LESSON ASSIGNMENT

LESSON 5 TEXT ASSIGNMENT LESSON OBJECTIVES

The Human Muscular System. Paragraphs 5-1 through 5-8. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 5-1. Describe the general features of the skeletal muscles. 5-2. Describe the general arrangement of the trunk and limb musculature. 5-3. Given a sample drawing, identify the class of lever. 5-4. Name the components of a skeleto-muscular unit. Given a description of a muscle's role in a motion, name that role.

SUGGESTION

After completing the assignment, complete the exercises at the end of this lesson. These exercises will help you to achieve the lesson objectives.

MD0006

5-1

b. blood vessels. MD0006 5-2 .LESSON 5 THE HUMAN MUSCULAR SYSTEM Section I. (2) The motor point is that specific location on the surface of the muscle where the neurovascular bundle enters." b. striated muscle fibers and FCT (fibrous connective tissue). This muscle is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses. Smooth muscle tissue is utilized to make up the muscular portion of the various visceral organs (stomach.) a. (1) From the main NAVL (nerve. Striated muscle tissue is used in the makeup of several types of muscles. tendons are cord-like and aponeuroses are broad and flat. The main type of muscle is the skeletal muscle. However. Veins. THE SKELETAL MUSCLE 5-1. artery. c. The large portion of a muscle is known as its belly or fleshy belly. Lymphatics). THE SKELETAL MUSCLE Each skeletal muscle is an individual organ of the human body. it is called a "fleshy attachment. Bones are parts of the skeleton serving as levers.). etc. The fleshy portion may be directly connected to the bone. 5-2. They also produce body heat. General Construction of a Skeletal Muscle. Each is attached to and moves bones. Each is made up of several types of tissues--mainly. vein. Arteries. If so. These muscular branches are bound together by an FCT sheath to form a neurovascular bundle. a. there are branches going to each muscle. Muscular NAVL (Nerves. Cardiac muscle tissue makes up the muscular wall of the heart--the myocardium. (See paragraphs 2-14 and 2-15 of lesson 2 for a discussion of muscle tissues. MUSCLE TISSUES The cellular elements of muscle tissues are specialized to produce motion by contraction. lymphatic). Tendons and aponeuroses are similar to each other. Other types of muscles made with striated muscle tissue are the facial or integumentary muscles and muscles of the jaw apparatus.

DELTA = ∆ . size. FEMORIS = of the thigh FUNCTION: rotatores Mm. etc. large adductor longus M. BICEPS = two-head BI = two CEPS = head SIZE: adductor magnus M. one unit after another is recruited until just enough units are available to produce the desired action. We abbreviate muscles (plural) with the symbol Mm. ARRANGEMENT OF HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLES See figures 5-1 and 5-2 for some of the skeletal muscles. MD0006 5-3 . their location. or their function. LONGUS = long biceps brachii M.(3) A motor unit is the single motor neuron and the number of striated muscle fibers activated by it (innervation). Greek letter D biceps M. NAMING SKELETAL MUSCLES The name of a muscle may appear with the abbreviation M. For example: SHAPE: deltoid M. meaning Musculus or muscle. ROTATORES = rotators (They turn/rotate the vertebral column.). The importance of the motor unit is that its fibers work in unison. When a certain amount of force is needed. BRACHII = of the arm biceps femoris M.. Skeletal muscles are named according to their physical attributes (shape.) LENGTH: LOCATION: 5-4. 5-3. Either all fibers within a unit contract or none contract. MAGNUS = great. length.

MD0006 5-4 . anterior view.Figure 5-1. Skeletal and facial muscles.

posterior view.Figure 5-2. MD0006 5-5 . Skeletal and facial muscles.

This is the most common type of lever in the human body. and the applied force is between the weight and the fulcrum. Together. The trunk musculature is arranged in two ways--longitudinal muscles and oblique muscles. but a greater amount of force is required for a given weight. and the fulcrum (the pivot or turning point) is between the two. Second Class. Lever and pulley systems are examples of simple machines found commonly in the human body.a. b. b. (3) Adjust the internal pressures of the trunk to perform certain functions such as breathing. the weight to be moved is at one end of the lever. Limb Musculature. Elementary mechanics are described in the next section to help you to understand typical arrangements of limb musculature. Section II. GENERAL Muscles and bones together work like machines within the laws of physics and chemistry. (Many feel that there are no second class levers in the human body. the weight to be moved is between the applied force and the fulcrum. the applied force is at the other end. First Class. the fulcrum is at the other end. In a second class lever. SOME ELEMENTARY SKELETO-MUSCULAR MECHANICS 5-5. In a third class lever. The limb musculature is arranged around the joints to produce the appropriate motions of the limbs. Third Class. a. 5-6. LEVER SYSTEMS See figure 5-3 for an illustration of the three classes of levers.) c. This type of lever enables a weight to be moved with less force than would be required without a lever. This type of lever provides speed. In a first class lever. Trunk Musculature. (2) Move the parts of the trunk. the weight to be moved is at one end of the lever. they: (1) Maintain trunk posture. MD0006 5-6 .

SIMPLE PULLEY SYSTEM a. For example. Figure 5-4. 5-7. Types of lever systems. A simple pulley (the human knee mechanism). the knee acts as a simple pulley by which the quadriceps femoris M. extends the leg. the "system" acts like a simple pulley (figure 5-4). There is no change in the amount of force produced by the muscle. A simple pulley provides a change in the direction of the force or muscle pull. In the human body when the tendon of a skeletal muscle slides over a round bony surface.Figure 5-3. MD0006 5-7 .

b. The skeleto-muscular unit (arm-forearm flexion (3rd class lever system)). Joint (Articulation). (2) Synergist. b. a. A synergist is a muscle which assists the prime mover. The joint is the center. or axis of motion. Bones act as levers and as attachment sites for skeletal muscles. THE SKELETO-MUSCULAR UNIT The skeleto-muscular unit (figure 5-5) is a working concept of muscle and skeleton producing motion. c. fulcrum. such as the patella (kneecap). Sesamoid bones. or agonist. Bones. A skeletal muscle may serve only one of the three following major roles during a particular motion: (1) Prime mover. SYN = together ERG = unit of effort MD0006 5-8 . Skeletal muscles apply the forces for motion. and skeletal muscle(s). point. Figure 5-5. a joint. develop in tendons where pressure is applied to the tendon. The muscle which makes the main effort for a given motion is called the prime mover. Skeletal Muscle(s). Any given motion utilizes a group of muscles working together. The components of an S-M unit are bones. 5-8.

the antagonist helps control the motion. (b) The antagonist also brings the limb or other part back to its original position. An antagonist applies a force opposite to that of the prime mover. Continue with Exercises Return to Table of Contents MD0006 5-9 . (a) By opposing the prime mover.(3) Antagonist.

EXERCISES. If the fleshy portion is directly connected to the bone." at the end of the lesson and check your answers. MD0006 5-10 . it is . LESSON 5 REQUIREMENT. After you have completed all the exercises. The following exercises are to be answered by completing the incomplete statements or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the question. 1. turn to "Solutions to Exercises. What is a neurovascular bundle? What is a motor point? What is a motor unit? The trunk musculature is arranged in two ways-muscles and muscles. 4. Generally. a skeletal muscle is attached to bone by a or . and 2. its called a The large portion of a skeletal muscle is known as its or . The limb musculature is arranged around the to provide the appropriate motions of the . The main types of tissues in skeletal muscles are . 3.

b. A muscle which assists the first is called a .5. . Label the drawings below according to class of lever. . Check Your Answers on Next Page MD0006 5-11 . The components of a skeleto-muscular unit are: a. A muscle which applies a force opposite to that of the first is called an . The muscle which makes the main effort for a given motion is called the . c. 7. . 6.

First class. b. a skeletal muscle is attached to bone by a tendon or aponeurosis. If the fleshy portion is directly connected to the bone. A muscle which applies a force opposite to that of the first is called an antagonist. (para 5-8c) Return to Table of Contents MD0006 5-12 . it is called a fleshy attachment. (para 5-2b) The trunk musculature is arranged in two ways--longitudinal muscles and oblique muscles. A motor unit is a single motor neuron and the striated muscle fibers activated by the neuron. 5. A muscle which assists the first is called a synergist. (para 5-8) 7. Third class. The motor point is the specific location on the surface of the muscle where the neurovascular bundle enters. (para 5-2a) A neurovascular bundle is a branch from the main NAVL. All fibers of a motor unit contract or none contract. b. 3. The muscle which makes the main effort for a given motion is called the prime mover (agonist). (para 5-4) a. 4. Joint (articulation). Skeletal muscles. Bones. The components of a skeleto-muscular unit are: a. 6. c. Generally.SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES. (para 5-6. The limb musculature is arranged around the joints to produce the appropriate motions of the limbs. sheathed in fibrous connective tissue. Second class. The main types of tissues in skeletal muscles are striated muscle fibers and fibrous connective tissue. (para 5-2) The large portion of skeletal muscle is known as its belly or fleshy belly. c. figure 5-3) 2. LESSON 5 1.

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