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2.1 DELTA BLOWPACK INDUSTRIES
Delta Blowpack Industries & group of companies are in the Business of manufacturing and marketing of HDPE Containers & Articles. The mission of the company is profitability through Total customer Satisfaction. M/S. Delta Blowpack Industries & group of companies have tried to touch the customer’s heart by making Products. As per standards set by Indian Institute of Packaging and manufactured from Prime Virgin grade material and qualified to keep Edible Oil, Dairy Products, pharmaceuticals liquids and Semi-Solids fresh. Moreover the company manufactures their products on latest fully automatic and sophisticated machines, the shapes are registered with Government of India under “The Patent and Design Act.” The virgin grade material is used that meets specification of international stranded. Thus the company has taken most of the measures towards Quality and Customer Satisfaction. For ensuring above, the company insists on continuous R&D and Staff Training. In future (also with any new project) they would not like to compromise with Customer Satisfaction level.
2.2. CAR A/C DUCT
Car A/C Ducts are manufactured using high grade raw material and posses a capacity to maintain seal under temperature and pressure changes. The company’s range of product is widely appreciated for its various distinctive features such as accurate dimension, high tolerance, durable, excellent finish and high functionality. 2.2.1. Parts of a Car A/C Duct
188.8.131.52 Air Inlet Duct
Air Inlet Duct is generally considered an essential part for improving the efficiency of the engine. This duct also has a diffusion section above the compressor to change the ram air velocity into high static pressure at the face of the engine. The thrust of the engine can be high only when the duct supplies the required airflow at the highest possible pressure.
184.108.40.206 Centre Duct Components like Center Duct Assembly that is widely used in the automobile industry. These are made from fiber reinforced plastic that is of high quality. Further, these are offered in various specifications to suit the needs of the clients and are highly appreciated by clients for the superior quality, durability and effective functioning. 220.127.116.11 Left Hand Duct Left hand air duct is an extension to the left hand side of the car air duct assembly. This satisfies the function of the heating, cooling, ventilation to the driver’s side of the car (India), and to the co-driver’s side in the foreign countries, based on the steering wheel arrangement in the cars. 18.104.22.168 Right Hand Duct Right hand air duct is an extension to the right hand side of the car air duct assembly. This satisfies the function of the heating, cooling, & ventilation, to the codriver’s side of the car (India), and to the driver’s side in the foreign countries, based on the steering wheel arrangement in the cars.
2.3 MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AIR DUCTS IN COMPANY (BLOW MOULDING PROCESS)
Delta Blowpack Industries are mainly concentrating on the production of Air Ducts, as their main product, which are used in the automobile air conditioning system and automobile air-circulating system. Now, the air ducts that are produced are not single piece manufacturing. Air Duct, as an assembly consists of the center air duct part, left end air duct part, right end air duct part and assembly of all these. The process which is followed in manufacturing of each part of the air duct will be explained in detail through the flow table. Blow molding (also known as blow moulding or blow forming) is a manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. In general, there are three main types of blow molding: extrusion blow molding, injection blow molding, and stretch blow molding. The blow molding process begins with melting down the plastic and forming it into a
parison or preform. The parison is a tube-like piece of plastic with a hole in one end in which compressed air can pass through. The parison is then clamped into a mold and air is pumped into it. The air pressure then pushes the plastic out to match the mold. Once the plastic has cooled and hardened the mold opens up and the part is ejected. 2.3.1 Types of Blow Moulding Processes 22.214.171.124 Extrusion blow molding In extrusion blow molding (EBM), plastic is melted and extruded into a hollow tube (a parison). This parison is then captured by closing it into a cooled metal mold. Air is then blown into the parison, inflating it into the shape of the hollow bottle, containeror part. After the plastic has cooled sufficiently, the mold is opened and the part is ejected. Continuous and Intermittent are two variations of Extrusion Blow Molding. In Continuous Extrusion Blow Molding the parison is extruded continuously and the individual parts are cut off by a suitable knife. In Intermittent blow molding there are two processes: straight intermittent is similar to injection molding whereby the screw turns, then stops and pushes the melt out. With the accumulator method, an accumulator gathers melted plastic and when the previous mold has cooled and enough plastic has accumulated, a rod pushes the melted plastic and forms the parison. In this case the screw may turn continuously or intermittently. 126.96.36.199 Injection blow molding The process of injection blow molding (IBM) is used for the production of hollow glass and plastic objects in large quantities. In the IBM process, the polymer is injection molded onto a core pin; then the core pin is rotated to a blow molding station to be inflated and cooled. This is the least-used of the three blow molding processes, and is typically used to make small medical and single serve bottles. The process is divided into three steps: injection, blowing and ejection. The injection blow molding machine is based on an extruder barrel and screw assembly which melts the polymer. The molten polymer is fed into a manifold where it is injected through nozzles into a hollow, heated preform mold. The preform mold forms the external shape and is clamped around a mandrel (the core rod) which forms the internal shape of the preform. The preform consists of a fully formed bottle/jar neck with a thick tube of polymer attached, which will form the body.
The preform mold opens and the core rod is rotated and clamped into the hollow, chilled blow mold. The core rod opens and allows compressed air into the preform, which inflates it to the finished article shape. After a cooling period the blow mold opens and the core rod is rotated to the ejection position. The finished article is stripped off the core rod and leak-tested prior to packing. The preform and blow mold can have many cavities, typically three to sixteen depending on the article size and the required output. There are three sets of core rods, which allow concurrent preform injection, blow molding and ejection.
188.8.131.52 Stretch blow molding
In the stretch blow molding (SBM) process, the plastic is first molded into a "preform" using the injection molding process. These preforms are produced with the necks of the bottles, including threads (the "finish") on one end. These preforms are packaged, and fed later (after cooling) into a reheat stretch blow molding machine. In the SBM process, the preforms are heated (typically using infrared heaters) above their glass transition temperature, then blown using high pressure air into bottles using metal blow molds. Usually the preform is stretched with a core rod as part of the process. In the singlestage process both preform manufacture and bottle blowing are performed in the same machine. The stretching of some polymers, such as PET (polyethylene terephthalate) results in strain hardening of the resin, allowing the bottles to resist deforming under the pressures, formed by carbonated beverages, which typically approach 60 psi. The main applications are bottles, jars and other containers. Advantages of blow molding include: low tool and die cost; fast production rates; ability to mold complex part; produces recyclable parts Disadvantages of blow molding include: limited to hollow parts, wall thickness is hard to control.
2.3.2 Process Flow for Air Duct Manufacturing Here, we will see the process that is involved in the manufacturing the air duct, from the raw material. The air duct is basically divided into three main sub-parts, i.e. the center part, the left hand side duct and the right hand side duct. Also, the process that is involved in the assemblies of these part to form the main air duct, i.e. our final product, which is ready to dispatch. We will see, one by one the flow of the process of each product.
184.108.40.206 Process Flow for Center Duct Manufacturing
The above gives a clear operation description and process flow, that are followed in sequence for the manufacturing of the center duct. 220.127.116.11 Process Flow for Side Duct (Left Hand) Manufacturing
The above gives a clear operation description and process flow, that are followed in sequence for the manufacturing of the side duct, left hand. 18.104.22.168 Process Flow for Side Duct (Right Hand) Manufacturing
The above gives a clear operation description and process flow, that are followed in sequence for the manufacturing of the side duct, left hand. 22.214.171.124 Process Flow for Assembly of the Center Duct with Left Hand and Right hand Air Duct.
The above gives a clear operation description and process flow that are followed in sequence for the assembly of the center duct with left hand duct and right hand duct. Dionisis Kandris, Nikos Papadimitriou, Nikolaos Pantazis, Romanos Fais, Giannis Psaros,Giorgos Pantouvakis, Spyros Spyropoulos, has approached towards one of the most common industrial quality control problems, which are involved in manufacturing of plastic molded receptacles, that is of leakage detection. They begin with an introduction to the characteristics and the quality problems of the blow molding method for the production of plastic receptacles. Next, the existing methodologies and technologies for quality control of such products are presented along with their corresponding advantages and disadvantages. After their comparative collocation, the ‘pressure control’ method is adopted.  Serge Monteix, Yannick Le Maoult, Fabrice Schmidt, Jean Paul Arcens deals with an application of blow moulding process applied to PET bottles forming. The most important
stage of this process is the radiative heating step which is realised with infrared ovens using powerful halogen lamps. To validate a 3D thermal control volume software, called Plastirad, developed in our laboratory, temperatures maps were needed on the plastic performs as well as convective heat transfer coefficient inside the oven. This measurement has been performed with two different methods : IR thermography and hot wire anemometry. These two methods have been investigated and results are compared to focus on the interest of IR thermography.  P. Naughton, P. Shembekar, A. Lokhande K. Kauffman, S. Rathod, G. Malunjkar The performance and design criteria for seat systems require that the seat be lighter for reduced fuel consumption while still meeting the safety requirements as required by legislation. The safety requirements for seats include headrests and seat back static and dynamic structural performance, seat belt anchorage and luggage retention capability, child seat anchorage and top tether requirements as defined by pertinent regulation. The interior space constraints require that the seat be thinner. The seat design is expected to address the growing concern for environmental friendliness. In addition to these main criteria, various additional features such as adjustable and stow-able design are required for customer delight. All these design objectives should be met within a given cost target.  K. Szczepański*, D. Kwiatkowski, J. Koszkul The main purpose of the performed investigations was a multi-aspect analyzes of the blow moulding process in a mould which takes two-stage nature of the process and the occurrence of uncontrolled phenomena which influence the shape, size and quality of the products into consideration.  Sherry L. Baranek Blow mold design and build requirements—as well as challenges and how to overcome them—through the use of a new rotary blow molding wheel system. With a majority of the population constantly on the go, the market for single-serving containers (plastic bottles) of both beverages and foods is exploding. While designing and building blow molds is challenging, it is a niche worth exploring. 
2.4. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES
There are various techniques that improve upon quality for betterment of higher productivity with less rejects as compared to the process of the one without quality improvement technique.
Quality improvement is a characteristic of quality management and it is the continuous improvement of the output of products and services using management systems. There are various quality management systems available. Many Quality improvement tools today are used due to a high demand for large volumes of high value products and services using cheaper materials in production during the second world war. Present systems such as Kaizen, Total quality management (TQM), Quality circles and Six Sigma have shown the power and effects a team-base improvement system can have on production. Process capability design is at the forefront when using Six Sigma. Some improvement tools includes Control charts, Lot sampling, Process capability, Value Analysis (VA). A sustainable and continuous improvement program in a company has to be part of the companies’ cooperate culture, and staff should be trained on the system adopted for this type of management and improvement. 2.4.1 Six Sigma:- Six Sigma is a business management tool developed by the Motorola Company in the mid 80’s. It seeks to improve the quality output and efficiency of companies by identifying the probable defects in a given process and minimizing the variability in output. This process uses a set of methods including statistical methods creating an infrastructure of people within the organization. Each Six Sigma project process in an organization follows a laid down sequence with the aim of reducing cost and maximizing profit. 2.4.2 Total Quality Management (TQM):- TQM uses teams made up of workers from all sectors in the company to solve issues. The teams undergo training in the use of basic statistical tools that are used in the collection and analysis of data. 2.4.3 ISO 9000:- ISO 9000 is a standard of quality systems. The ISO 9000 family of standards ensure that organizations meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders. This process deals with the basics of quality management, emphasizing on eight principles on which the family of standards is based. 2.4.4 Quality Control Circle (QCC):- Quality control circle is a small group of workers who come together to discuss ways of identifying, analyzing, solving and selecting work related issues. 2.4.5 Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA):- Failure Mode and Effect Analysis is a very important tool to improve upon the quality. In this tool, the failure modes are earlier checked upon and necessary actions are taken to prevent that to avoid the re-occurrence of the failure.
M.Y. Lam, Gary K.K. Poon and K.S. Chin has tried to establish a relationship between organizational learning capability (OLC) and TQM culture (TC) based on a case study of a leading vocational education institution of Hong Kong, and to develop an organizational learning transformation model for vocational education in the context of TQM culture.  Jose´ Carlos Pinho analyzed the importance of developing a quality management approach as a way to enhance the bottom line results of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The main goal is to examine the synergistic relationships between TQM, performance, consumer orientation and innovation.  Silvia Helena Boarin Pinto, Marly Monteiro de Carvalho and Linda Lee Ho has identified the relationships as to complementarities and redundancies of the main quality programs in large Brazilian companies by a comparative and critical analysis of their implementation in those companies.  Djoko Setijono and Jens J. Dahlgaard has presented a proactive quality costs measurement methodology, which describes the value of quality improvements and the implication of this value on customers’ perception regarding the value of the product.  Alessandro Brun, Donatella Corti and Alessandro Pozzetti has provided a methodology aimed at improving the setting up of air-jet looms by clarifying the function which links different important variables involved in the setting procedure and by proposing a method to measure the quality of fabrics depending on the factor values.
2.5 FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS
The first stage of an FMEA exercise is to decide on the type(s) of analysis required, depending on the maturity of the design and decisions to be made, but this may include: - System FMEA, Design FMEA, Process FMEA The FMEA process uses rating scales to assess, the severity of the possible consequences of specific types of failure (Severity). The Probability, that the causes of failure will occur (Occurrence). The possibility, of detecting a problem, using the current procedures, and intervening to avoid the consequences of failure (Detection). Appropriate rating scales should be chosen for each project, and consistently applied. Published standards1 include recommended rating scales for automotive applications, and these may be adapted for general use as shown in The effects of potential failures are assessed using a ‘Risk Priority Number’ or RPN that is calculated by multiplying the individual scores together, so that, RPN= Severity x Occurrence x Detection Particular care must also be taken to address concerns that could cause serious or fatal injury, even if the risk of occurrence is small. Especially in high volume manufacture the statistical probability of “at least one failure” should always be mode or mitigate considered, and appropriate action taken to prevent that failure
the consequences of failure. It is important that the rating scales established for a particular project are applied consistently throughout the analysis and answers are not fudged to become politically acceptable. Dr. Ravikant and Bhavik Pathak has represents the results of the analysis of causes and modes of failure of the automotive radiator as a part of the cooling system of vehicle. Based on detailed review of the structure and operation modes of the observed object and other relevant data, FMEA discovered the weak processes in the manufacturing of radiator, and then after necessaries improvements we repeat investigation which gave positive results. They concluded that the paper presents possible applications of FMEA to identify the possible product enhancement points for automotive radiator. 
Ćatić, Slavko Arsovski, Branislav Jeremić and Jasna Glišović has stated
that FMEA can be applied at all stages of the life cycle of one technical system. However, its effectiveness is the largest, if applied at product development phase by a team of experts from various companies’ functions. Therefore, conceptual, design and process
FMEA is discussed in this paper. A detailed description of the relations between these methods and the order of application is considered. Based on FMEA working plan it was formed the algorithm procedure of application of design FMEA method. The specific steps of FMEA procedure starting from the formation of FMEA team until documenting of the analysis is explained.  Namdari M., Rafiee Sh., Jafari A., has aimed to reduce fuel consumption in moldboard plowing using the failure mode and effects (FMEA) method. FMEA is a new methodology to analyze potential reliability problems in the development cycle of the project, making it easier to take actions to overcome such issues, thus enhancing the reliability through design or process. FMEA is used to identify actions to mitigate the analyzed potential failure modes and their effect on the operations. Application of FMEA in this study revealed that plowing speed, soil moisture content and plowing depth are the most important factors in tillage fuel consumption, with 640, 480 and 420 RPN respectively.  Joseph Barkai, has describes a project to convert the results of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis information into a diagnostic knowledge base. Combined with a diagnostic expert system, this knowledge base produced an effective diagnostic system for an offhighway vehicle. 
Thomas A. Carbone and Donald D. Tippett proposes the extension of the
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) format to quantify and analyze project risks. The new technique is labeled the project risk FMEA (RFMEA). The RFMEA is a modification of the well-known process, product, and service FMEA technique. In order to use the FMEA format for projects, the detection value of the standard FMEA is modified slightly for use in the project environment.  Yiannis Papadopoulos, Christian Grante & David Parker has analysis the compile lists of component failure modes and try to infer the effects of those failure modes on the system. System models, typically simple engineering diagrams, assist analysts in understanding how the local effects of component failures propagate through complex architectures and ultimately cause hazardous effects at system level.  Riccardo Mariani, Gabriele Boschi, Federico Colucci proposes an innovative methodology to perform and validate a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) at System-on-Chip (SoC) level. This is done in compliance with the IEC 61508, an international norm for the functional safety of electronic safety-related systems. 
Lars Dittmann, Tim Rademacher, Stephan Zelewski, aims to introduce an approach that integrates a technique of knowledge engineering (Ontologies) and a technique of quality engineering (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis). An approach will be set up that shows the potentials of combining IT-based systems of knowledge and quality engineering. Particularly with regard to the quality engineering technique, the paper aims to demonstrate the advantages of this approach. 
The other relative works of my dissertation to be done are shown on the next page in the form of GANTT CHART.
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