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Example Problems

Contents

1 Free Vibration of Single Degree-of-freedom Systems 2 Frictionally Damped Systems 3 Forced Single Degree-of-freedom Systems 4 Multi Degree-of-freedom Systems 1 33 42 69

1

Free Vibration of Single Degree-of-freedom Systems

Problem 1: In the ﬁgure, the disk and the block have mass m and the radius of the disk is r. a) Find the equations of motion for this system. b) What are the natural frequency and damping ratio of the system in terms of m, c, and k? c) If the block is displaced 18 cm to the right and released from rest ﬁnd the resulting angular displacement of the disk with m = 3 kg, k = 21 N/m, r = 9 cm, c = 63 N · s/m, c k m (m, r)

k

4k

1

Problem 2: For the system shown to the right, the disk of mass m rolls without slip and x measures the displacement of the disk from the unstretched position of the spring. a) Find the equations of motion. b) With c = 16 N/(m/s), m = 2 kg, r = 0.10 m for what value of the spring stiﬀness k is the damping ratio of the system onehalf of the critically damped value, so that ζ = ζcr /2? c) With these parameter values, ﬁnd the displacement of the disk if it is rolled 20 cm to the right (from static equilibrium) and released from rest. Problem 3: From the ﬁgure shown to the right a) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of the angular rotation of the disk; b) what are the damping ratio and natural frequency of the system in terms of the parameters m, b, k1 , and k2 ; c) can you draw an equivalent springmass-damper system?

k2 c

x

k

(m, r)

r

k1

m

r 2

m

b

2

Problem 4: For the mechanical system shown to the right, the uniform rigid bar has mass m and pinned at point O. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion; b) Identify the damping ratio and natural frequency in terms of the parameters m, c, k, and ℓ. c) For: m = 1.50 kg, c = 0.125 N/(m/s), ℓ = 45 cm, k = 250 N/m,

O

ˆ k ˆ ı m

ℓ 2

y θ

ℓ 2

2m

**ﬁnd the angular displacement of the bar θ(t) for the following initial conditions: θ(0) = 0, ˙ θ(0) = 10 rad/s.
**

k

x c

Assume that in the horizontal position the system is in static equilibrium and that all angles remain small. Solution: a) In addition to the coordinate θ identiﬁed in the original ﬁgure, we also deﬁne x and y as the displacment of the block and end of the bar respecively. The directions ˆ and ˆ are ı deﬁned as shown in the ﬁgure. A free body diagram for this system is shown to the right. Note that the tension in the cable between the bar and the block is unknown and represented with T while the reaction force FR is included, although both its magnitude and direction are unspeciﬁed. In terms of the identifed coordinates, the angular acceleration of the bar αβ/F and the F linear acceleration of the block aG are αβ/F ¨ˆ = θ k,

F

−k y ˆ

−T ˆ

FR

Tˆ

−k x ˆ

−c x ˆ ˙

aG = x ˆ. ¨

We can also relate the identiﬁed coordinates as ℓ x = θ, y = ℓ θ. 2 The equations of motion for this system can be obtained with linear momentum balance applied to the block and angular momentum balance aout O on the bar. These can be written as

F F = m aG −→ T − k x − c x ˆ = ˙

2 m x ˆ, ¨ m ℓ2 ¨ ˆ θ k. 3

M O = I O αβ/F −→ 3

−T

ℓ −kyℓ 2

ˆ k

=

Solving the ﬁrst equation for T and substituting into the second equation yields − (2 m x + k x + c x) ¨ ˙ ℓ m ℓ2 ¨ −kyℓ = θ. 2 3

Using the coordinate relations we can obtain the equation of motion as 5 m ℓ2 ¨ c ℓ2 ˙ 5 k ℓ2 θ+ θ+ θ = 0. 6 4 4 b) In the above equation the equivalent mass, damping, and stiﬀness are meq = 5 m ℓ2 , 6 beq = c ℓ2 , 4 keq = 5 k ℓ2 . 4

From these the damping ratio and natural frequency are ζ= beq = keq meq 2 ωn = keq = meq

c ℓ2 4 5 k ℓ 2 5 m ℓ2 4 6 5 k ℓ2 4 5 m ℓ2 6

2

=

√ 3c √ , 2 50 k m 3k 2m

=

c) Evaluating the damping ratio and natural frequency we ﬁnd that for the given values of the parameters ωn = 15.8 rad/s, ζ = 7.91 × 10−4 . Therefore the system is underdamped and the general solution can be written as θ(t) = e−ζ ωn t a sin ωn 1 − ζ 2 t + b cos ωn 1 − ζ2 t ,

where a and b are arbitrary constants used to ﬁt the initial conditions. Evaluating θ(t) ˙ and θ(t) at t = 0 yields θ(0) = b = 0, ˙ θ(0) = −ζ ωn b + ωn 1 − ζ 2 a = 10 rad/s,

so that the general solution becomes θ(t) = 0.632 e−0.0125 t sin 15.8 t .

4

The identiﬁed coordiante θ measures the rotation of the disk with respect to the equilibrium position.25 N/(m/s). b) If the disk is released from rest with θ(0) = − π rad. b) Identify the damping ratio and natural frequency in terms of the parameters m. ˙ θ(0) = 10 rad/s. k = 36 N/m. ﬁnd the angular displacement of the bar θ(t) for the following initial conditions: θ(0) = 0. c. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. k. m z ℓ 2 k ℓ 2 θ m x ˆ ı c ˆ k d) for this motion. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G and is assumed to roll without slip. k g c k G (m. ℓ = 25 cm.Problem 5: In the ﬁgure. and that all angles remain small. c) For: m = 2 kg. r = 15 cm. which are related to the angular 5 . the uniform rigid bar has mass m and pinned at point O. ﬁnd the resulting an2 gular displacement θ(t) for m = 3 kg. Assume that the system is in static equilibrium at θ = 0. a) Find the equations of motion for this system. c = 3 N · s/m. c = 0. Solution: a) We identify the coordinates x and z as shown above. radius r. k = 50 N/m. the disk has mass m. and ℓ. ﬁnd the tension in the cable connecting the rod and the block as a function of time. r) c) What is the force in the upper spring during this motion? Problem 6: For the mechanical system shown to the right.

and the natural frequency and damping ratio are ωn = keq = meq 12 k . keq = 2 k. ˙ ı ¨ı 6 .50 N/(m/s). Find the response of the system if the block is displaced from its static equilibrium position 15 cm to the right and released from rest. k1 = 1. = m ℓ2 ¨ ˆ θ k. 2 z= ℓ θ. 12 −k x ˆ −c x ˆ ˙ Combining these equations and eliminating the tension.displacement θ as: x= ℓ θ.0 kg. F −k1 x ˆ ı −k2 x ˆ ı −b x ˆ ˙ ı (−k1 x − k2 x − b x) ˆ = m x ˆ. Applying linear momentum balance on the block yields F = m aG . =√ keq meq 28k m Problem 7: The block shown to the right rests on a frictionless surface. Linear momentum balance on this block provides F = m aG . ˙ ¨ Likewise. k2 = 0. and stiﬀness are meq = 7m . 7m ζ= 2 √ 3b beq . ˆ x k1 m b ˆ ı k2 Solution: An appropriate free-body diagram is shown to the right. 2 kz ˆ −T ˆ T ˆ FR An appropriate free-body diagram is shown to the right. damping. as the displacement across each spring is identical. F (T − k x − c x) ˆ = m x ˆ.25 N/(m/s). b = 0. m = 4. Notice that the two springs are eﬀectively in parallel. the equation of motion can be written as 7m ¨ ˙ θ + c θ + 2 k θ = 0. angular momentum balance on the bar provides MO ℓ ℓ −T − k z 2 2 ˆ k = I O αβ/F .5 N/m. 6 beq = b. 6 b) For the above equation the equivalent mass.

= 3 m r2 ¨ ˆ θ k. ˆ ˆ ı ˆ = − sin φ e1 + cos φ e2 . c. r) C ˆ ı θ ˆ e2 ˆ e1 Solution: a) In addition to x. x(0) = 0 cm/s. what is the frequency of the free vibrations of this system in terms of the parameters k. a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. The surface is inclined at an angle of φ with respect to vertical. Do not neglect gravity. e2 ) as e ˆ ˆ = cos φ e1 + sin φ e2 . b) if the system is underdamped. the system is released from rest so that the initial conditions are x(0) = x0 = 15 cm. ˙ Problem 8: For the system shown to the right. the displacement of the center of the disk. the displacement across the spring and the rotation of the disk respectively. writing this in standard form m x + b x + (k1 + k2 ) x = 0.or. and m. ˆ −k z e1 −c x e1 ˙ ˆ −m g ˆ An appropriate free-body diagram is shown to the right. These additional coordinates are related to x as z = 2 x. c) for what value of the damping constant c is the system critically damped. ˆ ˆ The moment produced by gravity about point C is Mgravity = rGC × (−m g ˆ). Angular momentum balance about the contact point C yields MC ˆ (2 r) k z + r c x − m g r sin φ k ˙ 7 = I C αD/F . ¨ ˙ Further. We note that (ˆ. ˆ) are related to the direcı tions (ˆ1 . x = −r θ. the disk of mass m rolls without slip and x measures the displacement of the disk from the unstretched position of the spring. d) what is the static equilibrium displacement of the disk? φ ˆ c k z x (m. 2 . we identify the coordinates z and θ. = ˆ fr e1 ˆ N e2 ˆ ˆ (r e2 ) × (−m g ˆ) = −m g r sin φ k.

and the equation of motion reduces to ¨ 4 k x0 = m g sin φ. d) The system is stationary in static equilibrium. 3m ζ= c beq = √ . 24 k m c) The system is critically damped when ζ = 1. where ωn = keq = meq 8k . b) Assuming the system is underdamped. 2 keq meq 2 6km so that ωd = 8k 3m 1− c2 . so that x ≡ x0 = constant—both x and ˙ x vanish. ¨ ˙ 2 Since the gravitational force has been included in the development of this equation of motion. 4k 8 . which corresponds to a damping coeﬃcient of √ ccr = 2 6 k m. the coordinates are measured with respect to the unstretched position of the spring.Eliminating the coordinates z and θ. the frequency of the free vibrations is ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2 . we can write the equation of motion in terms of x as 3m x + c x + 4 k x = m g sin φ. Solving for x0 . the equilibrium displacement is x0 = m g sin φ .

¨ while angular momentum balance on the disk yields MO ˆ (T r1 − k1 z1 r1 + k2 z2 r2 ) k −m g ˆ = I O αD/F . Eliminating the unknown tension T from these equations and using the coordinate relations. a rotation with positive θ gives rise to a negative value in both x and z2 . z2 = −r2 θ. ı −k2 z2 ˆ Notice that because of these coordinate deﬁnitions. a) Determine the deﬂection of each spring from its unstretched length when the system shown is in equilibrium. F FR −T ˆ T ˆ k1 z1 ˆ (T − m g) ˆ = m x ˆ. ¨ˆ = I θ k. z1 . and z2 as shown in the ﬁgure. linear momentum balance on the block provides F = m aG . θ. which are related as x = −r1 θ. z1 = r1 θ. 9 .Problem 9: In the ﬁgure shown to the right. what is the maximum angular velocity of the disk during the resulting motion? ˆ k2 z2 r2 θ I r1 ˆ ı m x k1 z1 Solution: a) We deﬁne the coordinates x. Using the free-body diagram shown to the right. the equation of motion becomes 2 2 2 ¨ I + m r1 θ + k1 r1 + k2 r2 θ = m g r1 . in the absence of gravity the springs are unstretched in the equilibrium position. we see that x = −z1 . b) If the system is released from the unstretched position of the springs. Likewise.

B = −θeq . the equilibrium deﬂection of each spring is found to be z1. where θeq is given above.eq = −r2 θeq 2 m g r1 2. The angular velocity of the disk becomes ˙ θ(t) = θeq ωn sin(ωn t).eq = r1 θeq = z2. which has amplitude Ω = θeq ωn = m g r1 2 (k1 r1 2 2 + k2 r2 ) (I + m r1 ) 10 . 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 m g r1 r2 =− 2. . Therefore the solution is θ(t) = θeq (1 − cos(ωn t)) = m g r1 2 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 1 − cos 2 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 t 2 I + m r1 ˙ θ(0) = 0. so that solving for the arbitrary constants A = 0. and ωn = 2 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 2 . k1 r1 + k2 r2 With this. I + m r1 The system is released with the initial conditions: θ(0) = 0. 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 b) The general free response of the disk can be expressed as θ(t) = θeq + A sin(ωn t) + B cos(ωn t). A and B are arbitrary constants.The equilibrium rotation of the disk thus is found to be θeq = m g r1 2 2.

c) what value of the damping coeﬃcient b corresponds to critical damping? d) if k = 2 N/m. b) what is the frequency of oscillation of the system. we deﬁne two additional coordinates.Problem 10: (Spring 2003) For the spring-mass-damper system shown to the right. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. z1 and z2 . ˙ 6k x m b Problem 11: (Spring 2003) For the mechanical system shown to the right. to measure the deﬂection at the left and right ends of the bar. the uniform rigid bar has mass m and pinned at point O. x(0) = 0 m/s. and m = 3 kg. ﬁnd the displacement of the mass x(t) when the system is started with the initial conditions: x(0) = 0. b = 4 N/(m/s). If the surface is assumed to be frictionless: a) determine the governing equations of motion.10 m. 11 . b) what value of the damping constant c gives rise to a critically damped system? z1 z2 ℓ 2 k m k m ℓ 2 θ ˆ ˆ ı c Solution: a) In addition to θ. x is measured from the static equilibrium position.

12 Likewise. k2 = 0. the equation of motion becomes: m ℓ2 ¨ c ℓ2 ˙ k ℓ2 θ+ θ+ θ = 0. 2 −k z2 ˆ A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right.25 N/(m/s). b = 0.5 N/m. 3 4 2 b) A critically damped system occurs when ζ = 1. 2 ℓ z 2 = θ = z1 . application of linear momentum balance on the block yields: F = m aG . m ℓ2 ¨ ˆ θ k.0 kg.These coordinates are related as: ℓ z1 = θ. For this system: √ 3c . + k2 1 2 k1 12 . k1 b k2 m x ˆ ˆ ı Solution: For this system. Applying angular momentum balance on the bar eliminates the appearance of the reaction force and leads to: MG T − k z1 − cz1 ˙ ℓ ˆ k 2 = I = G −T ˆ k z1 ˆ T ˆ G FR c z1 ˆ ˙ ¨ˆ θ k.5 N/(m/s). the two springs in series may be replaced by an equivalent spring. with constant: 1 k1 k2 keq = 1 1 = k +k . ζ=√ 32 k m Solving for ccr yields: ccr = 32 k m . 3 Problem 12: (Spring 2003) Find the response of the system shown to the right if the block is pulled down by 15 cm and released form rest. F − k z2 − T ˆ = m¨2 ˆ z Eliminating the unknown tension T and solving for z1 in terms of z2 . k1 = 0. m = 2.

Applying linear momentum balance to the block yields: F keq x + b x ˙ = m aG . 12 √ 3 ζ= . Using the initial conditions to solve for A and B. the damping ratio and natural frequency are: ωn = 1 −1 s . this becomes: (2 kg) x + ¨ 1 N 2 m/s x+ ˙ 1 N 6 m x = 0. the free-body diagram is shown to the right. x(0) = 3 m. ¨ ˙ With the numerical values given above. we ﬁnd: √ 13 3 −t/8 3 √ t + x(t) = e cos cos 20 13 8 3 √ 13 √ t 8 3 . b) If the system is released from the unstretched position of the springs. Problem 13: (Spring 2003) In the ﬁgure shown to the right. ˙ With this. 20 x(0) = 0 m/s.Therefore. in the absence of gravity the springs are unstretched in the equilibrium position. what is the maximum angular velocity of the disk during the resulting motion? ˆ x2 k2 r2 θ r1 ˆ ı m x1 k1 13 . ¨ which can ﬁnally be written as: m x + b x + keq x = 0. a) Determine the deﬂection of each spring from its unstretched length when the system shown is in equilibrium. 4 Therefore. F keq x ˆ bxˆ ˙ ˆ = −m x ˆ. the system is underdamped and the general response can be written as: x(t) = e−ζ ωn t A cos(ωd t) + B sin(ωd t) .

These coordinates are related through the following transformations: x1 = −r1 θ. and x2 as indicated in the above ﬁgure. x1 . Notice that the gravitational force must be included to determine the equilibrium deﬂection in the system.Solution: a) We deﬁne θ. ¨ This equation of motion determines the equilibrium position θeq (with θeq = 0) to be: θeq = m g r1 2. this single-degree-of-freedom system can be modeled with the equation: 2 2 2 ¨ I G + m r1 θ + k1 r1 + k2 r2 θ = (m g r1 ). that is: z1 = x1 − x1. ¨ Finally. ¨ˆ = I G θ k. k1 r1 2 2 x2.eq = −r2 θeq = m g r1 r2 2. 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 b) Deﬁne new coordinates z1 and z2 .eq . To eliminate the reaction force on the disk. x1 and x2 represent the displacement in their respective springs as measured from their unstretched position. F ˆ = m x1 ˆ. eliminating the unknown tension from these equations and using the above coordinate transformations. the equilibrium displacements in each spring are: x1. 14 . In particular. let φ represent the angular displacement of the disk from the static equilibrium position: φ = θ − θeq . 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 Therefore. angular momentum balance is applied about the center. which measure the displacement in springs 1 and 2 with respect to the static equilibrium position. Likewise. z2 = x2 − x2. yielding: MG T r1 + k2 r2 x2 ˆ k = I G x2 = −r2 θ.eq = −r1 θeq = 2 m g r1 2 + k r2 . applying linear momentum balance to the block yields: F T − k1 x1 − m g = m aG .eq . An appropriate free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. Also. ı −k2 x2 ˆ G FR −T ˆ T ˆ −m g ˆ −k1 x1 ˆ ¨ˆ θ k.

k1 r1 + k2 r2 ˙ φ(0) = 0. the disk of mass m rolls without slip and x measures the displacement of the disk from the unstretched position of the spring. what is the frequency of the free vibrations of this system in terms of the parameters k. conservation of energy implies that V0 = T1 . b) if the system is underdamped. E = T + V remains constant. T1 = 1 G 2 I + m r1 2 ˙ φ2 . z = 2 x. a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. when the kinetic energy is maximal. ˙2 2 2 1 G 2 ˙ I + m r1 φ2 . the kinetic energy becomes: T = = 1 G ˙2 1 I φ + m z1 . the potential energy of this system can be written as: V = = Also. the potential energy is minimal. . 2 If the system is released from rest at the unstretched position of the springs. 2 2 1 2 2 k1 r1 + k2 r2 φ2 . related as: x = −r θ. V0 = (m g r1 )2 2 2 . and m. max ˙ Finally. then: φ(0) = −θeq = − m g r1 2 2. At this initial state. that is: V1 = 0. c. 2 1 1 2 2 k1 z1 + k2 z2 . 15 z = −2 r θ. and solving for φmax we ﬁnd that: ˙ φmax = (I G (m g r1 )2 2 . x 3k z ˆ ˆ ı θ k m c Solution: a) We deﬁne the three coordinates as shown as the ﬁgure. 2(k1 r1 + k2 r2 ) Because this system is conservative.Therefore. 2 2 + m r1 )(k1 r1 + k2 r2 ) Problem 14: (Spring 2003) For the system shown to the right. Therefore. the potential and kinetic energies become: T0 = 0. the total energy.

− 3m 9 m2 Problem 15: In the system shown to the right. rather than x. writing this equation in terms of a single coordinate. but instead can relate the displacement and rotation of the disk through the coordinate relations above.A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. b) For an underdamped response. we ﬁnd that: ωn = 26 k . we obtain: 3 m r2 2 ¨ ˙ θ + (c r2 ) θ + 13 k r2 θ = 0. With so that: ωd = 26 k 2 c2 . so that the moment 2 of inertia about the mass center is IG = mr . Notice that the force in the upper spring depends on z. b) Find the frequency of oscillation for free vibrations of the system. while the friction force has an unknown magnitude f . Because the disk is assumed to roll without slip. 2 a) Find the governing equations of motion. 78 k m 1 − ζ 2 . so that: MC ˆ (3k z) 2r + (k x) r + (c x) r k ˙ ¨ˆ = I C θ k. the frequency of oscillation is ωd = ωn this system. we are unable to specify the value of f . −3k z ˆ ı G −k x ˆ ı C fˆ ı −c x ˆ ˙ ı The equations of motions can be developed directly with angular momentum balance about the contact point. the pulley has mass m and radius r. = 3 m r2 ¨ ˆ θ k. c) For what value of the damping constant is the system critically damped? r r 2 m m k k c Solution: 16 . 2 Finally. 3m ζ=√ c .

radius r. m x2 + m x2 + ˙1 ˙2 2 2 2 2 1 1 k x2 + k x2 . 4 so that the equation of motion for this system can be reduced to: ¨ ˙ (7m) θ + c θ + (5k) θ = 0. If the disk rolls without slip (µ is suﬃciently large). 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G. the generalized force resulting from the viscous damper becomes: Qθ = − cr2 ˙ θ. b) for m = 2 kg. 7m c . x2 . Further. x1 = θ. b) For this system the natural frequency and damping ratio are: ωn = 5k . these three coordinates are dependent through the transformations: r x2 = r θ. where x1 measures the displacement of the ﬁrst mass in the −ˆ direction. 17 b G k m . and k = 8 N/m. so that we may solve for c = ccr to yield: √ ccr = 2 35 km. the Lagrangian reduces to: L=T −V = 1 2 7mr2 4 1 ˙ θ2 − 2 5kr2 4 θ2 . θ). the damped natural frequency becomes: ωd = ωn 1 − ζ2 = 5k 7m 1− c2 . b = 0. 2 Therefore.a) We choose coordinates (x1 . while the block moves without friction: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion for this system. The kinetic and potential energies for this system are: T V = = 1 1 1 mr2 ˙2 θ . 1 2 2 2 However.5 (N · s)/m. Problem 16: In the ﬁgure. ﬁnd the frequency of oscillation for the system. ζ = 1. ζ= √ 2 35 km Therefore. 140 km c) For a critically damped system. the disk has mass m. x2 measures the displacement of the second mass in the ˆ direction. and is attached to a block of mass m which rolls across the surface. ˆ and θ measures the angular rotation of the wheel in the k direction.

this reduces to ωd = 1. If T is the tension between the disk and the mass and f is the frictional force acting on the disk.00 m x2 = 0. and we measure the response as shown. 5m 10km Thus.Solution: a) Let x denote the translational displacement of G in the ˆ direction. b) What is the exponential decay rate of the transient solution? Solution: 18 x1 = 1. f ) we obtain a single degree-of-freedom system on x of the form: 5m x + bx + kx = 0. ξ=√ .264 rad/s. 25m2 For the given values of the parameters. while θ denotes the ı ˆ angular displacement of the disk in the k direction. a) Determine the equivalent damping constant. T. (rf ) k = 2 (−T ) ˆ = m¨ ˆ.75 m . the damped natural frequency is: ωd = ωn 1 − ξ2 = 10km − b2 . x ˙ and experimentally measure the mass as m = kg. In free vibration we experimentally determine the equivalent spring constant to be k = 4 N/m. x and θ are related through the kinematic constraint: x = −rθ. Eliminating (θ. ˙ ı xı mr2 ¨ ˆ ˆ θ k. the equations of motion on the disk and the mass are: (−kx − bx + T + f ) ˆ = m¨ ˆ. Problem 17: We model a nonuniform beam as a singledegree-of-freedom system in the form: m¨ + bx + kx = 0. ¨ ˙ 2 b) From the above equation we identify the undamped natural frequency and damping ratio as: 2k b ωn = . ı xı In addition.

δ1 = − ln x1 x0 = − ln 0. a) Find the linearized equations of motion in terms of z. using angular momentum balance about the point of rotation.145 s.00 m = 0. the equation of motion reduces to: mbar z + b z + k z = 0. ¨ ˙ 3 For the parameter values given above. l) z b k . and we ﬁnd that ζ = 0. we ﬁnd: mbar l2 ¨ θ + bl z + kl z = 0. length l = 1. the relative displacement between the end of the beam and the ground. Problem 18: The rigid beam (mass m = 2 kg.75 m 1. the damping constant b is given as: √ b = 2ζ km = 0. which for small rotations reduces to z = lθ. ωn 1 − ζ 2 √ 2 m 4π 2 + δ1 √ = 3.a) We use the logarithmic decrement so that: ζ= δ1 4π 2 + 2 δ1 .183 N/(m/s). (m. so that the ¨ ˆ angular acceleration is θ k. We note that with m given. With m = 1 kg. c) if the mass of the spring is taken to be mspring = 1 kg. Using this constraint to eliminate θ. k 2π b) The exponential decay rate is σ = ζωn .5 m) is supported by an elastic spring (k = 4 N/m) and damper (b = 2 N/(m/s)).288. b) what is the frequency of the resulting motion. this becomes: 2 kg 3 z + 2 N/(m/s) ¨ 19 z + 4 N/m ˙ z = 0. Therefore. which is found to be σ = 0. we can also ﬁnd the period of the oscillations to be: T = 2π ωd = = . and is pinned to the ground.0914 s−1 . ﬁnd the new frequency of the oscillations. Solution: a) We will deﬁne the inclination of the bar from the horizontal position as θ.0457. ˙ 3 We assume that the coordinates θ and z are related by z = l sin θ.

ζ = √ mbar 2 kmbar = √ 6 rad/s = 3 . If the response of the system is such that: x1 = 0.73 rad/s. t2 = 4. = 2 c) If the mass of the spring is considered. x2 ) m as shown in the ﬁgure. the new frequency of oscillation is: ωd = 3k − (mbar + mspring ) 3b 2(mbar + mspring ) 2 = √ 3 rad/s = 1. the damping ratio and natural frequency can be expressed as: √ 3k 3b ωn = . 3 Therefore. ωd = ωn ωd = 3k − mbar 1 − ζ 2 . 3 mbar l2 mspring 2 l .94 rad/s. it is treated as an additional equivalent mass meq = mspring /3 located at the end of the bar. ﬁnd the equivalent stiﬀness and equivalent damping of the beam (assume that the beam is massless). x1 ) (t2 .20 m.00 s. Problem 19: The non-uniform beam supports an end-mass of m = 10 kg.00 s x2 = 0. 8 b) The frequency of oscillation. reduces to: 2 3b 2mbar √ 15 rad/s = 1. Therefore the new moment of inertia of the bar about the point of rotation is: IO = = = mbar l2 + meq l2 . (t1 . Solution: 20 .For this system. + 3 3 (mbar + mspring ) l2 .25 m t1 = 1.

Problem 20: For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system shown in the ﬁgure: a) determine the governing equations of motion. x we ﬁnd that θ is related to the linear displacement of mass m as θ = 2r . b = 1. m 2 m . x(0) = 0. and the stiﬀness and damping constant reduce to: k = 24.a) The logarithmic decrement is deﬁned as δ = ln |x2 /x1 |. c) ﬁnd the response of the system x(t) subject to the initial conditions x(0) = x0 . T For this system. If T represents the tension in the cable supporting mass m. In terms of this quantity and the period of oscillation T . In addition. 4 b) The damping ratio and natural frequency are simply: b b =√ . T ζ= δ (2π)2 + δ 2 .12 N/(m/s). we ﬁnd that the the equivalent spring constant is keq = k .223. the equation governing the motion of the mass is: m¨ + bx + x ˙ k x = 0. Assume the pulley is massless and neglect the eﬀects of gravity.7 N/m. the damping ratio and natural frequency are deﬁned as: ωn = (2π)2 + δ 2 . T2 b = m 2ζωn = m 2δ . b = 12 (N · s)/m. and k = 9 N/m. in the ˆ direction. b) what are the damping ratio and undamped natural frequency of this system. ˙ when m = 1 kg. then T = kr θ. As a result. 4 As a result. we ﬁnd that T = 4 s and δ = 0. the stiﬀness and damping constants reduce to: 2 k = m ωn = m (2π)2 + δ 2 . ζ= 2 keq m km 21 ωn = √ keq k = √ . Therefore. where θ is 2 the angular displacement of the massless pulley from static equilibrium. 2r k r m c Solution: a) Let x represent the displacement of mass m in the vertical direction and θ measure the angular displacement of the pulley. both measured from the static equilibrium position.

81t .016e5. k = 48 N/m and c = 4 N/(m/s). . x(0) = 5.0t 1.81t + 0. the general solution is: x(t) = exp(−ζωn t) c1 exp (ωn ζ 2 − 1)t + c2 exp −(ωn ζ 2 − 1)t .0 and ωn = 3 rad/s.0 m/s. k. a) Determine the governing equations of motion.In terms of the given parameters. we ﬁnd that: F = (−6k x − 2c x) ˆ = m¨ ˆ = m aG . x is measured from the static equilibrium position. ˙ 6k x m 2c ﬁnd the resulting solution x(t) if m = 2 kg. the spring and damping forces can be written as: Fspring = −6k x ˆ. and the surface is frictionless. ˙ ı Using linear momentum balance on the block. we ﬁnd ζ = 4. ı Fdamper = −2c x ˆ.0 m. c) For an overdamped system. and with these initial conditions this reduces to: x(t) = x0 exp (−ζωn t) ζ+ ζ− 2 = x0 e −6t 2 ζ2 − 1 ζ2 ζ2 − 1 −1 ζ2 − 1 exp (ωn ζ 2 − 1)t + ζ 2 − 1)t . exp −(ωn √ √ 4 + 15 3 √15t 4 − 15 − 3 √15t 2 √ √ + e e 2 2 15 2 15 = x0 e−6. c)? c) For what value of c is the system critically damped? d) If the system is released with the initial conditions: x(0) = 0. Problem 21: For the spring-mass-damper system shown to the right.01640e−5. ˙ ı xı F 22 . b) What is the period of each oscillation in terms of the system parameters (m. We note that the damping ratio has no units. Solution: a) In terms of x.

¨ ˙ so that ωn = 12 rad/s. the equation of motion reduces to: x + 4 x + 144 x = 0. m c ζ=√ . the period of oscillation is simply T = (2π)/ωd . c) For a critically damped system. ¨ ˙ with ωn = 6k . yields: √ ccritical = 6km. the general solution can be written as: √ x(t) = A e−2 t sin 2 35 t + φ . and ζ = 1/6.and the equation of motion can be written in standard form as: 2 x + (2ζωn ) x + (ωn ) x = 0. 6km b) In terms of ζ and ωn . ζ = 1. Solving for A and φ. 23 . d) With these parameter values. φ = 0 rad. for this system. = 2π √ 6km − c2 √ sin 2 35 t m. the period reduces to: T = 6k m provided c2 < 6km. and solving for c. where ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2 . For these values. Therefore. where A and φ are arbitrary constants used to ﬁt the initial conditions. we ﬁnd: 5 A= m. 28 so that the general solution can be written as: x(t) = 5 −2 e 28 t 2π 1− c √ 6km 2 m .

c) what is the stretch in the spring when the system is in equilibrium? m k 2k b g Solution: We assume that the ˆ and ˆ directions are standard orthonormal basis in the horizontal ı and vertical directions respectively. x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring. the equation of motion for this system can be written: F = m (−¨ˆ) . Each block has mass m and the disk has moment of inertia I and radius r. x ˙ 24 . If the gravitational constant is g: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion which determine x(t). ˙ x Taking components in the ˆ direction. we obtain the governing equation of motion: m¨ + bx + 3kx = mg.Problem 22: For the system shown to the right. b) what is the period of the free oscillations? x k m (I. x 3k · xˆ + b · xˆ − mgˆ = −m¨ˆ. r) m Problem 23: For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system shown in the ﬁgure: a) determine the governing equations of motion. a) The forces due to the springs in parallel and damping are: Felastic = 3k · xˆ. b) what are the damping ratio and undamped natural frequency of this system. ˙ With the inclusion of the gravitational force. Fdamping = b · xˆ.

12 . l) θ k 4k Solution: a) The displacement of each end of the bar in the ˆ direction is: x± = ± l sin θ . the total moment produced by the springs about the center of mass G is: MG l2 ˆ (4k sin θ + k sin θ) k. 2 As a result. m 2 ωn = c) In equilibrium. b) ﬁnd the frequency of oscillation for the response. determine the time response of the system. the system is stationary. 2 3mk b 3k x+ ˙ x = g. m b .b) Dividing through by the mass m. = ml2 ¨ˆ θk. G (m. m m 3k . and θ(0) = θ0 . we ﬁnd: x+ ¨ so that: 2ζωn = which can be solved to yield: ωn = 3k . 4 = − Thus angular momentum balance about G provides: MG − 5kl2 ˆ sin θk 4 25 ¨ˆ = I G θk. Substitution into ˙ ¨ the governing equations yields: 3kxeq = mg. → xeq = mg . so that xeq = 0 and xeq = 0. m b ζ= √ . 3k Problem 24: For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system shown in the ﬁgure: a) ﬁnd the linearized governing equations of motion for small θ. 4 5kl2 ˆ = − sin θk. c) if the initial velocity is zero.

for the initial conditions given above. instead. m . 2 km 26 ωn = k = 3. approximately how long will it take for the the amplitude of free vibration to be reduced to within 2% of zero? Solution: a) Written in nondimensional form. θ+ m b) This system is undamped. yields the solution: θ(t) = θ0 cos 15k t. m ζ = 1 corresponds to critical damping. m c) This system possesses the general solution: θ(t) = c1 sin ωt + c2 cos ωt. 2 km ωn = k .For small angular displacements sin θ ∼ θ. so that: √ bcritical = 2 km = 12. b) For b = 24 we ﬁnd: b ζ= √ = 2. x ˙ as a model for a spring-mass-damper system with: m = 2. ˙ m m and so we identify the damping ratio and natural frequency as: b ζ= √ . the equations of motion are: x+ ¨ k b x + x = 0. Therefore the frequency of the oscillation is equal to the undamped natural frequency: 15k ω = ωn = . b = 24. and the governing equations of motion are therefore: ¨ 15k θ = 0. m Problem 25: We obtain the diﬀerential equation: m¨ + bx + kx = 0. a) Identify the damping constant b that gives rise to critical damping. b) If. which. k = 18.

Neglect gravity. l) c Solution: a) Using angular momentum balance about the ﬁxed point O. √ The dominant eigenvalue is λ = −6 + 3 3.0 −6 + 3 3 Problem 26: For the single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system shown in the ﬁgure. If the 3 spring is unstretched when θ = 0: a) ﬁnd the linearized governing equations of motion for small θ. that is. ℓ 2 k ℓ 2 θ (m. is given as: ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2.Therefore the eigenvalues of this system are: λ1.2 = ωn ζ ± ζ 2 − 1 = 3(−2 ± √ 3). we obtain: ˙ ¨ 3c θ + 3k θ = 0. is the damping ratio. For this system √ 3c √ . θ+ 4m m b) The frequency of oscillation. 3 4 Linearizing this equation about θ = 0. we ﬁnd: MO −kl2 sin θ − c l2 ˙ ˆ θ cos θ k 4 = IO αβ/F F. the damped natural frequency. the bar has mass 2 m and length l (so that IO = ml ). ζ= ωn = m 27 . and so the time t = τ required for the amplitude of the free vibration to be reduced to within 2% of zero is: τ∼ −4 √ ∼ 5. 8 km where ωn is the undamped natural frequency and ζ we ﬁnd: 3k . = ml2 ¨ˆ θk. b) ﬁnd the frequency of oscillation for the free response. 3 so that the equation of motion can be written as: ml2 ¨ l2 ˙ θ + c θ cos θ + k l2 sin θ = 0.

b) If the disk is released from rest with initial displacement x(0) = x0 . c) what value of the damping coeﬃcient b corresponds to critical damping? d) if k = 1 N/m and m = 4 kg. If the gravitational constant is g: a) what is the displacement of the spring at static equilibrium. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G. r) m 28 .so that the damped natural frequency is: ωd = 3k − m 3c 8m 2 . ﬁnd the displacement of the mass x(t) if the system is critically damped and started with the initial conditions x(0) = 0. x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring. ﬁnd the minimum value of the coeﬃcient of friction for which the disk does not slip. b) ﬁnd the kinetic energy of the system in terms of the coordinate x (and/or its velocity). b) what is the period of each oscillation. Problem 28: For the spring-mass-damper system shown to the right. x(0) = x0 . Each block has mass m and the disk has moment of inertia I. ˙ ˙ Problem 29: For the system shown to the right. r) x m 6k b x k m (I. a) Find the equations of motion for this system assuming that the disk rolls without slip. the disk has mass m. g x c G k (m. radius r. If the surface is assumed to be frictionless: a) determine the governing equations of motion. Problem 27: In the ﬁgure. x is measured from the static equilibrium position.

2 a) Find the governing equations of motion. we ﬁnd that the equation of motion (on θ) can be reduced to: 7mr2 4 ¨ θ+ cr2 4 ˙ θ+ 5kr2 4 θ = 0. For example. 140km 2 29 . 2 x2 = rθ.Problem 30: In the system shown to the right. Note that this answer is 4 not unique. c) The frequency of oscillation is given by ωd . linear momentum balance on the two blocks. which reduces to: ωd = ωn 1 − ζ2 = 5k 7m 1− c2 . if we had written the ¨ ˙ equation of motion as 7m θ + c θ + k θ = 0. Thus. and angular momentum balance on the disk yield: r − T2 r 2 T1 − kx1 − cx1 ˙ T2 + kx2 T1 = − mr2 ¨ θ. x = −m¨2 . b) What is the equivalent mass of the system. the pulley has mass m and radius r. the equivalent mass would be meq = 7m. We deﬁne the tension in the left and right cable as T1 and T2 respectively. b) Examination of the above equation shows that meq = 7mr . c) Find the frequency of oscillation for free vibrations of the system? r r 2 m m k k c Solution: ˆ a) Deﬁne θ as the angular displacement of the disk in the −k direction (clockwise). so that the moment 2 of inertia about the mass center is IG = mr . 2 = m¨1 . but depends on the equation of motion. x Eliminating the two unknown tensions from these three equations. and x1 and x2 as the displacements of the two blocks so that: x1 = r θ.

subject to these initial conditions. x ˙ k b ˙ x + x + x = 0. the damping ratio is: b . and the general solution to this equation. ¨ ˙ whose characteristic equation reduces to: λ2 + 13 λ + 9 = 0. b = 13 (N · s)/m: a) Find the resulting solution if the system is released from the unstretched position with initial velocity x(0) = ˙ −10. the block slides with no friction. 2 which has two real solutions of the form: λ= −13 ± 5 . stiﬀness. we ﬁnd that: ˙ c1 = 4 m. ζ= √ 2 km 30 e−(9/2 s−1 )t − e−(2 s−1 )t . x(0) = 10. a) With the given values for the mass.0 m/s.Problem 31: In the spring-mass-damper system shown. .0 m/s b) Identify the damping constant b that gives rise to critical damping. With m = 2 kg. becomes: x(t) = 4 m b) For this system. 4 Thus the system has two purely real eigenvalues and the resulting system is overdamped and decays exponentially with no sustained oscillations. the above equation becomes: x + (6. The general solution is given as: 9 x(t) = c1 e− 2 t + c2 e−2t . and damping coeﬃcient. For the initial conditions x(0) = 0 m. c2 = −4 m. Solution: x b m k For this system the diﬀerential equation of motion can be written as: m¨ + bx + kx = 0. k = 18 N/m. ¨ m m subject to speciﬁed initial conditions.5 kg/s)x + (9 kg/s2 )x = 0.

and solving for b with m = 2 kg and k = 18 N/m. ¨ ˙ 2 b) We can write this diﬀerential equation in standard form. the disk has mass m. we ﬁnd: bcr = 12 (N · s)/m. ˙ ı Using linear and angular momentum balance on the disk. ¨ ˙ with ωn = ζ=√ 2k . for a critically damped system ζ = 1. Solution: k g x b G (m. Problem 32: In the ﬁgure. is deﬁned as f = fˆ. while the forces due to the ı spring and damper are: Fspring = −kx ˆ. which is unknown. and using the kinematic constraint. we ﬁnd the equation of motion is: 3m x + bx + kx = 0. 2 Eliminating the unknown frictional force. a) The frictional force. 6km 31 . ˙ ı xı ˆ MG = (f r) k = F mr2 ¨ ˆ θ k = IG αβ/F F. r) ˆ We deﬁne θ as the angular displacement of the disk in the k direction as measured from the equilibrium position of the disk (when the spring is unstretched). a) Find the equations of motion for this system assuming that the disk rolls without slip. 3m b . that is: 2 x + (2ζωn )x + (ωn )x = 0. the rotation and translation of the disk can be related through the constraint equation: x = −rθ. b) What value of b correspond to critical damping? c) Find the displacement of the center of the disk when the system is critically damped and released from rest with x(0) = x0 . we ﬁnd that: F = (f − kx − bx) ˆ = m¨ ˆ = m aG . Assuming that the disk rolls without slip. ı Fdamper = −bx ˆ.Thus. radius r. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G.

where recall that ωn = (2k)/(3m). returning these to the general solution. and stiﬀness are: meq = m + I .If the system is critically damped. we ﬁnd: ˙ x0 = x(0) 0 = x(0) ˙ = c1 . damping. 32 . 0). and damping of the system. b) what are the equivalent mass. the solution to these initial conditions becomes: x(t) = x0 1 + ωn t e−ωn t . keq = k. the disk has mass m. Solving for c1 and c2 . If the disk rolls without slip (µ is suﬃciently large): a) determine the governing equations of motion. radius r. Problem 33: In the ﬁgure. and the applied moment has a constant ˆ magnitude M k. then this implies that the damping ratio is unity. r) ˆ M k x + cx + kx = − ¨ ˙ M . then the initial conditions are (x(0). r2 ceq = c. stiﬀness. we ﬁnd: √ bcritical = 6km. c) what is the stretch in the spring when the system is in equilibrium? Solution: a) The governing equations of motion are: m+ I r2 g x c G k (m. Thus. while this can be diﬀerentiated with respect to time to obtain the velocity: x(t) = (c2 − ωn c1 ) − (ωn c2 ) t e−ωn t . x) = (x0 . ˙ If the system is released from rest when a known initial displacement. r b) The equivalent mass. = c2 − ωn c1 . and moment of inertia IG about the mass center. the general solution takes the form: x(t) = c1 + c2 t e−ωn t . Therefore. c) When the system is critically damped. solving for b when ζ = 1.

c) When the system is in equilibrium. we also deﬁne z to be the stretch in the spring parallel with the cable system. how long will it take the block to come to rest? µ Solution: In addition to the variable x identiﬁed in the problem statement. ˙ı ˙ı −m g ˆ Tˆ ı Tˆ ı fr ˆ ı Nˆ −T ˆ ı Tˆ ı so that z = −2 x. ¨ 33 . the variables x and z are directly related. The relative velocity across the spring can be identiﬁed as F vB − vA F = z ˆ. kr 2 Frictionally Damped Systems ˆ Problem 34: The block shown to the right rests on a rough surface with coeﬃcient of friction µ and m = 6 kg. for what values of µ will the block remain in that position? b) With µ = 0.50. the tension T and the displacement z are related as T = k z = −2 k x. An appropriate free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. ˙ı = (−x ˆ) − (x ˆ) . Therefore the kinematic ˙ ˙ relationship becomes z = −2 x. As a one degree-of-freedom system. k = 128 N/m. examining the spring in the cable. if the block is displaced 30 cm to the right and released from rest. ı ¨ı and in terms of x the equation of motion becomes m x + 5 k x = fr . Finally. Applying linear momentum balance to the block yields −k x ˆ ı F F = (2 T − k x + fr ) ˆ + (N − m g) ˆ = m x ˆ = m aG . ˆ ı g x A k m k z B a) If the block is displaced 3 cm to the right and released. the displacement of the disk is: xeq = − M . Note that the ı unknown friction force is denoted as fr ˆ and the tension in the cable is T .

125. If the block is subject to a periodic force of the form F (t) = F0 sin(ω t). k = 20 N/m. the block slides on a rough surface (coeﬃcient of friction µ) inclined at an angle of φ with respect to vertical. 5k Problem 35: For the system shown to the right. ω = 2. so that equilibrium is maintained provided |fr | = |5 k xeq | ≤ µ m g. b) ﬁnd the amplitude of the steady-state response using Mc when m = 1. Do not neglect gravity. ˙ a) If the block is in static equilibrium at a displacement x = xeq .25 kg.If the block slips then fr = −µ m g sgn(x) while is sticking occurs |fr | ≤ µ m g. then xeq ≡ 0 and the ¨ equation of motion reduces to 5 k xeq = fr . a) ﬁnd the equations of motion.00 rad/s. φ k g m F (t) 34 . This inequality is satisﬁed provided |xeq | ≤ µmg . µ = 0. φ = 30◦ . F0 = 4 N.

k = 32 N/m. while the friction force has an unknown magnitude f . a) If µ = 0.Problem 36: [(Spring 2003)] The system shown in the ﬁgure has mass m and rests on a plane inclined at an angle φ. a) If µ = 0. F f − k x ˆ2 + N ˆ2 − m g ˆ = m x ˆ2 . ¨ N = m g cos θ. at what angle θ does the block begin to slip? c) Find the value of θ so that the system comes to rest after one full cycle exactly at the equilibrium position of the system found in part a (so that the friction force vanishes when the system comes to rest). µ ˆ k x ˆ2 ˆ2 ı m θ ˆ ı µ = 0. Solution: The unit directions ˆ2 and ˆ2 are deﬁned to be coincident with the inclined plane and ı the coordinate x represents the displacement of the mass from the unstretched position of the spring. Because the disk is assumed to roll without slip.35. what is the equilibrium displacement of the mass (as measured from the unstretched position)? b) For µ > 0. we are unable to specify the value of f . with: m = 2 kg. this leads to the following scalar equations in the ˆ2 and ˆ2 directions: ı m x + k x = f + m g sin θ. Notice that the force in the upper spring depends on z. ¨ı Therefore. The coeﬃcient of friction for the rough surface is µ and the system is released from rest at the unstretched position of the spring (with stiﬀness k). A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. linear momentum balance yields the following equations: F = m aG . ı ¨ı f − k x + m g sin θ ˆ2 + N − m g cos θ ˆ2 ı = m x ˆ2 . as shown in the ﬁgure. then the friction forces vanishes and the ﬁrst of the above equations reduces 35 . but instead can relate the displacement and rotation of the disk through the coordinate relations above. rather than x. −k x ˆ2 ı −m g ˆ N ˆ2 f ˆ2 ı Therefore.

. the block begins to slide when: tan θ = µ. mg 4µN = − sin θ = |z(0)|. if the system comes to rest at exactly the equilibrium position.to: m x + k x = m g sin θ. k Therefore. then this decrease in amplitude must exactly match the initial displacement. ˙ ˙ ﬁnd the range of x0 so that the system comes ˙ to rest after exactly one cycle of motion. if the system is released from x = 0. ¨ The equilibrium displacement of the mass. ¨ N = m g cos θ. an equilibrium state is maintained provided: f k x − m g sin θ ≤ µ N. c) Deﬁne z to be a new coordinate measuring the displacement of the system from static equilibrium: mg z =x− sin θ. for a frictionally damped system the amplitude decreases by a value: ∆A=− 4µN . xeq . k b) With µ = 0. then can be found to be: xeq = mg sin θ. ≤ µ m g cos θ. That is: |∆ A| = − Solving for θ: tan θ = 4 µ. If the initial conditions of the system are chosen to be x(0) = 0 and x(0) = x0 . k so that the equations of motion become: m z + k z = f. k k x g m k µ 36 . with initial displacement z(0) = −(m g sin θ)/k. Over one complete cycle of motion. Therefore. Problem 37: The spring mass system rests on a surface with coeﬃcient of friction µ and x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring.

k µ Solution: a) We measure the displacement of the mass from the static equilibrium of the frictionless F system. b) what is the period of each oscillation. If the block is stationary the magnitude of the frictional force is less than µmg.e. µ = 0. Thus linear ¨ı momentum balance yields: ı ı m¨ˆ = Fspringˆ + fµˆ + (N − mg)ˆ. xı The spring force is Fspring = −2kx. ˙ x| ˙ ≤ µmg x = 0. ˙ x m k b) Coulombic damping does not eﬀect the frequency of oscillation. the governing equations of motion are: m¨ + 2kx = fµ . Therefore.Problem 38: For the spring-mass system with Coulomb damping: a) determine the governing equations of motion. while the force due to sliding friction opposes the velocity and is simply: x ˙ fµ = −µmg .. which is simply: ω= 2k . = √ ω 2k 37 . i. m Therefore the period of the oscillation is: T = √ 2π 2π m .e.. so that the acceleration of the block is aG = xˆ. i. N = mg. |x| ˙ since the normal force balances the gravitational force. x with fµ |fµ | ˙ = −µmg |x |x| = 0.

c) if the system is released from rest with x(0) = x0 > 0. for what values of µ will the system move. Problem 40: For the spring-mass system with Coulombic damping. ˙ x = 0. c) what is the displacement (from the unstretched position) of the upper block when it ﬁrst comes to rest? Solution: 6k x m 2k µ x k m µ I=0 m Notice that x describes the displacement of both masses and. linear momentum balance on the upper ı and lower block yields: m¨ + kx = f + T. say T . the tension in the string connecting the masses is constant. If the coeﬃcient of friction is µ and the gravitational constant is g: a) determine the governing equations of motion. rather than from equilibrium. Therefore we include the gravitational force which will inﬂuence this result. a) With the frictional force deﬁned as F = f ˆ. ˙ 38 . x is measured from the static equilibrium position. x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring. d) ﬁnd the range of initial displacements so that the system comes to rest after one complete cycle. If the coeﬃcient of friction is µ: a) determine the governing equations of motion. x(0) = ˙ 0). notice that in part c we ask for the displacement from the unstretched position of the spring. b) what is the period of each oscillation. x m¨ = mg − T. b) if the system is released from rest in the unstretched position (x(0) = 0. what is the minimum value of x0 so that the block slips. since the pulley is massless. x where the frictional force is deﬁned as: x ˙ f = −µmg |x| .Problem 39: For the spring-mass-damper system shown to the right. ˙ |f | ≤ µmg. x = 0. Also.

that is. k This can be found by either solving the equations of motion explicitly. solving for µ with x(0) = 0. c) The displacement of the upper block when it ﬁrst comes to rest is: x1 = 2(1 − µ)mg . x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring. it will remain there provided the magnitude of the frictional force is less than µmg—the transition to movement occurs when |f | = µmg. or through a work-energy analysis. Problem 41: For the spring-mass system with Coulombic damping. ˙ b) If the system is released from rest in the unstretched position. If the coeﬃcient of friction is µ and the gravitational constant is g: a) determine the governing equations of motion. the system does move when: µ < 1.Eliminating the unknown tension T . the work done by the frictional force balances out the change in potential energy from the spring and gravity. Thus the system does not move is |f | ≤ µmg and x = 0. so that x(0) = 0. ¨ Substituting these conditions into the equations of motion we ﬁnd: |f | = |kx − mg| ≤ µmg. the equation of motion is given as: 2m x + kx = f + mg. x k µ x g m 39 . ¨ where f is deﬁned as above and depends on the motion of the system. for what range of initial ˙ displacements (from the unstretched position) will the block come to rest when the block ﬁrst comes again to rest (x(t1 ) = 0 for t1 > 0)? ˙ Solution: a) The equations of motion can be written as: m¨ + kx = f. Therefore. which. Since the initial and ﬁnal kinetic energy is zero. implies that the system does not move if µ ≥ 1. b) if the system is released from rest. the value of x.

that for sliding to occur: |x(0)| > µmg . the block sticks if and only if |x(t1 )| ≤ we ﬁnd that: µmg x(0) ≤ 3 . Sliding does not occur if the force due to friction is suﬃcient to balance the elastic force. when the block comes again to rest at time t1 (unknown). the system will undergo multiple reversals as the amplitude of the motion decays. the allowable range for x(0) is µmg < x(0) ≤ 3 µmg . k However. rather than remaining at rest. x ˙ . modeled by Coulomb’s law of friction as: f |f | = −µmg ≤ µmg. k µmg k . Therefore. solving for x(0).where f is the force due to friction. the mass is at the position: µmg x(t1 ) = 2 − x(0). ˙ b) If the system is released from rest. Consider the block sliding to the left (x < 0). |x| ˙ x = 0. that is. k At this point. k k 40 . the initial displacement must be suﬃciently large so that the block slides. k k Together with an identical argument for x(0) < 0 yields the total allowable range as: µmg µmg < |x(0)| ≤ 3 . m k Therefore. released from ˙ rest with initial displacement x(0) > µmg . x which has the general solution: µmg x(t) = x(0) − cos k k µmg t + . Thus the equation of motion becomes: k m¨ + kx = µmg. µmg ≥ f = kx(0). So for a block with x(0) > 0. if |x(0)| is too large. Thus. ˙ x = 0. solving for x(0) we ﬁnd.

we ﬁnd that the equation of motion for this system reduces to: I ¨ 2m + 2 x + k x = f + mg.Problem 42: For the system shown to the right. These additional coordinates are related to the displacement of the upper mass by the constraint equations: y = x. If the gravitational constant is g: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion which determine x(t). Each block has mass m and the disk has moment of inertia I and radius r. x = 0. r where f the value of the frictional force in the ˆ direction. yı ¨ Notice that I O = I = 0. can be written as: ı f= x ˙ −µmg |x| . ˙ 41 . θ. r) m We begin by deﬁning two additional coordinates. θ= x . what is the range of initial displacements x(0) so that the systems comes to rest after exactly one complete cycle? Solution: x k m µ (I. Taking the components of these equations and eliminating the unknowns (T1 . T2 ). b) what is the minimum value of µ so that the system slips when release from rest with x(0) = 0. The coeﬃcient of friction between the upper block and the table is µ. r a) On each mass the equations of motion can be written as: F = F − k x + T1 + f ˆ + N − mg ˆ = m¨ ˆ = m aG1 . F T2 − mg ˆ = −m¨ ˆ = m aG2 . |f0 | ≤ µmg. ı xı MO = F = ˆ T1 r − T 2 r k ¨ˆ = −I O θk = I O αD/F F. so that provided θ = 0 the tensions T1 and T2 are not equal. c) what is the period of the free oscillations? d) if the system is released from rest. x is measured from the unstretched position of the spring. while using the constraint equations. x=0 ˙ ˙ f0 . and y which measures the displacement of the hanging mass in the −ˆ direction. which describes the rotation of ˆ the disk in the −k direction (clockwise).

x) = (0. we resort to the value of f at static equilibrium. k k k 3 Forced Single Degree-of-freedom Systems 42 . 0). Since the system will come to rest within the range: − µmg µmg < |δﬁnal | ≤ . If we would like to ﬁnd the range of µ for which slip occurs. k k k k However. The amplitude of oscillation will decay by a value of ∆ = 4µmg/k over one cycle of motion. d) Let δ describe the displacement of the system from equilibrium. and so the allowable range k of x0 is: 5µmg mg 3µmg ≤ < x0 − . the equations of motion reduce to: ˙ ¨ kx = fstatic + mg. k k the initial displacement δ0 from the equilibrium in the absence of friction must be in the range: µmg 3µmg 5µmg µmg − +∆= < |δ0 | ≤ = + ∆. the equilibrium position corresponds to xeq = mg . Therefore. Therefore. Assuming (x. we ﬁnd: |fstatic | = |kx0 − mg| ≤ µmg. c) The period of oscillation for a frictionally damped system is identical to that of an undamped system. solving for µ yields: µ≥ kx0 kx0 . where fstatic represents the force required to maintain static equilibrium. this implies that µ < 1. Therefore: T = 2π = 2π ωn 2m + k I r2 . So for sliding to occur for x0 = 0. −1 = 1− mg mg which provides a necessary condition for sticking at x = x0 . Solving for this quantity and using the frictional inequality.b) The minimum value for slip is simply µmin = 0.

the damping ratio was measured to be ζ = 0. ℓ) k b k G M (t) f (t) ˆ 43 . for the isolator that you designed. a) Design an undamped foundation to achieve isolation ≥ 33% for all forcing frequencies ω > 3 π rad/s. 1 k = 8 N/m. ℓ = m. with b = 16 N/(m/s). 4 1 ω = 4 rad/s. (m. b) What is the steady-state amplitude of the forced response.Problem 43: For the system shown to the right the bar of length ℓ has mass m and is subject to a time-dependent moment of the form ˆ M (t) = M0 sin(ω t) k. b) If. M0 = N·m 16 Problem 44: The block of mass m = 20 kg shown to the right rests on a rigid foundation and is subject to a time-dependent load F (t) = f0 sin(ω t) ˆ. a) Find the equations of motion for this rotation of the bar. what is the minimum isolation achieved over this frequency range? m m = 3 kg.125 (rather than ζ = 0 as assumed above).

10 m M0 = 3 N · m. a) Find the equations of motion for the angular displacement of the disk. m = 5 kg.Problem 45: In the ﬁgure shown to the right. a) Find the distance between the center of mass of the system and the center of rotation.40 kg · m2 . c) determine the steady-state amplitude of vibration when the rotor spins at an angular speed of ω = 5 rad/s with: k = 256 N/m. m = 4 kg. b = 12 N/(m/s). I = 0. the disk is subject to a time dependent moment of the form M (t) = M0 sin(ω t). r = 10 cm k b r C m 44 . ω = 5 rad/s. b = 12 N/(m/s). k r ˆ M (t) k I r/2 m k b Problem 46: The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper. r = 0. b) With k = 280 N/m. b) what is the damped natural frequency. with a small rotating component (10% of the total mass) oﬀset by a distance r from the center of rotation C. Determine the steady-state response of disk as a function of time. The total mass of the structure is m.

00 s .10 m c = 3 N/(m/s) ω = 5 rad/s (m. b) What are the damping ratio and natural frequency for this system? c) If the system is critically damped. G a) Find the equation of motion in terms of the displacement between the moving plate and the center of the disk. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. r) g u(t) c k Problem 48: For the mechanical system shown to the right.Problem 47: In the ﬁgure. c. −1 k θ 2ℓ 3 ℓ 3 B O A m c f (t) k c = 0. Assume that the system is in static equilibrium at θ = 0. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G and is assumed to roll without slip. ℓ = 30 cm. the disk has mass m. 45 . k. u0 = 0. r = 0. and ℓ. the uniform rigid bar is massless and pinned at point O while a force is applied at A of the form f (t) = t e−σ t .25 N/(m/s). σ = 2. ﬁnd the amplitude of the relative displacement of the disk for m = 3 kg. ﬁnd the convolution integral for the response of the system.05 m. k = 36 N/m. You need not evaluate the integral. c) With m = 2 kg. and that all angles remain small. k = 50 N/m. b) Identify the damping ratio and natural frequency in terms of the parameters m. The attached plate undergoes harmonic motion of the form u(t) = u0 sin(ω t). radius r.

Find the amplitude of the vibrations of the block if f (t) = f0 cos(ω t). m = 3 kg. f0 = 40 N. a) ﬁnd the damped natural frequency. k = 64 N/m. b) what is the steady-state amplitude of vibration when the rotor spins at an angular speed of ω = 5 rad/s with: k = 108 N/m. x k m µ = 0.0 kg. with a small rotating component (10% of the total mass) oﬀset by a distance r from the center of rotation C.5 cm k b r C m 46 .05. The total mass of the structure is m.Problem 49: The block shown to the right rests on a rough surface with coeﬃcient of friction µ (assume that any cables can support compression and tension). r = 7. b = 9 N/(m/s). with m = 4. ω = 4 rad/s. m −f (t) ˆ Problem 50: The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper.

Problem 51: For the mechanical system shown to the right, the uniform rigid bar has mass m and length ℓ, and is pinned at point O. A harmonic force is applied at A. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion; b) Identify the damping ratio and natural frequency in terms of the parameters m, c, k, and ℓ. c) For: m = 6 kg, ℓ = 25 cm, c = 0.50 N/(m/s), k = 80 N/m, f0 = 2.00 N, ω = 10 rad/s, 4m f0 sin(ω t) c k B A θ

ℓ 2

O

ﬁnd the steady-state amplitude of the displacement of the block. Assume that the system is in static equilibrium at θ = 0, and that all angles remain small. Problem 52: In the ﬁgure, the disk has mass m, radius r, 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G and is assumed to roll without slip. The attached plate undergoes harmonic motion of the form u(t) = u0 sin(ω t). a) Find the equation of motion in terms of the angular rotation of the disk; b) What are the damping ratio and natural frequency for this system? c) If the system is critically damped, ﬁnd the amplitude of the rotation of the disk for m = 3 kg, u0 = 10 cm, k = 36 N/m, ω = 3 rad/s c G k (m, r)

g u(t)

47

Problem 53: The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper. The total mass is measured as m = 200 kg. When the system is operated at ω = 25 rad/s the phase φ of the response with respect to the rotation of the unbalanced disk is measured to be π/2 rad and the steadystate vibration amplitude is X = 2.00 cm. When the rotation rate of the disk is much larger than this value the amplitude reduces to X = 0.50 cm. Find the stiﬀness and damping constant for the foundation and the distance between the center of rotation C and the mass center G.

k

b

ε C

G

m

Problem 54: For the mechanical system shown to the right, the uniform rigid bar is massless and pinned at point O while a harmonic force is applied at A. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion; b) Identify the damping ratio and natural frequency in terms of the parameters m, c, k, and ℓ. c) For: m = 2 kg, ℓ = 30 cm, c = 0.25 N/(m/s), k = 50 N/m, f0 = 2.00 N, ω = 10 rad/s,

k θ

2ℓ 3

ℓ 3

B

O

A

m c

f0 sin(ω t)

k

ﬁnd the steady-state displacement of the block. d) What is the magnitude of the force transmitted to the ground through the sping and damper attached to the block? (Do not include the spring attached at A.) Assume that the system is in static equilibrium at θ = 0, and that all angles remain small.

48

Problem 55: The block shown to the right rests on a rough surface with coeﬃcient of friction µ and the block is subject to a compressive force of N = 20 N (do not include gravity, just this normal load and assume that any cables can support compression and tension). a) If f (t) = f0 = constant, ﬁnd the range of initial displacements for which the block will remain stationary if released from rest (it will stick). b) Find the amplitude of the vibrations of the block if f (t) = f0 cos(ω t), with m = 4.0 kg, r = 12.5 cm, f0 = 40 N, k = 64 N/m, µ = 0.50, ω = 4 rad/s.

x k

m

(m, r)

−f (t) ˆ ı

Problem 56: For the system shown to the right, the disk of mass m rolls without slip and x measures the displacement of the disk from the unstretched position of the spring. The surface is inclined at an angle of φ with respect to vertical. a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. Do not neglect gravity; b) what is the static equilibrium displacement of the disk? c) if the disk is subject to a periodic moment ˆ M (t) = M0 sin(ω t)k, ﬁnd the displacement of the center of the disk if it is released from rest at the unstretched position of the spring. φ

k x

(m, r)

M (t)

49

Problem 57: (Spring 2003) For the system shown to the right, the disk of mass m rolls without slip and the inner hub has radius ρ/2. a) Find the equations of motion (in terms of the given parameters—do not substitute in numerical values yet); b) If the applied moment takes the form: M (t) = (2 N · m) sin(4 t), ﬁnd the steady-state amplitude of the translation of the center of the disk when: k = 16 N/m, m = 2 kg, b = 2 N/(m/s), ρ = 0.125 m 2k

x z

ˆ ˆ ı θ

b M (t)

G k (m, ρ) C

c) Determine the steady state amplitude of the friction force. Solution: a) We identify the three coordinates x, z, and θ as shown in the ﬁgure above. These are related as: x = −ρ θ, z= 3 x. 2 −2 k z ˆ ı −b x ˆ ˙ ı −k x ˆ ı −m g ˆ ˆ M (t) k

An appropriate free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. Since the disk is assumed to roll without slip, the equation of motion can be directly obtained with angular momentum balance about the contact point C MC = I C αD/F , which yields ρ (k x + b x) + ˙

ı fr ˆ N ˆ

3ρ (2 k z) + M (t) 2

3 m ρ2 ¨ ˆ ˆ θ k. k= 2

Using the above coordinate transformations this equation can be written as 3m 11 k M (t) x+b x+ ¨ ˙ x=− . 2 2 ρ b) For the numerical values given above (with consistent units), this equation reduces to 3 x + 2 x + 88 x = −8 sin(4 t), ¨ ˙

50

5 so that φ = 0.20 rad = 11. ¨ ˙ With x(t) represented as x(t) = X sin(ω t − φ).from which we can identify the appropriate parameters as: ωn = 88 . solving for fr we ﬁnd that fr = m x + b x + 4 k x. where X and φ are found above. For these parameter values f = 6. the friction force was eliminated by summing moments about C. the phase shift of the response is: 1 2 √264 2ζ r = 1 − r2 1− 6 11 6 11 tan φ = = 1 .3◦ . the friction force becomes fr (t) = 4 k − m ω 2 X sin(ω t − φ) + b ω X cos(ω t − φ). 11 Therefore. The magnitude of the friction force is then found to be f =X 4 k − m ω2 2 + bω 2 . the amplitude of the translational oscillations becomes X= 8 F M(r. ˙ ı Therefore.47 N. 51 . 264 r= 6 . 3 ζ=√ 1 . Using linear momentum balance we can reintroduce the friction force as F ¨ı F = fr − k x − 2 k z − b x ˆ + N − m g = m x ˆ = m aG . ζ) = k 88 1 1− 6 2 11 1 + 2 √264 6 11 2 1 =√ . 26 Likewise. c) In the development of the equation of motion.

ﬁnd the amplitude of the force transmitted to the ground through combination of the spring and damper when ω = 4 rad/s. b = 0 N/(m/s)) for what range of operating speeds (ω) will the amplitude of the force transmitted to the ground FT be less than 1 N. ε = 2. and ℓ = 0. b) if c = 0. ﬁnd the value of the stiﬀness k so that the bar’s amplitude of oscillation is less than π/6 rad for all forcing frequencies greater than 20 rad/s.5 cm k b ε O G m c) If the system is undamped (i. with θ and z related as: 52 . the uniform rigid bar has mass m and pinned at point O.Problem 58: (Spring 2003) The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper. b) what is the steady-state amplitude of vibration when the rotor spins at an angular speed of ω = 8 π rad with: k = 32 N/m. k z ℓ 2 f (t) = sin(ω t) ℓ 2 m ˆ ˆ ı θ c Solution: a) In addition to θ. m = 2 kg. we deﬁne the additional coordinate z.e. and ℓ = 0. Problem 59: (Spring 2003) For the mechanical system shown to the right. c) if c = 0.25 N/(m/s). a) ﬁnd the damped natural frequency. m = 4 kg. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion (in terms of the given parameters—do not substitute in numerical values yet)..25 m. If the total mass is m while the mass center G is located at an eccentricity of ε from the the center of rotation O.25 m. which measures the deﬂection at the left end of the bar. b = 16 N/(m/s). m = 2 kg. k = 32 N/m.

k 2 + (c ω)2 k− m ω2 2 3 = + c ω 2 k = ℓ 2 + (c ω) 2 . mℓ The amplitude of the moment transmitted to the ground can be written as: MT = (meq M0 ) ℓ 2 1 + (2 ζ r)2 (1 − r2 )2 + (2 ζ r)2 1+ 1− c ω 2 k m ω2 2 3 k . the equation of motion becomes: ℓ m ℓ2 ¨ c ℓ2 ˙ k ℓ2 θ+ θ+ θ = f (t). The amplitude of the force transmitted to the ground is then FT = MT /(ℓ/2). 12 4 4 2 b) In standard form. we ﬁnd that: FT = 1. 12 k z1 ˆ f (t) ˆ G FR c z1 ˆ ˙ Solving for z in terms of θ. = m ℓ2 ¨ ˆ θ k. ζ= √ 2 km M0 = 6 . 53 . = 2 ℓ 1 k− m ω2 2 3 ω2 + c ω 2 k + (c ω) 2 .ℓ θ 2 A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. or: FT = k− k 2 + (c ω)2 m ω2 2 3 + (c ω) 2 . so that: ωn = 3k . Substituting in the numerical values given in the problem statement. m √ 3c . this equation of motion can be written as: ¨ θ+ 3c m ˙ θ+ 3k m θ= 6 mℓ sin(ω t).50 N c) The amplitude of the steady-state vibrations can be written as: Θ = = M0 2 ωn 2 kℓ 1 (1 − 1− r2 )2 m 3 k + (2 ζ r)2 1 2 . Applying angular momentum balance on the bar eliminates the appearance of the reaction force and leads to: z= MG f (t) − k z − cz ˙ ℓ ˆ k 2 ¨ˆ = I G θ k.

b) if the forcing takes the form: f (t) = f0 . rather than x. we are unable to specify the value of fr . the disk of mass m rolls without slip and x measures the displacement of the disk from the unstretched position of the spring. but instead can relate the displacement and rotation of the disk through the coordinate relations above. k m x 3k z ˆ ˆ ı θ f (t) ﬁnd the response of the system with zero initial conditions. 3 π Since this condition must be satisﬁed for all ω ≥ 20 rad/s. Because the disk is assumed to roll without slip. we ﬁnd that: Θ= 8 k− 2 ω2 3 Therefore. −3k z ˆ ı G −k x ˆ ı C ı fr ˆ f (t) ˆ ı 54 .Substituting in the numerical values given in the problem statement. 6 k− 2 ω2 . related as: x = −r θ. k≤ 3 π Problem 60: (Spring 2003) For the system shown to the right. z = 2 x. 3 48 π This inequality has two solutions: k≥ 48 2 ω 2 + . t0 ≤ t. while the friction force has an unknown magnitude fr . f0 /2. a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. Notice that the force in the upper spring depends on z. if the amplitude of vibration is less than π/6: 8 k− 2 ω2 3 ≤ ≤ π . A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. 0 ≤ t < t0 . π 3 k≤ 2 ω2 48 − . Solution: a) We deﬁne the three coordinates as shown as the ﬁgure. z = −2 r θ. we take the second inequality and ﬁnd that: 48 2 (20)2 − = 251.

so that: t θ(t) = 0 F (τ ) h(t − τ ) dτ. writing this equation in terms of a single coordinate. t > t0 . 26 k f0 1 + cos(ωn (t − t0 )) − 2 cos(ωn t) . 26 k 3m θ= 2 f (t) . ωn t > t0 . 3mr b) We use the convolution integral to determine the response. the solution becomes: x(t) = x(t) = 2 f0 1 − cos(ωn t) . sin(ωn (t − τ )) dτ. and for this system: F (t) = f (t) 2 f (t) = . so that: MC ˆ (3k z) 2r + (k x) r − f (t) r k ¨ˆ = I C θ k. t0 0 Evaluating these integrals. meq 3mr h(t) = 1 sin(ωn t) = ωn 3m sin 26 k 26 k t . the solution must be written separately for 0 < t ≤ t0 . = 3 m r2 ¨ ˆ θ k.The equations of motions can be developed directly with angular momentum balance about the contact point. ωn sin(ωn (t − τ )) f0 dτ + ωn 3m t t0 0 < t ≤ t0 . 3m Because the forcing function changes abruptly at t = t0 . 26 k 0 < t ≤ t0 . 55 . 2 Finally. and t > t0 : x(t) = x(t) = 2 f0 3m 2 f0 3m t 0 sin(ωn (t − τ )) dτ. we obtain: 3 m r2 2 In standard form: ¨ θ+ ¨ θ + 13 k r2 θ = r f (t).

with: keq = 1 2 k1 m keq b u(t) z 1 + 1 k2 = 2 k1 k2 = 4 N/m. with: m = 2.0 kg. ¨ z ¨ with u(t) = −(u0 ω 2 ) sin(ω t).0 N/(m/s). ¨ Therefore.Problem 61: (Spring 2003) The system shown to the right is subject to base excitation. ¨ ˙ ¨ and in standard form: 2 z + 2 ζ ωn z + ωn z = u0 ω 2 sin(ω t).50 sin(2 t) m Solution: a) We deﬁne the addition coordinate x which measures the absolute displacement of the mass with respect to the ground. 2 k1 + k2 The new equivalent system is shown to the right. linear momentum balance on the mass yields: F − keq z − b z ˙ = m aG . ¨ ˙ 56 . x k1 ˆ m k1 b k2 z ˆ ı u(t) = 0.00 N/m. k2 = 12. the equation of motion is: m z + b z + keq z = −m u(t). b = 4. F −keq z ˆ −b z ˆ ˙ ˆ = mxˆ ¨ Writing this in terms of z. Find the steady-state response of the system in terms of z. the acceleration of the mass center is: F aG = x ˆ = (¨ + u) ˆ. In terms of the identiﬁed coordinates.00 N/m. Notice that the collection of springs can be replaced by a single equivalent spring. k1 = 3. so that: x = z + u(t). An appropriate free-body diagram is shown to the right.

1 m. 1 ζ=√ . ζ). and ﬁnd the governing equations of motion when the disk rolls with and without slip. stiﬀness. so that ψ = 3. Finally: 1 z(t) = √ sin(2 t − 2. b) If µ is suﬃciently large so that the disk rolls without slipping. 57 g x c G k (m. 1 − r2 and r = ω ωn For the numerical values of this problem: ωn = √ 2.with: ωn = keq .03). keq m Therefore the steady state response of this system becomes: z(t) = Z sin(ω t − ψ). and damping of the system. 5 Problem 62: In the ﬁgure. ﬁnd the condition which determines if the disk rolls with or without slip. what are the equivalent mass. the disk has mass m. that is. then ψ is in the second quadrant. subject to an applied moment of the form: ˆ M (t) = M0 sin(ωt)k. tan ψ = 2ζ r . a) If the coeﬃcient of friction is µ. r) M (t) . r = 0. m = 1 kg. 2 r= √ 2. with Z = u0 Λ(r. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G. radius r. 5 tan ψ = 2 −1 Recall that the phase shift ψ must be positive. ﬁnd the amplitude of the steady-state motion of G. so that is tan ψ is negative. and k = 2 N/m. and: Λ= r2 (1 − r2 )2 + (2 ζ r)2 . m ζ= 2 b .03 rad. x(t). c) If again the disk rolls without slipping. with M0 = 4 N · m. so that: 2 Λ= √ . when the system is critically damped.

eliminating fµ from the above balance laws. b) After the transient solution decays. 2 r b) For M (t) = 0. the frequency of oscillation is the damped natural frequency ωd = 58 .Problem 63: In the ﬁgure. c) What is the steady-state amplitude of the forced response? d) Determine the amplitude of the frictional force during the steady-state motion. the disk has mass m. Linear and angular ı momentum balance on the disk yield: m¨ = −kx − bx − fµ . i. The disk is subject to a timevarying force f (t) = 4 sin(ω t). 2 where fµ is the unknown frictional force. while the translaı ˆ ˆ tional displacement of G is xˆ and the angular displacement is θk. a) Find the governing equations of motion. and. and moment of inertia IG = α m about the mass center G. b) Find the frequency of oscillation for the unforced response. If the disk rolls without slipping. r) g x b G k (m. g x c G k f (t) (m.e. M (t) = 0. r) ˆ M (t) k Solution: a) We assume that (ˆ. k) represent the standard orthonormal basis. we ﬁnd the kinematical relation x = −rθ. c) For what value of the damping ratio is this transmitted force less than twice the applied load for all values of the forcing frequency? Problem 64: The disk shown in the ﬁgure rolls without slip and is subject to a time-varying moment M (t) = sin(t). ﬁnd the amplitude of the force transmitted to the ground through the springdamper element. a) Find the equations of motion for this system assuming that the disk rolls without slip. radius r. we ﬁnd the governing equation of motion can be expressed as: M (t) 3m x + bx + kx = ¨ ˙ . x ˙ 2 mr ¨ θ = −fµ r − M (t). ˆ.

13 59 .555. 2 6km so that the damped natural frequency is ωd = = 0.577. c) In nondimensional form. the steady-state amplitude is: 3 2. we ﬁnd: fµ M (t) m x− ¨ . 3 ζ=√ 1 √ 3 b 1 =√ . 13 A= 2 F0 M = √ = 0. 1 − r2 −2 From the expression for angular momentum balance. 3m 3 Recall that the magniﬁcation factor for a harmonically driven system is: M= 1 (1 − r2 )2 + (2ζr)2 .ωn 1 − ζ 2 . 2 r 1 = − √ sin(t + φ) − sin(t). For this system we ﬁnd r = As a result. ¨ ˙ where ζ and ωn are given above. the system is represented as: 2 x + 2ζωn x + ωn x = F0 sin(t). = − 13 13 = and sin φ = √ 2 √ 3. ω where r = ωn is the frequency ratio. so that M = √2 . where: ωn = 2k = 3m 2 . 13 where cos φ = √1 13 so that the amplitude of the frictional force is: 4 |fµ | = √ . and: F0 = 2 2 = . where A is given above and: √ − 3 −2ζr = tan φ = 1 . 2 ωn 13 d) The response of the disk is x(t) = A sin(t + φ). 13 1 1 √ sin φ cos(t) + √ cos φ + 1 sin(t) .

a) The frictional force. If the disk rolls without slip (µ is suﬃciently large): a) ﬁnd the equations of motion for this system. is deﬁned as f = fˆ. deﬁned in the ﬁgure. r b) For the given values of the parameters. and k = 8 N/m. we ﬁnd that: F = (f − kx − bx) ˆ = m¨ ˆ = m aG .Problem 65: In the ﬁgure. the disk has mass m. x and θ are related as: x = −rθ. the steady-state amplitude may be easily found as: X = = 8 3 F0 M. which is unknown. b = 0. r) M (t) In addition to x. b) for m = 2 kg. 3 1 ζ= √ . 2 Eliminating the unknown frictional force. 60 . ˙ ı xı ˆ MG = (M0 sin(ωt) + f r) k = F mr2 ¨ ˆ θ k = IG αβ/F F. radius r. we ﬁnd the equation of motion is: 3m 2 x + bx + kx = − ¨ ˙ M0 sin(ωt). ı Fdamper = −bx ˆ. and using the kinematic constraint. we deﬁne θ as the angular displacement of the ˆ disk from the unstretched position in the k direction. 3r Thus. while the forces due to the ı spring and damper are: Fspring = −kx ˆ. 2 ωn − M0 3r − ω2 2 + ω 2 6 . If the disk rolls without slip. ˙ ı Using linear and angular momentum balance on the disk. 2 and moment of inertia IG = mr about the 2 mass center G. we ﬁnd that: 2 ωn = 8 . 8 6 F0 = − M0 .5 (N · s)/m. ﬁnd the steady-state amplitude of the rotation of the disk? Solution: g x b G k (m. subject to an applied moment of the form: ˆ M (t) = M0 sin(ωt)k.

2 m F The acceleration of the block with respect to the ground is aG = (¨ + z )ˆ. while AE = 16 N: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of z. so that. u 2 = 4ω sin(ωt).Problem 66: The mass m = 2 kg is supported by an elastic cantilever beam attached to a foundation which undergoes harmonic motion of the form: u(t) = 4 sin(ωt) m. If the beam has length l = 20 cm. the relative displacement between the mass and the foundation (assume the beam has zero mass). in u ¨ terms of z. b) For this undamped system. l 0. b) what is the amplitude of the resulting motion in terms of the forcing frequency ω? Solution: a) The equivalent spring for this cantilever beam is: keq = x ˆ m ˆ ı z u(t) = 4 sin(ω t) m 16 N AE = = 80 N/m. = 4ω 2 . |40 − ω 2 | 61 . the equations of motion become: m¨ + keq z z z + 40z ¨ = −m¨. the amplitude of the resulting steady-state motion is: X = 4ω 2 40 1 1− ω2 40 2 .

with ω = ωd . reduces the amplitude to: A=ε 1 − ζ2 4 − 3ζ 2 .Problem 67: The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper. If the total mass is m while the mass center G is located at an eccentricity of ε from the the center of rotation O. z ˙ m¨ − εω sin(ωt) = −kx − bx. Consequently. the mass center G is described by the position z(t) = x(t) + ε sin(ωt). m 4m2 b) For an arbitrary forcing frequency the amplitude of oscillation is A = εΛ. ζ with ζ deﬁned above. the governing equations of motion can be written: m¨ = −kx − bx. x ˙ 2 or in more standard form: x+ ¨ b k x + x = εω 2 sin(ωt). Note that ε measures the eccentricity of the mass center. 62 . which. where: Λ= ω2 2 (ωn − ω 2 )2 + (2ζωωn )2 . b) what is the steady-state amplitude of vibration when the rotor spins at this angular speed. ˙ m m k m a) In the above system we ﬁnd ωn = frequency can be written: ωd = ωn and ζ = √b . a) ﬁnd the damped natural frequency. As a result. not the location of the mass imbalance. ˆ k b ˆ ı ε O G x m Solution: We deﬁne x(t) as the vertical displacement of the geometric center of the rotor as measured from static equilibrium. 2 km so that the damped natural 1 − ζ2 = k b2 − .

Notice that each term has units of acceleration. However. c) for what forcing frequencies is the resulting amplitude of the steady-state motion Z ≤ 8? x g ˆ m ˆ ı k z u(t) = 4 sin(ω t) m Solution: a) We construct a free-body diagram as shown. the acceleration of the mass with respect to the ground is written as: F −m g ˆ aG = u + z ˆ. b) Using the above values for the natural frequency and the damping ratio. b) what is the amplitude of the resulting motion in terms of the frequency ratio r. F − kz − mg ˆ = m z + u ˆ. linear momentum balance takes the form: F = m aG . In what follows we will dispense with the explicit inclusion of the units. Thus we have frequency-squared excitation.Problem 68: The system shown in the ﬁgure is supported by a foundation that undergoes harmonic motion of the form: u(t) = 4 sin(ωt) m. m/s2 . and taking the component in the ˆ direction. we obtain the governing equation of motion: m¨ + kz z z + (4 s−2 )z ¨ = −mg − m¨. The only forces acting on the mass arise from the gravitational force and the spring force. and k = 8 N/m: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of z. For this system ωn = 2. ¨ ¨ −k z ˆ Substituting in the expression for u(t). ζ = 0.81 m/s2 + 4ω 2 sin(ωt) m. that is. u = −9. If the mass and stiﬀness are m = 2 kg. and the amplitude of the forcing is F = 4ω 2 . the relative displacement between the mass and the base (assume the spring has zero unstretched length). we ﬁnd that 63 . ¨ ¨ Therefore.

the damping ratio and natural frequency can be written as: b k . Solution: x F (t) = sin(ω t) N m k b The equation of motion for this system takes the form: x+ ¨ b k F (t) x+ x= ˙ . If the natural frequency is ωn = 4 rad/s and m = 1 kg: a) determine the spring and damping constants when the system is critically damped. 2 Zcr − 16 Zcr . Deﬁning Zcr as: Zcr = We may solve for r to yield: r = = . Problem 69: The single-degree-of-freedom system shown is subject to a harmonic force. . ωn = ζ= √ m 2 km 64 . |1 − r2 | c) If Z < 8 then this implies that: Z< 4r2 (1 − r2 )2 4r2 (1 − r2 )2 . 4r2 . Zcr − 4 Zcr Zcr + 4 . m m m a) In terms of the system parameters. where the amplitude Z is: Z = U · Λ(r. ζ) = U = r2 (1 − r2 )2 + (2ζr)2 . we ﬁnd that Z < 8 in the range: 0<r< 2 . Thus for Zcr = 8. 3 or r> √ 2.the forced response can be written as z(t) = Z sin(ωt + φ). 2 Zcr ± 4Zcr . b) determine the amplitude of the total force transmitted to the ground under steady-state oscillations when ω = 1 rad/s.

You may either use the convolution integral or you may try to solve this explicitly. 4k x F (t) m If the system starts with zero initial conditions. for this system: Ft = = F0 2 ωn 1 2 · ωn 1 + (2ζr)2 . determine the resulting displacement of the mass x(t). (1 − r2 )2 + (2ζr)2 √ F0 1 + (2ζr)2 8 5 = 1.So. Solution: The equation of motion for this system is: x+ ¨ F (t) 4k x= . t ≥ t1 . at which point it is removed. is ω 2 Ft = Xωn 1 + (2ζr)2 . t ≥ t1 . F0 2 mωn 65 . = F0 sin(ωn (t − τ )) dτ. which is deﬁned as Ft .05. the response of the system is: t x(t) = 0 F (ξ)h(t − τ ) dτ. 0. Thus. for a critically damped system ζ = 1. and solving for k and b we ﬁnd: k = 16 N/m. t ≥ t1 . m m which has an impulse response of the form: h(t) = sin ωn t . b = 8 N · s/m. where X is the amplitude of the response and r = ωn = 1 is 4 the frequency ratio. m Therefore. m ωn 0 ≤ t < t1 . mωn ωn = 2 k . that is: F (t) = ı F0 ˆ. t 0 τ 0 = F0 sin(ωn (t − τ )) dτ. = 17 (1 − r2 )2 + (2ζr)2 Problem 70: A constant force is applied to the undamped single degree-of-freedom system for a duration of t1 . 0 ≤ t < t1 . m ωn F0 1 − cos(ωn t) . b) The amplitude of the total force transmitted to the ground. 0 ≤ t < t1 . using the convolution integral. 2 mωn cos(ωn (t − t1 )) − cos(ωn t) .

If k = 12 N/m and b = 6 N/(m/s): a) ﬁnd the undamped natural frequency and the damping ratio of the system. c) what is the amplitude of the oscillations as t increases (i. which is pinned to a wall. The system is supported by a combination of springs and damper as shown in the ﬁgure.e.Problem 71: A mass m = 2 kg is rigidly connected to a rigid massless bar of length ℓ = 40 cm. the relative displacement between the mass and the base (assume the spring has zero unstretched length). b) what are the steady-state amplitude and phase of the forced response? ˆ b M (t) ˆ ı ℓ 2 m z2 θ z1 6k k 2k Problem 72: The system shown in the ﬁgure is supported by a foundation that undergoes an exponentially decaying motion of the form: u(t) = 16e−t/4 . b) ﬁnd the resulting solution z(t) if the mass is started from rest and the spring is initially unstretched (assume g = 10 m/s2 and use the convolution integral). u(t) → 0)? g m k z u(t) 66 . and subjected to a timedependent moment M (t) = 12 sin(t). and k = 45 N/m: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of z. If the mass and stiﬀness are m = 5 kg.

. b = 1 N/(m/s). f (t) = 0. r = 1 cm. b) What is the period of oscillation. ˙ k f (t) ˆ ˆ ı m b x ﬁnd the resulting solution of x(t) for the unforced problem. the disk is assumed to be massless while: m = 2 kg. 4 k = 4 N/m. f (t) m b Problem 74: In the mechanical system shown each spring is identical.e. determine the amplitude of the force transmitted to the supporting structure. 2r k r a) Determine the governing equations of motion. c) If f (t) = sin t. ﬁnd the amplitude and phase of the resulting motion as t → ∞. b) with the initial conditions: x(0) = 0. with spring constant k.Problem 73: In the system shown at right. i. 67 . c) with f (t) = sin(2t). If m = 1 kg: a) determine the spring constant k and damping constant b so that the unforced system is critically damped and the exponential rate of decay is τ = 2 s−1 . x(0) = 2 m/s.

Problem 75: The unbalanced rotor shown in the ﬁgure is pinned to a frame and supported by a spring and damper. a) ﬁnd the damped natural frequency. If the total mass is m while the mass center G is located at an eccentricity of ε from the the center of rotation O. ε = 0.2 m: a) Find the steady-state amplitude of the response when: b = 1 N/(m/s). k = 8 N/m ˆ k b ˆ ı ε O G x m what is the steady-state amplitude of vibration when the rotor spins at this angular speed? 2k Problem 76: The disk shown in the ﬁgure has mass m = 4 kg. 4k IG b r b) What is the amplitude of the oscillations when the system is critically damped? r 2 k 2k 68 . b = 0. If k = 2 N/m and r = 0.5 (N · s)/m. b) for: m = 4 kg. M0 = 12 N · m. and is subject to a time-dependent moˆ ment M (t) = M0 sin(t) k.1 m.

b) ﬁnd the amplitude of the steady-state response using Mc when m = 1. If the block is subject to a periodic force of the form F (t) = F0 sin(ω t).00 rad/s. the block slides on a rough surface (coeﬃcient of friction µ) inclined at an angle of φ with respect to vertical.Problem 77: For the system shown to the right. Do not neglect gravity. µ = 0. ω = 2. φ k g m F (t) 4 Multi Degree-of-freedom Systems Problem 78: For the system shown to the right a) use Lagrange’s equations to determine the equations of motion. k = 20 N/m.25 kg. c) determine the modal equations for this system. b) ﬁnd the mode shapes and natural frequencies of the system. a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. φ = 30◦ . F0 = 4 N. m 2k k 4m F (t) ˆ ı 69 .125.

d ) k 2 (m. The intermediate springs are located a disℓ tance 2 from the center of the bar. d) m f (t) 2k b Problem 80: For the system shown to the right a) use Lagrange’s equations to determine the equations of motion. b) ﬁnd the mode shapes and natural frequencies of the system. b) are your equations statically coupled. dynamically coupled. both or neither? k (4 m . Normalize the mode shapes so that u T M u = 1. b) Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of this system. c) Determine the modal equations. a) Find the equations of motion in terms of x1 and x2 . 4k 3m k m k k Problem 81: For the system shown to the right the bar of length ℓ is massless and the block on the right is subject to a time-dependent force of the form F (t) = F0 sin(ω t).Problem 79: For the system shown to the right a) ﬁnd the equations of motion. d) What is the steady-state amplitude of the in-phase motion? 70 x2 k G k k x1 m m F (t) .

c) determine the equations of motion that describe the response of each mode. Problem 84: (Spring 2003) In the ﬁgure shown to the right. For this system: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of x and θ (and in terms of the given parameters—do not substitute in numerical values yet). b) for α = β = 2. the uniform rigid bar is supported by identical springs. m = 2 kg. m k αk k k θ m. and ℓ = 0. ﬁnd the natural frequencies and mode shapes for this system.25 m. Determine the equations of motion for this system. Problem 83: (Spring 2003) For the system shown to the right: a) ﬁnd the equations of motion (and in terms of the given parameters—do not substitute in numerical values yet). ﬁnd the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system and normalize the mode shapes by M . in the absence of gravity the springs are unstretched in the equilibrium position.Problem 82: (Spring 2003) For the mechanical system shown to the right. b) if k = 64 N/m. ℓ x G ℓ 3 F0 sin(ω t) βm k2 x2 m b r2 IG θ r1 x3 z k1 ˆ ˆ ı x1 m k1 71 .

Solution: Because we can. z = x3 − x1 . we eliminate the coordinates z and x2 . we deﬁne ﬁve diﬀerent coordinates to describe the dynamical behavior of this two degree-of-freedom system. A free-body diagram for this system is shown to the right. r) m 72 . we eliminate the unknown tension T from the system to obtain: ¨ I G θ − m r2 x2 − b r2 x2 − k2 r2 x2 − k1 r1 z = 0. FR −k1 z ˆ k1 z ˆ F ˆ = m x1 ˆ ¨ ˆ = m x2 ˆ ı ¨ ı −k1 x1 ˆ From the equations on block 2 and the disk. determine the diﬀerential equations that govern the motion. leading to the following transformations: x2 = −r2 θ. Problem 85: For the system shown in the ﬁgure: a) what is the degree-of-freedom for this system? b) using Lagrange’s equations. We develop three equations of motion based on linear momentum balance on both blocks and angular momentum balance on the disk: Block 1: F k1 z − k1 x1 Block 2: F T − b x2 − k2 x2 ˙ Disk: MG T r2 + k1 r1 z ˆ k = I G αD/F . ¨ˆ = IG θ k = m a G2 . ¨ ˙ From this equation. and obtain the equations of motion to be: m x1 + 2 k1 x1 + k1 r1 θ ¨ 2 I G + m r2 2 ˙ 2 2 ¨ θ + b r2 θ + k1 r1 x1 + k1 r1 + k2 r2 θ = = 0. x3 = −r1 θ. 0. k x k 2m (I. and the equation on block 1. F −(k2 x2 + b x2 ) ˆ ˙ ı T ˆ ı −T ˆ ı = m a G1 .

using Lagrange’s equations. 2k3 )T . V = 1 2 2 which. because the disk and the suspended mass are connected by an inextensible string. = m g. ˙1 ˙2 2 2 2 1 1 k x2 + k (rθ − x1 )2 − m g x2 . 0) (0. x3 ) = (x1 . k2 + 2k3 .Solution: a) This system contains three masses which are each allowed to move in only one direction. 0) (0. Problem 86: For the system shown in the ﬁgure: a) ﬁnd the mass and the stiﬀness matrix. which represent the positions of the three masses. as measured from the unstretched position of the two springs. Maintaining a unit displacement of each mass in turn requires forces of the form: (x1 . (0. −2k3 . ˙ 2 2 2 r2 2 1 1 k x2 + k (x2 − x1 )2 − m g x2 . So this system has only two independent coordinates and therefore it is a two-degreeof-freedom system. and θ. 1) 73 → → → f f f = = = (k1 + k2 . −2k3 )T . 0. b) is your system of equations dynamically coupled. Thus eliminating θ. x2 and θ are related by the above relationship. x2 . x2 . b) We utilize the coordinates x1 . 1 2 2 However. (−k2 . x2 . x2 . However. x3 ) = (1. 0. their motion can be related by: x2 = rθ. or both? k1 m1 k2 m2 k3 m3 k3 Solution: We choose the coordinates (x1 . Finally. the kinetic and potential energies are written as: T V = = 1 1 ˙ 1 (2m) x2 + m x2 + I θ2 . we use the stiﬀness inﬂuence coeﬃcients. The upper mass slides horizontally with displacement x1 . the energies become: 1 1 1 I 2 T = (2 m) x2 + m x2 + ˙1 ˙2 x . statically coupled. x3 ) = (x1 . −k2 . x3 ). x2 . yields the equations of motion: 2m x1 + 2 k x1 − k x2 ¨ I ¨ m + 2 x2 − k x1 + k x2 r = 0. the suspended mass moves vertically and its position can be described by the coordinate x2 . a) To determine the stiﬀness matrix. 1. 0)T . Therefore. while the disk rotates through an angle θ. .

we can deﬁne the potential energy of the system as: V = = 1 1 1 (k1 )(x1 )2 + k2 (x2 − x1 )2 + (2k3 )(x3 − x2 )2 . ˙1 ˙2 ˙3 2 2 2 b) With this choice of coordinates. the mass matrix is: m1 M = 0 0 0 m2 0 0 0 m3 1 1 1 m1 x2 + m2 x2 + m3 x2 . 2 2 2 1 1 1 (k1 + k2 )(x1 )2 − (2k2 )(x1 x2 ) + (k2 + 2k3 )(x2 )2 2 2 2 1 1 − (2k3 )(x2 x3 ) + (2k3 )(x3 )2 . c) ﬁnd the matrix M −1 K . we could use the inertia inﬂuence coeﬃcients. Thus. or both. 2 2 which leads to the same stiﬀness matrix. b) is the system statically or dynamically coupled. the mass matrix is diagonal and the stiﬀness matrix contains nonzero oﬀ-diagonal terms. the system is statically coupled but dynamically uncoupled. Problem 87: For the system shown at right: a) determine the governing equations of motion. To determine the mass matrix.Therefore. with these coordinates the stiﬀness matrix is: k1 + k2 −k2 0 k2 + 2k3 −2k3 K = −k2 0 −2k3 2k3 Alternatively. but. k2 k1 m1 k2 m2 m1 k1 74 . we determine the kinetic energy as: T = Therefore. for variety.

0 N/m m2 = 1. k2 = 2. i. and stiﬀness matrices. c) ﬁnd the steady-state amplitude of vibration of the mode of vibration with the lowest natural frequency. Solution: a) Using inﬂuence coeﬃcients. normalized by the kinetic energy inner product.0 kg. so that 75 . k f (t) 2m k 2m k Therefore. b) what are the damped natural frequencies of this system. we ﬁnd that the mass and stiﬀness matrices are: M = 2m 0 0 2m .e.25. β = 0. ﬁnd: a) the mass.1 a) determine the eigenvectors of this system.. damping. with proportional damping. m = 2 kg. K = 2k −k −k 2k . k1 = 6. C = βM +αK . the damping matrix becomes C = αK .Problem 88: In the system shown to the right. If m1 is subject to harmonic forcing F (t) = sin t. the mass and stiﬀness matrix are: M K = = m1 0 0 m2 . c) the steady-state response of the system.0 kg. α = 0. If the system is subject to proportional damping with α = 0. Problem 89: The two-degree-of-freedom system shown is subject to a harmonic force applied to the block of mass 2m. and k = 4 N/m. with: m1 = 2.0 N/m. of the form: ı f (t) = (2 sin(t)) N ˆ. damped equation (singledegree-of-freedom) that describes the motion of each mode. −k2 k2 k1 + k2 −k2 while the damping is proportional. b) the forced.1.

and z. K = (4 N/m) 2 −1 −1 2 . frictionless surface.we ﬁnd: M = (4 kg) 1 0 0 1 . with z = x2 − x1 . b) with m = 1 kg and k = 16 N/m. 1 2 2 2 2 Therefore the equations of motion become 4 m x1 + 3 k x1 − k x2 ¨ 2 m x2 − k x1 + k x2 ¨ or in matrix form m 4 0 0 2 x1 ¨ x2 ¨ 76 +k 3 −1 −1 1 x1 x2 = 0. the kinetic and potential energies for this system can be written as T V = = 1 1 4 m x2 + ˙1 2 m x2 . the potential energy becomes V= 1 1 2 k x2 + k 1 2 2 x2 − x1 2 = 1 1 1 3 k x2 + − 2 k x1 x2 + k x2 . x1 z k 4m r 2k x2 2m Solution: a) We identify the three coordiantes x1 . ﬁnd the natural frequencies and mode shapes for the free vibration of this system. c) ﬁnd the general solution to these equations for the above values of m and k. Measuring the response from static equilibria and neglecting the gravitational potential energy. . Normalize the mode shapes so that with respect to the mass matrix the amplitude of each mode is one. If the pulley is massless: a) using Lagrange’s equations. ˙2 2 2 1 1 2 k x2 + k z2. = = 0. x2 . the block with mass 4m slides on a smooth. 2 −1 −1 2 . C = (1 N/(m/s)) Problem 90: In the multi-degree-of-freedom system shown in the ﬁgure. as measured from static equilibrium. 1 2 2 In terms of x1 and x2 . determine the diﬀerential equations governing the motion. 0.

1 −β 2 − 1 5 1 = β 2 − β + = 0. 4 4 so that ui = 1 4 βi − 3 ci u1 = 1 −2 c1 . c) With the above mode shapes and natural frequencies the general solution becomes q (t) = x1 (t) x2 (t) 2 = i=1 (Ai sin(ωi t) + Bi cos(ωi t)) ui . 77 . 4m u1 = √ 1 12 m 2 − √12 m . ω2 = k .b) The corresponding eigenvalue problem for the above system is M −1 K u =λu −→ k m 3 4 1 −2 −1 4 1 2 = k βu m The characteristic equation is 3 −β 4 with the solution β= 5±3 8 −→ λ = ω2 = k k . the mode shapes are deﬁned by the equation 3 1 ui1 + ui2 = βi ui1 . 8 4 4 Returning this to the eigenvalue problem. Solving for ci ci = 1 2 m (2 + (4 βi − 3)2 ) −→ c1 = 1 . Normalizing ui by the mass matrix implies that 1 = uiT M ui = c2 i 1 (4 βi − 3) 4m 0 0 2m 1 (4 βi − 3) . 4m m . the normalized eigenpairs are ω1 = k . c2 = 12 m 1 6m Finally. u2 = 1 1 c2 . m u2 = √1 6m √1 6m . A1 sin k t 4m + B1 cos k t m k t 4m k t m √ 1 12 m 2 − √12 m √1 6m √1 6m = + A2 sin + B2 cos .

Problem 91: For the system shown in the ﬁgure: a) ﬁnd the mass and the stiﬀness matrices. x2 . we ﬁnd that: m1 0 0 k1 + k2 −k2 0 k1 + 2k2 −k2 M = 0 m2 0 . x3 ) as the displacements of each mass with respect to inertial space. K = −k2 0 −k2 k2 0 0 m3 Alternatively. b) is your system of equations dynamically coupled. With the latter coordinates neither matrix is diagonal so that the system is both statically and dynamically coupled. 0 0 0 −m3 m3 0 0 k2 b) With the ﬁrst choice of coordinates. 1 2 2 2 2 2 Thus. the system is statically coupled but dynamically uncoupled. or both? k1 m1 k2 k3 m3 m2 k1 Solution: a) For coordinates we choose (x1 . where z represents the stretch in the spring connecting m2 and m3 . we can determine the mass and stiﬀness matrices from the Lagrangian. 78 . ˙1 ˙2 ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 k1 x2 + k2 (x2 − x1 )2 + k2 z 2 + k1 x2 . statically coupled. x2 . Using inﬂuence coeﬃcients. The kinetic and potential energies are: T V = = 1 1 1 m1 x2 + m2 x2 + m3 (x2 − x3 )2 . if we choose coordinates (x1 . the mass matrix is diagonal while the stiﬀness matrix is not. with these coordinates the mass and stiﬀness matrices become: k1 + k2 −k2 m1 0 0 k1 + k2 K = −k2 M = 0 m2 + m3 −m3 . z).

and right block be described as (−x1 ˆ). the system has two degrees-of-freedom. using the above kinematic constraint to eliminate θ. 2 a) What is the degree-of-freedom for this system? b) Find the governing equations of motion. ˆ (θ k). b) With the above coordinates. 2 x2 is independent from the above two coordinates. the Lagrangian becomes: L = T − V. the kinetic and potential energies can be written as: T V = = 1 1 mr2 ˙2 1 mx2 + mx2 + ˙1 ˙2 θ . = 0. the governing equations are: 3m x1 + 5k x1 − 2k x2 ¨ m x2 − 2k x1 + k x2 ¨ = 0. Although x1 and θ are related by the following constraint: x1 = r θ.Problem 92: In the system shown to the right. the mass and stiﬀness matrices can be written as: M =m 3 0 0 1 79 . disk. so that the moment 2 of inertia about the mass center is IG = mr . the pulley has mass m and radius r. 1 1 m 3x2 + x2 − k 5x2 − 4x1 x2 + x2 . 2 1 2 Thus. what are the frequencies of oscillation for the motion and the corresponding mode shapes. and (x2 ˆ) respectively. c) From the above equations. K =k 5 −2 −2 1 . ˙1 ˙2 = 1 2 2 2 Using Lagrange’s equations of motion. Therefore. normalized by the kinetic energy inner product? k r r 2 k m m Solution: a) Let the displacement of the left block. c) If m = 1 kg and k = 4 N/m. 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 kx + k(x2 − rθ)2 .

a) Using Lagrange’s equations. A = M −1 K becomes: A= k m −2 5 3 2 −3 1 . u)M = u 3u2 + u2 2 1 Problem 93: For the system shown in the ﬁgure. if β is a solution to this equation. the surface is assumed to be frictionless.The characteristic matrix. determine the diﬀerential equations governing the motion (measured from static equilibrium). we ﬁnd that: ˆ u= u (u. r) k m 80 . 3 Normalizing by the kinetic energy inner product. and the characteristic equation can be written as: β2 − 8 1 β + = 0. this yields: u2 = 1∓ √ 13 2 for β= 4± √ 13 . The elements of u then satisfy the equation: 2 5 u 1 − u 2 = β u1 . if u1 = 1. λ = m β is an eigenvalue of the characteristic matrix A. 3 3 Thus. we return to the characteristic matrix A. so that Au = λu. 3 To determine the eigenvectors. b) Find the mode shapes and natural frequencies of the resulting motion. k 4m (m. 3 3 k where. This quadratic equations has solutions of the from: √ 4 ± 13 β= .

and identify the mass and stiﬀness matrices. z = r θ − x2 . If each block is displaced by a distance d (down and to the right). b) If m = 2 kg and k = 4 N/m.62 rad/s. and z as shown in the ﬁgure. ω2 = 2. θ.41 rad/s. Problem 95: For the system shown in the ﬁgure. x2 .38 rad/s. x1 (m. the surface is assumed to be frictionless. and x3 . m Find the corresponding mode shapes and normalize them so that (ui . c) Determine the forced. ﬁnd the resulting motion of the system. ui )M = 1. x2 . so that x1 = −r θ. 81 . a) Find the equations of motion in terms of the coordinates x1 . the natural frequencies of the system are found to be: ω1 = 0. uncoupled equations of motion for the modal amplitudes Qi (t). k m θ f (t) m k m 2k 2k ω3 = 1.Problem 94: The multi-degree-of-freedom system shown in the ﬁgure is subject to harmonic forcing of the form f (t) = sin(4 t). r) k m z x2 Solution: We deﬁne the coordinates x1 .

K =k 2 1 1 1 with q (t) = x1 (t) x2 (t) and the equations of motion are: m 0 3 2 0 1 x1 ¨ x2 ¨ +k 2 1 1 1 x1 x2 = 0. ˙2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 V= k x2 + k (−x1 − x2 ) = 2 k x2 + 2 k x1 x2 + k x2 . 3 β. 3m 2k m With this. the kinetic and potential energies can be written as T = 1 1 m r2 ˙2 1 θ + m x2 + ˙1 m x2 . we obtain 1 m x2 . V= 1 2 2 Expressing these only in terms of the coordinates x1 and x2 . u2 = √ 2 10 m √ 2 10 m . (M −1 K ) u = m 1 1 which is determined from the characteristic equation det M −1 K − λ I with λ = k m = k m 4 −β 3 (1 − β) − 2 = 0. The solution to this equation requires the solution of an eigenvalue problem of the form 4 2 k 3 3 u = λ u. ˙2 2 2 2 2 1 1 k x2 + k z2. the eigenvectors are determined by returning to the original eigenvalue equation 4 2 3 βi − 4 ui1 ui1 3 3 .With these coordinates. the mass and stiﬀness matrix can be identifed as M =m 0 3 2 0 1 . Solving for ui1 the normalized eigenvectors are u1 = √ 2 15 m 3 − √15 m . −→ ui2 = ui1 = βi ui2 ui2 1 1 2 In addition. 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 T = 1 2 3m 2 x2 + ˙1 Therefore. 82 . 2 3 −→ ω= k . This quadratic equation has the solution β= 7±5 = 6 1 . normalizing the eigenvectors by the mass matrix 1 = uiT M ui = ui1 ui2 3m 2 0 0 m ui1 ui2 = m u2 i1 6 + (3 βi − 4)2 4 .

Premultiplying by uiT M yields uiT M q (0) = uiT M ui Bi . the constants are directly solved to be A1 = 0. ˙ uiT M q (0) = uiT M ui (Ai ωi ).T T One can easily verify that both u1 M u2 = 0 and u2 M u1 = 0. Since uiT M ui = 1 from our normalization. ﬁnd: a) the equations of motion. 83 . Problem 96: The two-degree-of-freedom system shown is subject to a harmonic force applied to the block of mass 2m. the solution to the speciﬁc initial conditions becomes q (t) = x1 (t) x2 (t) = d 5 cos k t 3m 4 −6 + cos 2k t m 1 1 . k x1 f (t) 2m k z x2 m 2k Solution: a) We deﬁne the coordinates x1 . which are related as z = x2 − x1 . x2 . and k = 4 N/m. of the form: f (t) = (2 sin(t) N) ˆ. B1 = 6 d m . b) the forced. ˙ q (0) = 0 0 . 15 A2 = 0. The general solution is written as 2 q (t) = i=1 Ai sin(ωi t) + Bi cos(ωi t) ui subject to the initial conditions q (0) = d −d . The equations of motion become m 2 0 0 1 +k 2 −1 −1 3 = f (t) 0 . B2 = d m 10 Finally. ı If the mass and stiﬀness of the system are assumed to be m = 2 kg. and z. damped equation (singledegree-of-freedom) that describes the motion of each mode.

¨ Q2 + √ √ ( 8+ 3) k √ 2m 2 Q2 = f (t) √ . 14−4 6 while the response of the second mode is governed by T T T ¨ u2 M u2 Q2 + u2 K u2 Q2 = u2 f (t). u1 = √ ω1 = . Finally. T u1 f (t) 2 ¨ Q1 + ω1 Q1 = u T M u1 . 6−2 2m √ √ ( 8 + 3) k √1 √ .b) The corresponding eigenvalue problem can be written as M −1 K = k m 1 −1 2 −1 3 u= k β u m and the characteristic equation becomes (1 − β) (3 − β) − 5 1 = β 2 − 4 β + = 0. the eigenvectors satisfy the equation ui1 − so that √ √ ( 8 − 3) k 1 √ . 1 ui2 = βi ui1 2 −→ ui2 = 2 (1 − βi ) ui1 ¨ Q1 + √ √ ( 8− 3) k √ 2m 1 Q1 = f (t) √ . T u2 f (t) 2 ¨ Q2 + ω2 Q2 = u T M u2 . u2 = −( 6 + 2) 2m For each eigenvector the kinetic energy inner product is √ √ T T u1 M u1 = 14 − 4 6. 2m 2m . the modal equation for the ﬁrst mode can be written as T T T ¨ u1 M u1 Q1 + u1 K u1 Q1 = u1 f (t). 2 2 This quadratic equation has the solutions β =2± 3 . 14+4 6 84 . Returning to the eigenvalue equation. u2 M u2 = 14 + 4 6. ω2 = . 2 −→ ω = 2 √ √ √ √ ( 8 − 3) k ( 8 + 3) k √ √ .

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