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EssentialTrigonometricIdentities:(fromIntermediate2andHigher)
EssentialFormulaetoknowby heartfortheexam (G)
cos 2 A + sin 2 A =1 sinA tanA= cosA Compound sin( A B ) = sin A cos B cos A sinB Angle cos( A B) = cos A cos B msin A sinB Double sin(2 A) = 2 sin A cosA Angle cos(2 A) = cos 2 A -sin2 A Squared cos 2 x = 1 (1 + cos 2 x )

Otherusefulonesthatmay beusefulfor homework/classworketc. 2 1 + tan 2 A =sec A 2 cot 2 A + 1 =cosec A (A)

tan( A B = ) tan A tanB (R) 1 mtan A tanB

tan(2 A = )

2 tanA (R) 1 -tan2 A

sin x = (1 -cos 2 x)

1 2

Unit1.1: BinomialTheorem
n th n Thecoefficientofther terminthebinomialexpansion ( x +y ) is x n -r yr r n n! n C = = r r r !( n - r )!

Unit2.3: ComplexNumbers
Forthecomplexnumber,, z = a + bi themodulusisgivenby z = a 2 + b 2 andtheargumentisgivenby tanq =
b a -p < q <p

DeMoivresTheorem saysthat forany z = r (cosq +i sin q ),then z n = r n(cos nq +i sin nq )

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Units1.2and2.1:Differentiation
f ( x) tan x sec x cosecx cot x ln f ( x ) f '( x ) 2 sec x sec x tanx -cosecx cotx 2 - cosec x f '( x ) f ( x ) f ( x) sin1x
1 cos x

f '( x ) 1
2 1x -1 2 1x 1 1+x 2

tan1x

Todifferentiateaninversefunction:

ParametricEquations(where x = f (t ), y = g (t ) ): dy Gradient(directionofmovement) = = dx Speed=

dy dt dx dt

( ) + ( )
dy dt

dx 2 dt

d 2y d dy dt = dx 2 dt dx dx

or

& y & x d 2 y x && - y && = (A) 2 & dx x 3

Units1.3and2.2:Integration
(G)EssentialIntegralstoLearn
f ( x) sec x tan x f '( x ) f ( x) 1 1+ x2 1 1- x
2 2

f ( x )dx
tanx + C ln secx + C ln f ( x ) + C tan1x + C sin1x + C

(A) Couldusesubstitutionifneeded: f ( x) f ( x)dx

1 a + x2 1
2 1 a x tan-1 ( a ) + C

a -x

x sin-1 ( a )+ C

(R)Tosaveyoutimein hardquestionsfor homework/classwork,noneedtomemorise: f ( x) f ( x)dx

cosecx cot x sec x - ln cosec x + cotx + C ln sinx + C ln sec x + tanx + C

b 2 Volumeofsolidofrevolution f(x)aboutxaxis: V = p f ( x ) dx a

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Unit2.4: SequencesandSeries
ArithmeticSeries un = a + (n - 1) d S n = 1 n(2a + (n - 1)d ) 2 GeometricSeries un = arn-1 a (1 - rn) 1- r a S = 1-r S n = r 1 r < 1

Inparticular,youaresupposedtoknowthatasaconsequenceofthelastformula(A): 1 = 1 + r + r 2 + r3 + ... 1-r and

1 2 = 1 (1 - b + ( b ) - ...) a a a a +b
n

n andalso lim(1 + 1) =e n

(alsomentionedspecificallyonsyllabus)(R)

ImportantIdentities
1 n( n + 1) 2 k=1 n 1 k 2 = 6n( n + 1)(2n + 1) k=1
n

k =

1 = n
k=1

(note:thisisnamedspecificallyonsyllabus)(A) (note:thisisnamedspecificallyonsyllabus)(A)
2

k
k=1

2 = 1 n 2 (n + 1) 4

n (alsonote:thisisthesameas :realisingthismayhelpmemoriseit) k k=1

Unit3.3:Maclaurin Series
f ( x) = f (0) + f (0) + f (0) 2 f( n)(0) n x + ... + x +... (G) 2! n !

andinparticular: Veryusefultomemorise(A): x 2 x 3 xn e x = 1 + x+ + + ... + + ... 2! 3! n ! 7 x 3 x 5 x sin x = x+ + ... 3! 5! 7! 6 x 2 x 4 x cos x = 1 + +... 2! 4! 6!

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Onsyllabusbutlessessential (R):
7 x 3 x5 x + + ... 3 5 7 4 x 2 x 3 x ln(1 + x ) = x + + ... 2 3 4

tan -1 x = x-

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Unit3.1:Vectors,LinesandPlanes(G)
Anglebetweentwovectors: (Higher) Equationsofaline: Parametricform x = a + tl y = b + tm ( x = a + t ) d z = c +tn Equationsofaplane:
l Normal nis m n a b = a b cos q

Symmetric/Cartesianform
x - a y - b z - c = = =t l m n

Pointonline=P(with positionvector a)

Vectorequation x n =a n or (x - a) n=0

Symmetric/Cartesian lx + my + nz = k where k = a n

Parametric x = a + mb +lc
(band c areanytwo nonparallelvectorsinplane)

Anglebetweentwoplanes=Anglebetweentheirnormals Anglebetweenlineandplane=(Anglebetweennandd) 90

j a2 b2

k a 3 b3

Crossproduct:

a b= a1 b1

a1

a2 b2 c2

a 3 b 3 c3

Scalartripleproduct:

a g(b c = b1 ) c1

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Unit3.2: Matrices(G)
a b A= c d a b c e A = d e f detA = a h g h i DeterminantandInverse 1 d -b det A = ad -bc and A 1 = ad - bc -c a f i -b d g f i +c d g e h

22matrices

33matrices

( AB )-1 = B -1 A-1

-1 0 Reflectionin yaxis 0 1 cosq - sinq Rotationby degrees sin q cosq

Unit3.4: DifferentialEquations(G)
For

SecondOrderDifferentialEquations Natureofroots Twodistinctreal mandn Realandequal m Complexconjugate m = p iq Formofgeneralsolution y = Ae mx +Be nx

y = Ae mx +Bxe mx y = e px( A cos q + B sin qx )

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