Irwin/McGraw-Hill

©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

KRITIKA THAKUR

PRACHI GUPTA KALYANI GUPTA
RICHA SHARMA
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

MANAGEMENT WILL BE EXPLAINED BY: KRITIKA THAKUR
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

INTRODUCTION
MANAGEMENT IS NECESSARY FOR ALL THE ORGANISATIONS IRRESPECTIVE OF ITS SIZE,NATURE AND FUNCTIONS.THE CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT IS NOT RESTRICTED TO BUSINESS ORGANISATION BUT EVEN NON BUSINESS ORGANISATION NEEDS TO MANAGE ITS FUNCTIONS.MANAGEMENT IS A PERVASIVE AND UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTED FUNCTION.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

. Inc.CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT •To understand the concept of management we must know the meaning of management .Management is defined differently by different authors… Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 .

”  Management is the art of getting things done through others.MANAGEMENT DEFINITION “ Management is the art of knowing exactly what you want your men to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way.to organise .  Management also means to manage .to command . Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.to plan . 2000 ..to forecast .to coordinate and to control.

FEATURES OF MANAGEMENT  1.Co –ordination force  6.Working with and through others  7.Group efforts  4.Balancing effectiveness and efficiency. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.Achieving organisational objectives  2. 2000 .Distinct activity  3.. Inc.Intangible  5.

OBJECTIVES  ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES.  SOCIAL OBJECTIVES.  INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES.. Inc. 2000 . Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Three Levels of Management Top Managers Middle Managers First-line Managers Non-management Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 2000 ..

TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT  It consists of Chairman.. 2000 . Inc.. Board of Directors.The managers working at this level have maximum authority. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Managing Director and General Manager etc.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. sales department head. marketing manager.. Inc.People of this group are responsible for executing the plans and policies made by top level.MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT  This level of management consists of departmental heads such as purchase department head.. finance manager. executive officers etc. 2000 .They act as a linking pin between top and lower level management.

. clerk etc. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. foreman.LOWER LEVEL MANAGEMENT  This level consists of supervisors.Managers of this group actually carry on the activities according to the plans of top and middle level management. 2000 . Inc.. superintendent. Their authority is limited. sub department executives.

. 2000 .Five functions of Management Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

Inc..PLANNING Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 .

2000 . It bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to go. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.1-9 Planning Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done . policies. formulation. It includes forecasting. objectives.and how it is to be done. procedures etc.by whom it is to be done . when is to be done ..

Planning Process Follow up / appraisal of plans Establish ment of objective s Formulat ion and impleme ntation of plans Establish ment of planning premises Choice of alternativ e courses of action Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 2000 ..

. Inc.Advantages of Planning  Better utilization of resources  Encourages innovations and creativity  Minimizes uncertainties  Facilitate coordination  Improves employee morale  Provides competitive edge  Planning facilitate control  Planning helps in improving economies Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 .

Inc. 2000 .. Some of them are inherit in the process of planning like rigidity and other arise due to shortcoming of the techniques of planning and in the planners themselves.Internal limitations There are several limitations of planning.  Rigidity  Time consuming  Probability of planning  False sense of security  Expensive  Human elements  costs Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

External limitation  Political climate: change of political party  Labour union: strikes.change in taste etc. agitations  Technological changes: computerization . modern techniques and equipment  Policies of competitors: companies like coca cola and pepsi  Natural calamities: earthquake and floods  Change in demand and price: change in fashion . Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 . Inc. lockout ..change in income .

. 2000 . Inc.ORGANIZING FUNCTION PRACHI GUPTA Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2000 . and grouping various activities and bringing together physical . Inc.Organizing Organizing refers to the process of identifying . financial and human resources and establishing productive relations among them for the achievement of specific goals.. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2000 . Inc.Steps in organization A manager performs organizing function with the help of following steps:Identification of activities Departmentally organizing the activity Classifying the authority Coo-ordination between authority and responsibility Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies..

2000 ..Importance of organization  Specialization  Well defined jobs  Co-ordination  Effective administration  Sense of security  Scope for new changes  Growth and diversification  Clarifies authority and responsibility  Avoid duplication of work Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

Inc. 2000 .Classification of organization Formal organization Informal organization Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies..

2000 . without position EMPHASIS Irwin/McGraw-Hill Office people ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Inc.Difference between formal and informal FORMAL MEANING organizationINFORMAL Spontaneous personal relationship Unstable and unpredictable Consciously coordinated relationship Stable and predictable NATURE FORM Definite structure and well defined jobs Structure less and full of discretions SOURCES OF Formal position AUTHORITY Informal .

DIRECTING FUNCTION Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.. 2000 .

DIRECTING Directing is concerned with inspiring. by motivating the employees in organization so that their efforts results in achievement of organizational goals. 2000 . Inc. guiding. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. instructing.

Inc.ELEMENTS OF DIRECTING  Issuing orders and instructions  Leadership  Communication  Motivation  Supervision  Co-ordination Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 ..

IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTING  To initiate action. Inc..  Means of motivation. 2000 .  To facilitate change.  Balance in the organization.  To integrate employee’s efforts. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

monitoring..SUPERVISION Supervision means instructing. and observing employees while they are performing jobs in the organization. 2000 . Inc. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. guiding.

2000 . Inc.. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.MOTIVATION Motivation is an art of stimulating people in action to accomplish the desired goal.

Inc. 2000 ..LEADERSHIP Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Inc. 2000 .CO-ORDINATION Co-ordination means bringing together the activities and resources of organization and bringing harmony in them.

Inc. 2000 . Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies..COMMUNICATION Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another.

Inc..STAFFING FUNCTION Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 .

. 2000 . Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.STAFFING  Staffing is the selection of employees who have the training and skill to meet the demands of each position. And performance evaluation of subordinates and the other important “people” considerations in the organization.It also includes the development. Inc. promotion.

STAFFING CYCLE Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 2000 ..

 Promotion and career planning.Staffing process  Manpower planning.  Separation.. 2000 . Inc.  Recruitment.  Performance appraisal.  Training.  Placement and orientation. Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.  Selection.  Job analysis.  Compensation.

 Investment may surpass the cost Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.  Potential contribution.  Long term investment.  Multiplier effect.IMPORTANCE OF STAFFING  Investment cost. 2000 ..  Holistic approach. Inc.

CONTROLLING FUNCTION Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Inc. 2000 .

Inc. 2000 .. If there is any difference or deviation then finding the reasons for such difference and taking corrective measure or action to stop those reason so that in future there is match between actual and planner performance : Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.Controlling  Controlling function can be defined as comparison of actual performance with the planned performance .

Inc.IMPORTANCE OF CONTROLLING  Helps in achieving organizational goals  Helps in adopting environmental changes  Helps in improving the quality  Controlling helps in financial matters  Controlling helps in improving the performance of the employees Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. 2000 .

. Inc.CONTROLLING PROCESS  Setting up of (target) standards  Measuring of performance  Compare performance against standard  Taking corrective measures Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2000 .

2000 .FEATURES OF CONTROLLING  Simplicity  Suitability  Economical  Flexible  Forward looking  Suggestive  Feedback  Vigilant eye Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Inc.

. Inc. 2000 .Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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