Lingaya’s Institute of Management and Technology



Mr. Tapas Kumar Mr. Kiran Kumar

Vartika Paul 4-IT-55


April 2008

I am greatly thankful to my Teachers and co-students of Information Technology Department, who inspired me to present my seminar on “BIOMETRICS”. They helped and encouraged me in every possible way. The knowledge acquired during the preparation of the seminar report would definitely help me in my future ventures. I would like to express my sincere gratitude thank all the teachers of our Department for their help in various aspects during the seminar.


What is Biometrics?
"Biometrics is the automated identification, or verification of human identity through the measurement of repeatable physiological, or behavioral characteristics” Identification: The search of a biometric sample against a database of other samples in order to ascertain whether the donor is already contained in, or new to the database. Verification: It refers to the 'one to one' comparison between a sample and another to ask the question, 'are you who you say you are.' The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure). For our use, biometrics refers to technologies for measuring and analyzing a person's physiological or behavioral characteristics, such as fingerprints, irises, voice patterns, facial patterns, and hand measurements, for identification and verification purposes.

Figure 1 Explains the meaning of definition

Identification and verification have long been accomplished by showing something you have, such as a license or a passport. Sometimes it also required something you know, such as a password or a PIN. As we move into a time when we need more secure and accurate measures, we begin to look at using something you are: biometrics. Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic.

While no other biometric has yet reached the breadth of use of fingerprinting. Modern Times: In the past three decades biometrics has moved from a single method (fingerprinting) to more than ten discreet methods. He wrote that the Chinese merchants were stamping children's palm prints and footprints on paper with ink to distinguish the young children from one another. He developed a method of multiple body measurements which got named after him (Bertillonage). the police started using finger printing. Prices for the harware required continue to fall making systems more feasible for low and mid-level budgets. As the industry grows however. . two people could get treated as one. His system was used by police authorities throughout the world. Companies involved with new methods number in the hundreds and continue to improve their methods as the technology available to them advances. as reported by explorer Joao de Barros. identification largely relied upon "photographic memory. an anthropologist and police desk clerk in Paris named Alphonse Bertillon sought to fix the problem of identifying convicted criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study. until it quickly faded when it was discovered that some people shared the same measurements and based on the measurements alone.History of BIOMETRICS: Chinese Precursor: Possibly the first known example of biometrics in practice was a form of finger printing being used in China in the 14th century." In the 1890s. so does the public concern over privacy issues. some are beginning to be used in both legal and business areas. European Origins: Until the late 1800s. Laws and regulations continue to be drafted and standards are beginning to be developed. This is one of the earliest known cases of biometrics in use and is still being used today. essentially reverting to the same methods used by the Chinese for years. After the failure of Bertillonage. which was developed by Richard Edward Henry of Scotland Yard.

or . Biometric recognition can be used in Identification mode. This is also called “one-to-one” matching. where the biometric system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a match based solely on the biometric. processed by a computer.WORKING PRINCIPLE OF BIOMETRICS Biometric devices consist of a reader or scanning device. user name. software that converts the gathered information into digital form. the software identifies specific points of data as match points. A user enters an account. Verification Mode: In this mode biometric system authenticates a person’s claimed identity from their previously enrolled pattern. For example. an entire database can be searched to verify a person has not applied for entitlement benefits under two different names. The match points are processed using an algorithm into a value that can be compared with biometric data in the database. Figure 2 Enrollment and Verification Technique Enrollment Mode: A sample of the biometric trait is captured. When converting the biometric input. All Biometric authentications require comparing a registered or enrolled biometric sample (biometric template or identifier) against a newly captured biometric sample (for example. a fingerprint captured during a login). and a database that stores the biometric data for comparison with previous records. verification mode would be used. This is sometimes called “one-to-many” matching. In most computer access or network access environments. and stored for later comparison.

Iris recognition .Analyzing blood vessels in the eye. TYPES OF BIOMETRICS: There are two types of biometrics: behavioral and physical.Measuring facial characteristics. Keystroke .Measuring the shape of the hand.Analyzing fingertip patterns.Analyzing vocal behavior. Behavioral biometrics:    Speaker Recognition . Vascular Patterns .Analyzing signature dynamics. Hand Geometry . Signature. Physical biometrics :        Fingerprint . but instead of entering a password.Used for verification . a simple glance at a camera is enough to authenticate the user.inserts a token such as a smart card. .Analyzing features of colored ring of the eye.Analyzing vein patterns.Measuring the time spacing of typed words.Measuring body lengths (no longer used). Facial Recognition . Retinal Scan . Physical biometrics . Bertillonage . Behavioral biometrics .Used for either identification or verification.

Hybrid Technologies: One of the critical concerns with the use of biometric technologies is that of privacy and security of stored personal biometric data. Standards have only recently been established in order to provide direction for the development of a common interface that will allow for shared biometric templates. still widely used today. The oldest traits. a group of more than 60 vendors and government agencies. Standardization: Currently. The concept of combining smart card or public key infrastructures with biometric readers where the biometric template is . • FUTURE OUTLOOK: According to most experts. is the signature. are fingerprints. Only after the technological standard is more established can systems integrate and interact efficiently. as represented in figure on the right: Physiological are related to the shape of the body. To have personal data stored in a centralized database leaves the information potentially open to theft or compromise. the future of biometrics is dependant upon two critical areas: standardization and the use of hybrid technologies. • Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. The first characteristic to be used. Other examples are face recognition. The development and acceptance of a primary standard is critical for the growth and applicability of the biometrics industry. defines a common structure for interfacing with biometrics. The BioAPI standard created by the BioAPI Consortium. Yet. hand geometry and iris recognition. More modern approaches are the study of keystroke dynamics and of voice. that have been used for more than 100 years. the biometrics industry is very fragmented. competitive forces remain as technology giants like Microsoft have abandoned the consortium and the BioAPI standard in order to develop their own proprietary software standards. with more than 150 companies with their own proprietary systems and methodologies.CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMETRICS: Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes.

more secure world where verification of one is identity is critical for daily activities. Further.stored on an individually controlled key has been suggested as a solution for the privacy concern and is considered by some critical to the advancement of biometric applications. The future holds no limits for this industry as more applications are found. . Where access to one is bank or credit accounts is only granted after identification via iris or retina scan. From the application of total body scanning for highest security areas to speed and accuracy of identification when shopping online. the technology itself continues to improve in terms of application and accuracy. most believe that it is the necessary price for a secure world environment. In the future. we will live in a faster paced. the applications are boundless. While some might argue that privacy and personal "freedom" are sacrificed with this level of control. Where a shopping trip is made possible by a vehicle that operates only with biometric verification of ownership and payment is made via a fingerprint scan that links directly to one is credit account. Biometrics is a powerful combination of science and technology that can be used to protect and secure our most valuable information and property. Imagine a world where interstate air travel is allowed automatically via a full body scan that not only verifies identity but simultaneously searches for insecure or illegal paraphernalia.


to enhance the input (e. biometric information is detected and compared with the stored information. removing background noise). The quality of the sensor used has a significant impact on the recognition results. biometric information from an individual is stored. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. The main operations a system can perform are enrollment and test. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system. biometric systems become telebiometric systems. BIOMETRICS COLLECTION Biometrics are typically collected using a device called a sensor. In the third block features needed are extracted. These sensors are used to acquire the data needed for recognition and to convert the data to a digital form. A template is a synthesis of all the characteristics extracted from the source. When such a system is networked together with telecommunications technology. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and our system.g. to use some kind of normalization. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor. This step is an important step as the correct features need to be extracted and the optimal way.BASIC MECHANISM: The diagram shows a simple block diagram of a biometric system. etc. Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is be robust. During the test. Example “sensors” could be digital cameras (for face recognition) or a telephone (for voice recognition). but it can change according to the characteristics desired. During the enrollment. in the optimal size to allow for adequate identifiability. it has to acquire all the necessary data. .

• Permanence measures how well a biometric resists aging. cadence and frequency of a person’s voice. • Vein: the analysis of pattern of veins in the back if the hand and the wrist • Voice: the analysis of the tone. pitch. BIOMETRICS IDENTIFICATION SCHEMES: There are several types of biometric identification schemes: Face: the analysis of facial characteristics Fingerprint: the analysis of an individual’s unique fingerprints Hand geometry: the analysis of the shape of the hand and the length of the fingers • Retina: the analysis of the capillary vessels located at the back of the eye • Iris: the analysis of the colored ring that surrounds the eye’s pupil • Signature: the analysis of the way a person signs his name. representing information extracted from a biometric sample.BIOMETRIC TEMPLATES A biometric template is a digital representation of an individual’s distinct characteristics. Biometric templates are what are actually compared in a biometric recognition system. • Performance accuracy. Templates can vary between biometric modalities as well as vendors. voice recognition is based on “models. speed. Not all biometric devices are template based. • . and robustness of technology used. • Collectability eases of acquisition for measurement. For example. • • • Comparison of various biometric technologies It is possible to understand if a human characteristic can be used for biometrics in terms of the following parameters: Uniqueness is how well the biometric separates individually from another.” The difference between templates and models is beyond the scope of this paper.

L=Low) Biome Univer Uniqu Perma Collect Perfor Accept Circumv trics: sality eness nence ability mance ability ention* Face H L M H L H L Finger M H H M H M H print Hand geomet M M M H M M M ry Keystr L L L M L M M okes Hand M M M M M M H veins Iris H H H M H L H Retinal H H M L H L H scan Signat L L L H L H L ure Voice M L L M L H L Facial thermo H H L H M H H graph Odor H H H L L M L DNA H H H L H L L Gait M L L H L H M Ear M M H M M H M Canal . The following table shows a comparison of existing biometric systems in terms of those parameters: Comparison of various biometric technologies.• • Acceptability degree of approval of a technology. according to A. Circumvention eases of use of a substitute. M=Medium. K. Jain (H=High.

New York State has over 900. Furthermore. Upon a successful implementation. One of the most commercially available biometric technologies. Therefore. adequate fingerprint samples require user cooperation. • Has proven effective in many large scale systems over years of use. users no longer need to type passwords . interested in the implementation of such a system.BIOMETRIC MODALITIES: Different applications and environments have different constraints. With these devices. fingerprint recognition devices for desktop and laptop access are now widely available from many different vendors at a low cost. • Fingerprints are unique to each finger of each individual and the ridge arrangement remains permanent during one's lifetime. law enforcement has been classifying and determining identity by matching key points of ridge endings and bifurcations. Fingerprint The patterns of friction ridges and valleys on an individual's fingertips are unique to that individual. Fingerprints are unique for each finger of a person including identical twins. Several states check fingerprints for new applicants to social services benefits to ensure recipients do not fraudulently obtain benefits under fake names. Fingerprint systems can also be used in identification mode. . For instance. Many scientists become interested in developing a system based on their own research. venture capitalist. commercialize a product. wide varieties of modalities are being researched and are available on the market. a face image can be Captured by a surveillance camera. Advantages: • Subjects have multiple fingers.instead. There are also multiple biometric modalities for technical and financial reasons. • Large amounts of existing data to allow background and/or watchlist checks. Fingerprints are not available for many of the suspects on Watch lists. with some training • Some systems require little space. • Easy to use.000 people enrolled in such a system. whereas. only a touch provides instant access. For decades.

Disadvantages: • Public Perceptions. Sensitive to changes in lighting. Several approaches to modeling facial images in the visible spectrum are Principal Component Analysis. • Commonly available sensors (cameras). . Some facial recognition systems may require a stationary or posed user in order to capture the image. the visible light systems extract features from the captured image(s) that do not change over time while avoiding superficial features such as facial expressions or hair. and multi-resolution analysis. and poses faces change over time. hats. • Easy for humans to verify results. hands-free. Facial recognition in visible light typically model key features from the central portion of a facial image. glasses. neural networks. Local Feature Analysis. Advantages: • No contact required. though many systems use a real-time process to detect a person's head and locate the face automatically. continuous and accepted by most users. • Large amounts of existing data to allow background and/or watchlist checks. Major benefits of facial recognition are that it is non-intrusive. Some of the challenges of facial recognition in the visual spectrum include reducing the impact of variable lighting and detecting a mask or photograph. • Privacy concerns of criminal implications. elastic graph theory. • Health or societal concerns with touching a sensor used by countless individuals. Disadvantages: • • Face can be obstructed by hair. Using a wide assortment of cameras. Face The identification of a person by their facial image can be done in a number of different ways such as by capturing an image of the face in the visible spectrum using an inexpensive camera or by using the infrared patterns of facial heat emission. scarves etc. expression.

text-prompted and text independent. • Not sufficiently distinctive for identification over large Databases. Disadvantages Use requires some training.. which involves selection and .g. Believed to be a highly stable pattern over the adult lifespan. • Usually used for verification of a claimed enrollment identity.g. To achieve personal authentication. thickness and surface area of the hand. voice pitch. Hand recognition has been available for over twenty years.. Most speaker verification applications use text-dependent input. These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e. It can frequently be found in physical access control in commercial and residential applications. • System requires a large amount of physical space. speaking style). size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e." Speaker recognition systems employ three styles of spoken input: textdependent. a system may measure either physical characteristics of the fingers or the hands. in time and attendance systems and in general personal authentication applications Advantages • • Easy to capture. where the output of several analog filters were averaged over time for matching. One interesting characteristic is that some systems require a small biometric sample (a few bytes). width.• Propensity for users to provide poor-quality video images yet to expect accurate results. Speaker recognition uses the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals. • Speaker/voice Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades. This incorporation of learned patterns into the voice templates (the latter called "voiceprints") has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric. These include length. Hand geometry has gained acceptance in a range of applications. Hand Geometry These methods of personal authentication are well established.

enrollment of one or more voice passwords. • No Contact Required. Systems based on iris recognition have substantially decreased in price and this trend is expected to continue. The technology works well in both verification and identification modes (in systems performing one-to-many searches in a database). Current systems can be used even in the presence of . such as cohort models. Ambient noise levels can impede both collection of the initial and subsequent voice samples. Iris This recognition method uses the iris of the eye which is the colored area that surrounds the pupil. • Commonly Available Sensors(telephones & microphones). Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioral attributes of the voice and from enrollment using one telephone and verification on another telephone. Text-prompted input is used whenever there is concern of imposters. Some systems also use "anti-speaker" techniques. The iris patterns are obtained through a video-based image acquisition system. Iris patterns are thought unique. matrix representation and decision trees. Voice changes due to aging also need to be addressed by recognition systems. The various technologies used to process and store voiceprints includes hidden Markov models. often as part of large voice processing. Disadvantages • Difficult to control sensor and channel variances that significantly impact capabilities. Advantages • Public Acceptance. Iris scanning devices have been used in personal authentication applications for several years. The technology needs little additional hardware by using existing microphones and voice-transmission technology allowing recognition over long distances via ordinary telephones (wire line or wireless). and world models. control and switching systems. • Not sufficiently distinctive for identification over large databases. neural networks. Many companies market speaker recognition engines. pattern matching algorithms. Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive.

It does not require physical contact with a scanner. Lack of existing data deters ability to use for background or watch list checks.eyeglasses and contact lenses. Disadvantages Difficult to capture for some individuals.less prone to injury. • • Cannot be verified by a human. • Public myths and fears related to “scanning” the eye with a light source. pressure and angle used by the person when a signature is produced.eyelids. The technology is based on measuring speed. • Acquisition of an iris image requires more training and attentiveness than most biometrics. Believed to be highly stable over lifetime. SIGNATURE VERIFICATION This technology uses the dynamic analysis of a signature to authenticate a person. Protected internal organ. Iris recognition has been demonstrated to work with individuals from different ethnic groups and nationalities Advantages • • • • No contact Required. The technology is not intrusive. One focus for this technology has been e-business applications and other applications where signature is an accepted method of personal authentication. • Easily obscured by eyelashes. .lens and reflections from the cornea.

The false acceptance rate for iris recognition systems is in 1 in 1. contraction furrows. Among the visible features of an iris are the trabecular mesh works of connective tissue (pectinate ligament).2 million. a corona and . ciliary’s processes. located behind the cornea and the aqueous humour. are the basis for all current iris recognition systems and products The Daugman algorithms are owned by Iridian Technologies. which Daugman patented in 1994. It is the only internal organ of the body that is normally visible externally. and may have been proposed as early as 1936 by ophthalmologist Frank Burch. Aran Safir and Leonard Flom. that is every 1 in 1. but it still remained science fiction and conjecture In 1987 two other ophthalmologists. These algorithms. By the 1980's the idea had appeared in James Bond films.IRIS Recognition Technology History of iris recognition technology The idea of using iris patterns for personal identification was originally documented in an ophthalmology textbook by James Doggarts in 1949. and in 1989 they asked John Daugman (then teaching at Harvard University) to try to create actual algorithms for iris recognition. Images of the iris adequate for personal identification with very high confidence can be acquired from distances of up to about 3 feet (1 meter). Iris structure Figure 3 Iris Structure The iris is a protected internal organ of the eye. the collagenous tissue of the stroma. patented this idea. but in front of the lens. and the process is licensed to several other companies who serve as systems integrators and developers of special platforms exploiting iris recognition.2 million iris is found to be unique in it’s features. crypts. rings. It is seen in cross-section in the anatomical drawing above.

the iris texture itself is stochastic or possibly chaotic. pupillary dilator and sphincter muscles. The striated anterior layer covering the trabecular meshwork creates the predominant texture seen with visible light The human iris begins to form during the third month of gestation. crypts. heavily vascularized stroma (connective tissue of interlacing ligaments containing melanocytes). furrows. Iris colour is determined mainly by the density of the stroma and its melanin content. consisting of (from back to front): a darkly pigmented epithelium. or the pair possessed by one individual) have uncorrelated minutiae . and a zigzag collarette. The combined effect is a visible pattern displaying various distinctive features such as arching ligaments. A property the iris shares with fingerprints is the random morphogenesis of its minutiae. ridges. • The impossibility of surgically modifying iris without unacceptable risk to vision. The layers of the iris have both ectodermal and mesodermal embryological origin. Its physiological response to light. but pigmentation continues into the first years after birth. colour and general appearance. and an anterior layer of chromataphores and melanocytes with a genetically determined density of melanin pigment granules.pupillary frill. and sometimes freckles. Physiological Properties of Iris Further properties of the iris that enhance its suitability for use in high confidence identification systems include: • Its inherent isolation and protection from the external environment. • • Its detailed morphogenesis depends on initial conditions in the embryonic mesoderm from which it develops. The structures creating its distinctive pattern are complete by the eighth month of gestation. • The ease of registering iris image at some distance from a Subject without physical contact. which provides one of several natural tests against artifice. Because there is no genetic penetrance in the expression of this organ beyond its anatomical form. physiology. the phenotypic expression even of two irises with the same genetic genotype (as in identical twins. with blue irises resulting from an absence of pigment: longer wavelengths differentially penetrate while shorter wavelengths are reflected and scattered. unintrusively and perhaps inconspicuously . colouration. a phenomenon resembling that which makes the sky blue .

2 bits per square-millimeter of iris tissue. iv)Pattern Matching . which maps the iris’ distinct patterns and characteristics. Algorithms have a number of steps and are used by the biometric system to determine if a biometric sample and record is a match A general iris recognition system for personal identification is composed of four steps i) Iris Image Acquisition. typically very close to the subject.features representing the iris patterns are extracted. iii)Feature Extraction. uses an infrared imager to illuminate the eye and capture a very high-resolution photograph. creating inter-Subject variability spanning about 250 degrees-of-freedom. Working Principle Of Iris Recognition Technology The iris-scan process begins with a photograph. Figure 4 Iris Image After Image Acquisition Process This process takes only one to two seconds and provides the details of the iris that are mapped.• It’s intrinsic polar geometry. An algorithm is a series of directives that tell a biometric system how to interpret a specific problem. i) Iris Image Acquisition . • The high level of randomness in iris pattern. The inner edge of the iris is located by an iris-scan algorithm. no more than three feet. recorded and stored for future matching/verification . .the image is then preprocessed to normalize the scale and illumination of the iris and localize the iris from the acquired image. A specialized camera. which imparts a natural coordinate system and an origin of coordinates. ii) Image Preprocessing. and an entropy (information density) of about 3.decision is made by means of image containing the user’s eye is captured by the high resolution Iris Camera.

The preprocessing is composed of three steps  Iris Localization.g. • . The ROC plot is obtained by graphing the values of FAR and FRR. These systems are critical since they are commonly used to forbid certain actions by disallowed people. Receiver (or relative) operating characteristic (ROC): In general. In addition. the brightness is not uniformly distributed. the matching algorithm performs a decision using some parameters (e. A common variation is the Detection error trade-off (DET).  Image Enhancement. eyelid. It measures the percent of invalid matches. This more linear graph illuminates the differences for higher performances (rarer errors). Under some conditions. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT • False accept rate (FAR) or false match rate (FMR): The probability that the system incorrectly declares a successful match between the input pattern and a non-matching pattern in the database. changing the variables implicitly. using some specialized camera iris image can be easily acquired for analysis ii) Image Preprocessing The acquired image always contains not only the’ useful’ parts (iris) but also some ‘irrelevant’ parts (e. which is obtained using normal deviate scales on both axes. For the purpose of analysis. In biometric systems the FAR and FRR can typically be traded off against each other by changing those parameters. It measures the percent of valid inputs being rejected.An important and difficult step of an iris recognition system is image acquisition.). different eye-to camera distance may result in different image sizes of the same eye. Since iris is small in size and dark in color. • False reject rate (FRR) or false non-match rate (FNMR): The probability that the system incorrectly declares failure of match between the input pattern and the matching template in the database. a threshold).g.  Iris Normalization. the original image needs to be preprocessed. pupil etc.

Failure to enroll happens when the data obtained by the sensor are considered invalid or of poor quality. is shown clearly. ROC or DET plotting is used because how FAR and FRR can be changed. • • • BIOMETRIC SECURITY . the more accurate the system is considered Failure to enroll rate (FTE or FER): The percentage of data input is considered invalid and fails to input into the system. The lower the EER. the ERR is commonly used.• Equal error rate (EER): The rate at which both accept and reject errors are equal. the probability that the system fails to detect a biometric characteristic when presented correctly. Template capacity: The maximum number of sets of data which can be input in to the system. When quick comparison of two systems is required. Failure to capture rate (FTC): Within automatic systems. Obtained from the ROC plot by taking the point where FAR and FRR have the same value.

more private companies and public utilities may use biometrics for safe. Malaysian car thieves cut off the finger of a MercedesBenz S-Class owner when attempting to steal the car. These advances are likely to raise concerns such as: • Physical . such as face. such as signature. permanence is a key feature for biometrics. In 2005. e. in addition. over . They must retain all the above features in particular the uniqueness unchanged.Some believe this technology can cause physical harm to an individual using the methods. once collected. performance and circumvention. gait. must fulfill a certain criteria to qualify for use in recognition. fingerprint. or behavioral features. can be protected. universal.There are concerns whether our personal information taken through biometric methods can be misused. most importantly. to reliability at recognition. iris. retina. the data obtained using biometrics can be used in unauthorized ways without the individual's consent. hand. voice. or acceptably changed. If the item is secured with a biometric device. collectable and convenient to the person. They must be unique. the damage to the owner could be irreversible. tampered with. acceptable. • Danger to owners of secured items When thieves cannot get access to secure properties. Sociological concerns As technology advances. or sold. Also.A concern is how a person's biometric. Australia has therefore introduced a Biometrics Institute Privacy Code Biometrics Institute in order to protect consumer personal data beyond the current protections offered by the Australian Privacy Act. However. by criminals stealing. there are concerns that retina scanners might not always be clean. and potentially cost more than the secured property.g. rearranging or copying the biometric data. there is a chance tha ers of secured itemst the thieves will stalk and assault the property owner to gain access. Personal Information . and time goes on. Cancelable Biometrics Physical features. For example. accurate identification. or that instruments used are unsanitary.

this fundamental feature has brought biometrics to challenge a new risk. If biometric data is obtained. by unauthorized users. BIOMETRIC APPLICATIONS . for example compromised from a database.the lifetime of the individual. On the other hand. the genuine owner will lose control over them forever and lose his/her identity.

Biometric safes and biometric locks. Identifying DNA Patterns of biometrics technology in identifying DNA patterns for identifying criminals. Biometrics airport security devices are also deployed at some of the world's famous airports to enhance the security standards. etc. Biometric access control systems Providing strong security at entrances.• • • • • • Biometric Time Clocks -Which are being increasingly used in various organisations to control employee timekeeping. Packaged in a comfortable. . it features the industry's most rugged and advanced optical sensor using patented SEIR fingerprint biometric technology. OptiMouse OptiMouse is an innovative optical tracking mouse that can operate on almost any surface with exceptional response. etc.Provides security to the homeowners. Biometric systems are also developed for securing access to pc's and providing single logon facilities. this biometric scanner features the industry's most rugged and advanced optical sensor using patented SEIR fingerprint biometric technology. ergonomic design. BIOMETRICS DEVICES Optical Fingerprint Scanner Our biometric hamster is the next generation model of popular and versatile biometric fingerprint readers. Wireless biometrics for high end security and providing safer transactions from wireless devices like PDA's.

Integrated Access Control and Time Attendance System iGuard is a complete solution combining a access control system and time attendance system. documents. It utilizes patented embedded web server technology combined with biometrics and smart card authentication.iGuard . weapons. and other valuable or potentially harmful items. Personal Fingerprint Safes Biometric personal safes are revolutionary locking storage cases that open with just the touch of your finger. These products are designed as "access denial" secure storage for medications. This is the world's only available system that has achieved advanced operability using worldrenowned TCP/IP networking protocol without having to compromise on security. . jewelry.

Forensic applications typically occur after a crime has occurred. BIOMETRICS VERSUS FORENSIC While both biometrics ad forensic involves human recognition biometrics is typically applied using automated techniques to prevent situation application such as gaining access to sensitive information or to a secured facility . Where to use BIOMETRICS? Biometric use involve controlling access to physical locations(laboratories .Applications vary and range from logical access to a personal computer to physical access of a secured laboratory. . Biometrics are also used for accountability applications such as recording the biometric identities of individuals.Biometrics can be used to determine whether or not a peson is already in database such as for social service or national id applications.They can be used in a variety of collection environments as identification systems.Forensic methods are often used to assist in the legal process.Biometric Fingerprint Door Locks Your fingerprint is the key with our revolutionary fingerprint door lock. Biometrics can be used in environments where recognition of an individual is required. Forensic usually requires days of processing and are held to much higher accuracy requirements.and may not use fully automated methods.buildings etc. This amazing new product replaces keyed locking mechanisms with a fingerprint sensor that actually recognizes who is and who is not authorized to enter.

simple and stand-alone packaging. become smaller and require less power for operation. Previously. biometrics have been used in combination with personal computers and based on a stringent platform to maintain reasonable performance. as the technology for fingerprint recognition is being miniaturized and streamlined for performance. the potential to integrate into new application grows. transaction management and content protection services based on the devices. new avenues of application can be found when technologies are integrated together in small. . The ability to operate the biometrics verification solution from battery supply is unprecedented. The solution will come as a bundle of a range of validation. However.WIRELESS BIOMETRICS As biometrics systems improve. Wireless biometrics will consists of both the hardware and software for the fingerprint scanning devices that will be embedded in wireless handheld devices.

Dogs are frequently used as model organisms in the study of human disease . With the emergence of multimodal biometrics systems gathering data from different sensors and contexts. International Standards that support systems performing biometric enrollment and verification or identification have begun to focus on human physiological thresholds as constraints and frameworks for "plug and play" telebiometric networks. Attending to these wetware protocols has become particularly urgent in the context of a recent study suggesting possible pathological effects from RFID transponders implanted in dogs.TELEBIOMETRICS Telebiometrics applies biometrics to telecommunications and telecommunications to remote biometric sensing.

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