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Some times it is not practical or even possible to obtain large samples, cost, available time and other factors may require us to work with small samples for our purposes we will say a sample of size less than 30 is a small sample Assumption for t-test 1. 2. 3. The parent population from which sample is drawn is normal The sample is random (small n<30) Population standard deviation is unkown.

**t-test for Single mean
**

Suppose we want to test if a random sample x1 , x 2 ,...x n of size n is drawn from a normal population with specified mean µ The null hypothesis is written Ho: μ = µ 0 H1: μ < µ 0 (one tail test, left tail) The t- statistic is given by x−µ Sx / n

t=

(t has student t distribution with n-1df)

d.f.: (no of independent observations in the sample) (no of population parameter which must be estimated from sample observations) n–k here k=1

Example: A machine is producing washers having a thickness of ‘0.5 mm’ To determine whether the machine is in proper working order, a sample of 10 washers is chosen for which the mean thickness is 0.53 m.m. and the standard deviation is .03 mm. Test the hypothesis that the machine is in proper working order using a level of significance (a) .05 (b) 0.01 Ho: μ = 0.50 H1: μ ≠ 0.5 (Two tail test) The t- statistic is given by x−µ Sx / n 0.53 − .5 .03 / 10

t=

=

= 3.16

Example 2:- A test of breaking strength of 6 ropes manufactured by a company showed a mean breaking strength of 7750 N and a standard deviation of 145 N where as manufacturer claimed a mean breaking strength of 8000 N. can we support the manufacturer’s claim at a level of significance 5% Ho: μ = 8000N H1: μ < 8000N (left tail test) The t- statistic is given by x−µ Sx / n 7750 − .8000 145 / 6

t=

=

= −3.86

**Two Sample Tests of Means (n1+n2 < 30)
**

Two sample tests are frequently used to compare two methods of instruction, two brands, 2 two cities and other similar things. Let the two populations are f ( µ1 , σ 12 ) and f ( µ 2 , σ 2 ) 2 , here µ1 and µ 2 are the means of the population, σ 12 and σ 2 (both unknown) are the variance of the population. The null hypothesis can be that two population have equal means H 0 : µ1 = µ 2 The alternatives can be one of the following H 1 : µ1 ≠ µ 2 or

µ1 < µ 2 or µ1 > µ 2

**The test statistic is given by t= x− y
**

2 ( n1 − 1) S12 + ( n2 − 1) S 2 1 1 ( + ) n1 + n 2 − 2 n1 n 2

The statistic t has a t-distribution with n1+n2-2 d.f., if it can be assumed that both populations are approximately normal. Example 1 The I.Q of 16 students from one area of city showed a mean of 107 with a standard deviation of 10, while the I.Q.’s of 14 students from another area of the city showed a mean of 112 with a standard deviation of 8. Is there a significant difference between the I.Q of the groups? Use (a) .01 and (b) .05 level of significance H 0 : µ1 = µ 2 , there is no difference between the groups H 1 : µ1 ≠ µ 2 , there is significant difference between the groups Under Ho, the test statistic is t= 112 − 107 = 1.45 15(100) + 13(64) 1 1 ( n1 − 1) S + ( n2 − 1) S 1 1 = ( + ) ( + ) 16 + 14 − 2 16 14 n1 + n 2 − 2 n1 n 2

2 1 2 2

x− y

Accept H 0

Reject H 0

Example 2:- At an agricultural station it was desired to test the effect of a given fertilizer on wheat production. To accomplish this, 24 plots of land having equal areas were chosen, half of there were treated with the fertilizer and other half were untreated. Otherwise conditions were same. The mean yield of wheat on the untreated plots was 4.8 kgs. With a standard deviation of 4 kgs, while the mean yield on the treated plots was 5.1 kg. with a standard deviation of 3.6 kg. can we conclude that there is significant improvement in wheat production because of the fertilizer if the significance level of (a) 1 % and (b) 5 % is used. H 0 : µ1 = µ 2 , there is no difference between the groups H 1 : µ1 > µ 2 , there is significant difference between the groups Under Ho, the test statistic is t= 5.1 − 4.8 = 1.8.5 ( n1 − 1) S + ( n2 − 1) S 1 1 1 = 11(16) + 11(3.6) 2 1 ( + ) ( + ) 12 + 12 − 2 12 12 n1 + n 2 − 2 n1 n 2

2 1 2 2

x− y

**Paired t-test for difference of means
**

(Dependent samples, sample observations are paired) Let us now consider the care when (i) sample sizes are equal n1 = n2 =n (say) and (ii) the two samples are not independent but the sample observations are paired together i.e. the pair of observations ( xi , y i ) corresponds the same i th sample unit. i = 1,2,..., n The problem is to test of the sample means differ significantly. Many statistical problems use paired data samples to draw conclusions about the difference between two populations, data pairs occur may naturally in before and after situations, where the same object or item is measured both before and after a treatment. Example 1:- The diastolic blood pressure of 12 were taken before and after administering a certain drug Blood pressure 94 80 84 86 88 78 91 92 81 90 100 90 before giving drug Blood pressure after giving 89 78 76 87 91 78 93 91 76 90 96 90 to drug Can we say that the drug has reduced the blood pressure In this problem we want to test the claim that drug has reduced the Blood pressure. This means difference between d i = A-B should tend to be positive and the population mean difference values µ d should also be positive. The null hypothesis that there is no difference among the pairs i.e. µ d = 0 i.e. H 0 : µd = 0 H : µd > 0 To test this hypothesis we use the following test statistic d − µd Sd / n

t=

The statistic t has student t-distribution

Patient No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 S d = 3.09

B.P. before drug A 94 80 84 86 88 78 91 92 81 90 100 96

B.P. after administering the B drug 89 78 76 87 91 78 93 91 76 90 96 90

D= A – B 5 2 8 -1 -3 0 -2 1 5 0 4 6

D2 25 4 64 1 9 0 4 1 25 0 16 36

d = 2.583 2.583 − 0 3.09 / 12

t=

d − µd Sd / n

=

= 2.89

Reject H 0 and conclude that the drug does reduce the blood pressure Example 2:- An IQ test was administered to 5 persons before and after they were trained. The results are given below:Candidates IQ. Before training IQ. After training I 110 120 II 120 118 III 123 125 IV 132 136 V 125 121

Test Whether any change in I.Q,. after the training programme.

H 0 : µd = 0 H : µd ≠ 0 Candidates I II III IV V S d = 30 IQ. Before training A 110 120 123 132 125 IQ after training B 120 118 125 136 121 d =2 d=B–A 10 -2 2 4 -4 D2 100 4 4 16 16

t=

d − µd Sd / n

=

2−0 5 6/ 5

= 0.816

We accept H 0 and conclude that there is no effect of training.

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