This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Hyun Woo Choi, Jong Hee Shin, Sook In Jung, Kyung Hwa Park, Duck Cho, Seung Jung Kee, Myung Geun Shin, Soon Pal Suh and Dong Wook Ryang Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2007, 51(4):1520. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01141-06. Published Ahead of Print 5 February 2007. Downloaded from http://aac.asm.org/ on March 1, 2012 by guest
Updated information and services can be found at: http://aac.asm.org/content/51/4/1520 These include:
This article cites 16 articles, 12 of which can be accessed free at: http://aac.asm.org/content/51/4/1520#ref-list-1 Receive: RSS Feeds, eTOCs, free email alerts (when new articles cite this article), more»
Information about commercial reprint orders: http://aac.asm.org/site/misc/reprints.xhtml To subscribe to to another ASM Journal go to: http://journals.asm.org/site/subscriptions/
Within the therapeutic range of concentrations of each drug. Apr.ac.1128/AAC. the echinocandins. 2012 by guest Bioﬁlm-mediated antifungal resistance is a well-documented phenomenon for Candida species and probably contributes to Candida pathogenicity in catheter-related bloodstream infections (BSIs) (6. including 12 C. of isolates for which indicated MIC ( g/ml) was: 0. 12 Candida parapsilosis. albicans. Downloaded from http://aac. In this system. The inhibitory effects of the antifungals were measured as the optical densities (ODs) of the antifungal-treated wells relative to those of the control (antifungal-free) wells (considered to be 100%) as determined TABLE 1.06 g/ml.asm. Chonnam National University Medical School. Gwangju. of isolates tested Type of MICa 0. p.12 0. other non-C.1* Sook In Jung. Fax: 82 (62) 224-2518. However. amphotericin B. 15). and the two echinocandins. 16 to 0.01141-06 Copyright © 2007. 16).1 Seung Jung Kee.org/ on March 1. The drugs were prepared in a series of twofold dilutions as follows: ﬂuconazole.1 Soon Pal Suh. 32 to 0.3.25 0. ﬂuconazole. tropicalis C. 8 Hakdong Dongku. 1520 .024 C.ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY. Gwangju 501-757. Although fungal bioﬁlm-associated infections are frequently refractory to conventional antifungal therapy. * Corresponding author. between January 1999 and December 2003. have recently been demonstrated to be active against Candida albicans bioﬁlms (3. South Korea. 51. albicans C.1 and Dong Wook Ryang1 Departments of Laboratory Medicine1 and Internal Medicine.03 0. 14). We examined 43 Candida species isolates. South Korea Received 11 September 2006/Returned for modiﬁcation 26 October 2006/Accepted 28 January 2007 The echinocandin susceptibilities of bloodstream Candida isolates growing in a bioﬁlm was investigated. Vol.024 to 2 g/ml.2 Duck Cho. Published ahead of print on 5 February 2007. glabrata 12 12 10 9 MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells 3 4 1 1 4 1 3 4 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 7 12 10 12 8 10 1 6 2 1 2 1 5 1 8 9 a MIC50s and MIC80s were determined by measuring XTT activity reduction. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org No. All of the isolates were from blood cultures acquired at Chonnam National University Hospital. All Rights Reserved. The MICs for planktonic cells were determined by the standard CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) M27-A2 broth microdilution method (5).-D-glucan synthase.1 Myung Geun Shin. 2007. While C. American Society for Microbiology.03 g/ml. 1520–1523 0066-4804/07/$08. parapsilosis C. glabrata but not those formed by C. there have been few comparisons of the activities of echinocandins against bioﬁlms formed by different Candida species. and 9 Candida glabrata isolates.2 Chonnam National University Medical School. albicans is the most commonly isolated Candida species. South Korea. tropicalis or C. 10. caspofungin and micafungin were active against bioﬁlms formed by Candida albicans or C. mature bioﬁlms were allowed to form in 96-well microtiter plates for 48 h and the cell densities of the bioﬁlms were estimated using the 2.00 0 doi:10. Distributions of ﬂuconazole MICs for different Candida species strains under planktonic or bioﬁlm (sessile-cell) growth conditions Species No. Phone: 82 (62) 2205342. 4 Species-Speciﬁc Differences in the Susceptibilities of Bioﬁlms Formed by Candida Bloodstream Isolates to Echinocandin Antifungals Hyun Woo Choi. which constitute a new class of antifungals that inhibit 1. We compared the in vitro activities of caspofungin. Gwangju. Mailing address: Department of Laboratory Medicine.1 Jong Hee Shin. albicans species have been increasingly recognized as catheter-related BSI pathogens (4. micafungin. parapsilosis.kr.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 1. No.3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrozolium5-carboxanilide (XTT) absorbance assay. The MICs for sessile cells (bioﬁlms) were determined using a microtiter-based assay (3.2 Kyung Hwa Park. 1. 10 Candida tropicalis. and amphotericin B against bioﬁlms formed by BSI isolates of four different Candida species. 16). The MICs of the two echinocandins for planktonic cells were deﬁned as the lowest concentrations resulting in the prominent inhibition of growth as determined after 24 h of incubation (11).
12 0. parapsilosis C.03 No. tropicalis C. glabrata 12 12 10 9 MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells 3 3 2 2 1 4 1 1 1 2 9 3 8 2 9 2 6 4 1 6 4 5 4 1 1 1 1 4 5 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 7 4 2 a MIC50s and MIC80s were determined by measuring XTT activity reduction.5 g/ml. while the median MIC80 for sessile cells ranged from 2 to 32 g/ml. albicans C. of isolates tested Type of MICa 0. The ODs of the different Candida species were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test by using the SPSS Win 10. Downloaded from http://aac. albicans sessile cells ranged from 0.05. similar to the values reported previously (3). Distribution of caspofungin and micafungin MICs for different Candida species strains under planktonic or bioﬁlm growth conditions Drug Species No. albicans C. tropicalis C. tropicalis C. and C. 2007 NOTES 1521 TABLE 2. respectively.0 program.25 0. The median MIC50s and MIC80s of ﬂuconazole for sessile cells of all Candida species were 1.VOL. C.12 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 16 Caspofungin C. glabrata were 0. of isolates tested Type of MICa 0. 16.5 g/ml). glabrata 12 12 10 9 MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells MIC for planktonic cells MIC50 for sessile cells MIC80 for sessile cells 6 4 1 2 1 1 6 9 9 5 3 1 1 6 2 2 2 2 5 12 2 10 4 2 5 5 1 2 1 1 6 3 1 6 7 1 6 Micafungin C.03 0. and all the P values were two tailed. The MIC50 and MIC80 of each drug for sessile cells were determined and compared to the controls (15). parapsilosis.org/ on March 1. Differences between the species were considered to be signiﬁcant for P of 0. albicans. 16. These data show that amphotericin B is moderately effective against the bioﬁlms of all four species. The caspofungin MIC50s for C. Distributions of amphotericin B MICs for different Candida species strains under planktonic or bioﬁlm growth conditions Species No. of isolates for which indicated MIC ( g/ml) was: 0. parapsilosis C. of isolates for which indicated MIC ( g/ml) was: 0. The distributions of antifungal MICs for planktonic and sessile cells of the different Candida species are shown in Tables 1. tropicalis.5. 2. 2012 by guest in the XTT assays and are expressed as percentages of the values for control wells. All isolates were tested at least twice.05.06 to 0.06 0.asm. The median mica- TABLE 3. C. The median caspofungin MIC80s for sessile cells of C. glabrata 12 12 10 9 12 2 6 1 3 2 3 3 2 2 10 1 9 2 6 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 9 5 1 1 4 11 a MIC50s and MIC80s were determined by measuring XTT activity reduction. parapsilosis C. which was similar to the median MIC for planktonic cells (0.25 0.5 to 1 g/ml. whereas ﬂuconazole is ineffective. albicans C. Correlations between the MICs for planktonic cells and those for sessile cells and between the MICs of caspofungin and micafungin for sessile cells were examined by the least-squares method (13).06 No.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 32 C.024 g/ml. The median MIC50 of amphotericin B for sessile cells of each of the four Candida species ranged from 0. 51. and 1 g/ml. . Alpha was set at 0. and 3.
Therefore. 1. parapsilosis strains while exhibiting high MICs for the other strain. 16. albicans and C. 0. In the present study. tropicalis. In contrast to that in the C. mainly due to the low ODs of the control wells. The mechanisms of echinocandin activity against bioﬁlms formed by different Candida species are unknown (7). in contrast to the activities of ﬂuconazole and amphotericin B.05). glabrata. R. a reduction in XTT activity of up to 80% in the C. but a positive correlation between the caspofungin and micafungin MICs for sessile cells was noted (R.01).3). parapsilosis. ‚. 8).org/ on March 1. Kuhn et al. The observed differences in echinocandin susceptibilities among different Candida species suggest the involvement of novel biochemical and genetic mechanisms in bioﬁlm formation. albicans. Further studies are needed on the potential associations between the densities of bioﬁlms (particularly those formed by C. Clinical signiﬁcance remains to be veriﬁed. metabolic activity (12). 0. (9) have shown that both echinocandins inhibit one of two C. However. there were signiﬁcant speciesspeciﬁc differences in the echinocandin activities against the Candida bioﬁlms (P 0. parapsilosis and C. 2012 by guest FIG. . since the bioﬁlms with lower turbidities gave nonreproducible MIC results for sessile cells.014. . albicans and C. P 0. respectively.asm.4 for MIC50 for sessile cells. 17).5 g/ml and 0. These interstudy differences may be due to the differences in the Candida bioﬁlm models used or to the bioﬁlm-forming abilities of the Candida isolates tested (8. The inhibitory effects of ﬂuconazole and amphotericin B showed no signiﬁcant differences among the Candida species. }.25 to 1 g/ml) of caspofungin and micafungin. glabrata bioﬁlms was observed following exposure to relatively low concentrations (0. parapsilosis and C. and 16 g/ml for both C. and the rate of drug diffusion through the bioﬁlm (2) have been reported for different Candida species. C.1522 NOTES ANTIMICROB. SMIC80. the criterion that we used for isolate selection may have introduced a bias. tropicalis isolates) and echinocandin susceptibilities. C. C. MIC50 for sessile cells. Species-speciﬁc differences are evident for the activities of caspofungin and micafungin against Candida bioﬁlms (P 0. Downloaded from http://aac. given the variations in testing methods and isolate selection. glabrata.01). parapsilosis (12 strains) were less susceptible to both echinocandins in vitro.25 g/ml for C. MIC80 for sessile cells. the bioﬁlms formed by C.05). P 0. Symbols: . C. This work was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD) (KRF-2005E00082). The inhibitory effect of each concentration of antifungal was measured as the average OD of all antifungal-treated wells and expressed as a percentage of the OD of control (antifungal-free) wells (considered to be 100%) as determined in XTT reduction assays. We selected 43 out of the 95 isolates from preliminary experiments in which the bioﬁlms had high turbidities at 48 h (OD 0. However. parapsilosis and C. In vitro activities of different concentrations of drugs against bioﬁlms formed by four individual bloodstream isolates representing four different Candida species. These data suggest different drug resistance mechanisms for different bioﬁlm-forming Candida species.9 for MIC80 for sessile cells. fungin MIC80s for sessile cells were 0. AGENTS CHEMOTHER. differences related to the composition of the Candida bioﬁlm matrix (1. SMIC50. Figure 1 shows the inhibition curves for bioﬁlm-grown Candida species in the presence of different concentrations of the four antifungal agents. tropicalis (P 0. There was no correlation between the MICs for planktonic cells and those for sessile cells of a given strain. tropicalis bioﬁlms.
J. Prince. D. M. M. R. M. A. Samaranayake. E. D. P. Candida bioﬁlms: antifungal resistance and emerging therapeutic options. Pfaller. O. Wayne. 48:3291–3297. Antimicrob. J. A. APMIS 114:298–306. and D. S. H. L. A. T. and ﬂuconazole against 4. Lopez-Ribot.169 clinical isolates of Candida spp. M. Infect. Andrade. M. K. E. 2012 by guest . M. 2002. J. Immun. S. P. Shin. Agents Chemother. Clin. Kuhn.VOL. E. Antimicrob. G. Cho. W. Ramage. H. A. A. Risk factors for candidal bloodstream infections in surgical intensive care unit patients: the NEMIS prospective multicenter study. Clin. J. Yau. J. E.org/ on March 1.. A. S. Tendolkar. J. Ye. W. Merz. S. P. A. M. 17:255–267. Agents Chemother. P. Douglas. Fothergill. The National Epidemiology of Mycosis Survey. W. Microbiol. F. D. P. Bioﬁlm production by isolates of Candida species recovered from nonneutropenic patients: comparison of bloodstream isolates with isolates from other sources. Investig. L. Y. H. Song. Shin. C. O. and R. D. 46:1773–1780. F.asm. Parahitiyawa. H. L. Odds. Infect. Rice. P. G. M. Penetration of Candida bioﬁlms by antifungal agents. D. Agents Chemother. Al-Fattani. Graybill. Jung. A. 45:2475–2479. Diagn. Kee. Cheung. 2002. C. VandeWalle. Antimicrob. W. Ramage. Schell. J. L. Kim. Perfect. Opin. and Cryptococcus neoformans collected during 2001 and 2002 in the ARTEMIS global antifungal surveillance program. J. M. J. Infect. 55:999–1008. 2002. A. E. J. Shin. 17. P. Ryang. 13. Interspecies variation in Candida bioﬁlm formation studied using the Calgary bioﬁlm device. G. G. L. A. Clin. P. Chandra. 2004. Antimicrob. H. H. Darouiche. S. 15. Suh. Perea. Messer. J. 42:3475–3482.. 2001. and S. K. Wickes. J. A. Wiblin. 2005. 16. RodriguezTudela. L. M. Rev. Kuhn. A. T. Shin. R. Candida infections of medical devices. C. Darouiche. R. K. J. R. Giacobbe. Peman. 2004. Tsang. Med. Wenzel. Sutton. Saiman. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. J. In vitro pharmacodynamic properties of three antifungal agents against preformed Candida albicans bioﬁlms determined by time-kill studies. Mukherjee. Microbiol. M. R. In vitro activity of caspofungin against Candida albicans bioﬁlms. L. Kontoyiannis. L. Ghannoum. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida bioﬁlms: unique efﬁcacy of amphotericin B lipid formulations and echinocandins. 40:1244–1248. Microbiol. Mukherjee. T. 2006.. S. B. P. Durussel. M. 2004. Gobernado. Ryang. Davison. Agents Chemother. 2001. J. 2002. NOTES 1523 12. H. 7. D. A. and J. Ghannoum. K. George. Pfaller. Med. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Antimicrob. L. Yeung. 2nd ed. J. Patterson. and M. A. Motyl.. 48:201–205. and L. Lee-Yang.. Drugs 5:186–197.. Dis. G. Dis. 10. W. Rex.. J. Ellis. K. G. Antifungal activity of amphotericin B. P. Lopez-Ribot. G. ﬂuconazole. Curr. R. L. 33:177–186. J. E. Approved standard M27-A2. M. K. M. Wickes. Shin. Al-Fattani. B. 70:878–888. Diekema. Raad. 2006.. Hollis. 14. K. A. Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts. D. Agents Chemother. Interlaboratory comparison of results of susceptibility testing with caspofungin against Candida and Aspergillus species. S. Samaranayake. 46:3499–3505. I. M. 2004. H. 2007 REFERENCES 1. Antimicrob. Handke. Kojic. J. 2002. J. L. and J. and D. VandeWalle. and vori11. Douglas. J. Differences in bioﬁlm production by three genotypes of Candida parapsilosis from clinical sources. M. conazole in an in vitro model of Candida catheter-related bloodstream infection. and L. D. J.. P. Rangel-Frausto. W. and D. 9. Ostrosky-Zeichner. W. S. Rinaldi. L. Verweij. G. Y. Foraker. S. and J. PA. 8... and M. C. Canton. J. Edwards. J. 2004.. 2. 43:657–661. Ramage. E. 51. S. B. Bachmann. Comparison of bioﬁlms formed by Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis on bioprosthetic surfaces. Warnock. Shields. M. M. 6. Lavediere. and R. Wickes.... 3. M. Boyken. Prioa. and M. Downloaded from http://aac. 46:3634–3636. and R. R. 2002. W. Ghannoum. Pfaller. 46:3591– 3596. Agents Chemother. A. Blumberg. Cuenca-Estrella. Bille. Bioﬁlm matrix of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis: chemical composition and role in drug resistance. Shin. Kee. Jarvis. posaconazole. W. and D. Lee. S. D. Lewis. B. I. 4. S. Clin. M. Rinaldi. Mycol. Soucie. Microbiol. Patterson. Chandra. W. Standardized method for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans bioﬁlms. Microbiol.. J. Ghannoum. P. R. R. S. Suh. B. Vande Walle. M. 5. Bachmann. R. Kuhn. Lopez-Ribot. I. In vitro activities of voriconazole. 2002. N.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?