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**International Series in Pure and Applied Mathematics
**

William Ted Martin, CONSULTING EDITOR

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

a

International Series in Pure and Applied 'Mathematics

WILI.LA11 TED MARTIN, Consulting Editor

**Complex Analysis BELLMAN Stability Theory of Differential Equations
**

AIILFORS

**Bucx Advanced Calculus
**

CODDnNUTON AND LEVINSON Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations G01.011 13 AND SHANKS Elements of Ordinary Differential Equations of Real Variables GRAVES The Theory of

GRIFFIN Elementary Theory of Numbers IIILDEBRAND rodurl ion to Numerical Analysis Principles of Nunurriral Analysis LAS b;leuu'nts of Pure aunt Applied Mathematics LASS Vector and Tensor Analysis LEIGIITON An Introduction to the Theory of Differential Equations NEHAIU Conformal Mapping NEWELL Vector Analysis ROSSER Logic for 'Mathematicians RUDIN Principles of Mathematical Analysis SNEDDON Elciuents of Partial I)iiTerential Equations Pourier Transforms SNEDDON STOLL Linear Algebra and 'Matrix Theory WEINSTOCK Calculus of Variations

**VECTOR AND TENSOR
**

ANALYSIS

BY

HARRY LASS

JET PROPULSION LABORATORY

Calif. Institute of Tech. 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, California

**New York Toronto London
**

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.

1950

**VECTOR AND TENSOR. ANALYSIS
**

Copyright, 1950, by the '.11e(_;ratt-Bill Book Company, Inc. Printed in the 1 nited States of America. All rights reserved. 't'his hook, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without, perrnis.sion of the publishers.

To MY

MOTHER AND FATHER

PREFACE This text can be used in a variety of ways. two-. The author has attempted to be as rigorous as is possible in a work of this nature. respectively. The teacher who plans on using this book as a text can surely arrange the topics to suit his needs for a one-. it is due in no small measure to the composite efforts of those men who have invented and who have vii . A knowledge of these chapters should enable the reader to further digest the more comprehensive treatises dealing with these subjects. The student totally unfamiliar with vector analysis can peruse Chapters 1. the author feels that Chapters 8 and 9 deal sufficiently with tensor analysis and Riemannian geometry to enable the reader to study the theory of relativity with a minimum of effort as far as the mathematics involved is concerned. Numerous examples in the fields of differential geometry. and 7. which are fairly complete from an elementary viewpoint. If the book is successful. Finally. hydrodynamics. mechanics. or even threesemester course. 2. Numerous examples have been worked out fully in the text. electricity. however. and 4 to gain familiarity with the algebra and calculus of vectors. It is hoped that these chapters will give the mathematician a brief introduction to elementary theoretical physics. and elasticity can be found in Chapters 3. Those already acquainted with vector analysis who feel that they would like to become better acquainted with the applications of vectors can read the above-mentioned chapters with little difficulty: only a most rudimentary knowledge of these fields is necessary in order that the reader be capable of following their contents. In order to cover such a wide range of topics the treatment has necessarily been brief. It is hoped. some of which are listed in the reference section. that nothing has been sacrificed in the way of clearness of ideas. 6. 5. These chapters cover the ordinary one-semester course in vector analysis.

viii PREFACE applied the vector and tensor analysis. Finally. ILL. The excellent works listed in the reference section have been of great aid. I wish to thank Professor Charles de Prima of the California Institute of Technology for his kind interest in the development of this text. 1950 . HARRY LASS URBANA. February.

. Asymptotic lines 40. . . or cross. . The Riemann integral ix . . Jordan curves 47. . . . vectors Applications to spherical trigonometry CHAPTER 2 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS . Definition of a vector 2. . The triple scalar product 14. . Envelopes 31. . product 9. . . . The triple vector product 15. 29 16. . Intrinsic equations of a curve 27. Geodesics CHAPTER 4 INTEGRATION . . Functions of bounded variation 48. . . . Multipli- cation by a scalar 4. Fundamental planes 26. Spherical indicatrices 30. Involutes 28. . . . . . . Applications of the scalar product to space geometry 10. Geometrical significance of the second fundamental form 37. . . . Cauchy criterion for sequences 45. Subtraction of 6. . or dot. . . The divergence of a vector 21. . . . . 58 24. . . . The vector operator del.CONTENTS PREFACE . . Examples of the vector product 13. . Recapitulation 23. . Point-set theory 42. . Regular area in the plane 46. . . . Conjugate directions 39. . . The second fundamental form 36. The gradient 19. . Equality of vectors 3. Surface curves 34. . . . V 20. . . Frenet-Serret formulas 25. . Surfaces and curvilinear coordinates 32. Length of arc on a surface 33. . . . Vector. . . . Principal directions 38. Differentiation rules 18. . . Uniform continuity 43. . 1 1. . Linear functions 7. 89 41. Evolutes 29. . . . . . . . Arc length 49. . The curl of a vector 22. . . Differentiation of vectors 17. . . . Addition of vectors 5. . Coordinate systems 8. The distributive law for the vector product 12. . . . . Normal to a surface 35. Scalar. . vii CHAPTER 1 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS . . product 11. Some properties of continuous functions 44. . . . . . . . Curvilinear coordinates CHAPTER 3 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY . .

Mutual induction and action of two circuits 78. Poisson's formula 60. moment 92. . Discontinuities of D and E 63. The stress tensor 117. Torque. Energy of the electrostatic field 62. . . Dynamics of a particle 88. . . . Dipoles 72. Integration of Laplace's equation 67. . . or currents 76. . Kinematics of a rigid body 99. . . . . Connected and simply connected regions 51. or force. Decomposition of a vector into a sum of solenoidal and irrotational vectors 71. Retarded potentials CHAPTER 6 MECHANICS . . . The divergence theorem 56. 184 84. . Equations of motion for an incompressible fluid under the action of a conservative field 112. Kinematics of a particle 85. Acceleration 102. . Magnetostatics 74. Solution of Maxwell's equations for electrically free space 81. . Moment of momentum (continued) 94. . A theorem relating angular momentum with torque 93. . The top (continued) 107. Examples of Stokes's theorem 55. Lorentz's electron theory 83. Equations of motion for a particle 89. . . Motion about a fixed axis 86. Pressure 109. Moving charges. Velocity 101. . . . Strain tensor 116. . Applications 115. Momentum and angular momentum 91. . Electrostatic forces 58. Applications 69. Work 97. Gauss's law 59. Solid angle 75. Relationship between the strain and stress tensors 118. Conjugate harmonic functions 66. . System of particles 90. 127 57. Conjugate functions CHAPTER 5 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY . . Law of induction (Faraday) 79. Motion of a rigid body with one point fixed 103. . . . The general motion of a fluid 113. Method of images 65. . Solution of Laplace's equation in spherical coordinates 68. Relative time rate of change of vectors 100. . Stokes's theorem 54. Green's reciprocity theorem 64. . . . Magnetic effect of currents (Oersted) 77. Moment of relative momentum 95. Applications 104. . . Rigid bodies 98. Electric polarization 73. . Euler's angular coordinates 105. Small displacements. 230 108. Kinetic energy 96. Vortex motion 114. Equations of motion for a perfect fluid 111. Navier-Stokes equation . . Integration of Poisson's equation 70. The equation of continuity 110. . . . Motion of a free top about a fixed point 106. .x CONTENTS gral 52. Poynting's theorem 82. Relative motion 87. Line integral (continued) (Gauss) 50. Dielectrics 61. The line inte53. Maxwell's equations 80. Inertia tensor CHAPTER 7 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY .

. . Geodesic coordinates 132. . The curvature tensor 133. Contravariant vectors 124. . . The line element 128. n-space 123. . Generalized covariant differentiation 139. . . . . Parallel displacement of vectors 137. . . . . . . . Summation notation 120. . . INDEX . . or vector. . Euclidean space CHAPTER 9 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS . . . . 341 . . . . Covariant vectors 125. . . Scalar product of two vectors 126. Tensors 127. . . . . . Covariant differentiation 131. . . . Two-point tensors REFERENCES . . . RiemannChristoffel tensor 134. Lagrange's equations 141. Parallelism in a subspace 138. Geodesics in a Riemannian space 129. . . 311 135. . The Kronecker deltas 121. Determinants 122. . . Arithmetic. . Riemannian curvature. . . . . Schur's theorem 140. Frenet-Serret formulas 136. . 339 .CONTENTS xi CHAPTER 8 TENSOR ANALYSIS AND RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY. . . . Law of transformation for the Christoffel symbols 130. . 259 119. Einstein's law of gravitation 142. . . . .

.

a] a. Elementary examples of vectors are displacements. If jal = 0. Any physical element that has magnitude and direction. The length of the vector will be denoted by the word magnitude. Physical concepts. we define a as the zero vector. will also be designated as a vector. and specific gravity. and only if. It is the direction and magnitude which 1 .CHAPTER 1 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 1. are called scalars to distinguish them from vectors. adopt some notation for describing a vector in writing. In Chap. temperature. 1. The starting points of the vectors are immaterial. distance. 2. a. i. Any directed line segment will be called a vector. 1 or may adopt his own notation. on the unit chosen to represent a given class of vectors. indicate that we are speaking of a vector. etc. and the same magnitude. etc. This number will depend. To every vector will be associated a real nonnegative number equal to the length of the vector. Definition of a Vector. 8 we will give a more mathematically rigorous definition of a vector. accelerations.. If a represents the length of the vector a. Equality of Vectors. forces. In order to distina guish between scalars and vec- tors. we shall write a = jal. Our starting point for the definition of a vector will be the intuitive one encountered in elementary physics. The student may choose his mode of representing a vector from Fig. a. We shall represent vectors by arrows and use boldface type to Ca-. Two vectors will be defined to be equal if. A vector of length one will be called a unit vector. and arithmetic numbers. velocities. the student will have to Fia. and hence can be represented by a vector. they are parallel. such as speed. We note that no direction is associated with a scalar. have the same sense of direction. of course. such as 2.

3. The vector starting from the origin of a and ending at the arrow of b is defined as the vector sum a + b. 4). Z-a and which has the same direction as a (see Fig. Multiplication by a Scalar. Equal vectors. We form a third vector by constructing a triangle with a and b forming two sides of the triangle. 3). We define -a as the vector obtained from a by reversing its direction (see Fig. c = d. If we multiply a vector a by a real number x. say a and b. as will be seen later. b adjoined to a (see Fig. 2). 4. 3 are important. 2. however. Fm. 4. Thus 2a will be a vector which is twice as long as the vector a FIG. and if a = b. We note that x(ya) = (xy)a = xya (x + y)a = xa + ya Oa = 0 (zero vector) It is immediately seen that two vectors are parallel if. We see that a + 0 = a. one of them can be written as a scalar multiple of the other. 3. Addition of Vectors. then a+c=b+d . Let us suppose we have two vectors given. we define the product xa to be a new vector parallel to a whose magnitude has been multiplied by the factor x. may produce different physical effects. Fia. and only if. 5).2 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. We write a = b if the vectors are equal (see Fig.

let b and a have a common origin and construct the third side of the triangle.b = a + (-b). (3) is the distributive law for multiplication by a scalar. or second. 5. Linear Functions. We choose a basis for this system of vectors by considering any two nonparallel.b. We can obtain the desired result by two methods. Any third vector c can be written as a linear . The two possible directions will give a .SEc. First. Subtraction of Vectors. Let us consider all vectors in the twodimensional Euclidean plane. we can ask ourselves the following question: What vector c must be added to b to give a? The vector c is defined to be the vector a . nonzero vectors. a+b+c Fio. 6). a-b Flo. The reader should have no trouble proving these three results geometrically. Thus a . (2) is called the associative law of vector addition. 6.a (see Fig. Call them a and b.b and b . 5. construct -b and then add this vector to a. Given the two vectors a and b. a-b 6. 6] THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 3 From Euclidean geometry we note that (a+b)+c=a+(b+c) x(a+b) =xa+xb a+b=b+a (1) (2) (3) (1) is called the commutative law of vector addition.

0. This immediately implies that the end point of c lies on the line joining A to B. 8. assume c = xa + yb. We can rewrite (5) as c-xa-yb=0 1-x-y=0 (6) . if C is the mid-point of BA. 6 combination or function of a and b. and let c be any vector starting from 0 whose end point lies on the line joining the ends of a and b (see Fig. this latter vector being parallel to the vector a . Let us now consider the following problem: Let a and b have a common origin.b).4 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. c = xa + yb (4) The proof of (4) is by construction (see Fig. 7). In particular. B a FIG. Now c=OB+BC so that c = xa + yb = b + x(a .x)b (5) Now conversely. Then c=xa+(1 -x)b =x(a-b)+b We now note that c is a vector that is obtained by adding to b the vector x(a . Let C divide BA in the ratio x: y where x + y = 1.b. then x = y = fr. x + y = 1. 8).b) =xa+(1 .

Let ABC be the given triangle and let A'. a'. b. C 0 FIG. 61 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 5 We have proved our first important theorem. A necessary and sufficient condition that the end points of any three vectors with common origin be on a straight line is that real constants it m. C'. We shall. b' associated with A. b'. C' be the midChoose 0 anywhere in space and construct the vectors from 0 to A. B'. however. c' (see Fig. B'. b. 9. A'. c. a'.. B'. B. C. find (5) more useful for solving problems. Let us prove that the medians of a triangle meet at a point P which divides each median in the ratio 1:2. From (8) we eliminate the vector c and obtain 2a' + a = 2b' + b or *a' + '}a = *b' + b (9) . From (5) we have points. Example 1. B. 9). We shall thus find it expedient to find a relationship between the four vectors a. a'=4b+ic b' = Ja + 4c (8) Now P (the intersection of two of the medians) lies on the line joining A and A' and on the line joining B and B'.SEC. calling them a. n exist such that la+mb+nc=0 l+m+n=O (7) with l2+m2+n2p. 0. A'.

Example 2. There can only be one y vector having both these properties.a = c . To prove that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. What is the vector sum a + b + c? Generalize this result for any closed polygon. 6 But from (5). 10. . Interpret I a a 2. and this is the vector p = OP. a. Note that P divides AA' and BB' in the ratios 2: 1. Problems 1. 3. The equation d . b. -sa' + -ia represents a vector whose origin is at 0 and whose end point lies on the line joining A to A. Give a geometric proof of (3). Let ABCD be the parallelogram and 0 any C FIG.6 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SFC. From symmetry considerations show that the vector sum is zero. c are consecutive vectors forming a triangle. 10). we would have obtained that p + J e.b Hence implies that ABCD is a parallelogram. Similarly. 4. Had we considered the median CC' in connection with AA'. Hence p = tea' + is = -b' -fib. Vectors are drawn from the center of a regular polygon to its vertices. Ja+4c=lb+Id =p so that P bisects AC and BD.'jb' + *b represents a vector whose origin is at 0 and whose end point lies on the line joining B to B'. . point in space (see Fig. and this completes the proof of the theorem.

7. then the lines joining the corresponding vertices pass through a common point. Show graphically that lal + lbl >_ la + bl. Find a necessary and sufficient condition that their end points lie in a plane. a. What is the vector condition that the end points of the vectors of Prob. This is Desargues's theorem. It intersects a similar line issuing from another vertex. a. C. c. Express the diagonal vectors in terms of a and b. Show that a necessary and sufficient condition that the figure be a parallelogram is that a + c = 0 and show that this implies b + d = 0. c. 10. a. A line from a vertex of a triangle bisects the opposite side. 13. and conversely. d are vectors from 0 to A. d are four vectors with a common origin. b. 9 form the vertices of a parallelogram? 11. b. The four sides of the quadrilateral are not necessarily coplanar. How does this latter line intersect the opposite side? 15. What is rically the meaning of fib? Explain geomet- A. 9. b = (sin t)a is a variable vector which always remains parallel to the fixed vector a.lbi. 16. B. It is trisected by a similar line issuing from another vertex. a and bare consecutive vectors of a parallelogram. From this show that la .SEc. 61 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 7 5. 17. b. If b-a=2(d-c) show that the intersection point of the two lines joining A and D and B and C trisects these lines. Show that the mid-points of the lines which join the midpoints of the opposite sides of a quadrilateral coincide. c. Show that the line which joins one vertex of a parallelogram to the mid-point of an opposite side trisects the diagonal. In what ratio do these lines intersect one another? 14. 8. 6. 12. A line from a vertex of a triangle trisects the opposite side.bl >_ lal . Show that if two triangles in space are so situated that the three points of intersection of corresponding sides lie on a line. d are consecutive vector sides of a quadrilateral. Show that the bisectors of a triangle meet in a point. D. .

We choose a right-handed coordinate system. be the velocity of A relative to B and let v2 be the velocity of B relative to C. 22. Let a. 21. AB is unity. Coordinate Systems. b be constant vectors and let c be defined by the equation c = (cos t)a + (sin t)b When is c parallel to a? Parallel to b? Can c ever be parallel do d2c If a and b to a + b? Perpendicular to a + b? Find dt dt2 9 are unit orthogonal vectors with common origin. If we rotate the x axis into the y axis. 7 18. respectively. and z axes. show that ma + nb = ka + 3b implies m = k. For a considerable portion of the text we shall deal with the Euclidean space of three dimensions. This is the ordinary space encountered by students of analytic geometry and the calculus. From Fig. The vectors i. describe the positions of c and show that c is perpendicular to dc 20. Theorem of Ceva. y.8 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. one on each side of a triangle ABC. k form a very simple and elegant basis for our three-dimensional Euclidean space. one on each side of a triangle. Theorem of Menelaus. A necessary and sufficient condition that the lines which join three points. k be the three unit vectors along the positive x. a right-hand screw will advance along the positive z axis. and z axes. CA. 7. Let v. y. n = j. If a and b are not parallel. j. are collinear if and only if the product of the algebraic ratios in which they divide the sides BC. 11 we observe that r=xi+yj+zk (10) The numbers x. to the opposite vertices be concurrent is that the product of the algebraic ratios in which the three points divide the sides be -1. r is called the position vector of the point P . Three points. Note that they represent the projections of the vector r on the x. j. y. What is the velocity of A relative to C? Of C relative to A? Are these results obvious? 19. z are called the components of the vector r. We let i.

z. Xx. various particles arrive at P(x. z. z. z) and have the velocities u(x. -2.xj.j.xyztj + 5xk. we say that we An elementary example would be the vector u = yi .z. y. Another example would be u = 3xzeq . y. y. z) will have a velocity which depends on the coordinates x. y. 11.2i .t)j + y(x. y.y. At any time t the particle which happens to be at the z Fm.y.y. z and on the time t. This vector field is time-independent and so is have a vector field. t).t)1+#(x. let us consider a fluid in motion. Whenever we have a vector of the type (11).SEC. z. z.z. called a steady field. At the point P(1. point P(x.t) =a(x. 71 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 9 and will be used quite frequently in what follows. y(x) y. y) z. t). y. y. The most general space-time vector that we shall encounter will be of the form u =u(x. t)k (11) It is of the utmost importance that the student understand the meaning of (11). t). We shall have more to say about this type of vector in later . To be more specific. z axes given by a(x. As time goes on. t) with components along the x. 3) it has the value .

b = b1i + ba + b3k. be interested only in constant vectors (uniform fields). 12. From (13) we at once verify that a a ab b then a a b= b a the b ab = (proj a)b (bI = (proj b)a (al (17) . It makes no difference whether we choose 0 or .10 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Scalar. for the present. A moment's reflection shows that if a = ali + a2j + ask. then a + b = (ai + b1)i + (a2 + b2)j + (as + b3)k (12) xa + yb = (xai + yb1)i + (xaz + ybz)j + (xaa + yb3)k 8. or Dot.0 since cos 0 = cos (. This definition of the scalar product arose in physics and will play a dominant role in the development of the text. We define the scalar or dot product of two vectors by the identity a b = JaJJbJ cos 0 (13) where 0 is the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. Product.0). 8 chapters and will. Fm.

13. 15). . To prove that the median to the base of an isosceles triangle is perpendicular to the base (see Fig. 14). Example 4. which states that (18) From Fig. 13 it is apparent that [proj (b+c)]aIaF = (proj b)a Iai + (proj C)a Ial f I Fm. which proves that OM is perpendicular to AB. 8J THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 11 With this in mind we proceed to prove the distributive law. since the projection of the sum is the sum of the projections. 14.SEC. Let the reader now prove that Example 3. To prove that an angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle (see Fig. From (5) we see that m=1 1 so that 0 FIG.

s .k:g=o _a) co$B Ab a . yAC -. AC _ angle 1'1 of I° 18. .a z [SEc. c. BC AND PIG. C _ Cone BC aright YECr?.]a (b a -a c T'`iq°n°metr 0 ' 0 c a $ 2ab + c _j. -b2+a2_.oR _ b2 j'i cb Lau.$o E that xample so 12 that Example 6 & 4$CAis C2 C.

z' are the coordinates of the same point P as measured in the x'-y'-z' coordinate system. Similarly. qa. so that Example 8. then a b = albs + a2b2 + a. 8] THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 13 Hence if a = a1i + a2j + ask. where x. q1. Cauchy's Inequality (19) Notice that 0 a = 0.b)(a . j' = p2i + q2j + r2k k' = pai+qsj+rak () We also impose the condition that i'. (a . z' axes form a coordinate system similar to the x-y-z coordinate system with common origin 0 (see Fig.SEC. We have r = r' so that xi + yj + zk = x'i' + y'j' + z'k'. y'. y. let j' and k' be unit vectors with direction cosines p2. z are the coordinates of a point P as measured in the x-y-z coordinate system and x'. Example 7. y.. 17). i' = cosai+cos0 j+cos7k =pli+qlj+rlk (21) pi. Making use of (21) and (22) and equating components. z axes. r. y'.b) _ 1a121b12 cost 0 5 1a12Ib12 so that from (19) (albs + aab2 + aab3)2 S (a12 + a22 + as2)(b12 + b22 + b 32) In general n n n a-1 I aaba s (Z aa2)1(I ba2)1 a-1 a-1 (20) Let i' be a unit vector making angles a. y. b = b1i + b2j + b3k. The projections of i' on the x. j'. qa. k' be mutually orthogonal. cos ft. so that the x'. cos -y. fl. Thus Notice that p12 + q12 + r12 = 1. 7 with the x. ri are called the direction cosines of the vector Y. z axes are cos a. we find that x = p1x' + ply' + pgz' y = q1x' + qty' + qaz' z = r1x' + r2y' + raz' (23) . r2 and pa.b3 Formula (19) is of the utmost importance.

or = 1. 2. 0-1 a = 1. Similarly. 3 (25) where Asa = a). y' = x2' y FIG. Let us notice that differentiating (24) yields axa . y = x2. 3 (26) .= a. z = x3. where the superscripts do not designate powers but are just labels which enable us to differentiate between the various axes. of.V. 2. Now let a.a. 17. 3 (24) By making use of the fact that i' j' = j' k' = k' i' = 0.a represent the cosine of the angle between the xa and V axes. 8 We now find it more convenient to rename the x-y-z coordinate system. We can write (23) as 3 xa = I a0a. 2. we can prove that 3 xa = I Asax#. Z' = 28.14 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 1Src. let x' = x1. We leave this as an exercise for the reader. Let x = x1. a-1 a = 1.

xo) + B(y . If b = (b'. 0). z) on the plane (Fig. and xa = x(al. 18). Equation (27) is linear in x. . We note that the determinant formed from these triples. then a + b is defined by the number triple (a' + b'. 0) + a2(0. that is. 91 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 15 Example 9. 0) + a3(0. yo. without appealing to geometry we could develop an algebraic theory of vectors. Z. 0). 0. zo) and let the fixed direction be given by the vector N = Ai + Bj + Ck.b) = a'b' + a2b2 + a3b3.zo)kl . Of necessity. a2. The vector a = a'i + a2j + a'k may be represented by the number triple (a'. Applications of the Scalar Product to Space Geometry (a) We define a plane as the locus of lines passing through a fixed point perpendicular to a fixed direction. a3) = a'(1. Any three triples whose determinant does not vanish can be used to form a basis.yo) + C(z . a') is defined by the number triple (xa'. Axo+Byo+Czo+D=0. y. a2. 1. a'). (0.zo) = 0 (27) This is the equation of the plane.ro is perpendicular to N so that or [(x . a3 + b3). 1. b3). a2. Let the fixed point be Po(xo. Hence. zo) obviously lies in the plane since its coordinates satisfy (27). xa2. 0. yo. 1) form a basis for our linear vector space.xo)i + (y . the space of number triples. namely. yo. xa3). The point Po(xo. We can define the scalar product (inner product) of two triples by the law (a . 0.SEC. zo) be any point on the surface. 1) The triples (1. (0. 9. (b) Consider the surface Ax + By + Cz + D = 0. 1 0 1 0 1 0 00 0 =1 does not vanish.yo)j + (z . a2 + b2. Let P(xo. y. Let r be the position vector to any -4 point P(x. 0. b2. Now POP = r . Let the reader prove this result. From this the reader can prove that (a'.(Ai + Bj + Ck) = 0 and A(x .

Let the equation of the plane be Ax + By + Cz + D = 0.zo)k Fia.16 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. (c) Distance from a point to a plane. Equation (28) shows that these two vectors are perpendicular. 18. 19. Hence the constant vector Ai + Bj + Ck is normal to the surface at every point so that the surface is a plane. and let P(E. We wish to determine the shortest distance from P .xo) + B(y .xo)i + (y .yo) + C(z .zo) = 0 Now consider the two vectors Ai + Bj + Ck and (28) (x .yo)j + (z .9 Subtracting we have A(x . % r) be any point in space. Fia.

Now d = JPoP NJ = IAZ+B. z FIG. From Fig. . 20. 91 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 17 to the plane. (d) Equation of a straight line through the point Po(xo. yo. It is apparent that the shortest distance will be the projection of PoP on N. zo) parallel to the vector T = li + mj + A. Choose any point Po lying in the plane. where N is a unit vector normal to the plane (see Fig.SEC. 19). +Cr+DI (A2 + B2 + C2)f (29) where use has been made of the fact that Axo+Byo+Czo+D=O. 21. 20 it is Fia.

zo=A m n (30) By allowing A to vary from .yo)j + (z . 6.xo)i + (y . or (x . 3. a . show that c is normal to a + b. Add and subtract the vectors a = 2i . (e) Equation of a sphere with center at Po(xo.ro is parallel to T so that r .3j + 5k.ro) (r . and prove that cos (a . Prove that the altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. 4. If c is normal to a and b. 9 apparent that r .yo -z .zo) 2 = a2 Problems 1. 8. b = cos 9 i + sin 3 j. -.zo)k = A(li + mj + nk). 2. 1. Find the shortest distance from the point A(1. 1) to the line through the points B(2. and the length of the major axis is 2a. . Find the cosine of the angle between the two vectors a = 2i .<A<+O0 Hence (x . 4) and C(-1. zo) and radius a.ro = AT. y. yo.yo) 2 + (z . -2). In Fig.6) = cos a cos S + sin a sin 8 5.2k. Let a and b be unit vectors in the x-y plane making angles a and 6 with the x axis.xo) 2 + (y . 21 obviously (r . so that equating components yields x xo y .b. Show that a = cos a i + sin a j.18 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. b = -2i+2j+2k Show that the vectors are perpendicular. 0. The position vectors of the foci of an ellipse are c and .a2(r2 + c2) + (c r)2 = O.j . 7. 3.oo to + oo we generate every point on the line.3j + k and b = 3i . and z axes. Show that the equation of the ellipse is a4 .c.ro) = a2. Find the equation of the cone whose generators make an angle of 30° with the unit vector which makes equal angles with the x.

13. b.j + k. Find a vector perpendicular to the vectors a = i . 18. c are coplanar. Let a = f(t)i + g(t)j + h(t)k. B2.SEC. Show that a2 = (iblb 15. Let a = 2i . 11.k. Verify (26). Prove that the sum of the squares of the diagonals of a parallelogram is equal to the sum of the squares of its sides.j + k. z). b. Derive (25). b. b =i-3j . -Ap r = Sp- y-1 where &0°= Iifa=l4. B = B'i + B2j + B3k (see Example 8 in regard to the super- . Find the angle between the plane Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 and the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0. find the projection of a along b. b = 0 and a2 is parallel to b. c form the sides of a right triangle.3j + k. B3 are the components of a vector B. For the an". 91 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 19 9. show that a. 14. b = 3j . Let a = a. and find its length. that is. b) b. If a is not parallel to b. 22. and let a be a constant vector. y. 16. Asa defined by (24) and (25).4k. + a2 where a. Interpret the equation (r . Show that the line joining the end points of the vectors a =2i -j . 12.5k. show that aa ca ab cb Icb bbi c= aa ab ab bb ca ab b 21. al = a - (a . 20. 10. Find a vector c so that a. Let r be the position vector of a point P(x.a) a = 0. 17. If B1. b = -i + 3j . and define h'(t)k da = f'(t)i dt + g'(t)j + Show that da dt a= lal dal dt 19. a. Given a = 2i .k with common origin at O is parallel to the x-y plane.Se=Oif aPd f. JbJ2 b=2i+3j-k.

product of a and b and is given by F ia. b form two sides of a parallelogram. 23. 10 scripts). Ps1 and B = BIi' + B2j' + Mk'. 2. c=axb=lallbl sin0E where JEl = 1. A cross is placed between the vectors a and b to denote the vector c = a x b. Read Example 8 carefully. Show that for a rotation of axes. the two vectors a. The invariance here refers to both the numerical invariance of the scalar product and the formal invariance. Product. We choose that normal obtained by the motion of a right-hand screw when a is rotated into b (angle of rotation less than 180°) (see Fig. or vector. a2 a") 10. B2. We define c to be perpendicular to the plane of this parallelogram with magnitude equal to the area of the parallelogram. 3. 22. Prove the statements made in Example 9. 25. we may construct a third vector c as follows: When translated so that they have a common origin. 22). Given any two nonparallel vectors a and b. The area of the parallelogram is (31) A = !alibi sin 0 .20 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 3 [SEC. BaC' = Z BaC'a aa1 amt 3 24. show that for a rotation of axes the components of the vector B become (BI. Generalize the statements of Example 9 for n-tuples (a'. a = 1. The vector c is called the cross. BICI + B2C2 + B3C3 = BICI + B2C2 +. or Cross. B3) where B° _ I ayaB#.&3103 This shows the invariance of the scalar product for rotations of axes. Vector.

It is obvious that a x b = -b x a. 13 we shall show that a (b x c) = (a x b) c. a x a = 0. .a3b2)i + (a3b1 . We desire to prove that a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c. 11.alb3)j + (aib2 . Since v is arbitrary. kxl=j For the vectors a = all + a2j + ask. b = b1i + b2j + b3k we obtain a x b = (a2b3 . but for the present Ave discuss its algebraic behavior. In particular. 11.a2b1)k by making use of the distributive law of Sec. so that vector multiplication is not commutative. Let u= ax(b+c)-axb-axc and form the scalar product of this vector with an arbitrary vector v.SEc. Hence u = 0 and ax(b+c) =a xb+a xc (32) This proof is by Professor Morgan Ward of the California Institute of Technology. a x b = 0. we can choose it not perpendicular to u. The Distributive Law for the Vector Product. We obtain x(b+c)] - x b) In Sec. If a and b are parallel. 12. Examples of the Vector Product Example 10 ixj=k. we have ixi=jxj=kxk=0 jxk=i. Symbolically i j axb = a1 bl a2 b2 k as b3 (33) where (33) is to be expanded by the ordinary method of determinants. 121 TIIE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 21 The cross product will occur frequently in mechanics and electricity. Hence This implies either that u = 0 or that v is perpendicular to u.

Assume that a particle is rotating about a fixed line L with angular speed w. We assume that its distance from L remains constant.a 0=cxb-cxa c xa = c xb Fia.3j + 5k. 2 -3 2 -1 -3 Sine law of trigonometry c xc=cx(b-a) or c=b . . a = 2i . However.3k. b = -i + 2j . their magnitudes are equal so that lellal sin I = lcilbl sin a and a b c sin a sin fl sin ti Example 13. Rotation of a Particle. 12 Example 11. so that i j k 5 a xb = Example 12.22 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Let us define the angular velocity of the particle as the vector w. whose direction is along L and whose length is w. 24). 23. if two vectors are equal. We choose the direction of w in the usual sense of a right-hand screw advance (see Fig.

the altitude of the parallelepiped being denoted by h (see Fig. Now i j b2 C2 k bs C3 a (b x c) = (a. 25. Fia. 13] THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 23 It is our aim to prove that the velocity vector v can be represented by w x r. b.i + a2j + ask) .bic3) + as(bic2 . where r is the position vector of P from any origin taken on the line L. Let us consider the scalar a (b x c).(b xc) =fallbllclsin0cosa = hA = volume (35) A being the area of the parallelogram with sides b and c. This scalar represents the volume of the parallelepiped formed by the coterminous sides a. 25).SEC. b. since a OP % v a.b2c1) so that a1 a2 as a (b x c) = b. c. The Triple Scalar Product. Now lw x rl = wa = speed of L P. C1 b2 C2 bs C3 (36) . Let the reader show that v and w x r are parallel. so that 13. c1 = ai(b2ca .bac2) + a (baci .

We dot (37) with b and obtain . Hence X is a scalar. Now dot both sides with a and obtain x(a b) + y(a c) = 0. (37) a x (b x c) _ X[(a c)b .(a a)c.(b b)a. We note that (abc) = (cab) = (bca) and that (abc) _ . The result is a vector since it is the vector product of a and (b x c). The Triple Vector Product. we can quickly prove that X = 1. We are thus allowed to interchange the dot and the cross when working with the triple scalar product. a x (b x c) = xb + yc. so that (a X where = (a b) = X.a2c2) = -Xa'c2 sin2 0 so that A = 1. In particular. since a [a x (b x c)] = 0. This vector is therefore perpendicular to b x c so that it lies in the plane of b and c. The triple vector product a x (b x c) plays an important role in the development of vector analysis and in its applications.a2c2J by an interchange of dot and cross. Hence -a2c' sine O= A(a'c2 cost 0. It is also very easy to show that the determinant of (36) represents (a x b) c. This result was used to prove (32).24 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. if two of the three vectors are equal. from Sec.(acb).(a b)c] In the special case when b = a. From this it immediately follows that (a x b) x b = (a b)b .(cba) = . no volume exists. Now we prove that A = 1 for the general case. c are coplanar. b. These results follow from elementary theorems on determinants. Hence a x (a x c) = (a c)a . and we at once have (abc) = 0.(bac) = .a2c2J -(a x c)2 = X[(a c)2 . We dot (37) with c and obtain c or [a x (a x c)] = X[(a c)2 . 14 Notice that a (b x c) = (a x b) c since both terms represent the volume of the parallelepiped. If the three vectors a. 14. If b is not parallel to c. 6. We usually write a (b x c) = (abc) since there can be no confusion as to where the dot and cross belong. the triple scalar product vanishes.

(a x b) x (c x d) = (a x b d)c .(a b)c We leave it to the reader to show that (38) (a x b) x c = (a c)b . Hence sin y sin # cos A = cos a . If b is parallel to c. so that (38) holds for any three vectors. (38) reduces to the identity 0 = 0. we can expand (a x b) x (c x d) by considering (a x b) as a single vector and applying (38).6. Now from (40) we see that (a x b) (a x c) = (b c) . Let the sphere be of radius 1.(a b) (a c) The angle between a x b and a x c is the same as the dihedral angle A between the planes OAC and OAB. Thus a x (b x c) = (a c)b .(abc)d Also (39) (c x d) d) (b c) d) (40) 15. since a x b is perpendicular to the plane of OAB and since a x C is perpendicular to the plane of OAC. 26). For example.(b c)a Notice that a x (b x c) 5-1 (a x b) x c. The expansion (38) of a x (b x c) is often referred to as the rule of the middle factor. 15] THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 25 x(b xc)] -[(a xb) x b (a (a b)(b c) x b) x implying X = 1.cos y cos.(a x b c)d = (abd)c .SEC. Consider the spherical triangle ABC (sides are arcs of great circles) (see Fig. More complicated products are simplified by use of the triple products. Applications to the Spherical Trigonometry. .

2. 0. and interpret this result trigonometrically. prove that a x b= b x c= c x a. 15 FIG. Find the equation of the plane passing through the end points of the vectors a = a1i + a j + ask. Show by two methods that the vectors a = 2i . 4). -2) Find the velocity of the particle when it is located at the point R(3.k. b = -6i + 9j + 3k are parallel. 5.3j . 7. Prove that d x (a x b) (a x c) = (abc) (a d). Problems 1. Q(1. all three vectors with origin at P(0. A particle has an angular speed of 2 radians per second.(bcd)a. b = b1i + bd + bsk. 4. 0). 6. Show that (a x b) x (c x d) = (acd)b . and its axis of rotation passes through the points P(0. Find a unit vector perpendicular to the vectors a=i-j+k b=i+i .k 3. 26. 2). 1.26 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. . 3. If a + b+ c= 0. 6. c = c1i + cd + cak.

show that d = (dbc) a + (abc) (adc) (abc) b+ (abd) c (abc) for any vector d. c. 15).y + c1z = d. Write (41) as a single vector equation. z. b.(abc) (def) = (abe) (fcd) . Find the shortest distance between two straight lines in space. 14. to the plane passing through the end points of the vectors r2. b. solve for x. derive a spherical trigonometric identity (see Sec. Consider the system of equations a1x + b.SEC. 0). and assuming (abc) F6 0. a2x + b2y + c2z = d2 asx + bsy + c3z = da (41) Let a = aui + a2j + aak. Show that (a x b) x (c x d) = 0. Find an expression for the shortest distance from the end point of the vector r. Show that the sum of these four vectors is the zero vector. Four vectors have directions which are outward perpendiculars to the four faces of a tetrahedron. c are not coplanar. r8. Show that (a x b) (c x d) x (e x f) = (abd) (cef) . Prove that (a x b) (b x c) x (c x a) = (abc)2. 15] THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 21 8. etc. If a. r4.(abf) (ecd) = (cda) (bef) . b. 12. 0.(a d) b x c -1(abc) (abc) for any vector d. and their lengths are equal to the areas of the faces they represent. Prove that (b d) (abc) cxa a x(b xc) +b x(c x a)+ c x (a xb) =0 13. All four vectors have their origin at P(0. c are not coplanar. If a. 15. 17. 9.(cdb) (aef) 16. show that d= (c d) a x b + . The four vectors a. y. 11. By considering the expansion for (a x b) x (a x c). d are coplanar. 18. 10. .

a8ba. b.28 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Ssc. c3 = a'b2 . (38) is linear in a. Since any vector is a linear combination of i. If (a'. represent the components of a x b. 3. a. Now show that. If a and b lie in a plane normal to a plane containing c and d.a2b' a are the components of a x b.a1b3. The numbers c' = a2b3 . show that the EaP in the new coordinate system are related to the caP in the old a a coordinate system by the equations &A = I I a aa. 20. and finally we rotate this new vector through an angle of 90° about the axis parallel to b. show that (a x b) (c x d) = 0. 2.(a b)c. Show directly that a x (b x c) _ (a c)b . c. show that three of the nine numbers Ca9 obtained by considering cab = aab# . 22.a3b2. Use this to prove that a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c . magnifying this newly constructed vector by the factor Ibl The final result yields a x b. Show that ca = 1 apa#S under a B=1 rotation of axes (see Prob. r-1 a=1 a. a = 1. Sec.i9c°r. (b'. a3). a2. Show that caP _ -Cfta. We can construct a x b by three geometrical constructions. j.--P as a matrix and show that cap = . while the remaining three vanish.G a By considering a rotation of axes (see Example 8). 2. 22. 3. b. k in all possible ways. k. c2 = a3b' . We first construct a vector normal to b lying in the plane of a and b. 15 19. c take on the values i. explain why (38) holds for all vectors. where a. b2. 9). 6 = 1. Represent c. j. b3) are the components of the vectors a. 21. b. a x [b x (ac + ad)] = as x (b x c) + #a x (b x d) etc. that three others represent b x a. that is. We project a onto this vector.

y.z. t.y.y. (42) defines a vector. If we keep the time fixed. Differentiation of Vectors. z + dz) Now. z) in three-space. in general. y. the vector u can still change because of the time dependence of its components a. What difficulties do we encounter in the case of a vector? Actually none. the student has learned how to find the change in a single function of x. respectively. and similarly changes in f3 and y produce changes in u in the y and z directions. We are thus led to the following definition: du = du as (-aa dai.t)j+ '(x.CHAPTER 2 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 16. and y. z) and at any time t.y. y. let r = xi + yj + zk be the position vector of a moving particle P(x. 29 Then dr = dx i + dy j + dz k . If we keep P fixed.z. z. in the calculus.+d. t) produces a change in u in the x direction.t)i+13(x. z) will.6i+dyk as as (43) ax dx + ay dy + az dz + at d) i atdt)j dy -}- ( +(axdx+aydy+adz + ax dx + az dz }. since we easily note that u will change if and only if its components change. z.z. Let us consider the vector field u = a(x. be different from that at the point Q(x + dx. S.at dt J k For example. Thus a change in a(x.t)k (42) At any point P(x. we note that the vector at the point P(x. y. y + dy. y.

r sin B j) dt/ dt2 = C Therefore the acceleration is a = -w2r magnitude w2r. 27). 27. If the vector u depends on a single variable t. We have assumed that the vectors i.u(t) At (46) (see Fig.- angular speed w = . :Q/ It is easy to verify that (46) is equivalent to (43). Consider a particle P moving on a circle C -A-. 16 v dt d 2r dt 1 + + dt 2y + . We note that r=rcos0i+rsin0j so that v = dt = (-r sin 6i+rcos Bj) de and a = dt (dA2 (-r cos 0 i . k remain fixed in space. the velocity and acceleration of the particle.(Fig Fio. (47) The point P has an acceleration toward the origin of constant This acceleration is due to the fact that the . Example 14. -44-1k -4. 28).o u(t + At) . dt k (44) z 2 a= dt2 = dt2 I j + dt2 k dt2 (45) Equations (44) and (45) are. j. we can define du dt lim At-.30 and VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. by definition.

Hence ds is a unit vector. represents the unit tangent vector to the space curve (48). As As -> 0. dy . 16] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 31 velocity vector is changing direction at a constant rate.SEC. 29. Example 15. 28. Let P be any point on the space curve (Fig. FIG. 29) x=x(s) y = y(s) z = z(s) where s is are length measured from some fixed point Q. the Hence (49) position of Ar approaches the tangent line at P. Now (48) r = x(s)i + y(s)j + z(s)k so that dr _ dx ds . dz (49) and dr dr dx 2 dy z (dz 2 ds ds = ds + \dsI + \ds) =dx2+dy2+dz2=1 ds2 from the calculus. . it is called the centripetal acceleration. z Y Fra.

32 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. we obtain d (u v) _ dt dv . Consider 'p(t) = u(t) v(t) 'P(t + At) .P(t) = u(t + At) v(t + At) .udt + du dt'v (50) Similarly d(u x v) dt - u dv du v (51) x dt + dt d(fu) dt f du dt d_f + u (52) dt Notice how these formulas conform to the rules of the calculus.. so that c(t+ At At At At and passing to the limit. 17 17. Let u(t) be a vector of constant magnitude. Therefore u u = u2 = constant By differentiating we obtain du du u'dt+ u'dt=0 .u(t) o(t) Now u(t + At) = u(t) + Au v(t + At) = v(t) + AV (see Fig. Differentiation Rules. 27). Example 16.

The reader should give a geometric proof of this theorem. FIG. 17] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 3m Hence either dt = 0 or dl is perpendicular to u. Differentiating again we obtain a or _ _ dv dt d2r dr dR dt dr d6 d20 dt'R+dl +dtdt P+rdt2 dB dP P+rdt dt d2r a_dt R+2dtd6P+rd. where R is a V-dt dtR Now -I-r dR Also IdRI R is perpendicular to R (see Example 16). Differentiation yields 2u ' dt = 2u d and u'du auat - du (53) This result is not trivial. In all cases y u u = u2 where u is the length of u. Hence v = Wt- since R is a unit vector. 30). 30. Example 18.SEC. for Idul Motion in a Plane. This is an important result and should be fully understood by the student. Now r = rR. Hence du.P-r(d8)2R since P= -d6R (54) . R + r d8 P. = de We can easily verify this by differ- entiating R = cos B i + sin 9 j. where P is a unit vector perpendicular to R. unit vector (see Fig. Example 17.

. 12. 2. a. a.34 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Sic. Find a vector u which satisfies dtu = at + b. Prove (54). bare constart vectors. Is u unique? d dt 13. -. show that dt(axb)=0x(axb) 11. d = w x b. w are constants. 9. b. Find the first and second derivatives of (r dt dt2 dr d2r 7. If r x dt = 0. a. Expand dt [p x (q x r)]. Differentiate l r . show that r has a constant direction.". / 5.2 10. If r = aew' + be-. b are con- stant vectors. If dt = w x a. Show that RxdR= r x dr 7. R is a unit vector in the direction r.(dO)2]Rid(odO\p dt r dt dt Problems (55) 1.dr1 with respect to t. 3.w2r = 0. Show that () r dt r dt r. Show that d r x dt) = r x d2r 6. 17 Thus I d2r . Prove that r xdt = wa xb andd +w2r = 0. Prove (51) and (52). show that dt. 8. r = a cos wt + b sin wt. 4.

SEC. y. ds2 15.is a minimum. Let r° be the position vector to a fixed point P in space. y. and let r be the position vector to a variable point Q lying on a space curve r = r($). and r is the magnitude of the position vector r from the origin to the particle in question. t)i + 13(x. 31. e. z. z. If u = a(x.. ee. 17] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 35 14.r° is perpendicular to the tangent at Q. (see Fig. The transformation between rectangular coordinates and spherical coordinates is given by x=rsin0cos0 y=rsin0sinrp z = r cos 0 where 0 is the colatitude. then r . show _ thatdu au au dx au dy au dz _ dt at + ax dt + ay dt + az dt z Fia. Find the components of the velocity and acceleration of the particle along the unit orthogonal vectors er. t)k. 16. Show also that z l2 d1r r0 r ds2 + ds. . t)j + y(x. 31). z. y. Show that if the distance Pte(. (p is the longitudinal or azimuthal angle.

B = 0. 18.' + C2e'°2' is a solution of (i). that is. d = k for t = 0. 1b 17. t r2 df) = 0.B > 0. A 2 . 19. Why is this necessary? 20. Consider the cases for which A2 . B. A2 . w1. Consider the differential equation (i) du+2Adu+Bu=0 where A.B < 0. y. From the calculus dV = a dx + a dy + a dz ax ay az (56) . Assume a solution of the form u(t) = e'°'C. 18. w2 being roots of w2 + 2Aw + B = 0. If u. is a solution of d8u+Ad2u+Bdu+Cu=0 and if u2 is a solution of d dtu+Adtu+Bdt+Cu=F(t) show that u1 + U2 is a solution of (ii) provided A. du = j. 8) has no transverse dt acceleration. Let p(x. A particle moving in the plane of (r. z) be any continuous differentiable space function. Show that the radius vector from the originrto the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time. C are independent of u.36 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 1SEc. Find the vector u which satisfies d3u dt3 a te d2u 2 d du 0 such that u = i. and show that u(t) = Clew. where C is a constant vector. The Gradient. B are constants.

y.SEC. 32). z + dz) (Fig. aSP. y. z). (p has the constant value . yo. so has the value gp(xo. 32. and Eq. aP ax 8y az We define a new vector formed from gp by taking its gradient p be defined by (57) three partial derivatives. At the point P(xo. yo. zo) represents a surface which obviously contains the point P(xo. r = xi + yj + zk If we move to the point Q(x + dx. zo) FIG. yo. zo) and d-r = 0. yo. (59) states that Vgp is perpendicular to dr as long as dr represents a change from P to Q.p(xo.p has been differentiated. dz and the terms aP. Thus V(p is normal to all the possible tangents to the surface at P so that V(p must necessarily be normal to the surface (p(x. Let del rp = Vsp=axi+ yJ+aZk We immediately see that d(p = dr VV (58) We shall now give a geometrical interpretation of IV-p. Consequently. z) = gp(xo. dr = dxi + dyj + dzk Now notice that (56) contains the terms dx. As long as we move along this surface. 181 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 37 Now let r be the position vector to the point P(x. z) = constant (see . (59) Now Vgp is a vector which is at once completely determined after . y. from (58). where Q remains on the surface v = constant. zo). dy. y + dy. zo) so that go(x. yo.

z) =x2+y2-z Thus V(p=2xi+2yj-k N=2i-2j-k 3 =2i-2j-katP(1.1) Example 20. To find a unit vector normal to the surface x2 + y2 . y. . so that dip (the change in p) will depend to a great extent on dr.1. Now dr = dr Vr = k dr r = kr dr Therefore from (53) k=1 r Example 21 and Vr = r = R r (61) Vf(u) = f'(u) Vu. 1). Let us now return to dip = dr Vv. z). Certainly dcp will be a maximum when dr is parallel to Vp. 33. 1. y. Hence Vr is normal to the sphere and so is parallel to the position vector r. u = u(x. Thus Vp is in the direction of maximum increase of p(x. and cos 8 VO is a maximum for 0 = 0°. 18 Fig. Thus Vr = kr. We find Vr if r = (x2 + y2 + Z2)1. z) . The surface r = constant is a sphere. z). since dr VV = Idrl IV pl cos 0.y. the projection of Vp on the unit vector having this is direction. Here Example 19. y. Let ldrl = ds so that d(P ds =u V(p (60) where u is a unit vector in the direction dr.38 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Sec. Hence the change of (p in any direction Fia.z = 1 at the point P(1.P(x. 33). The vector Vp is fixed at any point P(x.

. 34). Let Y Fio. + f'(u) az au k . Vrj is a unit vector parallel to the vector AP. and W2 . of aua aua ay . If aua Vua a Consider the ellipse given by rl + r2 = constant (see Fig. of au-aua az ) (62) = Example 23. Now V(rl + r2) is normal to the ellipse. and Vr2 is a unit vector parallel to the vector BP. .SEC. ax n . un) =a i+ayj+azk _ 1 of aua au. . Thus V(rl + r2) T = 0. 18] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 39 Proof: Vf(u) = i+ayj+azk au au j ay a = r(u) ax i + f'(u) = f'(u) Vu Example 22 Vf(ul. T be a unit tangent to the ellipse. 34. u2. Equation .T (63) But from Example 20.

1. . Find the equation of the tangent plane to the surface xy . Thus (64) Notice that V is an operator. just as dx is an operator in the differ- v . Example 24 v (uv) = i a (uv) ax q!!!) + k a (uv) + J ay az y C'ax+j a+kc1v )u+Clax +jau+k az y )v -az V(uv) = U Vv + v Vu (65) This result is easily remembered if we keep in mind that V is a differential operator. Problems 1. 19.z = 1 at the point (2. We define v=ia +iaay +kaz ential calculus. 1).(1-+ja +kaz)'p y a vector operator because of its components a a a ax ay az It will help us in the future to keep in mind that V acts both as a differential operator and as a vector. so that we can apply the ordinary rules of calculus. The Vector Operator V. 19 (63) shows that AP and BP make equal angles with the tangent to the ellipse.40 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.

z). 2. 6. z) at a point that makes So a maximum? 8. y. Show that V(a r) = a. 3.ra = c2 intersect at right angles when they have the same foci. Let r and x be the distances from the focus and directrix to any point on a parabola. 13.y2 = -4 at the point of intersection P(. 15. What is the value of V(p V4' along this curve? 9. If f = f(xl. If So = (r x a) (r x b). y. Let gp = x2 + y2. x'. 1). z) = x sin z . Show that the ellipse r. z). 1. ya). z) = constant and #(x. z) = constant are normal along a curve of intersection. + rz = c. 3. . and if x°t = x01(yl. xa) (see Example 8). y. where T is a unit tangent vector to the parabola. y2. y. show that rp=(p(r). What is the value of Vv(x. y. 1).r== x2+ysd-z2.p = b x (r x a) + a x (r x b) when a and b are constant vectors. Expand V(u/v) where u = u(x. find Vr" by explicit use of (57). a = 1.i) T = 0.y cos z at the origin? 10. If Vv is always parallel to the position vector r. 11. 12. 3 . Find IVpI and show that it is the maximum change of V. 5. The surfaces g(x. Find the cosine of the angle between the surfaces x2y + z = 3 and x log z . 14. What is the direction for the maximum change of the space function gp(z. We know that r = x. Find the change of g = xyz in the direction normal to the surface yx2 + xy2 + z'y = 3 at the point P(1. 7. 4. and interpret this equation. Show that (R . show that of aye of axe aya a = 1. 191 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 41 2. y. v = v(x. 2. where a is a constant vector and r is the position vector. If r = (x2 + y2 + Z2)'1. and the hyperbola r. show that V. 2.Sac.1.

dr 17. The x and z components of the velocity f contribute nothing to the flow through ABCD. which occur in cylindrical coordinates. 35). dy.e of of ay a ' axa 16. e. The Divergence of a Vector.z. z). The mass of fluid entering ABCD per unit time is given by pv dx dz. 18. y. If u(tx. Or r ae az three mutually orthogonal unit vectors e. of are the components of Vf along the and show that af. of dimensions dx. The mass of fluid leaving the face EFGH per unit. We assume that the velocity field is given by f = u(x. 20. Ifu =u(x. t). y. Let us consider the motion of a fluid of density p(x. show that (r V)u = nu. show that d. y. y. +Cad V>u. y. 20 Using the fact that s _ 3 ax" aye 1 ay° ax8 ` 1 if« _ R .42 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS axa ax8 [SEC. Let us first calculate the amount of fluid passing through the face ABCD per unit time. dz. Apply the results of Prob. z)k. 20.find xyevzi:' + log (x + z + y) -X z 19. 3. Ifr =xi+yj+zk. ty. es. z). z. z)j + w(x. time is r pv + a(pv) 1 dy dx dz ay . We now concentrate on the flow through a small parallelepiped ABCDEFGH (Fig. y. show that 0 if a 0 .P= ate + V(p. x = r cos 0 y = r sin 0 z=z 1 of .y. tz) = t"u(x. 15 above to the transformation 9-1 ay8 axa a = 1. This type of motion is called steady motion because of the explicit independence of p and f on the time. 2. If (_ v(x.t)showthat dt = au. z)i + v(x.

(pf ) = di v (pf) = a(Pu) ax a(Pv) + ay + a(Pw) az = 1 dM V dt (67 ) . This quantity is called the divergence of the vector pf. we find that the total loss of mass per unit time is [a(Pu)+o(Pv)+a(Pw)]dddz z A dy E ry Fia. 35. We see at once that VV . 20) DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 43 The loss of mass per unit time is thus seen to be equal to a(pv) ay dx dy dz If we also take into consideration the other two faces. so tha t a(Pu) ax + a(pv) ay + a(Pw) az (66) represents the loss of mass per unit time per unit volume.SEC.

. Compute V f if f = r/r' (inverse-square force).3r) = 0 (69) This is an important result. and since f and Vp are vectors we complete their multiplication by taking their dot product. Example 25. What is the divergence of a gradient? k/ axe+ayz+az. y. M and V are the mass and volume of the fluid. j. The divergence of any vector f is defined as V f. when operating on spf. z)f. We now calculate the divergence of p(x. We note that y Example 26.u) + a(te) + ay av ax a(cyw) az _ (ax au x +ay+ aw az + uax +v ay +u'aa arp a'p sip (68) We remember this result easily enough if we consider V as a vector differential operator. and then we keep f fixed and let V operate on V(V V is nonsense). V (r-'r) = r-3V r+r Vr-' V (r. Thus. 20 since i. k are constant vectors.44 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. The divergence of an inverse-square force is zero. V a(q. we first keep p fixed and let V operate on f.

(71) Vxr= Example 28 1 =0 i a j a k a v x (wf) = ax cpu ay az [a(sou) az a(caw) vv cv ay az JJ [a(te) _ a()1 ax + k [a(.21] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 45 This important quantity is called the Laplacian of 0.) ax v x (cOf) = cO a(.SEc. The Curl of a Vector. We postpone the physical meaning of the curl and define i j curl f=vxf= vxf = i Example 27 Caw a a a az ax ay v u w _ -J az 1 _ awl az ay + ax +k 1 _ au ax ay. v = v2 = axe (70) aye az2 21.Pu)] ay [i (ay aw av az +j au az Ow ax U v w Vx('vf)=(Pvxf+Via xf (72) .

What does (u V)v mean? We first dot u with a a This yields the scalar differential operator a ux ax + ua ay + U.46 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.p + i \ az ax ax az/ + k \ax ay a2.p C1 2. Example 29. ay ax/ (73) Hence Vxvio =0 provided (p has continuous second derivatives. To show that the divergence of a curl is zero. V (v x f) = ax ay a2u a aw_av az a2ul a au_aw' + ay az a2V a(av_au) + az \ax a2w ax / a2v ay/ a2w ay az az ay + az ax ax az + ax ay . az Then we operate on v obtaining uxax+Uyay+u$az Thus df=axdx+af dy+azdz y =dxa+dya+dzaz y . To show that the curl of a gradient is zero. 21 This result is easily obtained by considering V as a vector differential operator.ay ax (74) Thus Example 31.p i av av av . i a V X (VP) = ax ax j a ay ay k a az az a2. V.az ay ay az a2 a2IP 02. Example 30.

Example 33.SFC. (75) df = (dr V)f + a dt Example 32 (76) +vsa = vJ + vyj + vZk (v . we Similarly. Now u x (V x v) = Vti(u v) . v) .(v V)u.(u V)v Here we have applied the rule of the middle factor. If f = f(x.v(V u) + u(V v) . 211 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 47 and df = (dr V)f since dr = dx i + dy j + dz k. t). noting also that V operates only on v. v x (V x u) = obtain Vu(u v) + Vn(u v) = u x (V x v) + v and x u) + (u V)v + (v V)u u x(V xv) + v x(V xu) + Example 34 (78) V x (u x v) = (v V)u . Let us expand V(u v).(u V)v (79) .V)r = v (77) where r is the position vector xi + yj + zk. z. y. Adding. Vn(u v) means that we keep the components of u fixed and differentiate only the components of v.

V2v Let A = V x ((pi) where V2. Sec.48 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. (u x v) _ (V x u) . (81) We now com- V x A = V x V xi = from (7). V V xv+V(pxv 4.u 7. (Vxv)=0 6. 22 Example 35 V. V (UV) = u Vv + v Vu 2. V =0 13.(u V)v 8.(V x v) . 22. V. Thus i V iV2 a cix j app k app AVxA= app a2 a2y ()2 -P ax 1 ay 0 az 0 ax2+j ay ax+kazax app a2 = az ay ax app a2g ft azax If also sp = X(x)Y(y)Z(z).v(V u) + u(V v) . we obtain Example 37. Recapitulation. we can immediately conclude that 22.v . We relist the above results: 1. V x (u x v) _ (v V)u . Since A = V(p x i. V x (V(p) = 0 5. df = (dr V)f + a dt Vxr . (u xv) = Vu (u xv) +Vv (u xv) (V (V (80) Example 36 V X (V x v) = V(V v) . V. pute A V x A.p = 0.

If fl. where r=xi+yJ+zk. Prove that (v V)v = 4 Vv2 .Sxc. v) = 0. Let u = u(x. / are the components of f after a .v x (V x v). w) = 0 is that Vu Vv x Vw = 0. Compute V2 r. 9. xcoszi+ylogxj -z2k.yj)/(x + y). Show that V2(1/r) = 0 where r = (x2 + y2 + z2)}. f3 are the components of the vector f in one set of rectangular axes and 11. 8. or au ax av au ay ft au az av 0 ax ay az aw aw aw ax ay az This determinant is called the Jacobian of (u. prove that V x (w x r) = 2w. y. written J[(u. If A is a constant unit vector. Find the divergence and curl of (xi . V2r2. Show that v remains constant and hence v = f(u) or F(u. If pf = Vp. r = xi + yj + zk. Show that V x V(r)r] = 0 when r = (x2 + y2 + Z2) i and 7. Expand V(uvw). Assume Vu x Vv = 0 and assume that we move on the surface u (x. 4. V2(1/r2) where r = (x2 + y2 + z2)3. w satisfy an equation f(u. If a = axi + fiyj + yzk. 13. v. z). z). z) = constant. z)]. v. prove that f V x f = 0. 10. z). 2. If w is a constant vector. 3. 11. v) = 0. V. y. w) with respect to (x. y. v. dco = dr VV + 15. Show that Vu x Vv = 0. 22] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS LP dt 49 14. y. of 5. v = v(x. y. w)/(x. v. show that V(a r) = 2a. Suppose u and v satisfy an equation of the form f(u. 6. show that V x (v xA)] = 14.(r 3r) =0 Problems 1. 12. Prove that a necessary and sufficient condition that u. /. f2.

O = tan-' y/x = c3 are respect tively. Sec. This circle is called the (p-curve since r and 0 remain constant on this curve . show that a fa aa_ a=1 xa = a=1 x so that V f is a scalar invariant under a rotation of axes. there will pass exactly one surface of each type. Prove (79). (81). the coordinates of the point P determining the constants c1. and the plane y/x = tan sp pass through the point P(r. Use this result to show that V x((pf) =('V xf+Vcpxf. or engineer finds it convenient to use a coordinate system other than the familiar rectangular cartesian coordinate system. 9. 23 rotation of axes (see Example 8). Through any point P in space. 0. 23. cone. and plane. (80). 3 Show that gi. = -gi and that three of the nine quantities yield the three components of V x f. If he is dealing with spheres. sp (see Fig. having e. axis i. 31).' Sp = z (x2 + y2 + z2) X tan-1 y as a change of coordinates from the x-y-z coordinate system to the r-B-#p coordinate system. physicist. 21. 15. Let us note the following: The sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = r2. 2. he will probably find it expedient to describe the position of a point in space by the spherical coordinates r. The intersection of the sphere and the cone is a circle. the cone z/(x2 + y2 + z2)'1 = cos 8. the circle of latitude.50 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Often the mathematician. Let f = f1i + f2j + f3k and consider nine quantities 9is Also afi axi of. except the origin. as its unit tangent vector at P. a sphere. see Prob. Curvilinear Coordinates. The surfaces r = (x2 + y2 + z2)} = cl 8 = cos-' [z/(x2 + y2 + z2)}1 = c2. j = 1. Sp). We may consider the transformations r = (x2+y2+Z2)} a = cos. 16. 8. c2. c3.

We also note that the triple scalar product Vr V9 x Vtp is equal to (r2 sin 0)-1 and that dV = dsl ds2 ds3 = r2 sin 0 dr d9 dp. f2. Hence h3 is that quantity which must be multiplied into the differential change of coordinate gyp. e. to yield arc length along the p-curve. divergence. while similarly er = Vr and ee = r VB. Since Vv is perpendicular to the plane cp = constant. ee. and Laplacian when dealing with spherical coordinates. curl.=erxee=rVrxVB eB=e. they are not fixed.. The three unit vectors at P. e. We may also represent f as f = f1 Vr + f2r VO + far sin 0 VV and also by f = f1r2 sin O VO x V(p + f2r sin BV(p x Vr + far Vr x V8. k. Hence e9. Let us make a change of coordinates from the x-y-z system to a u1-u2-u3 system as given by the equations Ul = u1(x.p = ds3 hs hs so that ds3 = hs dip. the circle of longitude.. z) ug = u3(x. the r curve. P. and Laplacian. ee and er are the unit tangent vectors to the 0. = r2 sin 0 VO X VV. 0.. are mutually perpendicular to each other and can be considered as forming a basis for a coordinate system in the neighborhood of P. er. j. and Vp. y. The intersection of the sphere and the plane yields the 0-curve. We note that er = ee x e. fs can be functions of r.and r curves. d-p. namely. Spherical coordinates are special cases of orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems so that we will proceed to discuss these more general coordinate systems in order to obtain expressions for the gradient. respectively. where hs is the scalar factor of proportionality between e. = r sin 0 V(p. Unlike i.SEC. z) U2 = u2(x. y. Thus e.xe. divergence. Thus we may expect to find more complicated formulas for the gradient. If drs is a vector tangent to the p-curve. The scalars f1. p. curl. = h3 Vsp.. of length dss = jdr3j. y. z) (82) . we have from (58) dip = drs VP = dr3 e.=rsin 0V(pxVr Any vector at P may be represented as f = flex + flee + f3ec. we must have V(p parallel to e. for as we move from point to point their directions change. 23] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 51 so that only the coordinate p changes as we move along this curve. while the intersection of the cone and plane yields the straight line from the origin through.

u3 are known. A point in space is determined when x. z) = C2. and u3(x.52 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. z) = es. us be three unit vectors issuing from P tangent to the ui. u3(x.P. z)] . u2. u2(x. respectively (see Fig. y. u2. zo). z) = ci u2(x. us curves. 0 so that the transformation (82) is one to one in the neighborhood of a point. z) = u8(xo. 23 We assume that the Jacobian J[(ul. y. The surfaces will intersect in pairs. Through a point P(xo. u3)/(x. y. zo) will pass the three surfaces ui(x. yo. zo). yo. yo. zo) z y FIG. we obtain a family of surfaces. The curve of intersection of the surfaces uI = ci and u2 = C2 we shall call the us curve. Zo). y) z) = u2(xo. y. yielding three curves which intersect orthogonally at the point P(xo. since along this curve only the variable us is allowed to change. . Let u1. y. u2. By considering ui(x.-. 36). yo. 36. yo. y. z) = ui(xo. Let us assume that the three surfaces intersect one another orthogonally. z are known and hence when ui. y. us.

zo) so that Vu3 is parallel to the unit vector u3. ul = h1 Vu1j u2 = h2 Du2. Obviously dr3 us = dss. z ) du1 due du3 u1. z) = u3(xo. h2 = r. U2. Hence u3 = h3 Vu3 where h3 is the scalar factor of proportionality between us and Vu3. Similarly. u3 (86) Example 38. In cylindrical coordinates ds2 = dr2 + r2 d02 + dz2 so that h1 = 1. yo. y. dV = j (_x. 22. so that r = h2. . and dr3' = dss. 231 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 53 Now Vu3 is perpendicular to the surface u3(x.SEc. h3 = 1. For example. Sec. Now let dr3 be a tangent vector along the us curve. so that from (58) dss = h3 du3 (83) We see that hs is that quantity which must be multiplied into the differential coordinate dus so that are length will result. so that u1 = U2 X u3 = h2h3 Vu2 X Vu3 u2 = us x u1 = h3h1 Vu3 X Vu1 113 = u1 x u2 = h1h2 Vu1 x out and (84) Du1 Du2 X Vu3 = u1 U2 h1 h g x Us s = (h1h2ha)-1 (85) Note that the differential of volume is dV = ds1 ds2 ds3 = h1h2h3 du1 due du3 and making use of (85) as well as Prob. 9. y. in polar coordinates ds = r do if we move on the 0-curve.

54 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. u3). and out V (vu2 x vua) = 0 ao that (88) reduces to 1 [o(h2h3fi) 49U. u2. Consequently V f = V (f 1h2h3) vu2 x Vu3 + f 1h2h3 V (Vu2 X Vu3) + V(f 2h3h1) Dua x Vu1 + f 2h3hly (Vu3 X Vu1) + V(f3h1h2) Vu1 X Vu2 + f3h1h2V (Vul x vu2) (88) Now V(f1h2h3) VU2 X Vu3 = a(flh2ha ) Vu1 Vu2 x Vu3. If f = f (U1. we obtain VV2 1 a h2h3 a a (hAi a +au2 h2 au2 a (h. + aus h3 au] (90) . Now f = flul + f2u2 + f3u3 = f lh2ha Vu2 x vu3 + f 2h3h1 Vu3 x Vul + fahlh2 Vu1 x vu2 from (84).h2f3) + 49u3 (89 ) If we apply (89) to the vector VV as given by (87). 23 Example 39.h2 a h1h2h3 au1 { h1 49U. yf = 1 of au1 Vul + au2 vu2 + of vu3 `f au3 1 Vf = h1 au1 u1+----u2+-''U3 h3 au3 h2 49u2 1 of of of (87) In cylindrical coordinates of ar R+p+k r a9 az Our next attempt is to obtain an expression for the divergence of a vector when its components are known in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. then from Example 21. h1h2h3 + a(h3h1f2) au2 h.

SEC. 23]

DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS

55

**This is the Laplacian in any orthogonal curvilinear coordinate
**

system. Example 40.

V2V

In cylindrical coordinates

l

r

ar

a

r

a

ar

-I-

a aB

1a_

r aB

+az- r az a

a

(91)

Example 41. Solve V2V = 0 assuming V = V(r),

r = (x2 + y2)i

From (91)

1 d (LV r J =0 dr r dr

and

or

r

dV d = c1

V =cllogr+C2

Finally we obtain the curl of f.

f = f1u1 + f2u2 + faun

= f 1h1 Vu1 + f2h2 Due + fshs Vua

and

V x f = V(f1hi) x Vul + V(f2h2) X Vu2 + V(faha) X Vus

**since V x (Vul) = V X (Vu2) = V x (Vua) = 0. Now
**

V(f1h1) X VU, =

a(f1h1)

49U,

Vul X Vul +

a(f1h1)

49U2

Vu2 X Vu1

+ a(flhl aus

Replacing Vu2 x Vul by -- hlh2, etc., we obtain

us

Vus X Vul

Vxf=

ul f a(hsf3)

h2h3 L

au2

**u2 - a(h2f2)1J + hsh1 Lra(hlfl) ^ a(hsfa) aul aua aua ua ` a(h1f1) (92)
**

La(h2f2)

+

1h2

49U1

49U2

56

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

[Sec. 23

Problems

1. For spherical coordinates, ds2 = dr2 + r2 d92 + r2 sine 9 d(p2 where B is the colatitude and (p the azimuthal angle. Show that

V Z V=

a I r2 sin B a r2 sin 9 ar \\\ ar

1

I

}-

(sin a9 `

a

6

aV

aB/J

+ a (sin 9

2. Solve V2V = 0 in spherical coordinates if V = V(r). 3. Express V - f and V x f in cylindrical coordinates. 4. Express V f and V x f in spherical coordinates by letting a, b, c be unit vectors in the r, 9, (p directions, respectively. 5. Write Eq. (92) in terms of a determinant. 6. Show that V x [(r V9)/sin 0) = V(p where r, 0, (p are spherical coordinates. 7. If a, b, c are the vectors of Prob. 4, show that

as as

ar=0'

ab

a9= b,

ab

a9

a =sin9c s

ab

a(P

=0

= -a

_

ar

ac

= cos 9 c

ac

ac

ar=0'

a9=0'

= - sin0a - cos0b

**8. If x = r sin 9 cos (p, y = r sin 9 sin (p, z = r cos 9, then
**

the form ds2 = dx2 + dy2 + dz2 becomes

ds2 = dr2 + r2 d92 + r2 sin2 9 d(p2

3

**Prove this. If, in general, ds2 = I (dxa) 2, and if
**

a-1

xa = xa(y', y2, y3)

a = 1, 2, 3, show that

ds2 =

a,

axa axa

..ydyOdy

Y

dyo dyr

dy''

_ I go, dys

X-f

SEC. 231

**DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS
**

3

57

where

90Y = aI

nates:

ax" axa

a" ay"

**Check this result for the transformation to cylindrical coordix = r cos 0 y = r sin 0 z=z
**

and obtain ds2 = dr2 + r2 d02 + dz2.

**9. By making use of V2V = V(V V) - V x (V x V), find
**

V2V for V = v(r)e,, V being purely radial (spherical coordinates). Find V2V for V = f(r)e, + (p(z)e, in cylindrical coordinates. 10. Find V IV if V = w(r)k x r. 11. Consider the equations

a2S

(X -f 'U)V(V

s) + u V2s = p ate

X, µ, p constants.

Assume s = eiP'sl, p constant, and show that

(X + p)V(V s1) + (A + pp2)sl = 0

**Next show that [V2 + (µ + pp2)/(X + µ)](V s1) = 0,
**

X+µ

0.

**12. If A = V x (¢r), V2¢ = 0, show that
**

1

a a2Y'

sin 0 appaOar

a¢ a2Y' a0acpar

**so that A V x A = 0 if, moreover, ¢ =
**

13. Show that Cpi = Ae9 + Bey + Ce° satisfies V2sp1 = ci, and

show that if 402 satisfies V°02 = 0, then rp = Cpl + 4p2 also satisfies V2ip = gyp. Find a solution of V2Sp = -(p.

CHAPTER 3

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

24. Frenet-Serret Formulas. A three-dimensional curve in a Euclidean space can be represented by the locus of the end point of the position vector given by

r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j + z(t)k

(93)

where t is a parameter ranging over a set of values to < t < ti. We assume that x(t), y(t), z(t) have continuous derivatives of all orders and that they can be expanded in a Taylor series in the

neighborhood of any point of the curve.

**We have seen in Chap. 2, Sec. 16, that ds is the unit tangent
**

vector to the curve. Let t =

ds-

Now t is a unit vector so that

**its derivative is perpendicular to t. Moreover, this derivative,
**

dse

tells us how fast the unit tangent vector is changing direction

as we move along the curve. The principal normal to the curve is consequently defined by the equation

dt

= Kn

ds

(94)

where K is the magnitude of ds and is called the curvature.

The

reciprocal of the curvature, p =I 1K, is called the radius of curvature. It is important to note that (94) defines both K and n,

**K being the length of ds while n is the unit vector parallel to
**

dt At any point P of our curve we now have two vectors t, n at ds right angles to each other (see Fig. 37). This enables us to set up

58

SEC. 24]

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

59

a local coordinate system at P by defining a third vector at right angles to t and n. We define as the binormal the vector

b = t xn

All vectors associated with the curve at the point P can be

written as a linear combination of the three fundamental vectors t, n, b, which form a trihedral at P.

z

0

Y

x Fia. 37.

Let us now evaluate - -- and

dn

Since b is a unit vector, its

derivative is perpendicular to b and so lies in the plane of t and n. Moreover, b t = 0 so that on differentiating we obtain

t=

0.

Hence `

is also perpendicular to t so that

dd_b

must be parallel to n.

Consequently, ds = rn, where r by defini-

tion is the magnitude of -. r is called the torsion of the curve.

60

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

[SEC. 24

**Finally, to obtain dn, we note that n = b x t so that
**

b

ds

b x ds +

x t = b x Kn + rn x t =- Kt- rb

**The famous Frenet-Serret formulas are
**

dt

Kn

ds

do

ds

db

ds

- (Kt + Tb)

rn

95)

**Successive derivatives are functions of t, n, b and the derivatives
**

of K and r. Example 42.

The circular helix is given by

**r = a cos ti+asintj+btk t =ds = (-a sin ti+acostj + bk) st
**

and

1=

(dl (a2sin2t+a2cos2t+b2)

2

(.)2

(a2 + b2)

Hence Now

t = (-a sin ti+acostj+bk)(a2+b2) 4

Kn = d = (-a cos t i - a sin t j)(a2 + b2)-t

so that

K = a(a2 +

Also

b2)-i

i

j

k

b

b = t x n = -a sin t a cost -cos t -sin t

(a2 + b2)-1

b2)-+

0

= (b sin t i - b cos t j + ak) (a2 +

SEC. 241

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

61

and

db

ds

= rn = (b cos t i + b sin t j)(a2 + b2)-1

T = b(a2 + b2)-1

so that

Problems

**1. Show that the radius of curvature of the twisted curve x = log cos 0, y = log sin 0, z = V2 0 is p = csc 20.
**

2. Show that r = 0 is a necessary and sufficient condition that a curve be a plane curve.

3. Prove that T =

K

(r'r"r"').

**z 4. For the curve x = a(3t - te), y = 3at2, z = a(3t + t3),
**

show that K = T = 1/3a(1 + t2)2.

5. Prove that

AA _ =

ds . ds

Kr,

do db

d8 - ds

=

0,

dt dn _

d8 . ds

= 0.

**6. Prove that r"' = -K2t + K'n - rKb, where the primes
**

mean differentiation with respect to are length.

**7. Prove that the shortest distance between the principal
**

normals at consecutive points at a distance ds apart (s measured along the arc) is ds p(p2 + 8. Find the curvature and torsion of the curve

r`2)_;

z = bu 9. For a plane curve given by r = x(t)i + y(t)j, show that

x = a(u - sin u),

y = all - cos u),

x,y - y,x

ds (K)

[(x')2 + (y1)2]1

10. Prove that (t't"t"') = K5

11. Show that the line element ds2 = dx2 + dy2 + dz2 - c2 dt2 remains invariant in form under the Lorentz transformation

x=

- yt

[1

- (V2/c2)1I

y=I

z=2

t=

- (V/c2)x

[1 - (V2/c2)J*

62

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

[SEC. 25

**V, c are constants. The transformation ct = iT, i
**

leads to the four-dimensional Euclidean line element

**ds2=dx2+dy2+dz2+dr2
**

12. If xa = xa(s), a = 1, 2, . . . , n, represents a curve in an n-dimensional Euclidean space for which

d82

= (d_-1)2 + (dx2) 2 +

.

. + (dxn) 2

define the unit tangent vector to this curve, this definition being a generalization of the definition of the tangent vector for the case

n = 3. Show that the vector

d2xa

ds2

) a = 1, 2,

.

.

.

, n, is normal

**to the tangent vector, and define the unit principal normal n,
**

and curvature K, by the equations

d2xa

dta

d82 - ds =

a

Klnla,

a = 1, 2,

..,n

Show that

to

ds

a = 1, 2,

. . .

, n, is normal to nl and that

dnla = - K1.

!Is

**Define the second curvature K2 and unit
**

la

a-1

normal n2 by th e equati ons d

..

. , n, and show that n2a is normal to to and nla if K2 ;P'- 0. Continue in this manner and obtain the generalization of the

d

= -Klt a + K2n2 a, a =

i

1, 2,

Frenet-Serret formulas. 25. Fundamental Planes. The plane containing the tangent and principal normal is called the osculating plane. Let s be a variable vector to any point in this plane and let r be the vector to the point P on the curve. s - r lies in the plane and is conse-

**quently perpendicular to the binormal. The equation of the
**

osculating plane is

(s - r) b = 0

(96)

The normal plane to the curve at P is defined as the plane through P perpendicular to the tangent vector. Its equation is

SEC. 26]

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

63

easily seen to be

(s - r) t = 0

(97)

The third fundamental plane is the rectifying plane through P perpendicular to the normal n. Its equation is

(s - r) n = 0

Problems

(98)

**1. Find the equations of the three fundamental planes for the
**

curve

x = at,

y=bt2,

z=cta

2. Show that the limiting position of the line of intersection of two adjacent normal planes is given by (s - r) n = p where s is the vector to any point on the line.

26. Intrinsic Equations of a Curve. The curvature and torsion of a curve depend on the point P of the curve and consequently on the are parameter s. Let is = f(s), r = F(s). These two equations are called the intrinsic equations of the curve. They owe their name to the fact that two curves with the same intrinsic equations are identical except possibly for orientation in space. Assume two curves with the same intrinsic equations. Let the trihedrals at a corresponding point P coincide; this can be done by a rigid motion.

Now

ds

(t1. t2) = t1

,cn2 + xni t2

T (nl n2) = n1 (-Kt - rb2) + n2 (--Kt, -- rbi)

(99)

d

Adding, we obtain

s

0

64

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

(SEC. 27

so that

constant = 3

since at P

(100)

tl=t2,

n1=n2,

b1=b2

**Since (100) always maintains its maximum value, we must have dr, _ dr2 tl = t2, n1 n2, bi = b2 so that or r1 = r2 locally.
**

ds

ds

Hence the two curves are identical in a small neighborhood of P. Since we have assumed analyticity of the curves, they are

identical everywhere.

Problems

**1. Show that the intrinsic equations of x = a(9 - sin 8), y = a(l - cos 8), z = 0 are p2 + s2 = 16a2, 7- = 0, where s is
**

measured from the top of the are of the cycloid. 2. Show that the intrinsic equation for the catenary

y=a'(ex/a+e-(sla)) 2

**is ap = s2 + a2, where 8 is measured from the vertex of the
**

catenary.

Fla. 38.

27. Involutes. Let us consider the space curve r. We construct the tangents to every point of r and define an involute

SEc. 271

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

65

as any curve which is normal to every tangent of r (see Fig. 38). From Fig. 39, it is evident that

r,=r+ut

(101), we obtain

(101)

**is the equation of the involute, u unknown. Differentiating
**

dr,

ds,^l t

ti =

Cdr

A

d_u \ ds

ds,

ds+ u ds+dst

(102)

where s is are length along r and s, is arc length along r'. (95), (102) becomes r

Using

(t+uua+dut)ds, d ds

(103)

**Now t t, = 0 from the definition of the involute so that
**

du 1 +- =0

and

u=c - s

(104)

Fta. 39.

Therefore r, = r + (c - s)t, and there exists an infinite family of involutes, one involute for each constant c. The distance

between corresponding involutes remains a constant. An invo-

r

Fia. 40.

lute can be generated by unrolling a taut string of length c which has been wrapped along the curve. The end point of the string generates the involute (see Fig. 40). What are some properties of the involute?

66

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

[SEc. 28

r1=r+(c-s)t

ti = dr,

dr / dt Ids + lC - S) ds ds, -

t]

ds dsl

(C - s)

ds K - n

ds1

Hence the tangent to the involute is parallel to the corresponding normal of the curve. Since ti and n are unit vectors, we must

have (c - s) K d = 1. The curvature of the involute is

l

**obtained from - = Kin, ds ds1 = =-dsl
**

r

dt1

do ds

(-Kt -7-b)

(c - s)K

K12

Hence

+ r2

K2(C - 8)2

K2

(105)

28. Evolutes. The curve t' whose tangents are perpendicular to a given curve is called the evolute of the curve. The tan-

**gent to r' must lie in the plane
**

Fla. 41.

of b and n of r since it is perpendicular to t. Consequently

rl=r+un+vb

is the equation of the evolute.

Differentiating, we obtain

tl

=

dr1

= dr

{ds

dsl -

d_n db d_u dv A + u ds + v ds + ds n + d8 bl ds,

**= It + u(-Kt -rb) +vTn+ds n +d8b]dsl
**

Now t t1 = 0, which implies I - uK = 0 or u =

dv tl=L(-ru+as) b+( +ds)n ,

1

K

= p. Thus

d8

**Also t1 is parallel to r1 - r = un + vb (see Fig. 41). Therefore
**

(dv/ds) - UT

(du/ds) + Pr

V

u

SEC. 28]

or

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

67

T= Therefore

uv' - vu' u2+v2

=

ra

d v = ds tan-' u)

V

o

Tds=tan--' -C -U

(106)

**and v = p tan (,p - c) since u = p. Therefore r1 = r + pn + p tan (,p - c)b
**

curve T.

**and again we have a one-parameter family of evolutes to the
**

Problems

**1. Show that the unit binormal to the involute is
**

Kb - Tt

b1 =

(C - S)KK1

**2. Show that the torsion of an involute has the value
**

=

T1

T-K

dS

] [K(K2 + r2)(C - 8)I-1

3. Show that the principal ` normal to the evolute is parallel to the tangent of the curve 1'. 4. Show that the ratio of the torsion of the evolute to its curva-

ture is tan (,p - c).

5. Show that if the principal normals of a curve are binormals (equal vectors not necessarily coincident) of another curve, then c(K2 +,r2) = K where c is a constant. 6. On the binormal of a curve of constant torsion T, a point Q is taken at a constant distance c from the curve. Show that the binormal to the locus of Q is inclined to the binormal of the given curve at an angle

tan-'

CT2

K(C2r2 + 1)}

7. Consider two curves which have the same principal normals (equal vectors not necessarily coincident). Show that the tangents to the two curves are inclined at a constant angle.

dt. Then t' Fla. r1 = b.='--=-(-Kt-rn) ds ds. it is often convenient to give them a common origin and then to consider the locus of their end points. Let us now consider the spherical indicatrix of the tan- gent vectors to a curve r = r(s).Let r. = t. _ r `-Kt . dt.=--.rn) and K12 = K2 + r2 T2 . This locus obviously lies on a unit sphere. 42. dS1 = x.ds. ds ds1 ds1 Therefore rds=1 ds. 1 = K d1' t. = dr. ds A ds = = re Differ- t. We obtain do ds =K. Let us now find the curvature K. as. Moreover. and t.n.68 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 29 29. ds1 = dt ds ds ds dal - ds. and 1 K K2 + r2 K12 K 2 (b) The spherical indicatrix of the binormal. Thus the tangent to the spherical indicatrix P is parallel to the normal of the curve at the corresponding point. Spherical Indicatrices (a) When dealing with a family of unit vectors.n1 = do ds A dS.=n 1 Differentiating. dr. of the indicatrix. entiating. = n. The unit tangent vectors are t(s) = ds.

c + Ac) . But these equations are equivalent to the equations F(x. intersect at a point. c) = 0 and F(x.SEC. y.. in general. Find the curvature of the spherical indicatrix of the principal normal of a given curve. c) = 0. y. z. y. The locus of all these curves [obtained by eliminating c from (107)] gives us a surface called the envelope of the one-parameter family. y. Show that the torsion of the binormal indicatrix is Ti T(dK/ds) . y. z. GEOMETRY 69 Problems 1.K(dT/ds) T(K2 r2) + 3. c + Ac) = 0 aF(x. intersect in a curve.F(x.c) = 0 and aF(x. Consider the one-parameter family of surfaces F(x.z. z. Now consider two neighboring characteristics F(x. c) Ac =0 where Ac # 0. z. y.K(dr/ds) Ti T2) K(K2 + 2. z. in general. c + Ac) = 0. 30J DIFFERENTIAL. y.z. y. y. z. Envelopes. z. called the characteristic curve. Two neighboring surfaces are F(x. Show that the torsion of the tangent indicatrix is T(dK/ds) . c) ac -0 (107) Each c determines a characteristic curve.y. These two surfaces will. z. z.c) ac =0 (108) F(x. As Ac --> 0. The locus of these points is the envelope of the characteristics and is called the edge of . c + Ac) = 0 ac which. the curve of intersection approaches a limiting position. c) = 0 and F(x. 30. z. y. given by F(x. c) = 0 aF(x.

s) = [s . as plane.r) (-Kt . The characteristics are straight lines.y. so that the edge of regression is the original curve r = r(s).z.r) ds in.r(s)] b(s) = 0.= (s . v) z = z(u. Now of = as dr ds A b + (s -r).r(s)] b(s) = 0 where s is the parameter and s = xi + yj + A.A) + (s . a developable surface is the tangent surface of a twisted curve.70 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. we obtain the one-parameter family of osculating planes given by f(x. we obtain (s . y.. This locus is the rectifying The intersection of f = 0 and as = 0 obviously yields Now the tangent lines which are the characteristics. In general. v) Let us consider (110) . z. A developable surface. Surfaces and Curvilinear Coordinates. If we let P vary. v) y = y(u. y. From (96) we have [s .r) n = 0. and setting of = 0. z. y. c) = 0 ac (109) a2F(x. Let us consider the osculating plane at a point P. aF(x.31 The edge of regression is given by the three simultaneous equations F(x. c) = 0 regression. the equations x = x(u. 31. is the envelope of a oneparameter family of planes. z. A contradiction to this is the case of a cyiinder or cone.r) n da a It is easy to verify that s = r satisfies f = Y Y as = az 4982 - = 0. called generators. a If as2 = -t n + (s . We have seen that the envelope of the osculating planes is the locus of the tangent line to the space curve P.c) = 0 ace Example 43. by definition.

v)k (111) where the end point of r generates the surface. For each v. and similarly the v curves are obtained by setting u = constant. one such space curve exists.SEc. v)i + y(u. we shall obtain a locus of space curves which collectively form a surface. We shall consider those surfaces (110) for which x. and the two curves are called the parametric curves. dv = 0. If we keep v fixed. so that (ds) = 1'E du (113) (ds). Length of Arc on a Surface. The parameters u and v are called curvilinear coordinates. so Or that the parametric curves form an orthogonal system if and only Or au av . and similarly au/ ' F ao9r . If we move from the point r to the point r + dr on the surface. z have continuous second-order derivatives. along the u curve. v). av du dv + (av)2 dv2 ds2 = E du2 + 2F du dv + G dv2 where \12 2 (112) E r = r(u. the locus of (110) is a space curve. the distance ds is given by ds2 = (arudu+-dvN 2 or 2 C_ J or due + 2 9r o9r au . y. and if we let v vary. = VG_ dv Now Or and av are tangent vectors to the u and v curves. v)j + z(u. Equation (110) may be written r(u. v) = x(u. 32] DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 71 where u and v are parameters ranging over a certain set of values. The curves obtained by setting v = constant are called the u curves. u av' G (Ov) Equation (112) is called the first fundamental form for the surface In particular. 32.

r = constant ar = r cos 0 cos sP i + r cos 0 sin V j . Surface Curves. Differentiating. dr is completely determined when du dt av 1 and dv are specified. Now consider another su au + av av. 33 Example 44. v) av = 0. Of course the surface is a sphere. v) su + Q(u. (arau ar dvl dr = ` du + Wt dt. dv) to specify a given direction on the surface. v(t)] (114) which represents a curve on the surface (111).r sin 8 k d0 ar a st = -r sin6sinpi+rsin8coscpj F=e c1r c1r 2 and is E a8/ = r2. we obtain r = r[u(t).72 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 1Szc. Along this curve. so that we will use the notation (du. the differential equa- . = 0. Now curve such that ar = dr or = E du au + F(du av + dv au) + G dv av (115) so that two curves are orthogonal if and only if Edu su +F(duav +dv &u) +Gdv av = 0 or 6V dv E+FCa u+au/+Gd -=0 (116) If we have a system of curves on the surface given by the differential equation P(u. 33. Consider the surface given by r = r sin 8 cos v i+ r sin 8 sin V j+ r cos 8 k. G= r2 Sin2 0 so that ds2 = r2 d82 + r2 sin2 0 dcp2 and the 0-curves are orthogonal to the 9-curves. By letting u and v be functions of a single variable t. where su and av are the differential changes of u(t) and v(t) for this new curve.

(_P+dv1 .F2)1 du dv or 34. If 8 is the angle between the two directions given by P due + Q du dv + R dv2 = 0 show that tan 0 = H(Q2 . Show that any two v curves on the surface r = u cos v i + u sin v j + (v + log cos u)k cut equal segments from all the u curves. Normal to a Surface. where H ar 8u 8 avl. 6. 2. Find the envelope and edge of regression of the family of ellipsoids c2 (a2 x2 + y b2 + c2 = 1 where c is the parameter. Note . 7. . Prove at the differential equations of the curves which bisect the angles between the parametric curves are VEdu-VGdv=0 and 1/E du + 1i dv . 3. and av are tangent to the surface r(u. Show that the area of a surface is given by f f (EG .4PR)}/(ER . v) along the u and v curves.SEC.0. The vectors Consequently. Find the envelope and edge of regression of the one-param- eter family of planes x sin c . respectively. 341 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 73 tion for the orthogonal trajectories is given by E+F.GPdv `` = Q dull Q du 0 (117) since - by P Q bu Problems 1. find the orthogonal trajectories. ar 8r au x 49V is a vector normal to the surface. where c is the parameter and 0 is a constant.FQ + GP). tvhl 5. z2 4. Given the curves uv = constant on the surface r = ui + vj.y cos c + z tan 8 = c.

Let ds be length of are along this curve.74 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. the normals to the curves being parallel to n. We define the unit normal to the surface as n _ (Or/au) x (ar/av) (118) (ar/au) x (ar/av) 35. dv). We now compute the curvature of any one of these curves in the direction (du.= 0. av Therefore Kn = edue+2fdudv+gdv2 ds2 Kn edue+2fdudv+gdv2 Edue+2Fdudv+Gdv2 (120) . Consider all the planes through a point P of the surface r = r(u. These planes intersect the surface in a family of curves. v) which contain the normal n.. = 1/E du a necessary and sufficient condition for u to be arc length is that E = 1. Now dr Or du Or dv t=ds=auds+avds Therefore d2r ds2 dt ds _ K"n 492r du 2 au2 (ds) + au av A ds + Or d2u 2 a2r du dv _ a2r dv 2 av2 (ds) Or d2v + and au ds2 + av ds2 119) n) (du)2 (n au2) ds+ 2 (n au2av) ds ds )z since n - Or au n . Since (ds). The Second Fundamental Form. 35 that au need not be a unit tangent vector to the u curve since the parameter u may not represent are length.

at a point P. Therefore COS0= K Kn so that K = K. 36. Now consider any curve t on the surface and let its normal be n. the direction of r being (du. Geometrical Significance of the Second Fundamental Form. vo + Av) . dv) [see (119)]. dv) at P.. 361 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 75 where we define e=n-au2' a2r a2r _n. vo). Let r' be Fia. 43). What is the distance D of a neighboring point r(uo + Du. the normal curve in the same direction (du.SEC. We have r" K =n r" K since n rl" = r" n for two curves with the same (du. auav' f a2r (121) The quantity e due + 2f du dv + g dv2 is called the second fundamental form. dv) with normal n at P (Fig. sec 0 (122) This is Meusnier's theorem. 43. We construct a tangent plane to the surface at the point r(uo.

G = u2. v). v = v(u. K2 are the normal curvatures of the surfaces in the direc- tion of the curve at P.2K1K2 COS 0 where 9j. 2. 36 on the surface. For the paraboloid of revolution r=ucosvi+usinvj+u2k show that E = 1 + 4u2. vo + AV) = r(uo. Show that E. What are the normal curvatures for directions along the parametric curves? 3. F. e = 2(1 + 4u)`}. Thus (123) 2D = e du2 + 2f du dv + g dv2 Problems 1. 4. and 0 is the angle between their normals. dv). vo) + 1 Now AV ar Au au a2r ar (a2r + D= 2! - + av Au2 + 2 + av2 Av2 + au av Au AV z a2r from the calculus. g = 2u2(1 + 4u2)-}. Let us make a change of variable u = u(u. 5. G transform according to the law E lz Caul + 2F au au +G(av \au 2 . Find the second fundamental form for the sphere r=rsin0coscpi+rsin6sincpj+rcosOk r = constant. 1). to the plane? It is D = Ar n. and find the normals to the surface and the normal curvature for the direction (du. F = 0. Consequently z 1/ Av2 except for infinitesimals of higher order. r(uo + Au.76 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. f = 0. Show that the curvature K at any point P of the curve of intersection of two surfaces is given by K2 Sln2 0 = K12 + K22 .

0 2(F2 . the two directions coincide and satisfy (Ef . From (120) we have g) dv2 = 0 (124) (K ..EG) + du gE . which give the same value for x. is true if and only if This B2-AC= (K. (Su.Fe) due + (Eg .AC = 0.eg) = 0 (125) Moreover. 37] DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 77 F au au au\2 au av au av av au (avl 2 av av =Eaudo +F (aft do +audo )+Gag do E UP- Ii + 2F avav + G `avl and that E due + 2F du dv + G dv2 = E due + 2F du do + G W.SEC.g) dv = 0 The solutions of (124) give the two directions for a given x. we have . Principal Directions. dv).f) dv = 0 f) du + (xnG .C if B2 .. E . These two directions will coincide if the quadratic equation (124) has a double root. Also show that e=± ( e au (au)2 + Zf au av (OV\2 1 au au au av g au au + g au J au av av au au av au av au av av av au CIO] -± [e (au)2 av + 2f avav+ g f) du dv + (av12 av J 37.F'-f)2or .2fF) + (f2 .B and d = . A 6126) so that (K. Sv).e) due + or A due + 2B du dv + C dv2 = 0 This quadratic equation has two directions (du.e) du + (x F .Ge) du dv + (Fg .. When x is eliminated between (124) and (125)..E .Gf) dv2 = 0 (127) .

F2) (128) which is obtained by taking one-half of the sum of the roots of (125). solutions of (127). are called principal directions and are the only ones with a unique normal curvature. The lines of curvature are obtained by solving the differential equation (126). The Gaussian curvature K is defined as the product of the curvatures. 37 The two directions. The normal curvatures in these two directions are called the principal curvatures at the point.usinrpj (Or\2 Hence (ar)2 au- 1.78 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. au 2 = -u sins zr a2G2-0' 8ua = -sin+Cos(pj. Let us consider the right helicoid r= ucospi+usine'j+cook We have Or =cosSPi+sinrpj. F= au . that is. The average of the two principal curvatures is HeG+gE-2fF 2(EG . f2eg K= F2EG (129) A line of curvature is a curve whose tangent at any point has a direction coinciding with a principal direction at that point. that is. Example 45. no other direction can have the same curvature. a2r Q= -ucosipi .am 0' G= am = u2 + c2 . The curvature of a line of curvature is not a principal curvature since the line of curvature need not be a normal curve.

and The differential equation (126) for the lines of curvature becomes dug + c(c2 + U2)Id tp2 = 0 and = ± log (u + \/u2 + c2) + a and the lines of curvature are given by r = u cos [± log (u + u2 + c2) + aji + u sin -p j + cspk. 371 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 79 Also n = (ar/au) x (. + C2(C2 + u2)-1 = 0 whence u2+C2 The average curvature is H = 2 2 C the Gaussian curvature is K = -c(c2 + so that d(p = ± du (C2 + u2) b u2)-} (u2 C2)2' + C2) = 0.(u2 + C2)K. Referring to (126) for the two principal directions.Gf _ Ef . 0 .SEC.c cos v j + uk) (C2 + (ar/au) x (ar/ap)j 82r u2)-} f=n 2 a2r au ago = -c(c2 + u2)-# Equation (125) yields .F(Fg-Gf/ +G \F'g -Gf/ so that the principal directions are orthogonal.Gf au dv av + Substituting (130) into (116) we obtain E .Ge (130) du Fg .Fe du au Fg .. we have dv av Eg .9r/app) = (c sin p i .

Show that the principal radii of curvature of the right conoid x = u cos v. so that from (127) we must have Ef . Show that the Gauss curvature is K = -. y = u sin v.Ge) = gfE . v constant are to represent the principal curves. 38 Now let us choose the principal curves as the parametric lines. We have shown that a necessary and sufficient condition that the lines of curvature be parametric curves is that f=F=0 Problems 1.(u2 + ft )2 = 0 3.feG=Feg . so that f = F = 0. Let n be the normal at P and n + do the .of"(u2 + fF )iK .Fe = 0 Eg . z = {f (v) are given by the roots of f'=K2 .Ge 0 Fg-Gf=0 From these equations we conclude that f(Eg . Thus u = constant. The directions PQ and 1' are called conjugate directions.eFg =0 and F(Eg . z=uv 2.r2/(1 + r2u2)2. The tangent planes at P and Q will intersect in a straight line 1. Now let Q approach P along some fixed direction. y=b(u-v). We now compute the analytical expression for two directions to be conjugate.80 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. The line 1 will approach a limiting position 1'. Find the lines of curvature on the surface (131) x=a(u+v). Conjugate Directions. Let P and Q be neighboring points on a surface.Ge) = 0. These two curves satisfy the equation du dv = 0. Also show that the differential equation of the lines of curvature is -T2 du2 - (K + Kr2u2 + d3 u) du ds + (1 + r2u2)T M = 0 38. The surface generated by the binormals of the curve r = r(s) is given by R = r + ub.

. so that the lines of curvature are conjugate directions.au. Their directions are (du. dv) is given. so that by differenuiating we see that ar a2r an ar au au Similarly an Or a2r -n. 0). (0. obtained by solving (134). Sv). These two equations imply Sr do = 0. or (au Su + av Sv) Can du + a dv) =0 (132) Expanding. Now consider the lines of curvature taken as parametric curves.SFc. 38] DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY Or 81 normal at Q. Or - dv. Equation (134) is satisfied by these directions since f = 0 for lines of curvature. we obtain far (_au -) du bu + I (-av -) Sv du + (au au anav Or anau Or an aU) au dvJ ar an + an which implies av av Sv dv = 0 (133) Now n au = 0. Sv). we must have Sr n = 0 and Sr (n + dn) = 0. Let the direc- au Su + av Since Sr lies in both planes.= -e an Or av au an Or au av 9 -f so that (133) becomes e du Su + f (du Sv + dv Au) + g Sv dv = 0 (134) If the direction (du. there is only one corresponding conjugate direction (Su. where dr = PQ = tion of 1' be given by Sr = Or an du + ar Sv.

Example 46. Those curves whose tangents are asymptotic directions are called asymptotic lines.82 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SFc. 39 39. Asymptotic Lines. v = constant. If a direction is self-conjugate. z au2 f=n aua2r =0 av g=n = 2u2(1 +4 U2)-f 2 . z = u2. The directions which are self-conjugate are called asymptotic directions. dv du = Sv.2u2 sin v j + uk)u-1(1 + 4u2)'I Therefore z =2(1+4u)-}. the normal curva- If e = g = 0. the solution of (135) is u = constant.-ucosvi . vanishes for this direction. f 0.f3PK 0. Su so that (134) becomes (135) e due + 2f du dv + g dv2 = 0 We see that the asymptotic directions are those for which the second fundamental form vanishes. ture rc. and r=ucosvi+usinvj+u2k We obtain Or =cosvi-{-sinvj+2uk. Let us find the lines of curvature and asymptotic lines of the surface of revolution z = x2 + y2. azr 8u2 au ar= -u sinvi+ucosvj av =2k' a2r av2 a2r au av = -sinvi+cosvj . Moreover. so that the parametric curves are asymptotic lines if and only if e = g = 0. y = u sin v. Let x = u cos v.usinvj n= (ar/au) x (ar/av) (ar/au) x (ar/av)I = (-2u2 cos v i .

But we find that y = constant will . and that the lines of curvature are u + V 'u2+ c2 c2 = Ae}°.yi) (1 (x.= 0. Prove that. so that f = F = 0. we require the use of the calculus of variations. 40] ar ar DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 83 Also F = -. Show that the principal radii of curvature are ± (u2 + c2)c-1. so that the surface possesses no asymptotic lines.. y' = 0 or y = constant. at any point of a surface. These are imaginary. the sum of the normal curvature in conjugate directions is constant.1 [E (dt/2 + 2F dt dt + G (i)]1 dt (136) Among the many curves on the surface that join the two fixed points will be those that make (136) an extremal. y=usinv. and so we say a few words about this important method. Geodesics. The reader might be tempted to say. 3. The distance between two points on a surface (we are allowed to move only on the surface) is given by 8 = I. 40. 4. 2. The parametric equations of the helicoid are x=ucosv. VS) + y'dx (137) We might ask what must be the function y = y(x) joining the two points P and Q which will make (137) a minimum. j+ctan 4k are given by 0 ± ¢ = constant. Find the asymptotic lines on the surface z = y sin x. Such curves are called geodesics. Problems 1. We wish now to determine the geodesics.. Let us first consider the integral fQ(xt. To do this. and from (131) the au av parametric curves are the lines of curvature. z=cv Show that the asymptotic lines are the parametric curves. Show that the asymptotic lines of the hyperboloid r=acos0seeipi+bsin0sec4. The asymptotic lines are given by due + u2 dv2 = 0.SEC. since the integrand is then a minimum.

of ay' of + of C7F 'p. It is y(x) y and so also y' (x) that are unknown . dJ da a-0 (139) Consequently dJ da0 = 0 or (140) = Ib\ay. b a is arbitrary and independent of x and jp(x) is any function with continuous first derivative having the property that jp(a) = p(b) = 0 (see Fig. a) = y(x) + arp(x). 44). where P. 40 not. B It Ar }' M f(x. Y. and for a=0. y') dx is an extremal.'f(x. Under our assumption. in general. Let y = y (x) be that function which makes (138) an extremal Now 1 t Y(x. I.x a Fzo. 44.+a- since of as of 81' of 81" aY as + aY' as if Tay .)' is given. of of e of a> r obtain fb ay We now integrate the right-hand term of (140) by parts and P] b dx + Lay - Jab dx ay'/ `p dx = 0 (141) . Hence the solution to this problem is not trivial. We now formulate a y more general problem: to find y = y(x) such that j'f(x. y.-. pass through the two fixed points.84 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. y. ?') dx is an extremal for a = 0. J(a) = j. ry (138) The function .

y'). If it is positive at x = c. b). it will be positive in a neighborhood of x = c from continuity (see Sees.SEc. 40] DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 85 Now (p(a) = p(b) = 0 by construction of v(x). Consequently. + a y yy of ay y [Of _ d (af 1 y/ dx TO from (143) lay d dx ay' (t\1 = 0 f-y aof y. which is independent of x. we can immediately arrive at an integral of (143). the function of y(x) must satisfy the Euler-Lagrange differential equation d of dx Cay' of ay 0 (143) If f = f(y. Let us consider f dx ( y yl ay 1J. From (144). To extremalize (137). it Jb[afd(of)] y dx ay`p dx > 0 so that we have a contradiction to (142).y of 1 = constant = a . f . 42 and 43). Example 47. y'). We can construct (p to be positive on this interval and zero elsewhere. Then a (-' is not identically zero on the interval (a. so that (142) Now let us assume that ay ay dx (ay') is continuous. we have f = (1 + y'2)1. If will be positive or negative at some point. = constant (144) is an integral of (143) if f = f(y.

dtn? t).x 2.Y'(1 and J y'2). i . . 2. dt2) . x". .. 2. dtl. . etc. v). We thus obtain dt \a4/ d off` au . i + 1. Example 48.. where x' = u and x2 = v. n with is = The superscripts are not powers but labels that enable us to distinguish between the various variables. j = 1. a y'= and finally y= ± av-1x+ 0 (145) The constants a and fi are determined by noting that the straight line (145) passes through the two given fixed points.0 of av (147) dt avl where o (148) f = (E. then fhfdt is an extremal when the xa(t) satisfy d (ftaf dt a of axa = o X.. (146) for a = 1. . ..86 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Let us now try to find the differential equations that u(t) and v(t) must satisfy to make (136) an extremal.. If f = f Cx'.n. . We write s= f" (E.42 + 2Fuv + Gv2)} dt and apply (146). 40 so that (1 +y') .. . .1. The formulas (146) are a consequence of the fact that fo f dt must be an extremal when x`(1) is allowed to vary while we keep all other x1 fixed. ..42+ 2Fuv + Gv2)i = dt' E = E(u.

then t = a and dt = 1.a sin 29 2 Hence (150) reduces to 2 ds a ds/ 2 ds sin 2B d (a sin2 0 ds) = 0 Integrating (151) we have sine 0 LIP = constant. Consider the sphere given by r = a sin 0cos(pi+a sin 0 sin cpj+acosOk where ds2 = a2 do2 + a2 sin2 0 dp2 so that E = a. and OE _ aEE _ OF _ OF _ aG _ 0' 8G aB _ 80 ac av a9 ap . G = a2 Sin2 0. F = 0. Example 49. 8 we shall derive by tensor methods a slightly different system of differential equations. so that (149) reduces to d ds (Eic + Fv) = 2( u2 aE + 2uv OF + 62 -n/A opu (150) while similarly (148) yields d (Fu+Gv) _2(u2av +24vav +v2av/ \ In Chap.SEc. 401 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY Now af au Eic + Fv f ds/dt / of au ice --CIE 87 au + 2uv OF au 2f + v2 aG au so that (147) becomes d Eu + Fvl _ 2t2 + 2"(W/au) + v2(aG/au) dt 2 ds/dt (149) and if we choose for the parameter t the are length s. (151) We can choose our coordinate system so that the coordinates of the fixed points d .

Let us find y(x) which extremalizes f y(1 + y")} dx Since f = y(1 + y")# = f(y. Problems 1. so that 0. . 40 are a.88 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. y'). 4. 2. These are the curves (catenoids) which have minimum surfaces of revolution. and simplifying this expression yields y' = ± (a2y2 . and ds = 0. A further integration yields ay = cosh (0 ± ax). z = cv is du TV + 1 -h [(u2 + C2)(u2 + C2 h2)1]. h = constant 3. 0. we can apply (144) to obtain a first integral. Show that the differential equation of the geodesics for the right helicoid x = u cos v. Prove that the geodesics on a right circular cylinder are helices. Show that the perpendicular from the vertex of a right circular cone to the tangents of a given geodesic is of constant length. Example 50. Find y(x) which extremalizes f'[(l + y')/y)]} dx. Hence the geodesic is the are of the great circle joining the two fixed points.1)I. 0 and a.y''y(1 + y'')-l = a-1. 0. y = u sin v. 0. z = u sin v. We obtain y(1 + y'')t -. Hence sin' 8 ds = 0. 5. Find the geodesics on the ellipsoid of revolution 2 x2+ z2 + b2 = 1 a2 Hint: Let x = u cos v.

It must be emphasized that the ends of the interval are to be finite numbers. for if x2 < 3 then obviously -2 < x < 2. We shall not define these concepts. Any set of real numbers will be called a linear set. Bounded Set. If we omit the end points. The set of points { x j satisfying a < x S b will be called a closed interval. In geometry and analysis the student has frequently made use of the concept of a point and of the notion of a set or collection of elements (objects. An alternative definition would be the following: A set of numbers S is bounded if there exists a finite number N such that -N <x <NforallxinS. A linear set of points will be said to be bounded if there exists an open interval containing the set.CHAPTER 4 INTEGRATION 41. which thus excludes . for x3 < 3 is at least satisfied by all the negative numbers.oo.). + oo. while 0 < x < 1 is an open interval. however. For convenience. etc. we shall consider only points of the real-number axis in what follows. This set is. bounded above. We might also be interested in the rational points of the one-dimensional continuum. We may be interested in the points subject to the condition x2 + y2 < r2. we say that the interval is open (open at both ends). For example. that is. Point-set Theory. 0 S x 5 1 is a closed interval. By this we mean that there exists a finite number N such that x < N if x3 < 3. Certainly N = 2 89 . numbers. the set of numbers whose cubes are less than 3 is unbounded. as do the rationals and irrationals. consider those x that satisfy a < x < b. but shall take their notion as intuitive. These will be the points interior to the circle of radius r with center at the origin. The integers form such a set. The set of numbers whose squares are less than 3 is certainly bounded. However. points. All the definitions and theorems proved for linear sets can easily be extended to any finitedimensional space. Closed Interval.

However. in the main. The complement C(S) has a relative meaning. 1/3. then 0 and 1 are the only boundary points. It is easy to verify that any open interval containing the origin. A point P will be called a limit point of a set S if every open interval containing P contains an infinite number of distinct elements of S. A point P is a boundary point of a set S if every neighborhood of P contains points in S and points not in S. be concerned with sets that contain an infinite number of distinct points. If S. 1/4. . Neighborhood. We shall. 1/n. It is at once apparent that a set S containing only a finite number of points cannot have a limit point. If S is the set of points 0 < x 5 1. let S be the set of numbers (1/2. A set of points S is said to be an open set (not to be confused with open interval) if every point of S is an interior . . Open. . for it depends on the set T in which S is embedded.). then 0 and 1 are not interior points of S since every neighborhood of 0 or 1 contains points that are not in S. Set. is the set of numbers -1 < x < 1. If S is the set 0 5 x <_ 1. The complement of a set S is the set of points not in S. . contains an infinite number of S. for example. 1 is a boundary point of the set S for which x > 1. A neighborhood of a point is any open interval containing that point. all other points of S are interior points. Boundary Point. Let the student frame a definition for sets bounded below.90 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. a set of elements S is bounded above if a finite number N exists such that x < N for all x in S. then the complement of S relative to the real axis is the set of points lxl > 1. 0. Specifically. Limit Point.41 does the trick. but 1 is not in S since 1 > 1. For example. every element of N belonging to S. But the complement of -1 < x < 1 relative to the set -1 S x S 1 is the null set (no elements). Complement. The rational numbers in the interval 0 < x < 1 form such a collection. and conversely. . In this case the limit point 0 does not belong to S. Interior Point. A point P is said to be an interior point of a set S if it belongs to S and if a neighborhood N of P exists. A boundary point need not belong to the set. . The complement of the set of nationals relative to the reals is the set of irrationals. . Let the reader prove that between any two rationals there exists another rational.

1/2. Let S be the set of rationals whose squares are to less than 3. 1/4. t < s implies an x in S such that x > t Example 51. The set of points belonging to both Si and S2 is called the intersection of Sl and S2. U S29. Give an example which verifies this. Prove that the set of points common to two closed sets is closed. 1/n. 5. An infinite intersection of open sets is not necessarily open. it is possible to find a rational r < 1 such that t < r. For example. However. . Supremum. . and conversely. for (1) obviously holds from the definition of S. Problems set closed? 1. Let S be the set of rationale less than 1. SI x2 < 3. Why is every finite set closed? 7. written SI n828. we cannot prove this without postulating the existence of irrationals. and S2 are open. and S2. We give a proof of this statement in a later paragraph. or 82 is open if S. . . which it contains. 10. Certainly we expect the be the supremum of this set. 4.) is closed. 1 with the point x = removed. written S. An infinite union of closed sets is not necessarily closed. Example 52. and if t < 1. Give an example which verifies this. that is. Then 1 is the supremum of S. x in S implies x 5 s 2.SEC. This set is called the union of S. 3. Show that the set of all boundary points (the boundary) of a set S is closed. 1/3. . For example. the set (0. What are the limit points of the set 0 < x < 1? Is the Open? What are the boundary points? 2. Closed Set. since its only limit point is 0. the set S consisting of points which satisfy either 0 < x < 1 or 6 < x < 8 is open. Prove that the set of all limit points of a set S is closed. so that (2) holds. A number s is said to be the supremum of a set of points S if 1. 6. Repeat Prob. We overcome . Prove that the set of points which belong to either S. Prove that the complement of an open set is closed. A set containing all its limit points is called a closed set. 411 IXTBGRATION 91 point of S.

.. The points in N which are less than s are less than an infinite number of points of S. The infemum of a set S is the number s such that 1. Let a > 0 and consider the sequence a. T is not empty since S is bounded below. If this set is bounded. This is the Archimedean ordering postulate.. 41 this by postulating Every nonempty set of points has a supremum mum. To prove that a rational exists between any two numbers a. x in S implies s < x 2. Into T we place all points which are less than an infinite number of S. an integer q exists such that q(a ... The supremum of a set may be + oo as in the case of the set of all integers. whereas those points in N which are greater than s are less than a finite number of points of S. (152) Hence the rationals whose squares are less than 3 have a supreIt is obvious that we should define this supremum as the square root of 3.b) > 1. so that a . We now show that s is a limit point of S. and a > p/q > b. . . T has a supremum.(a/2) so that (r + 1)a > s + (a/2) > s. 3a.D. there exists a finite supremum s. t > s implies an x in S such that x < t Example 53. Hence qa>gb+1zp>qb. From example 53. or it may be . Hence N contains an infinite number of S.E. Q. Example 54. na. "Every infinite bounded set of points S has a limit point. .b > 0. Assumed: a > b > 0. call it s.oo as in the case of the null set. Also an integer p exists such that p 1 = p > qb. Choose the smallest p. We have at the same time proved that s is the greatest limit point of S." The proof proceeds as follows: We construct a new set T. Hence the sequence Ina} is unbounded. Consider any neighborhood N of s. A limit point may or may not belong to the set. With the aid of (152) we are in a position to prove the wellknown Weierstrass-Bolzano theorem. since na 5 s for all n.92 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. From (152). 2a. a contradiction. or qa > qb + 1. Hence an integer r exists such that ra > s . so that the theorem is proved.1. b. . Thus p > qb ? p .

if S is the . . exists a point P which belongs to every Si.. . S1 M S2 D Sa M . . S2j etc. . . we can pick out a subsequence of 8 which converges to P. 9. Theorem of Nested Sets. . . . .. . But P is also a limit of P. Show that (152) implies that every set has an infemum. Prove that every bounded monotonic (either decreasing or increasing) sequence has a unique limit. The diameter of a set S is the supremum of all distances between points of the set. The set 1/2. . r2. Consider an infinite sequence of nonempty closed and bounded sets S1. . For example. . .. i = 1. Prove that a unique limit point exists for the sequence. Prove that the rationals are countable. if the set can be put into one-to-one correspondence with the positive integers. . . and r"+1 = rr" 4. . Hint: The sequence r. . .+F . 6. so that P belongs to Sn. p > 0. such There that Sn contains that is. the numbers x being written in decimal form. 8. . 1/3. 1/n. . . unbounded. r".SEC. Now consider the sequence of points P1.. Show that removing a finite number of elements from a set cannot affect the limit points. that is. 10. . . . .snI < e for n ? N. . Pn+1. 41) INTEGRATION 93 Problems 1. sn. 7. . Diameter of a Set. satisfy the following criterion: for any e > 0 there exists an integer N such that Is. P2 any point of P. P2. .. 3. is 1. . . .. 2. is bounded and monotonic decreasing for r > 0. . Show that the set S consisting of x satisfying 0 5 x 5 1 is uncountable by assuming that the set S is countable. Prove that lim r" = 0 if Irl < 1. . . 3. Let P1 be any point of S1. . . Sn... A set of numbers is said to be countable if they can be written as a sequence. Hence P is in all Sn.. 82. Show that if P is a limit point of a set S. . 2. The proof is easy. . since Sl is closed. 5. Prove the Weierstrass-Bolzano theorem for a bounded set of points lying in a two-dimensional plane. . 2. . . . Let the sequence of numbers sl. 3. n = 1. S2. Show that a countable collection of countable sets is countable. Does it have any limit points? Does this violate the Weierstrass-Bolzano theorem? 2. This infinite set belongs to S1 and has a limit point P which belongs to 8.

. . If.. . the diameters of the S approach zero.11 < 22 . for there is no overlapping of these open intervals. Before proceeding to the proof we point out that (1) both the set S and the collection T are given beforehand. There are pairs of points in S whose distance apart can be made as close to 6. 3 < x < 7. . 1/2. . The theorem states that there exists a subcollection T' of T which is finite in number and such that every element x of S is contained in one of the finite collection of open intervals that comprise T'. Problems 1. If a set is closed and bounded. 1/n. the diameter is actually Prove this. 2.= 61. .. (2) S must be closed.1 n < (n + 1)2 1 It is very easy to see that we cannot reduce the covering of S by eliminating any of the given T. then there exists an open interval 7' of the collection T such that x is contained in T. is required to cover the point 1/n of S contained in it. and let T be any collection of open intervals having the property that if x is any element of S.I x such that Ix . Let S be any closed and bounded set. .94 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. 41 set of numbers x which satisfy I < x < 1. The Heine-Borel Theorem. the diameter of S is 7 .) and let T consist of the following set of open intervals: TIIx such that Ix T21x such that Ix . attained by the set. . in the theorem of nested sets. then P is unique._f < 32 T.. . for consider the set S(1.91 as we please. Prove this. since it is no great feat to pick out a single open interval which completely covers a bounded set S. Each T. 1/3.

The function f(x) is said to be continuous over a set of points S if it is continuous at every point of S. given any positive number e > 0.f(c)I < e whenever Ix . 421 INTEGRATION 95 This is possible since S is bounded. This is a direct contradiction to the fact that a single Tp covers them. Since P is in S. We make use of the Heine-Borel theorem to prove uniform continuity. since the diameters of the Si --> 0. Assume that the elements of S in (1) still require an infinite covering. there exists a positive number a > 0 such that If(x) .a < x < c + S.0 and -N < x < N. A real.Src.f (c)I < e/2 for c . Uniform Continuity. Any element x of S will belong to either (1) or (2). It is important to notice that 8 is independent of any x on the interval. such that each Si is closed and bounded and such that the diameters of the Si -* 0. say T. and so also by a a-neighborhood. We define uniform continuity as follows: If. will cover P. Proof of the theorem: Let S be contained in the interval (2) 0 < x < N.x21 < S. But by assumption all the elements of this Si require an infinite number of the { T } to cover them. We subdivide this interval into two equal parts and repeat the above argument. Now if the theorem is false. In this way we construct a sequence of sets S. then f(x) is said to be uniformly continuous. so that the points of S in either (1) or (2) require an infinite covering. 42. S2 S3 . Now divide this closed interval into two equal intervals (1) -N < x _:5. it will not be possible to cover the points of S in both (1) and (2) by a finite number of the given collection T. and the theorem is proved. single-valued function f (x) is said to be continuous at a point x = c if. The a may well depend on the a and the point x = c. rt'his Tp has a finite nonzero diameter so that eventually one of the Si will be contained in TD. one of the open intervals of T. Choose an e/2 > 0. By the Heine-Borel theorem we can pick out a finite number of these . We now prove that if f (x) is continuous on a closed and bounded interval. Then at every point c of our closed and bounded set there exists a S(c. Hence every point of S is covered by a 26-neighborhood. a/2) such that If(s) . From the theorem of nested sets there exists a unique point P which is contained in each Si. Hence our original assumption is wrong.cI < S.f(X2)1 < e whenever Ix1 . it is uniformly continuous. for any e > 0 there exists a S > 0 such that If(XI) .

43.96 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. .E.. there exist x1. 4C Hence f (c) = s.f (c) I < f(c)12 if Ix cI < 6. a < c < b. Similarly f (c) < 0 is impossible.f (xo) I < e/2. be the diameter of the smallest of this finite collection of 6-neighborhoods. . x2. Let s be the supremum of f (x). Assume f (c) > 0. Consequently If(xl) . (b) If f (a) < 0 and f (b) > 0. Now subdivide the interval (a. of f x. Q.) which converges to c.... Hence c is not the supremum of f x 1. .f(x2)1 < e. say n of them.f(c). b).f(xo)I < e/2.... From continuity. x1. there exists a c such that f (c) = 0. a 8 > 0 exists such that If(x) . 43 Let S. we can prove that f (x) is bounded. so that f (c) = 0. for f(a) < 0. s . such that f (xl) > s . . But from continuity lim f(x.. . .E. Choose e = f (c) /2. The set is bounded and nonvacuous since a belongs to {x}. f (x) <= s for all x on (a.e. Let xo be the center of the 6-neighborhood which covers From continuity lf(xi) . and x2 of S whose distance apart is less neighborhoods which will cover S. Then lim f (x. . than bl.e/2.. It is easily seen that Ix1 - max If(x) I < If (a) I + ne.e/2. so that I f (x2) . where e > 0. x. s . Let { xn' } be a subsequence f xd } will have a limit point c. . In (a) we showed that f (x) was bounded. b) for which f (x) < 0. But also x2 differs from xo by less than 26.. since -s'-+c e/n -* 0 as n oo. Choose any e > 0 and consider the corresponding S > 0 such that If(XI) . - a 5 x S b.. As a consequence. call it c. Now consider any two points x.') z s. (c) We prove that f (x) attains its maximum. Now consider the set s . As a consequence of uniform continuity.f(X2)1 < e whenever x21 < S. . .D. Let {x} be the set of all points on (a. Since s is a supremum. . . f (x2) > s . The set {x} will have a supremum. Some Properties of Continuous Functions (a) Assume f(x) continuous on the closed and bounded interval a < x < b.D. b) into a finite number of S-intervals. Hence f(x) ? Jf(c) for all x in some neighborhood of x = c.e/n. Q.e.') = .

there exists an x..SEC.xml < e/2 for m. But we also have . In the proof of (c) we exclude f(c) > s. If f (x) has a derivative at every point of (a. given an a/2. 4. 44.xml < e for m. Given the function f (x) = 0 when x is irrational. . 44] INTEGRATION 97 Problems 1. so that the . Hence. or that the sequence converges to L. there exists an integer N depending on a such that IL . xn. Cauchy Criterion for Sequences. b). .. b). . Why? 2. .. then f (x) = g(x) on (a. X2.xnl < e/2. From the Weierstrass-Bolzano theorem this infinite bounded set has at least one limit point L. a < c < b. given any e > 0. since a finite number of elements cannot affect a limit point.xml < e for n >_ N. a < c < b. if. prove that f (x) is continuous at the irrational points of (0. .l < e/2 for m.xnl < e whenever n > N(e). show that the set of values {f(x) } is closed. xn. However. g(x) exist such that f (x) = g(x) for the rationals on (a. be a sequence of real numbers. such that IL . We ignore xi. b). . m N. 7. show that a c exists such that f(c) = 0. 6. 3. q integers and relatively prime). show that f (x) is continuous on (a. b). x2. This states that a necessary and sufficient condition that a sequence converge to a limit L is that given any e > 0. .a)f'(c).f(a) _ (b .. That the condition is necessary is obvious. n sequence is bounded. for IL .. xN_. so that we need the Cauchy convergence criterion.. We say that L is the limit of this sequence. in most cases we do not know L. If f (x) has a derivative at every point of (a. f (x) = 1/q when x is rational and equal to p/q (p. The proof of the converse is not as trivial. Show that if two continuous functions f(x). b). show that a c exists such that f(b) . Hence Ixn+ < I xNl + (e/2). n >_ N. b). If f (x) is continuous on (a. IL Then we assume an N exists such that Ix. n ? N.xAi < e/2. Let x1. Choose any e/2 > 0. -. n > N implies Ix. 1) and that f(x) is discontinuous at the rational points of this interval. 5. with n > N.. N. If f (x) has a derivative at every point of (a. there exists an integer N such that Ixn . when f (a) = f (b) = 0.

1/2.o(a) = 9(fl) but otherwise no multiple points.x. In Fig. A regular curve is a set of points consisting of a finite number of regular arcs joined one after the other (see Fig. 46. A closed Jordan curve is a continuous curve having f(a) . Regular Arcs in the Plane.l < e/2 for all m. . or. PoPI. 2." that is. P3. Consider the set of points in the two-dimensional plane such that the set can be repreP2 sented in some coordinate system by x = f (t). 45 I xm . P1P2. .D. 1/3. P2. P2t 3. Jordan Curves. a S t < 0. Show that the Cauchy criterion implies that the nth term of a convergent series must approach zero as n -. . 45. Show that the sequence 1.98 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Problems 1. where f(t) and ap(t) are continuous and have continuous first derivatives. P3P4 are the regular arcs joined at P1. P3. Show how the convergence of a series can be transformed into a problem involving the convergence of a sequence. Notice that there are at most a finite number of discontinuities of the first derivatives.E. . Hence IL . 45. and which points precede a given point. . n > N. P4 45). 1/n. y = sp(t). in . 3. . will be y = P(t). it is always clear which part of the curve lies between two points on the arc.. .oo. From this we see that a Jordan curve is always "oriented. Such curves are called regular arcs.xml < e for all m > N. called a Jordan curve provided that f (t) and (p(t) are continuous l and that two distinct points on the curve correspond to two distinct values of the parameter t (no multiple points). Fia. We shall be interested in those curves which are rectifiable. 45 the derivatives are discontinuous at P1j P2. The locus i x = f (t) a < t 5 fl. converges by applying the Cauchy test. Q.

we shall attempt to assign a definite length to a given Jordan are or curve. Subdivide this interval into a finite number of parts. .f(x=-. . . n = 1.)1 = I If(x=) . N was chosen as an odd integer. . Now consider the sum I f(xi) . 0< x 5 1 f (O) = 0 Let us subdivide 0 5 x <_ 1 into the intervals (n+1) Sx<n. Functions of Bounded Variation.f (xt-1) ± If the sums of this type for all possible finite subdivisions are bounded. Now f(1 /n) = (1/n) sin (irn/2) so that N n (I If \n/ f \n } )I =1 +3 2 +2 5 2 +N We cannot bound this sum for all finite N since the series diverges as N -> w. N.f(xi)1 + . b). 47. . Let f(x) be defined on the interval a < x < b.. say a = xo. 47] IN TkGRA TION 99 other words. .f(xi-1)) = f(b) . 2. monotonic nondecreasing function is always of bounded variation since n n i=1 If(x=) .Sr:c. x.f(xc-1)I < A < -o (153) we say that f(x) is of bounded variation on (a. . .. x.1)I n _ i_1I f(xi) . if n s=x I f(xi) . . that is.-1) x = b. .f(a) = A t=1 An example of a continuous function that is not of bounded variation is the following: f(x) = x sin 2x.f(xn . + l f(xn) . x. A finite. .f(xo)I + I f(x2) . ..

x(ti-1)]2 + ly(ti) . we say that the curve is rectifiable and define the length of the curve as the supremum of these lengths. Divide the parameter t in any manner into n parts. where A is the supremum of If(t)l.8 1[x(ti) . If f(t) and V'(t) are continuous. and hence the curve is rectifiable. n (see Fig. Arc Length. say a = t0 < 11 < t2 < ' and consider Sn = Y i=1 ' ' < to = .p(ti--1) J 2J1 B = I IIf(t. . i = 0. y = c(t). ods of subdivision. f (t) and '(t) are of bounded variation. 46.-1)12 + 14p(ti) .ti-il. is bounded.y(tti-1)]2J} This is the length of the straight-line segments joining the points x(ti). and conversely. if f (t) and ap(t) are of bounded variation. . obtained by all finite meth- 1) 2. n x = f(t).48 48.100 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. y(ti).ti-1) I < A I ti . Let A= {=1 [I f (ti) - f(4. A is bounded. I f(4) . 46). and assume no multiple points.v(4-1)I I A==<Bs /2A Consequently if the curve is rectifiable. If the set of all such lengths. then from the law of the mean. a 5 t =< # and 4_1 5 Ti 5 ti. . ----x the following: A necessary F1o.) f-l so that f(4--1)I + Ip(k) .f (ti--1) I . An important theorem is and sufficient condition that the curve described by y = 'P(t) be rectifiable is that f (t) and V(t) be of bounded variation. = I f (ii) (ti . . Consider the curve given by x = f(t).

+ * )} dt whenever So' and J' are continuous. Let the coordiinto n parts. y) be a function continu- ous at all points of the curve r.f(t. That J = K for a continuous function defined over a rectifiable curve is not difficult to prove. = 6. and write J = K = fr f(x.a) Similarly. Let r x aSt y=¢(t) be a rectifiable are.f8 [(dt)2 + ( p)2J dt (154) 49. Subdivide the parameter t < t. y) on this are.till = A(# . say f v. p(t) is of bounded variation. let K be the supremum of all sums when the minimum value of f(x. The Riemann Integral.. For. Under these conditions it can easily be shown that the arc length is given by s .-1)I < A 11(4i=1 . We now develop the theory of the Riemann integral in connection with line integrals.SEC. y) ds = LfI(t). y) is continuous. and form the sum n J = A fii (xi. If J = K. yi) A8i Let . y). J-K= n i-1 . y) is Riemann-integrable over the curve r. so that the curve is rectifiable.. a = to < ti < t2 < and let Osi be the length of are joining nates of Pi be Pi-1 to Pi. Since f (x. Multiply each are length by the maximum value of f (x. We need a curve over which an integration can be performed and a function to be integrated over this curve. say f. Similarly.. 49] n i-1 INTEGRA TION n 101 E If() . is used. we say that f (z. Let f (x.7 be the infemum of all such sums. it will take on both its minimum and maximum for each segment Pi_1P.

50. y) on any are is less than any given e > 0 so that JJ . R is the nonshaded region.I LYSIS [SEC. (ii) is not connected. Connected and Simply Connected Regions. 50 and from the uniform continuity of f(x. Since the a of (155) is arbitrary. In (i). given any two points of the region. between K and K can be made arbitrarily small. y) we can subdivide the curve r into arcs such that the difference between the maximum and minimum values of f (x. for a sufficiently large number of subdivisions. 47. In Fig.102 VECTOR AND TENSOR A V. every point of the are belonging to the region R. . A region R is said to be connected if. 47. (i) is connected. 48. we can join them by an arc. FIG.Kl < e11lAsil < eL (155) We leave it as an exercise for the reader to prove that we can make J as close to J as we please and similarly that the difference R=R1+R2 (ii) FIG. we can make the difference between J and K as small as we please so that J = K since they are fixed numbers.

Thus f = t2i + t6j. but not simply connected. If f is a force field. 51. 1). Let f = X(x. then (156) reduces to ff dr = fo' [x(t) dt + Y(t) dt + Z(t) dtJ dt (157) In general. We shall now work out a few examples for the reader. we say that the region is simply connected. 48. Since dsds = dr = dx i + dy j + dz k we have Jr (f ds/ ds = fr X dx + Y dy + Z dz (156) We use (156) as a means of evaluating the line integral. If f f dr does not depend on the curve r joining the end points of integration. If the space curve is given by x = x(t). y. y.Sic. An analytic expression for simple connectedness can be set up. In Fig. We exhibit three methods of solution. The Line Integral. Example 55. the line integral will depend on the path joining the two end points of integration. the integration being performed from (0. z = z(t).dr as the work done by f as the unit particle moves from A A to B. but we shall omit this. z)j + Z(x. y = y(t). dr = (i + 2tj) dt . Let f = x2i + yaj. r = ti + t2j. (i) is connected. and let the path of integra- tion be the parabola y = x2. In (i) the curve r cannot be continuously shrunk to a point. 0) to (1. we say that f is a conservative vector field. 51] INTEGRATION 103 If every closed curve of a connected region R can be continuously shrunk to a point of R. y. z)k and consider the line integral f ( f ds) ds along a rectifiable space curve r given by r = r(s). (ii) is simply connected. so that y = t2. we define fB f . z)i + Y(x. (a) Let x = t.

Line Integral (Continued).j. f = yi . Then the line integral JAB f dr is independent of the path of . f = 0p.3 1+y'1. Example 56. Along the second part of the path. Let us assume that f can be written as the gradient of a scalar (p(x. since y = dy = 0. 1).104 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. and let the path of integration be y = x2 from (0.xj. 0) f dr = J(0. Thus f x=1 v i f. and dr = dx i + dy j = (i + 2xj) dx. f = -xj and dr = dx i. 52 and ft t of f dr = f. 1) ((1. that is. We say that f is a nonconservative field. 0) to (1. . o) 1. o) f(1'1)ydx-xdy= f' x2dx-x(2xdx) _ f(" Next we compute the integral by moving along the x axis from x = 0 to x = 1 and then along the line x = 1 from y = 0 to y = 1. Then (1 0. so that 1 Jr (c) JO (x2 + 2x') dx = A xa r (1. dr = dy j since x = 1 and dx = 0. o) Along the first part of the path. 0) to (1. o) ro.7 0 4 (0 12 (c) shows that the integral from (0. x2 dx + ys dy = d[(xs/3) + (y4/4)].0)) 0. o) ( o. f = x2i + x6j along r. 52. 0) x2 dx + y$ dy .xj. z). 1) J(o.--=o - f01-dy=-1 fv-o The line integral does depend on the path for the vector field f = yi . 1) is independent of the path since x2 dx + y3 dy is a perfect differential. that is. f = yi . y. We have f (111) 0) (0.' (t2 + 2t7) dt = (b) Since y = x2 everywhere along r.

We now prove that if f f dr is independent of the path. zo) f dr JP(fdr)ds (159) Now (P(x + Ax. then A = B and (p(B) = p(A). YO. Thus lim AX-40 cP(x+Ox. y. y.z) o(xo. However. The region for which f = V(p is not simply connected since p is not defined at the origin.y. we choose the straight line from P to Q as our path of integration. y. z) when evaluated at the points A(xo. so that the line integral around any closed path vanishes if f = Vip. y. y. z) = JP(z. z. If our path is closed. z) Ax and since the line integral is independent of the path joining P to Q. then f is the gradient of a scalar V. Example 57. dr = dx i. z) . Let us consider the following example. the region for which f = must be simply connected.z) --P(x. B(xi. we have d (tan_i )fo2T dO xJ 2r so that our line integral does not vanish. Let P(x.SEC.y. yi.z) =av Ax ax iim AX-0 f x+Ax z X (x. yo. and if we integrate f over the unit circle with center at the origin. z) . that is. y.) and in no way depends on the path of integration. z) dx Ox = X (x. 521 INTEGRATION 105 integration from A to B since JAfdrJAVdrLd(B)(A) (158) Our final result in (158) depends only on the value of (p(x.yi LL xi =x2+y2 -rx2+y2 Then f = VV where p = tan-' (y/x).(P(x.y. Let f . zo).

or (1) X=-"`P. z) aq _ -L. y.z) = f:oX(x. z) + Y(xo. ay dx+ -0Y Y(xo.P(x.y.Y(xo. z) .. y. z) . z) . y. = Y(x.). y. yo. we can easily conclude whether f is the gradient of a scalar or not. Let . z) = Y(x. y. z). assume V x f = 0.z)dx+f. (2) (3)Z= az Differentiating (1) with respect toy and (2) with respect to x. y. Z(xo. z) = Y(x.106 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. y. y.0 Y(xo. Assume f = VV.y.z) f ax dx + Y (x. z) dz (162) ax = X (x. Now - y so that f= a(P ax av i + a7 + a.y. f. similarly We have assumed that f is continuous. we see that ax ay ay ax (161) Similarly aYaZ azax ax az az ay This is the condition that V x f = 0. 52 from the calculus. y. z) dy + Now a'P z. Conversely. az = Z(x.P az k = VV (160) If f has continuous derivatives.

Stokes's Theorem. 7.y dx around the unit circle with center at the origin. 4. 1). Problems 1. 3. 2. Let f = 2xyezi + x2ezj + x2yezk. y. Show that if the line integral around every closed path is zero. f is said to be an irrotational vector. V xf =0 Example 58. 6. 3. f = (y + sin z)i + xj + x cos z k.xj. 0 . Show that /r dr = 0. Given f = xyi . evaluate f f dr along the curve y = x3 from the origin to the point P(1. Consequently axi+ayj+azk=Drp f We have proved that a necessary and sufficient condition for f to be the gradient of a scalar is that. show that /A dr = 0. 9 dz = x2yeZ so that f= V (x2yeZ + constant).(x. 5. Now consider a closed . We begin by considering a surface of the type encountered in Chap. Evaluate f x dy . if jFf dr = 0. that is. The origin is excepted. jrAxdr=0 53. then f = V p. i j Then k Vxf= and JX a ax 2xyez a ay x2ez a az x2yeZ =0 = 2xy9 dx + 02ez dy + 02. Show that the inverse-square force field f = -r/r3 is conservative.Sic. (163) If f = V or V x f = 0. Show that f is conservative and find rp so that f = V p. 53] INTEGRATION 107 Similarly 7. z). If A is a constant vector.

v) + (au du v) f except for infinitesimals of higher order. C. v) + dfu = f(u. C(u+du.v+dv) D(u. D. v curve Fia. It is this surface au av u curve that we shall keep in touch with. Now consider ABCD f dr The value of fat A is f(u. in general. 53 rectifiable curve r that lies on the surface. so that A(u. Consider the mesh A BCD. v). at D it is f(u. at B it is f(u + du. Similarly f(u. Let the surface coordinates of A be (u. We now con- sider a mesh of networks on the surface formed by a collection of parametric curves. the boundary r will not. v) = f (u.108 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. keeping our head in the same direction as the normal ar car x ) we keep track of the area to our left. 49. v + dv). Now f (u + du. As we move. B(u + du. We also assume that the parametric curves are rectifiable. consist of arcs of these parametric curves (see Fig. v) + (dru V)f = f(u. and r will be the boundary of this surface. v + dv) are the coordinates of A. B. We neglect the rest of the surface r(u. v). Of course.v+dv) =f(u. v). v). v). along the curve r. v).v)+(-dvv)f . 49).

We define ar ar Now d x a du dv = area of sector ABCD in magnitude. Interior line integrals will cancel out in pairs leaving only fir f dr. -auc1r f+ av Now fi au} dude (164) (v x f) for ar (au x av = (° x f) x au C\au an Or av °/ J av ^ L \av v)fI ar au (165) Hence e fiABCD f dr = (v x f) a x a du dv au av its direction is along the normal. but for infinitesimals of higher order. We thus have Stokes's theorem : fir f dr = f f (V x f) dd 8 (167) . and dd = so that aux& du dv Or Or (166) IABCDfdr= (V We now sum over the entire network.Six. 53] INTEGRATION 109 Hence. Also over surface 8 I (V f f (V a as the areas approach zero in size.

v) discussed in Chap.ydx (168) For the ellipse x = a cos t. where no dd can be defined. dx = -a sin t dt." for a much more rigorous proof of Stokes's theorem. dy = b cos t dt and A= f27 ab(cos2 t + sin 2 t) dt = grab . The theorem is easily seen to be true if we have a finite number of these surfaces connected continuously (edges). The reader is referred to the text of Kellogg. 4. The reader may well be aware that (165) does not hold for a mesh that has r as part of its boundary. 3. 3. y = b sin t.110 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. This is true. Since the area can be made arbitrarily small. Let r be a closed Jordan curve in the x-y plane. Let f = -yi + xj. we have ff ff S S or ax -y 0 =2ffdydx=2A Area A =- ay x az xdy . and for a fine network the contributions of those areas next to r contribute little to f f (V x f) dd. 54. it cannot affect the integral. We have proved Stokes's theorem for a surface of the type r(u. 2. The limiting process takes care of this apparent negligence. The line integrals cancel out no matter what subdivisions we use. Stokes's theorem is also true for conical points. We just neglect to integrate over a small area covering this point. Examples of Stokes's Theorem Example 59. but fortunately we need not worry about the inequality. Applying Stokes's theorem. "Foundations of Potential Theory. 54 Comments 1.

Cons versely. since f VA x f = 0. y. z) exists such that pf is irrotational. 541 INTEGRATION 111 Example 60. (171) may be written XYZ a a a az ax XYZ ay =0 (172) In texts on differential equations it is shown that (172) is also sufficient for p(x. where a is any constant vector. a contradiction s Example 61. z) to exist. assume f t dr = 0 for every closed path. Then f. then V x f 0 at some point P.SEc. We see that an irrotational field is characterized by any one of the three conditions: (i) (ii) (iii) f = VP Vxf=0 f dr = 0 (169) for every closed path Any of these conditions implies the other two. the normal to the plane being parallel to V x f. z) an integrating factor. the equation (171) If f = Xi + Yj + Zk. we have.dr = f f V x f. Let f = f(x. dr = f f (V x f) dd = 0. then Cf U. Example 63. If f has continuous derivatives. Choose a small plane surface S in this region. We call p(x.(V xf) = 0 (170) and dotting (170) with f. V x f: 0 in some region about P. Perhaps a scalar p(x.dd > 0. pV xf+Vp xf = 0 f. y. From continuity. y. z)a. then a necessary and sufficient condition that ff dr = 0 around every closed path is that V x f = 0. Applying Stokes's theorem. Assume f not irrotational. we have . y. If V x f = 0. If V x f p4 0. V x (pf) = 0. Example 62. If this is so. that is.

112 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. . In the latter case. There- fore xdr = a.f f (V.(a V)gl dd =a. 54 ff s x a) dd ff s a f f= a we have S f dd x a ff [a(V s V g) .g)dd-a f f dd (summed).f f (ddxv) xg and dr x g = f f (dd x V) x g S (174) We notice that in all cases 0 dr * f= Jf(doxv)*f S (175) The star (*) can denote dot or cross or ordinary multiplication. f becomes a scalar f.

18. By Stokes's theorem prove that V x (V(p) = 0. if a is constant. If f = cos y i + x(1 + sin y)j. S 11. S1 and S2.) f dr. 6. 5.dr = JJvu x Vv dd. Does this contradict Stokes's theorem? Explain. s 17. --- 13.X' Y. Prove that u Vv . Prove that fdr = 0 from (175).. Show that the vector f = (. 7. Show that ff v x f dd = 0. If fi E dr = that V x E = -cat Jf B dd for all closed curves. where r is a circle containing the origin. Prove that ff dd x r = s fir 2 dr. show that its curl either is zero or is tangent to the surface at each point. If f = r/r3. If a vector is normal to a surface at each point. Jf dd. find the value of ff . 3. 2. Show that fi dr/r = f f (r/r3) x dd where r = Id. ( o. Find the vector f such that xy = f(O. 'dr x ri taken around a curve in thex-y plane is twice the area enclosed by the curve. show that V x f = 0 and find the potential yo such that f = Vsp. Let C1 and C2 be two closed curves bounding the surfaces Show that . Prove that f u Vv dr = . 16. show s C at 12. 8 14.f v V u dr. Prove that fr dr = 0. 541 INTEGRATION 113 Problems 1. 9.yi + xj)/(x2 + y2) is irrotational and that (f r f dr = 2w. 10. where S is a closed surface. o) 15.dr around a circle of radius r in the x-y plane. s 8. If a vector is zero at each point of a surface. Show that fi a x r dr = 2a.Sec. show that its curl either is zero or is tangent to the surface. Show that L. 4.

we can always imagine f to be the product of the density and velocity of some fluid. fc. Now. It is at once apparent that pV dd = f dd represents the outward flow of mass per unit time. 20) that the net loss of fluid per unit volume per unit time is given by V f. no sources or sinks appear. We have seen previously (Sec. Consequently.do=fJf(v. 55. 55 k. Hence the total loss of mass per unit time is given by Jff. if any. we have the divergence theorem: (178) . no matter what physical significance f has.f)d. We shall also assume that f can be integrated over the total surface bounding V. that is.f)dr V (176) Now since f and V f are continuous. We might station a great many observers on the boundary S. the total loss per unit time is given by JfJ(v. Let us consider a region V over which f and V f are continuous. r122 dr1 x dr2 = .2 f f dot x ff dd2 Si s2 where r12 is the distance between points on the two curves.114 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. ki r122 dr1 dr2 = -4 fJ dal f f dd2 St s2 f. Consequently.r 8 V (177) Equating (176) and (177). The Divergence Theorem (Gauss). and then sum up each observer's recorded data. At a point on the surface with normal vector area dd. let each observer measure the outward flow. the component of the velocity perpendicular to the surface is V N. We shall assume that V is bounded by a finite number of surfaces such that at each surface there is a well-defined continuous normal. there cannot be any point in the region V at which fluid is being manufactured or destroyed. where N is the unit outward normal vector.dd JJf. the total loss of fluid must be due to the flow of fluid through the boundary S of the region V.

Summing up (180) for all volumes and then passing to the limit. Let f be a differentiable vector inside a connected region R with rectifiable surface S. OT S IEIo.. IeI. leaving only the boundary surface S as a contributing factor.=V. for I Zet Aril 5 ZIel.do div f = slim AS clu c3v aw 49Z AT ax + ay + (182) . 55] INTEGRATION 115 For a more detailed and rigorous proof. As Ar-.dd div f = lim AT-40 As AT (179) We can write tardivf= JJ (180) where e -40 as Ar -* 0. we define Jff.. 20. and if div f is continu- ous.. we have fffdivfdr__ Jffdd (181) Inthe derivation of (181) use has been made of the fact that for each internal dd there is a -dd. vanishes in the limit. The sum of the ei Ar.0 as 2r --i 0. Surround any point P of R by a small element of volume dr having a surface area AS. we can show that fff. dd and consider the limit. If we now subdivide our region into many elementary volumes. By choosing rectangular parallelepipeds and using the method of Sec. ." We now derive Gauss's theorem by a different method.0 lira f As DT If this limit exists independent of the approach of Ar to zero. see Kellogg. so that all interior surface integrals cancel in pairs. Form the surface integral JJf. we obtain formulas of the type (180) for all of these regions.. "Foundations of Potential Theory.SEC.

dd = a tion of the divergence.!. gion since f is discontinuous at r = 0. The region V' has two boundaries. 55 for f = ui + vj + wk. S and Fzo. or 3V = aS. where S is the surface area of the sphere. If V is known to be g 47a8. since the outward normal to the region V' is directed toward the origin and is parallel to the radius vector.do= (184) Now for the sphere 1. (r) dS = (ai) ( xi+yj+zk)dS Now V f =3. f _f f 3 dr = f f a dS. dd = -r dS/e. () dr (183) reduces to f 8 r ad+J1 E r"d (183) In Example 25 we saw that V (r/r3) = 0. This implies that ff. The divergence theorem can be applied to the connected region V'. Consider a sphere with center at 0 and radius a. Let f = qr/rs and let V be a region surround- ing the origin and let S be its We cannot apply the divergence theorem to this resurface.dd= fff. then S = 4aa2. Hence JJ. Example 6 6. E. f dd = (1/a)(x2 + y2 + z2) dS = a dS on the sphere. ffJ V. We overcome this difficulty by surrounding the origin by a small sphere E of radius e (see Fig. Example 65. Applying (178). 50).dd= ffds=4fq . 50. Applying (178).116 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SFC. which corresponds to our original defini- Take f=r=xi+yj+zk.

as we shall see later. for an inverse(185) fJ f S dd = 4irq Example 67.aye Z = as. Hence a solenoidal vector is characterized by either /f dd = 0 or Now assume f = V x g. which implies V f = V (V x g) = 0. and hence x =--ay ay a# az Y= Z as az ay ax (186) =--as ax as ay Now assume a = 0. A vector field f whose flux over every closed surface vanishes is called a solenoidal vector field. 551 INTEGRATION 117 since f f dS = The integral f f f dd is called the flux of s the vector field f over the surface S. 8z ax ax Consequently if there is a solution with a = 0. 0. .z) aY y + az) by assumption. y such that f = V x g.SFe.8-. From (178) it is easy to verify that V f = 0 for such fields. Then X = ay ay . square force f = qr/r3. This theorem is of importance in electricity theory.(y.z) o xos y=Now V f = 0 or ax Ydx+r(y. of necessity $6= fXzdx+o. We now show the existence of g. Y = . Let f = Xi + Yj + Zk and assume g=ai+ij+yk We wish to find a. Is the converse true? If V f = 0. can we write f as the curl of some vector g? The answer is "Yes"! We call g the vector potential of f. Notice that g is not uniquely determined since V x (g + Vp) = V x g. We have. $.

foYdxk+Vp For example. and f2 = v Vu and obtain z2) (-zj + yk) + VSP We apply (178) to fl = u Vv f f f V. y. we obtain f f f (u V2v .faVdxk. Y=-y. j+1 (x2+y2+z2)$k+V . Applying (187) x -z dx y dx (x2+y2+z2). z). then V f = 0. if f = V(1/r).z) dz.118 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS Hence f [SEC.JZX(xo. 55 aY ay ay az JZo fx ax ax dx + + ar ay aZ az / ." + az ar ay _ aa az .y. y jX Y dx by choosing r = 0.as or ao az = X (x. o(y. y. Now X=-g= and s. (v Vu) dr = f f f (v V2u + VV.v V2u) dr = f f (u Vv .v Vu) dd (189) R S . v arbitrary g = (x2 + y2 + z2)#(y2 + Example 68. (187) g=[ faZdx+v(y. VU) d7 = Jf v Vu dd S Subtracting. z)] j .X (xo. z Z=-ra where r2 = x2 + y2 + z2. g=[jz Hence f =Vxgwhere In general Z dx + c(y.z)]j. z) . (u Vv)dr= f f f R R R R ff S (188) f f f V V. z) + ay - so that (186) is satisfied by a = 0. Green's theorem. S = I o Z dx + or (y. z) = .

we have If! [V2cc+ (Vcc)21 dr = ff `p vv . and since sc on S. and f dd = f. Let V2(P = 1724. In Sec.0 inside R. dd tends to s zero like 1 /r as r oo. g = V<p. where a is constant. Let f = f(x. V¢ on S. provided that f tends to zero like 1/r2 as r--. and f f cc V(p V. and R g = Vp . we obtain . then g is the gradient of a scalar Consequently. 52 we saw that if V x g = 0. Hence f f f (V0)2 dT = 0. We can also prove that f is uniquely determined if its divergence and curl are known throughout all of space. Applying (188) cp. so that f = f 1 inside R. which implies V0 = 0 inside R. Example 70.SEC. We now prove that f is unique. and whose normal components are given on the surface S which bounds R.¢ so that 1720 = 0 over R and 0=0 on S.dd = f R 0 s and hence fff (VV) 2 dr = 0 so that V p . Example 71. If cp tends to zero like 1/r. we must have cp ='G. Assume two functions which satisfy Laplace's equation everywhere inside a region and which take on the same values over the boundary surface S.f1.0. then V<p tends to zero like 1/r2. We have assumed the existence of Vp.(p . R Now from (188) we have JJJov2odr+JfJvo. y. We immediately have that V g = V x g = g dd = 0. We duplicate the above proof and need Jim f p VV dd = 0. Apply ing (178).vodr=JJove. with u = v = (p. ao. Let f be a vector whose curl and divergence are known in a simply connected region R. V g = V2ip = 0. R Hence 0 = constant = p -'p. We now construct the vector g = f . dd on S.do R Define 0 . Let f1 be another vector such that V f = V f1. Uniqueness theorem. Another uniqueness theorem. = 0 inside R and (p ='p on S. The functions are identical. V x f = V x f1. 55] INTEGRATION 119 Example 69. z)a.

(rf. fffdd As 4. where S is the surface of a unit b. By defining div f = lim °3 A?--+O GT . By defining grad f = Jim 4. s sphere. 55 aHence f ffdo= f f fv.do s 3.dd 5.120 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Jff. Show that f fJ .-+O OT snow that gradf = afi+ ay az afj+afk ax fff. a. s y 2. Prove that ff dd = 0 over a closed surface S. show that div f = r2 sin 0 Lar (r2 sin of. c constants. Prove that f f dd x f = f f f (V x f) dr.) + e (r sin 9 fe) + a JfJ (P 0fdr. show that = 4(a + b + c). 6.(fa)dr=a f f fVfdr s V V fffdd s = fff V V 7fdr (190) We leave it to the reader to prove that JJdo*f = Jff(V*f)dr s Problems (191) 1. If f = axi + byj + czk.)] for spherical coordinates.

Show that f f IrJ2r . Given f = (xyez + log (z + 1) . If v = Vp and V . If w = V x v. 17. Let S. 16. da over the part of the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 1 above S 14. If f is directed along the normal at each point of the boundary of a region V. z = 1 and the cylinder x2 + y2 = 1. S ffv x f .dd. dd . show that for a closed surface f J f V2dr = Jf pv. z are cylindrical coordinates. 18. If r. 12.f if u V . do over the closed surface bounded by the planes z = 0. v = V x u. Show that f f r x da = 0 over a closed surface.yj + (z2 . find the value of the x-y plane. show that '9 R v2dr = f f u xv. Find the vector potentials. Let r be the distance between two elementary .yzi . Find a vector A such that f =. da = 5 fJJ r2 dr. 11. 19.sin x)k. show that f 1 x f2 is solenoidal. 10.1)k. (w Vv) dr 9. 55] INTEGRATION 121 7. If f 1 and f2 are irrotational. Show that f J f w Vu . find the value of f f f . If f = xi . show that De and V log r are solenoidal vectors. Vv dr = f f uw Vv . show that f f f (V x f) dr = 0.dd+ f f S R 8. v = 0. 15. and S2 be the surface boundaries of two regions V1 and V2. Show that (xi + yj)/(x2 + y2) is solenoidal. V 13. 0.zxj + (x2+y2)k = V xA.SEC.

av av au ay ax dydx av au (192) ax- ay dy dx A necessary and sufficient condition that both w and w1 be ax .u(x.1. y) + iu(x. 49 O Vxf=zi. log r ddl = - fv. v(x. cIT2 f dTl V1 r 20. i = . y)j. fsI rm dd1 = -m(mn + 1) fV (IT2 1s= dd2 fs. Find a vector f such that V f = 2x + y . Obviously w .f = show that V2X = for V2Y. y) which will make w and w1 irrotational? From Stokes's theorem ffv x w dd = ff s s { w1 dr = jJv = Jf w dr = irrotational is that 52).au -. V xf ='1i+¢2j+4. Let us consider the two-dimensional vector field w = u(x. IfV . V2Z. and dT2 of V1 and V2. dii2 and that fv. tion w = v(x. y)j and an orthogonal vector field wi = v(x.wl = 0. ay ax a4 This yields av ax _ au ay av ay au ax (193) The reader who is familiar with complex-variable theory will immediately recognize (193) as the Cauchy-Riemann equations.fs. 56 volumes d-r. What are the conditions on u(x.a3 y z2' and find similar expressions 56.ak. y). which must be satisfied for the analyticity of the complex func. y)i . Show that . y).au = 0 and .122 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.f = Xi + Yj + Zk.av = 0 (see Sec. rn:-2 dT. - . Conjugate Functions. y)i + v(x.

Similarly. y) there corresponds a point Q(u. 51. v) given by the transformation u = u(x. y). If u satisfies V2u = 0. y)j corresponds to the vector r -. Hence the vector w = u(x. Let us now consider two rectangular cartesian coordinate systems. we obtain V 2U = a2u axe + a2u 2 = (194) 49Y a2v V2v=+a = axey a2v 2 and au av ax ax + au av ay ay _ they are harmonic conjugates. y) is harmonic. 56] INTEGRATION 123 On differentiating (193). (193) we say that The importance of such funcv P (x. y). Let r=xi+yj. The curve u(x. v) will trace out a corresponding curve r in the u-v plane. y). v = v(x. Q(u. the x-y plane and the u-v plane (Fig. If now P(x. . y If functions u(x. yl Ix Fia. we say that u(x. Now to every point P(x. y) = constant in the x-y plane transforms into the straight line u = constant in the u-v plane.SEC. y) traverses a curve C in the x-y plane. tions is due to the fact that they satisfy the two-dimensional Laplace's equation given by (194).xi+yj. v(x. 51). y)i + v(x. y) satisfy Eqs.

y) = constant v(x.y2. y) = constant transforms into the straight line v = constant. Consider the vector field w = 2xyi + (x2 . 52).y2) j.y2 = constant are orthogonal hyperbolas which transform into the straight lines u = constant.124 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Ssc. v = I log (x2 + y2). . The two straight lines are orthogonal. y) = constant is Vv = ax i+ yj so that Vu Vv = au av 0 from (194). Do the curves u(x. y) = tan-1 (y/x). and au ax y x2 + y2 ay au ay av x ax x2 + y2 so that u and v are conjugate harmonics. v = constant. and av ax = au ay = 2x av _ au _ _ 2 ax ay r y so that u and v are conjugate harmonics. v = x2 . y) = constant intersect orthogonally? The answer is "Yes"! The normal to the curve u(x. in the u-v plane (Fig. Consider w = ( tan-1 x) av i + J log (x2 + y2)j Here u(x. ax ax + ay ay = Example 72. 56 v(x. y) = constant is the vector VU =au ay i+u av av 49V a and the normal to the curve v(x. The curves u = 2xy = constant and v(x. Ou av Here u = 2xy. y) = x2 --. Example 73.

If u(x. then . y) is given as harmonic. 56] INTEGRATION 125 I Y 0' Fia. we can find its conjugate v(x. 53. while the straight lines y = mx transform into the straight lines u = tan-' m (Fig. 53). y). The circles x2 + y2 = constant transform into the straight lines v = J log c. 52. y) does exist satisfying (193). (3) (4) ------------ Fra.SEc. Example 74. If v(x.

0 dy + c = . y) = constant.au j. y). v = v(x.f.y2. y) = cos x sinh y are conjugate harmonics and that the curves u(x. . v = fa au dx . y) = constant are orthogonal. 56 dv=axdx+-dy=aydx Now consider the vector field f = au ay ax au ax dy i . Hence v= fox . We have that Vxf=-t f = Vv. Find the harmonic conjugate of xa .3xy2.126 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS f&c. show that the angle between any two curves in the x-y plane remains invariant under the transformation u = u(x." 2 . Show that u(x. the transformed curves have the same angle of intersection. If u(x. that is. y Hence f is irrotational and so is the gradient of the scalar v. which satisfies V2u = 0. consider u = x2 . y) = sin x cosh y and v(x. y). v(x.jyOU dy + c a 1! 8x (195) As an example. of ex coo y. and x + a2 ) k = 0 by our assumption about u(x. v(x. 2. y).2y dx . y) are conjugate harmonica. of x/(x2 + y2). What do the straight lines y = constant transform into? 3. y).2xy + c Problems 1.

y.s.l . We assume that the reader is familiar with the methods of generating electrostatic charges.7/)i + (zi -t)k an _ r.CHAPTER 5 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 57. Hence E is solenoidal except where charges exist. or field. yi.) as that charge which produces a force of one dyne on a like charge situated one centimeter from it when both are placed in a vacuum.)2 + a ot r ri (pJ . t and the coordinates of qi are xi.3 (xi .E=0 (197) so that the divergence of the electrostatic-field vector is zero at any point in space where no charge exists. zi. 127 .xi)2 + (. We have seen in Example 25 that V V. For a single charge q placed at the origin of our coordinate system. It is found by experiment that the repulsion of two like point charges is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges and directly proportional to the product of their charges. for there E is discontinuous. is given by E = (q/r3)r. n. We define the electrostatic unit of charge (e. provided that the unit test charge does not affect the original distribution of charges. the electric intensity. The forces act along the line joining the two charges. For many charges the field at P is given by E=- 4'a s a=1 ra ra (196) where ra represents the vector from P to the charge qa. V.)i -I. If the coordinates of P are t. The electrostatic intensity at a point P is the force that would act on a unit charge placed at P as a result of the rest of the charges. Electrostatic Forces.u.)2]1. then ri = I(rS . Consequently.(yi. and V1 l ri ri rr. (r/r3) = 0.z.

Hence the work done by the field in taking a unit charge from P to oo is equal to the potential at P. The charge on a conductor must reside on the surface.p(oo) = 0.p(-o) = tp(P). r > 0. Adding (200) JJE. 58 so that (196) reduces to E = -Vp n (198) where P =a-1qa/ra. The theorem in words is that the total electric flux over any closed surface equals 4w times the total charge inside the surface. We call w the electrostatic potential. We define a conductor as a body with no electric field in its interior. since . inside S. for otherwise the "free" electrons would move and the field would not be static. for consider any small volume contained in the conductor and apply Gauss's theorem. 58. we obtain Gauss's law. S Hence JS ! La a-1 For a charge outside 8. .do=JfJv.128 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. (201) since there is no discontinuity in qr/r3. Let S be an imaginary closed surface that does not intersect any charges. Example 75. qara dd = 41r raa a-1 qa (200) Jf. This is true for each charge q.dd=4irQ s (202) where Q is the total charge inside S.()dr=0 and (201).f d(p = 0. In Example 66 we saw that J f (qr/r3) dd = 4Tq. and For any closed path which does not pass through a point charge. Gauss's Law. I we have f E dr = . VxE=O (199) We also note that f E dr = cp(P) .^p dr = . Thus E is also irrotational.

54. for any component of the field tangent to the surface would cause a flow of current in the conductor. Every body possesses some ability in conducting electrons. y. z) = constant. we must have q = 0. If a body has the property that a charge placed on it continues to reside where placed in the absence of an external electric field. We shall show that the field outside the sphere is the same as if . Consider a uniformly charged hollow sphere E. 58] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 129 f f E dd = 4xq and since E = 0. The field is everywhere normal to an equipotential surface. Such a surface is called an equipotential surface. At the surface of a conductor the field is normal to the surface. we call the body an insulator. Hence the total charge must exist on the surface of the conductor. this again being contrary to the assumption that the field is static (no large-scale motion of electrons occurring). Fic. This is true for arbitrarily small volumes. so that no excess of positive charges over negative charges exists. Actually there is no sharp line of demarcation between conductors and insulators.SEC. for the vector E = -V(p is normal everywhere to the surface V(x. Example 76.

Fic. Construct an imaginary sphere through P con(see centric with the sphere Fig. We now determine the field in the neighborhood of a conductor. From symmetry the field is normal to the plates. We consider the cylindrical pillbox of Fig. the field is radial. cp. We apply Gauss's law to the surface in Fig. Consider two infinite parallel plates with surface densities a and -a. 58 the total charge were concentrated at the center of the sphere and that in the interior of the sphere there is no field. we have f f E dd = 4. or f fEdS=Ef fdS=4irr2E=4aQ so that E= r and E= Q r (203) Q We leave it to the reader to show that E = 0 inside I. 55. as that at P. Field w thin a parallel-plate condenser. f f E do = E = 4ara (204) so that the field is uniform. 54). 55 with unit cross-sectional area. 56. From symmetry it is obvious that the intensity at any point of the sphere is the same Fic. Example 77. Moreover. 0. 56 and apply Gauss's law to obtain . Example 78. Let P be any point outside the sphere with spherical coordinates r.rQ.130 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Applying Gauss's law.

Solve Prob. The field at a point outside this area is due to (1) charges distributed on the rest of the conductor (call this field E1). conductor at the point P' situated symmetrically opposite P is zero from Example 75. Thus El = 2o per unit charge. We consider a small area on the surface of the conductor. Example 79. 57). The field at P' is E1 . say E2 (see Fig. A charged soap film thus tends to expand. Force on the surface of a conductor. For an area dS the force is dE = (2av) (v dS) = 27rv2 dS (206) This force is normal to the surface. b > a.E2 = 0. Now the field inside the Ei+E2 P Fia. From Example 78. 57. Two hollow concentric spheres have equal and opposite charges Q and -Q. El + E2 = 41rv. 3. Problems 1. 2. The outer sphere is negatively charged. and (2) the field due to the charge resting on the area in question.SEC. 58] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 131 EA = 4raA or E = 47ro N (205) where a is the charge per unit area and N is the unit normal vector to the surface of the conductor. 1 for two infinite concentric cylinders. . Find the field due to any infinite uniformly charged cylinder. Find the work done in taking a unit test charge from the sphere of radius a to the sphere of radius b.

.cos Sa). . charges exist between the planes x = A. -q are placed at the points A. q be a set of collinear electric charges residing on the line L. The line of force that leaves A making an angle a with AB meets the plane that bisects AB at right angles in P. x = B. 58). Let C be a circle whose plane is normal to L and whose center lies on L. Show that sin 2 = 59. 5. Show that the electric flux n through this circle is N = 121rga(1 . and rotate a line of force r in the x-y plane about the x axis (see Fig. q2.132 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Sec. If no Y xa q3 x2 xl 0 x qa qi I 1 II ` I 1 I / Fia. . sin (+ PA B) E_ -v In Sec. 4 be the x axis. Let ql. Poisson's Formula. show that the equation of a line of force is n a-1 qa(x . where Na is the a-I angle between L and any line from qa to the circumference of C.xa)z + y2]i = constant 6. 57. 58. Point charges +q.xa)[(x . . Let the line L of Prob. we saw that a-1 r. . B. 59 4.

Now from Gauss's law ff 8 f f f pdr v . This limit exists. r = 0. We define 9 at P Y-R as lim f f f (p dr/r). If f f "d*T =I fo2r fo= 0 pr sin a dr d9 d<p` < MT2E2 where M is the bound of p in the neighborhood of P. The integral f f f (p dr/r) exists if p is continuous. Let us surround the point P by a small sphere R of radius e. so that the limit exists.dr t r +0 converges. for using spherical y-R coordinates. At any point P where no charges exist. r > 0. that is. 591 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 133 For a continuous distribution of charge density p.SEC. In much the same way we can show that E = f f f Ta dr and that at a point P where a charge exists (208) E(P) = lim f uJ . Now let us consider what happens at a point P where charges exist. we postulate that the potential is = fff pdr (207) where the integration exists over all of space. The Cauchy criterion holds. Thus I i l xf p dT _ fJf Rp V I < M? (e2 + el ) where e' is the radius of the sphere R' surrounding P. and we need not worry about the convergence of the integral.

yl Also 42rc = (Er)r_a = -A/a. and E=2r r2 (212) . it is easy to see that V E = 4irp provided V E and p are continuous. r=xi -f. Moreover. We assume this to be true.E)dr = 47r f f f p dr V (209) V Since (209) is true for all volumes. p depends only on r. Example 80. Poisson's equation V2.p = -4ap (210) Since E _ . 59 In order to apply the divergence theorem to the surface integral.134 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. we have V2. Thus JJJ(v. V2. so that q = 2. holds. At points where no charge exists. we have (211) and at places where no charges exist. In cylindrical coordinates V 20 r L or (r Or + e r t90/ + 8z \r 8z/ J Consider an infinite cylinder of radius a and charge q per unit length.raa = -A/2.p = 0. from symmetry.Vs. so that Laplace's equation..p = 0. we must be sure that V E is continuous at points where p is continuous. Thus r dr = constant = A vAlogr+B E_ -Vip= -A r. and the reader is referred to Kellogg's "Foundations of Potential Theory" for the proof of this. p = 0.

Find the field due to a two-dimensional infinite slab.rp2 satisfy Laplace's equation. If (pi satisfies Laplace's equation and cp2 satisfies Poisson's equation. so that p = con- stant inside the conductor. From Green's formula we have Jfpvcc. 60. Show that rp = (A cos nx + B sin nx) (Cell + De-Av) satisfies x+ a2 $ 49Y2 = 0. To prove that the potential is constant inside a conductor. and we must satisfy the boundary condition for the potential at the edge of the slab. show that cpi + 4p2 satisfies Poisson's equation. 6.SEC. Solve Laplace's equation for two concentric spheres of radii a. 3. Does cl92 satisfy Laplace's equation? 8. . Solve Laplace's equation and find the field due to an infinite uniformly charged plane. Dielectrics. and find the field. 7. That this is reasonable can be seen from the following . E = -Vgp = 0 so that Jff (vp)2 dr = 0 for all volumes V inside the conductor. of width 2a. show that cpl + 4o and Ipl -. it is found that the inverse-square force needs readjustment. V Therefore (VV)2 = 0. Q.co < y < oo. If charges reside in a medium other than a vacuum. 2. Here we have p = p(x) and must solve Laplace's equation and Poisson's equation separately for free space and for the slab. b. with b > a. 601 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 135 Example 81. Problems 1. 4. for any surface inside the conductor.ddJfJ(s7co)2dr+JJJrpv2codr Inside the conductor no charge exists so that V 2(p = 0. Prove that two-dimensional lines of force also satisfy Laplace's equation. Solve Laplace's equation in spherical coordinates assuming the potential V = V(r). 5. uniformly charged. The space occupied by the slab is given by -a S x < a. with charges q. If Cpl and S02 satisfy Laplace's equation. and app ax = app ay = app az _ 0. Moreover.

to P. since there is no field..d d= 4 Q K (213) f f 41rQ (214) where D is defined as the displacement vector.++++ 0/0 --- / Glass -----j/ Fm.i + E2j + Eak. . where r12 is the distance between Pl and P2.. .. 3 where D = Dli + D2j + Dak.. To bring q2 to P2. . 61. we do work against the separate . This tends to weaken the field.. . . and calculate the work done in bringing about this distribution. D = xE _ -x V. It takes no work to bring q. i=i i = 1. so that E = 47rv/x. In the most general case. q. E = E.. the electrons being bound to the nucleus. .136 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. = Z x.. we have 3 D. It is found experimentally that E -_ (qq'/Kr9)r for charges in a dielectric. and for constantx 4rp x (215) For p = 0 we still have Laplace's equation V2(p = 0. we see that Gauss's law is modified to read fjE and if x is a constant.. and x. = K.. Let us bring charges q. P. Assuming that the molecular structure . Energy of the Electrostatic Field.. where x > 1. ... q2. 59 of glass consists of positive and negative particles. . work must be done against the field set up by Q1.+++++++++++. we see that the field due to the oppositely charged plates might well cause a dis- placement of the electrons away from the negative plate and toward the positive plate.E. We consider a parallel-plate condenser separated by glass (Fig.. P2. from infinity to positions P1. This amount of work is glg2/rl2. 59).. Poisson's equation becomes V D = -V (K Vg) = 4rp. . Applying this force. . 2. In bringing q3 to P3. 61 considerations. x is called the dielectric constant.

al q. and q2. since p = 0 outside a fixed sphere. This work is gig3/r13 and g2g3/r23. so that s w= 8A f f f (E D) dr (218) . W 87 S ff ff v Now p. while do is of the order of r2. continue this process and obtain for the total work W We =. i=1 For a continuous distribution of charge. Hence lim f f cpD dd = 0.ri./rii. so that W= jfff pv dr sphere. The quantity W n is called the electrostatic energy of the field. We may take our volume of integration as large as we please. and D is of the order of 1/r2.is of the order of 1/r for large r. W (217) Now assume that all the charges are contained in some finite We have V D = 41rp so that fff fff 8. we have W = gipi. once as glg2/r12 and again as g2g1/r21.f f f Applying the divergence theorem. we replace the summation by an integral. 61] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 137 fields due to q.SEC. n Since (pi = . n q.q'i (216) The J occurs because gig2/r12 occurs twice in the summation process.

Let us compute the energy if our space contains a charge q distributed uniformly over the surface of a sphere of radius a. ft dr = 0 or Er1 = Er1 (220) . 62 The energy density is w = (1/8ir)E D. Since the field is conservative. we have DN. we have K2 so that n2=_nl FIG. (219) We have taken the pillbox very flat so that the sides contribute a negligible amount to the flux. 60). 60. Let S be the surface of discontinuity between two media with dielectric constant K1 and K2. We next consider a closed curve r with sides parallel to the surface of discontinuity and ends negligible in size (Fig.r>> a r The total energy is and D=E=O.n2. Assuming no charges exist on the surface of K1 discontinuity. We have = D = E = qr. Example 82. D2 n2 = 0.r<a W=s- 22x x ffJ-sin O drdOdcp q2 2a 62. Si nce nl = . 61). We apply Gauss's law to a pillbox with a face in each medium (Fig. For an isotropic medium.138 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. = DN. Discontinuities of D and E at the Boundary of Two Dielectrics. D= KE and W = (1/87r) Jff KE2 dr. Equation (219) states that the normal component of the displacement vector D is continuous across a surface of discontinuity containing no charges.

we have DN.SEC. Fio. Green's Reciprocity Theorem. We shall make use of the fact that E = -Vp and that at the surface E. ET. If p is the potential function for this distribution of charges.. 63. K1EN. for isotropic media. E. Let us consider any distribution of volume and surface charges. ET. Combining (219) and (220). or E . 63] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 139 In other words. Let p be the volume density and a the surface density. 62). = 4arv. A new distribution of charges would yield a new potential function cp' such that V2sp' = -41ro'. Hence tan01_Kl tan 02 K2 (221) which is the law of refraction (see Fig. Our problem is to find . then 02p = -4up. DN. ET. 62. or K2EN. the tangential component of the electric vector E is continuous across a surface of discontinuity. the surfaces being conductors. dd = -4uo dS.

q = q. we have 0. o. To do so. cp' = 1/a. that is. b units from the center of the sphere. and place a charge q at a point P. For the sphere we have initially = 0.p) JJ(cV. A conducting sphere of radius a is embedded in the center of a sphere of radius b and dielectric constant K. V = 1/b. Applying the reciprocity theorem. Note that this method does not tell us the surface distribution of the induced charge. we apply Green's formula JJJ V (vV2V .140 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 1SEC.(alb)q. 63 a relationship between the fundamental quantities p.1+vp-0Q'+q a b so that Q = . q' = 1. . and afterward. its potential is zero. p of the old distribution and p'. q' = 0. Let a sphere of radius a be grounded. We desire to find Q.ip'V'.) in the new distribution and then summed over all of the space is equal to the sum of the products of the potentials (pp') in the new distribution by the charges (p. o'. and afterward. and assume no other charges in space. The charge q will induce a charge Q on the sphere.' S v v) dd which reduces to -4v ii (. o) in the old distribution. a. b > a. This is the total charge induced on the sphere when it is grounded. Example 83. The conductor . of the new distribution. that is.Pp '-V 'p)dr=4a f f('-rp'o)dS V s or f if rpp' dr + ff ' ds = f f f v p dr + jJ p dS (222) This is Green's reciprocity theorem. We construct a new distribution as follows: Place a unit charge on the sphere. For the point P we have initially pp = ?. It states that the potential (p of a given distribution when multiplied by the corresponding charge (p'. a reciprocal property prevails. Q = ?. Problems 1. The potential due to this charged sphere is p' = 1/r.

2az cos B t== b2+a2-2abcos6 We choose z so that zb = a2. 0) and ask if it is possible to find a point Q(z. and call Q(a2/b. 0) such that a certain charge q' at Q will cause the potential over the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = a2. 5. 0) with respect to the sphere. 0. The answer is "Yes"! We proceed as follows : From Fig. a point charge on the dielectric boundary induces equal charges on the inner and outer shells.2ab cos 0) = a2 a2 b2 0 . the boundary between being given by r = J(a + b). We consider a charge q placed at a point P(b. show that K1/K2 = b/a. The inner sphere of a spherical condenser (radii a. The space between these two surfaces is now filled with a dielectric of inductive capacity K. 63 we have 82 = z2 + a2 . the outer conductor contracts from radius b to radius b1. 0. 64.64] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 141 is grounded. and a point charge q is placed at a distance r from its center.1)a])-1. and V1. Thus s2 = a (a2 + b2 . Method of Images.1 )K 1. If. 0.b1)b-'b1-1. Prove that the work done by the electric forces is E2(b . b) has a constant charge E. Show that the charge induced on the sphere is Q = -Kabq{r[b + (K . r > b > a. to vanish. V2 are the potentials of two equipotential surfaces which completely surround it (V1 > V2). A point charge q is detached from the inner one and moved radially with uniform speed V to the outer one. Show that the rate of transfer of the induced charge (due to q) from the inner to the outer sphere is dQ dt = -gab(b . and the outer conductor is at zero potential. A pair of concentric conductors of radii a and b are connected by a wire. 0) the image point of P(b.a)-'V(a + Vt)-2 3. 0. Under the internal forces. a < b. 4.e(V l . A spherical condenser with inner radius a and outer radius b is filled with two spherical layers of dielectrics Kl and K2.SFc. A conductor has a charge e.V2) (K . Show that the change in the energy of the system is . 2. when both shells are earthed.

The function of (223) satisfies Laplace's equation and is zero on the sphere.q t =-t Cbq'+qJ and p = 0 if we choose q' _ . 0. FIG.142 and VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. (p is _ q (a/b)q [r2 (r2 + b2 .(alb)q. The radial field is given by Er 8 or q(r-bcos9) (r2 + b2 . F of (223) is the potential function for the problem of Example 83.-I. From the uniqueness theorem of Example 69.(2a2/b)r cos 0]1 (223) with = 0 on S and V24 = 0 where no charges exist.2rb cos 0)# + (a4/b2) . . Now let us consider the sphere of Example 83.2rb cos B)' (a/b)q[r .(a2/b) cos 0] [r2 + (a4/b2) . 64 The potential at S due to charges q and q' at P and Q is P= s. The potential at any point R with spherical coordinates r. 63.(2a2/b)r cos B].

or x2 + y2 = e2cie. 2. then the equipotentials are the circles (A/2) log (x2 + y2) = C. In Example 73 we saw that U(x. Find the image point. 56) will represent the lines of force. We know that V2V = V2U = 0. so that the conjugate function U(x. y) (see Sec. The curves V (x. 651 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 143 and the surface distribution is given by _ (Er)rs _ 47r q b2 . we look for a solution of Laplace's equation V2V = 0.a2 4ir a(a2 + b2 .a')2 65. A charge q is placed at a distance a from an infinite grounded plane. If we take V (x. the field. An infinite plate with a hemispherical boss of radius a is at zero potential under the influence of a point charge q on the axis of the boss at a distance f from the plate.SEC. We now give an example of the use of conjugate harmonic functions. If we are dealing with a two-dimensional problem in electrostatics. Find the surface density at any point of the plate. 3. .2ab cos 9)' Problems 1. A charge q is placed on the bisector of the planes. Two semiinfinite grounded planes intersect at right angles. y) = 2 log (x2 + y2) are conjugate functions satisfying Laplace's equation. What distribution of charges is equivalent to this system? Find the field and the surface distribution induced on the planes. and show that the charge is attracted toward the plate with a force q2 4f2 4g2a3 fa + (f' . y) as the potential function. y) = con- stant represent the equipotential lines. y) = A tan-' y x (224) V (X. We know that these curves are orthogonal to the lines of force. and the induced surface density. Conjugate Harmonic Functions.

144 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. With the aid of the Schwarz transformation it is possible to find the conjugate functions associated with more difficult problems involving the twodimensional Laplace equation. 64). The lines of force are the circles (A/2) log (x2 + y2) = V. the radius of the charged cylinder. 0 = v as conducting planes raised to different potentials (see Fig..a 41r ar 41r r-a A 4ara so that A = -2q and V = -2q log r. r2 = x2 + y2 2 since A log r satisfies Laplace's equation and satisfies the boundary condition that V = constant for r = a. As a special case we may take the straight lines 0 = 0. then the equipotentials U = constant are the straight lines A tan-1 (y/x) = C. 65 Hence the potential due to an infinite charged conducting cylinder is V (X. then _ aV q 24ra (Er)r. By considering Example 72. . If q is the charge per unit length. 1e=Jr) U=U1 0 Frs. or y = x tan (C/A). 64. Problems 1. The theory of conjugate functions belongs properly to the theory of functions of a complex variable. U=U0 (0=0) If we choose U(x. y) = A tan-1 (y/x) as our potential function. find the potential function and lines of force for two semiinfinite planes intersecting at right angles. y) = 2 log (x2 + y2) = log r2 = A log r.

sa V r) dd (226) This remarkable formula states that the value of Sp at any point P is determined by the value of (p and V(p on the surface S. where r = 0.¢ V2V) dr = f f (9 Vi' R DAP) dd We choose ¢ = 1/r. Problems f 1. = 0 inside R' (R minus the Z sphere). namely. we proceed as in Example 66.dd + // f f (p V 1 .r Vp) . Using the fact that V2. y = a sinh U sin V? Show that V2U = V2V = O 66. Surround P by a sphere Z of radius e. where V2cp = 0 inside S and r is the distance from P to any point of S. . 66J STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 145 2.SEC. In order to overcome this difficulty. and let r be the distance from P to any point of the surface S. so that by letting e --j 0. What physical problems can be solved by the transformation x = a cosh U cos V. and on the sphere X.p 02' . Let P be any point of R. Let S be the surface of a region R for which V24p = 0.dd r B (225) // Now V(1/r) = -r/r'. at P. we obtain 0= f8 f (9 V r r V-r) .P = V24. show that f V(1/r)] dd = 0. We make use of Green's formula fJf (. Integration of Laplace's Equation. If P is any point outside the closed surface S. and this produces a discontinuity inside R. (225) reduces to v(p) = 4 ffir VV . r r8 r e$ and (1/r) VV dd is of the order eIV(pf.

Let so be harmonic and regular inside sphere 7. If P is an interior point of t. Let rp satisfy V2cp = aX2 + 1P 2 2 = 0. 67 2.ip v s T dd where the normal dd is inward on S. gyp) = R(r)6(0). 23. Show that the value of p at the center of is the average of its values over the surface of the sphere.P(P) . 0. Let (p be harmonic outside the closed surface S and assume that ip --> 0 and rI V pl -> 0 as r -' oo.2x 1 1) app a[log (1/r)] `log 1( r an `0 an ds where use is made of the fact that ff A (u V 2V . Prob. 4.p) (228) Substituting (228) into (227) and dividing by V.P(.v V 2U) dA (u an -van) da ` n being the normal to the curve. we assume a solution of the form V(r. 67. Solution of Laplace's Equation in Spherical Coordinates. show that P(P) = 4x If (1r V p . Let r be the closed y° boundary of a simply connected region in the x-y plane. 3. If P is a point outside 8. Use (226). + aB (sin o + 49(p (sin 0 B (227) To solve (227). From Sec.146 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS a2 [SEC. we obtain sin 0 R dr d8) d( r2 . show that . 1.+ dR) 1 1 dr 0 d9 d8 4) sin 0 d(p2 d2= -- 0 .J +-A (sin O .

(232) is 4) = A cos mtp + B sin mcp. we obtain that 0(0) satisfies sin 0 d0 (sino)+[n(n+1)sin2o_m2Je=o (233) We make a change of variable by letting µ = cos 0. for on differentiating (229) with respect to r. and we leave it to the reader to show that R = Ar" + Br-n-1 is the most general solution of (230). so that R dr (r2 dR) or i J = 0. 67j STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 147 Consequently _ d dR\ 1 r R dr dr 2 _- 1 d 0 sin 0 dB sin 0 d9 d9 . we have 1d 41) 'e = n(n -{. dµ= -sin0d0 . while the righthand side of (229) depends on 0 and gyp. The solution of Finally. both sides of (231) are constant. This is possible only if both quantities are constant. dp2 1 d4 (229) The left-hand side of (229) depends only on r. m being an integer. This choice guarantees that the solution of d24 d(p2 -I-mq =0 (232) is single-valued when p is increased by tar.1) sing 0 -- sin d0 (sin 0 de) (231) Since we have again separated the variables. Returning to (229). -m2. We choose the constant to be negative. We choose as n(n + 1) r2 4+24+n(n+1)R=0 (230) It is easy to integrate (230). we obtain d LR d (r2 the constant of integration c = -n(n + 1).SEc.sin 2 0 4.

[(1 . Two important properties of Legendre polynomials are following: f 11 P. satisfy [(1 dµ . 67 so that (233) becomes (1 . we obtain P.m2]0 = 0 (234) If we assume that V is independent of p (symmetry about the z axis).'(µ) dµ = 2n + 1 We give a proof of (236). P.µ2) + [(1 µ2)n(n + 1) . and (239) by P. d.n(.148 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. and P. and subtracting.2) a . so that (234) becomes dIA d (235) This is Legendre's differential equation.Pn d [(1 _ u2) d µ"' +[n(n+1) -m(m+l)PPm=0 .. By the method of series solution. we have m = 0.&)Pn(p) dµ the =0 if m : n (236) (237) J 11 P.p!) dµn1 + n(n + 1)Pn = 0 (238) (239) Multiplying (238) by P. the P (µ) are called Legendre polynomials. it can be shown that 1 0 = P"(14) d"(µ2 . .1)n dµn 2 -n! satisfies (235).µ2) dµ [(1 .

nPn dµ = 0 and ifm -d n.(0) = 0. aip Now it is easy to show that any sum of solutions of (227) is also a solution. n odd P-(0) = (_1)n/x 1-3-5 . aV = 0. (n . 1 PmPn dµ = 0 A particular solution of (227) which is independent of gyp. since (227) is linear in V."4 .(µ) = 4(5Aa ..1) (242) 2.1) P.SFC. If we can find the constants An..m(m + 1)]P. we obtain [n(n + 1) . is given by V(r. then (241) will represent the only solution..30u$ + 3) P.m(m + 1)J f i P.(µ) = 9(35. If we wish to solve a problem involving V2V = 0 with spherical boundaries.. 671 or STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 149 -M2)(Pmddn-PndPm)] µ[(1 + [n(n + 1) . n uneven Pn(1) = 1 Pn(-µ) _ (-1)"Pn(µ) . 0) = (Anrn + Bnr-' 1)Pn(cos 0). from our previous uniqueness theorems involving Laplace's equation. We list a few Legendre polynomials: Po(µ) = 1 Pi(µ) = A P2(p) = . Consequently a more general solution is V= n-0 (Anrn + Bn7rn-1)Pn(cos 0) (241) provided that the series converges. Integrating between the limits -1 and + 1. that is.4.3µ) P. B.aPm = 0 (240. we try (241) as our solution.6 . so that the boundary conditions are fulfilled. (3µs .

62). 68. Solve V2V = 0 for rectangular coordinates by the method of Sec. A. if a term of the type Dr cos a occurred outside the sphere. or K a I = a II at r = a (244) (see Sec. The potential due to the uniform field is p = -Eoz = -Eor cos 0. we have VI = --Eor cos 0 + Ar cos 0 Vu = --Eor cos B + B cos 0 r2 (243) Notice that VI and Vn are special cases of (241). 67. Prove (237). We calculate the field inside the sphere. We cannot have a term of the type Cr-2 cos 0 inside the sphere. VI= Vu at r=a DN. Similarly. for at the origin we would have an infinite field caused by the presence of the dielectric. 68 Problems 1. and two boundary conditions. Applications Example 84. B. A dielectric sphere of radius a is placed in a uni- form field Eo = Eok. We have two unknown constants.2 Eor cos 0 = 'V+ (245) + .Y. There will be an additional potential due to the presence of the dielectric sphere. Investigate the solution of VI V = 0 in cylindrical coordinates. = D. B_aaK-1Eo K+ 2 2 Eoz K x+2 so that VI = I . If we let VI be the potential inside and V11 the potential outside the sphere. assuming V = X(x)Y(y)Z(z). 3.150 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. we would have an infinite field at infinity due to the presence of the sphere. From (243) and (244) we obtain A=K-'Eo. Assume it to be of the form ArPI = Ar cos 0 inside the sphere and Br-2PI ° Br-2 cos 0 outside the sphere. 2.

1 _ Eo cos 8 K + 2 r2 The radial field outside the sphere is given by E. The boundary conditions are (i) (11) VI= VIIatr=b Q= 41r (iii) ff s at r = b Or = Or J2rJT (a D dd = K aVI _ aVII 47 T a2 sin 0 d9 dp J Hence From (i) Alb = (B/b) + C. from (iii) Q = (K/4x) (B/a2) f f dS = KB.SEC. 65. aVII=Eocos0+2K + 2aa ocos9 For a given r the maximum E. so that FlG. the sphere Outside (246) VII = -Eor cos B + K . from (ii) -A/b2 = -KB/b2. is found at 0 = 0. 65). we try From spherical symmetry V = V (r). . A conducting sphere of radius a and charge Q is surrounded by a spherical dielectric layer up to r = b (Fig. 681 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 151 We see that the field inside the dielectric sphere is E_ -vVI=K+2Eo and E is uniform of intensity less than E0 since K > 1. Example 85. Let us calculate the potential distribution.

0. There are two cases to consider: (a) r < b. 8. 68 VI = Q' VII = Q +90C K 1 (247) Example 86. x = r/b.2µx +2)-} Now (1 . We assume a solution V = -Eor cos 0 + The boundary condition is B r Q = 4v Jf . Consider a charge q placed at A (b. The potential at P is V= 4 = q(r2 + b$ . (E cos 8 + a a2 sin 8 d8 dsp = B and V= -Eorcos8+Q r For the charge distribution aV a- cIr 4" 4I(E0cos8+Q Example 87. yielding . A conducting sphere of radius a and charge Q is placed in a uniform field. 66). Let us compute the potential at any point P(r. Let µ = cos 8. gyp) (see Fig. so that V= b (1 . We calculate the potential and the distribution of charge on the sphere. 0).152 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC.2rb cos 8)_.2µx + x=)-} can be expanded in a Maclaurin series in powers of x.avlr-a dS f2v so that Q = 4 1 f- .

which satisfies Laplace's equation.. since V satisfies Laplace's equation and P. we have . 0 and for r < b. A point charge +q is placed at a distance b from the center of two concentric. For r > b. earthed. Example 88. z Fia.(µ)rn is a solution of VI V = 0. 66. However. We find the potential at a point P for a <r <b. a < b < c. 68] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY m 153 ( 248) _ m ()fl V=b n0 I n= b n0 P. Moreover. conducting spheres of radii a and c. V = (q/b) 2 (r/b)'Pn(cos 0). (b) r > b.(cos 0) due to the charge q. V = (q/r) 0 (b/r)'P. we might expect this. In this case V = q I Pn6u) rn=0 /b n r (249) Notice that each term is of the form Pn(µ)r-n-1.SEC.(--) The proof is omitted here that the Pn(p) are actually the Legendre polynomials..

C2n+1 bn+l(a2n+l . Show that the force acting on the sphere of Example 86 is F = kQEok.154 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC..rn+1 Pn(cos 0) (253) Problems 1. A charge q is placed at a distance c from the center of a spherical hollow of radius a in an infinite dielectric of constant K. + b-n-I)rn + Bnr-n-1]Pn(cos 0 The boundary conditions are (i) (ii) V1=0atr=c V2 = O at r = a (252) These yield the equations (i) (11) Ancn + (Bu + bn)c-n-1 = 0 (An + b-n-1)an + Bna n-1 = 0 a2n+1 (C2n+l so that Bn T bn+l (a2n+l .C2n+1) (rn a2n+1 -0 . 68 an induced potential of the form V = q I (Anrn + Bnr n-1)Pn(cos 0) 0 (250) which is due to the spheres. + b-(n+1) _ Hence V2(P) = q b-n-1(C2n+1 - b2n+1) a2n+1 .b2n+l)' - C2n+1)' A. the An and Bn undetermined as yet. Hence For r > b: Vl = q I [Anrn + (Bn + bn)r-n-1]Pn(cos 6) 0 (251) For r < b: V2 = q 0 [(A. 2. Show that the force acting on the charge is .C2n+l n j m b2n+1 .

for if we assume the charge distribution to be bounded by some sphere. x = a. The walls of an earthed rectangular conducting tube of infinite length are given by x = 0. Show that the potential is given by V = 8q I (m2a2 + nil m-1 to n2b2)-e-a-'b-'(mta'+n$t)i*(s-ss) sin n1rx0 a sin nrx a sin mTryo b sin miry b 69. Our assumption is valid.SEC. we immediately obtain .2(1 .1/r2. By applying Green's formula as in Sec.n c cn { [(K +1)n + 1]b 2n+1 + (n +1)(K -1)a 2n+1 } Pn(cos e) c 0 m 4. z = zo inside the tube. Show that the potential inside a dielectric shell of internal and external radii a and b. 691 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 155 (K .P(P) = Jff rdr+Jf (rVp . y = b. placed in a uniform field of strength E. on which a dielectric layer of outer radius b and constant K exists.jP 0 (254) If we make the further assumption that rp is of the order of 1/r for large r and that jVjpj .1] r cos 0 5. Integration of Poisson's Equation. since we may consider all the charges as essentially . y = yo.410n+K(n+ 1)(a/ 3. A point charge is placed at x = xo. 66. we see that by pushing S out to infinity the surface integral will tend to zero. then at large distances the potential will be of the order of I /r. y = 0.a2n+lr-n-1) q .K2)[(b/a)3 . Instead of assuming that p is harmonic. A point charge q is placed a distance c from the center of an earthed conducting sphere of radius a. let us consider that 1p satisfies V2co = -47rp.1)g2'' c2 n(n + 1) 2n+1 . is V= 9KE 9K . Show that the potential of this layer is V = (2n + 1 )b2n+1(rn .

Let f dr W(P) = JfJ (256) where r is the distance from P to the element of integration dr. we saw that if Ifl tends to zero like 1/r2 as r --> oo.rf From (256) (258) (259) VxW= JJJf xVdr 40 Now V x(V xW) = --V2W . n = 1. I V W. then f W2 = f f f M ffrldr f2 dr (257) W3=fffr$dr 00 We assume that the components of f are such that the integrals of (257) converge and that I Wl . so that V2W = -4. If we write f = fli + f j + f k.1/r. 3. then f as uniquely determined by its curl and divergence. Decomposition of a Vector into the Sum of Solenoidal and Irrotational Vectors. 70 concentrated at a point.156 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. Thus V(P) = JJf e dr (255) 70. = -4xfn. 69. We now proceed to write f as the sum of irrotational and solenoidal vectors.l '' 1/r2.. V2W. W = WA + W. In Example 70. 2.. From Sec.j + Wek.

where r = (x2 + y2 + Z2)I and r+dr= [(x + dx)2 + y2 + Z2]1 The potential at 0(0. If we now let q -p co and dx -+ 0 in such a way that q dx remains finite. 71. so that rp . where dr is the vector from the negative charge to the positive charge. 0.qx dx/r3. and let M = q dr. z). 711 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 157 so that f =4-V X X -4 260) and hence f = V x A + Vcp where A=4-VxW.xz)k. y. 2. = Problems 1. Let r be the position vector from the origin to the dipole. and that due to +q is q/(r + dr). 0) due to both charges is r + dr q q r g2dr r2 Now dr = x dx/r. we have formed what is known as a dipole. z) and Q(x + dx. The potential at the origin 0(0. !drl = dx. Let us consider two neighboring charges -q and +q situated at P(x.SEc. Find an expression for (p(P) if V2(p = -41rp inside S and if P is on the surface S. Show that (256) is a special case of (254). 3. Express f as the sum of an irrotational and a solenoidal vector. 0. so that M is called the strength or moment of the dipole. Dipoles. y. the potential at a point P is given by . We have (M r)/r8 = (qr dr)/ra = (qx dx)/r3. 0) due to -q is -q/r. For more than one dipole. f = yzi + xzj + (xy .

x)i + (n .y)j + (r . The field strength due to a dipole is E _ --Vv so that r (262) E = V rs ) rs ra - - Example 90. The potential due to any single dipole is given by (261).dr (263) Now V V. is the vector from P to the dipole having strength M.ri) ri3 where r. the coordinates of the point P at which V is being evaluated. (263) becomes `P=fffv.y)2 + (J .x)2 + (n . Now L app d. z. ot. The energy of the dipole is ds = M W = spiq + IP2(-q) = q(spl . 72 i= i (Mi. Electric Polarization. Let us consider a volume filled with dipoles.158 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.IP2) = g as ao where ds is the distance between the charges. and r = (E . Example 89. that is. be the potential at the charge q and c2 the potential at the charge -q. Let (p. If we let P be the dipole moment per unit volume. Potential energy of a dipole in a field of potential V. (P/r) = (1/r)V P .p = ds V p so that W = M as VV = M V(p. The coordinates t.[(P r)/r3].z)2]' Hence and V performs the differentiations with respect to x. 72. t belong to the region R and are the variables of integration.z)k.(!)dr R fff R . The reason that we have taken V(1/r) t= r/r3 instead of -r/r3 is that r = [( . P = lim (AM/or). then the total potential due to the dipoles is A"o = I f f r ra. y.

72] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 159 and (p - ff!. show that the energy . Example 91. we see that the field at the center of a uniformly polarized shell is zero. By superimposing (concentrically) a sphere with an equal but negative polarization.3(M1 r)(M2 r)r-6. The dipole-moment density is given by P = r over a sphere of radius a.dd_ fff_!d r (264) by applying the divergence theorem. Prove (266). y. 3.y)j + (1' .y)2 + ( .z)k] (265) E(0. Calculate the field at the center of the sphere. is easily seen that (265) reduces to a cos 0. Mgr-a .0. n = a sin 0 sin tp.z) 2]i E= fj S Po(k dd)[(E . If M1 and M2 are the vector moments of two dipoles at A and B. z) = and ff S Pok dd x)2 + (71 . Problems 1. it (266) E(0.x)i + (n [(E-x)2+(7] -y)2+(J -z)2]$ . Prove (262).0) f f ni + 'k)Po(k dd) Now for points on the sphere. Here P = Pok. 52 +' 72+-2 = a2. 0. of the system is W = M1 4. 2. Hence (264) becomes sp(x. so that V P = 0 inside R. Let us find the electric intensity at the center of a uniformly polarized sphere.SEC. and letting t = a sin B cos -o. 0) = -frPok E is independent of the radius of the sphere. and if r is the vector from A to B.

u (permeability) D = KE F----. Let r be the position vector from a point P N to a surface of area dS and unit normal N. 67) dct = P Fia. We define the solid angle subtended at P by the surface dS to be (see Fig. = 0 always. The magnetic dipole is the exact analogue of the electric dipole. which applies equally well for stationary magnets. Magnetostatics.160 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. Let $ be the magnetic moment per unit area and . Let S be a sphere and P the origin so that 12(P)= fJr 4rdS=4u r Example 93. 68). that is.do r S 3 (268) Example 92. Electrostatics q EH Magnetostatics D ---) B (magnetic induction) K <---. a thin sheet magnetized uniformly in a direction normal to its surface (Fig. We consider a magnetic shell. do = N dS. 67. Solid Angle. since we cannot isolate a magnetic charge. that is. r3 The total solid angle of a surface is J'r. 73 73.B = µH 0 qm (267) 74.. since all the laws of electrostatics were derived on the assumption of the inversesquare force law. We make the following correspondences. The same laws that have held for electrostatics are true for magnetostatics with the exception that OZcp.

' Vp . or Currents. We have . dr = . We define current density by j = pv.r. Moving Charges.11) so that the work done in taking a unit positive pole from a point P on the negative side of the shell to a point Q on the positive side of the shell is given by P Fur.SEC. dr = *(P) .9) W = 4x-8 (269) 75. W = f. Let v be the velocity of the charge and p the density of charge.dd=- dr . 68. The potential at P is given by f sf r. so that one is led to believe that a flow of charge is taking place. it is found that certain phenomena occur (heating of the wire.MdS=13 f f rras=On Now let P and Q be opposite points on the negative and positive sides of the surface S. magnetic field). then the loss of charge per unit time is given by .aQ = - f f at dr.do_ Jfj. R If there are no sources or sinks inside S.f.dd Now the total charge inside a closed surface S is Q = f f f p dr." H H.p(Q) = -P(4ir . The total charge passing through a surface per unit time is given by ffpv.F(Q) =6U+$(4. 75] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 161 assume S = constant. If two conductors at different potentials are joined together by a metal wire. R Thus ffpv.

76 Applying the divergence theorem. which implies V j = 0. where R is resistance and J current).(P2) dq. Ip2 > 92. then j = XE = -A VM a (271) where X is the conductivity of the metal. Experiments show that electric currents produce magnetic fields.p1 .162 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.02 = RJ (another form of Ohm's law. we have 0 or (270) at = 0 Equations (270) are the statement of conservation of electric charge. and since 01 . = I Xa. We now compute the work done on a charge q as it moves from a point of potential p.Iv2)q The This loss in electrical energy does not go into mechanical energy. to one of potential 02.p2)q. It has been found by experiment that if E is the electric field. The mathematical expression for the magnetic field is given by dH = Jr x dr (273) cra . This is Ohm's law. we have P=RJ2 (272) 76. j.gE#. energy at (pi is qpl and at V2 is q(p2. Magnetic Effect of Currents (Oersted). a = 0. 69=1 X = constant. Hence the electrical energy is converted into heat. We define a steady state as one for which p is independ- ent of the time. For the general case. The loss in energy is W = (1v1 . since the flow is assumed steady. Q = (. so that V2(p = 0 for the steady state. and the simplest case. The power loss is P = dt = (1P1 .

where A = (1/c) J dr/r = (11c) f f f i dr/r is integrated over all space containing currents.y. z) Fra.. Also V x H = -VIA. 69. A. .z)2]. so that that V A = 0. and c is a constant. Thus H = V x A. For a closed path Fig. Now V A = fif V (j/r) dr f f (j/r) s dd. But when S is expanded to a great distance. + j a + k az. Biot and Savart H= Now r = [(E Jrxdr cra (274) P (x. = (1 /C) f f f j dr/r.y)2 + ( . = As (1 /c) f f f j dr/r. Hence where V = i clx y H=1fiJVI c r c x(Jdr r since V does not operate on dr and J is a constant. j = 0 on S.SEC. so that if all currents lie within a given sphere. since nothing new will be added to the integral yielding A. we may push the boundary of R to infinity. Now since A = (1/c) A. 76] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 163 where r is the vector from the point P. the ratio of the electrostatic to the electromagnetic unit of charge (see Q (tn'r) established this law for straight-line currents.x)2 + (n . and V(1/r) = r/ra. r f is dr ff . or 0 f f f is dr/r. P is the point at which we calculate the magnetic field dH due to the line current J in that portion of the wire dr. 69).

Now [M][L] [712 [g612 f. Thus VxH=47j c (275) Example 94. The magnetic field at a point P. H dr = H(2irr) = Example 96. r units away from an infinite straight-line wire carrying a current J. and f.164 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. we have (276) Example 95. 4a c J so that H= 27 cr We compute the dimensions of c//. 76 we have from Sec.(47r/c)j. The work done in taking a unit magnetic pole around a closed path r in a magnetic field due to electric currents is ff S c ff s For an electric current J in a wire that loops r. dr = 4'rJ c so that [M][L]2 _ [J] [gm][T]2 [c] . Work Unit pole = H . = qaq.'/Kr2./dt] [c] [g] [c][T] [c][T]2 F rom (276) . 69 that V2A = -. = qqm'/µr2 so that [q+x]2 [K][L]2 [µ][L]2 [M14[L][K]} and [J] [c] [dq. is obtained by use of Example 94.

We shall soon (1) (2) Fca. [7'][µl} [M]}[Ll'[K]i [c][TJ2 yielding L/i see the significance of this. The magnetic field at 0 due to J. [TL] We see that c// has the dimensions of speed. This is IM= f f L da= f f a a 1(2) A1. is H. = V x A. and J2 (Fig. f(2)J(1) r (277) The current element J2 dr2 seta up a magnetic field.SEc. 77] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 165 and [Ml}[L]. r dr c (1)r We define the mutual inductance of the two circuits as the mag- netic flux through the surface B due to a unit current in (1).=J. dr. 70. dr = c 1(2) (1(1) drl) dr2 Hence M= 1 C dr. any magnetic . Consider two closed circuits with currents J. where A. so that from Newton's third law of action and reaction. Mutual Induction and Action of Two Circuits. 77. 70).

).J2/cd. this being immediately deducible from (279) when we keep in mind that v-=-V1 1 r2.. Example 97. if the currents are opposite.) = V 1 (dr. and a square loop of side a with current J2. r = r2. dr2) (279) This is the force of loop (1) on loop (2). It is equal and opposite to the force of loop (2) on loop (1). Thus df = J 2 drz x H. = d(1/r) dr. We use (278) and the result of Example 95. di = 2J. dr2) . = (2J. We have H. x V r OZ r x dr2 (278) and integrating over (2) we obtain f-J. r12 In (279).J2 dr2xi and the force per unit length is F = 2J.cJ2 (L) dr. 77 field will act on J2 dr2 with an equal and opposite force. If the currents are parallel. and J2. We find the force per unit length between two long straight parallel wires carrying currents J.(dr2 "V 1) dr.v(1/r)] dr. so that (C' f= Jc 2 J (2)1(1) 1) (dr. = 0.J2f drzxf C (2) (1) xdr. . Find the force between an infinite straight-line wire carrying a current J. Hence df=Jzdr2x 2J. F is a repulsive force. Problems 1. Now dr2 x (TI 1 x r dr. the .166 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. r r I2) and J 2) [dr2 . = J. F is an attractive force./cd)i at right angles to the plane containing the wires. From (278) show that f = J2 f f dd2 x (V X H. a 2.

B = 0. Law of Induction (Faraday). Show that the mutual attraction is 4irJJ'/c(sec a . Up to the present we have.rp and. V D = 4. where 2a is the angle subtended by the circle at the nearest point of the straight wire. and where M=c f f dd 78. show that A = (M x r/r$). and a current J' flows in a very long straight wire in the same plane.=VxE C at (280) The time rate of change of magnetic inductance is proportional to the curl of the electric field. 791 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 167 extended plane of the loop containing the straight-line wire. A current J flows around a circle of radius a. Equation (280) is a generalization of V x E = 0. V. V x H = (41r/c)j. where r is very much larger than the radius of the loop and is the vector to the center of the circle. for an electrostatic field. S The law of induction states that -ca f f Applying Stokes's theorem. 3.1). If B is the magnetic inductance.SEC. and the shortest distance from the wire to the loop being d. Maxwell's Equations. Show that A = (J/c) f f dd x V (1 /r) for a current J in a S closed loop bounding the area S. which is true for the electrostatic case in which B = 0 and for the steady state for which atB = 0. . we have _ . 4. For a small circular loop. the flux through a surface S with boundary curve r is given by f f B dd. for stationary currents. It has been found by experiment that a changing magnetic field produces an electromotive force in a circuit. 79. V x E = 0.

He decided to retain the two laws: (1) V D = 4rp as the definition at = 0 as the law of conservation of Let us assume VxH=4w(j+x) C (281) as a generalization of V x H = (47r/c) j. and (2) V j + charge. D) aD 0 We can choose Z = so that +--aD) (283) VxH= w.V j = at = Oar at (V . Maxwell looked for a generalization of V x H = (41r/c)j. of (281) and obtain We take the divergence (282) so that V = .(i C We call - aD t the displacement current. a generalization of V x E = 0. 79 Now V x E_.1 aB C at of charge.168 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS is [SEC. We rewrite Maxwell's equations V D = 4irp (284) V X 4c \1 + 41r aD1 t .

77. (284) become 4. show that He z = (E/wH) (1 . y = (E/(X) (wt .cos wt). Equations . This result follows from Sec. Solution of Maxwell's Equations for "Electrically" Free Space. Problems 1. We have p = j = 0 and c. where w = - m 2.B=H. Show that the equations of motion of a particle of mass m and charge e moving between the plates of a parallel-plate condenser producing a constant field E and subjected to a constant magnetic field H parallel to the plates are md Given that = Be - dy d dx ML = He dt dtz d dt = x = y = 0 when t = 0.aB = 0. From (iii) of (284) show that V . 801 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 169 We have in addition the equation (v) f=p(E+1vxBJ \\ C (285) where f is the force on a charge p with velocity v moving in an electric field E and magnetic inductance B.D=E.sin wt). 3. u are constants. Write down Maxwell's equations for a vacuum where 80. From (i) and (iv) of (284) show that D) - at j=p=O.SEC.

c = 3 X 1010 by experiment. From y = f(x .Vt) we have a2-y = f"(x . We solve the wave equation V2f = Y2 at2 in spherical coordinates where f = f(r. z Example 98. consider a wave traveling down the x axis with velocity V and possessing the wave profile y = f(x) at t = 0. and µK/c2 plays the same role as 1/V2. . 80 (ii) VH=0 vxE= V E=0 aH (286) K aE vxHcat We take the curl of (iii) and obtain V x (V x E) = V(V E) . so that c/V has the dimensions of a velocity (see Example 96).V2E _ or V2E = µK a2E C2 at2 (287) by making use of (i) and (iv).Vt).170 (i) VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. t).Vt) and at= = V2f"(x . To illustrate. Similarly V2H - JLK a2H C2 8t2 (287a) Equation (287) represents a three-dimensional vector wave equation.V0 so that a2y ax2 1 a2y V2 at2 (288) Equation (287) represents three such equations. At any time t it is easy to see that y = f(x .

t) = r [g(r . t) ay + 8Eg(x. t)j + Es(x. H = H(x.r+V( 19 2f V. = 0.SEC.f(r. so we choose E. t)k . 80J STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 171 Vf = f'(r. Hence E = EE(x. t) = rf(r. t). t) Vr = f' r V2f = 3f+rf" = rf V . t) j + H. so that which implies aE=(x. then 1 a2f V28t2 (289) af_1au Or u 02fi0 2u2au are 2 r Or r2 r are r2 Or + r2 and substituting into (289). we obtain 82u are a2u V2 at2 of which the most general solution is u(r. We are not interested in a uniform field in the x direction.Vt) + h(r + Vt) and so .(rr/ )'r f. t). t). t) ax + aEy(x. t) ax = 0. t) az 0. t) = g(r .(x.(x. Our wave equation is 2 of are+rar Now let u(r. 8E. t)k and similarly H = Hy(x. Now V E = 0. (290) Let us now try to determine a solution of Maxwell's equations for the case E = E(x.Vt) + h(r + Vt)] is the most general solution of (289).

.172 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. c2 at= (294) 'These equations are of the type represented by (288).(')(x .Vt) + H.. which must satisfy (291) and (292).Vt) + Eyes) (x + Vt)Jj H = [H.(') (x . on using (iv) of (286). we obtain a2Ey UK 61% axe C2 at2 (293) We leave it to the reader to show that 82H.8H4 c ax at aE. that is. Hence a solution to Maxwell's equations is E = [E.{2>(x + Vt)Jk where V = c(AK)"}. k 0 or Ey E. H.. we obtain (i) aH. ax2 Ax a2H. E. at (291) Similarly.. ax aH.. (i) OE... If we choose H = E. they travel down the x axis but have components perpendicular to the x axis. 80 Now we use Eq. V x E _ . we see that (i) of (291) and (ii) of (292) are satisfied. H. so that i j k a az a a AaH. Differentiating (ii) of (291) with respect to x and (i) of (292) with respect to t. (295) Both waves are transverse waves. = 0. (iii) of (286). i c ax ay at c at LaH. aH.c axt . 8x K aE c at K aE. . . ax (292) c at The four unknowns are E.

(x.2 2 = 2 =w. = Er. t)k. We compute the energy density. so that E and H are always at right angles to each other. H = Ho(x. Example 99.'e z)e-'"e Substituting into (iv). we can obtain another solution. = K(E.. These two solutions are called the two states of polarization. and for both waves w. = 0. We have here used the fact that (see Prob.2 + E. = 2 . We _ _ 2 _ 2 µH2 w.-. y.. z)e-. Example 100. Maxwell's equations in a homogeneous conducting medium are V. E = E.Eo C (296) 4r .tee V x Ho = t 4 1oe. and w = w. we obtain e--.E=4p K V. By letting H.'eE0 2Kw iKW or VxHo 4a/ =-lo-.H = 0 7E OH c at VxH=4c1uE+4v Assume a periodic solution of the form a/ E = Eo(x. + 2w.n= BH 2 =2 2 µH. 801 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 173 Also note that E H = 0. t)j.SEC.2). = KE 2. y. H = H (x. 1). the electric vector being always oriented 90° with the magnetic vector.

Hz = F(x -. 2. Prove thatE=-VxeH= at c 2W C2 at2 192W at2 isa solution of (297). 9.W)+Kµa and V satisfies V2V =at2 .Vt) + F(x + Vt). where aV 2 H=-vx at -V(V. 8. Integrate this equation and show that the Or as general solution of (288) is y = f(x . show that H. By considering (i) and (iv) of Example 100.174 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Prove that Maxwell's equations for insulators (a = 0) are v x H= KaE C at and V x E_. Look up a proof of the laws of reflection and refraction. Derive (294). By letting E = f(x . V = c/.Vt). provided that W satisfies V2W = e 7.= aX2 2 1 a2y V2 at2 reduces to -ay = 0. Derive (287a).c a (297) 5. s =x+ Vt. where f and F are arbitrary functions.Vt). 81 This equation is the same as that which occurs for "electrically" free space with a complex dielectric coefficient. Poynting's Theorem. show that P= Poe-4x'`i` 81. the Hertzian vector. c 6. obtaining c(H-V xE - xH) = -H aB at ID at (298) .Vt. 4. Show that the solution of (297) can be expressed in terms of a single vector V. and show that. Our starting point is Maxwell's equations. Dot Eq. = VKIIA E. (iv) with E and subtract. Problems 1. a2y 3. (iii) of (284) with H and Eq. Letr=x.

awm aQl + at + at + at (299) Integrating over a volume R and applying the divergence f if aQ dr + 4r f f E x H. find the energy density after finding the magnetic wave H. Lorentz's Electron Theory. 3.E V x H = V (E x H). we may find the flux through the boundary surface of the vector s = (c/4T)E x H and add to this the rate of generation of heat within the volume.SEc. Equation (300) states that to determine the time rate of energy loss in a given volume V.Vt)k. = pv. 821 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 175 Now from (218) aw. H V x E . Problems 1. j = pv.. E = Eo sin co(x . awM at at and from Sec.. It is natural to interpret Poynting's vector as the density of energy flow. 82. Find the Poynting vector around a uniformly charged sphere placed in a uniform magnetic field.c. Find the value of E and H on the surface of an infinite cylindrical wire carrying a current. 75 it is easy to prove that E ja is Joule's power loss = aQ Moreover. the conduction current. so aw. Now dr awmec.. If E of Sec.. We define s = (c/4x)E x H as Poynting's vector. and Maxwell's equations become . at that we rewrite (298) as c V (E X H) = -41r theorem. we obtain aw. at 1 E aD at aw. Show that Poynting's vector represents a flow of energy into the wire. _ 4ir at H aB 4r at 1 Let us write j = jo + jc where jo represents the galvanic current and j.dd f f at dr J (300) where w is the total energy density. 80 is sinusoidal..a. For charges moving with velocity v. 2. and show that this flow is just enough to supply the energy which appears as heat.

p 4rp K _ 14 cat c2 812 (303) . and substitute into (iv). so that E + 1 A -vgp. Let D= KE. From (ii) we can write B = V x (Ao + Vx) = V x A. we obtain z v2A cl-p c2 at2 v + V j. (302) where vA+c2 at Now = -K V2(p - K(--AKa2S0/ C at c at2 so that _ vg Kp. B = pH. 12. Substitute this value of B into (iii) and obtain V x E C v x Af or its equivalent 0 vx(E+catA/ I Thus E + A is irrotational. 82 (i) (ii) (iii) (301) V (iv) xH = 4c (pv + D) These equations are due to Lorentz.176 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 4irp [SEc. We have I µ V x (V xA) = - r Ipv+ 4a( z at2A-vaC1 SO c t and since V x (V x A) = --V2A + V(V A).

4w K v25p-=-= K a2c C2 at 2 (305) P . _ This is called the equa- tion of gauge invariance. If we can solve it. t. i aA° = Now B = V x A0 and E -v4p° so that + C at E = -cat where A = A0 + V. y.vp 1a v((P° l aA (BA at aA0 at -cat °x = _ asoo c°) Iax _ C at 1 a2x C ate (p + constant aso at at Now we desire a' c2 at ao C z C at at21 or 2 vzx cz atz -v A0 a° cz (304) The right-hand side of (304) is a known function of x. we must be able to solve it.v.SEC. Let us see if this is possible. This equation is called the inhomogeneous wave equation.at _ O. Thus 1 c and I aAo cat . and if the equation of gauge invariance is to hold. They are v2A-c2 a2t2 = 4cµP. 821 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 177 Equations (302) and (303) would be very much simplified if we could make VA+ KA a c. the Lorentz equations will reduce to four inhomogeneous wave equations and so will also be solvable. x.

with H = V x A. + axp + aH = ° ax. axa axs 3. 4. 2 i = 1. P. c show that for the Lorentz trans(y2/C2)]l formations P12 = -171 = trix P 1.3. a. 24). and show that _ F" 8C.2. 1 a2p c2at2 a2tp a2.H. Fit = -F. 3.Es 0 E. z. show that aF.Es --E. Retarded Potentials. A2. y. 4. the A. x' = ct. satisfying V2A = C2 at2' while p satisfies 2 V 2v = - 4. 83 Problems 1.p a24.47rF(x. i = 1. i or j = 4. Kirchhoff's Solution of 72 1 2 V2 av . 0 Hr -HY E. y = 1. = x) x2 = y. Let X. Show that V E = 0. If P. .Hz . yields V x H = at and Also aFj- aF#.. show that 825.s = 0. = (A1.. and E= 0 -cat .# axy -1 axr. C axi _ aC. 11.4 yields V x E _ 4 4 and V H = 0. axf . a2. x3 = z. ll - Ht Complete the ma- 83. 2. 3.178 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. 0 Hx EY H. Consider the four-dimensional vector C..1. t) . otherwise Fu = F. Sec. 2. For the Lorentz transformations (see Prob. We call 2. -q').p a2(p c2ai2 1 a2V the D'Alembertian. A3.

SEC. 83] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 179 To find the solution (p(P.p dT = f f B Vp . = f(r + Vt)/r is one such solution. we surround the point P by a small sphere of Fia.p t_V actd-r-4'rfff FOd-r= f f R B . where f is arbitrary. t) of the inhomogeneous wave equation at t = 0. 71). . We know that 4. fJ f R V2.V#) dd dd + f f (# V-p . + fJ a (307) . and let S be the surface of a region R containing P (see Fig.. V2f If (4.2. radius e. ..V2 a Equation (306) now becomes = 0. 71. ..p Vu') 9 (306) We choose for ¢ a solution of 'V24. We apply Green's formula to this region.

Notice that f = 0 for Ir + Vti > a. with the addias f(r + Vt) d(r + Vt) = 1.+ Now on E. the value of (310) reduces to approximately . t)dt dr = f. da . where 6 is tional restriction that arbitrary for the moment. jr + Vt[ > a.. Now let us choose t2 > 0 and tl negatively large. Since f is arbitrary._ = 1 [f(E + Vt) Vf'(r + Vt)1t2 dr so that (308) reduces to 12 V2 f If [f(r + Vt) &p at r Ef'(E + Vt) E2 . E 2 ... let us choose f ° 0 for jr + VtI > 6. It r since Ir + V121 > a. dT = f dt (if .4w f if + 91 fiFf(r+ r t.4 j:2 dt j f f F4.+ f f s . 83 Equation (307) is true for all values of t so that we may integrate (307) with respect to t between limits t = tl and t = t2. Moreover ft F f(r + Vt) dt = 1 fttip f(r + Vt) d(r + Vt) =Vj da F f (x) dx (310) for a fixed r. We obtain III at at 1:2 l rr dT . Hence f [f(r + Vt) &p r at L _ Vf'(r + Vt) _ t.} (309) Let us now return to a consideration of f(r + Vt).t: dt f(E + Vt) R] JJ ` f [f( Vt) 1 E . so that for all values of r in the region R.. I r + V4J > S. ¢ _ (1/E)f( + Vt) and j f + Vt)] dS (308) v o da = - ar.180 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. Now if S is chosen very small.

0 E ff rf(E + Vt) Dtp L E + (pf'(E + Vt) E R] dd = 0 since dd is of the order E2.SBc. dd) = ff f . dd + f f j i s rV f at dt (Dr dd) on integrating by parts and noticing that f} = 0.f f j. Dtp are bounded for a fixed a. Finally. we see that lim e-.-r/V (314) . f .t dt r f'(Dr . 831 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 1 181 V r (F) z=o IL f(x) dx = 1 V (r t_-r/v Hence the left-hand side of (3' 09) reduces to 4V ()t_-r/vdr (311) Now considering the right-hand side of (309). tp.p t--r/V 1 1 t3(o r rV at t.t dt s [f(r + Vt) r (313) + -f Dr] . and f. dS = f(E + - v 47rcp(P) 1 (312) and for small 6. Vt).-r/V -. Finally the right-hand side of (313) becomes equivalent to V sf f(rD t . fs f i:' dtlf(r+ Vt)D L (rf' r 2 r2 Dr] dd = s ii fl' dt{f(r+Vt)Dp-Vr].dd r f . We also have that lim since f f dS = E t: jI dt f f 'pE.

182 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 83 Combining (311). hence the name retarded potential. and V (P)= JJJ f fJ W t. when evaluated at t = -r/V on the surface S. since future events cannot affect past eventsl . The values of the magnetic and electric intensities at any particular point P at any instant t are.Vt). The effects at P. we should have obtained a solution depending on the advanced potentials. t) = 4 Ie r t-(r/V) dr 317) .v(P. have the value zero until a definite time T.t)'JLI x t . For large r. and (314). due to elements at a distance r from P. but by its previous history.-r/V pv di - (316) The solutions to (305) are thus seen to be A (P. Had we considered the function f(r .(r/V). in general. ~ V r + rV at V r) t= -r/'V dd (315) Now let S recede to infinity and assume that (p. (312). we obtain V(P) ` 1 JR J F= -r/ v S dr 1 .(r/V) whe re V = Finally. Physically this is impossible. t = -r/V is negative and so is always less than T. determined not by the state of the rest of the field (p. dr B=VxA l aA E=-'cat-V (318) The physical interpretation of these results is simple.i fJ (v . depend on the state of the element at a previous time t -. This is just the difference in time required for the waves to travel from the element to P with the velocity V = c/ V AK. Hence the surface element vanishes. v) at that particular instant.

-) 1 (c) Find p from the equation of gauge invariance. A short length of wire carries an alternating current.V o. =O (b) Show that H.SEC.Isin0 c// cr cr A. 831 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 183 Problem 1. j = pv = Io (sin wt)k. =jot sin wit . and then E.rc//J k and that in spherical coordinates \ c/l / Ae= . (a) At distances far removed from the wire. -1/2 5 z 5 1/2. E from E + c A . and that Hw = cr sin 0 cos w Ct ..r1 cos 0 A. E8. ..Iotsinwlt.c) + r sin w IC t . show that A= j-o1 cr sin w (t . = He = 0.

CHAPTER 6

MECHANICS

84. Kinematics of a Particle. We shall describe the motion of a particle relative to a cartesian coordinate system. The motion of any particle is known when r = x(t)i + y(t)j + z(t)k is known, where t is the time. We have seen that the velocity

and acceleration, relative to this frame of reference, will be given by

v' dt i +dt

a=

d2x

dtz 1

dt

k

k

d2y

j

+

d zz

+

dtz

dt2

The velocity may also be given by v = vt, where v is the speed

**and t is the unit tangent vector to the curve r = r(t). Differentiating, we obtain
**

(319)

a=dt

by making use of (95).

dtt+vdsdt

=dtt+Kv2n

Analyzing (319), we see that the accelera-

**tion of the particle can be resolved into two components: a
**

tangential acceleration of magnitude dt, and a normal accelera-

This latter acceleration is called centripetal acceleration and is due to the fact that the velocity vector is changing direction, and so we expect the curvature to play a role here. For a particle moving in a plane, we have seen in Sec. 17, Example 18, that the acceleration may be given by

tion of magnitude v2rc = v2/p. a

- r ` de]R -}- r d (2 de P = [ dt

r

184

2r

2l

SEC. 84J

MECHANICS

185

**and that its a c celeration is only radial. In this case we must
**

have r d [ r2 de1 = 0, and integrating, +r2 dte = h = constant.

Example 101.

Let us assume that a particle moves in a plane

**From the calculus we know
**

that the sectoral area is given by dA = }r2 dB (see Fig. 72).

Thus dA = constant, so that

**equal areas are swept out in
**

equal intervals of time. Example 102. For a particle

Fie. 72.

**moving around a circle r = b
**

with constant angular speed coo =

d

we have dt = 0 and

(r2wo) = 0, so that a = -bwo2R.

Example 103. To find the tangential and normal components of the acceleration if the velocity and acceleration are known.

v=vt,

and

a v = vat

Also

and

so that

as =

v

**axv=va,nxt= -vanb
**

an = I$)V,i°I

Problems 1. A particle moves in a plane with no radial acceleration and constant angular speed wo. Show that r = Ae"o' + Be at. 2. A particle moves according to the law

**r = cos t i + sin t j + t2k
**

Find the tangential and normal components of the acceleration.

186

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYST °

[SEc. 85

**3. A particle describes the circle r = a cos 0 with constant
**

Show that the acceleration is constant in magnitude and directed toward the center of the circle. 4. A particle P moves in a plane with constant angular speed w about 0. If the rate of increase of its acceleration is parallel

speed.

**to OP, prove that ate = 4rw2
**

5. If the tangential and normal components of the acceleration

d2r

**of a particle moving in a plane are constant, show that the
**

particle describes a spiral. 85. Motion about a Fixed Axis. In Sec. 10, Example 12, we saw that the velocity is given by v = w x r. Differentiating, we obtain

dw dr a=wxa+dt xr

a=wxv+axr

(320)

**where a is the angular acceleration --' Since v = w x r, we at
**

wl

have also

a=wx(wxr)+axr

_ (w - r)w - w2r + a x r

**If we take the origin on the line of w in the plane of the
**

motion, then w is perpendicular

tororor = 0, so that

a= -w2r+axr

a x r is the tangential acceleracentripetal acceleration. If we assume that a particle P is rotating about two intersecting lines simultaneously, with angular velocities cal, w2 (Fig. 73), we can choose our origin at the point of intersection so that

Fm. 73.

tion, and w x (w x r) is the

vi = wl x r, and the total velocity is

v2 = 632 x r

V = V1 + V2 = (wi + (02) x r

SFC. 86]

MECHANICS

187

A particle on a spinning top that is also precessing experiences such motion. 86. Relative Motion. Let A and B be two particles traversing curves r, and r2 (Fig. 74). r, and r2 are the vectors from a point 0 to A and B, respectively.

r2=r+rl

written V4(B).

(321)

Definition: dt is the relative velocity of B with respect to A,

Fia. 74.

**Differentiating (321), we have
**

dr2

dr

dri

dt - dt

or

+

dt

Vo(B) = VA(B) + Vo(A) More generally, we have

(322)

Vo(A) = V4,(A) + VA,(A1) + VA.(A,) + ..

.

+

Vo(A.)

**It is important to note that V4(B) _ -VB(A).
**

Example 104. A man walks eastward at 3 miles per hour, and the wind appears to come from the north. He then decreases his speed to 1 mile per hour and notices that the wind comes

from the northwest (Fig. 75). What is the velocity of the wind? We have V0(W) = VM(W) + V0(M) G(ground)

188

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

ISEc. 86

In the first case

VM(W) = -kj,

so that

In the second case,

V0(M) = 3i

VG(JV) = -kj + 3i VM(W) = h(i - j),

so that

and

VG(M) = i

V0(W) = h(i - j) + i = (h + 1)i - hj,

3=h+1,

-k= -h,

VG(W) =3i-2j

miles per hour, and its direction The speed of the wind is makes an angle of tan-' I with the south line.

N

x.

E

S Fia. 75.

Fzo. 76.

Example 105. To find the relative motion of two particles moving with the same speed v, one of which describes a circle of radius a while the other moves along the diameter (Fig. 76). We have

P=acos0i-}-asin0j,

Q = (a - vt)i

adze=v

This assumes that both particles started together.

T -dQ=(-a sin0dO+v)i+acos0doi

VQ(P) = v(1 - sin 0)i + v cos 6 j

Sec. 87]

MECHANICS

189

**The relative speed is
**

IVQ(P)I = [v2(1

- sin

0)2 + v2 cos2 B]} = 2}v(1 - sin B)}

**Maximum IVQ(P)I occurs at 0 = 3x/2, minimum at 0 = x/2.
**

Problems 1. A man traveling east at 8 miles per hour finds that the wind seems to blow from the north. On doubling his speed, he finds that it appears to come from the northeast. Find the velocity of the wind. 2. A, B, C are on a straight line, B midway between A and C. It then takes A 4 minutes to catch C, and B catches C in 6 minutes. How long does it take A to catch up to B?

**3. An airplane has a true course west and an air speed of
**

200 miles per hour. The wind speed is 50 miles per hour from 1300. Find the heading and ground speed of the plane. 87. Dynamics of a Particle. Up to the present, nothing has

been said of the forces that produce or cause the motion of a particle. Experiment shows that for a particle to acquire an acceleration relative to certain types of reference frames, there must be a force acting on the particle. The types of forces

encountered most frequently are (1) mechanical (push, pull), (2) gravitational, (3) electrical, (4) magnetic, (5) electromagnetic. We shall be chiefly concerned with forces of the types (1) and (2). For the present we shall assume Newton's laws of motion hold for motion relative to the earth. Afterward we shall modify this. Newton's laws are: (a) A particle free from the action of forces will remain fixed or will continue to move in a straight line with constant speed. (b) Force is proportional to time rate of change of momentum,

that is, f = dt (mv). In general, m = constant, so that

The factor m is found by experiment to be an invariant for a given particle and is called the mass of the particle. In the theory of

relativity, m is not a constant. my is called the momentum. (c) If A exerts a force on B, then B exerts an equal and opposite force on A. This is the law of action and reaction: fAB = -fha

190

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

[SEC. 88

By a particle we mean a finite mass occupying a point in our Euclidean space. This is a purely mathematical concept, and physically we mean a mass occupying negligible volume as compared to the distance between masses. For example, the earth

**and sun may be thought of as particles in comparison to their distance apart, to a first approximation.
**

88. Equations of Motion for a Particle.

Newton's second law

**may be written f = m dt = ma. We postulate that the forces
**

acting on a particle behave as vectors. This is an experimental fact. Hence if fl, f2j . . . , f act on m, its acceleration is given by

a

1

(fl+f2+....+fn)_

1I

m

,

mti_1

f f f,_ m

We may also write f = m d

dt2

where r is the position vector from

is at rest or is moving with constant velocity, then

**the origin of our coordinate system to the particle. If the particle d
**

dt2

= 0, and

so f = 0, and conversely. Hence a necessary and sufficient condition that a particle be in static equilibrium is that the vector

sum of the forces acting on it be zero.

**A standard body is taken as the unit mass (pound mass). A
**

poundal is the force required to accelerate a one-pound mass one foot per second per second. The mass of any other body can be compared with the unit mass by comparing the weights (force of f12/ m2 gravit y at mean sea leve l ) o f th e two objects. This assumes the equivalence of gravitational mass and inertial mass. Example 106. Newton's law of gravi-

**tation for two particles is that every
**

pair of particles in the universe exerts

Fzo. 77.

a mutual attraction with a force directed along the line joining the particles, the magnitude of the force being inversely

Let

proportional to the square of the distance between them and directly proportional to the product of their masses.

f12 = (Gmim2/r2)R (see Fig. 77). G is a universal constant.

78).M/r3)r From the second law GmM rs r d2r m dt2 dv dt M so that dv dt GM r3 (323) Fia. or equal areas are swept out in equal intervals of time.(Gm. Moreover. so that (v x h) GM d d r x (r x v) (325) . We shall assume that the sun is fixed at the origin of a given coordinate system (Fig. r I r x dt ] = r h = 0. Now a xh from (324). 78. Now d v) dt (r x dv = r x dt and hence d dt(rxv)=rx(-GMr) =0 r x v = h = constant vector This implies or rxa = dr (324) h Since Ir x drl = twice sectoral area. so that r remains perpendicular to the fixed vector h.SEC. This is Kepler's first law of planetary motion. and the motion is planar. 88] MECHANICS 191 the mass of the sun be M and that of the earth be m. The force act- ing on the earth due to the sun is f = . and -GMrxh= -GMrx(rxv) (v x h) = d x h. we have 2 dA = Ihl.

k) Thus (327) (328) r h2/GM 1 + (k/GM) cos (r. v Hence R so that (325) becomes \ d(vxh)=-GMrx (rxrR) / = -GMRx(RxdR) -GM K R . k) We choose the direction of the constant vector k as the polar axis. we obtain vxh=GMR+k and h' = GMr + rk cos (R. where R is a unit vector. which states that the orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one of the foci. Integrating (326). 88 Now r = rR.192 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS SEC. For the planets these conic sections are closed curves. ddR t/ R .R2 dRJ (326) = GM ddR since R is a unit vector. Let us now write the ellipse in the form S r 1+ e cos 9 where e= GM' p k . so that r h'/GM 1 + (k/GM) cos 8 (329) This is the polar equation of a conic section. so that we obtain Kepler's second law.

e2)i Zral .c2 = a2 . A particle of mass m is attracted toward the origin with a force . Problems 1.e2a2. 0) with velocity vo > k/a perpendicular to the x axis.1+e + ep 1-e 2p 2h2 1-e2 GM(1-e2 The dA = Jh. Find the reaction between bead and rod.ra2(1 .h .2)1. the rod always lying in a horizontal plane.e2)1 = G1Mi 0 _ GM = constant. 88] MECHANICS 193 The curve ci osses the polar axis at 0 = 0. b2 = a2 . At what angle should the shot leave to attain a maximum horizontal distance? . . which states that the squares of the periods of revolution of the planets are proportional to the cubes of the mean distances from the sun. show that the path is given by r = a cos 0.a1GiM1(1 47r2 2ara2(1 . for all planets (330) This is Kepler's third law.(k2m/r6)r. 2. A bead of mass m slides along a smooth rod which is rotating with constant angular speed w..SEC. 0 = it so that the length of the major axis is ep 2.(mk2/r3)R. In a uniform gravitational field (earth). 3. and since the period for one complete revolution is T Thus T2 2A . 0) with the speed vo = k/21a2 perpendicular to the x axis. show that the equation of the path is (OW k2)i r = a sec C 0 - avo I 4. a 16-pound shot leaves the putter's fingers 7 feet from the ground. dt For an ellipse. orb = a(l ._ If it starts from the point (a. If it starts from the point (a. A particle of mass m is attracted toward the origin with the force f = . area of the ellipse is A = Tab = .e2)1.

Let ro be its least distance to the sun. then we shall designate f. we do not know. If r. Since Eq. dt2 (332) We now define a new vector. A given particle will be under the influence of two types of forces: (1) internal forces. in general. Assume a comet starts from infinity at rest and is attracted toward the sun. l m. called the center-of-mass vector.r. Let us consider a system consisting of a finite number of particles moving under the action of various forces. f. so that This leaves n n A f ®= 0.11 . m' dt2 From Newton's third law we know that for every internal force n there is an equal and opposite reaction. is the position vector to the particle of mass m. Newton's second law becomes for this particle f1( + f1( = m. and f. System of Particles. This yields n J=1 f'c6> + f'(i) . f. 89. forces due to the interaction of the particle with the other particles of the system. that is. and (2) all other forces acting on the particle.(e) as the sum of the external forces acting on the jth particle. said forces being called external forces. (331) is true for each j. Show that the motion of the comet is given by r = 2ro/(1 + cos 0). by the equation Im. 89 5. we can sum up j for all the particles. d2r' (331) Unfortunately. ra =1' = n n n (333) 7-1 .(').=1 1-1 d 2r..(i) as the sum of the internal forces acting on this particle.194 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. so that we shall not try to find the motion of each particle but shall look rather for the motion of the system as a whole.

then the center of mass will always remain at rest. = constant satisfies the equation of motion and the initial condition 0. The equations of motion for earth and sun are m d2r1 dt2 GmMR = . For the earth and sun we may choose the center of mass as the origin of our coordinate system (Fig. 79.=1 so that (332) becomes n f )ml f. we have mr. It is a geometric property and depends only on the position of the particles.(rl r2)2f M d2r2 dt2 GmMR _ (rl . 89) MECHANICS 195 The end point of r.(e)=M 2_1° z (334) Equation (334) states that the center of mass of the system accelerates as if the total mass were concentrated there and all the external forces acted at that point. 79). ' dt2 .SEC. + Mr2 = 0.12)2 Since r. since f = 0 so that d2° = 0. Example 107. and d2r1 d12 _ -GM rl [1 + (m/M))2 rig . = 0. is called the center of mass of the system. Fia. Differentiating (333) twice with respect to time. and r. we obtain Md2r` _ dt2 n md?r. If our system is composed of two particles in free space and if they are originally at rest.

x f. The vector quantity r x f is defined as the force moment. Find the center of mass. 80). Momentum and Angular Momentum. f The total angular momentum is given by n j-1 91. 4. Torque. 8 are placed at the corners of a unit cube. The momentum of a particle of mass m and velocity v is defined as M = mv. Particles of masses 1. Find the force of attraction of a hemisphere on another hemisphere. Show that the center of mass is independent of the origin of our coordinate system. The results of Example 106 hold by replac- ing M by M[1 + (m/M)1-2. 7. 90. 6. or Force Moment. of the particle about the origin 0. 2. The total momentum of a system of particles is given by M = j m. Find the center of mass of a uniform hemisphere. x mjvj (336) whose end point lies on the line of action of the force (see Fig. j-1 We have at once that dM dt I mj j-1 n dv1 n dt = I f. The vector quantity r x my is defined as the angular momentum. or torque. j-1 (337) .196 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. 2. Problems 1. of f about 0. 3. 80. 3. Let H = E r. n Fla. 4. 91 This shows that m is attracted toward the center of mass by an inverse-square force.v1. (e) = f j-1 (335) We emphasize again that the mass of each particle is assumed constant throughout the motion. f be a force acting in a given direction and let r be any vector from the origin L = I r. or moment of momentum. the two hemispheres forming a full sphere. For a system of forces. 5.

Prove that the torque due to internal forces vanishes. . 92.r2) x f The couple depends only on f and on any vector from the line of action of -f to the line of action of f. What of the torque due to two equal and opposite forces both acting along the same line? It is zero. negative. acting at an arbitrary point. We are now in a position to prove that the time rate of change of angular momentum is equal to the sum of the external torques for a system of particles. Prove this first for a single force. 3. provided that the resultant of the forces is parallel to the vector joining the two origins. Show that if the resultant of a system of forces is zero.r) x f = 0 since ri . The torque due to this couple is Fio. L = r1xf+r2x(-f) = (r1 . Problems 1. 81.SEC.r is parallel to f. A Theorem Relating Angular Momentum with Torque. . Let ri be a vector to f and r2 a vector to -f. for The answer is in the (r. for r1xf+r1x(-f) =r1x(f-f)=0 Two equal and opposite forces with different lines of action constitute a couple (see Fig. Hence rl x f = r x f. Show that any set of forces acting on a body can be replaced by a single force. plus a suitable couple. 2. Show that the torques about two different points are equal. 81). the total torque about one point is the same as that about any other point. 4. 921 MECHANICS 197 We immediately ask if the torque is different if we use a differ- ent vector ri to the line of action of f.

we obtain . x m. space. It is occasionally more useful to choose a moving point Q as the origin of our FIG.rQ) x m. that is. 82). n d2r. -. is taken relative to 0.198 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS n [SEC. Moment of Momentum (Continued). dt2 n dri dri + j=1 dt x m' dt j-1 r' x I (f1" + f. whereas the subscript Q stands for the fact that the lever arm is measured from Q to the particle m. 93 Since H = Ir3xmjv j=1 j=1 r. di j-1 dri (339) The superscript a stands for absolute momentum. x n f. Differentiating (339).(e) =L (338) 93. We define Let 0 be a fixed point and Q any point in n HQa = I (r. coordinate system. 82. the velocity of m. (Fig. (') ) aii = dt j=1 I r. x dri m'dt we have on differentiating dH _ dt n Z r.

if LQ(e) = 0.(i)=0. then He . drQ dre dt dt 0 In all three cases dHe dt = LQ(e) (341) In particular. dt . 94. . so that M dt = l1 m1 dr. so that drQ dt =0 2. Q at rest. It is often more convenient to calculate the velocity of each particle relative to Q. 93 we assumed that the absolute velocity of each particle was known.. dt` = 0 3. dr. -. Center of mass at rest. so that dHQa dt = or M drQ (r. j=1 drQ dl n xLm'dt+I j=1 n dr1 n (r1 . dt d2r. 91.rQ) dt x dt + j-1 dF I n x fj(e) dtQa LQ (e) -M Qx dt dtc (340) We can simplify (340) under three conditions: 1. rQ) x "ni dt2 dt / + L (r. Velocity of Q is parallel to velocity of center of mass.SEc.(i)) j-1 Now Mr = j=1 m.drQ dt We now define rela- . In Sec. and this is the law of conservation of angular momentum.(e) + f . j=1 j-1 r1 x f. and n f. 941 MECHANICS 199 nn` dHQa dt _ j=1 (dri _ (dt drQl X 7n.rQ) x (f.r.constant. This is dr.(') = 0 from Sec. Moment of Relative Momentum about Q.

A system of particles lies in a plane. rQ = rQ.rQ) = 0 d2rQ M dt2 x (r.rQ) x mj dl (rj .rQ) (342) dt j-1 = (r' . 2.rQ) x ` f3(i)) d2rQ dt2 x I m. .rQ) x dt2 = M(r.rQ is parallel to n 2 dt' Problems 1.rQ) = 0 (344) Now (344) holds if 1.rQ) js1 Under what conditions does dd Q' = Lo d2rQ n ? We need dt2 or x I mj(rj . . LQ(' + 'rQ d12 n x I mj (rj . r. dHQ* (rj . each . Q moves with constant velocity.200 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. or Q is at the center of mass. .rQ) j-1 (343) n We see that dtiQr a. Show that jet m4(r1 . 94 tive moment of momentum about Q as n HQr = j-1 Differentiating. (rj .rQ) x a rQ d2rQ dt2 2.rQ) x m' / (d2rj dl2 (fj(ei d2rQ dt2 (r7 . 2 dQ = 0. l 3. and each particle remains at a fixed distance from a point 0 in this plane.

We define the kinetic energy of a particle of mass m and velocity v as T = jmv v.-r n 1 n .-r-) so that dr. It is obvious that r.-1 m1 alt (r.1-1 1 fdrs\ 2 dt 1 (345) `r P. . j=1 Show that Ho = Iw. .r. .SEC.rc) ] 2 Hence 1 dr" T=2M (dr12 +dt dtJ d 2 + jn n 1 2 m' r`)] [dt (r' n (346) Now Mr.=rr+(r. 83). and (346) reduces to T=IM ()2 -}- -1 2 m. L dt (r. j-1 r. r.r. What point can be taken as Q so that the equation of motion (343) would be simplified? 95. = j-1 m. Kinetic Energy. and show that Lo = I at 3. be the vector to the center of 0 mass C (Fig. _ (dro)2 di dt dt _ dr. .)]2 a)(347) 1 This proves that the kinetic energy of a system of particles is equal to the kinetic energy of a particle having the total mass . Now let r.r.r-) = 0. 83.r-) I d.2.2 2 m' r Fia.. 95] MECHANICS n 201 particle rotating about 0 with angular velocity w. dt +2 drd (r. C M For a system of particles. . T f=1 2 mv. A hoop rolls down an inclined plane. dr.rc) -{dt dt n + d dt (r. where I = I m. dt dr. [-d dt (r. so that .

Vi and integrating and summing over all particles. If the field is conservative. the work done in taking the particle from a point A to a point B is independent of the path (see Sec. The change in the kinetic energy of a system of particles is equal to the total work done by both the external and internal forces. 96. vi dt + fee:' fi('i . n J`o mivi dt' dt = La i:1 fi(a) . v. and let f and -f be the internal forces of one particle on the other and conversely. 52). V1. dt or n i=1 lmi[vi2(ti) . the internal forces do no work. Now (r.) dt dvi = fi(e) . Work.r2) (r. dt m.r2) = constant . Now dvi = fj(a) + fi(. (ri . plus the kinetic energy of the particles in their motion relative to the center of mass.rk)2 = constant.vi2(to)l = W(e) W° (349) This is the principle of work and energy. If the particles always remain at a constant distance apart. + mivi . no work is done. . If a particle moves along a curve r with velocity v under the action of a force f. we define the work done by this force as W= fr f fr f t f acts at right angles to the path. f = -V(p. 96 of the system and moving with the center of mass. . and r2 be the position vectors of two particles whose distance apart remains constant.202 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Let r.

= to x r. . n Show that T= 2. to 3.0 miles per Use the principle of work and energy.2 and that v.v2) = 0 from (350). Problems 1. 4.r2) (v. at least to the unaided eye. . Actually no such systems exist. this postulate implying that we can use second. Rigid Bodies.r2) Also dr. A particle falls from infinity to the earth. . Ave have f = a(r. A system of particles has an angular velocity w. We postulate that we can subdivide the body into a great many small parts so that we can apply our laws of motion for particles to this system.lw x r. at least to a first approximation.Sec. .2. If to of Prob. being the shortest distance from m. Moreover.. but rather will have a continuous distribution. 97. .r2. Show that it strikes the earth with a speed of approximately 7.J2.r2) and f (v. Show that the kinetic energy of a system of rotating particles is constant if the system is subjected to no torques.dr2 dt/ f 0 (350) W(o = ff f is parallel to r. d. md. di . . Show that dT = w L. 1 has a constant direction. What if L is perpendicular to w? 5. but for practical purposes there do exist such rigid bodies. the rigid body may not consist of a finite number of particles.v2) = a(r. n i-i Jm. . where I = line of w. by using the fact that T = 4-mv. show that T = }Iw2. 97] MECHANICS 203 so that (r. Thus W(° = 0. By a rigid body we mean a system of particles such that the relative distances between pairs of points remain constant during the discussion of our problem.

the following form: Our laws of motion as derived above take T = f f f -pv2 dr. 98. so that P moves in a circle . for if r is the position vector from 0 to P. R p = density ff pr dr f f f p dr R dr. 98 the integral calculus. It is easy to prove that the velocity f V (P1 = yr of any other point P of the body must be perpendicular to the line joining 0 P to P.E. since the body is rigid. Q. Let 0 be a point of a rigid body for which 0 happens to be fixed. 0.) is the external force per unit volume.r = constant throughout the motion so that r dt = We next prove that if two points of a rigid body are fixed. 2 ( 351) J f f f(e) R R dt2 H = f f f prxvdr -it ff r x f(e) dr where f(. Kinematics of a Rigid Body. then all other particles of the body are rotating around the line joining these two points. we have r . Moreover.204 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. the shortest distance from P to the line A B remains constant. body.D. Let A and B be the fixed points and P any other point of the From above we have so that P is always moving perpendicular to the plane ABP.

hope to find a fixed line about which the body is rotating.' If one point of a rigid body is fixed.rQ) (vp . VA. However. so that vQ = to. so that we can construct the plane through 0 and B perpendicular to vB. 84)..w) = 0 VA We leave it to the reader to conclude that w. x rQ. could be written We saw in Sec.w. 981 MECHANICS 205 around AB (Fig. 10 that the velocity of P VP =wxrp Is w the same for all particles? Yes! Assume Q is rotating about AB with angular velocity w. so .vQ) = 0 or (rP .Sec. B 1 FIG 85. Construct the plane through 0 and A perpendicular to VA (Fig. so that (rP . we cannot. is perpendicular to rA. 85). The proof proceeds as follows: Let 0 be the fixed point of our rigid body and let r` be the position vector to a point A. Now (rP . x rQ) = 0 Thus x rP and rQ x rp xrQ = 0 (w. Now choose a point B not in the plane. From above we know that the velocity of A. Both planes pass through 0. in general. . We also have that vB rB = 0.rQ) ((a x rp . there does exist a moving line passing through the fixed point so that at any instant the body is actually rotating around this line. = w.rQ)2 = constant.

o. We have ei = a + r.206 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. (rc . Let and let 0-x-y-z represent a coordinate system fixed in the rigid body (see Fig. 98 that their line of intersection.. where r. body. Let . This means that FIG.(vc-VA) =0 and (rc .rA) . Moreover.(rc . passes through 0. so that (re-rA).rA) VC = 0. Similarly (re . and let a be the vector from 0' to 0.rA) ° constant. dt . is the vector from 0 to the jth particle.da dt dt + dr. then v.rB) vc = 0. Hence from the previous paragraph the motion is that of a rotation about the line 1. and r. If w is the angular-velocity vector. . Hence the projections of vc in three directions which are nonplanar are zero. 86.. Now consider any point C on this line. Vc . and differentiating.rA). We have vc rc = 0. 1. dLD. since vA is perpendicular to (rc . so that we have two fixed points at this particular instant. = w x r. 86).0. Now let us consider the most general type of motion of a rigid -r represent a fixed coordinate system in space. represent the vectors from 0' and 0 to the jth particle.

ri = (a Thus vi = d +w x(b . 0" does w change? (Fig. and from above we know that dt . and r2 are two position vectors from the origin of the moving system of coordinates to two points in the rigid body.xr.wl) x (b-a-r.wl.) The answer is "No"! Let b be the vector from 0' to 0". da But db dt and dt +w x (b . xri Subtracting (352) from (353). Show that if r. Hence w.a) -. Problems 1. dt2 + r2 .)= We can certainly choose an r. dri This means 0 is fixed as far as Pi is concerned."=0 0 and not parallel to the vector w . We next ask the following question: If we change our origin from 0 to. ° w.=0 or (w . 87.SEC. Then v.w x ri.dtl = 0. at any particular instant.a)+wi x (a -b)+w.. 98] MECHANICS 207 Now l represents the velocity of Pi relative to 0.-w) xr. we obtain (353) (w . 0 rf ' =t= + w. . Thus _dei = v' da dt dt +wxr.wi) x (b-a)+(w. say. the most general type of motion of a rigid body is that of a translation A dt plus a rotation w x r." xr. (352) that is. then r.b) + ri Fio. 87.

Relative Time Rate of Change of Vectors. Show that the most general motion of a rigid body is a translation plus a rotation about a line parallel to the translation. as measured by an observer in the moving frame. . _ di dj dt k+S= dt+Sydt+S'dt (355) We do not keep i. 99. the moving system of coordinates S = S i + Sj + S.208 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.dt and i -} dS dt j + d k + w x (3j + DS S dt + w x dS. Hence dk = w x k. dS dt = dt 1+ dS=. But we do know that dt is the velocity of a point one unit along the x axis. A plane body is moving in its own plane. for S= is measured in the moving frame and so d _ t is the time rate of change of S. 88). k fixed since i.k (354) To find out how S changes with time as measured by an observer at 0'. Let S be an y vector measured in (Fig. 3. Find the point in the body which is instantaneously at rest. S1t) dS dt (356) where DS represents the time rate of change of S relative to the moving frame. dk dS. we differentiate (354). d = w x is dt = w x it at dS Hence (355) becomes dSs dt . 88. Fin. j. 99 2. relative to 0. dS dt'+ . k suffer motions relative to 0'. j.

so that _ dp _ A dr v dt dt + dt Now r is a vector measured in the O-x-y-z system. . S does not change length or direction if 0 is translated. From (356) show that di = w x i. The vector sum is the velocity of P relative to the frame 0'--i-r. and the velocity of P relative to the 0-x-y-z frame. 89). from 0' and 0. It is the motion of S relative to the frame O-x-y-z and the rotation about 0 that produce changes in S. 89. A is the drag velocity of P.SEC. that is. What of the motion of 0 itself? Will not this motion have to be considered? The answer is "No. This yields dr _ Dr + to x r and dt t FIG. The reader might well ask. dS DS dt dt = Let P be any point in space and let 9 and r be the position vectors to P 100. For a pure translation show that 3. Velocity. Show that d dl 2. Obviously a + r. co x r is Dr is the velocity due to the rotation of the 0-x-y-z frame. xr+Dr v dt -dt (357) This result is expected. respectively (see Fig. but to this change we must add the change in S because of the rotating frame. we expected the result of (356). so that 7t (356) applies to r. 1001 MECHANICS 209 Intuitively. for not only does S change relative to 0." for a translation of 0 only pulls S along. Problems 1.

Now let us analyze each term of the drag acceleration. d2a dt2 +wx(wxr)+dt xr & This vector sum is appropriately called the drag acceleration of the particle. 84 we saw that w x (w x r) represented the centripetal accel- eration due to rotation and d x r represented the tangential component of acceleration due to the angular-acceleration vector . we differentiate (357) and obtain dt2 + dt (wxr) + d d(Drl dt dt (358) We apply (356) to w x r and obtain d Similarly (wxr) = w x (wxr) + D (w x r) dldtl d2p d D xdt+d`dtl _ d2a dt2 dt 2 + w x (wxr) + Dr D2r do x r + 2w x dt dt + dt2 (359) If P were fixed relative Dr = D2r to the moving frame. J 01 101. Now in Sec. we would have 2 0. we would have 0 and consedt2 = dt quently P would still suffer the acceleration Let us analyze each term of (359). In Sec. If the moving frame were not rotating. Acceleration.210 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. 100 we saw that v=ac dv_d2p_d2a dt dt2 A dt+wxr+ Dr dt To find the acceleration. and the drag acceleration reduces to the single term dta This is the translational acceleration of 0 relative to 0'.

dt = that is.= 0 over a short time.). of the term 2w x dr? This term is called the Coriolis acceleration. Notice that the term disappears for par- ticles at rest relative to the moving frame. named after its discoverer. then. push. as the acceleration of P What. for then dt = 0. If f is the vector sum of the external forces (real forces. Example 108. Also dt . dta = 0. lrl . and (359) becomes D2r dt2 d2a dt2 . Let us consider the earth as our rotating frame. pull. The quantity w x ((a x r) is small. since jwl 27r/86. gravitation. We do not try to give a geometrical or physical reason for its existence. it occurs in Eq. d2 .0 over a short time.2w x dt + m (360) d4. then d p = m. Suffice to say. etc. and for a particle near the earth's surface.SEC. Any other coordinate system moving relative to an inertial frame with constant velocity D d2 is also an inertial frame.280) feet. (359) and must be considered when we discuss the motion of bodies moving over the earth's surface. (4. since from (359) we have d e = because w = Of dt2r 66 Let us now consider the motion of a particle relative to the earth." We call such a frame of reference an inertial frame.000)(5. It is found that the frame of reference for which this law holds best is that of the so-called "fixed stars. also does not exist for nonrotating frames. 1011 MECHANICS D2r 211 d We easily explain the term relative to the O-x-y-z frame. It Now Newton's second law states that force is proportional to the acceleration when the mass of the particle remains constant. da . 2 1 0.164 rad/sec.3 Dr f This is the differential equation of motion for a particle of mass m with external force f applied to it. da d1 constant.w x (w x r) .d x r .

If h is the . 90). Let the z axis be taken as the line joining the center of the earth to P. at but to a first approxima- tion it is -gtk + Moreover. so that (f/. we can keep A constant. = 0. + Cf m / S Fio. and (362) dt' = 2wgt cos A If the particle remains in the vicinity of latitude A. w = w sin A k + w cos A j (see Fig. m We do not know i. Hence (w x d2x at) 0 = -wgt cos A. Now f (force of attraction) has no component eastward. We shall denote the latitude of the place by A. 90. we obtain dx dt =wgt2cosA 3ts cos A X= (363) (363) is to a first approximation the eastward deflection of a shot if it is dropped in the Northern Hemisphere. assuming A > 0. and let the x axis be taken perpendicular to the z axis in the eastward direction. 101 so that (360) becomes D2r dt2 -2w x dt + m (361) Now consider a freely falling body starting from a point P at rest relative to the earth. The equation of motion in the eastward direction is given by yd1x t2 _ -2 (w x dj dt .212 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. so that on integrating (362).

3. i$ be the unit tangent vectors to the spherical curves r. so that x = 3 wh 2 cos X ( J 2gh1} Problems 1. then h = Jgt2 approximately. 91. We leave it to the reader to show that the acceleration . CO Fio. A body is thrown vertically upward. let us consider the motion of the Foucault pendulum (see Fig. z axis along the plumb line. 4. Let ii. Choose the x axis east.2wcos0 y=0 dt dt dt +2w cos0dy =0 dtz-g-2w sin0dx =0 2 where 0 is the colatitude. y axis south. Show that it strikes the ground 'jwh cos X (2h/g)1 to the west. p. 91). i2. 8.SEc. 1011 MECHANICS 213 distance the shot falls. 3. 2. Using the coordinate system of Prob. and show that the equations of motion for a freely falling body are d2x W +2wsinU z. Show that the winds in the Northern Hemisphere have a horizontal deflecting Coriolis acceleration 2wv sin X at right angles to v.

cos A j .Tr = . T has no component in the is direction. so that mgk has no component along the is direction.06 + sin 0 0 when the string is of unit length.Tit. j. we must compute Dr The velocity vector is the is component of -2w x Dr dt _ Bit + sin 6 rpis Also w = w(. T = .sin B i2 11 i2 is -2wx-=2w cos A sin 0 sin P + sin A cos 0 0 and -sinAsin0 6 sine c (- 2w x -D dt r = #(sin A sin 0 sin ip + sin A cos 0) Equation (361) yields 2 cos 006+ sin 8. so that we must find the relationship between i i2.p = 2w(B sin A sin B sin rp + # sin A cos 0) (364) . k.sin sp i + coo sp j i3)is Thus i = (i il)i. Now k is = 0. + (i i2)i2 + (i = sin 0 cos Tp it + cos 0 cos jP is -. The two external forces are mgk along the z axis and the tension in the string.sin rp is j = sin 0 sin Sp i. Finally.214 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.sin X k). is and i. We wish to find the component of these forces along the i3 direction. + cos B sin 'P i2 + C0803 k = cos 0 it . = sin0cosci+sin Bsin cpj+cos0k ail i2 = aB = cos 0 cos v i + cos 0 sin ail sin 0 k _ 1s 1 sin B ai . 101 along the is vector is 2 cos e . Now r = i.

wz f f f pxz dr] + j[ . = w sin X Hence the pendulum rotates about the vertical in the clockwise sense when viewed from the point of suspension with an angular speed w sin X.w f f f pxy dr . We can replace dt by to x r (w unknown).w: f f f pyz dr] + k[ -w=f f f pxz dr . Motion of a Rigid Body with One Point Fixed. 102.(x2 + y2)w]k We thus obtain H0? = i[w= f f f p(y2 + z2) dr . and (364) reduces to (365) . Find the equation of motion by considering the i2 components of (361) for the Foucault pendulum. Thus H0? = f f f pr x (w x r) dr R = fJf p[r2w . The motion of a rigid body with one point fixed will depend on the forces acting on the body.(r R w)r] dr (366) Let w=w=i+wyj+w r=xi+yj+zk so that r2w . + (22 + x2)wy . 102] MECHANICS 215 For small oscillations.(r w)r = (x2 + y2 + z2) (w i + wyj + W k) + (xwx + ywy + zws) (xi + yj + zk) = [(y2 + z2)wz .xzws]i + [-xyw. sin 0 0. 0 is the fixed point of the body.be the coordinate system fixed in space.yzw=lj + [-xzwz . In Sec. and let O-.yzwy -.w=f f f pxy dr + wyf f f p(z2 + x2) dr . At latitude 30° the time for one complete oscillation is 48 hours.SEC. Now Ho* = f if r x p dt dr. 94 we saw that -Or = Lo. Let O-x-y-z be a coordinate system fixed in the moving body.wyf f f pyz dr + w=f f f p(x2 + y2) dr] (367) . 5.xywy .

Dwv+Ccos (369) In the special case when the axes are so chosen that the products of inertia vanish (see Sec. B./ +j(-F + k \-E i dt . the scalars x. we have Euler's celebrated equations of motion : . -Ews . C are the moments of inertia about the x. Now from Sec.Fwv . y. F are called the products of inertia. dt + to x Hor L=i+Lvj+LA=i(A ds-F w dtE dts/ +Bdty-Ddt.Ewz. z. z axes.Dw=. We assume the student has studied these integrals in the integral calculus. That they are independent of the motion is seen from the fact that for a particle with coordinates x. and D. z remain invariant because the O-x-y-z frame is fixed in the body. 99 we have dHor dt _ DHor + w x Hor so that dt Lo = Hence DRO. E.D dt + C dta/ k WV + wy wt Aws . 107).216 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 102 The quantities A = f f f p(y2 + Z2) dr B=fffp(z2+x2)dr C = fffp(x2 + y2) dr D = f f fpyzdr E = f f fpzxdr F = f f f pxy dr (368) are independent of the motion and are constants of the body. The quantities A. -Fws+Bwv . y. y.

2 =constant (373) If originally the motion was that of a rotation of angular velocity w about a principal axis (x axis). (ii)..wZ dt (370) L. = C dw. (ii)..2 = constant This is one of the integrals of the motion. Euler's equations reduce to (i) A dwz dt- + (C B)wYw. respectively. (iii) by we obtain Aws dws w. = 0 (371) B dt +(A-C)w. L. and adding. dt + Bw dwY + Cw.SEc. This yields AZ w. and adding.2 + Cw. then initially . dt + (B A)wzwy 103. dws + BZwy'dw' dt dt + C2w. Applications.wx=0 C d. We obtain another integral by multiplying (i). If no torques are applied to the body of Sec.C)w.+(B-A}wZwY=0 Multiplying (i).z. (iii) by Aw... dt = 0 so that A 2w12 + B2wV2 + C2w. = A d[ + (C . dwa = 0 dt dt (372) Integrating yields Aws2 + Bw. 102..B)wYwz L = B dwY + (A . Bw. Cw. 1031 MECHANICS 217. dw.

C) . We can neglect ww: as compared Euler's equations now become B dty + (A . in (375). then (A . so that now the body has acquired the very small angular velocities w. wt.B) w02w = 0 (376) If A is greater than B and C or smaller than B and C.C) (A ..C)((A . wo(A . 103 0 ws(0) = 0 (374) and we notice that (371) and the boundary condition (374) are satisfied by wt(t) = -coo 0 wZ(t) = 0 so that the motion continues to be one of constant angular velocity about the x axis.. Now suppose the body to be rotating this way and then slightly disturbed. and the solution to (376) is wy = L cos (at + a) Also ws = aBL sin (at + a) by replacing w. to and wswo.218 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS wz(0) = coo [SEc.C)wswo = 0 Cdt +(B0 (375) wo = constant Differentiating the first equation of (375) with respect to time and eliminating d s' we obtain B z dtzy + (. Here we have used a theorem on the uniqueness of solutions for a system of differential equations.B) a2 = C > 0..

show that the initial motion continues. A sphere rotates about its fixed center. co. 92). 4. d1 + dO + d (377) . 0. 5. d(P represents the rotation of the O-x-y-z frame relative to the O-z-N-T frame. 104. Solve the free body with A = B for wzj co. A disk (B = C) rotates about its x axis (perpendicular to the plane of the disk) with constant angular speed wo.. and finally. L' the angle between the x' and N axes. The positive directions of these angles are indicated in the figure. and ws. 2. called the nodal line N. Euler's Angular Coordinates. Let 0 be the angle between the z and z' axes. Therefore and + dO + dt gives us the angular velocity of the O-x-y-z framed* relative to the fixed O-x'-y'-z' frame. Find w.SEC. de represents the rotation of the O-z-N-T frame relative to the O-z'-N-T' frame. rp completely specify the configuration of the body. More complicated problems can be solved by use of Euler's angular coordinates. Let O-x'-y'-z' be a cartesian coordinate system fixed in space.. Show that a necessary and sufficient condition that a rigid body be in static equilibrium is that the sum of the external forces and external torques vanish. 3. The three angles &. In Prob. Find w and W. 1041 MECHANICS 219 Problems 1. If the only forces acting on the sphere are applied at the center. Now d represents the rotation of the O-z'-N-T' frame relative to the O-x'-y'-z' frame. and let O-x-y-z be fixed in the moving body (Fig. The x-y plane will intersect the x'-y' plane in a line. 2 a constant torque Lo is also applied in the z direction. and (p the angle between the nodal line and the x axis.. A constant torque Lo is applied constantly in the y direction..

i'. 104 The three angular velocities are not mutually perpendicular. N. T axes. respectively. y.sin ' T' i = cos rp N + sin cp T . k. z'.sinpN+cosjpT i' = cos 4. j'. Now it is easy to verify that j = . j. 92. T'. T as unit vectors along the x. k'. z.j + wLk wz'i' + wy j' + wZ k' Fia. We now define i. y'. N.220 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. N . Thus w = d k (378) wzi + w. x'. T'.

Let us assume that no torques exist and that the top is symmetric (A = B). Motion of a Free Top about a Fixed Point.cos0sin8dt dcp (381) wy d +cos6d 105. N+cos#T' sin sin psin B cosspsin 0 so that ws at at at ki sin p sin 0 d + cos s dB w = cos (p sin 8 --. 1051 MECHANICS 221 sin 4.SEC.dt8 sin So (379) wI = d cos 8 +Also d (dB 2 wi=wss+w2+(O2= (d)2 dd + do +Cdt d2 dcp d# + 2 cos 8 dt dt (380) For the fixed frame w=- a sin>Gt . Euler's equations become . we have sin 0 sin (P + sin B cos do cos <p dt wy = d4.sin (p day day do W: = cos B d + at dp dt at Rewriting this. ..

and since H is fixed in space. Now H = Awzi + Bw.A)/A]wo. The Top (Continued). suspended with its center of mass at the point of support. + iwy) = iwo(C .C)cvxwZ = 0 (382) (iii) Cdts=O Multiply Integrating (iii). so that 9 is a constant since I HI = constant.. We . we obtain wz = w. We obtain by i = A dt (w= + iwv) + (C . We have assumed above that the weight of the top or gyroscope was negligible. and add to (i). Now w2 = ws2 + Wye + ws2 = a2 + wp2 = constant. that is. so that the magnitude of the angular velocity remains constant during the motion. so that co. it is the z axis of the body which is rotating about the fixed z' axis with constant angular speed -a = [(A . = a cos at wy = a sin at (383) where a = [(C . or that the gyroscope was balanced. so that H is a constant vector in fixed space. d = 0.iwz) = 0 or A d (co. Also H k = I HI cos 0 = Cwo.222 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS A [SEC. 106.A)(wx + i wz + 2Wy = ae<'(C-A)/ALot ) Integrating. Moreover. We say that the top precesses about the z' axis. 106 (i) (ii) A d' + (A . so that no torques were produced.C)/A]wo.A)wo(wy . = constant.A)/A]wo and a is a constant of integration.j + Cwk = Aa cos at i + Aa sin at j + Cwok (384) This shows that H rotates around the z axis (of the body) with constant angular speed a = [(C . We choose the z' axis for the direction of H.

SEC.A)w"ws + (A . = 0 ZI Fro.C)wws (385) 0=CdsforA=B Multiplying Eqs. (385) by wx. and adding. 2 d (Awx2 + Bw"2 + Cw. respectively. is not at the point of support..2) = Wl sin 0(wy cos w" sin (p) (386) . 93. 93) : L = 1kx(. We now have the following situation (Fig.-Wk') = WI sin ON The three components of the torque are Lz = WI sin 0 cos 'v L" = . Co. w". 106] MECHANICS 223 shall now assume that the center of mass. while still located on the axis of symmetry. Euler's equations become Wl sin 0 cos p = A . we obtain Hence w: = coo.Wl sin 0 sin p L.WI sin 8 sin (p = A dw= dt dwdt" + (C .

= constant. 106 From (379) we have wz cos P . (j)2 (dO)2 sin2 B + = a . so that sin 9+Cwocos0 = constant Replacing wr and w by their equals from (379). = wo = dt (389) cos B + LIP dt (390) Using (389). Let 16 = H.p + d sin (p sin B cos + di cos2 V sin2 0 (388) . (387) becomes ll2 x ( sin9 s 9/ +(de = a . b = Cwo/A. we have A sin2 9 sine..224 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Also H = AwJ + Bw j + Cwsk.a cos 0 (391) ./A. again using (379).sin2 9 From (379) d4' w. so that (388) becomes d' -bcos9 dt .a cos B (387) a and a are constants. so that (386) becomes 1 d (A w=2 + 2 dt d8 B dt and integrating Awx2 + Cwz2 = -2W1 cos 0 + k or. Now since Le = L k' = 0) we have HZ.w sin cp = de.dte cos V sin (p sin 9) + Cwo cos 8 = constant or A d sin2 9 + Cwo cos 9 = constant = He.

107] MECHANICS 225 Let z cos 0. If we can integrate and find z. r = xi + yj + zk (see Fig. The shortest distance from P to L is given by .z2' dt = wa d'y . then we shall know d4.SEC. and let r be the vector from 0 to any point P in the body.az) (1 .bz) 2]-} dz This integral belongs to the class of elliptic integrals. Let the line L be given by the unit vector ro = li + mj + nk. 94).bz)2 + Hence Cdt = (a .z2) . Inertia Tensor.az) (1 . 94. so that dt = . Fm.sin 6 2 -. 107.(g . 9-bz dip dt . and ( .1 . The moment of inertia of a rigid body about a line through the origin may be computed as follows.z2) (392) t = fos [(a .dt The reader should look up a complete discussion of elliptic integrals in the literature.

z' and A.2lmF Let us replace 1.Fy x By .2lmxy I = f f fpD2dzdydx = Ale + Bm2 + Cn2 . y. The distance from the origin to this point of intersection is given by d = (1212 + m2t2 + n2t2)} = t = I-f (394) so that We know that a rotation of axes will keep I fixed. 107 D2 = r2 -. .(r r0)2 _ (x2 + y2 + z2) . y = mt.Ex z (395) Any orthogonal transformation (Example 8) will preserve the form of (393) and (395) with x. let us find a point P on this surface at which the normal will be parallel to the radius vector to this point. y.2n1E .Dz .Dy . . and let us consider the surface .2lmF)t2 = 1 or t2 = 1/I. y. n by the variables x. z) = Axe + By2 + Cz2 --.2mnyz . . .p(x.(lx + my + nz)2 = Thus + z2) + m2(z2 + x2) + n2(x2 + y2) . First.(lx + my + nz)2 (12 _ 1l2(y2+ m2 + n2)(x2 + y2 + z2) .2Dmn . y. . z = nt. m. The normal to the surface is given by Vip. for the line and the body will be similarly situated after the rotation. z) = 1 for t satisfying (Al2 + Bm2 + Cn2 . y. B'.. P. so that we desire r parallel to Vv. which yields the equations Ax .2Fxy = 1 (393) A line L through the origin is given by the equation x = It. Now choose the . y'. .2Dyz . This line intersects the ellipsoid rp(x.2n1E . z. z replaced by x'.226 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. We now attempt to simplify the equation of the quadric surface .p(x. F replaced by A'. B. . z) = 1.Ez .2Ezx .2lnzx .Fx y Cz .2mnD .

In the proof we made the assumption that there was a point P such that r is parallel to V o. z) is continuous on the compact set x2+y2+z2 = 1 such a point always exists. y' = 0.SEC. We have thus proved the important theorem that a quadratic form of the type (393) can always be reduced to a sum of squares of the form (397) by a rotation of axes. y.. which means that E'=D'=0 and (393) reduces to A'x'' + B'y'' + C'z'' .2F'x'y' = 1 The rotation (396) x"=x'cos0-y'sin0 z" = z' y"= x' sin0+y'cos0 with tan 20 = F'/(B' . (395) by asking at what point on the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 1 is (p(x. which yielded (395). Equations (395) are then easily deduced by Lagrange's method of multipliers. 0 0 0 C" (399) . z) a maximum.. We can arrange the constants of inertia into a square matrix I = -F -E -D B -D C -E (398) The elements of the matrix (an array of elements) are called the components of I. + cf/z. Under a proper rotation we have shown that we can write I= 0 0 A" 0 B" .D'/0 = C'.F= = 1 (397) This is the canonical form desired. We could have arrived at Eqs. y.A') reduces (396) to A"z" + D''y. 107] MECHANICS 227 z' axis through P so that x' = 0. This yields .E'/O = . z' _ satisfy (395). Since p(x.

Referring back to (367). = I. 2. 2. I.i + H2J + H3k w=w1i + w2j + w3k. we may write A -F -E H _ -F B -D H= wZ Hz -E -D wb (401) C ws from the definition of multiplication of matrices. I will become I = -F' A' -F1 . where w = w1 + wyJ + w 111 121 I31 If we write (398) as 1112 122 123 I32 113 I3 and Ho' = H.E' C' . Show that the moment of inertia of a body about any line is equal to its moment of inertia about a parallel line through the center of mass. Problems 1. . Find the angular-momentum vector of a thin rectangular sheet rotating about one of its diagonals with constant angular speed we. 107 In general. then (367) may be written 3 H. Find the moments and products of inertia for a uniform cube. taking the cube edges as axes. plus the product of the total mass and the square of the distance from the line to the center of mass. We shall see in Chap. 8 that I is a tensor and so is called the inertia tensor.E' -D' B' -D' (400) and the components of I in (400) will be related to the components of I in (398) according to a certain law. 3. under an orthogonal transformation.-way aa1 j= 1. 3 (402) which is equivalent to the matrix form (401).228 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.

2. . Let us consider the form I = x2 + 9y2 + 18z2 .z)2 + 8(y + z)2 + 9z2 X2 +Y2 + Z2 (x where X = x . 2. z to X. 3 5.2xz) + 9y2 + 18yz + 18z2 (x-y-z)2+8y2+16yz+1722 y . y.(y + z). However. the linear transformations may not be a rotation of axes. a-1 coo = a-1 apawa.2xy .2xy . Y.y . a = 1. This method may be employed to reduce any quadratic form to normal form.z. 1071 MECHANICS 3 3 229 4. a-1 amt 6. Z.SEC. a set of linear transformations from x.2xz + 18yz We may write I = (x2 . Reduce I to normal form by a rotation of axes. show that 3 3 1 Ipaaa = I Ia°apa. Z = 3z. 3 = 1. Y = V"8. Hp = I Ipacoa a-1 3 lip = I ap'Ha. If Hp = a=1 3 Ipawa. 3 for arbitrary wa.

. Call it Af. Under the above assumption. We now show that the pressure is the same in all directions for a perfect fluid. AA.. If we divide Af" by the area of the face ORT. The y component of the pressure on the face RST is P cos l4. The face ORT has a force acting on it. Let f" be the y component of the external force per unit volume. we obtain the pressure on this face. if the stress is continued long enough. but for many purposes it is simpler to consider the liquid as being incompressible. A liquid differs from a z solid in that the liquid will yield to any shearing stress. when studied macroscopically. Pressure. this force acts normal to the face.CHAPTER 7 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 108. since it is in contact with other parts of the liquid. The science of hydrodynamics deals with the motion of fluids.. We shall be interested in liquids and gases. 95). however small. which. of motion in the y direction is given by The equation +f"oT=d = 230 p Az r dt° y (403) . 95. Let us consider the motion of the tetrahedron ORST (see Fig. We shall FIG. also be highly interested in perfect fluids. and let p be the density of the fluid. appear to be continuous in structure. P. = AAy f" The limit of this quotient is called the pressure in the direction normal to the face ORT. a liquid or gas being defined as a collection of molecules... These are liquids which possess no shearing stresses. All liquids are compressible to a slight extent.

dd (406) Equating (405) and (406) and applying the divergence theorem. 109. t) be the amount of matter created or destroyed per unit volume. we obtain M dd = f J fat dr s (405) Now there are only three ways in which the mass of the fluid inside S can change: (1) fluid may be entering or leaving the surface. z. cos 0.(x. so that (403) becomes (Pv . the pressure is the same in all directions and p is a point function. p = p(x. (2) matter may be created (source). t). y. P = P. Let 4. so that the total mass of the fluid inside S is given by p(x.t)d-r M= ff R Differentiating with respect to time and remembering that x. Similarly. Now AA = AA. we must have P = P. The contribution due to this effect is JJ vp dd. Consider a surface S bounding a simply connected region lying entirely inside the liquid. we obtain .Pn) + fv A oAv dt Oz Cp As A --. 109] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 231 since dt (p Ar) = dm dt = 0. We leave it to the student to prove that at the boundary of two perfect fluids the pressure is continuous. or (3) matter may be destroyed (sink). 4. For a source. = p.. d i (404) p dt2 finite. and for a sink. z are variables of integration. The Equation of Continuity. The net gain of fluid is therefore ffJ1dT_ jfpv. y. = P. so that if we assume f.y. 0 < 0.. z. Let p be the density of the fluid.z. we have AA 0.SEC.. Since the normal n for the tetrahedron can be chosen arbitrarily. > 0.0.. y.

Showthaty= possible motion for an incompressible perfect fluid. u = u(r. p = constant. and (408) becomes Vv=0 V= (409) If the motion is irrotational.232 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. z. (407) reduces to 0 at + V . If the velocity of a fluid is radial. Prove that.(Pv) = (408) If furthermore the liquid is incompressible. then compute the velocity from v = Vrp. y. 109 ap + V (Pv) = #(x. if '(r. We solve Laplace's equation for rp. (x2 + y2)2 i+ (x2 + y2)2 x2 + y2 kiss . rp is constant throughout the interior of that region. t) = 1/r2. t) (407) This is the equation of continuity. z _2xyz x z .1<)zj+ 2. show that the equation of continuity is ap at + u ar + LP P a r2 ar (r2u) Solve this equation for an incompressible fluid. if the normal velocity is zero at every point of the boundary of a liquid occupying a simply connected region. and moving irrotationally. if f v dr = 0. that is. then so that the equation of continuity for an incompressible fluid possessing no sources and sinks and having irrotational motion is given by V2V = 0 (410) We call p the velocity potential. Problems 1. aP at = 0. t). For no source and sink. Is this motion irrotational? 3.

spherical coordinates. p dr is the mass of the volume dT. 110. so that Since F = dd . The forces acting on this volume are (1) external forces (gravity. Equations of Motion for a Perfect Fluid. . we obtain fff(pf-vp)drfffpdr This equation is true for all V. f per unit mass.). Express (407) in cylindrical coordinates. The total force acting on V is F = fff pfdr .f f pdd The linear momentum of V is = f f f (pf . rectangular coordinates. say.p dd. However. so that pf . (2) pressure thrust on the surface. then (p has the same constant value throughout the interior. 5. 110] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 233 4.Sic. Let us consider the motion of a fluid inside a simply connected region of volume V and boundary S. etc. since dd points outward. since the volume V changes with time. Prove that if v is constant over the boundary of any simply connected region. and this remains constant throughout the motion.p VP (411) This is Euler's equation of motion. .Vp)dr M = J117 pvdr and the time rate of change of linear momentum is dMd = fffpvdr I tf f pdT + f f f v(pdr) d (p dT) = 0.VP=p dv d or I dt f .

which moves under the action of conservative . 111 From (76) we have that tive form of (411) is dvav dt at + (v V)v.[V(x+p+1v2)]=0 p 2 Hence V[x + (p/p) + +v2] is normal everywhere to the velocity field v. The curve drawn in the fluid so that its tangents are parallel to the velocity vectors at corresponding points is called a streamline. We have proved that for an incompressible perfect fluid.V)v. a = 0. Vv2 = 2v x (V x v) + 2(v . f = -Vx. so that an alternaVp (412) Also from Eq. If the external field is con- servative. v = V\p and V x v = 0. Thus v is parallel to the surface X + (p/p) + j v2 = constant. so that (412) becomes av at +1VV2-Vx(VxV)=f-PVp 2 1 (413) 111. so that (414) becomes at = -v l x + + 2 v2). Equations of Motion for an Incompressible Fluid under the Action of a Conservative Field. Hence (413) becomes (IV - -vx(Vxv)=-V(x+P+2v2) \ (414) We consider two special cases: (a) Irrotational motion. 22. so that (414) becomes l 1 vX(Vxv)=VlX++1v2 P For this case we immediately have that v.234 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS SEC.(1/p) Vp = -V[x + (p/p)] if p = constan t. so that f . \ P (b) Steady motion. (9) of Sec.

If the fluid is at rest. show that the equation of motion is Dr du f--Vp=dt+dtdw Xr+wx (wxr)+2wxdt+ D2r dt2 1 P and that the equation of continuity is at (P Rdt-) r For a simply connected region R with boundary S. then an increase of velocity demands a decrease of pressure. the expression X + (p/P) + -v2 rernains constant along a streamline. and hence that f V x f = 0. dt = 0. where r is the distance from the z axis. 6. 5.SEC. If the motion of the fluid is referred to a moving frame of reference which rotates with angular velocity w and has translational velocity u. show that x + (p/p) + V2 = constant. 111] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 235 forces and whose motion is steady. prove that p/p = 1w2r2 . Show that V x (pf) = 0. A liquid is in equilibrium under the action of an external force f = (y + z)i + (z + x)j + (x + y)k. and spherical coordinates. The energy equation. If a liquid rotates like a rigid body with constant angular velocity w = wk and if gravity is the only external force. Why must pf be the gradient of a scalar if equilibrium is to be possible? 3. Write (411) in rectangular. Find the surfaces of equal pressure. and conversely. Show that . 2. Problems If the motion of a perfect incompressible fluid is both steady and irrotational. 4. If X remains essentially constant. This is a necessary condition for equilibrium of a fluid. 1. This is the general form of Bernoulli's theorem. the kinetic energy of R is 7. T=ifffpv2dr R Let the surface S move so that it always contains all the original mass of R. cylindrical.gz + constant.

z2. Now r x (V x w) + from (9).(x + P + 2 v2) + C(t). so that r = xi . (416) By (dr V)vp we mean that after differentiation.fdr.2 + x + t 112. the partial derivatives of v are calculated at P. z large in comparison with x2. V)vp from (75).+ y} + zk if we consider P as the origin and x. 96. etc. 8. (12) of Sec. f-D(t). z and if p = -f. We now reFio. place dr by r for convenience. Equation (416) (417) y. and let vp represent the velocity of the fluid.236 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. now becomes vQ = vp + (r V)vp. velocities of the particles occupying an element of volume of a fluid at P (Fig.f f S f f f pdt(dr) R (415) Analyze each term of (415). . Let us consider the Let P be a point of the volume or region.f!Vpdr f f f v. 96). 22. (10). zy. The veloc- ity at a nearby point Q is vQ = vp + dvp = Vp + (dr . Now let w = (r V)vp = x av + y av + z avl al p ay p (418) azlp . y2. The General Motion of a Fluid. 112 dT dt = ffJ R -dv2 dt = If! = R v. For irrotational flow show that at = p(p).

(419) w = j V(r w) + J(V x w) x r Moreover. 107). so thatV xv =V xw = (Vxv)p [see VQ = VP+ -(V x v)P (420) It is easy to verify that r w is a quadratic form. by.P+yayay ax av ax ax ay av az avI P +z azazP IV P =w We did not differentiate the (' axP ayP I ' since they have been evaluated at P and so are constants for the moment. w x r represents the velocity due to a rotation about a line through P with angular velocity J(V x v) p. 3. that is. v (418)]. which corresponds to a translation of the element. The velocity vp of P. we obtain Thus. and =Vp+w. we can write and IV(r w) = axi + byj + czk We may now write (420) as VQ = VP + w x r + (axi + byj + czk) (421) where w = J(V x v)p. 2. The first two are rigid-body motions. Let us analyze (421). Axe+Bye+Cz2+2Dyz+2Ezx+2Fxy and so by a rotation (Sec. z axes.SEC:. they could still take place if the fluid were a solid. 1121 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 237 and hence -. which states that the velocity of Q is the sum of three parts: 1. along the x. using (417). axi + byj + czk represents a velocity relative to P with components ax. The third term shows that particles at . cz. y. respectively.

The vortex lines may change as time goes on. If at each point of a curve the tangent vector is parallel to the vector w = J(V x v). 113. rotated. since. b. As time goes on. the spherical element is trans- lated. assuming continuity of flow. dx. The most general motion of a fluid is that described above and is independent of the coordinate system used to describe the motion. This implies that dx = wz dx dy wy = dz where w. Let us now calculate the circulation around any closed curve in the fluid. w will depend on the time. Unfortunately. so that no single coordinate system will suffice for the complete fluid. c. these directions are not the same at all points. This is true while we keep the curve r fixed in space. we say that the curve is a vortex line. in general. then C = 0. at some time t. It is therefore an intrinsic property of the fluid. dz are the components of the tangent vector and w=wi+wyJ+w L The integration of this system of differential equations yields the vortex lines. and stretched in the directions of the principal axes by amounts proportional to a. dy. Each point of the fluid will have the three principal directions associated with it. Vortex Motion. At an instant later the curve t' has moved to a new position given by the curve r". If we consider a sphere surrounding P. Let us now find out how the circulation C= ff (V xv) dd (422) changes with time if we let the particles which comprise P move according to the motion of the fluid. Now r r' where s is are length along the particular curve v. s r If V x v = 0.238 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEc. 113 different distances from P move at different rates relative to P. the closed curve will remain closed. This third motion is called a pure strain and takes place only when a substance is deformable. Hence the sphere is deformed into an ellipsoid. The velocity of the particles over this path is e= (423} .

97). f = -VX is dv dt = -VX . where V = x + f dp/p. Applications Example 109. C = 0 for all time. moreover. Therefore dt dt ds ds + $6 v d dt Pdsl ds = T dt . ds \dt/ ds (424) Euler's equation of motion (411) for a conservative field. the unit tangents ds have changed. The parameter s is still a variable of integration and has nothing to do with the time. Let us consider the steady irrotational motion of an incompressible fluid when a sphere moves through the fluid . 114.ds + v. ds Er. If we now consider a closed curve lying on a tube made up of vortex lines. so that the curve r always lies on the vortex tube. provided that the density p is a function only of the pressure p.Vp = -VV. but not encircling the tube (see Fig.SFC. then C= ff 8 s i nce dd i s normal to V x v. 1 1 There- fore 2I dt 2 _ --0d(V-J2) =0 (425) We have arrived at a theorem by Lord Kelvin that the circulation around a closed curve composed of a given set of particles remains constant if the field is conservative. and. 1141 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 239 slightly different from that over r. 97. Fr om Fio. Kelvin's theorem.

Let us assume a transverse wave traveling in the x direction. Now at points on the surface of the sphere we must have CYT)radWLY = 0. so that we try 'P = (see Sec. From Sec. For an incompressible .pop= and at 0 Hence Dr = so that V2p = 0. We choose the center of the sphere as the origin of our coordinate system. so that the velocity relative to the sphere should be -vo.v o and P = -vo (r + 2r2 cos 0 (427) The velocity of the fluid relative to the sphere is given by v = Vsp and the velocity of the fluid is v = Vp + vok. at infinity we expect the velocity of the fluid to be zero. we have f . Or We look for a solution of Laplace's equation satisfying this boundary condition. Example 110. 6. Hence aVs az z . 67). Let us consider a fluid resting on a horizontal surface (x-y plane) and take z vertical. (Ar + ! r/J B a3 cos 8 (426) We need -CA- cosB=0 so that B = a2A/2. Moreover. 114 with constant velocity. Let the center of the sphere travel along the z axis with velocity vo. so that (a?Y-a = 0.= A = s . Prob.240 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS ISEC. 110.

>=) cos = 20 cosh (-.vt)] (430) The fluid has no vertical velocity at the bottom of the plane on which it rests. so that L(P az = 0 at z = 0.2 A (z) + d2A dz2 41x2 d2A dx2 I=0 (429) so that _ 41r2 \2 A The solution to (429) is A = Ape<zr° + Boe (2r/1`)'. 8.Sec. at the . x = gz.z) cos [ xr (x . Moreover. 110. This yields I2r (x . we obtain 2w 2 0 aLT(X-'i)t. and a real solution to (428) is (Aoe(2r/X)z + Boe-(zrn*)z) cos L (x .Vi) J = Ao(e(2r')= + ec2r/l. (428) We assume a solution of the form p = A (z)e tZ_voi f Sub- e . so that v. so that we neglect Jv2.(gz + p + 2 v2) + C(t) (432) We now assume that the waves are restricted to small amplitudes and velocities. 114] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY z+az? 241 fluid °2`P-ax stituting into (428). Sec. so that at . we have at -(x++2v2)+C(t) = and for a gravitational potential.vt)] (431) From Prob. = A 0 = B0.

9 at dC + (433) dl and again at the surface at = vZ = az .vt) ]identically zero in (435). (v O)w . 114 surface.vt) ] + dt (435) In order for C to be dependent only on t.242 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.r)*. so that dp = 0. the atmospheric pressure. is essentially constant. wherew = D x v.(w V)v = 0. so that (433) becomes a2V a_p dC ate g az + dt (434) Substituting (431) into (434).z z In deep water z/X is large so that tank velocity of the wave is v = (Ag/2. 1. we must have the coefficient of cos [(27r/A) (x . .v 227r2 cosh 27r z+ g sink 27r z=0 v2 = g tanh . p. Ao or Hence (435a) (. Show that dt (Pl = \P of v for a conservative system. Differentiating (432).Vt) g 2w- z cos I2r (x . Show that for steady motion of an incompressible fluid under the action of conservative forces. we obtain a2( ate _ az . and the Problems 1. we obtain 2 -v2 a2 A0 cosh zcosLA (x . 2.

from Sec. y. Here we are interested in the kinematic relationship between the old positions p° r p of equilibrium and the new. 4. the remaining points will be rotated about Po and will suffer a pure strain relative to Po. Then S = so + ds = so + (r V)so (436) Let s = u(x. y. t)j + w(x. 98). prove that dC = p d (1) if the field is con- servative and if the pressure depends only on the density. a solid body remains in equilibrium and the forces between the various particles of the solid are in equilibrium because of the configuration of the particles.y2)j is a possible velocity of an incompressible fluid. that so po Is p r Fia. Small Displacements. where (437) as as as w=xax PO +yay Pc +zoz PO since s = v At. t)i + v(x. We expect. Show that v = 2axyi + a(x2 . z)k From (420).SEc. z)j + w(x. and let s be the displacement vector suffered by P. If external forces are added. the particles (atoms. 5. Since we will be dealing with static conditions. 98 . y. s = u(x. Verify that the velocity potential (p = A[r + (a2/r)] cos 0 represents a stream motion past a fixed circular cylinder. 1151 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 243 3. y. We shall assume that the deformations are small and continuous. molecules) tend to redistribute themselves so that equilibrium will occur again. Let r be the position vector of P relative to Po. If C is the circulation around any closed circuit moving with the fluid. S = so+J(V xs)P. This is . z. t)k. z)i + v(x. z. We are interested in the position of P after the deformation (now P') relative to the new position of Po (now Po ). Strain Tensor. y. in the neighborhood of a given point Po. In the absence of external forces. z. 112. y. 115. and so the displacement suffered by Po (Fig.

244 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 0 +2 and y Po + y2 ay PO ay Po + 2D aw zx azlPo + zy a P. we ignore this nondeformation term and so are interested in r + 'I'p(r w). If we write r = x'i + x2j + xak and r' = y'i + y2j + yak (see .s .so. 115 the vector r' = r `}. az Po r+ 1 aul x Ci _y au + ax av + 2 Cay + y aw avl x (aw au ax! + 2 \ax + az J i av x (au +yCl+ay x (aw au av _z (aw 2y+ 8v az)+2Cay+az aw 1 az Jk (439) The partial derivatives are evaluated at the point Po. Let us now consider the matrix au i + ax 1 au av 2 ay + Ox lIsr'II = + + ax/ i aw aul i law 2 Cay y av az (440) 2 C 8x + azl 2 `ay + The nine components of this matrix form the strain tensor. or r' = r+4(D xs)po x r + (438) Since J(V x s)P. x r represents a rigid-body rotation about P0. Now auj aw a-l +2 D Cx tax +xyax +xz at av au awl I r + yz D xy 1 Po P.

The unit vector i has the components (1. ( au 1 au av 1 aw a_ul ax 1 + 2 21 ax + az/ k we have (LU) By neglecting higher terms such as y uI _ Iril I 1+ Similarly j --> r2. Notice that Sii = s. 107 we know that we can reduce the ellipsoid to the form Ax" + By'2 + Cz'z = 1 by a proper rotation. . 0. of necessity. z' axes. y'. or 3 i = 1. the s/ are the components of a tensor. . and these directions are called the principal directions of the strain ellipsoid. 0). so that the tensor is symmetric. 115) HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 245 Example 8). then r' = r + I V(r w) may be written yi = sfix' + S2 'X2 + 83ix3. k . 8 that since r and r' are vectors. then. 2. and lr2l = 1 + avl ay . the deformation is a pure translation.r1 = \1 + ax) 1 + 2 (ay + au ax . Let us now compute the change in the unit vectors. A 0 0 0 B 0 0 C 0 In the directions of the new x'. neglecting the rotation term. so that from (438) and (439) i . The strain tensor becomes entirely diagonal.3 y' = a-1 Sa'xa (441) We shall see in Chap. The ellipsoid which has the equation ( 1 + ax)xr+ 1 +a y2+ y aul ( avl aw (awl 1 (au au + az)z2+ aw avl ay +a xy zx = 1 (442) + (ay + az av yz + (ax + az is called the strain ellipsoid. From Sec.SEC.rs.

The Stress Tensor. so that V s is an invariant.V (r w) has the components ax au 2\ay+8x/ 2(ax+ az) 8v'\ av 1 1 au aw az av 2 (ay aw 1 + ax/ au ay 2 (ay av + az 1 (au 2 \ ax aui 2 (axl + + az axi/1I 2 \ay + az (444) where u1 =u. . The terms of the strain tensor are now fully understood. 116 and fr31 = 1 + The angle between r1 and r2 is given by au +r.jjr2+ cos B = av v ay + ax' . In Sec. but now we consider all forces possible between two neighboring surfaces. r2.246 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS awl . Corresponding to any strain in the body must be an impressed force which produces this strain. The volume of the parallelepiped formed by r1. Finally. Let us consider a cube with faces perpendicular to the coordinate axes. x1=x x2=y x3=z 116. we see that the deformation tensor due to the tensor . 108 we assumed no shearing stresses. I [SEC. u3=w. r3 is V r2xrs = 1+ ax + ay + V au av aw az so that _ V V _ au av aw ax+8y +az (443) The left-hand side of (443) is independent of the coordinate system. u2=v.

It is in immediate contact with other particles of the body. we immediately see that if dd is the vectoral area of the slant face. 108. dsy = j dd. 116] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 247 Let us consider the face ABCD (Fig. z y Fia. tyx. is the component of tx in the y direction. component of tt in the z direction. By considering a tetrahedron as in Sec. We have similar results for the other two faces and so obtain the matrix tzz tyz tzz tzy tyy tzy tzz tyz (445) G. t. where txx is the component of tx in the x direc- tion. = tzx dsz + tzy d s + tzz dsz fy = tyx dsz + tyy dsy + tyz dsz fz = tzz ds. and tzz is the . + tzy dsy + tzz dsz (446) where dsz = i dd. dsz = k dd. 99.SF:C. the resultant force tx on the face ABCD can he decomposed into three forces: txx. As a consequence. These are the components of the stress tensor. 99). tzx. then the components of the force f on this face are f. .

..JIf Jr V acZy acz= ax + 4-9t" ay + az dT (447) with similar expressions for F. let us choose the three principal directions of the stress tensor for the axes of our cartesian coordinate system. dss !s J t.. t12 = t. ds. If we assume that the region is isotropic (only contractions and extensions exist). By letting V --p 0.+ ax qty" y + tz 117. we obtain Fz Fio. In the neighborhood of a point P in our region. (446) Wehavefrom fz = txx dsx + txv ds + tzx dst so that Y F. F. Relationship between the Strain and Stress Tensors. + Applying the divergence theorem.dd t. tx fx. a=1 .. .. Hence the principal directions of the . . = = fz _ JJtxzdSx + t. 117 We immediately see that tyx = 3 Of. as. .. we have that the x component of the force per unit volume must be V .248 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. z Let us now consider the resultant force acting on a volume V with boundary 8 (see Fig. We shall see later that this explains why the ti. f2 = f. = f.. a cube with faces normal to the principal directions will suffer distortions only along the principal axes. are called the components of a dv tensor. k. where f... . + tx... f3 = f. where t = tz. asv and that fi = I tia dsa. 100). 100..

Experiments also show that extensions in fibers produce transverse contractions. If he desires not to break the continuity of the present paragraph. he may take formula (456) with a grain of salt.ti --(t2+t3) _ 1 E E 1 E(t1+t2+t3) t2 - or 0. Example 8. 21 and 22 of Sec.SEC. 3 (450) . 8 to understand what follows. 15 will aid the reader in what follows. Since points far removed from P will have different stress ellipsoids. 23 where 3 x' = I a'xx. We thus obtain for the relative elongations of the cube in the three principal directions the following: -SET a el =E. If x1. Probs. The constant for this phenomenon is called Poisson's ratio a. and Prob. 11. T2. at least for the present. and if we change to a new coordinate system 11'. e2. x2. We let E (Young's modulus) be the factor of proportionality. a-1 i = 1. 0 0 0 0 t2 0 0 (448) 0 Our fundamental postulate relating the shear components with those of the stress will be Hooke's law. 1171 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 249 strain ellipsoid will coincide with those of the stress ellipsoid. The reader should read Chap. e3 apply only in the immediate neighbor- hood of a point P. 2. 21 of Sec. the principal directions will vary from point to point.. x3 are the coordinates above. Hence no single coordinate system will exist that would enable the stress and strain components to be related by the simple law of (449). which states that every tension produces an extension in the direction of the tension and is proportional to it. Let us therefore transform the components of the stress and strain tensors so that they may be referred to a single coordinate system. this coordinate system el ie17JJ = In 0 0 0 0 0 It. e2 1 t2 - (t3 + tl) = 1 r E (t1 + t2 + t3) (t1 + t2 + t3) (449) e3 = a 3 .(11 + t2) 1-r-at3 "- E The formulas for el.

117 then the transformation (450) is said to be linear. =i=1 I Z a=1 I 0=1 aiaMeag 3 3 3 Saisea# = I eaa 0-1 a-1 a-1 so that e11 + 922+933 = e11 + e22 + e33 = el + e2 + e3 (453) This is an invariant obtained from the strain tensor [see (443)]. furthermore. we obtain `3 3 3 3 :=1 L. that 111+122+133 = t11 +t22+133 = t1+t2+t3 Equations (449) may now be written as el -1+0 t1+ E e2=1 e3=1Eor (454) ts+ ..i = I I a. If. since we are dealing with tensors. 0) remains invariant. A similar expression is obtained for the stress tensor. Notice that the origin (0.aa1 ea# '6=1 a=1 (452) If we now let i = j and sum on i.aaia = S=i = 1if ij =0ifij (451) Equation (451) is the requirement that (450) be a rotation of axes. we must have 3 (. Moreover. we shall see that the components of the strain tensor in the x'-x2-x3 coordinate system are related to the components in the x'-a 2-x3 system by the following rule: 3 3 e. ei..Ti). we desire distance to be preserved. 8 we shall easily show that this requires 3 a=1 a. 0.250 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. namely. = 3 (xi) In Chap.

923 = 1 +Q_ 981 = 131 .8eas B=1 a-1 and since eap = 0 unless a = 6 [see (448)]. 117] HYDRODYN. is the invariant E (tl + t2 + t3) 3 (III + 122 + 133) From Eq. (111 + E22 + 133) +v_ E E E 112 l23 (456) 1+0.4. 6=1 a -l a=1 Equation (455) is the relationship between the components of the strain and stress tensors when referred to a single coordinate system.1IICS AND ELASTICITY 251 where 4.E (tll + 122 + 133) 1 E +Q_ E 122 - oT 922 = - (111 + t22 + 138) O e33 = 1 1 912 = + 133 .SEC. (452) we have 3 eij = E aiaa.5ij (455) 3 since 1j = I I aiaajalas = I aiaaala.E. aiaaja (1 3 E to +) 3 1+ a and I aiaajala + Y' 1 aiaaja a-1 a=1 eij = E 3 3 1 + o of + 4. We have Q111 ell = 1 . we obtain 3 3 1 aiaaJaeaa = I aiaajaea a=1 a=1 3 a -l F.

p the density of the medium..t13 = = 2(1+Q)ax +az [d?u ax2 Equation (447) now becomes F= E -}.252 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SFC. we obtain t11 = 1+ [ell + 01 1 = tss 1+aLay1-2v (ax+ay+az)] E taw v 1+aaz+1-2QV*s E E aw E av 2(1 + v) \az + ay E (aw au (457) (au E rav =i+o.s)I E {V2W+ 1 I-2o. axl-2vax+ay+az v E 2au (ell + e22 + e33) o (au av aw J au av awt22 = t12=t21= t23 = t32 = av 2(1+o) ay+ax t31 .az The forces per unit volume in the y and z directions are a (0 s) so that f= + 2(1 r) [V2S V(V s)] + 1 1 2cr (458) If we let R = RJ + R j + R2k be the external body force per unit volume.20 \49x2 . and removing the bars. then Newton's second . a2v a2w + ax ay + a2u a2v ax az a2w a2u 1 E + _ E -2(1+a)IV 2(1 + u) aye 1 ay ax av + az ax + az2 aw zu+1 -2aaxax+ay+ az J a (au 2(1+o) Fy [vu+ 1 1 2(1+a)[Dzv+1 12vay(V . 11 Solving Eels. (456) for the t.v + (a2u 1 .

)[V2S+-Lv(V.V 'S2 = 0 so that E(1 T a) (1 +a)(1 . Let us assume that the wave is traveling along the x axis. 70 we saw that a vector could be written as the sum of a solenoidal and an irrotational vector. s2) 1 = p ate a2s2 However. and s2. This yields E V2s1_ p a2S. 80.2a °(° 2 s) =p at2 (460) In Sec. Equation (462) is also a wave equation. V X (V X 62) = V(V S2) . = 0 and V x s2 = 0. (459) reduces to E 2(1 + a) [v2s = P + 1 .Vt)j + w(x .) [V2s2 + 1 -2a °(° . we saw that (461) leads to a transverse wave moving with speed Vt = E/2(1 + a)p.S)] For the case R = 0.Vt)k V X S2 = =0 axJ+-k=0 clx . 2(1 + a) ate and 2(1 (461) E +a. 117] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 253 law of motion yields R+ 2(1 +o. Then s2=s2(X-Vt) = u(x .SEc. but the wave is not transverse. Let s= s1 + s2j where V s.2a) V2S2 a2s2 = pat2- (462) In Sec. we can consider it as satisfied by s. Since (460) is linear in s.Vt)i + v(x .

find the velocity of propagation of the longitudinal waves. find the differential equation satisfied by s(r). 3. Derive (451).placement of s-2 is parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. The speed of the wave is The wave is therefore V. We are not interested in constant displacements. 6. Why do we use ats instead of in in (459)? 8. If µ = E/2(1 + v) (modulus of rigidity) and A= show that Eq.) P(1 + v)(1 2v) In general. using the coordinate transformation (450).. 2. longitudinal. Assuming a = 0 for a long thin bar. If the strain of Prob. show that V2S + 1 -1 V(V s) = 0.Vt)i. 5. If P. and the di. so that s2 = u(x . this result being useful in the study of earthquakes. 4.= L'(1 . f3 are the components of a vector for a cartesian coordinate system. 117 so that w and v are independent of x and therefore are independent of x . 3 is radial. that is. If the body forces are negligible and if the medium is in a state of equilibrium. 3.2Q) R+AVss+ x Pats x 49 's 7. 2. j'3 of this vector in a new cartesian coordinate system are related to the old 3 components by the rule J' = n=i i = 1. f--.254 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Problems 1.Vt. prove that the components P. A coaxial cable is made by filling the space between a solid core of radius a and a concentric cylindrical shell of internal radius b with rubber. if s = s(r)r. both types of waves are produced.o. If the core is displaced a small distance . (459) becomes Ea (1 + a) (1 . P.

rapidly moving layers tend to drag along the slower layers of fluid. we must add the stress components due to the pressure field. then the viscous force is since av is the gradient of the speed normal to the direction of flow. Navier-Stokes Equation. gravity.. we have u = 0 and au = 0. It is found by experiment that the force of viscosity is directly proportional to the common area A of the two layers and to the gradient of the velocity normal to the flow. of the previous paragraphs.. If the fluid is moving in the x-y plane with speed v. We have _ P12 E au 2(1 + v) ay Ov + ax where u. 118] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 255 axially. 112). which we assume to be -p I 0 0 0 0 0 -p 0 -p . 118. We are now in a position to derive the equations of motion of a viscous fluid. so that ay P12 _ E av _ av 2(1 + v) ax = '' ax must be replaced by q. the strain tensor for the fluid analogous to t. be the stress tensor and u. and. For a fluid moving in the y direction with a gradient in the x direction. Assume that end effects. conversely. v. the slower layers tend to retard the motion of the faster layers. w are the components of the velocity vector v (see Sec. In the case of nonviscous fluids.Ssc. 17 is called the coefficient of viscosity. As a result of friction (viscosity). we assumed no friction between adjacent layers of fluid. and e. Hence the term E 2(1 or) In addition to the stress components due to viscosity. We shall let Pt. find the displacement in the rubber. and the distortion of the metal can be neglected.

I V(0-11 + 022 + 033) . pF.256 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.i axi P dt du: (465) where F.i 17 = 2.axi a+i axi _ 'q a au. From (464) a0. + f1 = p dt becomes 3 pF. au) 2 a(V v) +1 axi 3 = axi axi + ax' - ap a. is the external force per unit mass. + j =1 ap. Moreover.3p We know that P11 + P22 + P33 is an invariant and that for the static case P11 + P22 + P33 = -3p.i + X(911 + 022 + r33)aii ..1 .pa+i (464) for small velocities.i 2 a(diy v) ap ap. 118 The equations of (457) become P. Consequently we choose 2. we note that from (447) ap11 fl ax.i = 2rio. = 2+10. 3 + 49p12 axe + axi 49p13 x1 = x where x2 = y x3=z = jG =1 3 c3 apli ax and in general f. P11 + P22 + P33 = (2rj + 3X)(ail + 022 + 033) . the velocity vector is given by v = u11 + 1627 + u3k and 0. so that (463) becomes p.. = P. I apt' -i Hence du.i = 1 auiax: 2 C axi + ' so that div v = V v = 011 + 022 + 033- To obtain the equations of motion.axi - .3 axi a`i . + 3X = 0.pa+i (463) where X is undetermined as yet. au. We see that Now let i = j and sum on j. .i axi .

and v = v(r).V(V v) .a2). 1181 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 257 and 3 api. . au. 2.Vp (467) For an incompressible fluid V v = 0. 3.SEC.-37 a(V v) . 3 a au. Derive (467) from (466).ap -. v = -vok at r = oo . Show that the equation of motion is p aE = q V2v . Choose the center of the sphere as the origin of our coordinate system. and pd Along with (467) we have the equation of continuity at =0 Problems 1. Consider the steady flow of an incompressible fluid through a small cylindrical tube of radius a in a nonexternal field.2 axi ax' axi (466) pat = pf +. The equations of motion (465) are p dt = pFi + v or dui J I 3 1 a aui ax' Cax' + au. Let v = vk and show that p = p(z) and +1 V2v = ap Show that the boundary conditions are v = 0 when r = a. r2 = x2 + y2. Consider a sphere moving with constant velocity vok (along the z axis) in an infinite mass of incompressible fluid.. where A is a constant and LP = A.q V2v . 2 a (V v) ap 1-1 ax? + axi/ 3' ax. and that = r dr (r dr) Hence show that v = (A/4i7)(r2 .Vp and that the boundary conditions are v = 0 for r = a.

Let w. associated with the motion. No external forces exist. rp = coz . the distance between the plates remaining constant. = 3voa/2r. Solve for the steady motion of an incompressible viscous fluid between two parallel plates. 5. Now let v = -V(p + wlk and show awi 49Z that =v4o z Assuming p = -. show that (i) and (ii) will be satisfied. Show that this implies (i) Vp = I V2v Hence prove that V2p = 0.gvoaz 2r3 v= -V(p+wik=0forr=a v = -vok for r = co V2p = 0. We shall assume that v and the partial derivatives of v are small. 3. p = -n V2rp 4. P= and show that V2w1 = 0. Find the steady motion of an incompressible.258 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.(voa3z/4r3) + (3voaz/4r). viscous fluid surrounding a sphere rotating about a diameter with constant angular velocity. 118 and that for steady motion a = 0 for any quantity 4. one of the plates fixed. the other moving at a constant velocity. Moreover V v = 0.1 V2p and V2w1 = 0. .

we shall mean that a summation is to occur on this letter. S = alx. x by superscripts. . . + anxn (468) We can shorten the writing of (468) and write n S = Z aixi i=i (469) Now it will be much more convenient to replace the subscripts of the quantities x:. . . . we shall sum from 1 to n. The index of summation is a dummy index since the final result is independent of the letter used. If f = f(x'. + a2x2 + .. Our sum S now becomes n S= aixi (470) We can get rid of the summation sign and write S = aixi (471) where the repeated index i is to be summed from I to n. x2. of the type We shall be interested in sums . Whenever a letter appears once as a subscript and once as a superscript.CHAPTER 8 TENSOR ANALYSIS AND RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 119.xa = as0.x' = a. Summation Notation. x2. calculus 259 . . . . We can write S = a. .xi = a. x'. we have from the . The superscripts do not stand for powers but are labels that allow us to distinguish between the various x's. x2. X11. xn). This notation is due to Einstein. Example 111. If we are dealing with n dimensions.

ipj 1. We define the Kronecker o to be equal to zero if i . Hence S = g11x'x1 + 912x'x2 + 913x'x3 + 921x2x' + g22x2x2 + 923X2x3 + 931x3x' + g32x3x2 + 933x8x3 and S = gaoxaxa represents the double sum 3 3 0-1 a-1 We also notice that the gap can be thought of as elements of a square matrix gii 912 913 921 922 923 S = Z I g-Oxaxs 931 932 933 120. = r +1 = u . 1 to 3. say.=0. + . from I to 3.60 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. The Kronecker Deltas.nd df dt .axa dt afdJxa Example 112.j and to equal one if i = j: a.i=j We notice that Si = 52 _ b_ = 03 = 1 1 (472) = SA = 1. Let S = gasxax#. This yields The index a occurs both as Hence we first sum on a. say from S = 9iax'x8 + 92ax'x' + g38xaxe Now each term of S has the repeated index # summed.0.. 120 df = ax dxl + ax dx2 + .dx" CIx" _ = of axa dxa of dx' ax' . a subscript and superscript.

so that ax1 ax! = 0. = 0. x2. accord- . and the subscripts are the same set of numbers Qs the superscripts.. as= - = as ax . First differentiate S with respect to x' and obtain axa axp as = aa$xa + a. .. Let S = apxax# = 0 for all values of the vari. Let S = aaxa. ax" Example 114.+a.a.. for if axe = 1. . . x^. ables x'. or --1. and ax" as ga " ax Now Sµ = 0 except when a = µ. 120) TENSOR ANALYSIS 261 If xI. Then cis Example 113... axi xa = 0 ax' ax' = aaflxaaf + aa$67x8 = 0 T = aaixa + a. then we define the generalized Kronecker delta to be zero. . If all the superscripts and subscripts are separately distinct..se = 0 Now differentiate with respect to xi so that 028 axe and ax' . x2. x" are n independent variables. If at least two superscripts or at least two subscripts have the same value. We show that a. and if i j. then i ax' axl = S. + a. 0 We define the generalized Kronecker delta as follows: The superscripts and subscripts can have any value from 1 to n.SEC.v + aiob = 0 a. . the delta has the value of + 1. or if the subscripts are not the same set of numbers as the superscripts. there is no change in the vari- able x' if we change x1 since they are independent variables. so that on summing on a we a(axa) obtain = a".

. Write in full aaxa=bi.i:. 2. Show that a2yi axa ax¢ 8yk axa 8x8 ayi + Oxa ayi ayk . = axe 8.. i = 1. Show that the determinant I at at can be written a2 2 a1 1 z at a2' a2 = Etiiaia? = etiia1 2 and that at a1 2 8 a2 1 a3 at a3 $ a$ a2 z z = Eiika. .sari . ... 2. 61231 = 1.-11 a123 = 0221 = 6312 323 0. x2) . .a8r baBratYaapi = arst + airs + astr . ... i.262 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.. 6. i.0 ayi 492xa ..i= 1.a.a. Show that 612..arts a1 2 6. = (473) Problems 1... Prove that bas = are ... 5.n i. ie = ax axi 9. Prove that ei1i.i. = 4. 6163 = 0. If yi = yi(xl. i. 3. a1 a2 8 7. show that ai.. = and Eiji. Also a. xe). .aisr . 120 ing to whether it requires an even or odd number of permutations to arrange the superscripts in the same order as the subscripts... For example. show that ayi ax" ai assuming the existence of the derivatives.ak = eiikai4a8 e'li2 ' ' i*.ti:'412 .k + aki.... n. + a. show that zi = bas.i. 61213 =0 It is convenient to define eilh .1.. 6x23 = 1.. If aae7xax8xY = 0.. zi = by. If yi = aaxa.. 3. 2. . + aJik + akii + aiki = 0.. Show that aij axa y i show that ayi yi e as = a?. 3i. . 6213 . 23 a1438 ..x#.

one element from each row and column.. will mean that an extra permutation will be needed on i2iii3 in.i.. different from zero. xi = xi(y'. a"n (474) The reader should note that this definition agrees with the definition for the special case of second.'a2 . . n). . . i"ai. Since i1 and i2 are dummy indices. = aoi .. ann An interchange of the subscripts 1 and 2. of the term a a'a a depends on whether it takes an even or odd permutation to regroup i1i2 in into 12 . Of these. x2(y).i. y2. axil axa) ay.. . C) p . .. . n. in general. show that ayayi equation a1 at a1 2 (ax# _ acs axe. however. If . . 263 10. xn(y)] y= arpi a Given 9. 1211 TENSOR ANALYSIS = cp(x'.. x 2 . we can interchange them so that fail = Ei.a1a2 a1 n an a2 n n an l all = Erik . . Hence interchanging two columns (or rows) changes the sign of the determinant. . . ina. yn) = xi(y) i = 1. The definition of a determinant as given by (474) shows that it consists of a sum of terms. n! are. . The sign . inal=a2 .. This changes the sign of the determinant.SEC. . ann = ei. and if . nn in number. show that n. .2. y2' . Determinants. .and third-order determinants which he has encountered in elementary algebra. <P = 0(y1.. We define the determinant lal by the a2 at a2 2 an at 2 an i. ayl 121. yn) = p[xl(y). . . Each term consists of a product of elements. As an . . .a?2 . .

. a. i. 2 (ai. we know that (475) reduces to (474).. = apAP. then we have interchanged the rows. We have bri i.bi'b2 ... ..i. j2. . . (475a) ai Ehj. an . an) (f4 not summed) aiAa = IaIB. .a`. . . . I41 = Ei. If the ji. We have Example 116. a'0-b5-Pa'-#-K +. 2. Ei. jn take on the values 1. We now derive the law of multiplication for two determinants of the same order.... . take on the values 1. I ail Ibil IasIEC. we have Ia.a is = . .a2 .. since if two rows of a determinant are alike it has zero value.<1 and t. Hence . but not respectively. .aia8 a. Let us now examine the sum bill:.i. . = Ei. . a. (475) is zero. ..) { I ciI .i.. b% = Ei... j2.I = 0 if two rows (or columns) are identical..264 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc.. ..44 . and an odd permutation of the i's reduces (475) to -Ia 1. a'*) = aIAQ where Ao = In general. . i... x ) where abi (476) We now derive an expansion of a determinant in terms of the cofactors of the elements.. .bi.(a1j1. . .. a. AQ is called the cofactor of a. . j.. If two of the j's have the same value. . i..i. j.. respectively. .. 121 immediate corollary. i. An even permutation reduces (475) to Ia.I.i.b .bi') s.i. . . 1 s.. (475) If jl.. .. . (477) Hence . n.ai. . .. . b2 ... n.. 2. . Es. .. i= i (475b) Example 115.. (Ei..

We have shown that . x2. i . Let us consider the n linear equations yi = aQxa. ayi axa I O.. x").. n (478) Multiplying by Af. . Hence The determinant I I is called the Jacobian of the y's with respect to the x's. then A°y' _ y'(cofactor of a' in IaI) IaI IaI - (479) Example 118. n. .SEC. i = 1. . . that is. (477a) a. . xi = xi(y'.ayi axi ayl from (476). 2. Now we have identically ayi 8i ayi ay' axa axa ayi Forming the determinant of both sides. 121] TENSOR ANALYSIS 265 Also aaA7 = IaI Example 117. In the calculus it is shown that if ayi) 96 0 at a point P and if the partial derivatives are continuous. . we have from (477) A"y' = Ialaxa = Ialxx If IaI 0 0. y2. we can solve for the x' in terms of the y's. . y") in a neighborhood of P.lax.I ay ax . we obtain A°y' =a' Asxa so that summing on i. .. 2. . i = 1. Let yi = y'(x'.

. so that Yi = aQXa. or a 8x8 S. . xn 1. 121 1 J \xl. yt a . '. ax y Now a` = t l al 0 ax11 then Ya(cotactor of a#" in lal) lal from (479). . Xi = ax -. x2. x". . . x2. suppose a = ay i . we have . If the elements of the (leterminant lal are functions of the variables x'. y2. y xn) - (480) Example 119. cofactor of aye in cix1 1 ay ax (cofactor of Lyi in ax ay 8x and so 1 (cofactor of a? in ay ax ay 8x8 TX 8y1 Applying this to (481).X2.ay. where y' = y'(x'. . 49x1 a yi axa Let us consider j to be fixed for the moment.y2. xn).yry/Jfy'.266 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. . we leave it to the student to prove that alai axp _ Aa aao 0 axµ (481) As a special case. . . If Let Yi = 491. . . ax. . . x22.

-. we obtain ayi axa 0 . xn). d 2x dy 2 = .Sic.D. ays ax). If JAI is the derminant of the cofactors of the determinant IaI. (477).E. axa or (482) a log la laxI axa a2ya axa ft" aya axµ We shall make use of this result later. we obtain a2xµ o = ayk ayay' + As a special case. if y = f (x). ay 3-1 0. 121 a 7'EXSOR ANALYSIS a. . Prove (481). axa axa axµ ayk ayi &2yi axa axa Q.y 267 8x axµ ay axa a2ya ax.(dx3d2y dy dx2 al i Problems a2 z a3 a3 2 i 1. yi yk. axa axa ayk 1+ (483) Multiplying both sides of (483) by ayi and summing on i. What is the cofactor of each term of a1 2 a2 a3 2 2 as l a3 3 2. Let yi = y'(xl. Example 120. . We ax wish to prove that a2xµ ayk aye - axa ax'6 axA a2yi ayi ayk ay` axa axa Now S' = ax.a so that upon differentiating with respect to . show that I:4I = IaJ"-'.axa ayi a2xa axa a2yi axa ayk aye + ay. 3. x2.

= B. show that u{ = ua 11. that J(z/y)J(y/x) = J(z/x). ui = ua axi azi . = gaa . If a = a. y2. y. If X is a root of the equation Iai. If 9i. z) -= xi + yj + zk.00 10. The unit vectors could have been represented by (1. If u{ = ua . If u' = ua axa. Arithmetic. In the vector analysis studied in the previous chapters. show that X is also a root of Id. 7.A.. and all other vectors could be written as a linear combination of these three vectors. . z). . show that A{ = B. 122 4. 13. y' = yt(x1. show that u{ = ua ax" axa a ax. = 9a$ a2i axi axi a { .Xbifl = 0. show that gi... 0). -. Vi = V. . where we imply that (x. A system of mathematics could have been derived solely by defining relationships and operations for these triplets. 1). 0. A. If gi. y) are defined to be equal . y. 0). . = aaa axa axa aji !ii = baa axa axa ax a axi a 0. or Vector.268 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS aaxa [SEC. n-space. we set up a coordinate system with three independent variables x. and we need never have introduced a geometrical picture of a vector. xi = x{(x1 x2 xn). = gap _ . show that A. If u{ = ua axa axa axa 82i 12. = B )$B. (a. k. show a ia2i show that I#I = IgI -. c). a2{ _ 2 I _I 8. Apply (476) for the product of two third-order determinants. = A. 122.!. If A. 14. yn). j. 1. If z' = z'(y1. Is laI = jail in all cases? 5. x").Ail = 0 provided that B. axa ax{ ax i 9. For example. clt. and (0. #. y. . where -. .-s ayi ax . (0. 0. Find an expression for ayi ayi ayk x2. and that IAI = IBI. b. 6. z. two triplets (a. We chose three mutually perpendicular vectors i.. Any vector could have been represented by the number triple (x.show that uaVU = uaVa.

then A(a. . f4. y2. We now consider the n equations y' = y'(x'. . (0.n (485) and assume that we can solve for the x'..0. tion of coordinates. . The vector product. . The n-space of which P is an element is also in one-to-one correspondence with the set of (y'.. . . so that x' = x'(y'. .0).0. We define the scalar product as (a. x"). . c) (a. We shall designate V. b. . c) is defined as (Aa. ) 0).b. . or the arithmetic space of three dimensions. can easily be defined. in general. and. . as the arithmetic n-space. If A is a real number.. but we have a new method for attaching numbers to the points.SEC. . y"). y2. 0. . c = y.. . . x^). By a space of n dimensions we mean any set of objects which can be put in one-to-one reciprocal correspondence with the arithmetic n-space. It is at once obvious that the point P can be put into correspondence with the n-tuple (y'. The one-to-one correspondence between the elements or points of the n-space and the arithmetic n-space can be chosen in many ways. . .c+y). the choice depends on the nature of the physical problem. . the unit or basic vectors are (0. the x' taken as real.y)=(a+a.0. The point P has not changed. .0. Elements of this space are of the form (x'. b = P. x").#. The set of all triples obeying the rules (i) (ii) A(a. x2. i = 1. x2. . ... . so that we have a new coordinate system. . (1. 2. Ab.c)+(a. . . y2. Addition of triples is defined by (a. . n (486) We assume (485) and (486) are single-valued. x2..c+y) (484) is called a three-dimensional vector space. Let the point P correspond to the n-tuple (x'. i = 1. . -y) = as + bfi + cy. Ab. We call (485) a transforma- . 1221 TENSOR ANALYSIS 269 if and only if a = a.1.. b. etc. In particular. .. . differentiation.. . c) = (Aa. y"). c)+(a. We call the correspondence a coordinate system. . . b. It is easy to generalize all this to obtain the arithmetic n-space. .b+$. . Ac) (a. .b+i. . 2. y"). b. Ac).y) _ (a+a.

we would obtain the whole class of tangent elements. x") = y`tx'(t). Contravariant Vectors. y = y(t). x2. 2.270 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. we define a tangent vector to the space curve (487) as having the components d. . x2(t). It is the abstract collection of all these elements that is said to be the tangent vector. are the components of a tangent dt dt' dt vector to this curve. We consider the arithmetic n-space and define a space curve in this V by x` = x`(t). . We immediately have that y' = y'(x1. y = x2. n (487) Note the immediate generalization from the space curve x = x(t). only the labels attached to these points have changed) are given by coordinate system.n (489) Certainly the x coordinate system is no more important than the y coordinate system. We cannot say that dt is the tangent vector any more than we can say dt is the tangent vector.n (488) Now let us consider an allowable (one-to-one and single-valued) coordinate transformation. of the type (485).. . . .ri dt 'j = 1. x"(t)1 = y'(t) as the equation of our space curve for observers using the y The components of a tangent vector to the same space curve (remember the points of the curve have not changed. Generalizing. . . If we considered all allowable coordinate transformations. 2. . . dyi dt i = 1. 123 123. . dx d dz . z = z(t): In our new notation x = x'. each element claiming s to be the tangent vector for that particular coordinate system. . 2. z = x3. at<_/i We We remember that = 1. . . . . . . We now ask what relationship exists between the components of the tangent vector in the x coordinate system and the components of the tangent vector in the y coordi- .

it merely changes the components of the same vector. . xn).. Y. then the components are known in all other allowable coordinate systems by (491). which transform accordAi(xe. x') axa axa (491) under the coordinate transformation x= = 21(x'. We immediately see that the law of transformation for a contravariant vector is transitive. 2. Z be the components of a contravariant vector in a Euclidean space.. for an orthogonal coordinate . . An object of any sort which is not changed by transformations of coordinates is called an invariant. If the components of a contravariant vector are known in one coordinate system. . are said to be the components of a contravariant vector. OX* . Let A'=Aaa2i. .Ai=Aai a2a ax _Aaax axa Then 8 A' _ A8 ax a = Aa ax a28 axa ate which proves our statement. i = 1. Example 121. Let X. . We can easily answer this question. We thus say that a contra variant vector is an invariant under a coordinate transformation. ing to the law .SF(. . . The vector is not just the set of components in one coordinate system but is rather the abstract quantity which is represented in each coordinate system x by the set of components Ai(x). We now make the following generalization: Any set of numbers . _ AL(P.dy s dl dx1 We leave it as an exercise that this result follows from (490) as well as from (486). x2. 123] TENSOI? ANALYSIS 271 nate system. for dys 0y1 dxa dt axa dt (490) We also notice that d = ay. x2. xn) = Aa(xl. xn). A coordinate transformation does not give a new vector. 22. . . . . x2. . n. . .

z = z. We multiplied by r because r d8 is arc length along the 0-curve. Z are the components of a contravariant vector in an orthogonal coordinate system. 123 system. If A'(x). they vanish in all coordinate systems. . R. where C" = ax' ar 2. By what must the 0 and Sp components be multiplied so that we can obtain the projections of the vector on the 0. Y. Show that the sum and difference of two contravariant vectors of order n is another contravariant vector. Z are the physical components of the same vector. The components R. Show that if the components of a contravariant vector vanish in one coordinate system. If X. If A' = Aa a ' show that A' = Aa ' a. Problems 1. whereas R. However. Z are the vector components of the vector A in the r-e-z coordinate system. show that C'"(x) = A'(x)B'(x) transforms according to the law C*' = Cap axa ate. if the 0-component is given the dimensions of a length by multiplying by r. z directions. What can be said of two contravariant vectors whose components are equal in one coordinate system? 3. and let ds2 = dx2 + dy2 + dz2. The components of this vector in a polar coordinate system -. we obtain Or = .272 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 0 = tan-' (y/x). find the components'in a spherical coordinate system. Z are not the projections of the vector A = Xi + Yj + Zk on the r. 0. 9. B'(x) are components of two contravariant vectors.re ar R=X.+Yaar y ar +Zaz= cos 0X+ sin 0Y 0 Z=Xa +Yaz+Zaz=Z y ae ae X ax + Y ay CIO _ + Z az^ -sine X + cos e Y r r where r = (x2 + y2)4.sin 0 X + cos 9 Y. which is the projection of A in the 9-direction. 4.and (p-directions? 5. re. 0.

What is the difference between a contravariant and a covariant vector? It is the law of transformation! The reader is asked to compare (494) with (491). y"J are related to the elements of (492) by (493). if J i=Aaa' L' (494) the A. More generally. and form the n-tuple (492) Now under a coordinate transformation av ay' a(p axa axa ay' (493) so that the elements of the n-tuple l 1 y2 . The remarks of Sec. If Ai = ax1 Aa axa. We form the scalar AaBa. 1. . x2. 125] TENSOR ANALYSIS Caa N l-AI 273 6. show that Ati = az 124. 125. We might ask why it was that no such distinction was made in the elementary vector analysis. Scalar Product of Two Vectors. We shall answer this question in a later paragraph. called the gradient of gyp. . Referring to Prob.SEC. We consider the scalar point function So = co(x'. are said to be the components of a covariant vector. N i ax` ax' axa al$ i 7. show that Cs. What is the form of AaBa if we make a coordinate transformation? Now Aa=A8axe' ax a Baaxa c12' . We say that the axi are the components of a covariant vector. x"). Covariant Vectors. 123 apply here. . Let A'(x) and &(x) be the components of a contravariant and a covariant vector. .

aXa axa* axle. or inner product...p) grad rp 5.274 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. a2. = Aa axi 4. The contravariant and covariant vectors defined above are special cases of differential invariants called tensors. alb. . b. . transforms according to the law Oil = Cap axp C"i axa axe axa ax? 2. ax TaW*A:.b. show that grad (vO) = c grad P + 0 grad cp grad [F(op)] = F'(. .. = A.... a2s = Asfl = AaBa Hence AaBa is a scalar invariant under a coordinate transformation. If A'Bi is a scalar invariant for all contravariant vectors A'.. transforms according to the law . .B. product. or dot. . axi show that A.. (495) . 2. . b2. . a. 126 so that AaBa = AFB. . run through ing to the rule ax N 1 b.. The components of the tensor are of the form Ta4b .. . . The product (AaBa) is called the scalar. the integers 1.C8 V axa .q. . Problems 1.. axig a-. are scalar invariants. show that Ci. If Ai and Bi are components of two covariant vectors. axa axQ axp axa AaBa = A"B. where the indices a. b1. If p and J. . b. a 3. n. If Ai = A. 126. . show that Bi is a covariant vector. Tensors. of the two vectors. anal . . Show that C = AB. and the components transform accordalas .

.. otherwise it is called a mixed tensor.b c. .d _ Ua.. We can construct further tensors as follows: (a) The sum of two tensors of the same kind is a tensor of this kind.. The proof is obvious. . . Let Tba = a axQ a2" alt T s axlaxa Ox 3 19i = a2 Sc or. ...ax ax8 a2a all (TWO) a26 ax* ax" The new tensor is of weight N + N' = 3 + 2 = 5.SEC... we say that the tensor field is absolute.. Two tensors are said to be of the same kind if the tensors have the same number of covariant indices and the same number of contravariant indices and are of the same weight. 02i so that = ax s (T bs') .ax a To . The tensor of (495) is said to be contravariant of order r and covariant of order s. ax° axr axa ""T a Fa. If s = 0. the weight of the If N = 0.d c. otherwise the tensor field is relative of weight N.. for if Tc .b _ axN d . (c) Contraction... . 8xrOxa axd axa . c.d c.......b) . Consider the absolute tensor Atk - a ax0 axy axi AOY a2' axk axa . 126] TENSOR ANALYSIS 1092X1 275 We call the exponent N of the Jacobian tensor field. a. alb ax" a ax0 b= A7c. r age . and if r = 0.. The vectors of Sees. atd axa then Ua. We show this for a special case. the tensor is purely contravariant.z ax N a2 ax' axb (b) The product of two tensors is a tensor. A tensor density occurs for N = 1.. purely covariant. 123 and 124 are absolute tensors of order 1.... d laXlN S-.

we must have f k = Bay result. In general. We illustrate the quotient law as follows: Assume that AiB. axa axs axi axa = 80 a = as a If Ai and Bi are the components of a contra- variant and a covariant vector. 126 Replace k by i and sum. Example 122. are the components of a mixed tensor. (d) Quotient law. for a2 ax the desired The Kronecker delta.k .k is a tensor for all contravariant vectors Ai. axa x6 = A'Bay or axa axy ax axk Ai ` $.Bay axp avk l axa axy =0 axa axk Since A' is arbitrary.276 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.k is a tensor. we equate a certain covariant index to a contravariant index. S. and obtain a new tensor. We prove that B. axa a = Aay axi sa ax axa 13x# y axi so that Ali are the components of an absolute contravariant vector. sum on the repeated indices. is a mixed absolute axi axa = ' aga axi' Example 123. tensor. then C = AiB.i . axa axa B' _ B a ali - . We call this process a contraction. We obtain A. for AiE1 = AQBay - CIO axy 492i axi ax.Aay = Aay a = Apa 43X'9 axy axi axi axi axa M ax. for s Ai = Aa ax .

.. Example 125. = IgI}A' = ax ax Ba2i aax Of IgI'Aa axa B. dxu dx' °1° ^ 9u axu ax a0 dxu dx' = 0 (496) If we assume gap = gaa. This method affords a means of changing absolute tensors into relative tensors.= axt ox' Example 115 twice. we obtain lax Taking determinants and applying ax or Igl =1g1 l ax I#I} = IgIl a2 Now if Ai are the components of an absolute contravariant vector. 1261 TENSOR ANALYSIS 277 CO that C AaB# axa axe = Cs axa Ox' Example 124. dxu dx = g. then A{ = Aa ax Y so that B. that is. = gap . so that Bi ° IgI#Ai 9aP d7a d2O = gp dxa dxfi a Now d2a = axu dxµ. Assume gap dxa dxO an invariant. we must have (see Example 114) . ax- are the components of a vector density. Let gij be the components of a covariant tensor ax-. so that gap or (9aO axa aaxu ax. then since (496) is identically zero for arbitrary dxi.SEC.9x# so that gi.

we have that Cc.A3B2 0 -(A2B3 .A. 3.. Example 127.. = -C. and B.B. = AaEp axa ax# axa a28 axti axe = C° axti axe The C:. the outer product of Ai and B. = A.A2B1) -(A1B8 . By the same reasoning as in Example 127. for C.. Example 126. are the components of a covariant tensor of the second order. If A are the components of an absolute mixed tensor. Show that A. . be the components of two covariant vectors..278 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS ISEC. Problems 1. so that C. If A = Aao axa ax0 ai axe. If the components of a tensor are zero in one coordinate system. and if Aa#A$. show that A.A3B1) A1B8 . is a scalar invariant.A2B1 0 -(A1B2 . is skew-symmetric.II = A1B2 . it follows from the law of transformation (495) that the components are zero in all coordinate systems. are the components of a covariant tensor of second order.AaBI A2B3 .A3B2) The nonvanishing terms are similar to the components of the vector cross product. = Aaa axa axa ax' axe 2. The two tensors are said to be reciprocal.B. show that A. Outer product of two vectors.. If Aa# are the components of an absolute covariant tensor. can be written as the sum of a symmetric and a skew-symmetric component. This is an important result.B.. Example 128. are components of a covariant tensor of rank 2.. . = 8 . show that the Aal are the components of an absolute contravariant tensor. For a three-dimensional space 0 11C1.. 4. Notice that C. Let A. = A. 126 axa axs 9µY = 9a$ axµ axY (496a) or the gµ.

and that K = BiJuiui an invariant? 7.. Show that the cofactors of the determinant lair. . show that Amw is a mixed tensor of weight N. -K'Bii)v' = 0. 2' ) we have that dx' = axi d2a.uiv' = 0. . .uiul = Aiiu. (A.j= 1. If Ami is a mixed tensor of weight N. 22. In the Euclidean space of three dimensions we have assumed that ds2 = dx2 + dye + dz2 In the Euclidean n-space we have ds2 = (dx')2 + (dx2)2 + .uiv' = Bi. . and A1. AiiutuWhy i 10. derive a relative scalar of weight N. 127. 1271 TENSOR ANALYSIS 279 5. If Al. are the components of a relative tensor of weight 2 if ail is an absolute covariant tensor.. 6. 2. .. so that (497) takes the form ds2 = 6. n KX K is K Prove that Ai.u. 9. Let Ail and Bit be symmetric tensors and let ui. where 9vr = a°a axa 8x# a_ ax° ax° ax+' any . show that A. . are reciprocal symmetric tensors. show that axe are not the components of a mixed tensor. The Line Element. From the relative tensor A of weight N. 8. where ui = Ai°u.0 ax° axe dxµ dx axµ aV n We may write ds2 = vr d2" dz'. vi be components of contravariant vectors satisfying (A... .. If Ai are the components of an absolute contravariant vector. (497) .)ui=0 i. and if ui are components of a covariant vector.SEC.-KBi.. + (dxn)2 = bo dx° dxa If we apply a transformation of coordinates xi = xi(21.

are constants is called a Cartesian coordinate system. . 127 Thus the most general form for the line element (ds)2 for a Euclidean space is the quadratic form ds2 = gas dxa dx5 (498) The gap are the components of the metric tensor (see Example 125). g. We can choose the metric tensor symmetric. The quadratic differential form (498) is called a Rie- mannian metric. The terms J(g. w) = gas ay. The y's will be called the components of a Euclidean coordinate system. so that 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 Let x' = r sin 0 cos p = y' sin y2 cos y$ x2 = r sin 0 sin rp = y' sin y2 sin y2 x3=rcos9=y'cosy2 Now axa 8x5 9ti(r. If there is a coordinate transformation xi = xi(y'. Example 129. . for gii = Ij(gv + gig) + (gii . . In a three-dimensional Euclidean space ds2 = tax 1)2 + (dx2)2 + (dx3)2 for an orthogonal coordinate sys- tem. Any space characterized by such a metric is called a Riemannian space. y") such that ds2 = Say dya dy5. It does not follow that there exists a coordinate transformation which reduces (498) to a sum of squares.280 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc.ay: ayi + ay: ayi + ay' ayi . . Any coordinate system for which the g.gii) and the terms $(gt.gii) dx' dx' contribute nothing to the sum ds2.. we say that the Riemannian space is Euclidean. y2. ayi ax' ax' axe axe OxI 49x8 . . Notice that gas = Sap.i + gii) are symmetric in i and j.

933 = (y')2(sin y2)2.=0 for i5j so that ds2 = (dy')2 + (y')2(dy2)2 + (y' sin y2)2(dy3)2 = dr2 + r2 do2 + r2 sin2 0 is the line element in spherical coordinates. Sec. If L2 = 1. 126)..2 gai = d. Example 132. Angle between two vectors. For spherical coordinates in a Euclidean space 1 0 0 1 0 r2 0 0 0 0 r2 sin2 B 0 0 2 r2 0 0 1 0 r2 sin2 9 Example 131. We define the length L of a vector Ai in a Riemannian space by the quadratic form L2 = g pA°A# (499) The associated vector of Ai is the covariant vector i = gia It is easily seen that Ai = gipAp. 4.. gi. a spherical coordinate system is not a Cartesian coordinate system. so that L2 = gapg' g"'A"A.SEC. the vector is a unit vector. Example 130.i divided by the determinant of the gi. be unit vectors. Since the g's are not constants. We see that a vector and its associate have the same length. We define gii as the reciprocal tensor to gi. gi. Let Ai and B.f (see Prob. that is. The gii are the signed minors of the g. We define the cosine of the angle between these . 127] TENSOR ANALYSIS 281 Hence gll = (sin y2 cos y3)2 + (sin y2 sin y3)2 + (cos y2)2 Similarly 922 = (y') 2.

Consider the vector AA' + tive definite form. the vectors are orthogonal.AiB. u2). it is easy to see that cos 0 = ± 1. x' = x'(ul. Similarly. gas(XAa + µB")(XAa + kB") > 0 or y = A2(gaAaAa) + 2Aµ(gasA"B1) +µ2(gaaBaBa) > 0 This is a quadratic form in A2/µ2. Example 133. gaaza# > 0 unless z' = 0. we have 1Bi. If we keep ul fixed. y would vanish for some value of A/µ or µ/A. for if it were nonnegative.B1 = gi'A.B. = gaa axa axa au'aui . if Ai = kBi.. A hypersurface in a Riemannian space is given by x' = x'(ul. called the u2 curve. Moreover. that is.Bi = gi. du' du' where hi. We must show that Assuming a posiI cos 01 < 1. (500) If the vectors are not unit vectors. gi.A'B' = 0. we obtain the space curve x' = x'(uo. Hence gaaAaBP < (gaaAaA8)4(gaaBaBa)} or .-dui du' axa axa _ au' aui ca-1 axa axa g°a aui au dui du' (501) ds2 = h. 127 two vectors by cos 0 = A'Bi = Aig.cos 01 < 1. once that on the surface 2 We have at ds2 = gad dxa dxa = I gap . ul = uo. cos 0 = (500 a) If gi. uo) represents a ul curve on the surface. These curves are called the coordinate curves of the surface.. Hence I cos el < 1. so that the discriminant must be negative. u2).282 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.AiB' = giiA.

The special theory of relativity.1 + (VW/c) V-I-W ^ r1 _ `\ U2)-1 c I We now assume that (x. .(W'/c')]-. (2) the inverse transformation exists since 2 _ #(x + Vt). 127] TENSOR ANALYSIS 283 Example 134.Vt) y=y z = 2 (502) xJ where. y = y.V. 1) represents the same event observed by S (see Fig. then x = (2. 9. t = O[t + (V/c')x]. Sec. y. z = 2. 24). c is the speed of light. the inverse transformation obtained by replacing the parameter V by . t) represents an event in space and time as observed by S and that (x. we obtain the identity transformations x = 2. The transformations form a group because (1) if we set V = 0.(V2/c2)1-} and V is the parameter. for if where _ [1 . 101).6 = [1 . Let us consider the one-parameter group of transformations x = . y.SEC. (3) the result of applying two such transformations yields a new Lorentz transformation. t = z. These are the Einstein-Lorentz transformations (see Prob.B(x ..Ut) y=?! z t=fi -Ux c where U` :' . z. 11. 2. t = t.

11. We have x = constant.V' showing that S moves with a constant speed . Similarly S moves with speed + V relative to S.284 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.cz dt2 = 0 an invariant. and from (502) dt = 0 dt.7. 24 show that x2 + y2 + z2 t2 . Sec.V relative to S. 127 The origin b has :f = y = 2 = 0' so that from (502) dx dt = . 8 remarks that S's clock is running slowly. From (502) we see that 0 and 0 coincide at t = 0. 1. This is one of the postulates of the special theory of relativity. Let us now consider a clock fixed in the S frame. we could have shown that the transformations (502) are the only transformations which keep dx2 + d y2 + dz2 . The results of Prob. The same is true for clocks fixed in the S frame.q 'P1:Mf. y .7 14 -V S X S X z z Fia. Starting with this postulate and desiring the group property. . so that dx = 0.xa _' _2 + 22 12 -4 . Hence a unit of time as observed by S is not a unit of time as observed by S because of the factor 0 5-6 1. At this instant assume that an event is the sending forth of a light wave. 101.C so that the speed of light is the same for both observers.

(dx') 2 . x$ = z.C2 ds m0 da ) d( dxa I [1 . 4 . then + + \dt/2 d82 = c2 dt2 .(u2/C2)]. 1271 TENSOR ANALYSIS 285 We choose for the interval of our four-dimensional space the invariant ds2 = c2 dt2 . and ds' = . and the measurement of interval ds is real and proportional to the time dt.(dx2 + dye + dz2) = (c2 . its absolute value denoting length as measured by meter sticks in a Euclidean space. but takes care to distinguish between them. x2 = y. The momentum of a particle of mass mo will be defined by pa = mo d8 . This will guarantee the invariance of our laws of physics. the components of the tensors subject to the transformations (502).u2)} dt = C [1 .dx2 .d y2 -dz2 = (dx') 2 . If the speed of the particle is u. The interval ds2 yields two types of measurements. so that ds2 = c2 dt2. Now if we keep t fixed. then dx = dy = dz = 0.u2) dt2 so that mo dxa I mo dxa pa = (C2 . length and time.(dx2 + dye + dz2) so that ds is a pure imaginary. dt = 0. If we keep a clock fixed in the S frame. x' = ct. We shall describe the laws of physics by tensor equations. dt d (m a dt ' a = 1.m We define the Minkowski force by the equations f a . 3.(dx2) 2 .(u2/c2)]} dt and p = [1 _ mo . ()2 ()2 u2 as measured by S.(u2/C2)]} -.SEC.(dxa) 2 where x' = x. 2.

choosing the frame S so that at a particular instant the charge p is fixed in this frame. Problems 1. Vh11aul 4. Let the reader derive (285) by use of this theory. and 3 of Sec. 1. If w is the angle between the coordinate curves. E = [1 .dxa j a1 mou du [1 . 2. show that and 18x 1 -V//-22aU2 .mo)c2. 127 The Minkowski force differs from the Newtonian force by the factor [1 . The reader is referred to Probs. with E = 0 for u = 0.(u2/C2))-1. we have E Jmou2 for (u2/c2) << 1.286 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS ISEC. The work done by the Newtonian force Fa = d. 82 for the application of special relativity theory to electromagnetic theory. h1 = a-1 1 axa axa t9lis au? 3.(u2/C2)11 and integrating. Show that the unit vectors tangent to the ul and u2 curves are given by ax cos w = his/.(u2/c2))-lmoc2 . The force on the charge as measured by S is given by (285).moc2 = (m .(u2/c2)1-1 in a Maclaurin series.(y2)2] show that ds2 = [(y')2 + (y2)21[(dyl)2 + (dy2)21 + (yly2)2(dy$)2. Show that for a hypersurface in a three-dimensional 8 Euclidean space. 2. For paraboloidal coordinates x1 = yly2 cos ys x2 = y1y2 sin ya x8 = 3[(yl)2 . Expanding [1 .(m ddt for a displacement dxa is dE _ a-1 d (mxa) dxa I (mxa dxa + dd -4.

. . Show that a length observed by S appears to be longer as observed by S. Show that ds is a unit vector for a V".SEc. = 1//.. .1.. . If (p(x'. 0). . dx" 8.. i = 1. ax' dx'. dx" is an invariant. 0. . ax' dx' . Sec.. show that dx" We define the volume by . . 0. . . . 9. . (p(x'. . V=ff. . x") = constant determines a hypersurface If dx` is any infinitesimal displacement on the hyper- surface. ax Why does this show that the ax are the components of a covariant vector that is normal to the hypersurface? 6. 2. This determines subspaces of dimensions (n . 1 a aP gra avp . . Cax' dx'. dx" gl dx' dx2 Using the result of Prob. we obtain a coordinate curve. show that a unit vector normal to the surface is given by (g°8 ax. . 9g 10. 127J TENSOR ANALYSIS 287 5. x2. Show that the unit vectors to the coordinate curves are given by a. .. 2.. x") = constant. . 0). .. (0. Consider the vector with components (dx'. On these surfaces all variables but one are allowed to vary. .. . . If we let only x' vary. = 1a1 dx' dx2 . n. The surfaces xti = constant.1). . _ gc. . are called the coordinate surfaces of Riemannian space. . . Under a coordinate transformation the components become 2 " . axo axa 7. 7. n. dx2. 121. . . of a V. . and that the angle of intersection between two coordinate curves is given by r cosm. . ) 0. . How does S compare lengths with S? . 0. dx"). Consider the new components for the vectors with components (0. . . and interpret d2' dxa . . . x2. we have a dxa = 0. f dx' dxa . . i .

The differential equations of the geodesics are [see Eq. dtQ = 0. p be the components of a vector as measured What are the components of the same vector as measured by S? by S. jz. Find dt2.` \g°a dt dt d (of of (503) To find the geodesics we extremalize (503) (see Sec. and use the fact that gii = gii.a + g+sio + agxps xaxs + x° ve 2(ds/dt)2 dt2 d (ga:xa + 2 If we choose s for the parameter t. Let d2 x d 29 72 dz2 die' die' die be the components of the acceleration of a dz 2y 2z particle as measured by S.-axti / x x = 0 (505) . 128 11. dt2.xa + gist dt \ 2 ds/dt 2 ds/dt / 2 (g. 40). dt = 1. Let jx.. 12. Geodesics in a Riemannian Space. 128. jj. dt2 from (502).#)} = Wt of ax' and 2f \ ax' 1 (aga9 zaxs d (af dt \az' Fz d (ga. we can compute the distance between two points of the curve by the formula s ri ( dxa dxO 4 dt .288 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. If a space curve in a Riemannian space is given by xi = xi(t). s = t. (146)] of dt ax' Now 0 (504) where f = (go '. (504) reduces to a 1 /agai 610 ague g'ax + 2 + axa agoal a o .

1 r212 x1 1r22 . Assume that we live in a space for which dal = (dx')2 + [(x1)2 + c2](dx2)2. so that gap = a.0 0 2x' dx' dx2 d82 + (x')2 + C2 d8 ds = . a linear path.-x1 . a9oa ago axQ ra$ 2 \ ax$ + axa (507) The functions r" are called the Christoffel symbols of the second kind.SEC. Example 135.. r21 = r14 = 0. d2x' (x') 2 + C2 r2 so that the differential equations of the geodesics on the surface are dx2 2 x 1 ds2 d2x2 T8 . we have ds2 = (dxl) 2 + + (dx") 2.# and ft" 0. Example 136. the surface of a right helicoid immersed in a Euclidean three-space. Equations (506) are the differential equations of the geodesics or paths. For a Euclidean space using orthogonal coordinates. we obtain gri xr or `(89-i . axi / dxa dxP (506) dS2 + r°a ds ds - where 9r r° (. We have 1 0 1 0 1 {1gi?il = 0 (x1)2 + c2 0 (x')2 .99io + 2 d2xr + axa . 1281 TENSOR ANALYSIS 280 Multiplying (505) by gri and summing on i. Hence the geodesics are given by ds = 0 or d1 xr = ars + br.9g.+ C2 Thus we have rill =0.

xi in a Riemannian space.rlk. Obtain the Christoffel symbols for a Euclidean space using cylindrical coordinates. 129 Problems 1.y .7 axsax ax + ax ax ax show that r. If r = r. Do the same for spherical coordinates.k of Example 136. jk I = g. Let ds2 = E due + 2F du dv + G dv2. 8. Let the equations of the geodesics be given by d2xi d i J dxk ds2 and + r "k ds ds ^ 0 + P 2k d. 5. 2. Obtain the Christoffel symbols and the equations of the geodesics for the surface xl = ul cos u2 x2 = u' sin 412 x3 = 0 This surface is the plane x3 = 0. axk axe a2x° axe 10. Find the differential equations of the geodesics for the line element ds2 = (dxl)2 + (sin x')2(dx2)2. Write out the rk.. Write out the explicit form for the Christoffel symbols of the first kind : { i.V d2k _ (508) AV ds2 ds ds _ - ° (5 0 9) for the two coordinate systems xi.. g''. For a Euclidean space using a cartesian coordinate system. Set up the equations of the geodesics. show that r. Derive the r.. Law of Transformation for the Christoffel Symbols. i. and the coordinates are polar coordinates.sro + g. = 0. als 7.arp. 2. From (507) show that axµ = g. 4. 9.rry a. Calculate IgJ. 6. ..290 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. 129. j = 1. We now find the relationship between the r k and r. 3. are the components of a tensor. Show that rqn = r'a. Now .

dxi ds _ _ a2' dxa d2x` axa ds and _ a2xi d2x° ds2 axa axa ds ds + axa ds2 Substituting into (509). 129J TENSOR ANALYSIS 291 dxa dxa 9. Sec. Example 137..SEc. We note that the rk are not the components of a tensor. + gang°aFBp so that = a. we see that (using the fact that rlk = rk.) rik aY axe axk axa + axi axk a2° axa axy axi a2x° Oxi (511) This is the law of transformation for the rk.p=2rµ C log axp _ ra p (512) . 6. we obtain &V d2xa a22 i dxa dxa ° axa ds' + ax# axa ds A + rik axi axk dxa dxa axe.rap + a1r00 or =rap+r. From (481) we have algl 8 = Iglgae ax' and from Prob. so that the rk may be zero in one coordinate system but not in all coordinate systems. ax" ds as 0 (510) We multiply (510) by axi and sum on i to obtain d2x° dx2 axe axk a22i 49x°l dxa dxa + (rijk axa axa axgr + axa axa a-V ds ds a2i 0 Comparing with (508). ax# = garap + g°arPA = gas9°ar. 128.

we have ag.__- axk . axj + axle agi. b° are constants of integration.axY a2k gay ak a + j I02i x2a2 a2k a. Differentiating the law of transformation axe.i agar axY axa ax8 49. = constants). k. In any other coordinate system. We may arrive at the Christoffel symbols and their law of transformation by another method. ax8 g'' = ga$ a2i a2. furthermore. we desire the distance between two points to be an invariant. with respect to xk. or 82x° aP a2k =0 (514) x° = alga + b° where a'.rdy afj a2k axa + 02i axk axa where ti a axs axY axi a2xa axi 511a) r" = 2 g°' (agk. If. _ agile ax" Example 139.t. we have a2x° a2i TV a2k ax° If the new coordinate system is also Cartesian (the g._ C-1 a:a.Ti axa 492X# ax0 aaxa (513) If we now subtract (513) from the two equations obtained from it by cyclic permutations of the indices i. + (dx") 2 In this case the r (x) = 0. j. Let us consider a Euclidean space for which ds2 = (dx 1) 2 + (dx2) 2 + . then r k = 0.dxa dx8 . we must have n n n dx° dx° _ ff-1 W-1 d2° d2. Hence the coordinate transformation between two cartesian coordinate systems is linear. 129 Example 138. we obtain r ..292 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. - .

= axa axe a:' CIO azf axe ' =g"° ax.SEC. and sum on i. of all To ax. Problems 1. = Aa axa 82' (517) by a from (516). = Sas (515) V-1 A linear transformation such that (515) holds is called an orthogonal transformation. reduces to S. From (511) show that _ r'k =ray a ax8 axy a2' 82xC.iii 8x8 8x' (516) Now let us compare the laws of transformation for covariant and contravariant vectors. This is why there was no distinction made between covariant and contravariant vectors in the elementary treatment of vectors. 129] TENSOR ANALYSIS n 293 so that I a.+ afj axk axe . so that = aaa is a = #0 axe .. We have A' = Aa Replacing 621 a2' _.-. axe a' axe We multiply both sides by axp amt ax). For orthogonal transformations.a. axa A. we see that n axa a-1 Aaa (518) so that orthogonal transformations affect contravariant vectors in exactly the same way that covariant vectors are affected [compare (517) and (518)].

2.. xa(s) satisfies (506) and dxa dxs gas ds A = 0] remains a minimal geodesic under a conformal transformation. Prove that a geodesic of zero length (minimal geodesic) [that is. u2.k = axa + a2x' axi axi axk ax° .. xk ax = 0. We see that the metric tensor gas(x) is determined only up to a factor of multiplication u(x). 2 aQ 4. az axk = a21° axi 5.C axk .kl + aui _ au° show that hair k)k = gap(ra. show that s0 0. If az. show that r.)o axa axs axy axa a2xs + gas aut aui auk aui aui auk 7. = gas axa axs u*). or.r(x) = r. . Show that T. 6. if h. ah.. n. By differentiating the identity gaga. . In this space (conformal) we do not compare lengths at two different points. . If xa = xa(ul. a. show that ag{k axi = _gkxr h4 . 3.k = rPr ax. and ra sy are defined by (507) using 8. 1alogµ I'sa .294 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. . axa + axi axk at° a axA 8x' axi r. and Taui and if 1 i {rik)h = 2 h. . a = 1. If 090 My axi r. . . 129 2.9htrh. the unit of length changes from point to point. Define gs(x) by the equation gas(x) = µ(x)gas(x). (x} + rPYaa + PSaY . (ah auk ahk. 021. r < n.ga°gstimo where 'Po = 2 axe gas and gas. = S . Derive (513) by performing the permutations. in other words..

. The tensor is called the covariant derivative of A.1 = axe our ordinary derivative. However.axa ax' axe (521 ) so that if we define A. and subtracting from (519).s = Aa. with respect to xi.E = 0. we can construct a tensor by the following device: From (511a) (see page 292) ax' axr axa ax. -A &V a 1' _ ( axa -Ar O aa Ox. axe (519) It is at once apparent that are not the components of a tensor.. r. Covariant Differentiation. so that A.. 130J TENSOR ANALYSIS 295 130.a axa axa axi axi and A. The comma will denote covariant differentiation.7 axa (520) + axi axi ax" Multiplying (520) by A... For a cartesian coordinate system.=-Aa1 8x1 49A. aA. we obtain aA. axe axo 82x.SEC.. Let us differentiate the absolute covariant vector given by the transformation At-Aaaxa axi We obtain aA. (522) we have that A. axe aAa axa axa a2xa axa ax= ax' + Aa axi axi aA. is a covariant tensor of rank 2. For a scalar of weight N we have A=I- 821 A .

. is a relative tensor of weight N.:::a.a. it can be proved that if Tp..k . A. 128. so that from Prob. In general..NAr`. -= ax . from (523).k = 0 (526) .. Sec. of covariant order one greater than Ts. i a clx (524) Hence A.. a v.. 130 so that axlN aA axa ax 8xa 02' aax' +N ax N-1 ax a lax ax and from (482).k = axk . then N.a. (525) TW-a.p Ain + Ta.NAr.s. we have OA + axi ax a x. 6. g i. aA _ laxe a2xs ax ax i ax Hence 82x0 axi - ax N aA axa latl axa axi axa + 2 N ax N axa H axs &V C120 A (523) Multiplying r* = n...::: p..g+Nr k ag. axa axa Hi axQ by NA and subtracting . _ N (claAx a ax . and it is called the covariant derivative of TB.gwl'. Example 140. It is called the covariant derivative of the relative scalar + axe . is a relative covariant vector of weight For a cartesian coordinate system it reduces to the ordinary derivative..NA r-.A :::8.1.ry" -A- is a relative tensor of weight N.296 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. We have gii.

If the A. If the curl is identically zero.. as as Example 144. A. we call -p.5 .SEC. are tensors. Example 143. are the components a-P.. we know that Ai. the covariant vector is the gradient of a scalar.ax' ax' = o ax1 ax' Since Ai.. = axj Example 142.1 and dx so that the curl of a gradient is zero. _ gyp. A. The divergence of an absolute contravariant vector is defined as the contraction of its covariant derivative. = aaxA..A. aA1 It is called the curl of the vector Ai. If p is an absolute scalar.. .Aar .. (527) and write the intrinsic derivative of A. We have a dxf ds We call it the intrinsic derivative of A. ant vector. ds is a covariant vector.. Ai = curl A. aA. Let A. = ax the gradient of V.. Curl of a vector. Hence Ai. "' . as ds - `oar"ds BA.i axi . It can be shown that the converse holds. be an absolute covari- . Similarly. Intrinsic derivatives. dx1 aAi dxi 8A.Ar.A°`r`' dA. dxi . 130J TENSOR ANALYSIS 297 Example 141... We have A. dxi ds a axe ds . of the gradient of a scalar. == a2ip axi then 621P .ax` is a covariant tensor of rank 2..

. d9 (r2 sin 0 AB) + app (r2 sin 0 Ac) and changing At and A" into physical components having the dimensions of A (see Example 121). is the gradient of jp.298 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. 130 Hence div A' = A' = ax Now rQ.p. so that 1 div A _ a t ax1 + N/191 ax. and the div (p.)=diva' Thus v 2(p 1. we have 1 `'9= so that 0 0 0 r2 0 0 r2 sin2 0 0 div A' = i a r2 sin 8 ar (r2 sin 0 A.91 a aaa (v' Fg19°° TX ) (529) ..) is called the Laplacian of . Lapcp=VZ(p=div(g. -r.)+ a. from (512). The Laplacian of a scalar invariant. Aa div As = aa (V f gj Aa) a i = r2 sin 0 (528) In spherical coordinates. = as a logx IgI -4.AarQ. If p is a Car (r2 sin 0 A*) + a9 (r sin 0 A°) + a (rAc) J 1 scalar invariant. we have div A' = r2 sin o Example 145.

i .For a Euclidean Cti Example 146.c .soO.. = kp. so that 0A2 OA' div A'=axl+axe+ ... In cartesian coordinates the divergence theorem is JJ divAdr = ffA. into a contravariant vector so that we could aThe associate of 0 r2 81P is g«i LIP. and y . If we let Ni be the components of the unit normal vector to the surface do. Now let A.. + aA^ axn The quantity A* is a scalar invariant. axe ax' In spherical coordinates 1 0 0 i 7 0 0 t g' l = 0 0 0 I 0 0 r2 sin2 B r2 sin 9 so that VF = 1 r2 sin B r2 sin 0 ar \\\ 1 { a aF ar -1- a (sin B aF' + a / 1 aF' 00 \ 00a l\sin 9 app/) + Aar' .N&r In tensor form it becomes fJfAT = JJA"Nad r (530) We can obtain Green's formula by considering the covariant vectors 4O. then AaNa is also an invariant..dd = JJA. 1301 TENSOR ANALYSIS 299 We changed apply (528). In Example 144 we defined the divergence of the vector A' as div A' = A Ma space using cartesian coordinates.Sec. the rk = 0.

ax= .F In cartesian coordinates Fa.s . We easily see that A' = g°i(4y. and 1 = -EarilFR .NQ do S ff S Svf.)N. Now define 4ah = 1 w 1 if a.v Lap ¢) dr = = Example 147. 4°Ar = 0 otherwise. 1 -L 191 I 4132 = 1 411! = 0 We obtain a new invariant G" = . ' 211 - is an odd permutation of 1.a = -j E2111F2 s + 021F3. 2. y is an even permutation of 1.i(4.v. ft. = g°. ds ds. We multiply it by the contravariant vector d--° and sum on a to obtain the invariant F... f f g°iA. which turned out to be a tensor of rank 2.i). 2.4. dxa = F. 130 The associated vector of A. We now construct a vector whose components will also be those of the curl of a vector. 3.Q is an invariant and in cartesian coordinates reduces to + (ax1)2 + (ax2)2 a2_ a24 (ax3)2 _ Lap (p Hence. We know that F.P = ate.300 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS {SEC..4"0''Fa. In Example 142 we constructed the curl of a vector. is A° = g'=A. which reduces to f dr in cartesian coordinates.s is a tensor. dv Let us consider the covariant vector Fa. a29 Now g°'co.. using (530).2 = aFs aF2 axe . Thus 41st -. we obtain f if (t' Lap so . 3.

As in Example 143. 8. 1 7. 9... + A Ba. show that the intrinsic derivative as ds + Aarocp ds is a contravariant vector.NAr. 4.k -I. show that axi + Aara1 is a mixed tensor.. Prove that axa (vflg g`-) + rQgas = 0.1 = AaBa.' 11.Abr.Ap + 9apAaA. . Show that DZ(vo) 13. 12. Prove that (A-B.#AaAO) j = gapA . a ds ds = f a2i Oza do (531) Problems 1.). Show that the intrinsic derivative of a scalar of weight N is b = ds . pz9.A' for an absolute mixed tensor A. Prove that (g{aAa). 0. gl exa . By starting with Ai = All A.. Use (529) to find the Laplacian of F in cylindrical coordinates. = aA' + ax° r. Show that (g. 2. Show that Aaa = V.SEC.J. 130] TENSOR ANALYSIS 301 and similarly for G2 and G3. ds. form reads Hence Stokes's theorem in tensor f F. 10. Show that A. = g{aA'. 3. so that if A is an absolute constant. 5. 6.1 .DO -}. Prove that a.2 0v . Prove that 14i = 0. 1 0 (VTg_j A") .

.v'. be the displacement vector of any particle from its position of equilibrium (see Sec.. dx' dt and hence that the acceleration fc ° vanishes.) dx' Show that the term 4(8. The relative displacements of the particles are given by as. show that oA. is defined by the equations AF. If A. = A. 130 14..J by the equation Ei. be an arbitrary vector whose covariant derivative Consider Jf Ta.$ = 0. We know that s. is a covariant tensor. be the force per unit mass acting on the mass in question. at + Ai...J + ss. Let X. Let f.) dxJ represents a rotation..J av... Let s. = +(s.6 da. Xa.J + sJ. dT fffa pF'dr+ f sf T*JNJda= fffR pf'dT . 15. = TJNJ Ao- where AF. is the force acting on the element of area Aa with normal vector Ni (see Sec.) The stress tensor T. = s..8J.J dx _ 4(s. t) is a covariant vector. S 16. f f f pf. 116). dT + f f TJNJ da = or using contravariant components. and apply s the divergence theorem to the vector TOXa. We define the symmetric strain tensor E.. at _ 8A.J .(x.. be the acceleration of the volume dT and F. 115).302 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Sac. _ 8vi at at + v .' XaN. Hence show that fJ T aaNN da = ff7 T dT.:) dx' + s. Show that f j f pF. that is.

4s) (533) a and I ax1i = 1. we obtain axii a= + (ri OP ) Q(xa . 1311 TENSOR ANALYSIS 303 Now deduce the equations of motion pFr + T = pfr If Tn = pgri.8.p.qa) ate? I (534) because of the symmetry of ri. The point xi = q' corresponds to the Now differentiating (533) with respect to x'.q') + so that point x' = 0. we obtain a2x8 axa axs a2x' + (rae) a axk axi + (r10) a(x0 .SEC.r = pfr [see (411)] 131. show that pFr .igr' = pfr or pFr --. can we find a coordinate system such that rk 0 at the corresponding point? The answer is "Yes"! Let (xi . q«)(xd .p. Q Differentiating (534) with respect to xk. and moreover the transformaa tion (533) is nonsingular. Hence 6z! = 6f.k ds as where the Ik transform according to the law ask - ra sY 49x8 ax" axi 192xa axi ax axk axa + 491i axk axa (532) We ask ourselves the following question : If the I k are different from zero at a point x` = qi. Geodesic Coordinates. are given by d2xi as2 The equations of the geodesics dxi dxk = 0 + r.q°`) axk a21 axk ax' .

A special type of geodesic coordinate is the following: Let x' = x'(s) be a geodesic passing through the point P. Q.q7) to the right-hand side of (533) and still have obtained (r k)o = 0.fiy(x) (x° . we obtain (rij k)o = (rfY)Qaj kaa - (rk)Qaa = (r k). and .).(A' + B')..(r.q') (xa . = 0 at the origin. so that A` + B`. and A'. x' = xo.1 is zero in all coordinate systems. when evaluated at the origin. The covariant derivative of a sum or product of tensors must obey the same rules that hold for ordinary derivatives of the calculus.qP) (xr .304 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.k = A'kB7 + A'B1.k)Q = o.E. . the covariant derivative.)o(Aa)o = ax. + B`. +axi (A'+B'). for at any point we can choose geodesic coordinates so that A'1 OA' aBi _ a(Ai + Bi) ax' ax. since we could have added c. becomes the ordinary derivative evaluated at the origin.(Ai + B'). _ (A' + B'). For example.. is a zero tensor for geodesic coordinates. We leave it as an exercise for the reader to prove that (A'B. )0 since rq. \(Mi (As')O _ axi )0 + (ra. Hence A + B`i .D. In such a system. Any system of coordinates for which (r7k)P = 0 at a point P is called a geodesic coordinate system.k Equation (533) yields one geodesic coordinate system. . There are infinitely many such systems.(ray) 4 ask Q ax° axe Q axe -(raa)Q6-50 _ -k Substituting into (532). 131 so that a2x' axk axj = .

. and s determines a point on this geodesic. we have gaa° The intrinsic derivative is =1 Q a gas s e + gaak° as = 0 since (g. we must have r + r 1 = 21 k = 0. The X' = `s are called Riemannian coordinates.2' k = 0. Each V determines a geodesic through P. Show that for normal coordinates 2. gQs° 0. 131] TENSOR ANALYSIS 305 let xi r Define X' = Vs (535) where s is arc length along the geodesic. 2.SEc. Hence every point in the neighborhood of P has the definite coordinate xi attached to it. If ' is a unit vector. We see that the vector dx° dt1 is normal to the vector t'. so that rikl:'k = 0 (536) Since this equation holds at the point P for all directions t'. r. Usp + -r" $) = Hence gaat" as 0. dxgab 1. and adx. so that the x= are geodesic coordinates.1 = 0 (see Example 140). The equations of the geodesics in this coordinate system are d2z1 dS2 2 i d21 dxk 1 + r'k ds ds = 0 But ds = V and ds = 0.p). Problems dx°. Example 148. Show that ds ds remains constant along a geodesic.

from the quotient law (Sec. we obtain v'. Va. rak Interchanging k and j and subtracting. 132 3.k . + V ar°`' On again differentiating covariantly.306 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS i [SEC.k must be the components of a tensor. 126).viark ' 49xk = a 2V s axk 49x1 + aV a ri + Va arm. = V"Ba. = a' ax. Its covariant derivative yields the mixed tensor v`. and Vi are tensors. . If s is are length of the curve C.k where (537) Since V'. The Curvature Tensor. We can obtain two new tensors of the second order by contraction. . Let us consider the absolute contravariant vector Vi.Vik. + axk (a a + VOr. a 132.k .k = axk' + v rak avt. Prove that bt (X"Ya) = sat Ya + Xa sat. we have Vt.Vsk. It is called the curvature tensor. dx1 dxk ds2 r'k A TS What are the components for a geodesic? 4. show that the intrinsic derivative of the unit tangent has the components pi d2xs ds in the direction of the curve + ..

-k1 = 0. Hence if a space is Euclidean. ax1 axi (540) Evidently Si. We could have deduced this fact by examining (539) directly.R. . we have that a2 log axi ax1 a2 log -VIgl ax1 axi = 0 Now Ri. Riemann-Christoffel Tensor. = Be. the components are zero in all coordinate systems. Since r.k= = 0 in one coordinate system. and if we use the fact that a log "ICI ax" . tensor. We obtain another tensor by defining Si. . or covariant curvature. = Si..k(x) = 0.SEC. But if B'.ra 1aµ. the curvature tensor must vanish. The tensor Rhitk = gpaBk (541) is called the Riemann-Christoffel. the space is Euclidean.ki = 0 (542) in this coordinate system.. so that the Ricci tensor is symmetric in its indices. = 0. ara i aa ara a. We shall show later that if B1. is called the scalar curvature. . 133. 133] TENSOR ANALYSIS 307 Let Ri' Ba. The invariant R = gi"Ri.r%raa (539) This tensor is called the Ricci tensor and plays an important role in the theory of relativity. Let us note the following important result: Assume that the Riemannian space is Euclidean and that we are dealing with a cartesian coordinate system. = -8. we have from (538) B'. ara ara axa axa + r ara.i.

we obtain Bajk a a2raj _ . We shall now prove that if the Bki = 0. Now let us investigate under what conditions (544) may result.1 = 0 (543) 134.(x) = 0. If there is a coordinate system (x'. xn) for which (544) ayi r. Now rik(y) = rsY axfi axy 00 ayj ayk axa a2xa ayi + ayj ayk aXa . . the r. we have the Bianchi identity Bakj.308 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Sac. 134 If we differentiate (538) and evaluate at the origin of a geodesic coordinate system.y(x) = 0. a and adding.o + Ba0j.k(y) = ayj ayk axa and conversely. Let us define u7-aycc so that (545) becomes axa (546) auk = u7Nkly) ayj (547) For each a we have the first-order system of differential equations given by (546) and (547). the space is Euclidean. r. if (544) holds. . x2. k.ax° axk a2rak 8x° axj Permuting j..k + Baka. We write (544) as a2xa ayj ayk = ayi rk(y1 axe (545) which represents a system of second-order differential equations.. We have seen that if a space is Euclidean. then a2xa . Euclidean Space. which are special cases of the more general system . of necessity Bike = 0.

2. ." pp. Eqs.. (547). show that R = nk. The reader is referred to advanced texts on differential equations and especially to the elegant proof found in Gaston Darboux. (546) 2 We certainly must have aye ayj = ayj afk 8y1 yi. . and this implies afk az" + az _ aft af.=0 1 nklua (550) The first equation of (550) is satisfied from the symmetry of the I'. fill ay fj If the f. z". 325-336. z"+1. y".ay' + aZM ay' (549) k or afk ay' afk + fk u az" + azi. The integrability conditions (549).n+I (548) If we let z' = x°. . when referred to the system (546). yn) k=1. z2.Rhikj and that Riijk = Rhikk = 0 2. . 1341 TENSOR ANALYSIS . . av ay' .SEC.n . "Lecons sysOmes orthogonaux et les coordonnees curvilignes. . Show that Rhijk = .. it can be shown that the integrability conditions (549) are also sufficient that (548) have a solution satisfying the initial conditions z1. if f"kj = 0. Gauthier-Villars.k. 1910. Hence. . x"). j=1. . = zo at yi = yo. Paris. . x2. .. 309 azk ay' = f (z'. y`. 2 . Problems 1.2. we can solve (545) for z' = x° in terms of y'. we have T k(x) = 0. For the coordinate system (x'. . and the second is satisfied if 19j"n = 0. become jkua aj"U'.. y2.Rihik = . z3 = 112i and (547) reduce to (548). Zn+' = un. Show that Rhijk + Rhkij + Rhiki = 0- 3.. z2 = 211. If Rij = kgii. . are analytic.. . .

310 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. (549). 5. (547).. For a two-dimensional space for which g12 = 921 = 0. 1 49R . 811922 = R22911 = R1221 and that R_ R1221 911922 R:. 134 4. 6.. Show that B k1 76 0 for a space whose line element is given by ds2 = (dx')2 + (sin xl)2(dx2)2. 7. = 2 ax. show that R12 = 0. If R = gtiaR.. show that (R').. Derive (550) from (546). = JRg..

us = 0. = 0 or a3s 0. 3. Let us define the curvature as K = 0} g°0 88 aas ° and the principal unit normal µi by aai as _ = Kµi (551) i Since pi is a unit vector. i Equation (552) shows that Ss + KAi is normal to V. in a Riemannian space.CHAPTER 9 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS i 135. we know that aS is normal to pi. i = 1. 2. g°0A°. Let Ai = ds be the unit tangent vector to the space curve xi = xi(t). aµi as + KAi is also normal to µi. Frenet-Serret Formulas. We 311 .. In Example 148 we saw that the contravariant vector t as is normal to Xi. so that the intrinsic derivative yields Sµa g°'eA° Now bA° + g°0 as µB = 0 bs since g°0. aµ0 Hence g°a A° as + Kg°aa°i8 = 0 or (B68 µs g°aa° + KAS =0 (552) since gp°µs = g°aX 'X 8 = 1. and since 5Fdi as and Ai are normal to µi.

this is possible only if av TEIZ as = 0. (555). 135 define the binormal vi by the equation v' or aIAi as 1 T Sµ + KAt (68 (553) . Since we are dealing in three-space. (554).as is thus normal to all three vectors V.312 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. (554).r is called the torsion and is the magnitude of (i) =0 Since v` is normal to both X and µ'. (557) in full. we have gaPvax$ g«avO'µP = 0 (555) By differentiating (555) and using (551). or avi as formulas = (557) Writing (551).TY' = (554) where . Pi.ava as =0 (556) The vector rµe . Af. we leave it to the reader to show that gaaµa (T/!a / .-#c? . we have the Frenet-Serret & ds dxP KAi ds i d+ ds µa s = .(Ki + Tv`) a Pa (558) + = Tµ ds .

_ Aa 822' axfi 8xs axa (921y a2' axa A' = Aa axi a2a dxy since dA' = 0. x2 = t.KTY'. Since 'Xi = d3 . xn) in a cartesian coordinate system. Using cylindrical coordinates. Derive (556).A°1. why would (558) hold for all other coordinate systems in this Euclidean space? 2 . r = 0. 5. . We thus obtain dA = Ao From (511a) (see page 292) axe axa d. axO axa ax8 axa axy axe from (483) (559) so that dAi = . Parallel Displacement of Vectors. = 0 . x2. 1361 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 313 For a Euclidean space using cartesian coordinates. Consider an absolute contravariant vector Ai(xl. the r and (558) reduces to the formulas encountered in Sec. = 0. . . 2i -K2X + U' . Problems 1. 3.y d2y . Since (558) is true for a Euclidean space using cartesian coordinates. 2. Let us assume that the components Ai are con- stants. show that d a Q dx + ra' ds dare the com ponents of a contravariant vector. ds2 = (dxl)2 + (x')2(dx2)2 + (dxa)2 and for a circle xl = a. 136. and show that K = 1/a. x3 = 0. Expand (558) for this case.y ax' axa a2y 492' a22i a2xa a2i r~"° = a2y a2° axa a2xi - since r. 24. Now A' = Aa so that dA: .SEC. Show that Ss = as 4. .

Bi.. If A' is also parallel with respect to the V. Two vectors at a point are said to be parallel if their corresponding components are proportional. we have Ss = 0. 136 In general. d2xi + dxa dxe = 0. for a geodesic we have ri ds2 °s ds ds so that the unit tangent vector d suffers a parallel displacement dxi along the geodesic. is parallel to A'. Notice that the intrinsic derivative of A' along the curve xi(s) vanishes.A°ds =0 (560) We say that the vector Ai suffers a parallel displacement along the curve. We generalize (559) and define parallelism of a vector field Ai with respect to a curve C given by x' = x'(s) as follows: We say that Ai is parallelly displaced with respect to the Riemannian V. In particular. We have cos 0 = gapAaB$ and a(cos 0) as _ gas SAa as B$ aBQ + gaaAa as =0 so that 0 = constant. which undergo parallel displacements along a curve. they are inclined at a constant angle. Example 149. the vector B' = WA'..p ds 1 dip r d(log y) d8 . if dAi ds or dx* °T ds aas= d-si+r. along the curve C. cp = scalar. if two vectors of constant magnitudes undergo parallel displacements along a given curve.314 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Let us consider two unit vectors Ai. along a curve xi = xi(s). a Riemannian space is not Euclidean. If A' is a vector of constant magnitude. Now aBi t as - 0A' as dc* + ds `4s ds d A' . Hence.

. Show that if the vector At of constant magnitude is parallelly displaced along a geodesic. . If a vector A' satisfies (560). show that AA' = }RO. 2. . . The converse is not true. 134).Aa dxs. . u2. If we consider the xa = xa(ul. so that a vector B' of variable magnitude must satisfy an equation of the type a13' B = f(s)Bb (561) if it is to be parallelly displaced along the curve. is the curvature tensor (see Sees. . = h. transformation 137. 3.y so that At suffers a parallel displacement along IF. mannian space. which satisfy xa = xa(ul. We start with the RieV. The change in the components of a contravariant vector on being parallelly displaced along this closed path is 1 Ai = -jrra. du' du' . Now ds2 = 94 dxa dxs = gab axa 8xs sub 8u1 . Parallelism in a Subspace.. ri (x) in Taylor series about xo = x4(0). 0 < t < 1. 4. show that it is of constant magnitude. If a vector Bi satisfies (561) along a curve r. Let xi(t). for given the point with coordinates x'. . there may not exist U'. x2. it makes a constant angle with the geodesic. ds2 = gab dxs dxs.. u2.A' xy dx# .. Problems 1. . 133. m<n (562) we see that a point with coordinates ul.. 137] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 315 We desire B' to be parallel with respect to the V along the curve.. . and neglecting infinitesimals of higher order. from (560). Expand Aa(x). . . . u2. x". u2. . be an infinitesimal closed path.SEC. . U.x0 dxy where Rte.du' du. . since m < n. u").. by letting At = #Bi show that it is possible to find . ur).. . . 132. . . and also a point of V. u"' is a point of V.

i = 1. m. we have dAa ds and axa dai au' A + dxy ds a2xa duy i a aui aui Ts 6Aa as dAa + (r *-y ay ds _ ax.j =gap a axa M aui au1 Now dxa = aua dui. dxa are the components of the same vector in the V. + 9Qa a2xa ax°l aui aui auk auk SSsa h`k dst + ai ds (see Prob..316 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. = aui ai . is given by jE.. 2. . 6.. ... V. we say that Aa a = 1. 2. .. 129) . where s is arc length along the curve ui = ui(s) or the space curve xa = xa[ui(s)] Differentiating (563)..k ds + ai ax. n (563) are the components of the same vector in the V. . . . .. Ma We now find a relationship between and as.dai a2xa du' as aui ds + aui aui ds + (rayaauui aui ds Hence 9'a ax8 axy du1 ax' Ma auk Ss _ . so that if due are the components of a contra- variant vector in the Vm. 137 so that the fundamental metric tensor in the subspace. .. u»1). if ai(u'. See. In general.. 9oa dai du' ds 9a«(ray>° CIO axy ax' aui au' auk h`k(r'i)h. are the components of a contravariant vector in the V. . .

. i = 1. aai 9ad. it is a geodesic in any subspace V.. By considering k fixed. as i = it 2. u'" fixed in the equations um) xa = xa(u' 3. u2. . .. . .. that is. then it is also parallel along C with respect to V. is parallel along C with respect to V. of V. tangent to the uk curve. . . obtained by considering ul.. that is.ax° x. = aa + ak(r k au' . 4. 1371 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 317 Hence ax" SAa 9aa _ auk as hlk I dal ds + hck (r'i)ha ds y dull J and ax" SAa 9°a Sat auk as as (564) From (564) we see that if ai is parallelly displaced along xa[ui(s)]. show that Ma is normal to the space V. .f agaa where the covariant derivatives are performed relative to the metric hi. . then Ss = 0.Problems 1. a1. if as = 0. that is. m. Under a coordinate transformation ui = ui(u'. um). If ai is parallel along C with respect to the Vm. . M. . Thus the theorem: i If a curve C lies in a subspace V.c.. and a vector field in V. . xa = a au'. uk-1. .. Hence show that axa . show that auk is a contravariant vector of V. the xa remain invariant. Prove that if a curve is a geodesic in a geodesics. of V. 2. normal to the ui curves. Consider the unit tangents to the 2. . uk+'.. ..i . . .Sr.

. for if xa = xa(ul u'") . parallel along C with respect to and let ca be the components of a vector field in V.as. ... = covariant differentiation is with respect to ui and h. .. Let bi be the components of a vector field in V..We propose to consider tensors of this aui our au' type. Show that A . it is a scalar invariant and is a function of are length s along C.ai + x°. We wish to derive a new tensor which will be a tensor in the V. . . then _ aya axa CIO aui showing that the aui transform like a contravariant vector. Latin indices indicating tensors of the V. u'n). 138 ax. 6. for if u' = ui(ul.= . 2. Let us consider the tensor A7.. We consider a curve C in V. for Latin indices. 138. . where and ya = ya(xl. . dd k ds dca + s dx# =0 (565) dsds=0 We now consider the product bicaA.. . a = 1. In V. for each a. xn). the -. . given by u` = ui(s) and by xa = xa(s) in V. and Greek indices indicating tensors of the V. However. . Its derivative is ... m. if we consider a as fixed. i = 1.. 5. Generalized Covariant Differentiation. this product is an invariant (scalar product) for each i. = x. aya aui . We have dbi rrkb. The quantities aui are contravariant vectors if we consider i fixed... . for Greek indices and a tensor in V. are covariant vectors in the V. aui axa a . 2. . and in V. parallel along C with respect to V.318 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS a [SFC. axa axa and we have . Show that ga$(x kxa + x {x k) + xaxIxk 0. n.

= aus..A. We may write (566) as (auk + A.A`r' k ds (566) is a tensor of the same type as A7. since d3 ...k ds ) Since b1 and ca are arbitrary vectors. Problems 1.Air.rAflk is a mixed tensor. r«a auk aA° axe \ . k\ = bica d' + A.) bica dsi + ° biAi" ds + d ds c°A. 3.) is a scalar invariant.)duk ds k k and since this is a tensor for all directions ds (the directions of C are arbitrary). = r. We call it the intrinsic derivative of A. 1381 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 319 i ds (b°c«A..SEc. ds dx# dull ds . it follows from the quotient ds law that dA° _j + `4'r . a ax? aut . ax* . by considering the scalar invariant b8c'daA'.r#rA au.Air?k (567) is the generalized covariant derivative of A7 with respect to the V.:. Why is A ".Air.. it follows from the quotient law that Aff:k =a aAuk° axe + A. Show that aA" Aa.. and that . rag making use of (565).r auk . a contravariant vector in V.i? ill 2. Show that x = x`. and d (b'c«A. with respect to s.

r .x = 0. gas = as. Riemannian Curvature. show that b11 = e. b12 = f. The element of distance on the surface is given by ds2 = h. If Ni are the components of a unit normal to Vm. and the geodesic surface is given by ya = a'8A1 + a2sX2 = ut?4 + u2A2 = uiX7 (568) j summed from 1 to 2 and ul = a's. we must have x = b.. Every pair of numbers at. k 5. 139 44 = au' aui . v). 139. Let us consider a point P of a Riemannian space. In a Euclidean space the surface will be a plane.yx x = xai + FRxx4. 4 are normal to the vectors 4k.320 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. U2 = a2s. The locus of all geodesics determined in this manner will yield a surface.i = gapx" NP. A2. We call B = b. Schur's Theorem. since the geodesics are straight lines and two vectors determine a plane. We associate with P two independent vectors X. b22 = g (see Sec. where ka dya = C ds p. These vectors determine a pencil of directions at P.i du' dui the second fundamental form. and show by cyclic permutations that gaaxa. Hence the x"i are components of a vector normal to the subspace Vm.i du' dui (569) and if ds2 = gab dya dyfi for the V. the tangent vectors to the surface. If the V is a Euclidean V3. Since the geodesics are second-order differential equations. a2 determines a direction Ea. 35) for the subspace r = r(u. We now introduce normal coordinates ya with origin at P. the point P and the direction Sa at P determine a unique geodesic.xh + r. then hti = gap au' aui = gasX A aya ayo (569a) . Show that b. given by a1Al + a2A2 = aiX.)Na. _ a2xa Show that ga$xQ4 k = 0. The equations of the geodesics take the form ya = has. The x°i of Prob.

k1 it is apparent that the ht. We need not make any reference to the embedding space.. 139] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 321 where the gas represent the components of the fundamental metric tensor in the system of normal coordinates. and from Prob. can be determined without leaving the surface.LL aUa (572) Moreover. we have that R1212 = R2121 = -R1221 = -R2112 = R2222 81111 = 1?1122 = R1122 = .. Let us note the following: The gas of a Riemannian space completely determine the Christoffel symbols r..k for this surface. uti = uti(ul.. u2). Once the metric of a surface embedded in a V. is determined. we can determine the F..SEC. 2. V. aub auc and aul au2 aa1 au2 au1 au2 2 au1 au2 = R1212ka-lvau2 au2aul (571) by making use of (570). 134.. (570) =0 If we make an analytic transformation.kc be the components of the curvature tensor for the surface S with coordinates ul.a. We shall use Latin indices for the space determined by the metric h. and the R. Sec.. du= du'.. then R. to determine the R:..k1(u) = Rabcd(u) and aua aub au` and anti au' auk aul 81212 = Rabcd au!.. . so that all results and formulas derived from the h.. 1. and Greek letters for the V.--. ds2 = h.. and h. which in turn specify completely the RiemannChristoffel tensor Ras. = 81121 = . u2.so that aut alai aub . The indices of R... ..kc can then be determined.. i = 1. Now let R.k1 take on the values 1 or 2. All we are trying to say is that ds2 = h21 dus du' is the fundamental metric tensor for a Riemannian space which happens to be a surface embedded in a Riemannian V. are intrinsic properties of the surface. Thus R 1212 =81212IJ1.. = hab -.

See. rP1(y) = 0 (see Sec. + g. 128). Y h1i 12 = gap ayr " (577) . The coordinate transformation between the Christoffel symbols is given by (see Prob.322 IF = I hIJ 2. 6. so that at the origin or. 131).pr. = 0.. y and from (569a) auk = X'XOXk agy = 0.911. = h1i [ar1(P) au2 ar'22(P)i au1 J (575) from (538) and (541)... h11r`21(u) = of Riemannian coordinates XRX . 139 We rewrite (572) in the form R1212 Ih R1212 IhI (573) Equation (573) shows that K is an invariant.ar p = 0 at the origin (Prob. 129) h. We now determine an alternative form for K in terms of the directions Ai and X and the curvature tensor for the V at the point P. from (568). It is an intrinsic property of the surface.irik = o or himhiir. Hence the curvature tensor can be written R1212(P) = h11Rg12(P) '' a2ya auk auj 0.1rik(u) = gaprs.k = r... From (574).8y8 ayT au' auj auk + gaa ay° 8u1 auk aui a2yP which reduces to har3k = g.'X AgAk aya (574) since aui - At the point P. so that h. Sec. 6.(y) ay. hit = gaN y* Similarly (576) since ag-0 = g. and it is called the Gaussian curvature. VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.

gsa -.. as).gawgpr) =0 Multiplying the above equation by ga° and summing. = gp K.ngp.K...gp. = K(gaagp. = K... = (n .ga. K is constant throughout the space...(gaagp.gp.. 139] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 323 Using (538)..gpe) and so Rapa=.M) + K. .K. Raaµ. It follows at once if K is independent of X.Sec. . we have K. if n > 2. ....hit and aya c3y9 hi.. (577).gp.) + K..N(gaegp. (576)..gp. .gp.) = K. or 5. -.(ngp. ... If at each point of a Riemannian space.gpa) so that Ihi = (579) Thus 7 K aps. X7i that Rap.ga..(ga. ..gpµ .e = K.ga.p(ga.ga..'.gp.(ga. Ihl _ hll h12 h2l h22 hllh22 . = 0 or (n .ga..(gp . K is independent of the orientation (X "j.. .) Adding and using Bianchi's identity.. = K. .gaogpa) Rap. (543)...gpa) + K.. (541).2)gp.. it is easy to show that R1212 = A72A1t2Rapyr Finally.) + K. we have K. For n = 2 there is no arbitrary orientation.gpp and gp.gp.X aj X 2'a1 2 (580) We are now in a position to prove Schur's theorem..gw.n(ga. = h12 h22 gap c3u1 c3u1 = ga9Xx1 = gaAX2 x7x2xip21'(gaagp.gp .K.K.2)K.

i 54 j. Show that a space of constant curvature K is an Einstein space and that R = Kn(1 . the .n). qa = ga(gl. . 2. Derive (575).Raica + . Rii = . or Rii = (R/n)gii 7. .. Hence K = constant throughout all of space. . t) If we perform a transformation of coordinates. Derive (578). = gaiRii. For a V3 for which gii = 0.. = 0. .324 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 4. . . Derive (571). Such a space is said to be of constant curvature. qn) a = 1. 4i. This is true for all µ since IL can be chosen arbitrarily from I to n. 140 If we choose o = r X u. 3. . show that R = giiRii = nk. qi. show that if h.. their time derivatives 41. q2. q2. t) = L(qi. 42. If R. . = . show that R"a = l aR 2 axi 6.Rhiih gii s 1 1 1 gii R= 9ii9ii Riiii 5. 140. . and the time t: L = L(qi. n. then qa = aga aqa so that 4a is a function of Now aL 84a aL aL aqa aqi = aqa aqi + a4a aqi aL aqa aL a2ga = aqa aqi + a4a a4i aq0 41 (581) . qn. Lagrange's Equations. . j are unequal. 2. Let L be any scalar invariant function of the coordinates q'. i. . Problems 1. 4n. K. . If Rii = kgii (an Einstein space).Riaai 9hh 1 R.

12 _ :=1 2 I/ 2 e i1 2 2 s V (1 x1 x1 xI 1 x2. qn which completely specify the configuration of the mechanics. so that . . x2f x2f s 7 xn) s is the potential function. 2 1 8ga0 x. aq' aL aqa aqa aqr so that dt \agi1 . = 0 for la Euclidean space and Newtonian ax vanishes in all coordinate W \-x systems. q2.V. Hence system of particles.SEC. ifgaQ=aae and m. where T is the 1 1 (ds. . and Lagrange's equations of motion are d aL (. we obtain d (IL) dt / aqaq- d (582) aq' d 8L.a2 ax * ' + aV -. Then aL dt ax.(aqa ma d are the components of a kinetic energy. =max. In spherical coordinates. We replace the x. . . r= 1 ' 2' 'n (583) Example 150. _d _ aL ax. .ala a \aq"I + aq q8 aqt Subtracting (581) from (582). T For a system of particles.) _ aL aq= 0.)a. -d(magma) _ dt n _ m..) L dt \aqa aqa c qla which shows that the covariant vector. ax.aV = (F*). 140] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 325 where we consider q' and q' as independent variables in L.x.-(F. Now also aL _ aL a4 aqa aq. . let L = T . . by any system of coordinates q'. a particle has the square of the velocity v2 = t2 + r262 + r2 sin2 0 rp2.(FT).

we can modify Lagrange's equa- tions as follows: We know that T = (m. is the generalized force vector. The reader will immediately realize that fa dya represents the differential of work.V = m(r92 + r sing 0 #2) . then - Qr . are the components of the Newtonian force. are the components of the force vector in a y'-yL -y" coordinate system. the quantity r . If no potential function exists.fa axf and aya Qr dx r = f a 49y a a dxr = fa dya is a scalar invariant. the Q.m(r62 + r sin 2 9 02) + aV = 0 c1r Since . so that Q.(r62 + r sing 0 02) must be the radial acceleration. 140 - L = T . dW. In cartesian coordinates.326 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. If f.aV _d dt aL ar = mr and one of Lagrange's equations of motion is mr . so that aW Q+ = ax' (585) . so that d (BT) aT Qr = dt aT axr (584) are the components of a covariant vector. 2)gapxaO is a scalar invariant.aV represents the radial force.V = 2 (t2 + r262 + r2 sin2 0 02) .

x% fixed. = q* = gr(gl) . If T = 4. . . A¢sin20+Rcos0=S 3. keeping x'.+wy)+jCwa Using Eulerian angles. dt (mr2o) = Qe (586) with Q. . .O AV i not summed Example 151. aT aq- q°°. . show that 2T = oL(q. and and assuming we can solve for show that the Hamiltonian . and compute xi+'. show that if Q. calculate the work A Wi done by the forces.. = 0. p.SEC.mr02 = Q. Qe = R(r de) do = rR.L. S are constants of integration. . T =JA(w. d Qi = lim Wi -. then C(O + cos 0 +') = R A#-A. A particle slides in a frictionless tube which rotates in a horizontal plane with constant angular speed co. q^. since 6 = w. A particle slides in a frictionless tube which rotates in a vertical plane with constant angular speed w. We have T = (m/2) (j62 + r2A2). so that (584) becomes mr" . = 0.. aq . q")gags. x2. xi-'. 2. The solution to (586) is r = Aew' + Be".1 sino =Qe where R. The only horizontal force is the reaction R of the tube on the particle. For a rigid body with one point fixed. gR = 2mw dt. Set up the equations of motion.2sinocoso+R. We obtain Qi by allowing xi to vary. 1401 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 327 . Define p. Problems 1.

141 II defined by H = pages .V)gas dxa dxs 141. ap'. The path of the particle is the same as the geodesic of a space having the metric ds2 = 2M(h . y.ax. Also a' all = g. show that aH . pr . . the pr are called the generalized momentum coordinates. 6. If the action integral A= f` e [(h dxs . the line element for the space-time coordinates is given by ds2 = -dx2 . . z.dz2 + c2 dt2 -dr2 . show that the result yields d dt aT Cair aV . show that Lagrange's equations result. q"). t. which will be independent of the coordinate system used.V )gas '-6aA ] a 1 dX is extremalized.L satisfies II = T + V = It (a constant) where V = V (q'. Show that they are the components of a covariant vector. 5. These are Hamilton's equations of motion. IT where T + V = h. describing the gravitational field of a single particle. By extremalizing the integral f " L(x1. We look for a law of motion.r2 do2 . T = aas(q'. . .dy2 .r2 sin2 0 dp2 + c2 d12 (587) In the space of x. In the special theory of relativity.ax' = .328 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. t) dl. Einstein's Law of Gravitation. the constant of energy. the gas are constants and the space is . . gn)gags. x'.

We have 911 = and -ea. We do not include terms of the form dr do.r2 sin2 0 dp2 + e'(') dt2 (588) so that our space is non-Euclidean.k . 1411 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 329 flat (Euclidean).. ag. g22 g33 = -r2 sin2 0.. = 0. 2.21' 9 i o e. Since Ri. 134. We assume the line element (due to Schwarzchild) to be of the form ds2 = -e"''' dr2 . 5 and 6 of this section). we have rik -r-2' agke g33 = . etc. Now r. 3.i = 2 ax. j. we have agkk . then rk = 0. ago. For a gravitating particle we postulate that the Ricci tensor Ri.r2 d82 . k are different. we have R . i j gi. R = gi°R°.2 9ii axi Applying (590). and for j = 1. 944 = e' (589) g11 = -e.k . = R. and their deriva1 aR .ax° iPd j (axk + ax' and since g'° = 0 for n Caxk + ax's . a four-dimensional space yields n(n + 1)/2 = 10 equations involving the gi. g22 -r2.SEc. vanish (see Probs. Sec. where From Prob. 7...i axi rik = 2 9ii 1 gii kk (590) rkk = . R = g°pRay.(r2 sin2 6)-1 g44 = e-'. so that BJk: = 0. gii = 0. 4 the 10 equations are essentially reduced to 6 equations.agi) i not summed If i. tives. We also see that rii _ 1 agii 2 g . because we expect our space to be homogeneous and isotropic.

_ so that R11 a ar1R ar: 4 ar14 axe .axa + r ar8.r°raa + art. 141 1_ 1 . + Or 1 1 + 1 ar 1 Or rilril + risrs1 + ri3r 1 1 + ri4ril . Hence Einstein's law R.330 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS r11 [SEC. From (539) R.sin 0 cos 0 an..r1i(ri1 + rig + ria + r44) d2D 1(dv12 r2 r2+2dr2+r2+r2+4`drl l da 2r dr 1 da 2r dr l da dv 4 dr dr (592) by making use of (591).. . _ 1da Or g11 a92z 2g 2 dr = r22 1 1 = _ 1 2 or -re a _ = 1 g11 2 1 1 ag aa Or = -r sine 0 e-A _ 1 1441 --g . agsa 1 933 2 1 rt = -29 4 ae 8g 44 Or = cot 0 1 dv 44 4 2 dr and all other r._ ag44 or dv dr (591) z 2 112 = 2 s 1 gs2 ag zz Or 1 22 1 r raas= r1aa= _ gsa2 29 Or a9aa 00 = r .tag.k vanish.. = 0 yields _ R11 1 d2v 1 (_f)2 2 dr2 + 4 Cdr 1 A dv 4 dr dr 1A r dr - 0 .

we obtain d +dr =o or X + v = constant = co We desire the form of (588).0 Dividing R44 by e'-x and adding to R11. Hence \X + v = 0 or X From R22 = 0 we have ev C1 + r dr) = 1.-a r_ 1 dzv L 1 (dv 2 4 1 dX dv 2 dr2 + 4 dr dr r drJ ..k dx' dxk d ds = 0 CdLp)2 dr d_9 Z-2 + 2T E ds A + r33 Vs 2 J =0 .SEC. as r --f oo. This requires that X and v approach zero as r approaches P. The equations of the geodesics are d2x' (594) a82 + which yield d20 2 r. 141] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 331 Similarly R22 = e-a C 1 2 C r (dr 1= 0 dr) Iv (ddr R33 = sine 8 R44 = 1+ 1 _ da 2r dr I dr . to approach that of (587). Let y = so that dr = 1 dy and 'Y r yCl+ydr) or dy dr r 1-y and 2m r where 2m is a constant of integration. co.sin2 0 = 0 1 dvl _ (593) e.

We also obtain ds2+ or 1'11(ds/2 ()2 -x ds+ r44(d.82 + 2 dr db r ds ds .sin 0 cos 8 a 2 (j2 ds 0 (595) If 0 = 2. then 0 = satisfies (595) and the boundary conditions.1 dr2 .0 (598) Integrating (597) and (598).r2 1 \ds2 + y or 1 (l (r d(p)2 . a dB ds = 0 initially.r2 r4 + y y z . 141 d20 d. Also d29 a 2I'19 dr dcp ds2 d21 ds ds = 0 or d2 ds2 +r + 2drdip dt dr + 2x14 ds ds - ds2 0 or d2t ds2 dsds dv dt dr dr ds ds =0 (597) . we obtain r2 dt d d(p A = h dt c (599) or log + v = log c ds = y (600) where h and c are constants of integration.332 or VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.2 =0 +2 1 e v-' dt ds2 1 da (dr)2 ds + 2 dr - re a (thp)2 dv (dt)2 dr ds/ =0 (596) making use of 0 = 7r/2.r2 d(P 2 + y dt2 y 1 or 1 - 2 y \ds2 . Equation (588) becomes ds2 = .

We substitute this value of u in the + h4 [1 + 23 33 cos 2((p .'h2)cp and e2 is neglected.2 2m r + 2m h2 r r2 and writing it = 1/r. we finally obtain d + u = h2 + 3mu2 2U (601) We obtain an approximate solution of (601) in the following manner: We first neglect the small term 3mu2 = 3m/r2.w) approximately = h2 [1 + e cos (rp .1 r2 dip/ + r2 C h. for large r. w are constants of integration. where e = (3m2. we obtain ()2 z - au + u2 = d2 h2 1 + h2 u + 2mu8 and differentiating. term 3mu2.w) + h2 sin ((p . The solution of dz + u = h2 is ad z T =u=-[l+eeos((p-w)j where e. and we obtain m 3m3 6m3 W.co)] We now neglect certain terms which yield little to our solution and obtain 3 dz 6m' d2U + u = h2 + e Cos (. 1411 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 333 or Ch drl 2 .c2 .co . + h4 ecos(cp-w) d2u This is Newton's solu- tion of planetary motion.e)J.p2+u =h2+h.w) From the theory of differential equations the solution of our new equation is z U = h2 + e cos ((p .SEc. .p .

}are and d2U d2 + U = h2 + 3mu2 . Assume the following: ds2 = gap dxa dxi. on the basis of the Newtonian theory.334 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. Show that they are x = R + (m/R) (± 2y) and that the angle (in radians) between the asymptotic lines is approximately 4m/R. 2.(2m/r) . For motion with the speed of light. This is twice the predicted value. If R. 8x4 = 0. Since u = 1/r. ds = 0. is taken for the Einstein law. When numerical results are given to the constants. show that x = R + R(x2+y2)1 The term (m/R) (x2 + 2y2)/(x2 + y2)} is the small deviation of the path of a light ray from the straight line x = R. then y = 1 . for the deflection of light as it passes the sun and has been verified during the total eclipse of the sun. so that from (599). a = 1. The asymptotes m x2 + are found by taking y large compared with x. 3.. 2y2 y = r sin tp.3 h2 us 5. dx4 %:W ds 1. Derive (593). and P obtain an approximate solution of (602) in the form u = co`p+ 2(coal jp+2sin2(p) where R is a constant of integration. 141 When the planet moves through one revolution. = ag. . x = r coa rp. the advance of the perihelion is given by 8(w + e) = (3m2/h2) 3 = 6irm2/h2. Derive (591). h = oo. Problems 1. 3. it is found that the discrepancy between observed and calculated results on the advance of the perihelion of Mercury is removed. dxa ds ' 0. 2. replace this value of u in 3mu2. 4. and (601) becomes s d2u + u = 3mu2 2 (602) Integrate d Y + u = 0. gap = 0 for a p& agaa gae 1. show that if y = el..

indeed. . 3. (xl. . x2) dxi dxs (605) is an immediate generalization of the Riemann line element. consider a multiple tensor field depending on a finite number of points. . 142] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 335 41 _ J944+ constant xl = x. that is. With the assumptions of Prob.). We could. What difficulties would one encounter for tensors depending on a countable collection of points? We may consider a two-point tensor field as special one-point tensors of a 2n-dimensional space subject to a special group of coordinate transformations. g.s(xl.. 5 show that R44 = 0 yields Laplace's equation V24 = 0.a(xl. x... We leave it to the reader to consider the most general type of two-point tensor fields. x2 = y. indices If we keep the coordinates of M2 fixed. 2. 6. Indeed. Show that the equations of the dzi geodesics reduce to Newton's law of motion die + a ' = 0. A similar remark applies at the point M2. and x2 coincide. If in the new coordinate systems xl. We now allow independent coordinate transformations at the two points M1(x. x2) which depend on the coordinates of two points. Two-point The tensors that we have studied have been functions of one point.0( 1. 22 we have ga. x. xs. The scalar invariant ds2 = ga. M2(x4i x2. 22) = g. x2) 8xi 8xg2 8-i - (603) then the go. if 2_ = x'. Indices preceding the comma refer to the point M1. 142. Tensors. x2) dxi 8x 1 (604) so that relative to Ml. we obtain the Riemann line .A are the components of a two-point tensor.. Let us now consider the functions ga. a covariant vector relative to Ml and a covariant vector relative to M2.s(xl. . . . .s behaves like a covariant vector. . x4 = ct. xs) = gw.SEC. then (603) reduces to following the comma refer to M2. i = 1. when x. xa = z.

10=0 (607) rye. is (2 1."# = g°'' axe _ a9°. (608) axµ IF x1 = ds The unique solutions of (606). a9µ. 3.. x2) axi ax. show that of necessity a2 9°`'0 = axi axQ where 4.e r. X2) are the components of a two-point tensor.g(x x2) is a scalar relative to M1 and a covariant vector relative to M2..i = a.. .) axiz dx.. xax2 + CO.(xl. Derive (607). If also r: = r' . and a covariant vector relative to M2. Show that rip.p = 1 where .336 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. z: where 1 x$ + r: + ra+. Show that the law of transformation for the linear connec- tion ri. ax1° _ ag°. is a scalar relative to both M1 and M2.x-°ze1 1 + C. Assuming ds2 > 0 for a < t < 0. ax` 9"'`9µ. Show that the CQ. 142 element. a mixed tensor relative to M1. a2xi axi + ax. dt (606) dt and obtain a system of differential equations. '9X' azi awl ax. or dyopaths. 1 '(so) = a'. X '(so) _ Oo.. x4(s). are called dyodesice. 2. 4. Problems 1.7r C` = 9"' . subject to the initial conditions x1(8o) = ao. if and only if g. xs(so) = o.. awl axi axa. we can extremalize fd sdtdt fB(ga'odx" dx. xi(s).'6x1 axe2= 0 a.p. =g ''° a x ' a9°.#(x1.o. = r . x2) = r°".

SEc. we have +v + 3Mv2. rir2 dt1 = he-a ds dt2 _ _ Cie_ ds = C2e d2v d. . hi = (M/m)h. For m << M. the Einstein solution for the motion of an infinitesimal particle moving in the field of a point gravitational mass M. a.r2eM dpi er dt. dr2 . a. Show that the dyodesics satisfy rir2 ds1 = he-.c T. d M Mm/hi << 1. If ds2 = -el..r. dr. dt2 e= e2µ-r [1mM2 (m + L M)2 rl J 1 1 11 .(mm2MM)2 r2 ' + r' el=(1+rl ex C1+m/ = show that the two-point tensors ax ar:' ax1 1 a 2 + ro.P2 + v L Mm M 11 + (m/M)]2h2l 1 + [1 + (m/M))'hi +3Mv2r1+(mMM)J 2 L provided that Mr2 = mr1.a . v = 1/r1.T 9x° 2 vanish identically (m. 142] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 337 5. M are constants).

.

Milne-Thomson. New York." Cambridge University Press. 1935." John Wiley & Sons. L. "Vectorial Mechanics. 1934.. 1933. G. Van Nostrand Company. Michal.. "Foundations of Potential Theory." John Wiley & Sons. 1939. "Applications of the Absolute Differential Calculus. 1944. Phillips. McConnell. New York 1946. E. "Differential Geometry. "Relativity Thermodynamics and Cosmology. Inc. 339 . Ltd." George Bell & Sons. New York. New York. R. 1934." Dover Publications. Houston.. C. Page. "Les Tenseurs." John Wiley & Sons... H. London. 1929. B. L. New York. "Static and Dynamic Electricity. New York. C. 1930. Ltd. Veblen. O. C. Kellogg. O. London. 1931. "Matrix and Tensor Calculus. Inc. 1935. "Principles of Mathematical Physics. 1934.REFERENCES Brand. 1934. 1938. "Theoretical Hydrodynamics. New York. 1933." John Murray. W. "Differential Invariants of Generalized Spaces. "Elementary Vector Analysis. R. J. Tolman." George Bell & Sons. New York." Cambridge University Press. L. "Vector Analysis." McGraw-Hill Book Company. Joos." The Macmillan Company. A. New York. M. E." Blackie & Son Ltd." McGrawHill Book Company. "Advanced Vector Analysis. Thomas. London. 1921. A. Graustein." D. D. Weatherburn. Brillouin. New York." G. L. V. "Theoretical Physics. "Invariants of Quadratic Differential Forms. T. London." The Macmillan Company. D.. "Introduction to Theoretical Physics. W. 1947. Smythe. Inc. New York. London. Glasgow. Y." Oxford University Press. W. Stechert & Company.

Methuen & Co. London. London. I. Ltd." vols. 1931.3. 1940. London.. W. . "Theoretical Physics. II. "Riemannian Geometry. 1942. 1933. Wilson." Cambridge University Press. 1927.10 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS "Differential Geometry. III." Cambridge University Press.

100 Archimedean ordering postulate. 100 regular. 81 Average curvature. 268-269 Associated vector. 127 moving. 274-275 Contravariant vector. 210-211 linear. 90 Boundary of a set. 184 Ceva's theorem. 13 Center of mass. 128 field in neighborhood of. 90 Components of a tensor. 275-276 Contravariant tensor. 98 rectifiable. 71. of tensors. 58. 30-31. 103 Continuity. 290-291 Circulation. 269 Coriolis acceleration. 102-103 Conservation of electric charge. 275 of vectors. 99 C Calculus of variations. 269 Coordinates. 162 Conductor. 95 Contraction of a tensor. 81 Asymptotic lines. 186 centripetal. 162 Conservative field. 30. 312 Biot-Savart law. 270-272 Coordinate curves. 143 Connected region. 122 341 Cauchy's criterion for sequences. 163 Boundary point. 30-31. 280. 91 Bounded set. 8 Characteristic curves. 281 Associative law of vector addition. geodesic. 184. 194 Centripetal acceleration. 3 Asymptotic directions. 231-232 uniform. 274 Components of a vector. 91 Commutative law of vector addition. 270-271 Conductivity. 8. 328 Addition. 80 Conjugate functions. 97 Cauchy's inequality. 305 transformation of. 89 Bounded variation. 184 Coriolis. angular. 122. 238 Closed interval. 289-293 law of transformation of. 210-211 Action integral. 146 Christoffel symbols. 2 Angular momentum. 78 B Bernoulli's theorem. 210-211 .INDEX A Acceleration. 130-131 force on the surface of. 308 Binormal. 3 Complement of a set. 98 Arithmetic n-space. 83-85 Cartesian coordinate system. 52 Coordinate system. 98. 292 Cauchy-Riemann equations. 196-200 Angular velocity. 95 equation of. 89 Closed set. 92 Arcs. 69 Charges. 9. 303-305 Riemannian. 22 Are length. 294 Conjugate directions. 131 Conformal space. 234-235 Bianchi's identity.

54-55 D D'Alembertian. 136 Distributive law. 11. 266 multiplication of. 136-138 Electrostatic field. product. 138139 Covariant tensor. 158 magnetic. 297-298 of a curl. 283286 summation notation. 283 rules. 259 Einstein-Lorentz transformations. 21 Divergence. average. 246 Desargues's theorem. 38. 158 Electrostatic potential. 10 Dynamics of a particle. Laplacian in. gradient. 93 Dielectrics. 161-162 Curvature. 3. 297-298 of a vector. 318319 Discontinuities of D and E. 44 Divergence theorem of Gauss. 128 Electrostatic forces. 307. 189 Dynamics of a system of particles. 127 Electrostatic flux. 127 Electrostatic polarization. 170-173 Electrostatic dipoles. 318-319 Displacement current. 158 field of. 127 Electrostatics. 55. 311 Gaussian. 320-323 tensor. 263-267 cofactors of. 70 curl. 158-159 Electromagnetic wave equations. 157-158 Electrostatic energy. 178 Del (v). 324 special theory of relativity. 128 Green's reciprocity theorem of. 138 polarization of. 157 potential of. 13 Directional derivative. 78 Riemannian. 245 . divergence. 157-158 energy of. 322 lines of. 160-161 moment of. 295-296 generalized covariant. 29 Dipole. 336 E Edge of regression. 128 Electrostatic unit of charge. Gauss's law of. covariant. 50. 70 Diameter of a set. 295-296 intrinsic. 274-275 Covariant vector. 168 electric.342 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS Direction cosines. displacement. 264 derivative of. 334 Deformation tensor. 264 Developable surfaces. 194 Dyodesics. 127 discontinuity of. 114120. 78. 295-296 generalized differentiation of. 297 Couple. 46. 78 of a curve. 328-329 space. 32 of vectors. 29 Determinants. 135-136 Differentiation. 197 Covariant. or scalar. Albert. 58. 297 Currents. 7 Derivative. 139-140 Ellipsoid of inertia. 120. 157 Electric field. 226 of strain. 299 Dot. 297. differentiation. 42. 306-307 Curve (see Space curve) Curvilinear coordinates. covariant. 46 of a gradient. 273 Curl. 127 Electrostatic intensity. 300 of a gradient. 45. 54. 168 Displacement vector. 69-70 Einstein. 40 Deflection of light. law of gravitation.

175 of electrostatic field. equation for a fluid. 167 Inertia. motion of. 92 Inhomogeneous wave equation. 69 Equation. 236-238 Force moment. 328 Harmonic conjugates. 235-236 of electromagnetic field. 101 Integrating factor. 122 continuous. Einstein's law of. 177 120 343 Gauss. 311-312 Functions of bounded variation. 117 steady. law of. 85 Evolutes. 216 tensor. closed. 273. 123 functions. 120. 328329 of motion for a fluid. 71 second. 96 harmonic. 326 momentum. 118. 177 solution of. 129 Euclidean space. 225-228 Inertial frame. 328 Geodesic coordinates. 216 product of. 123. 201 Envelopes. 8. 95 properties of. 129 Integral. 78. 36. 222-225 F Faraday's law of induction. divergence theorem of. 83. 62 osculating. 190 Green's formula. first. of continuity. 60. 143 Heine-Borel theorem. 103 nonconservative vector. moment of. 10 Fluid. 74-75 Fundamental planes. 94 Helix. 308-309 Euler's angular coordinates. 216-217 Euler-Lagrange equation. 302-303 Newton's law of. 123 Fundamental forms. 90 Interval. 294 Gradient. 249 Hypersurfaces. 299-300 Green's reciprocity theorem. 89 open. line. 104 solenoidal vector. 279. 322 of Poisson's equation. 101. 233. method of. 177 Gauss. 111 Integration. 230 general motion of. 282 I conjugate. 196-200 Foucault pendulum. 62 rectifying. 62-63 normal. 9 uniform. 66 Gyroscope. 128 Generalized force vector. 213-215 Frenet-Serret formulas. 136-138 kinetic. 9 conservative vector. 288-289 minimal. of Laplace's equation. 99100 H Hamilton's equations of motion. 141-143 Induction. 114electrostatic law of. 302-303 Equipotential surfaces. 211 Infemum. 297 Gravitation. 155 Interior point.INDEX Energy. 178-182 Insulator. for a fluid. 303-305 Geodesics. 63 G Images. 60 Hooke's law. 89 . 103-105 Riemann. 167 Field. curvature. 139140 for a rigid body. 219-221 equation of motion. 233-236. 231-232 of gauge invariance. 145 Gauge invariance.

89 Oersted. 167 of refraction. 279 of Schwarzchild. 15. 184 plane. 169-173 Menelaus' theorem. 145 solution in spherical coordinates. 285 Moment of inertia. 268-269 O uniqueness theorem. 98 Magnetic dipole. 232 Irrotational vectors. 165-166 N Navier-Stokes equation. 184 of a rigid body. 49. 63 Invariant. 61. 298-299 in cylindrical coordinates. 178-182 Kronecker delta. 78 element. 196 angular. 132 integral. 173 solution of. 265 Jordan curves. 161-162 K Kelvin's theorem. 299 Law of induction. 311 to a surface. 33 irrotational. 271 Involutes. 89 Open set. 104 Normal acceleration. 62 . 107. 45. 329 of force. 146-149 Mutual induction of two circuits. 283 Ohm's law. 75 Minkowski force. 175-177 transformations. 73. 191-193 Kinematics. 123 integration of. 189. 160 Mass of a particle. 103-105 Linear function. 216 Momentum. 189. 64 Irrotational motion. 55 in spherical coordinates. 139 Legendre polynomials. 162 Open interval. 211 Nonconservative field. 90 Newton's law of gravitation. 3 set. 90 Line. 8 Meusnier's theorem. 324-327 Laplace's equation. 90 Orthogonal transformation 292-293 Osculating plane. 162-164 Magnetostatics. 238-239 Moving charges. 239 Kepler's laws of planetary motion. 187-188 steady.344 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS M Intrinsic equations of a curve. 160-161 effect of currents. 234 relative. 162-165 Liquids. 255-257 Neighborhood. 56. 58. 285 Maxwell's equations. 328 relative angular. 190 Newton's law of motion. general motion of. 109 Number triples. of a particle. 196-200 generalized. magnetic effect of currents. 201 Kirchhoff's solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation. 111 J Jacobian. 119 Laplacian. 148-149 Legendre's equation. 204-207 Kinetic energy. 62 to a space curve. 148 Limit point. 167-169 for a homogeneous conducting medium. 199-200 Motion. 233-234 Lorentz's electron theory. in a plane. of curvature. 234 vortex. 260-262 L Lagrange's equations. 101.

acceleration of. law of. 334 Permeability. 102-103 Regular arcs. 230 Principal directions. of a dipole. 189 kinematics of. 305 curvature. 280 Quotient law of tensors. 91 theorem of nested. 297 Laplacian of. system of. 232 Power. 1 curvature. 98 Relative motion. 162 Retarded potentials. 211 rotation of. 89 closed. 196 Newton's laws of motion for. 97 Set. 128 vector. 91 complement of. 92 limit point of. 280 space. 307. 63 Refraction. 196 dynamics of. 320-323 metric. 90 neighborhood of. 90 interior. 280 geodesics in. 273. 307-308 Rigid bodies. 90 limit. 89 Poisson's equation. 155 Poisson's ratio. 24 Recapitulation of differentiation formulas. 90 set theory. 30. 174-175 Poynting's vector. 71 Particle. 189. 160 Planetary motion. 189. 215-225 S Scalar. 10. 281 . connected. 93 infemum of. 194 Perihelion of Mercury. 209 Particles. 45. 190-193 Point. 276 R Radius of curvature. 30. 208 Resistance. 89 boundary. 323-324 Schwarzchild line element. 48 Reciprocal tensors. 75 Sequence. 22 velocity of. 282 Riemann-Christoffel tensor. 285 momentum of. 175 Pressure. 102 simply connected. 97 Cauchy criterion for convergence of. 307 gradient of. electric.INDEX 345 P Parallel displacement. 273-274 Schur's theorem. 74-75 geometrical significance. 117 velocity. 329 Second fundamental form. 313-315 Parallelism in a subspace. 210 angular momentum of. 315-317 Parametric lines or curves. 132-134 integration of. 249 Polarization. 90 countable. 307 Riemann integral. 89 bounded. 90 linear. 298-299 product of vectors. 184. 184 mass of. 77-78 Q Rectifying plane. 93 diameter of. 36. 102 Quadratic differential form. 187-188 time rate of change of vectors. 90 supremum of. 288-289 hypersurface in. 93 Simply connected region. 203 motion of. 139 Regions. 89 open. 157 electrostatic. 162 Poynting's theorem. 158-159 Potential. coordinates. 178-182 Ricci tensor. 101 Riemannian.

74 Vector. 269 Trihedral. 70 are length on. 73. 225-228 mixed. 9 Stokes's theorem. 3. 312 unit principal normal of. 281 T basis. 245 tensor. 109 principal directions on. 70 Uniform continuity. 7 of Menelaus. 294 Space curve. conformal. 72 radius of curvature of. 10 Gauss curvature of. 275-276 contravariant. 8 of Desargue. 312 unit binormal of. 107-112. 275 quotient law of. 71 asymptotic curves on. 275 addition of. 81 average curvature of. 58. 117 Solid angle. 311 components of. 95 first fundamental form of. 58 tangent to. 307 Riemann-Christoffel. 14. 77 V second fundamental form of. 58. 307-308 strain.346 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS Tensor. 59. 127 normal to. 80 U curves on. 31. 31. 234 Stress tensor. 222-225 Torque. 8-9 Tangential acceleration. 243-246 stress. 108 . 335 Sink. 194 Tangent to a space curve. motion of. 278 outer product of. 231 Space. 8 Top. 231 Solenoidal vector. 335 weight of. 98 on a surface. 275 Theorem. 268-269 Special theory of relativity. 274-275 covariant. 306-307 deformation. 312 Transformation of coordinates. 184 conservative field. 283-286 Spherical coordinates. 71 Uniform vector field. 246-248 Subtraction of vectors. 8 center of mass. 275 cross product of. ellipsoid. 300-301 Strain. 23 Triple vector product. 311 torsion of. 50 indicatrix. 160 Source. 281 relative. 59. 83 Unit charge. 100-101 curvature of. 59. of Ceva. 246 inertia. 246-248 two-point. 78 conjugate directions on. 275 Ricci. 78 Uniqueness theorems. 58. 311 Space of n-dimensions. 35. 278 product of. 274-275 curvature. 119 geodescis of. 72 developable. 31 arc length of. 3 Summation convention. 59 Triple scalar product. 276 reciprocal. 63 Jordan. 259 Superscripts. 274 contraction of. 259 Supremum. 58. 196-200 Torsion of a space curve. 68 Steady field. 275 Tensors. 311 intrinsic equations of. 24 Two-point tensors. 91-92 Surface. 274-278 absolute. associated. components of. 243-246 Streamline.

120. angular. 3 triple scalar product of. 273 curl of. 281-282 differentiation of. 170 inhomogeneous equation of. 2. 8 linear combination of. 281 zero. 313-315 scalar. 1 differentiation of. 253 IN'eierstrass-Bolzano theorem. 281 operator del (v). 10. 1. 268-269 sum of a solenoidal and an irrotational vector. 54. 300 definition of. 1. 136 divergence of. 111 length of. 314 parallel displacement of. product of. 3 subtraction of. 10. 40 physical components of. 273274 irrotational. 184. 249 . 9 347 Vectors. parallel. 297. 45. 232 Vortex motion. 20-23 Velocity. 202 Y Young's modulus. 92 Work. 172. 29 equality of. 22-23 linear. equation of. 103. 30. 107. product of. 156-157 unit. 275 angle between two. 1 Vectors. 238-239 W Waves. 253-254 transverse. 24-25 vector. 42. 23-24 triple vector product of. contravariant. or cross. 117 solenoidal. 2. 55.INDEX Vector. 1 fundamental unit. 177 longitudinal. 29 displacement. 117 space. or dot. 270-272 covariant. 297-298 field. 272 potential. addition of. 209 potential.

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