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The concrete beam design flow charts address the following subjects
:
• For a rectangular beam with given dimensions: Analyzi ng the beam
section to determine its moment strength and thus defini ng the beam
section to be at one of the following cases:
• Case 1: Rectangular beam with tension rei nforcement only. This
case exists if the moment strength is larger that the ultimate
(factored) moment.
• Case 2: Rectangular Beam with tension and compression
reinforcement. This case may exist if the moment strength is l ess
than the ultimate (factored) moment.
• For Tsection concrete beam: Analyzing the beam T section to determi ne
its moment strength and thus defi ning the beam section to be one of the
following cases:
• Case 1: The depth of the compression block is withi n the flanged
portion of the beam, i.e, the neutral axis N.A. depth is less than the
slab thi nness, measured from the top of the slab. This case exists if
moment strength is larger than ultimate moment.
• Case 2: The depth of the compression block is deeper t han the
flange thickness, i.e. the neutral axis is located below the bottom of
the slab. This case exists if the moment strength of T section beam
is less that the ultimate (factored) moment.
• Beam Section Shear Strength: two separate charts outline i n det ails Shear
check. One is a basic shear check, and two is detailed shear check, i n
order to handle repetitive beam shear reinforcement selection. See shear
check i ntroduction page for further details.
In any of the cases mentioned above, detailed procedure s and equations are
shown withi n the charts cover all design aspects of the element under
investigations, with ACI respecti ve provisions.
Introduction to Concrete Beam Design Flow Charts
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Notations for Concrete Beam Design Flow Charts
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a = depth of equi valent rectangular stress block, in.
a
b
= depth of equi valent rectangular stress block at balanced condition, i n.
a
max
= depth of equi valent rectangular stress block at maximum ratio of
tensionrei nforcement, in.
A
s
= area of tension reinforcement, i n
2
.
A’
s
= area of reinforcement at compression side, in
2
.
b = width of beam i n rectangular beam section, in.
b
e
= effecti ve width of a flange i n Tsection beam, i n.
b
w
= width of web for Tsection beam, in.
c = distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis, i n.
c
b
= distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced
condition, in.
C
c
= compression force i n equivalent concrete block.
C
s
= compression force i n compression reinforcement.
d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension side
reinforcement.
d’ = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of compression 
side reinforcement.
E
s
= modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, psi.
f’
c
= specified compressive strength of concre te.
f
y
= specified tensile strength of reinforcement.
M
n
= nomi nal bendi ng moment.
M
n bal
= moment strength at balanced condition.
M
u
= factored (ultimate) bendi ng moment.
R
u
= coefficient of resistance.
t = slab thickness in Tsection beam, i n.
β1
= factor as defi ned by ACI 10.2.7.3.
εc = concrete strain at extreme compression fibers, set at 0.003.
ε
'
s
= strain in compressionside reinforcement.
εy
= yield strai n of reinforcement.
ρ = ratio of tension reinforcement.
ρb = ratio of tension reinforcement at balanced condition.
ρf = ratio of reinforcement equi valent to compression force i n slab of T 
section beam.
ρmax = maximum ratio of tension reinforcement permitted by ACI 10.3.3.
ρmin = minimum ratio of tension rei nforcement permitted by ACI10 .5.1.
ρreq’d = required ratio of tension reinforcement.
φ = strength reduction factor.
ACI 9.3.2.1
ACI 8.4.3
ACI 10.3.3
YES NO
try rectangular
beam with tension
and compression
steel
use rectangular
beam with tension
steel only
Rectangular
Beam
finding balanced
moment strength
Given:
b, d, f
c
'
, f
y
, M
u
,V
u
NO YES
ACI 10.2.7.3
ACI 10.3.3
ACI 10.2.7.3
ACI 10.3.3
Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01  Page 3
0 003
29 000 000
c
y
y
s
s
.
f
E
E , , psi
ε
ε
=
=
=
finding
max
ρ
4000
c
f psi ′ ≤
c
b
c y
c d
ε
ε ε
=
+
1
4000
0 85 0 05 0 65
1000
c
f
. . . β
′ −
= − ≥
1
0 85 . β =
1
β
1
0 85 87 000
87 000
c
b
y y
. f ,
f , f
ρ β
′
=
+
0 75
max b
. ρ ρ =
1 b b
a c β =
0 75
max b
a . a =
0 9 . φ =
bal
0 85
2
max
n c max
a
M . f ba d φ φ
′ = −
bal
u n
M M φ <
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Moment Strength of Rectangular Concrete Beam
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NO
ACI 10.5.2
YES
NO
' max req d
ρ ρ >
YES NO
ACI 10.5.1
STOP. go to rectangular
beam with tension and
compression steel
select
reinforcement, A
s
proceed to
shear design
d
T
C
c
b
a
0.85f
c
'
b
A
s
rectangular beam
with tension steel
only
YES
2
u
u
M
R
bd φ
=
0 85 2
1 1
0 85
c u
req' d
y c
. f R
f . f
ρ
′
= − −
′
3
max of
200
c
y
min
y
f
f
f
ρ
′
=
req' d min
ρ ρ ≥
1 33
req' d
. ρ ρ =
min
ρ ρ <
min
ρ ρ =
1 33
req' d
. ρ ρ =
req' d
useρ ρ =
s
A bd ρ =
0 85
s y
c
A f
a
. f b
=
′
0 85
2
n c
a
M . f ba d φ φ
′ = −
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Rectangular Concrete Beam with
Tension Reinforcement
Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01  Page 5
d
'
=2.5"
steel at
tension side
steel at
comp. side
select
reinforcement
A
s
& A'
s
find the new d
proceed to check
compression steel
yields
T
C
c
c
a
0.85f
c
'
b
A
s
d
A'
s
rectangular beam
with tension and
compression steel
1
C
s
c
ε
s
ε ′
d
'
u u n
bal
M M M φ ′ = −
( )( ) 0 85
u
y c
M
f . f d d bd
ρ
φ
′
′ =
′ ′ − −
max
ρ ρ ρ′ = +
s
A bd ρ =
s
A bd ρ ′ ′ =
( )
0 85
s s y
s
c s
A A f
A
a
. f b A
′ − ′
= +
′
1
a
c
β
=
s c
c d
c
ε ε
′ −
′ =
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Rectangular Beam with Tension & Compression Reinforcement
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compression
steel yields
compression
steel does NOT
yield
compression steel may be
neglected, and thus moment
strength is calculated based on
the tension steel only.
Alternatively:
proceed to
shear design
YES NO
s y
ε ε ′ >
alternatively
alternatively
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
1
1
87 87 4 0 85 87
2 0 85
s y s s y s c s
c
A f A A f A . f b A d
c
. f b
β
β
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ − ± − +
=
′
0 85
c c
C . f ab ′ =
s s c y
c d
f E f
c
ε
′ −  
= <

\ .
( ) 0 85
2
n c s s
a
M . f ba d A f d d φ φ
 
 
′ ′ ′ = − + − (
  ¸ ¸
\ .
\ .
( )
0 85
s s y c
C A f . f ′ ′ = −
( )
2
n c s u
a
M C d C d d M φ φ
(
 
′ = − + − ≥
 (
\ .
¸ ¸
( )
n s y
M Af d d φ ′ ′ ′ = −
n n n u
bal
M M M M φ φ φ ′ = + ≥
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Rectangular Beam with Tension & Compression Reinforcement (cont.)
Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01  Page 7
b
w
A
s
b
e
t
TSection
Beam
finding balanced
moment strength
@ a=t
Given:
b
w
,b
e
,d , f'
c
, f
y
, M
u
V
u
ACI 9.3.2.1
NO
YES
ACI 10.2.7.3
ACI 10.3.3
ACI 10.2.7.3
YES NO
let a=t
ACI 8.4.3
use TSection
case 2
use TSection
case 1
d
finding
max
ρ
4000
c
f psi ′ ≤
1
0 85 . β =
1
4000
0 85 0 05 0 65
1000
c
f
. . . β
′ −
= − ≥
1
β
1
0 85 87 000
87 000
c
b
y y
. f ,
f , f
ρ β
′
=
+
( ) 0 85
c e w
f
y w
. f b b t
f b d
ρ
′ −
=
( ) 0 75
w
max b f
e
b
.
b
ρ ρ ρ = +
2
n c
t
M C d φ φ
= −
u n
M M φ <
0 9 . φ =
0 85
c c e
C . f b t ′ =
Moment Strength of TSection Beam
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NO
ACI 10.5.2
YES
ACI 10.5.1
proceed to
shear design
verify depth of
compression
block
STOP. go to
TSection case 2
STOP. use
compression steel
at TSection
NO YES
Alternatively:
select
reinforcement, A
s
check moment
strength
continuation of
previous sheet
YES
YES
NO
NO
TSection
case 1
1
1
2
u
e
Mu
R
b d φ
=
0 85 2
1 1
0 85
c u
req' d
y c
. f R
f . f
ρ
′
= − −
′
req' d max
ρ ρ <
2
1 1
0 85
u
c
R
a d
. f
= − −
′
3
max of
200
c
y
min
y
f
f
f
ρ
′
=
a t >
0 85
s y
c
A f
a
. f b
=
′
0 85
2
n c
a
M . f ba d φ φ
′ = −
0 85
c e
s
y
. f ab
A
f
′
=
s e
A b d ρ =
req' d
useρ ρ = 1 33
req' d
. ρ ρ =
min
ρ ρ =
min
ρ ρ <
1 33
req' d
. ρ ρ =
req' d min
ρ ρ ≥
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TSection Beam Case  1
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TSection
case 2
YES NO
b
w
A
s
b
e
a
d
select
reinforcement,
A
s
STOP. revise to
include
compression steel
proceed to
shear design
t
( ) ( )
2
2 0 5
2
0 85
e w
u
c w w
t b b d . t
M
a d d
. f b b φ
− −
= − − −
′
[ ]
0 85
c
s w e w
req' d
y
. f
A ab t(b b )
f
′
= + −
s max e
max
A b d ρ =
s s
req' d max
A A ≥
( )
0 85
s y
e w
w w
A f
t
a b b
. f b b
= − −
′
1
0 85
c c w
C . f b a ′ =
( )
2
0 85
c c e w
C . f t b b ′ = −
1 2
2 2
n c c u
a t
M C d C d M φ
= − + − ≥
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TSection Beam Case  2
Introduction to Concrete Beam Shear Design
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Concrete Beam Shear Design
Introduction and discussion:
The approach of the beam shear check chart is to define the nominal shear strength of the
concrete, then compare it with the ultimat e shear force at the critical section, and subsequent
sections. Shear reinforcement calculation is performed, where applicable.
The shear charts are presented into two parts. One is the Shear Basic Chart, which is outlining
the main procedures of the shear design in accordance with ACI applicabl e code provisions. The
second, Shear Detailed Chart, is outlining the steps required for repetiti ve shear check. The
detailed charts provi de as much variabl es and or scenarios as needed to facilitate the creation of
automat ed shear check applications.
The concept in selecting stirrups is based on an input of the bar diameter ( d
b
) of the stirrups to be
used, usually #3, 4, or 5, as well as the number of legs and thus finding the spacing (s) requi red.
The shear chart intentionally did not include the foll owi ng ACI provisions due to p ractical and
economical justifications:
•
Detail ed method of ACI §11.3.2.1 for calculating nominal shear strength of concrete, v
c
.
The reason is the value V
ud
/M
u
is not constant along the beam span. Although the stirrups
spacing resulting from the detail ed met hod may be 1.5 larger than that of the direct
method using ACI 11.3.1.1 at the critical section only, the use of the det ailed method is
not practically justified beyond this critical section, i.e. beyond distance d from the face of
support.
•
Shear rei nforcement as inclined stirrups per §11.5.6.3, and bent up bars per §11.5.6.4
and §11.5.6.5. Only vertical stirrups per §11.5.6. 2 are used, since other types of shear
reinforcement are not economically justified.
b
w
= Width of beam (web)
d = flexural depth of the beam, in.
f’
c
= concrete compressi ve strength
f
ct
= average splitting tensile strength of lightwei ght concrete
f
y
= reinforcement yield strengt h
L = beam clear span, from support face to other support face.
N = number of stirrups required wit hin a gi ven segment of the beam
N
l
= number of legs for each stirrup
V
c
= concrete nominal shear strengt h
V
s
= nominal shear strength provi de by the shear reinforcement
V
sb
= nominal shear strength provi ded by shear reinforcement at the section where Vs is the
max permitted by ACI 11.12.1. 1
. locating of this section is needed to define which
maximum s provisions applies, i.e. §11.5.4.1 or §11.5.4.3
V
s req’ d
= required nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement.
V
u
= factored shear force at the face of the beam support
V
u d
= factored shear force at distance d from the face of the support in
accordance with §11.3. 1.1 this is the critical shear force provi ded that:
•
support is subjected to compressi ve force.
•
no concentrated load on the beam within the distance d.
V
u req’d
= factored shear force at the midspan of the beam, will not be zero if the beam is
partially loaded with superimposed loads (i.e. li ve load on hal f the beam span)
φ
V
n max
= reduced shear strength of the beam section locat ed al ong the beam span where
minimum shear reinforcement is requi red i n accordance with §15.5.5.1
s
1
= spacing of stirrups within the critical section.
s
k
= spacing of stirrups within any section subsequent t o the critical section.
s
max
= maximum stirrups spacing permitted by §11.5.4.1 or §11.5.4.3
s
req’ d
= required stirrups spacing at the section considered
x
b
= the distance along the beam at which V
sb
occurs. for any beam section within the
distance x
b
, V
sb
is based on §11.5. 4.3, otherwise is based on §11.5.4.1
x
min
= distance from the face of the support along the beam span after which minimum shear
reinforcement in accordance to §11.5.5.1 is no longer required.
x
max
= distance from the face of the support along the beam span after which stirrups shall be
placed with the maximum spacing per §11.5.4. 1, and §11.5.4. 3
s = incremental in stirrups spacing between the subsequent sections, suggested to be 1,
2, and or 3 inches
Notations for Concrete Beam Shear Design
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∆
Normal or Light
Wt Concrete
LIGHT
NO
ACI 11.3
ACI 11.3.1.1
ACI 11.2.1
ACI 11.2.1.2
YES
ACI 11.2.1.1
ACI 9.3.2.3
NORMAL
Finding V
c
STOP. increase
f'
c
or d or b
w
s
max
is the min. of:
d/2
24"
h=<10"
h<2.5t
h<0.5b
w
STOP. no min.
shear reinf. req'd
STOP. no min.
shear reinf. req'd
'
100
c
f psi ≤
s
max
= min. of:
d/2
24"
s
max
= min. of:
d/4
12"
S
max
s is the min. of:
s
max
s
req'd
loop for other
values of V
u
loop for other
values of V
u
ACI 11.1.1
ACI 11.1.1
ACI 11.12.1.1
ACI 11.12.1.1 ACI 11.1.2
ACI 11.5.4.1
ACI 11.2.1.1
ACI 11.5.4.3
ACI 11.5.6.8
ACI 11.5.6.2
ACI 11.1.1
ACI 11.5.6.2
ACI 11.5.5.1
ACI 11.5.5.3
ACI 11.5.5.1
Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01  Page 12
ct
is f given?
2
'
c c w
V f b d =
2
6 7
6 7
ct
c w
' ct
c
f
V b d
.
f
f
.
=
≤
( )
( )
0 75 2
0 85 2
'
c c w
'
c c w
All Light wt : V . f b d
Sand Light Wt : V . f b d
− =
=
0 85 . φ =
c
V φ
u
V
u c
V V φ >
s u c
V V V φ φ = −
2
c
u
V
V
φ
>
req' d
s
s
V
V
φ
φ
=
4
req' d
s c
V V >
n c s
V V V φ φ φ = +
v y
s
A f d
V
s
=
5000
50
v y
req' d
w c
A f
s
b f
=
′
50
v y
req' d
w
A f
s
b
=
req' d
v y
s
A f d
s
V
=
n c s
V V V φ φ φ = +
2
req' d
s c
V V >
ACI 11.5.4.1
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Beam Shear Basic Chart
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Shear Beam
Check
Normal or Light
Wt Concrete
?
ct
is f given
LIGHT
NO
ACI 11.3
ACI 11.3.1.1
ACI 11.2.1
ACI 11.2.1.2
YES
ACI 11.2.1.1
ACI 9.3.2.3
NORMAL
Finding V
c
STOP. x
min
does not exist
1
2
'
c c w
V f b d =
2
6 7
6 7
ct
c w
' ct
c
f
V b d
.
f
f
.
=
≤
( )
( )
0 75 2
0 85 2
'
c c w
'
c c w
All Light wt : V . f b d
Sand Light Wt : V . f b d
− =
=
0 85 . φ =
c
V
c
V φ
2
min
c
n
V
V
φ
φ =
0 0
mid
u
V . >
mid min
u n
V V φ >
0 5 1
min
n
min
u
V
x . L
V
φ
= −
0 5 1
min mid
mid
n u
min
u u
V V
x . L
V V
φ −
= −
−
min
x
v l b
A NA =
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Beam Shear Detailed Chart
Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01  Page 14
STOP. increase
f'
c
or d or b
s
max
= min. of:
d/2
24"
h=<10"
h<2.5t
h<0.5b
STOP. no min.
shear reinf. req'd
STOP. no min.
shear reinf. req'd
S
max
'
100
c
f psi ≤
s = min. of:
s
max
s
req'd
use: N @ s
s
max
= min. of:
d/2
24"
1
2
0 0
mid
u
V . >
( ) 0 5
0 5
mid
d mid
u u
u u
V V
V . L d V
. L
−
= − +
( ) 0 5
0 5
d
u
u
V
V . L d
. L
= −
d
u
V
d
u c
V V φ >
s u c
V V V φ φ = −
2
c
u
V
V
φ
>
req' d
s
s
V
V
φ
φ
=
4
req' d
s c
V V >
2
req' d
s c
V V >
2
b
s c
let V V =
b
n c s
V V V φ φ φ = +
0 0
mid
u
V . >
0 5 1
b
n
b
u
V
x . L
V
φ
= −
0 5 1
b mid
mid
n u
b
u u
V V
x . L
V V
φ −
= −
−
b
x
max
s
50
v y
req' d
A f
s
b
=
5000
50
v y
req' d
c
A f
s
b f
=
′
v y
s
A f d
V
s
=
n c s
V V V φ φ φ = +
min
x
N
s
=
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Beam Shear Detailed Chart (cont. 1)
Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01  Page 15
use: N @ s
max
STOP. go to
stirrups number
Loop as long:
x
min
>x
k
, and
s
k
<s
max
2
3
4
max
v y
s
max
A f d
V
s
=
max max
n c s
V V V φ φ φ = +
d max
u s
V V φ >
0 0
mid
u
V . >
min
x
N
s
=
0 5 1
max
n
max
u
V
x . L
V
φ
= −
0 5 1
max mid
mid
n u
max
u u
V V
x . L
V V
φ −
= −
−
max
x
1
req' d
v y
s
A f d
s
V
=
1
s
1 k
let s s s = +∆
k max
s s <
k
v y
s
k
A f d
V
s
=
k k
n c s
V V V φ φ φ = +
STRUNET
CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS
Beam Shear Detailed Chart (cont. 2)
Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01  Page 16
s
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stirrups
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STRUNET
CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS
Beam Shear Detailed Chart (cont. 3)
in. in 2 . in. = coefficient of resistance. = distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. psi. = modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.com: Concrete Beam Design V1. in. = distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis. = minimum ratio of tension reinforcement permitted by ACI10 . in.7. = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of compression side reinforcement. = factor as defined by ACI 10. in.Page 2 .5. = maximum ratio of tension reinforcement permitted by ACI 10. = strain in compressionside reinforcement. = ratio of reinforcement equivalent to compression force in slab of T section beam. in2.CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET Notations for Concrete Beam Design Flow Charts a ab amax As A’s b be bw c cb Cc Cs d d’ Es f’c fy Mn M n bal Mu Ru t = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block. = slab thickness in Tsection beam. = concrete strain at extreme compression fibers. = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block at maximum ratio of tensionreinforcement. = specified compressive strength of concre te.1. = ratio of tension reinfo rcement at balanced condition. = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block at balanced condition. in. = factored (ultimate) bending moment. = ratio of tension reinforcement. = moment strength at balanced condition. = required ratio of tension reinforcement.3. = area of tension reinforcement.3. = yield strain of reinforcement. = width of beam in rectangular beam section. in. = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension side reinforcement. in.003. = strength reduction factor. = compression force in compression reinforcement. in. = area of reinforcement at compression side. β1 εc ε 's εy ρ ρb ρf ρmax ρmin ρreq’d φ Strunet. = specified tensile strength of reinforcement.3. = nominal bending moment. = compression force in equivalent concrete block. set at 0. = width of web for Tsection beam.2.01 . = effective width of a flange in Tsection beam.
75ab ρb = 0.000.CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET Moment Strength of Rectangular Concrete Beam Rectangular Beam Given: b.Page 3 .7.85fc′bamax d − max 2 a ACI 10.05 fc′ − 4000 ≥ 0.9 φMn bal = φ 0.3 amax = 0.2.3 ACI 9. fy. Mu .3 ρmax = 0.000 β1 87.01 .1 ACI 8.2.Vu finding balanced moment strength ACI 10.85 εc cb = d ε +ε y c β1 ab = β1cb ACI 10.3 ε c = 0.003 εy = fy Es fc′ ≤ 4000psi YES Es = 29.3 finding ρmax ACI 10.3.3.85fc′ 87.85 − 0. fc'.3 NO ACI 10.75ρb NO Mu < φMn bal YES try rectangular beam with tension and compression steel use rectangular beam with tension steel only Strunet.2.000 psi β1 = 0.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.3.000 + f fy y φ = 0.4.65 1000 β1 = 0.3.7. d.
33ρreq' d NO ρ < ρmin YES NO ρreq 'd > ρmax YES ρ = ρmin ρ = 1.5.01 .85fc′ 2Ru 1− 1− fy 0. As a C d a= Asfy 0.85fc ' select reinforcement.33ρreq' d ACI 10. go to rectangular beam with tension and compression steel As = ρbd 0.5.2 useρ = ρreq' d STOP.85fc′b a cb As φMn = φ 0.85fc′ ρreq' d ≥ ρmin YES ρ = 1.1 3 fc′ ρreq' d = ρmin = max of fy 200 fy NO 0.85fc′ba d − 2 proceed to shear design Strunet.CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET Rectangular Concrete Beam with Tension Reinforcement rectangular beam with tension steel only Ru = Mu φ bd 2 ACI 10.Page 4 T b .com: Concrete Beam Design V1.
Page 5 .85fc′ ) ( d − d ′) bd εc d' Cs a Cc A's As T b ρ = ρmax + ρ′ steel at tension side ε s′ c 0.5" bal ρ′ = ′ Mu φ ( fy − 0.85fc′b c= a + ′ As As β1 ′ εs = εc c − d′ c 1 Strunet.01 .Rectangular Beam with Tension & Compression Reinforcement CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET rectangular beam with tension and compression steel ′ Mu = Mu − φMn d'=2. side find the new d proceed to check compression steel yields a= ( As − As′ ) fy 0.85fc' As = ρbd ′ As = ρ′bd select reinforcement As& A's d steel at comp.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.
85fc′ab ′ Cs = As ( fy − 0.85fc′β1b )(87 Asd ′ ) 2 Cc = 0.Page 6 . Alternatively: compression steel does NOT yield compression steel yields (A f c= s y ′ − 87As ) ± (A f s y 2 ( 0.com: Concrete Beam Design V1. and thus moment strength is calculated based on the tension steel only.85fc′ba d − + Asfs (d − d ′) 2 ′ ′ φMn = Asfy ( d − d ′) alternatively ′ φMn = φMn + φMn ≥ Mu bal proceed to shear design Strunet.85fc′ ) c − d′ fs = Esεc < fy c φMn = φ Cc d − + Cs ( d − d ′) ≥ Mu 2 alternatively a a ′ φMn = φ 0.CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET Rectangular Beam with Tension & Compression Reinforcement (cont.85fc′β1b ) ′ ′ − 87As ) + 4 (0.) 1 NO ε s′ > ε y YES compression steel may be neglected.01 .
85 β1 ACI 8.01 .7.85 − 0.85fc′bet ACI 9.7.4.3 β1 = 0.75 bw ( ρb + ρf ) be NO Mu < φMn YES d t use TSection case 2 use TSection case 1 be As bw Strunet.000 β1 87.05 fc′ − 4000 ≥ 0. f'c .3.85fc′ ( be − bw ) t fy bw d φ = 0.000 + f fy y 0. fy .3 NO fc′ ≤ 4000psi YES finding balanced moment strength @ a=t Given: bw .85fc′ 87.2.1 ρb = 0. Mu Vu let a=t ACI 10.Page 7 .be .9 φMn = φCc d − 2 t ρf = ρmax = 0.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.3 Cc = 0.65 1000 β1 = 0.3.d .2.CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET Moment Strength of TSection Beam ACI 10.2.3 TSection Beam finding ρmax ACI 10.
com: Concrete Beam Design V1. As ρ = 1.85fc′ NO STOP.85fc′ 2Ru 1− 1− fy 0.85fc′b a Alternatively: 0. use compression steel at TSection ρreq' d < ρmax YES verify depth of compression block 2Ru a = d 1− 1− 0.85fc′ba d − 2 proceed to shear design Strunet.1 CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET TSection case 1 Ru = Mu φ bed 2 ρreq' d = 0.85fc′ ACI 10.01 .2 ρreq' d ≥ ρmin YES select reinforcement. go to TSection case 2 1 ρmin = max of fy 200 fy NO ACI 10.Page 8 .33ρreq' d As = ρbed useρ = ρreq' d a= Asfy 0.TSection Beam Case .5.85fc′abe As = fy 1 φMn = φ 0.5.1 3 fc′ NO continuation of previous sheet a>t YES STOP.33ρreq' d NO ρ < ρmin YES check moment strength ρ = ρmin ρ = 1.
85f ′ w bw b Cc1 = 0.85fc′φ bw req' d As max = ρmax bed d a t As = 0.Page 9 .85fc′bwa Cc 2 = 0.5t ) a = d − d2 − − bw 0.2 TSection case 2 2Mu 2t ( be − bw )( d − 0. revise to include compression steel As req' d ≥ As As YES bw select reinforcement. As max a= Asfy t − ( be − bw ) 0.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET TSection Beam Case .85fc′ [abw + t(be − bw )] fy be NO STOP.01 .85fc′t ( be − bw ) a t φMn = Cc1 d − + Cc 2 d − ≥ Mu 2 2 proceed to shear design Strunet.
The reason is the value V ud/Mu is not constant along the beam span. The concept in selecting stirrups is based on an input of the bar diameter ( db) of the stirrups to be used.5. usually #3.1 for calculating nominal shear strength of concrete. The shear chart intentionally did not include the following ACI provisions due to p ractical and economic al justifications: • Detailed method of ACI §11. vc .1. or 5. and bent up bars per §11.Page 10 .5.e.6.01 . since other types of shear reinforcement are not economically justified. Shear reinforc ement calculation is performed. 4. the use of the det ailed method is not practically justified beyond this critical section. One is the Shear Basic Chart. Shear Detailed Chart.5 larger than that of the direct method using ACI 11.1 at the critical section only.3.6.5.6. is outlining the steps required for repetitive shear check. i. The second. 2 are used. and subs equent sections.6. as well as the number of legs and thus finding the spacing (s) required. The shear charts are presented into two parts.3.5. Shear reinforcement as inclined stirrups per §11. • Strunet. Although the stirrups spacing resulting from the detailed met hod may be 1.2.4 and §11. The detailed charts provide as much variables and or scenarios as needed to facilitate the creation of automat ed shear check applications.com: Concrete Beam Design V1. Only vertical stirrups per §11. which is outlining the main procedures of the shear design in accordanc e with ACI applicable code provisions. where applic able. then compare it with the ultimat e shear force at the critical section.3.CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET Introduction to Concrete Beam Shear Design Concrete Beam Shear Design Introduction and discussion: The approach of the beam shear check chart is to define the nominal shear strength of the concrete.5. beyond distance d from the face of support.
distance from the face of the support along the beam span after which stirrups shall be placed with the maximum spacing per §11. 1 . 1. locating of this section is needed to define which maximum s provisions applies.3.1 spacing of stirrups within the critical section. in. • no concentrated load on the beam within the distance d.3 = required nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement. will not be zero if the beam is partially loaded with superimposed loads (i.5.4.3.4. and §11.e.1 distance from the face of the support along the beam span after which minimum shear reinforcement in accordance to §11. otherwise is based on §11.4.4.CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET Notations for Concrete Beam Shear Design bw d f’c f ct fy L N Nl Vc Vs Vsb = = = = = = = = = = = Vs req’d Vu Vu d Width of beam (web) flexural depth of the beam. for any beam section within the distance xb. spacing of stirrups within any section subsequent t o the critical section.5. maximum stirrups spacing permitted by §11.5. V sb is based on §11. 4.4. suggested to be 1. from support face to other support face.5. 1. 2.4.1 this is the critical shear force provided that: • support is subjected to compressi ve force. 3 incremental in stirrups spacing between the subsequent sections.5. i.5. factored shear force at the midspan of the beam.e.5.5.01 . concrete compressive strength average splitting tensile strength of lightweight concrete reinforcement yield strengt h beam clear span.5.1 or §11.5.3 required stirrups spacing at the section considered the distance along the beam at which Vsb occurs.1 is no longer required.1 or §11. = factored shear force at the face of the beam support = factored shear force at distance d from the fac e of the support in accordance with §11.12. §11.4.5.5. live load on half the beam span) reduced shear strength of the beam section locat ed along the beam span where minimum shear reinforcement is required in accordance with §15.1.Page 11 . and or 3 inches Vu req’d = = = = = = = = = = φVn max s1 sk s max s req’d xb x min x max ∆s Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1. number of stirrups required wit hin a given segment of the beam number of legs for each stirrup concrete nominal shear strengt h nominal shear strength provide by the shear reinforcement nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement at the section where Vs is the max permitted by ACI 11.
1 Av fy d Vsreq ' d φVn = φVc + φVs φVn = φVc + φVs Strunet.6.4.1 ) Vu ACI 11.5. req'd φVs = Vu − φVc Vsreq' d = loop for other values of Vu ACI 11.6.1 ACI 11.Page 12 .5.2.5.1.75 2 f bwd ' c ( Sand Light Wt : Vc = 0. req'd φVs φ ACI 11.1 f Vc = 2 ct bw d 6 .1.7 Vc = 2 fc' bw d ACI 9.2. no min.1 Vu > STOP.1.1 LIGHT NO Normal or Light Wt Concrete YES ACI 11. shear reinf.2 STOP.CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET Beam Shear Basic Chart ACI 11.7 fct ' ≤ fc 6 .2. shear reinf.5.1 NORMAL ACI 11.1.2 All − Light wt : Vc = 0.5.1.1.3 Finding Vc ACI 11.5.2 Vs = Av fy d s loop for other values of V u s= ACI 11. of: d/2 24" ACI 11.3 φVc φ = 0. of: smax sreq'd ACI 11.1.5.1 ACI 11.3 Vsreq' d > 2Vc sreq' d A f 5000 = vy 50bw fc′ s is the min.1.6.1 h=<10" h<2.1 Vu > φVc φVc 2 ACI 11.5.1 smax is the min.85 2 fc' bwd ( ) is fct given? ACI 11.5t h<0.3.5bw ACI 11.5.12.12.85 ACI 11. increase f'c or d or bw fc' ≤ 100 psi ACI 11.1.5.2 sreq' d = Av fy 50bw smax= min.1 ACI 11.1 Vsreq' d > 4Vc ACI 11.4.2.4.5. no min.3. of: d/4 12" Smax ACI 11. of: d/2 24" smax= min.3 STOP.8 ACI 11.2.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.5.1.01 .
1.2.1.7 fct ' ≤ fc 6 .3 Finding Vc ACI 11.Beam Shear Detailed Chart CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET Shear Beam Check ACI 11.2 is f ct given ? YES ACI 11.1 All − Light wt : Vc = 0. xmin does not exist xmin Av = Nl Ab 1 Strunet.2.85 2 fc' bwd ( ) ) f Vc = 2 ct bw d 6 .7 Vc = 2 fc' bw d Vc ACI 9.3.3.01 .2.1 ACI 11.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.Page 13 .3 φ = 0.2.5L 1 − Vu xmin Vumid > φVnmin φVnmin − Vumid = 0.1 Normal or Light Wt Concrete NORMAL LIGHT NO ACI 11.0 φVnmin xmin = 0.85 φVc φVn = min φVc 2 Vumid > 0.5L 1 − Vu − Vumid STOP.1.75 2 fc' bwd ( Sand Light Wt : Vc = 0.
of: d/2 24" fc' ≤ 100 psi sreq' d A f 5000 = vy 50b fc′ s = min.5t h<0.5b φVs = Vu − φVc Vsreq' d = STOP. shear reinf. req'd smax = min.5L Vud Vud > φVc Vu > STOP. no min.5L 1 − Vu b Vs = Av fy d s φVn = φVc + φVs N= xmin s φVnb − Vumid xb = 0. req'd φVc 2 h=<10" h<2.5L 1− Vu − Vumid xb smax use: N @ s Strunet. of: d/2 24" Smax φVs φ Vsreq' d > 4Vc Vsreq' d > 2Vc smax = min.1 CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS Beam Shear Detailed Chart (cont.Page 14 2 .com: Concrete Beam Design V1. increase f'c or d or b φVn = φVc + φVs Vumid > 0.5L − d ) + Vumid 0. 1) STRUNET Vumid > 0. of: smax sreq'd sreq' d = Av fy 50b let Vsb = 2Vc STOP. no min.01 .0 φVnb xb = 0.5L Vu − Vumid Vud = ( 0.0 V Vud = ( 0.5L − d ) u 0. shear reinf.
2) Vsmax = Av fy d smax φVn max = φVc + φVsmax Vud > φVsmax N= xmin s φVnmax xmax = 0. go to stirrups number Vsk = Av fy d sk 4 φVn = φVc + φVs k k 3 Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.Page 15 .0 φVnmax − Vumid xmax = 0. and sk<smax STOP.01 .CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET 2 Beam Shear Detailed Chart (cont.5L 1 − Vu Vumid > 0.5L 1 − Vu − Vumid use: N @ smax xmax s1 = Av fy d Vsreq ' d s1 let sk = s1 + ∆s sk < smax Loop as long: xmin>xk .
3) 3 4 Vumid > 0.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01 .CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS STRUNET Beam Shear Detailed Chart (cont. of: d/4 12" xk > xmin let sk +1 = sk + ∆s sk = sk +1 stirrups number STOP. go to stirrups number revise Smax N1 = xk s1 Loop until: xk+1=xmin .0 φVnk xk = 0. and xk=xmax Nk = xk +1 − xk sk Strunet.Page 16 .5L 1− Vu φVnk − Vumid xk = 0.5L 1− Vu − Vumid xk xk > xb smax = min.