Waste Management

:
practical application of the new ethical concepts of Eco-Ethics International Union

Adapted from: Waste Management by Caturao Solid Waste Management by Galang

What are Wastes?
Basel Convention Definition of Wastes “substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of the law” Disposal means “any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re-use or alternative uses (Annex IVB of the Basel convention)”

Kinds of Wastes
Solid wastes:
domestic, commercial and industrial wastes especially common as codisposal of wastes Examples: plastics, styrofoam containers, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash

Liquid Wastes:

wastes in liquid form

Examples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other sources

Classification of Wastes according to their Properties

Bio-degradable
can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)

Non-biodegradable
cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines, cans, styrofoam containers and others)

Classification of Wastes according to their Effects on Human Health and the Environment
Hazardous wastes
Substances unsafe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported to or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal in, or in transit through, any part of the territory of the Philippines

Non-hazardous
Substances safe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported to or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal in, or in transit through, any part of the territory of the Philippines

Sources of Wastes
Households

Commerce and Industry

Sources of Wastes
Agriculture

Fisheries

Waste Generation by Country
(Global Waste Survey Final Report Published by IMO 1995)*

Countries Japan Germany Netherlands Hungary Poland

Amount /year 395 M tonnes/year 104 M tonnes/year 6.1 M tonnes/year 102 M tonnes/year 130 M tonnes/year

Romania
Bahrain China Philippines

607 M tonnes/year
92,000 tonnes/year 6 B tonnes/year 1.3 M tonnes/year

*from primary and secondary industry sectors

Waste Generation in the Philippines
In Metro Manila:

It is estimated that 25 million m3 of acid and alkaline liquid waste is disposed of annually from the electronics industry. Almost 2,000 m3 of solvents and 22,000 tonnes of heavy metals, infectious wastes, biological sludges, lubricants and intractable wastes are disposed of on land or into water courses. 4,000 tonnes of solid wastes are generated daily. Of these, only about 3,400 tonnes are collected and transported to existing sites.

Waste Generation in Iloilo Province
Hundreds of tons of domestic wastes are generated daily by households contributing to the enormous environmental problems the world is facing.*

*Chua, TE (1996) Waste management in the coastal areas of the ASEAN region. ECLARM Proceedings No. 33

EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOT MANAGED WISELY

  

Affects our health Affects our socio-economic conditions Affects our coastal and marine environment Affects our climate

EFFECTS OF WASTE…
According to NAS:

GHGs are accumulating in Earth‟s atmosphere as a result of human activities, causing global mean surface air temperature and subsurface ocean temperature to rise. Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels and change precipitation and other local climate conditions. Changing regional climates could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies. This could also affect human health, animals, and many types of ecosystems. Deserts might expand into existing rangelands, and features of some of our national parks might be permanently altered.

EFFECTS OF WASTE…
According to NAS:
- Some countries are expected to become warmer, although sulfates might limit warming in some areas.
- Scientists are unable to determine which parts of those countries will become wetter or drier, but there is likely to be an overall trend toward increased precipitation and evaporation, more intense rainstorms, and drier soils. - Whether rainfall increases or decreases cannot be reliably projected for specific areas.

Effects of waste….
Activities that have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere:
-Buildup

of GHGs primarily carbon dioxide (CO2) methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20).
-C02

is released to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels, wood and wood products, and solid waste.
-CH4

is emitted from the decomposition of organic wastes in landfills, the raising of livestock, and the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil.
-N02

is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. In 1977, the US emitted about one-fifth of total global GHGs.

Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000, US EPA, Office of Atmospheric Programs, April 2002 EPA 236-R-02-003.

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE

Reduce Waste
- Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal policy to duplex all draft reports and by making training manuals and personnel information available electronically. - Improve product design to use less materials. - Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material while maintaining strength. - Work with customers to design and implement a packaging return program.

- Switch to reusable transport containers.
- Purchase products in bulk.

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Reuse
- Reuse corrugated moving boxes internally. - Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as interoffice envelopes, file folders, and paper. - Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins, dishes, cups, and glasses. - Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing shipments. - Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather than purchase new ones.

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Donate/Exchange
- old books - old clothes

- old computers
- excess building materials - old equipment to local organizations

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Employee Education
- Develop an “office recycling procedures” packet. - Send out recycling reminders to all employees including environmental articles. - Train employees on recycling practices prior to implementing recycling programs. - Conduct an ongoing training process as new technologies are introduced and new employees join the institution.

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Employee Education

- education campaign on waste management that includes an extensive internal web site, quarterly newsletters, daily bulletins, promotional signs and helpful reference labels within the campus of an institution.

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Preventing Waste - packaging waste reductions and changes in the manufacturing process - use biodegradable materials

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Conduct outreach program adopting an ecologically sound waste management system which includes:
waste reduction  segregation at source  composting  recycling and re-use  more efficient collection  more environmentally sound disposal

Residents are organized into small groups to carry out the following:
1.

construction of backyard compost pit construction of storage bins where recyclable and reusable materials are stored by each household construction of storage centers where recyclable and reusable materials collected by the street sweepers are stored prior to selling to junk dealers maintenance of cleanliness in yards and streets greening of their respective areas encouraging others to join

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (EMS)
What is an EMS?
An EMS is a formal set of policies and procedures that define how an organization will evaluate, manage, and track its environmental impact. It follows the basic model:

Plan > Do > Check > Act
This facilitates cost-effective environmental performance by defining and continuously improving the process and actions that an organization undertakes to meet its environmental goals.

EMS Development

A Policy Statement that communicates an organization‟s environmental priorities to employees. Managerial endorsement of the policy statement demonstrates the organization‟s commitment to the effort and willingness to allocate resources for implementation.

Once a policy statement is in place, the organization implements it following the model.

Stages in the Implementation of EMS
1. Plan
Identify all environmental aspects: any environmental or health and safety impacts resulting from activities and services. The organization then evaluates each aspect according to a variety of criteria:

  

understanding of eco-ethics environmental and health effects economic impacts liabilities

After establishing a complete list of significant aspects, the organization sets environmental goals and develops a plan to achieve those goals.

2. Do
The „do-phase‟ of the model involves implementation of the environmental plan through employee training and establishment of operation controls.

3. Check
Evaluates progress toward meeting program goals through ongoing monitoring and measuring and periodic EMS audits.

4. Act
Involves taking corrective action to update and improve the environmental plan. For example, if an organization makes significant progress on one environmental aspect, another environmental aspect will replace it on the priority list.

Why Should an Organization Adopt an EMS?
1. Improve environmental performance
It helps monitor energy and water conservation, resource efficiencies, and pollution prevention.

2. Better regulatory compliance
Increase regulatory compliance which is especially important for organizations that spend time and resources with regulatory violations.

3. Certification and recognition
EMS implementation can enhance an organization‟s image and improve public community relations.

EMS Certification

EPA encourages organizations to use recognized EMS frameworks to improve compliance, pollution prevention, and other measures of environmental performance.

Third-party certification can also add credibility to an organization‟s EMS.

Several organizations which offer certification programs:
   

American Chemistry Council American Forest and Paper Association International Chamber of Commerce Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the most widely recognized EMS standard

Principles of an Effective EMS
For better environmental and overall organizational performance, an EMS should:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Focus on continual improvement Serve the organization and its mission Receive top management support Remain dynamic and flexible Fit the culture of the organization Represent employees and their actions Establish employees awareness and involvement

SWARMPLAN
SOLID WASTE REDUCTION MASTER PLAN for Metro Manila

SWARM:

An organization of groups of advocates of SWM supported by the Social Development Fund of Former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

SWARMPLAN – Segmentation of Public
Barangays
Commercial centers

Business Schools
Subdivisions and condos

Wet markets

- coordination among NGOs - uniform monitoring scheme

schools

businesses

subdivisions

Barangays
Commercial centers Public markets

SEGMENT

LEAD GROUP
– – – MOTHER EARTH AYALA FOUNDATION POLYSTYRENE COUNCIL OF THE PHILS. RECYCLING MOVEMENT OF THE PHILS. MIRIAM COLLEGE – E.S.I. COCAP


 

BARANGAY COMMERCIAL CENTERS BUSINESS

SUBDIVISIONS
SCHOOLS


WET MARKETS

-

PhilamLife Homes, Quezon City

Sale of compost – Php15,000/month Garbage truck collection of residuals – reduction of 70% Saves – Php1.7-million/year in hauling fees
Sale of recyclables by individual households – Php16,000/month

La Vista Subdivision:

Ayala Foundation: In 2002
From Commercial Centers and Malls  Reduction of residual waste by 68.0%  Savings in garbage fee of 16%  Off-site composting of 3tons/month  Building establishments – 173 cooperating  Recyclable income – Php1.5-million

Ayala:
  

Orientation of all new store owners 8-10am before mall opens Training will be given to all SM and Robinson’s Malls Replication of Ayala Center in Ayala Alabang and Metropoint Mall, Pasay Incentive scheme: reduction of residual waste by 22% will merit Php0.05/sqm reduction in garbage fee, for buildings with 72,760sqm gross floor average, reduction of 17% will merit Php3,628 rebate/month On-going discussion for supermarkets and retail stores to be drop-off centers for recyclables.

SWARM

80% Reduction of Residual Waste

GARBAGE SITUATION IN THE PHILIPPINES:


 

A Filipino generates between 0.3 and 0.7 kilograms of garbage daily depending upon income levels. NCR and Southern Tagalog Region produce the highest amount of waste accounting for 23 and 13% of the country’s production. 70% of garbage is collected in Urban Areas and 40% in Rural Areas 13% of Metro Manila’s waste is recycled. Nationally, only 2% of waste are disposed in sanitary landfills or controlled dumps. 10% are composted, and small portion is recycled. The rest is disposed in open dumps.

NATIONAL WASTE GENERATION, 2000-2010 2000
Million Tons/yr.

2010 % of total 22.3 1.5 4.5 2.8 9.4 15 4.6 7.1 7.2 3.6 3.8 3.4 6.9 2.9 2.2 2.2 100 3.14 0.21 0.63 0.40 1.32 2.11 0.65 1.00 1.01 0.51 0.53 0.47 0.97 0.41 0.31 0.31 14.05

% of total 23.0 1.6 4.7 3.0 9.0 13.3 5.1 7.7 7.0 4.0 3.8 3.4 6.6 3.1 2.4 2.4 100

Million Tons/yr.

National Capital Region Coldillera AR Ilocos Cagayan Valley Central Luzon Southern Tagalog Bicol Western Visayas Central Visayas Eastern Visayas Western Mindanao Northern Mindanao Southern Mindanao Central Mindanao ARMM Caraga National

2.45 0.17 0.50 0.35 0.96 1.42 0.54 0.82 0.74 0.43 0.40 0.37 0.70 0.33 0.26 0.26 10.67

Paper recovery rate = 16%, one of the lowest in Asia In Thailand, 33% Singapore 31% Malaysia 28% $433,000,000 worth of waste paper, waste plastics, flat-walled metal and silica imported from 1991-1995
Source: Solid Waste Management Act of 1998 introduced by Sen. Gregorio Honasan

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