This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Professor: Bob Carpenter
Many of the slides in this presentation are from Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition . Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada.
Power and Politics
• • • • • •
A Definition of Power Bases of Power Dependency: The Key to Power Influence Tactics Empowerment: Giving Power to Employees The Abuse of Power: Harassment in the Workplace • Politics: Power in Action
Power and Politics
– A capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.
– B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B needs.
Power. objectives. Influence . Political Behaviour – influence attempts that are for personal gain and are not officially sanctioned by an organization.the ability of one party to change or control the behaviour. attitudes. . behaviour. & feelings of others.the process of actually exercising this power by affecting the thoughts. needs or values of another party. Influence and Politics Power . opinions.
R. 5.Symbols of Power 1. Ability to intercede for someone in trouble Ability to get placements for favoured employees Exceeding budget limitation Procuring above-average raises for employees Getting items on the agenda at meetings Access to early information Having top managers seek out their opinion. 3. 7. 6. 2.Kantner. ―Power Failure in Management Circuits‖ HBR July-Aug 1979 . 4.
• Power that is based on fear. Coercive Power – The person can make things difficult for people. to expect you to comply with legitimate requests. and you find it advantageous to trade favours with him or her. considering his or her position and your job responsibilities. and you want to avoid getting him or her angry. Legitimate Power – The person has the right. 3. (continued) . 2.Bases of Power 1. Reward Power – The person is able to give special benefits or rewards to people.
The person has data or knowledge that you need. Falbe. Expert Power – The person has the experience and knowledge to earn your respect and you defer to his or her judgment in some matters.‖ Journal of Applied Psychology. ―Importance of Different Power Sources in Downward and Lateral Relations. 5. With permission. June 1991. Referent Power – 6. M. Yuki and C. You like the person and enjoy doing things for him or her. Information Power – Source: Adapted from G. p. 417. .Measuring Bases of Power 4.
putting in minimal effort.Evaluating the Bases of Power People will respond in one of three ways: 1. Commitment – The person is enthusiastic about the request and carries the task out. Resistance – The person is opposed to the request and tries to avoid it. 2. . 3. Compliance – The person goes along with the request grudgingly.
a powerful manager who controls rewards may be dependant on the employee to achieve his/her goals. . • There often exists a counter-power. • The powerful party controls something that is desired.Dependancy • The party exposed to power must be dependant. e.g.
Organizational Behavior. Black. 487.Continuum of Responses to Power Resistance Bases of Leader Power Coercive Reward Legitimate Expert Referent Compliance Commitment Most likely employee response Source: R. 5th ed. . S. Steers and J.. New Jersey. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River. p. 1994). (New York: HarperCollins. M.
Leaders’ Use of Power • The least effective power bases are the ones most likely to be used by managers. . legitimate. – Coercive. and reward – Easiest to implement • Effective leaders use referent and/or expert power.
Dependency: Key to Power • Importance – The things you control must be important. . • Nonsubstitutability – The resource cannot be substituted with something else. • Scarcity – A resource must be perceived as scarce.
. you need to – Control things viewed as important.Increasing Dependency • To increase the dependency of others on you. – The resource must have few or no substitutes (nonsubstitutability). – The resources must be viewed as scarce.
Influence Tactics • • • • • • • • • Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Ingratiation Personal appeals Exchange Coalition tactics Pressure Legitimating tactics .
Exercise • Form groups • Develop a role play where group leader uses one of – – – – – Coercive Reward Legitimate Expert referent .
. One of your group members.Role Play Scenario • You are the leader of a group that is trying to develop a website for a new client. and use your specific brand of power to influence the individual’s behaviour. who was assigned the task of researching and analyzing the websites of your client’s competition. Consequently. you have decided to speak with this team member. your group is falling behind in getting the website developed. has failed twice to bring the analysis to scheduled meetings. As leader of the group. even though the member knew the assignment was due.
• You MUST stick to the time limit. . • You have 10 minutes to develop a 3-minute role play. read the instructions for the assignment. using the source of power assigned to your group.Instructions for Role Play • Working in your group.
• Develop an understanding for which types of power are more likely to achieve positive (or negative) effects. and see how they affect you.Observations • Observe different types of power. Which gets the desired behaviour? – Which has most long lasting effect? – How does it affect relationship? – Which is most acceptable? .
and respect with subordinates. admiration. INFORMATION: You’ve got it and they need it • • • . EXPERT: The perception by others that one has superior judgment or knowledge on some topics. promotions. often specialized in nature. REFERENT: Develops out of subordinates' admiration for leader and his/her desire to model behaviour and attitudes after that person. Unlike information power. LEGITIMATE: Person holding power has right to it because of position or role. raises. It is the ability to punish or withhold privileges. REWARD: Based on one's control over things that others desire such as vacations. and office locations.Sources of Power • • • COERCIVE: Depends on fear. The person builds feelings of support. liking. this power base does not involve sharing of the facts or reasoning behind a decision. Thus the person has a formal right to direct others in certain matters and the subordinates have a duty to obey those directions.
Employee Empowerment .
Empowerment: Giving Power to Employees • The freedom and the ability of employees to make decisions and commitments. .
Degrees of Empowerment • Job content – Tasks and procedures necessary for carrying out a particular job. . • Job context – Reason for the job and the setting in which it is done. • Includes organization’s structure. and reward systems. culture.
Quinn and G. Source: R. they care about what they are doing.Characteristics of Empowered People • Sense of self-determination – Employees are free to choose how to do their work. p.‖ Organizational Dynamics. Autumn 1997. E. they know they can perform. ―The Road to Empowerment: Seven Questions Every Leader Should Consider. • • • . Sense of impact – Employees believe they can have influence on their work unit. 41. M. Sense of meaning – Employees feel that their work is important to them. they are not micromanaged. Spreitzer. others listen to their ideas. Sense of competence – Employees are confident about their ability to do their work well.
More or less stress • What are the effects of empowerment on stress .
. • Can lead to lowered satisfaction and productivity. • Typical assembly-line job—highly routine and repetitive.Stages of Empowerment • No Discretion – The employee is assigned the task. and most likely monitored by a supervisor. given no discretion.
. • Some evidence of higher job satisfaction and productivity in such groups.Stages of Empowerment • Participatory Empowerment – Autonomous work groups that are given some decision-making authority over both job content and job context.
although it is also sometimes granted to high-level salespeople. • Very rewarding to those who hold it.Stages of Empowerment • Self-Management – Employees have total decision-making power for both job content and job context. . • Generally reserved for those in top management.
• Employees need to be supported in their decision making.Conditions for True Empowerment • There must be a clear definition of the values and mission of the company. • Company must help employees acquire the relevant skills. • Employees need to be recognized for their efforts. and not criticized when they try to do something extraordinary. .
The Abuse of Power .
The Abuse of Power: Workplace Bullying • Bullying can happen across levels of the organization. • Recent research found that: – 40 percent of the respondents noted that they had experienced one or more forms of bullying weekly in the past six months. – 10 percent experienced bullying at a much greater level: five or more incidents a week. . or among co-workers.
.The Abuse of Power: Sexual Harassment • The Supreme Court of Canada defines sexual harassment as – Unwelcome behaviour of a sexual nature in the workplace that negatively affects the work environment or leads to adverse job-related consequences for the employee.
• Includes – Unwanted physical touching. – Recurring requests for dates when it is made clear the person isn’t interested. – Coercive threats that a person will lose her or his job if she or he refuses a sexual proposition. .Examples of Sexual Harassment • There is disagreement as to what specifically constitutes sexual harassment.
Examples of Sexual Harassment • More subtle forms (harder to interpret): – Unwanted looks or comments – Off-colour jokes – Sexual artifacts such as nude calendars in the workplace – Sexual innuendo – Misinterpretations of where the line between ―being friendly‖ ends and ―harassment‖ begins .
Damned if you do etc: • • • • Fran’s legal situation Fran’s political dilemma Fran’s ethical problem What should she do? .
. • Resources in organizations are limited. • Performance outcomes are not completely clear and objective. goals and interests.Why Do We Get Politics? • Organizations are made up of groups and individuals who have differing values.
– Illegitimate: Extreme political behaviours that violate the implied rules of the game. or attempt to influence. everyday behaviour. the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. .Politics: Power in Action • Political behaviour is those activities that influence. – Legitimate: Normal.
Types of Political Activity • • • • • • • • Attacking or blaming others Using information Managing impressions Building support for ideas Praising others Building coalitions Associating with influential people Creating obligations .
Support of Political Behaviour • Support Political Behaviour • Fewer advancement opportunities • Unclear goals • Autocratic decision making • Ambiguous authority • Scarce resources • Uncertainty • Leaders high on Machiavellianism (high Machs) Minimize Political Behaviour Transparent promotion and reward policies Avoid hiring high Machs Open communication & Supportive organization climate Clear resource allocation policies Punish organizational politicians • • • • • .
Impression Management • The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them. . • More likely used by high self-monitors than low self-monitors. – High self-monitors try to read the situation.
Success can create opposition. .Making Office Politics Work • • • • Nobody wins unless everybody wins. Everyone expects to be paid back. Don’t just ask for opinions—change them.
you will want to increase others’ dependence on you. How does one get power? – 3. To maximize your power. so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.Summary and Implications 1. legitimate. 2. and information. referent. reward. How does dependency affect power? – . There are six bases for power: coercive. expert. What is power? – The capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B.
What tactics can be used to exercise influence? – One study identified nine strategies: rational persuasion. ingratiation. . inspirational appeals. personal appeals. consultation. coalition tactics. and legitimating tactics.Summary and Implications 4. pressure. What does it mean to be empowered? – Empowerment refers to the freedom and the ability of employees to make decisions and commitments. 5. exchange.
People use politics to influence others to help them achieve their personal objectives. Why do people engage in politics? – .Summary and Implications 6. How are power and harassment related? – People who engage in harassment in the workplace are typically abusing their power position. 7.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.