (2) of section 3. 1. (2) They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette. Now. construction activity. (b) "area/zone" means all areas which fall in either of the four categories given in the Schedule annexed to these rules. before the expiry of the period of sixty days from the date on which the copies of the Gazette containing the said notification are made available to the public. 1986 (29 of 1986) read with rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules. 1999. AND WHEREAS copies of the said Gazette were made available to the public on the 1st day of July. music systems. 2000. loud speakers. construction activity. 1999 was published under the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Environment and forest vide number S. Police Commissioner. the State Government in accordance with the laws in force and includes a District Magistrate. (d) "court" means a governmental body consisting of one or more judges who sit to adjudicate disputes and administer justice and includes any court of law . 2000 WHEREAS the increasing ambient noise levels in public places from various sources.
and includes government or private hospitals. (3) The State Government shall take measures for abatement of noise including noise emanating from vehicular movements and ensure that the existing noise levels do not exceed the ambient air quality standards specified under the rules. infirm or aged persons. Responsibility as to enforcement of noise pollution control measures : (1) The noise levels in any area/zone shall not exceed the ambient air quality standards in respect of noise as specified in the Schedule.g. commercial. residential or silence areas/zones for the purpose of implementation of noise standards for different areas. nursing homes and clinics. local bodies and other concerned authorities while planning developmental activity or carrying out functions relating to town and country planning shall take into consideration all aspects of noise pollution as a parameter of quality of life to avoid noise menace and to achieve the objective of maintaining the ambient air quality standards in respect of noise. wounded. Restriction on the use of loud speakers/public address system: (1) A loud speaker or a public address system shall not be used except after obtaining written permission from the authority. (g) "person" shall include any company or association or body of individuals. 3. educational institutions and courts may be declared as silence area/zone for the purpose of these rules. (2) The authority shall be responsible for the enforcement of noise pollution control measures and the due compliance of the ambient air quality standards in respect of noise. professional academies. auditoria. university. taxation and criminal cases.prescribed over by a judge. 4. community halls and banquet halls. (3) Not withstanding any thing contained in sub-rule(2). seminary. The State Government may . (2) The State Government shall categorize the areas into industrial. (4) All development authorities. college. (2) A loud speaker or a public address system shall not be used at night (between 10. but also all grounds necessary for the accomplishment of the full scope of educational instruction.00 pm to 6. moral and physical development. (h) "State Government" in relation to a Union Territory means the Administrator thereof appointed under article 239 of the Constitution. (e) "educational institution" means a school.00 am) except in closed premises for communication within e. 5. training institutes or other educational establishment. conference rooms. not necessarily a chartered institution and includes not only buildings. whether incorporated or not. including those things essential to mental. (f) "hospital" means an institution for the reception and care of sick. judges or a magistrate and acting as a tribunal in civil. Ambient air quality standards in respect of noise for different areas/zones: (1) The ambient air quality standards in respect of noise for different areas/zones shall be such as specified in the Schedule annexed to these rules. (5) An area comprising not less than 100 meters around hospitals.
either rescind. prohibiting. the said authority shall afford to the applicant an opportunity of appearing before it either in person or by a person representing him and showing cause against the order and shall. record its reasons for such rejection. 8. No. plays any music or uses any sound amplifiers. disturbance. he shall be liable for penalty under the provision of the Act:(i) (ii) whoever. by a written order issue such directions as he may consider necessary to any person for preventing. to 12. he may. Power to prohibit etc. avocation or operation or process resulting in or attended with noise. (Added vide S. Consequences of any violation in silence zone/area:Whoever.O. public address systems.00 midnight) on or duing any cultural or religious festive occasion of a limited duration not exceeding fifteen days in all during a calendar year. or (iii) whoever. appliance or apparatus or contrivance which is capable of producing or re-producing sound. modify or alter any such order: Provided that before any such application is disposed of. blowing or use in any manner whatsoever of any instrument including loudspeakers. 2002) 6. continuance of music sound or noise:(1) If the authority is satisfied from the report of an officer incharge of a police station or other information received by him that it is necessary to do so in order to prevent annoyance. discomfort or injury or risk of annoyance. beating. if it rejects any such application either wholly or in part. 1088(E) dated 11th October. (2) The authority empowered under sub-rule(1) may. disturbance.m. controlling or regulating:(a) the incidence or continuance in or upon any premises of (i) any vocal or instrumental music. in any place covered under the silence zone/area commits any of the following offence. 7. or (b) the carrying on in or upon.00 p. make a complaint to the authority. whoever. beats a drum or tom-tom or blows a horn either musical or pressure. Complaints to be made to the authority:(1) A person may. or on the application of any person aggrieved by an order made under sub rule(1). (ii) sounds caused by playing. discomfort or injury to the public or to any person who dwell or occupy property on the vicinity. musical or other performances of a nature to attract crowds. or trumpet or beats or sounds any instrument. clasing.subject to such terms and conditions as are necessary to reduce noise pollution permit use of loud speakers or public address systems during night hours (between 10. . exhibits any mimetic. (2) The authority shall act on the complaint and take action against the violator in accordance with the provisions of these rules and any other law in force. any premises of any trade. either on its own motion. if the noise level exceeds the ambient noise standards by 10 dB(A) or more given in the corresponding columns against any area/zone.