W O M A N,











Author of "Science cf Life;" a Treatise on Diseases of the Throat and Lungs; Consul tin;; Phj'^sician of the Peabody Medical Institute; late Surgeon of the U. S. A., etc.

Honored be woman she beams on the sight, Graceful and fair, like a being of light; Scatters around her wherever she strays, Roses of bliss on our thorn-covered ways,

To bo woven and twined

Roses of Paradise, gathered above. in a garland of lovo



BuLFiNCH Street.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869,





Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts,

Pratt Broth bus,

Printers, 37, Cornhill, Boston.



Preliminary Remarks



— Woman
— — — — —


The Woman's Rights Question The Author's Stand-point purely Physiological and Professional Peculiar Hardships of Woman Character of our Current Life Object of the Present Work Woman's Sphere Woman's Destiny.

ning of Life


Mystery of Life Whether Adam and Eve had a Navel — The Greatest Mystery — The Begin-


— God


continues to Create Species.



Philosophy and Hygiene


Women — Author's

The Principle of Sex runs through Nature Marriage the Foundation of the Family and the State Why People do not Marry No Genuine Life for Man without Woman; and vice versd. Modes of Courtship Value of Beauty to Woman Quotation from Milton Marriageable Age of

— —


Beautiftl Offspring


Elizabeth of Brunswick; her Beauty Mothers should be Surrounded by Beautiful Objects of Art Beauty begets Beauty Effects of Christianity on Personal Beaut}'.





The Young Girl at Puberty and Licentious Novels.


be Closely

Watched— Boarding


Physiolog;ical Definition of Menstruation


Twenty Days in each Month

— Suppression


— Woman an Invalid Fifteen and — Premature Puberty — Age of Menstruation Menses; Causes of — Obstruction from Malfor-




Maternity (Physiologically Considered)

— Transmission of Qualities — Quickening — Duration — Parturition — Natural Labor — Unnatural Labor.



Foetal Child

— Nutrition of — Monstrosities — Mother's Marks.



The Period of Infancy Changes after Birth Cities Deleterious to the Young. Infancy

— Great

Mortality in



Induced Abortion Nullifies the Purposes of Deity The Maternal InJohn Stuart Mill's Opinion of ProgMaternity Unfashionable stinct eny and Love between the Sexes Dr. II. R. Storer's Prize Essaj^ The Confessional Saves Thousands of Infant Lives Serious Consequences of Abortion, Moral and Physical The Production of Abortion a Felonious Act More Dangerous than Ordinary Child-bed Ignorance as to TruQ Character of Wilful Abortion.

— —






Value to Woman


The Sort of a Woman to Marry Sidney Smith's Opinion Domestic Happiness and Good Looks Milton's Eve Madame de Stael, and Mary, HysQueen of Scots — What makes Beauty Bulwer Lytton's Opinion

terical Wives.

General Hygiene of Women


Women Sensitive to Atmospheric Changes — Stimulating Pood and Drinks to be avoided — Perfumes Deleterious — Influence of the Passions and Feelings on Health — Rural Pursuits — A Quotation from Michelet'S




The Social Vice

— Society Discourages Investiga— Prostitution has Tainted the Blood of tlie Race with its Diseases Prostitution in the United States — Our late Civil War increased the Vice— Perils and Shortness of a Courtesan's Life — More than Two-Thirds of the Courtesans Diseased — Possibility of Checking the Social Vice.
Remarkable Ignorance of the Subiect

The Social Scourge (Historical)
The Venereal Plague — The
stition in regard to Origin of Syphilis.

in 1495

Century— Naples,

— Super-

Youth — Disappointed Love


— Early Betrothals and Long Engagements— Corpulence — Marriage Excesses — Solitary Vice — Ignorance among Married People — Author's Experience — January and May — Sexual

Sexual Loye
Object of Sexual Love



— Prevention

— Wrong to

Propagscte Misery

— Nature's




250 The Womb. 225 Woman in The Sexual Feeling in the Female Abeyance — A Vile Aspersion— CHAPTER Prevention of Conception XIX. Cleanliness. . CHAPTER The Sexual Feeling Modest Woman. The Change of Life . CHAPTER The Female Sexual Organs XXII. Causes of Falling of the The Barrenness. Cosmetics Sudden Changes of Garments Dress of Fallen Decency Dress The Corset a Support Tight Dresses Effect Females should be Loose Fashionable Dress and the Organs of Maternity on Heart and Lungs Costumes for different Quotations from Distinguished Female Writers Fresh Water as an article of the Female Toilet Styles of Beauty The Mystery of Belladonna Mostly Hurtful Modern Cosmetics — — — — — — — — — — — — — Cleanliness.Yiii CONTENTS. XX. — Womb — Sterility or — — — — — — . 230 A Mooted Question — Author's Experience — A Dangerous Doctrine. in XVIII. 283 Impotence. Causes of Sterility in Prostitutes Treatment Their Effects commonly Injurious Use of Aphrodisiacs No Signs to distinguish Fruitful Women. 270 CHAPTER Barrenness Two Kinds of Natural Barrenness XXIII. the Starting-point of Hysteria — Predisposing Causes of Hysteria — Women subject to Hysteria — Symptoms — The End of the Fit — Treatment — Green-sickness — Erotomania. 219 A Delicate Period Life Crowds and Early Infractions of the Laws of Health Punished at — — Quack Medicines to be avoided — Siiould avoid Feather Beds — This Period passed — Prospect of a Long this Time. 234 CHAPTER Dress. CHAPTER XVIL Page. CHAPTER The Hysterical Malady XXI.

Whites sometimes Epidemic 296 — — — — — CHAPTER XXV. . 334 . The Nertes. and Neryous Diseases. . CHAPTER XXVI. . .CONTENTS. 310 Why Female Sexual Organs are more Subject to Disease than the Male — The Womb. . the Centre of Impressions rare in Virgins — First Variety of Prolapsus — Why — Second Variety — Third Variety — Exciting and Predisposing Causes — Treatment — Concealment through False Modesty Eflect of — Presence of Foreign Bodies in Vagina. Whites Definition of Large Cities productive of— No Age free from it Moist "Womb. Diseases of the Womb. Centre of Morbid Action in Females Climate promotive of Suppression of Whites. Page. especially Falling of the Womb .. ]x CHAPTER XXIV. Diseases of Pregnancy 320 The Author's Aim tion — Cases of Supposed Pregnancy — Depraved Concep— Moles — Salivation — Capricious Appetite and Longing of Pregnant Women.. . . CHAPTER XXVII.


" a medical treatise on nervous and physical debility. [From the Evening Standard. Hayes to accomplish both these objects. Self-Preservation. published Friday. Aug. or. impotency. which is a medical treatise on nervous and physical debility. with illustrations. [From the Waterville Mail. Aug. we presume. and sterility.. Dr. editorial. and happiness. 22. . or. and in so far as he is successful in it. D. Self-Preservation. It seems to be the object of Dr. by one of the most learned and popular physicians of the day. Proprietors .C. premature decay and death. John M. published Saturday. Hayes. but far more to induce the young of both sexes to keep to the paths of virtue.] "The Science of Life. [Prom the Eastern Argus. No. ' xi .' " Edward Anthony & Sons.] The " Science of Life or. he will have the thanks of every friend of his race. Boston. with practical observations on the treatment of the generative organs. than which there can be no higher authority. Vice-President of the Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons at WashPublished by the author. Hayes. Doctor of Medicine. Maine. of Boston." Dr. may be those regarded as reliable as any physician may give. It is highly spoken of by the faculty. 22d. Hayes has a high reputation. Maine. says. and the information which he gives in this volume. Hayes's new medical work. Proprietors . M. editorial. Self-Preservation.OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. If the young and middle-aged would avoid mental depression. health.. let them read Dr. " this is a truly scientific and popular treatise. The Medical and Surgical Journal. Bulfinch Street. all nervous disease. editorial. honorary member of the American Medical Society. Albert H. New Bedford. 21. Messrs. which is advertised in our special column. entitled The Science of Life. has published a volume of 280 pages with the above title.D. It is humane to relieve who are paying the penalty of vicious courses.. as it furnishes important information in a much neglected department. ington. with practical observations on the treatment of disease of the generative organs.] The " Science of Life. is a valuable work for old and young. spermatorrhoea. Adams & Co. Waterville. Hayes's new book. The character and object of this book is fully indicated by the title. 4." Dr. Portland. Aug. published Saturday evening. Maxham & Wing. Proprietors . &c. by Albert H.

Calais. 25. 22. Aug. Aug. Lancaster. Hayes. Self-Preservation " a medical treatise on nervous and physical debility. old and young. or. rial. Aug. [From the Daily Eriening News. Its possession will amply repay the outlay necessary to obtain it. 25." a medical treatise by Albert H. Calais. [From the Coos Republican.H.] The "Science of Life. N.D." has been received by us. [Prom the Calais Advertiser. and contains several plates. or. of undoubted value. & Co. or. Milne. . Maine. Almir. Kent. . Henry O. Proprietor . It is a neat little volume. of Boston. and as such.] The medical work advertised in another column by Dr.. It should be read by every one. . Hayes has had a very extensive experience as a medical practitioner and lecturer. Self-Preservation. published Saturday.Xii OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. Self-Preservation. and in this treatise he has condensed the results of his observations.] The " Science of Life. Dr. It is the authoritative opinion of a qualified practitioner. The book is neatly printed. Send for a copy. editorial. editowill have a wide influence. and entitled the " Science of Life . Published by John Jackson. This work contains valuable information in reference to the physical organization of man. M. Maine. Hayes. Fall River. through the land. and conveys to the minds of inquirers information that will enable them to avoid the terrible dangers to which the unwary are exposed. Published by the author.



by experience correspondence and other- wise. Portuguese languages. XV . OF or. has afforded oppor- and observations. comprehending especially those which interfere with the efficient discharge of the mutual Author's ri^nce. Spanish. I am confident that the treatise work in question contains everything essential to be popularly known to the male sex upon the management and preservation of the reproductive functions.PHELIMINARY REMARKS. German. The of following work on the is to Sexual Physiology be regarded as a pendant of an earlier work from my pen. etc. Dutch. Italian. but in the tions of the French. S elf-Preservation. not only in English. These were introduced into the bodj^of the work (" Science of Life") and tunities for the collection of facts . Spermatorrhoea. as its title indicates. entitled " The Sciexce Woman Life . not accessible to others. was intended more particularly for Numerous editions of that work have Foreign males. been called for. That work. of functional disorders amongst persons placed in the most diversified circumstances. An in unusually prolonged and varied the treatment. and Life. Impotence." —a medical on Nervous and Physical Debilitj'. and the cure of the infirmities to which they are subject. to the frigid latitudes of the extreme north. and the publicity of which has been very beneficial. from the sultry skies of the torrid zone. obligations of marriage.

should be diffused as extensively as possible. their irregularities and infirmities. difficulties. in good time. where attention has been paid to For reasons which must occur to every intelligent man of the world. pointments of matricircles. judicious instructions. during the various stages of life. unless in some extraordinary combination of unfavorable circumstances. in the present work and first.XVI PREL IMIKA RT RE MA RKS. pointed for years. in but few instances. as well as of Disapmatrimony. second. have been repeatedly realized and. and that these means do not fail. It is and disappointments of well known in scientific mony. ivJie7i in health. after being postponed and disapas possible. the un- natural or abnormal condition of these organs. in both popular and its scientific language. luhen in disease." relate to the objects. What the present worlc and its predecessor explain. the true principles of the treatment and cure of the functional diseases . its difficulties . no pains were spared reallj^ in condensing. it is sometimes of extreme importance that matrimon}should be blessed. while the objects for which marriage is contracted are as nearly universal and uniform and disappointments are innumerable but it ought to be equall}^ well known. predecessor. from every trustworthy source. I have explained fully. that my now " Science of Life. that nature and experience command the means of overcoming them. has the desired result not been fulfilled. the natural conditions and functions of the reproductive organs in both sexes. Not work. such facts and suggesthe least important portions of the present tions as were likely to prove useful. The hopes and wishes of married persons. and the causes thereof. third. with healthy and it is therefore desirable that the offspring knowledge of the special fact above indicated .

in both this and my former work. practical instruction upon the management of special organs embraces measures conducing to the benefit of the general health. have found a large portion of its contents iden- Some with the text of chapters written by myself. into which the very latest additions to the stock of physiological knowledge have been incorporated from the highest authorities in both hemispheres. who." or.PRELIMINARY REMARKS. that — is to maintain a well-poised equilibrium in both. and of the restoration and preservation of the faculties mainly concerned in realizing the objects xvii of wedlock. As is shown. which aim at completeness and exhaustive treatment of the subject. or regular medical education. From works on generative complaints. undertake the treatment of an intricate and dangerous class of diseases. Thus. should contemplate the state of the whole frame. "pirated. m}^ first book has been unceremoniously " appropriated." by individuals who. still the necessity of drav/ing a and increase more marked and . and a prominent function of the healthful reproductive sj'-stem this it is apparent. in fact. This has been carried so far as to create quite a perplexity in the minds of many. Whilst I have been preparing the following work on the Ph3'siology and Pathology of Woman for the press. misconception and inconvenience have this been caused by circumstance. of the entire physical and mental economy. drawn to the extent to which ^"*^o'*'s pi^^ated. without solid qualification. the reacting relations between mind and body never cease. in plain English. including my attention has been new discoveries of my own. upon reading one tical of the disreputable j^ublications alluded to. of the reproductive organs.

Jealousy of I prolesBional cllques." has no business to attempt to cope with the duties and responsibilities. my practice. particular cliques of professional men. Of course. It my of was to lower me in professional friends and the neither . and meeting with a degree of success and public appreciation.re as flattering as they are deserved. although it But the malice spoken of. like mj^self. success. nor diminSkill. •The principal subjects treated in my two books having been. has been sufficiently active. has sig- nally failed of its object. has done because. in consequence of a now declining* prejudice. make a specialty of the thousand and one ills. moral and ph3'sical. are their to sustain against an}' amount Pie of professional and competition. formerly. which arise from the derangement of the reproductive organs. decisive line of separation between this work and publications issued by certain unqualified parties who infest the purlieus of the profession. and heart-burning rivalries . T\'ho. are doing an amount of good. skilful and jealousy of whose un- attempts to deal with a certain class of complaints.Sviii PRELIMINARY REMARKS. who cannot " Climb against wrong and brighten into day. and the mens sufficient and a constant tide of professional powerful subject jealous}^ auxiliaries. it could neither deprive me my qualifications. those peculiar physicians. which r. so frequentl}^ send the subjects of their malpractice to me. which the estimation of public. liavo encountered the malice . as a last and sure resort for treatment and cure. to a great extent neglected by the medical profession. ish the extent of co7iscia recti.

I ven- embraces the most complete and ever published causes. — vigorous health. to every youth and maiden. the better convinced they will be. pliysiology and pathology both of the subject the and be present volume contains also the x^oetiy ^^^^ what of may called literature the subject.PRE L IMINA R oonseqnenfc Y RE MA R K S. its The present volume. should neglect to discuss the cognate and collateral topics suggested would but half do his task.. to furnish sound and useful knowledge to every man and woman. in treating of the physiology and pathology of those organs. xix upon the successful pursuit of an ar- duous profession. would give them ture to affirm. prevention. The author of work the position of a highly educated medical man. irresistible weight. and the more it is inspected. this and is in scientific knowled2. high authority has said of my ''Science of Life. accomplishment. gj. I am satisfied. For around the reproductive organs are grouped all those tender and softening emotions which make our mortal life almost an antepast of heaven and the writer. b}^ medical men. with intelligible predecessor." Such are the words of one whose name. body of information respecting the and the cure of generative infirmities.^^'J^'. treatment.^'^'^*'^^ A J'j'^^^jj.e. — which if I vvere at liberty to make it public in this connection." " that book has gone through many editions. But mv main object has been. tending to enable them to enjoy the greatest of earthly blessings •^ "^ Author's main object. that it is written by a man of talent. writing upon subjects which ought to be made known ought to be investigated. prolonged to old age — to the . They combine . who.^ and it has been translated into several languages.

These privileges are naturally the inheritance of all men and women. and cure. to recover If prevention is better than cure.se its still sacred and dignified mission. and passing through life discharge of its duties and the uninterrupted enfast joyment of its legitimate pleasures. . intended to make the reader acquainted with facts which longing vigorous may assist in securing and prohale health and attaining to old age. many are wholly excluded while others either suffer from infirmities of which they are reluctant to complain. averting causes tending injurious consein the honorable quences. Did the reader ever ask himself or herself the cause. is. sympathy to hold up a loell-furnished hope q/ rescue and restoration to those who have forfeited or lost their priceless inheritance^ and to indicate the m. The first object of prudence. is. and ivheii all the functions of it the second is. and . cure Jias Uke- im. Through a . or from an apprehension (founded on circumstances perhaps themselves) that similar afflictions It is known only to may befall them. period of life at which the grfeat law of nature pro- claims that the allotted span of human existence draws to a close. Alarming frequency of divorce. Yet many are deprived of them and the happiness of a fall and vigorous use of the functions with which Providence en. Mv " object then.nans bj/ ivhich that hojys can he realized.XX PRELIMINARY REMARKS. and appeals to the emotions of more touchiugly Prevention and compassion. to hold preserve the jewel of health in the organization lost. dowed all ar3 not by all enjoyed. or causes. variety of causes. of the fearfully increased and increasing number of divorces which are granted by our judicial tribunals fi'om month to month.

but the learned pundits composing that congress found ago. the mystery of so many unwilling celibates. the cause of such numerous matrimonial scandals. Marriage is the very bond and cement of Christian society monogamic marriage. — habits are contracted whose consequences a blighted existence mourns in vain. If common sense were invoked. early youth. . which so widely and now so notoriously exist. that in the blooming season of boj^hood and girlhood. or at college. It would be perceived ^ ^ and acknoidedged^ that there is an insidious and malignant source of danger mixed up w^ith our civilization that it is frequently most rife in the very places where the expanding mind prepares to drink from the fountain-head of knowledge and that to this danger. — Congress at Chicago attempted to deal with this subject of the frequency of divorce in American communities. than they were to offer a remedy for these evils. and — 0U3 source ofdanger. year to year? Xxi one. It would be known and acknowledged. . in which a single man and woman become physically and spiritually one. an overwhelming proportion of the matrimonial disappointment and misery. the Social Science Not long themselves social evils much better able to state the ruinous which result from the marriage-bond being lightly adopted and lightly shuffled off. . is to be attributed. — at boarding-schools. the miseries of so many -^^ insidi- unhappy marriages amongst all classes and professions would be explained. The subject is a momentous Well may our social science congresses take this for one of the main topics of earnest discussion and remedial suggestion. or haply in some unsuspectedly corrupt companionship.PRELIMiyART RE Af ARKS. working on to its destructive results.

disperse . what based on. during a long series of years and my professional practice is based on the result of observation. if the sufferers were aware and restoration to the privileges included in that comprehensive word. The concluthe larger sion to which irresistible evidence. so painfully interestini>: in themis . combined with experience. . in the present vol- equally upon the positious of the maiden. and brought the feasibility of recover}' as near to certainty as any human expectation can Serim ®^^- ^ The condition and causes of female sterility and infecundity. and as a con- sequence by sanitary reformers. studies. that allowing for it differences in constitution and conformation. Not that resources of relief. are topics deserving of careful consideration. are connected with a vitiating influence too often ignored by the medical profession. if they knew that the results of scientific labor and research had opened the portals of health. that by fur portion of the sufferings and misfortunes indicated. the wife. destroj^s is. however. recommended. delicacy. Tliese subiects. suspected. repeated in thou- sands of instances. bear and a careful perusal of them Writer's professional practice. were at hand. rescue. ^' in vain. but the painful fact is. more particularly. Not in vain. is. selves. t investigations. "^ . more frequently than identical is found to sex. SO pregnant with momentous consequences.Xxii FUEL IMINA RT BE MA R K S. leads. and skill can be. . have occupied my thoughts. Health. Their origin is sometimes veiled in an obscurit}' which only tact. and personal . and the various disturbances of female health which interfere with the objects of matrimony. be the re- with the evil habit which health of so many of the stronger The marks made upon this subject ume. moral reformers. . . and the mother.

Of course. on every branch of the subject treated. ofyouth. •^ The sufferings of thousands are connected i^gretfui recollection There are many whose recollections. in regard to both my books. This information. which should convey the severe and often painful and repulsive truths of science in such language as would recommend those truths to the study of the most delicate and fastidious female reader. as to make it palatable. lecturers. I will now speak more particularly of the preseijt ^^^^^^^ present aim has been to write myself. preceptors. I have adopted the advice of one of the old Latin poets. cumbrous and voluminous and the really important information lies buried. in general. it may be ful safely asserted that if the advice resorted to be a practitioner qualified that of cation. So far. because attended with pain- memories. to so mingle the bitter dose of scientific instruction with the honey of poetry and literature. preachers. My . these golden grains of knowledge. edu- and peculiar It attention to department of patliology. find far more cause for regret with self-incurred hut removable causes.P R E LI MI X A R r R E M A U K S. I have freely laid under contribution the works of the great standard writers on physiology and the These diseases and special hygiene of females. there is doubt need be entertained as to will be wise to bear in mind that no cause for despair or even despondency. by tJiis training. than for satisfaction. for the most part. carrying them back to the days of youth. a physiologico-pathological work. little the result. as it were. and compile from the very highest and most costly authorities. volume. and custodians of yxiij youth. irrelevant and unintelligible discussion. . In regard to the diseases and derangements of the reproductive organs in both sexes. to the ordinary reader. works are. under mountains of.

as it were. the leading principles of phj^siology have been so well enunciated by the masters of the science. as writers on the subject of the sexual women must be. Meigs. Of course. I have freely used the works of these great authorities.PRE LIMIN ARY RE MA R K S. so that he or she who runs may- read. Colombat de I'lsere. Dunglison. but retaining their words where it was possible. such as Cuvier. To that great French writer on the diseases of females. Colombat is one of those authors who make any given scientific department to which they may devote themselves. their own private domain and property. in a portable and comprehensible shape. giving their statements generally in a condensed form. Darwin. that it would be vain to seek to give them in any more terse or expressive language than that employed by their original discoverers and enunciators. and Carpenter. the writer is under the identical greatest obligations all in several chapters of his work. I have diligently extricated and condensed. and presented them. physiology of . so to speak. in the translation of Dr. Charles D.

But it is not the purpose of the author of this book to enter into the arena of discussion of woman's social or political rights and wrongs. than with the intent cal and professional. Never. The writer's life has been devoted to the arduous In his practice of an arduous profession. both feminine and masculine. INTEODXJCTORY. as at the present time. at any period in the history of the world. and pathological. to do much. Man — — is subject. a little 25 .CHAPTER I. that he has written the following chapters. rience tical own sphere. but his profession confines him to another department of the Woman Question. he feels competent. to which Woman far more than her pVaioiogicompanion. towards bettering the physical condition of woman . by way of pracnor is this suggestions and instructions. was Woman such an object of interest and discussion. with its ar- rights organs for influencing public opinion. At length. through a manifold expe- and severe stud}^. and ray of public speakers and eloquent advocates. of ameliorating her social and political condition. physiological. ItTJ^^auis rather as an alleviator of the ten thousand ills stand-point purely of the flesh. works. sociological. press teems with works on woman. rather than to the study of social or political science. Tho in speech and print. ^^j'J'" — there has arisen a great its Woman's Rights Party.WOMAN. He may entertain definite opinions on the subject.

As civilization life advances . upon the shores of Well might the ancient Medea say. Now. an enjoj^able existence. that we are projected. that she would rather confront an hundred armed men in battle. brought more and more within the reach of the — human organization. life. than endure the pains of parturition. plainness of living and dress. language of an old poet. Delicacy of body has hitherto been the penalty of a high civilization. INTRODUCTORY. through her pangs that we . a sine qua non. weeping and naked. unless accompanied by bodily is well-being. Good health the first condition of enjoyment. are the rule among all classes. an all-prevailing luxury. as the refinements and luxuries of Effect of luxur3'^ are multiplied. and we see not why it should not continue to be so. and an immunity from a multitude of diseases and sufferings. functional derangement and disorder. High civili- zation. an axiom. This is a truism. in Whereas our grandmothers' days.26 thing. artificial habits. securing to them comparatively robust health. and activity. through the predominance of the nervous over the muscuto lar woman. upon the whole. the condition of first its subject. for both sexes. were characteristic of the female sex. been imposed the It is heaviest burden. both in the kitchen and the open air. The battle of life. and sophisticated and so generally prevail. enter this breathing world in the Peculiar hardships of woman. IS'o social or political position is of any value to Health. which only needs to be stated. and all. and an easy performance of the peculiar functions of their sex. comes more delicate and sensitive. especially in upon Tfoman. such as now are peculiarly dam- . beand more liable system. and habits unfavorable to health. is frail hard enough but upon the sensitive and organization of woman has.

such as wealth. were happier than their care- worn. There is no repose. therefore. and tranquil enjoyment of life. mental in the extreme to the health and well-beins. Excessive and expensive dress is the very bane of the female sex. in our necessary to domestic enjoy- ment does not are unsettled. by nature. aging to 27 women . the product own wives' looms. tumult.WOMAN. and a luxurious style of living. strong local attach- lavorable to thoj^rowth of the family. but rendering them averse to meeting the perils and All fulfilling the duties of maternit3^ life Our current is is full of a feverish excitement. and dissipation. household day. of forefathers. change. We are only encamped. and hostile to the ° growth Tiio present state of well-being of the family . ments. the quiet vdiich is love. and a healthy progeny. to fulfil the functions of their sex. Contentment is a thing of the past. in but too man}*instances. They had domestic peace. . at home and abroad. robust health themselves. "While. luxurious. and. march "^ Our population and habits like an army during a we do not reside in any fixed spot. and almost universal health. In fact. It is hardly to be doubted but that our noise. quiet. the delicate organizations of our American women have become proverbial. The senses and mind are stimulated on all sides. and dissatisfied descendants. detri. who has.things un- All this is . Everj'body forgets that the real joys of life are few and easily attained. and with their homely but nutritious fare. ^ of woman. in their of their homespun raiment. oflSce. ill Their morbid condition. . All are ambitious are straining every nerve to seize the prizes of existence. not only unfitting them physically. character our o""'ent life. we are exist. have called into existence an army of em- . and their inability.

must be a union of Because his own experiences. She used to sit by the fireside of the heart. and the experiences of others. not Sources from which it is drawn." Ccrtainl3'. in a transition state. — ^ tho salutary knowledge which he has derived. or. liable to the maladies peculiar to her sex. i^g^g experience. •» T^ — ' work. from a most extensive professional experience. as recorded in the books. INTRODUOTORT. Tending its flame. and American.2$ pirics. the duties of . woman is . he who is learned solely in the standard authorities. is but half armed for the warThe physician's knowledge fare against disease. sociallv. at the present time because her position is unfixed raid uncertaiu. who enrich themselves out of their miseries and Tho -tTTitfessionai sufferings. she can best and most safely perform and wife and mother. la that stillness Vv'liich most becomes a woman. is she now. to meet the varying exigencies which are continually rising in the course of a large practice. Object of tho present been the writer's painful professional expeand hence his wish to rIencG to learn these facts disseminate through the medium of the printed nacre. In medicine. whose volumes he o onl}'» 5 ^ bas had occasion to study and consult. there can be no doubt. a wider circle than he can personall37-. in the " The woiitl of the affections was woman's world. Not that of man's ambition. Engjlish. which reaches where he cannot personalh^ l j ^ . calm and holy. but from the highest medical authorities. but that in the fulfil tranqaillity of the domestic fireside. Woman's ^P^^^®* — Formerly. both French. more than ever. langaagc of Longfellov/. at least.

unambitious. We allude to the Womau Question. The days It is of an ignorant prudery are past. The broad daylight of the nineteenth century. day of in- the teUigenc©. have no kind of native-born population. Cannot our women.WOMAN.^ and for the ladies in particular. field-labor. The passions which have those . is Even out-of-doors with all kinds of ex- posure to the elements. that such a social agitation as on. that the original injunction to increase and multiply most faithfully and easily obeyed. as it is aggravate what are diseases of females. as not to express an opinion. by a diet. grandmothers ? The author does not feel called upon to make any apology for writing thoroughly and minutely upon the subject of sexual ph3^siology for the public at large. upon sofas and "^® ^^^^ »<> We . life. answering to the European peasantry. It is along the cool. 2^ it is called. and a knowledge of their own organizations and of the laws of recover the vigor and longevity of their health. and to increase the It is tendency to these diseases. is the day of light and knowledoe. sequestered vale of that health and happiness are oftenest found. the health of females than an in-door found less detrimental to life of com- parative idleness. among the con- and primitive peasant populais tions of Europe. has a tendency to called the woman. by proper exercise. to recruit from but we can. and do. ^ •^ Ignorance a it is the kind of bliss which can no longer be enjoyed m . or ought to be. but simply to point out the fact. tented. spent in lolling stuffed rocking-chairs. physiology of the reproductive organs ought to be taught to all. proper The question is. in relation to the true sphere of is now going revolutionary. import such a population.

the social vice is the canker at the core of all high and luxurious civilizations like our own. so their abuse radically ruinous and blasting to society and the individual. the abuse of the organs of reproduction. Self-Preservation. if he could disclose the The author of which would cccrets of his consulting-room. him to . which nature. if not and instruments are the most properly controlled. have Necessity of abetter knowi'jd'^e led . crstaiis for their seat devastating. The writer's experience. the hundreds and thousands of sad cases of. entitled. foil It is the source of diseases more and "loathsome than any . i- ofSGXual physioiosy. of a knowled^re of the i principles of sexual physiJ i =" ology. in both sexes. as well as the appointed means of the multiplication and continuance of human beings upon this planet. legitimately enjoj^ed. are the sources of the and consolations of life.gQ INTRODUCTORY. ere they are hopelessly ruined and blighted. which has » i former had a most wide . for which he has been called upon to prescribe professionally. tyrannize over !ni3 social ViCO. Its victims are oftenest the 3'oung it strikes those in the morning of life. could a tale unfold. . human The social vice v/as the dry-rot of the Pagan nature civilizations of antiquity. SO that 3'oung men and young women may be properly warned and instructed. As the chicfest joys right use of the organs of generation is productive of nev^r life. circulation." a treatise . other. It corrupts human at its very roots. and the greatest earthly is felicity. " The on Science of Life or. show the indispensable importance of a generally-diffused knowledge of the principles cf sexual physiolog3\ Tho author's In a work not alread}'' lonsj o aj^o o published. this work. and the sexual passion. Love. • In fact. see the necessity of a wider diffusion "^ 1 .

nervous and physical debilitj^spermatorrhosa. Secrets of L' Amour. which have given altogether a new aspect to the science of woman. " our nature. It is — by the addition of embrj^ogony and ovology. from professional engagements. that the au- thor was enabled to write his It first medical treatise. and placed within the reach of the entire female sex of the United States. were revealed to me in an instant. and designed for professional readers only. impotence. — high time that this knowledge were popularized. was a labor of love. etc. the author addressed the male sex particularl}^ 31 more The present work is devoted to the physiology of woman. The leading treatises upon the diseases and h3"giene of females are expensive." Within the ology of the last quarter of a century.WOMAN. The book has gone where he could not go. both oral and epistolarj'. whether married or unmarried. It was only by stealing an hour. But he does not grudge the labor and privation which were its composition.. b c. tion of his it. which have given him a new insight into human nature. and enabled necessary to him do immense good in the line of his profession. performed sometimes at the expense of sorely needed sleep and rest. the physi- female reproductive organs may be said to have been revolutionized two new branches. From I The world came to me. obtained much information. and made its writer the subject of confidences. now and then. But they contain stores of knowledge of vital importance to all women. and her diseases. It has had thousands of readers.ivino: an o ^ ° account of the results which followed the publicato 5 Micbeiet's experience. exclusively. In the lani^uaofe of Michelet. if I may be allowed the phrase. to which I should never have i^enetrated. .

" She who has borne most children. This evanescent beauty The great. health}^ beauty without health. as it were. sire?" inquired the first Emperor Napoleon. there ma}^ be an evanescent loveliness lasting during girlhood. in INTRODUCTORY. It has been the aim of the accessible to writer to render such knowledge following pages. to carry forward in the march of civilization. all the junctures and crises of life. is too characteristic of our Ameriis " Who the greatest knowledge. and never ripens into the mature. unless its women can bear stalwart and men. and keep abreast of the foremost nations. accessible. est woman. age and in this latitude. If debility and ill-health are the among our women. both for their own welfare and for made in the welfare of their offspring. there can be no and personal beauty." bluntly woman of 3'our Madame De Stael.32 SO that. they may have rule it the knowledge that will make them equal to the emergency.Can females. the married portion of them. because they were themselves paragons of health Indeed. writer : Says a recent popular Nothing can save our Protestant population but the intermarriage of the German and Irish '* . is high time. No country can have a vigorous and it energetic population. all the The of purit}^ of a stream depends upon tlie purity its source. Childlessness was a reproach among the chief It is far otherwise in this nations of antiquity. but it quickly fades. Spartan mothers gave birth to a race of heroes. Beauty aroma and blossom of health. expecting a flattering reply. of answered the emperor. that a knowledge of the special hygiene of their sex should be The er s -writ- aim. autumnal charms of the healthy matron. is. the To be sure.

— and destined by nature to give us existence. " The object of love. as well as the physician. 83 In the days of ancient Paganism. and birth. the Tho study oio-^y. our poor. Elevated by her natural poetry. so the will close this chapter by quotations from two eminent French writers. the reproductive organs were objects of worship.irOiV^A'. woman. the passion of love spring all the arts and refinements of civilization. a struggle of contrary qualities. another opposition. she presents to us ." ." says Colambert. and by means of her tender and watchful care. in a playful and harmonic contest. but pleasingly opposed. nature admonishes her by pain and. and is much more unlike man than would at first appear even more than differing from. ** is a being who stands quite alone. the one literary and the other professional." says Michelet. a vast field for contemplation. tlieir Surely. dear Sybil." religious symbols borne in processions." . As the mother is. every month. woman. study of ph3'siology should not be omitted from any motives of prudery or morbid delicacy. by a painful crisis. and divining faculty. From child I is. '* . to preserve us afterwards. the most faithful companion of man. Every month. In herself alone. she wings her upward flight. as presenting to the philosopher. she is the not less held down by nature in the bonds of weakness and suffering. her quick intuition. and Catholics. and. opposed to him. ma3^ l^e regarded as the very complement of the benefits bestowed upon us by the Divine Being as an object fitted to excite our highest interest. returns her to " Feeble and sensitive by Woman's the hands of loA^e. which constitutes the great charm of this world.

human who came not from the womb.CHAPTER THE MYSTERY OF And the Lord formed II. LIFE. or not. It was a question that used to be mooted among the schoolmen. who is to be regarded rather as the ancestor of the civilized or civilizabie 34 . is boldly affirmed. emphatically. Modern science has discarded the Mosaic or the Pentateuchal doctrine of the unity of the species. The Unitary doctrine of the orij^in cf human . Hast thou not poured me out as milk. before entering into its details. and out of the red earth. hand of God. of the dust of the ground. more curious than wise or profitable. whether Adam had a navel. can be traced up to a single pair of it Indeed. but were directly moulded by "Whether Adam and Evo had a navel. or genera- because it professes to give an account of the adhis creation in the persons vent of man on this planet. and curdled me as cheese ? Bible. This was a discussion. so far as its origin is concerned it and denies that parents. of Adam and Eve. and and man hecamo a . was a tenant of the globe for unnumbered generations before the Mosaic Adam. unborn pair. man bx'eathed into his nostrils the breath of life living soul. that Man Man dib- cardcd by Science. The oldest. Book of Genesis. the tion. is called. or one of the oldest pieces of writing extant. Let us linger for a moment upon the threshold of our subject. and the procreation of the species from the primitive.

the brain. 85 In Adam.THE MYSTERY OF LIFE. Cuvier says. But this wonderful force. and GeofFry St. races. inhabits the head. have bent and are bending all their energies and ingenuity. Omne vivum ex evo. Ol^en. " leaving doors and windows wide. like wild animals emerged into a progressive. of the Swedenborgian school Quotation from (Wilkinson). The brain. is furniture or machinery answering to faculty in the brain. or. J^<^ an . Agassiz. nature. The mind is man3'-chambered and many-storied. elusive power which operated them can be found. there is founded a life life. which is mind. and historic being. modern physicists. edifice of many stories upon simple life. the vital energ}^ differs from all other forces. but no trace of the subtle." Says a hiding-place great physiologist. human bod}'. as well as the moves and breathes. the life has departed. and dwelt in caves. enigma. Huxley. the general parent of liu- mankind. but not of formation. the race which had previously been without history. We see them in the process of development. "life is the dim personality of the atmosphere in which it Wilkinson. Life dwells in the body. . Owen. then. such as Cuvier. The oriojin of life is the Qfrea^t riddle and eni":ma *= o & "» of Plij^siology and to its solution. the birth of orojanized beings is the ^ ° greatest mystery of the organic economy and of all '^ ' Thegreatestmystery. the greatest — — ^'^^^ force. The organs which are its seat and instruments can be dissected and investigated. accord- ing to anatomy. then. but the of mind. conscious subject. When its is laid open. is })resumably the body of the mind is and whatever wisdom or faculty in the mind." Upon an is this lowest floor of our existence. which the vegetable in the animal. has gone. there rises . is an old . or superior life. Hilaire.

we can know absolutely rivers It throbs in the heart . without diminishing inhabits. or life-power. certain kinds of organizations ig an occult forcc. every- thing quick. Whether we call it the cosmic. through the repro- ductive organs to other organizations. observe and study the phenomena of generation principle. vegetative. which supplies of sustenance transmutes it is and builds into the living body. from which Love itself was born. Given. And fleet as eddying air. similiar to that which it "When we come to the origin it of life. and there is life. to wit. are alone manifested." This mysterious vital force. If we ask what is the . that is. phenomena. or vital force. the lungs and it acts as a subtle and all-dissolving and transmuting chemistry in the assimilative organs and it imparts . .36 THE MYSTERY OF LIFE. and of its nature nothing. a m3'stery. causes are hid effects. the vivida viSy but into the vivifying reach. itself. Life. issues from an egg. as well as in every other branch of human inquiry. original. to an impenetrable myster3\ We . and the red of the blood it respires in those fleshly balloons . itself. as were. but itself eludes the senses. In physiology and pathology. manifests itself in sensible . has been by various names by various biologists but mere names do not explain anj^thing. plastic. all other forms of force. An old Attic poet sings of the great. or living. tethered in the chest. like called . an oocult force. phenomena Life. It fed by supplies from the outer i k j it world. — mundane eggt " Glittering his back with golden plumes. and essence. an insoluble enigma . it is all the same. of which motive It is the power. Latin aphorism of the physiologists . we come to a dead-wall. we can never .

the or the rabbit. no bigger than a man's hand. writing on the origin of life. as a mere drop of fluid. that all animals. office AVhat onl3" is the cause and of the catamenial discharge? The most profound physiologist can At the end conjecture and frame hypotheses. simply a ovum. the gumdrop. day by ence in her uterus. which is at first no bigger than a pea. cause of the extrusion of the quick foetus from the 87 two hundred and eighty days. the worm. at the expiration of except that such is ordinarily the fact. womb. I — . coral. in the earliest ej^g-state. all of fourteen days after conception. A distinguished American zoologist. Th® earliest egg-state. of But. amoeba. inean. . and the development of animals. or a grain of barle}^ It is but a tenth of an inch in length. from the monad. that gradually unfolds into an devastating tempest. that can be is found in the little womb of the future mother. this small Th© germi- germinal dot shows a wonderful power of development and evolution. All eo-ars commence be taken shell-fish. daj^. at one time. up to man. and gives no token of what it is to become. the other. we receive no satisfactory answer to our query. or a grain of lettuce. fertilized and fecundated by the sperm. the end of twenty-one days. its exist- or semen. whether drop of fluid from the amoeba. emitted from the male reproductive organ. The cloud. you could not tell the one from the any more readily than you could distinguish a drop of water from Cochituate Lake from that of . all- this At there is something shaped like an ant. for a time.THE MYSTERY OF LIFE. with certain bipolar characthis teristics. Now. is not so wonderful as thing. There is one fact that must not be forsays: gotten it is this. cannot possibl}^ be distinguished from one another. The female is unconscious.

their simple drop-of-fluid stage external causes. This idea is also carried out in another way. that is. and after- wards. The higher forms pass through the same relative conditions as do the lower ones. takes on the* — similar to that of a . are as simple as those which are thus far known to arise by spontaneous generation. per se. when to up life in a full-grown state. at one time. the animals Parentless animals. cannot possibly be distinguished. when in its earliest stages.B. its adult conformation. from one another. B. The Origin of Life. The higher animals do not at once leap into Now. finall}^. in restricted groups. In the instance of spontaneous generation. the quadruped. and is farther removed from subjected' to parental influ- ence as a primary cause. Thus. — fish . directly when the egg-animal is cast forth upon the world. Tlie distinguishable characteristics appear in the process of time and development. or. indeed. A. Development of Animals. namely. in Nature. ' their simple liio:her o stages without a parent ^ whereas amons: o is animals. commence . which is.* It is true.. Appleton & Co. but they arise out of as simple elements as do those lowest forms which originate through spontaneous generation. and tlie Mode of By Henry James Clark. from the monad man. New York . I say that all animals. that of birds and. the heart and nervous s^^stem. the reptiles then. at one time. possesses a conformation of its principal organs. Mystic River. I mean to draw the attention to another fact. . and then rise to higher states. that all animals.S. .38 THE MYSTERY OF LIFE. then it form and relations of the next higher group. and secondary causes affect the progeny through the parent first.. as the learned *Mind etc.

a mere gum- of drop in appearance. But modern geology and phj^siology have both shown that this theory has not a leg to stand upon. set it agoing. has been variously defined as a state of force. and to agoing. either from organized beings. and. When ready once the clock of an organic being set is it wound is up. other great rivers of the earth. that God. it stops not until its be is resolved into constituent elements. It is out such a little consistence that man's imperial shape like and woman's Ionic form are gradually A drop of gum is the starting-point. In manner. dissimilar to themselves. and the evolved.THE MYSTERY OF LIFE. taneous generation is that by which living beings are evolved. a gelatinous dot. old theory was. . that man. The Spontaneous kind. is at point of departure of embodiment. of two kinds. organized beings was distinct the unknown element of a six days' act of creation. the majestic oak starts from the acorn and the Mississippi. gestation. Spon. or from the mere combination of inorganic elements.Two kinds of generaT T T ception. wound up his work. con. *=* -"^ 89 Lis Manatfirst a moro gum-drop. and left it to itself. the Rhine. and lactation. if traced to their sources. delivery. occasionally. that each species of living. once on a time. except. regular and spontanegeneration is Regular like. when he sees fit specially to interpose.tion. far up in the highlands. will be found welling and trickling from Life some cloudy spring etc. that the creative process had ceased with the work recorded in Genesis. zoologist above quoted affirms. that is. the Ganges. that by which like propagates or the different species of animals 1 reproduce themselves through sexual coition. Generation ous.

from the nature of the action of physical causes. what creation ' ' with an expression of horror. on the subject of spontaneous generation.40 THE MYSTERY OF LIFE. that a series of creations had been going on previously to . called. it became evident. by was called the Church Party in England. changed to an enthusiastic and religious advocacy of this geological theory. or material organizations. demonstrated that they belonged again to a period. were both preceded by by earlier and extinct fauna and flora. " Without stopping at the present time to show how this holy horror was. I will merely state the fact. that scientific evidence of scientific facts. and then pass on to the result of this general recognition and admission of the existence Ilavins: made this adof a Preadamitc world. of a cruder. of the earth's ' Life began. until reaches human form. vaster.it has been great stone book. which. ^ mission. in low and simple forms. the assertion was received. anterior to the of man. and begins. whicli are found fossilized in the The begin. and in process of time. men should attempt to support a theism by the palpable A Prcadaraito world. and it ever more complex. and the position in which these fossils were found. organizations. ced that the earth contained the remains of animals and plants. in the work " When geologists first announalready mentioned. He says. nmg of life. or series of periods. at the same time. which is the crown and apex of I will quote creation. the origination of the present race of beings on the . from Professor Clark. finally. as interior. and altogether different conformation. works the its and way up from these to more complex. * The present animal and vegetable kingdoms with which we are acquainted.

originate . is. and were washed and thus the pond became rethe air. that . or stream. when a pond. has the form. influence. or a whole tract of country. the summer months. . still continues to carry on another series. ^od we know he has at some time. through creative this on globe. animals originated. the Creator is continually active in the administraIf. die for want of their natural element but when the rains of autumn have refilled these streams and it. that. not blind chance to them. therefore. and among: others. may be still that he "which past. the aquatic animals appear again. dries up. At some unknown distant period. as a natural consequence. as oftentimes happens in J'j^^g^'jyjj^ ^^^^®' l^^^ present. the question arose in this animals. out of the contemplation of this idea. .THE AfTSTERY OF LIFE. : Now. tion of his laws. then. the question as to whether the Creator has not continued to exercise the creative facult}^ at all times. even until ' now? This q^^estion ' from various reasons. some observers accounted for. ^^ create species. globe arose . 41 and. » because observers had noticed the fact. in the remote begun. Creator also constantly repeated his original creation through arose all time. They recognize the Creator's controlling hand w^hen they see the . child resembling the parent it is . all the animals and plants in which are dependent upon water for existence. This. ponds. peared from the beginning. he is visibl}^ present it in the operation of one series of acts. which have apb}'' birth from the first created or. even to the present day. namely Did all . by supposing that the eggs and seeds of these animals and plants were constantly floating in down by the rains. that reason for lil?:e come from like there must be some this and the reason they give. is birth only one mode of continuing their presence on the earth and.

and an iron tube inThe serted. the withdrawn from beneath the flask. as the steam condenses. sugar-water. are burnt up and destroj-ed. and a glass tube passed through the cork. still in other words. and cemented with plaster of Paris. When heat is the boiling has continued long enough. therefore." To show that spontaneous generation is possible. whether eggs The flask or seeds. gelatine. in boiling water. during the experiment. that there . leaving only very narrow passage-ways between them. The flask is corked. The solution and the iron tube filled with While the contents the wires. so that organisms contained in the air. propounded the idea that they originated then. and. The glass tube is bent at a right angle. and submerged. etc. a flask of beef-juice. that the worlt of creation is going on. that they could not possibly account for the sudden appearance of such large quantities of creatures in living these ponds . the air again enters through the iron tube. iron tube is filled with wires. The flask thus filled is hermetically and supplied with pure air at the ordinar}^ temperature. exactly in the same way as did the first aquatic animals that originally began life in the ponds and rivers of this globe. sealed. stocked with life. ammonia. were seeds and eggs floating about in the air or insisted that they were in such small numbers. But other observers disputed the ^VoiiiL^^^ fact. in the flask is boiled. the red heat of which is kept up. are boiling. and thus the destruction of its . is cooled very slowly. heated to redness.42 THE MYSTERl OF LIFE. the steam expels the air from the flask. in order that the entering air ma}^ be as long as possible in passing through all the iron tube . and. is filled with a boiled solution mutton-juice.

When The Here. We by the above experi- ment into the very presence of creative power. daj''. sealed with the blow-pipe. of a low organization. cold. then. Commenting on the above experiment and its " Under these cirresults. that the dried-up pools and streams are refilled when by the autumn first rains. we have the production of life spontaneously. : — cumstances. as in the beginning.Animals ^ appear cause all life had previously been extinguished by J ^ o J this. and there is a distinct rush of air outwards. without any antecedent in the shape of parent. From the heart of God proceeds. A divine improvisation. in fact. The opened on the eleventh day. Professor Clark says renheit. time is all in the present tense. are found moving with great rapidity.T HE M YS TK It Y Of LI F E. flask is . be. i^ithout parents. then. egg^ or seed. in the same way as did the animals that peopled this world." . that if living do appear in the isolated pool in the the}^ must have originated there without ' the previous intervention of a * parental form. the flask is 43 organic matters insured. a film forms. called bacteriums and vibrios. Here. they argue. . the animals which appear therein originate on the spot. the heat. From then. the advocates of the continued creation of animals to the present creatures flask. With God. hung up in a temperature of seventy or eighty degrees Fah- and on the fourth day. claim. — " Ever fresh the broad creation. you have flask is inorganic matter. That is given. Large numbers of living beings. He is forever creating the world . certain conditions of matter and the Creator intervenes visibly now. lifeless." are brought.

44 THE MYSTERY OF LIFE. . not to assert the truth of Pantheism fact.total of material things. but of the direct- He is ever present behind the cloud of ma- phenomena. terial is not a God of the dead. The Creator living. man in his own image. . — God which science now recog- creates in ever}^ mother's womb. and thus it becomes a living soul. the breath of life . into the nostrils of every foetus which He is breathes ready to be extruded into the external world. enlivening. is To assert this. and ing the sum. as much now as he did out of the red earth in the Garden of Eden. but it is simply to affirm a nizes. agitating.

Only two And in the garden walked. together. Child and brother from his birth Tethered by a liquid cord Of blood. the fireside-band Of mother. through veins of kindred poured. sister. of social earth. All were foreign in her light. which it is shown that the principle of sex runs through entire nature. with snake and seraph talked. stand These. The physical organization of the male of the human species shows that he 45 A little through all nature. Where Strength and Beauty met Kindle their image a star In a sea of glassy weather. year by year more wily known. Next his heart. MARRIAGE — ITS PHILOSOPHY AND HYGIENE. It was ever the self-same tale. like strong amulets preferred. Throbs of a wild religion stirred Virtue to love. The golden gate of sleep unbar. like — SHEiiLEY. Till "When her calm eyes opened bright. And by herself supplants alone Friends.CHAPTER Man was made III. abolishing the past. father. Principle of m book has recently appeared in Enplane!. . The first experience will not fail. to hate them vice Till dangerous Beauty came at last Beauty came to sweep all ties The Maid. — Emerson. Wi^h lotus wine obliterates Dear memory's stone-in-carved traits.

They are at once fused and They recognize in each other melted into one.46 is - MARRIAGE: of himself imperfect. They halves do not meet at all. in the old Pagan rclio'ions . are . so it is i alleged that there IS for ever}'' human being another. or meet too late. Each brings to what he or she lacked. in make a perfect." The Sea is the fecund mother of life — the of " green-girdled mother. life. without his sexual counterpart. The Sun is is called a bride- in the Scriptures. twohaives the two halvcs of a perfect whole. complete Each presupposes and needs the other. "A most enamored maiden. by a vague yearning. But more often. Man and In their union. and are unhappy. whoff^^^ they find complete satisfaction. Sometimes these affinities meet. who may be called his complement. there . secretly conscious. Man and woman. Shcllc}' borrowed lustre of the Sun. He is the great engen- dering life-fountain of our planetary system. woman. as best the}^ can. The Earth herself. i . united being. and they spring to each other with an irresistible impulse. and a tranquil. the reflecting the calls her On Moon receptive and feminine. the twin unspeakable delight. Every hu- man being has an af- As . wedlock.*' as a living poet calls her. " but unable to find each other. of each other's existence. They finally seek for consolation by mating. both ph3'sicallY the other and mentally both corporeally and spi^ituall3^ . do not find each other in the confused melee of but wander at random. the contrary. chemical „ affinities. We groom have said that the principle of sex runs all through nature. or falfilment. who i may be called his or her affinity.

" social Of course./TS P IllLO S O P 11 y A X J) HYGI E N E. as it Our social reformers. at the bar. not proceed farther in this direction. or sacrament of marriage. foodl'ul She was the all-fruitful. Elsewhere. religions. entitled J^Jq^®°p^® Woman" (La Femme). impregnating her. as the Roman-Catholic theologians insist on calling '' . headed with the caption. mother. social. Marriao-e is the foundation of the family. the' the school. The •' first chapter of Michelet's is book. tinctions of occupation are to be broken down. the court. . the inclinations have undergone profound changes. her and made were. " We cannot conceal from ourselves. man lives apart — — from woman. that some of our new social theories bode no good it. One would suppose that nature had sufficiently discriminated the two sexes. fruitful. in the pulpit. descended into her lap in fertilizing showers. and ?fa"ia?e. at the present time. He says we all perceive the capital fact of our time. his re. in these latter times.marry. Jove. and economical. " Why people do not marry. and in short. ^ tho foundathe family is the foundation of the state and of tioncftho •^ S0Ciet3% family and tho state. the In spring-time. But I will battle-field. and the two sexes are to be competitors in the camp. of man. was denomi- nated the mother. in the caucus. marks are based on the phenomena of France. are endeavoring to qualify celibac}'. to the civil institution. 47 / the northern and southern nations. that. he says. woman to lead a life of and to make her the rival. rather than All disthe companion and complement. in every field of human activity. onl}' to say. and indicated the true sphere of each. From a singular combination of circumstances. or the skygod. on in on the stump. the halls of legislation.

in their stead. monogamic marriage. impolygamy. of love. natural history. stimulating and enervating continually. j^^ij jg man. who frees her from the physical fatalism in . past. the increasing invasion of spirituous liquors and narcotics has been marching irresistibly. woman. he who . deeper into the physical econom}'. going straight to the brain and deadening to paralyze all our moral faculties. No need to him of society. the superior animals tend towards the married state. I will state two tend only. even in his home." Whatever diversions a man ma}'' find. limitless. ana vice versa. results var^dng according to the population obscuring the mind. he is unfortunate in having no fireside in not possessing the dreary pleasures * protecting the does). for a time. it. thcrp ^ sombre. in a great measure. of family -^ ^ . A dreary of l j o polysramic life. mental and physical. and attain at least. . there. or the lasting union of one of each sex. which. a deplorable preference for solitary enjoyment. man. at the same time. without man. that is they are superior. not even (as the polygamy of the East more destructive. uo genuine and none for the imperious and bitter one in fact. Marriage is ' cruel. which. is. but everywhere isolating man. without woman. giving him.48 MARRIAGE: The causes of this are numerous. reaching even the race itself. Bfe^mosr^*^ *^ Races of actly in men J^^^^^^^® the ratio of their mind and bod}^ exmonogamic life. In it. Happy. woman therefore. indefinite. — No genuine r^ iJio lor man ^^ife who is is trulv his own. life ' for demand of nature are powerful in . ' existence ' without wo. For a century with here. posing no responsibility upon the man. hopelessly depraving penetrating it . •' A Avifeless . which she is held by nature from the weakness imposed upon her by seclusion. that is.f^j. And it is from this fact. Fortunate he who rescues a woman.

who is going sinok}^ . alone. In that is the true life whom jom of man. and shameful. ruins. and yet spend after all. PHILOSOPHY AND HYGIENE. solitary existence. To relieve the tedium of a cheerless. this exact : mathematical I see Two persons spend less than maxim many bachelors who remain such. they indulge in various expensive habits. by is that very fact. and at the theatres. order to forget. that everybody is it I have discovered marriages only. and think. Some men they really so : call themselves bachelors. strong. but his country. but I have But are not There are ^^ bachelors. leaves at home a beloved who loves and thinks of him the day. at the restaurants and saloons. sheer fright at the expensiveness of matrimoii}^. He. I have long married. infinitely more than a married man. They live very dearly. he never seeks their The man. sometimes — secret Some by temporary . A blessed thing to have by your hearth-stone a reliable and loving woman. he will not go under the lamps of a ball-garden in quest of love. out to his daily •creature. for citizen. these. We must all suffer. who is nor to the street for intoxication. love. — is. toil.ITS instructs her. liiiTi sought. from •^ -7 •^ — Two less persons ppend than one. in should never forget. "VYe They smoke. all Receive for a truth. inspired with cheerfulness. and he happy one. elevates her. If his home is a happy one. She will prevent you from either dreaming or forgetting. Woe to him who antidotes ! forgets evils. 49 strengthens her. A wife will rescue her husband from the servitude of his base passions. and does a man's work he. not only himself. that mythical being. the who forgets. sometimes for months. is it. and makes her his own. is true. yet found. to with whom you can open your heart can suffer. — lasting.

which they can improve and adorn. the wisdom of econom}". its on the essential element.fe«rTi]3|j©¥43^ she counts for much as he daiwOmd But. the family does not increase too rapidly. ever}'' 3'oung couple can. augmenting-. en- tered into with forethought when is. for him and even feeling that he possesses providence. In this country. even 3^ears if he is several her elder in age and experience of life. She passes him very soon : maternitj^. are not effected at a less cost is man. soon overtakes her husband. judicious. you are free you can migrate to new scenes of activity. natural and — the wife. when wo as she4s-^16^1^ like a sister. nurse night. The young wife Young man. . she leaves for the husband enough for his little indulgences and she forgets no one but herself. waiting impaticntl}^. for cultivators. These marriages of hourly duration. from year . under the dominion of civilized man. "When the marriage . MAnniAGE: and often only for an hour. man home and she puts aside the necessary portion to feed and clothe the children. and brought A truo do- most io paradise. the sober and serious is loved by h^ provides for allows himself house. on Saturday his week's salary. if A sood wife and good ti'ade. and a good trade. which are the utter degradation of the to the woman. you hav^ a good wife. s er. with its inexhaustible area of virgin soil. . or remain at home. rear for themselves a homestead can acquire a little territory of their own. to year. in a few years.50 for a week. a hindrance to liberty of action. far from being contrar}^. as it were. and make a true domestic paradise for . the and a visible brings When.

A recent writer on the subject of maintains that in courtship. " that peoples every town. subsistence it their own and never door. bosses. for instance." as it is called. both human and divine. A homestead should be the first thing aimed at by a young American couple." saj's Shakespeare. It is a relation having the sanction of all laws. where they can be true sovereigns. lu . and landlords. superior health and happiness. or know what to be to have the the v. hosts of women are forced to lead . and and aimless lifo. .. da3^s. .ITS PH ILO S OJ' lir from is A XI) ]I Yd JENE.^olf at tlio whims and caprices of dependent upon employers. philosophicall}'. An anxious well known that the female sex is m excess . more often . women ought to modern woman. is Especially a lonely is life dreadful for woman. an anxious and aimless life of celibacy their affections and instincts running to waste. In two of the great Christian sects. and then hygienically.iTaarried than to the single. why should thc}^ not take the initiative. therefore." Celibacy was regarded orfme!''^'^' ^ almost as a crime in some of the ancient states while the father of a iiiimerous famil}^ had special Length of privileges and was specially honored. like water spilled upon the desert. fall to the lot of the. looking the whole world in the face. and even " pop the question. Let us consider marriage first. like England. a They can derive acres. . that. 51 themselves and their children. it is regarded as " It is H3'men. a sacrament. and stand erect in their own borders. Her whole nature liable to run to waste the very ends and aims of her existence and sexual organization being unsatisfied and utterly defeated. it is In old countries. capitalists. make the advances Marriage being of the last importance to them.

The maid has been passive. who fell to the lot of the poorer classes. in her Fortunately. not to say in some nations. wa}'. comeliness of person and good health are qualities and <. the male has been usually the wooer. pajdng any price for beauty. that. Beaut}^ woman. A BaT)ylonian custom. . bid in the fairest. In other ages. Indeed.Coelebs. the male should be the suitor. wings and beak to the eagle. and Modes of courtsliii). has been that of coj'ness and reserve. a beautiful woman is easily disposed of in the matrimonial market. to tho advances. We read that in ancient Sparta. the among various cases singular. still regards woman. primarily. while a number of unmarried j^oung men were shut up with them. one ancient city used to have a sort of annual auction of its marriageable maidens. and the youth active her very co^mess inflaming attitude of the . they are all-important proper moral attributes. Act- ing on this fact. The money derived from the sale of the loveliest virgin was used as a dowry for the homely ones. relation to the generation to come.his ardor. Certainl}^. even in these days of masculinizing the fair sex. without to a dowiy. not by any means After to be overlooked. The wealth}?. cient poet. mako maiden sued to. in search of a wife. both handsome and In the choice homely.'ood health. and his swiftness to an anand his alwaj^s the deer. is he led to away as his wife. of course. and whichever girl each of the young the damsels used to be shut men caught Value of beauty to hold of. The and stimulating. all up in a dark room. modes of wooing and courtship have been various. were annually disposed Comeliness of a wife. public opinion when combined with all protests against limiting the sphere of the sex to a single function. what his claws are to the lion. In this of. according woman. all the nubile virgins of the city. My own opinion is.02 "Woman OUli'llt MARRIAGE: past times.

nessurtho iu- and. the parties to the unborn other. and the blonde." The happiness of unborn human ^^ in everv marriao:e . The poet says is. is fitted to shine both in the parlor' and is tlie kitchen. they may find themselves the subjects of life-long mutual dislike and . make young lovers too blind and precipitate oftentimes and so. 53 men admire different styles of beauty all and a complexion. union should know each The mere heat of volved in everj^ mar- youthful blood. . which hue of the North. are the extremes of a long scale of complexional lights and A wife who is merely shades and temperaments. and the desire for sensual gratification. which hue of tlie South. and make one of the parties to it feel that he or she has been the victim of concealment and false pretences. And the grossness of his nature Shall have weight to drag tliee down. : — " As the Imsband the wife is.ITS riiiLo s opirr a x d different ii va i /•. The two most charming complexions. therefore. so that no unpleasant development and discovery after marriage may take place to mar the union. ^^I^J'^. of both sexes. so that market. Thou art mated with a clown. after the ardors of the honeymoon have been cooled down. the ornamental band. Persons about to marry should know each other as intimately as possible consistent with with propriety. Men women. but a poor possession for her husShe should be useful and ornamental both. that a knowledge of the physiology of necessary for the young the reproductive organs physiology. is is tlie the brunette. beinsjs is involved The happi. styles of v/omen can lind small of stature generally admire large and even overgrown women and big men affect small .^^" I maintain.v r:. .

their fruit. as well as himself. The conjugal embrace should never be indulged in against her wishes. Where the act is is not mu- where the woman enforced to yield to her husband's lust. But marriage should be based on something besides mere lust. but he is a brute.The ceremony of union may take place. and its proper gratification is healthful. in the language of Michelet. and overlooks the happiness arising from spiritual communion. an outrage on their mothers. Carpenter. The children born of such enforced embraces are. and of which a renewal may be anticipated in another world. can be truly married. does he degrade himself to the level of the brutes that perish. Congenital impotence voids marriage. when. no man who cannot become a father.54 31 A R n IA G E if repugnance . coition then becomes purely animal on the part of the husband. tually pleasurable. There should be pure love. the mere passive instrument of animal enjoyment to her husband. and no woman who cannot become a mother. Of course. discretion had been con- Proper gratification healthful. if he imposes upon his wife the pains of labor and the perils of maternity against her consent. the ill-assorted match would never have been consummated. moral sulted. The wife should not be as well as physical ardor. The husband may have the power." . The wife. says " In proportion as the human being makes the : temporary gratification of the mere sexual appetite his great object. The appetite is an impulse of nature. and he Enforced em1)races. and appetite. The great ph3"siologist. but congenital impotence renders marriage void ab initio^ or voidable. She is a free. a free. might as well gratify himself upon a stuffed figure. instead of passion agent. A healthy man and woman both naturally crave the enjoyments of the marriage-bed. but more permanent. moral a":eut. which is not only purer.

by him received. Adam garden. as a veil. ought to find a place in every essay on wedded life. he describes as physically the perfection of manhood and Eve. : lip With kisses pure. And by her yielded. down to the slender waist. which implied Subjection but required with gentle sway. in his Paradise Lost.'* gives a charming life description of the wedded of the two first lovers. and their nuptial bliss in the paradisal garden. the first pair of lovers. ." '* Of conjugal So spake our general mother. and with eye attraction unrep roved . she for God in him His fair large front and eye sublime declared Quotation from Milton." . Yielded with coy submission. descriptive of ." ** So hand in hand they passed. And meek surrender. and Eve. modest pride. but in wanton ringlets waved As the vine curls her tendrils. golden tresses wore. the fairest of of men since born her daughters Eve. Absolute rule and hyacinthine locks his parted forelock manly hung Clustering but not beneath his shoulders broad She. during their stay in the sinless Adam. The whole passage. '' ^b Milton. For softness she and sweet attractive grace He for God only . And sv/eet reluctant amorous delay. and pressed her matron his. half-embracing leaned On our first father half her swelling breast Naked met under the flowing gold Of her loose tresses hid he in delight Both of her beauty and submissive charms Smiled with superior love. Dishcvell'd. Her unadorned. as the perfection of womanhood. the loveliest pair That ever since in love's embraces met Adam the goodliest man His sons. .ITS PniLOSOPIIT AND HYGIENE. Round . " For contemplation he and valor formed.

natural functions. of marriage that the man work for the woman . to the and equal. The is procreation human beings. take pleasure in endur- ing fatigue for her sake. and makes him loveless. she. to all — . Michelet says. that he hardly believes in the cruel realities that he has gone through all the day. He from home in the evening harassed . physically. But in his reception at home. of performing the ruder sorts of eartlily Man's . her's to enjoyment that is bought. . unendeared. shapel}^ performance of her of healthy. She need not be a paragon of womanly beauty. nourishes him with love. In love. spend it that is to sa}'. there is such an infinite kindness. qualities of the Hence. a calm so intense. and hence she is unfit for matrimony. to regulate the household expenditures better than man would. returns toil. that nature mental and bodily made her so incapable toil. Unless a woman is healthy and well formed. but she should be well shaped. in turn. she cannot fulfil the duties of maternity.56 - '~ ^1^^4 R R I A GE: such mutually ardent intercourse The ofTspriiig of will be sure to grow up beautiful women. from the weariness of worldly things. that he alone shall support. and noble men. suflTering Woman's mission. the physical it is woman about to be married are not the paradise shall to be overlooked. loathe the embrace of the harlot. and save her the hardships of labor and rude contact with the world. certainly far more im- portant than that of cattle. from the baseness of men. Protected and nourished by the man. jt is woman's mission to renew the heart of man. It was that she should entirely reserve herself for this. J03dess. This renders him indifferent business it is to earn money. is her true sphere of labor.

" a wife is a fortune.ITS PHILOSOPIIT AND HYGIENE. together. she is rich in amia- and these are not She loves and trusts trifles. the Eastern poet says. " especially when she is poor. . and his habits she will impose her own upon him. who marries a man poorer than his herself. She will not adopt his ideas. like death. But when the wife is the poorer of the two. ways of living. persons should social plane. upon the husband will be impossible there will be no marriage. the daughter of We . ! . must understand the man whom she loves. who was his social inferior. In such cases. bility. tact. much more time. an Austrian archduke give up his position to ally himself with a loved maiden. in our day. she brings you everything. -^ 57 Why should •^ What loves? pleasure? The wife. It is well said in Eastern law. that the wife is the household. better still. have seen. and. the danger is imminent. . of Husband ^ and wifo position and education when there are many so. in fact. and patience will be required than a business man alwa3^s has at his disposal.should be social cial barriers to be surmounted to bring a couple equals. she cannot always give. laughs at rank. he go elsewhere in quest of ^ ° tlio housepleasure is there apart from the woman he hold. But are these all? No A third something She is wanted and that. . To use a homely phrase. - — Love. If she do not succeed in tuy-ning the man into a woman. however." Then. rather than ^ marry on their above or below. one will not take place. the gray mare will be the better horse. The grafting of the wife . And. is rarely will- ing to be guided by him. When there is too great a distance between the two. levels all classes and distinctions. disputes will arise." Our western experience enables us to add. In general. The sweet and imperceptible blending of two lives into . The own woman Tho rich "Wife. though she has nothing.

The fire. which voluntarily relin. marriage is in the As . The wife should say. Everybody has read the old ballad of " King Cophetna and the Beggar-Maid " and Tennyson's beantifiil poem of the Lord of Burleigh The mother is familiar to all readers of poetry. the will . his father. — " in every respect. is all the foundation of all real marria2:e. Andromache to Hector. youn^ husband are. it is her sacred duty to perfectl}-^ initiate mothers.MARRIAGE: an inn-keeper. should be a union for life : for better or vforse through good report and TIio heart. and publicity are. unity. but the foundation of heart." is. my revered mother. doubtless. Dau5. my dear lover. easily sev- ered as the flax. Marriage. Ceremoii}^ solemnity. while she was washing clothes in a stream. excellent in their wa^^ real . . as soon as she becomes . that deserves the sacred name. body and soul. so know well beforehand to what she . was first seen by the duke. The marriage-tie easily severed. the Roman lawyer said. a freedom. who is giving herself over to the stronger. are my brother. that she is may her daughter before marriage. William the Conqueror. a in the language of You You. futhcr. marriage-tie unfortunatel}^. of the times and of our own . and ])ut her on her guard. that falls asunder at the touch of is The facility of divorce one of the bad signs country. going to consent what it is that she is to un- . evil report . of Husband and w^ife should be. in prosperity and adversity. but also a mutual exchange of hearts quished a sacrifice of the weaker party. " Marriage consent " an act of is . the first Norman king of England. At all events. with no risks everything for the stipulation whatever The mother should enlighten her daughter. future.hter3 should bo taught hy their a woman.

the sexes obeyed. known. others at eighteen. all agreed that the most serious inconveniences mis^ht flow from a premature union of the two sexes. is who are subjected. or worth conditions are not previously the h3^gienic . and attracted . Seeking to determine the more or less advantageous influence which might result from it to the people. the women. "•^ inconvenience of premature marriage. less scrupulous. as soon as the complete development and perfect conformation of all the organs allow. Some of them at seventeen years for girls. In order riage. If the condition of virginity is a state of violence against the impulses of nature. of man and woman both.ITS PIIILOSOPIIY dergo. the can be voluntaiy. it is important to respond to the call of nature.. 59 No compact if anything. — very different from the free state of the young females of animals. I will now proceed to speak of Ju^^'i^jl" rules relating to the union of the sexes and. — if it generally admitted to the that marriao-e is the state most favorable happiness. AXD nVGlEXE. In the infancy of the world. ancient fixed it legis- lators undertook to determine its epoch. made of marphers. permitted marriage as soon as individuals believed themselves fit to fulfil . whose happiness they sought to assure. to full prevent the evil effects of marriage before the development of the constitution. the natural sentiment which but philosothem towards each other legislators. Athenians. one of the chief objects of their meditations. first. at the period of their loves. "j^o'^xeg. to the yoke of passion. physicians. women were authorized bj^ abi7£?'l^of law to marry at the age of twelve years. in their union onl}^. well-being. as to the proper age of marriage for the female. Among the Romans. Lastl}'-. and health.

immense practice in the diseases of women. am thorough knowledge which I have of the female system.60 its MARRIAGE: end. . that the period ought to vary with the difference of place. Moreover. undoubtedly. would have a false and unhappy position in society. to leave some means by might occur at that age which to repair a fault. regard- ing woman only in her ph3"siological aspect. . will agreed. since these several circumstances first may hasten is or retard the appearance of the menses. I say. the . two years between the time of marriage and the first . because the}?" deemed it necessary for the interest of good manners. Beside. of people. of climate. but for this provision. I shall confine myself to saying. if it be recollected that marriage is the most effectual means of removing the evils resulting from the violent desires which are often excited in young girls at an be early period. . The French legislators have permitted marriage at this early period after birth. . . appearance of the menses. there is a rule hy which we may alwa3"s guide ourselves. fixed by the present code. As it would be useless to cite all the laws and opinions relative to marriage. It is rare for the constitution to have acquired. by the education they is receive. and the age of com' plete nubility. to place at least. . it and by Author's the prevailing customs of society. that from eighteen to twenty-five years is the age at ma}^ marry most advantageousl3^ wliicli women ^ . . which is. Fifteen years the marriageable age in France. . that the law in the proprieties of things. well grounded Nevertheless. inas- much as accidental connections between the sexes . mar- riageabio females. and with the degree of civilization. and legitimatize children who. before this period. derived from an constrained to by the From eigii- teen to tTventy-iive years.

the first enjoyments generally produce a favor. and at the expense of her health. yield herself. already too precipitate.es A ^ o ^ Become the mother of deliher. we may say. While a moderate indulgence in the venereal act generally produces beneficial effects. at a period when she is ordinarily strongest and most active. woman. . and hasten the termination. In women who are well formed and fully developed. that newly- become the ders. in order and watchings beyond her approach of old strength age and tear herself. 01 for the reproduction of the If the indispensable processes of nature. for them. it. she will : Premature marriage. Become pregnant. she without the greatest be unable to support. perhaps from life. sometimes happens that the generative organs seat of inflammation. and gen- . Thougli premature marriages are not invariably folhasten. of 3^outh and beauty. . the innumerable and unaA^oidable inconveniences of that be liable to abortions and and the pan2:s of childbirth may cost hemorrhao. cate and sickly infants. more or less. the female will be exposed to a thousand risks in her will new position. are broken in upon b}^ the premature enjoyments of marriage. lowed by such fatal consequences. feebleness.ITS FllILOSOrilY development necessary species. or. perhaps. the physical and moral condition. difficulty. occasions lassitude. that they always influence. the . occupied with the completion of the organization. conse- ^ quences to of. her life. when too often repeated. she will pass her youth m give to the offspring of her uneasiness and tears condition . able impression upon the constitution it nevertheless. love an impoverished milk to rear them. AND HYG lEXE. married persons suffer from some spasmodic disor- which readily yield to absolute repose of the organs and to gentle remedies of a sedative nature. Moderate indulgences beneficial. to cares .

instead of abandoning himself to transports. in general. occasions inflammation and ulcerations in the ors^ans . and sometimes inexall his perienced. the grace and freshness of youth are withered finallj'". . the natural result of the . far from making violent efforts.. ^ culties Avhich the first essays of marriage present are least during the period of the menses. If too great a resistance should be met with. the forgetful- ness of which might lead to the most unhappy . Under all the circumstances. When the consummation of the marriage especially meets with too great resistance. In the course of my practice. overcome the obstacles general. for and some days afterwards I would suggest the use of unctuous substances. fall when there is disproportion between the organs. when it the abuse of sexual intercourse is kept up. and the assistance of the surgeon be called in against an obstacle which he alone can surmount without any risk. results. female nerves pidity disorders of attacks of hysteria . . that Writer's experience. might be attended with danger. and should recollect that the first conjugal approaches require certain cares and precautions. loss of memory . young. stu- moral inferiorit}^. eral depression the beauty is soon destroyed . the hus- of vigor. . some unnatural conformation of the parts ought to be suspected. terminating in death. should seek to Cases of difficulty. I have had occasion ' "^ frequently to afford relief in such cases. and the and nj^mphomania disfestion feebleness of all the senses . and of bathing in cases of difficulty. band. young married persons ought to proportion their pleasure to their strength. and disease of the heart and other maladies. A con- ception is. the In to > diffi- with carc and circumspection.62 ^''" "~ 'MARRIAGE.

I rs nil LOS OP 11 Y AXd ii r u i e n e. such a sentiment ought not to be put into the balance against the life. either of undergoing the csesarean operation. and almost inevitably perish. suspect the existence of such pelvic deformit}^ in a daughter ought not to consent to her marriage. child. It is true. and Deformities often indeed. namely. gards some women. others who. I place pulmonary . or of child-bearing. and. without first taking the opinion of a capable phy- though an examination into the facts of such a case gives a shock to the modesty of a female. at least. though the reproduction of the species is the chief end of marriage. because of a straitened and narrow pelvis. for. or. and lying-in very easily . Amons: the number of deformities which should ^ keep their subjects from marriage. formed in the last respect. however. would be placed under a cruel alternative. with all the appearance of a regular conformation. such as the absence of the vagina or of the pelvis. cannot bring their children into the world. that I have seen imperfectl}' Any woman some greatly-deformed women with a well-formed while there are pelvis. those which unut for mar- which are capable of presmallness venting the act of generation. I would place in the first class. and extracted piecemeal. should be held as to complete obstacles sexual connection. there are yet cases which. of having her offspring sacrificed. c3 genital act. ^ Parents who should ^ Narrow pelyis. the cause of death itself. liowever imperious may be the deas re- mand of the sexual appetite. Amonsf the disorders that oua^ht to be admitted as obstacles to a legal union. who might become pregnant. in whom it threatens to be- come the fruitful source of dangerous diseases. both of a mother and sician .

some family hereditary ailment. positively soured towards them. insanity. idiocy. when tit I have . indeed-. become estranged.64 Pulmonary consumption. were. aneurism of the heart. MARRIAGE. of the usual matrimonial pleasures. that their vfives speedily be^ came permanent invalids. "With these hj^gienic remarks on marriage. insanity. Consumption . that disease continues after the case of puberty. I bring this chapter to a close. through soon after marriage. . and even .^ epileps}^. because as it cheated. and burdened instead with a perpetual bill of expense for medicine and ph3^sicians. and. and of the large arterial trunks idiocy . known husbands who found. epilepsy.

One of her special charms was her maiden-like modesty and bashfulness the effect of which was heightened by the dazzling whiteness of her complexion. I open this chapter with a quotation from a called " Vehse's Court of Austria. as she always treated him as if she was very fond of him. and said that he never could have believed her to have been so beautiful." A despatch of the Russian envoy at Vienna. it is said. " the admired wick. writes.CHAPTER lY." work The Emperor Charles the Sixth of Austria married Elizabeth ^ of Brunsthe beautiful Elizabeth of Brunswick. first Charles. V BEAUTIFUL OFFSPRING. was quite fascinated by beauty of her for the her appearance. ^ 65 . Count Podewils. Imhoff." as beauty. which made her husband call her his " White Lizzy. her of many nations. et il est autant frauenmanu (henpecked) que I'Empereur Leopold le fut. in when he saw Barcelona. qu'il ne pent etre presque un mourut sans elle. Lady Wortley Montague ." Nothing could exceed the her hands. " Le roi aime la reine si tendrement. time. In a letter of the Brunswick privy councillor. Van who accompanied the princess to Spain. her qu'il a . et des un pen de temps a lui il le passe avec la reine. mentions " that she was thought to have entertained little affection for the emperor but that.

under The same thing had happened I. as many people suspected her of not being sufficiently attached still to the Roman-Catholic religion. with Elizabeth. Maria Theresa two daughters were born. with a view to prompt her constitution. too soon. from 1668 to 1678.. Lady Mary "Wortley Montague because the prince was injudiciously weaned . because the aja (governess) had by scornful as remarks repeatedly put the nurse into a passion. was made to drink strong wines and liquors. and of . from 1711 Charles YI. wherebj^ the milk was vitiated states. In 1716. or. to 1716. . She took an active part in the conduct of affairs without having the appearance of meddling with them. the Archduke Leopold but this prince died six months after his birth either. . won his heart. 1717. as was of the princess . and frequently managed to turn them according to her own pleasure. . generally asserted at Vienna. The house of Hapsburg had. and possessed great firmness. representative in the male before.' gg BEAUTIFUL OFFSPRIXG." the letter adds. Tounemaun ." its sole . With the public in general she was not a favorite. attentions and kindness tion. at last. After in this. Previous to the marriage of Charles VI." " Ambi- " was her principa-1 passion. she bore a son. owing to which her face retained a flaming-red complexion to the last day of her life. Yet the nnion remained eight years without issue although the empress." _ She was eminently a woman of sense. and Maria Anna in 1718. harboring heretical principles. . careful medical inquiries had been instituted through the Jesuit Leopold Father. for line. fessor of Charles — concerning the — the influential con- state of healtli and the report was favorable to the prospects of her bearing children.

says Goethe. or subjective forces. according to which. The fine arts. But the child to which the empress gave birth. The empress became prei^nant a^ain and. strikingly modified by the in impressions which the mother receives from the objective world which she lives." showing how to acquire and retain bodily symmetry and vigor. caused himself to be morecrowned and . on the "Philosophy of Human Beauty. an internal. intellectual. Jacques. none but a crowned and anointed king was thought able to become the father of male heirs. tableaux vivants. Charles VI. force. C7 ^^ethori of iniaj4ination. residing in whatever is capable of making an impression upon our senses. There is no doubt but that mothers who live in an environment of beautiful objects of art bear more beautiful children than those otherwise sur"^ Mothers should he surrounded by beautiful objects of art. the seat of which is in the brain. subject is important. to excite her imasfina. for another male heir was doomed to remain unfulfilled. The beautiful. the best painters received orders to decorate ^ her bedchamber in the different palaces wnth erotic representations of manly beauty and vigor over. It is w^ell known that the child in the womb is powerfully and. rounded. The anxious wish of Charles VI. in prevalent in deference to a stran^-e superstition Bohemia. subsequently to that coronation (1725). in their elevating and beau- . and an a work recently published by Dr. This whole Jacques on oeauty. because the beautiful includes the good in it as a Human configuration is the result of two part. spectacles. but the Archduchess Amalia. and imposing ceremonies. tion. or objective force. is higher than the good. who died five years after. — external. after all. and has been ably treated in H. anointed at Prague. was not a son.BEAU TIF UL OFFS P R ly G.

. In childhood. readily It will be conceived that the influence of external objects (received through the senses of the mother) * Importance of fine arts. face „ m the contours of our . In the light of this fact. works of art on appear- themsclves in our features or bodies. and reverent contemplation. The permanent effect produced upon one's and figure by a single visit to a gallery of painting and sculpture is doubtless too small to be readily appreciable but we are by no means justified in affirming that no effect is produced. . tifying effects upon the face and figure. new degree of importance and They not only administer immediately and directly to our inherent love of the beautiful. and their and habituated to their effect will be marked and evident. even in mature life. It was for this reason that the G-recian women placed the statues of their gods in their bedchambers. what is better. ' ' ' it is not inconsiderable. tend to repeat . let the subject of the experiment be constantly surfine art. had an immense influ. loving. striking illustrations of this force of external things. this modifying influence. Let the visit be repeated daily for a few months. buti . or. must be most eff'ective in moulding the plastic form of the unborn child while yet in process of formation. wrought in marble or bronze. The wonderful art-loving Greeks understood this and there can be no doubt but that the worship of gods and goddesses of ideal beautj^. J . furnish. It is impossible to doubt that the law which constrains like to beget like is capable of a much wider application than has hitherto been given to it. ence in perfecting their configuration.' QS BEAUTIFUL OFFSPRING. and made them the objects of constant. the fine arts assume a utility. rounded by works of contemplation. . no longer indirect. is still marvellouslv efficacious and. Effect of Forms habitually contemplated .

r> STaduallv transfi2.BEAUTIFUL OFTS PRING. No sitting-room. Beaut. or bed- room should be Delaroche. this is no mere fancy. It acts Who has not seen the most wonderful clian2:es wrought in the configuration of the face. v/ithout a portion of their beauty being transferred to 3'ourself . It will be enough that you appreciate and admire their beauty. reflected upon the faces of their inmates.7 ^0iict. you in place of Apollo. adorn jouv rooms with beautiful objects. and moral a plaster copy of the of which they are the symbols. and will serve destitute of them.^ beauty. and medallions. and love and reverence the physical. serve ns tinuall}'' still 09 more effectually by increasing con- the available fund of beauty in ourselves and our children. statuettes. " powerfully upon the best elements of our nature. and Castor and Pollux. parlor. you may at least have engravings. acting upon another sense and co-operating with beautiful objects of sight. Impreswhether physical or mental. always and inevitably. and see beautiful children grow up around you.ures o J T them. are constantly sions. If you cannot get paintings and statues./ should ^dorn their rooms. Depend upon it. and your offspring. if you would be J ^ . Music. Hj'acinthus. An engraving of one of Raphael's Madonnas. Beauty begets beauty. as they are within the reach of every one above the grade beautiful. Lovins: wife and mother. attributes deepened by repetition and it is impossible for you to be long surrounded by beautiful forms. wrought by . and tends to elevate and harmonize at the same time the character and configuration. of absolute poverty. intellectual. The beauty of the pictures and statues which ^fot^ers adorn the homes of wealth and taste. is a most effective auxiliary in the grand work of enhancing human beauty. a head of Christ by Greek Slave.

but a more powerful. and rites of religion. in every wa}^ to public well-being and physical duce and moral development. gymnastics. cattle-shows. Our mechanics' exhibitions. — . gladdened also the eyes. and should be encouraged and but we need. as a nation. and im- pressive ceremonies. Their plays aud spectacles. Games but festivals recurring still more frequentl}^. and from the sangerbunds and turnevereins of our German fellow-citizens. We may take a hint art. like the front of one of the Greek temples. is very temporarj'-. inspired the souls. music. in addition to them. and fired with efficacy of these instrumentalities a noble ambition the hearts of those who engaged. and made a deep impression upon all. of course tends by repetition to permanency. our things in their multiplied series of . public shows. The was well understood by the ancient Greeks. as exhibited in the theatre. of man. should take their place. the good influence of which he must be a barbarian who doubts. while they sanctified. as it were. a single performance can never be wholly lost. and the effect of an impressive piece of music ? . and animated tlie features of every beholder. This expression. restore the Olympic . and adapted to the civilization of the day. development of our taste. the exercises of the g3annasium. the opera. is We cannot dispense with the lyre in the ph3^sical culture A similar. we so sadlj^ lack. and conwhich. and our agicultural fairs are excellent way. influence exerted by tableaux vivants^ spectacles.70 BEAUTIFUL OFFSPRING. and would not. a exhibitions of more esthetic festivals. in but it its full extent. The Greek forehead was flat and low. They would aid in the — — promote joyousness. whose fetes in honor of the gods were days of festivity for the whole nation. We cannot.

the bluish wreaths of her ascending incense.B E A U T I r U L O F F S P H I y G'. there is that spiritual transartist which the of ancient Attica had never witnessed or conceived. As Christian heads and faces reached an order of beauty beyond what the most favored Greeks ever knew. the pictures and statues with which she Influence of adorns her cathedrals and cliurches. that " b}^ the sublime and ravishing harmony . the modesty of the maid with the ripe affection of . and to correspondingly change the whole face and its permanent expression. therefore. of her chants. Christian art succeeded in combining the meekness and enlightened benevolence of the philanthropist. as well as intellective forces. that she brings to bear upon church. the mother. they have surpassed them here not because their genius has been greater. in analogy with the elevated vaults and pointed arcades of cathedral architecture. . the first and most strikinoj effects of the mere spiritualistic reli2:ion of Jesus of Nazareth ° was to raise it to the arched or pointed form. but because a new measure of spiritual life and light has been infused into the souls of men. Delaage. Greece furnished no models for the heads of Jesus and the Madonna. friendly to the highest order of and is thus pre. with the rapturous love and high moral elevation of the martyr and in the second. objective. could not represent. In the first. and. If Christian artists have failed in every other department to rival the ancient Pagans. claims for his church. fi<Turation On both.eminently the promoter of physical well-being and. so did Christian art rise far above Grecian art. a zealous Catholic. mankind the most powerful beauty. One of '^ 7 Effoctsof a-mty on personal beauty. whateverwe may think of -the dogmas associa- . in reproducing them. and the magniflcent and impressive ceremonies of her worship.

is that of a most exquisite blonde woman. as far as possible. may restless eyes. cannot fail to beautify the progeny. through the impressions received by pregnant women chance to be spectators of the monkey's which are caricatures of the movements of human beings. and The traditional statue of the Virgin Mary. and the motions of a monkey. otherwise. while He had quick. the child was in its mother's womb. Preg- nant women should. ted with these instrumentalities. bestial characteristics. I have known of an instance of a boy marked. and loathesomc. or repulsive objects. so far. which one sees so often in Catholic churches. by devotecs carrying fcetal children in their wombs. may often be noticed the features of these saintly portraits in the churches actually reproduced in flesh blood. we must admit that. Jacques. and of sweet feminine countenances of saints and Obseryaabroad. are likely. with straw-colored a perfect image of a beautiful. who are so common more a spec- eaco on tacle in the streets of our cities. w4io antics. dressed human habiliments. Among the peasant-girls of Spain and Italy. than prepant women. b}^ a monkey. The organ-grinder and in its inriu- his hideous monkey. to do lively harm to the unborn. mother. he is right. spiritual and physical culture of man. A similar line of thought had been suggested to myself while travelling in Catholic countries abroad. The worship and contemplation of such a — Marioiatry. and that Protestantism has unwisely discarded some of the most potent agencies which might have been made available for the So far.72 BEAUTIFUL OFFSPRIXG. avoid the sight of grotesque creatures. martj'^rs. as the phrase is. youthful tresses. statue. The churches are hung with pictures of Madonnas. .

That child proved to be a child of joy. the germ thereby vitalized. and conditions of health and vigor in the physical system. on which to give existence to his youngest child. gentle and of mothers loving moods.Iiifluenc® of disposition ter and disposition. mentions the case of a gentleman who chose an occasion of festivity and uncommon social enjoyment. Thus. earnest thought fulness. Fortunately. not only perma^nent traits of is They must character and configuration. change and modifying species. the writer have already quoted in this Both the maternal germ. and the vitalizing fluid which is destined to impregit. must necessarily be modified by every condition of body mind to prepared may be which the individuals in whom they are subjected during the process. shows to what extent circumstances. in a mother ordinarily amiable and sweet-tempered. in every . in which his wife had also fully participated. represent. that like produces Darwin. Fowler. existins: at the moment in which the Thepio^ ment of generative act is consummated impress itself upon conception. also. are equally subject to transmission. O. we quote again. in his work on the origin of species. beautifying and ennobling passions. is full *J$ of wonderful phenomena and Its great law is. in physical and mental and especially must the condition of body states and soul. will be transmitted to her child. marrinoj its charac. chapter. Embryology developments. and what he calls the struggle of From existence. existing at the time of conception. the great English naturalist. whom we nate or in common with the other secretions.BEAUTIFUL OFFSPRING. in one of his excellent physiological instance. but also whatever temporary and accidental. S. ' ' '=' rary. however tempo. like. works. a fit of petulance or ill-humor.


sense, being the very

embodiment of good nature

and quiet happiness.
Scholars beget scholars, while
the ignorant have

children of

aptitude for learning.


the case of the mother,


not enough that we

merely consider the conditions existing at the time In en?of conception, and previously thereto.
deavoring to account for the mental or physical peculiarities of the child, we must bear in mind,

during the whole period of gestation, every

influence The mother
and unborn






makes a corresponding impression upon the foetus. xhe Same blood which sustains her, nourishes and the same nervo-vital fluid which cirdevelops it culates through her system, conveying the mandates of the soul to every part, and executing, everywhere, its behests, permeates the soft and impressible form of the unborn child, modifying continually its character and configuration. If her blood be pure and highly vitalized, the foetal being will be built upon purity and strength and if the nervous fluid, through which she calls its organs, one by one, into



existence, be the messenger of pleasant impressions,

happy thoughts, and beautifying emotions only, the unborn being will be moulded into harmony and

on the other hand, every disorder of the mother's physical system, and every disturbing passion of her soul, must inevitably corrupt, weaken,

and deform her offspring. When a female is likely to become a mother, she ought to be doubly careful and, in particular, to indulge no of her temper ideas that are not cheerful, and no sentiments that are not kind. Such is the connection between the mind

and the body, that the features of the face are


O F F S P Jl

IN (7.




is it

expression of

internal disposition

it is

not natural to think

that an infant, before



be affected by

Mrs. D. traces minutely, in the diversities of character and disposition of her numerous children, her own life-history during her long maternal career. While pregnant with her first child, she was happy, and in the exercise of her most amiable traits, and it is peculiarly beautiful
the temper of its mother?

and sweet tempered.
to drink



her husband began

which, naturally, darkened the sky of her

happiness, and brought into action some of the less
lovely attributes of her character.
faithfully represents, in disposition

Her next


and temper, the

state of

mind thus induced.

Then came poverty,

and the consequent struggle with adversity, which,
while they called out all the latent energies of her
nature, developed also,

further, the


and the character and disposition of the children born during this period correspond and, so on, through still other changes
already too active

of an eventful



lady of Boston,

who had became
his exploits,

intensely Case of a»

interested in

Napoleon and

and was


accustomed to read everything she could procure relating to him, bore a son during the great conqueror's triumphal career.



the most

decided martial tastes, and
of his house with pictures of

so enthusiastic an

admirer of Napoleon, that he has covered the walls

him and

his battles.

The case of Napoleon himself furnishes a
illustration of the point


under consideration.


mother, while pregnant with him, shared with her husband, and frequently on horseback, the dangers
of a military campaign.

A lady writes


" From the


age of two, I foresaw that
ness would ruin him


eldest son's restless-

and it has been even so. Yet, he was kind, brave, and affectionate. I read the Iliad for six months before he saw the light, and often wondered if tha,t could have had any influence upon him. He was actually an Achilles. Roussel remarks, that "children have been subject all their lives to convulsions, in consequence of their mothers having during pregnancy been struck with terror or some other powerful emotion." The Scalpel
relates the case of a


residing in Clarendon, Vt.,

while crossing the North River, near Albany, in a


was assaulted by another man with a broken oar, and a deep gash was cut through his scalp. In this wounded condition, he





to his pregnant wife, who, of course,

was deeply horrified at the spectacle. Some seven or eight months afterwards, she gave birth to a child, upon whose scalp was a wound, corresponding in shape and position with that made upon her husband's head. By means of adhesive straps, the wound was made to heal. That the sages of ancient
Greece understood the doctrine of fo3tal impressions, and saw clearly that the work of perfecting the physical man should begin before his birth, is evident from their teachings.
TheGrecian childbearino", °' practice.




vromen, and especially those in the condition of

devoutly j

worship l



their deities as

were believed to be deified


cations of masculine beauty

the statues of these

gods, as has alreadj'' been mentioned, were placed

bedchambers, thus modifj'ing, by their

beautiful forms and features of ideal purity, the un-




thorough knowledge of these

modifying influences,

their bearings, puts it

power of parents to predetermine, to an unlimited extent, not only the mental and almost
•within the


but also, and moral qualities of their offspring through these, their physical conditions and eonfiguration. Children may be brought into the world

intelligent or stupid, amiable or ill-tempered, beautiful

or ugly, at will


nor need


stop with this

general statement.

It is

equally true, that any

particular quality of organization, contour of figure,

or cast of features, even though feebly or not at


developed in the parents, may, through the instrumentality of the means already indicated, be im-

In making this statement, we would not be understood as underrating health and beauty as parental qualifications. All other things being equal, the healthiest and most beautiful iparents will produce the healthiest and most beautiful offspring but plain and comparatively
parted to children.

sickly parents,

by acting in


accordance with
give existence to

the principles here set forth,
healthier and



beautiful offspring than the


favored in t^hese particulars

shall still live in

ignorance or in wilful violation of physiological laws.


the principles thus laid down,




— That

the highest possible condition of health, physical Principles

vigor, mental activity,

parents, should be secured

and moral goodness, on the part of both from forfand uniformly enjoyed for a consider- S^i^S

able time previous to the conjugal union

and the

greatest care

taken that these conditions be


combined at the moment of

— That


both of the parents,

any particular faculty or organ be weak in one or it should at such times, by a special deterfluid

mination of the vital

to the

proper part, be stimulated to

unusual activity, that
the child.


be transmitted in greater strength to


— That in case any disproportionate or perverted development
faults or defects of

exist in either parent, manifested in

character, they should be held in strict subjection at this period,

in order that only a normal development

— That,


be communicated.

if special talents

or qualities be desired in offspring,

the organs in the parents through which these

or talents

are naturally manifested should be specially exercised.

— That,

after conception,

the mother should continue to


the healthy conditions already insisted upon; be ade;

quately nourished

take sufficient exercise in the open air ; obey

the laws of her being

tender, loving,

and be watched over with the most and thoughtful care. That, during the first four or five months of her pregnancy,

special attention should be paid to the condition of her physical


and during the remainder of the period, to the state of ; her intellectual and affectional nature,

— That,

through the whole term of gestation, no


should be spared to strengthen and fortify the nervous system,
in order to preclude the liability to shocks from fright, or other
violent emotions.

— That nothing that would promote

her happiness should

be withheld

and every cause of

grief, anxiety, or ill-temper be,

as far as possible, at once removed.

— That

she should be constantly surrounded by beautiful

objects, in art

and nature, and

especially, that she should con-

stantly contemplate images of ideal, physical,

and moral beauty, and willing that her child shall resemble them. 10. That all ugly, and particularly all deformed and monstrous objects should be carefully shunned, and only those external impressions which are favorable to harmony and beauty
earnestly desiring

* The substance of the foregoing chapter is taken from a work entitled " Physical Perfection, Jacques." This writer has gone over the

ground and

all the authorities so thoroughly, that I


and therefore


found myself have availed myself of Mr.

Jacques's researches.



shows, by the unfolding of her Th? young J o girl a,t physical faculties, that she is approaching the com- puberty, to ^ ^
T '='


young girl J => &

be closely

pletion of her full development, she needs the closest watched,

watching, and


management having a
Whereas before


object from that towards which her childish constitution




existed but for herself alone
age, the spring-time of

having reached this


her charms

are in bloom, she


belongs to the entire species,

by bearing almost all the burden of reproduction. During infancy, the vital forces tend to act equally upon all

destined to perpetuate

her organs


but, at the age of puberty, the chief

efforts of the organism are in

upon the sexual


some sort concenwhose functions are

executed only during the second period of
at this period, the instinct of


modesty often leads

young girls to conceal their first monthlj^ turns, it becomes the duty of mothers to inform of the chano-e Mothers ^ should inthey are about to undergo, and to announce to them fo^"^ ^^^^ of the that the discharge, which they are to become periodi- change, cally subject to, is a natural function, upon which
'^ *^


health will henceforward depend.



sons, kept in entire ignorance


this point,


mistaking their new condition for some shameful weakness, have been known to oppose the salutary




efforts of nature

by means of

lotions, injections,


other equally dangerous means.

The exact


therefore, should be told to girls just arrived at

puberty, because, though

it is

dangerous to know

too much,



more dangerous to be
attention requu'ed



by women






terminated by the appearance of the menses,

consists in fulfilling two principal indications to moderate the excitement

and disorder resulting
the circulatory




fulness of

second, so to direct the efforts of nature,

that they



their chief


on the

sexual organs, in which the vital forces ought, so
to speak, to centre

and terminate.


carefully regulated diet



means, the

most appropriate

for fulfilling the first requirement.



^^ ^ you^^o gii"! ^t puberty ought to consist principally of vegetable substances, of preparations

of milk, of the tender meats, and of light and easily Water and cooling drinks digestible substances. should form her chief beverages
articles, alcoholic liquors,




seasoned meats, sour and unripe fruits, stimulating


coffee, as well as


daily use of tea,

must be

carefully avoided


baths, taken from time to time,


together with the diet, to produce a general cleans-





have the advantage, moreover,

of softening the skin, and dispersing the cutaneous
eruptions, to which girls are particularly subject at

the age of puberty.
Exorciso and gj^mnasties


placc the genital organs, especially the



in a Condition favorable to the appearance of the ,, ^ , ^ menses, I should advise g^^mnastic exercises, walK. .

and of tight clothing. as it were. and licentious novels. ing and riding. still more fre- quently. the hoop. and particularly if the girl suffers any of the evil effects of amenorrhoea. which naturally at puberty already too much exalted. Frequent visits to the theatre ought to be carefully the faculties become. we should inviting the flow of the menses. of the thorax. pelvis If they delay their appearance too long.^- PUBERTV. wearing of corsets must be forbidden. by reading licentious books. which is the most charming ornament of a young girl. and school. order to exercise a constant watch over them. to applications of cups to the thighs. tear the veil of modesty. as avoided. Youno^ girls should be removed from boardinsf^ ^ ^ schools when they approach the ao-e of pubertv. ^ ^ " Boardingschools. the violent intimacies formed at boarding- and destroy forever the seductive innocence. in particular. and leeches to the vulva. Endowed with . These powerful exciting agents. running. overpowered by the desire to experience the sentiment which these works always represent in an exaggerated strain. ^1 and riding on horsebacic lastly. because they also may give rise to sensais tions conformable to the moral condition. the jnmping-rope. are additional means very useful for . and of the neck. the false emotions produced the school. especially of highly-wrought fictions of the modern all which are the more injurious. frictions about the and inferior extremities. the use of flanneldrawers. the At this period. as far as possible. have resort to very warm hip-baths and pediluvia to aromatic fumigations . and which might prove the beginning of most of the sad list of diseases to which women are liable through their reproductive organs. which hinders the free m development of the pelvis. We should prevent. etc..

Self.an organization eminently impressionable. withered by the rays of a burning sun. and conducts her almost always to a premature grave. and. will do more good than all the drugs of the apothecary the old classical fable. which seems to prove that the ancients had discovered. are in her converted into a devouring flame . taken even to fatigue. spite of all the care It often happens. Constant occupation of the mind and bodily exercise. Like a delicate plant. rcason and shame. that in and precaution of a tender and prudent mother. she contracts improper habits. and. . so sweet and attractive in their native truth. make to which we may almost always or.82 PUBERTY. which will withdraw the attention from amorous subjects. In this unequal contest. which represents the chaste goddess Diana as addicted to the chase. soon destroys her beaut}^.* that execrable and fatal evil. impairs her health. propensities. II. especially. A strict .Preservation. where nature often gains the victory. means of cure should be resorted. literary studies the frequent use of bathing moral and religious counsels the precaution never to . in bodily exercises. Hayes. leave young persons alone." A Medical By Dr. sentimental and languishing. to them retire late and rise earl}^ — such are the means resort with success. the imagination of a girl becomes exalted to such a point as to silence the voice of Preventiye means. The desires for happiness and love. by an amorous melancholy. diet . superintendence . A. and solitary vice. the power of blunting the stings of love and the amorous . she fades and dies under the influence of a poisoned breath. dreary. is an ingenious allegory. a light . becomes sad. coustaQtly tormented SS^ioiifar*^ vice. * Sec " Science of Life TrcatJriCp .

the frequenting of balls and theatres. are cold and indifferent. and might even prove useful in bringing on the monthly flow. by exciting the sensibility of the generative oro-ans. and even the reading of novels. may . 33' A directly opposite plan should be adopted for girls who. though arrived at the marriageable age.PUBERTY. To such. the culture of the line arts. not be hurtful.

that they have discovered this is in the females of certain animals. caldefmi- The plivsiolosfists J l o define menstruation to be a tionofmen. Hilaire and F. or hysterical and other troublesome . Cuvier indications of It has it assert.. MENSTRUATION. during the whole time that the female is capable of conceiving. irritable During the existence of the female is . the process may be impeded. menses. menstruation. occurring from three to six da^^s in every month. that anything more than a bloody mucous. is called catamenia. menstruation is At the present day. as Dr. affections be excited. however. . however. as well as every kind of mental and corporeal agitation otherwise. exhibits the feeling enter- towards the female whilst performing this unclean in Not only was she regarded as she was looked upon. It and the process menstruation. flowers. maintained to be identical with the rut in animals. 84 . been denied. antiquity . The sacred volume tained natural function. or from the period of puberty to called the critical age. what is This discharge etc. the sj^stem of more than at other times so that all exposure to sudden and irregular checks of transpiration should be avoided.periodical discharge of blood from the vulva. human species but MM. Geoffry St.CHAPTER Physioiogi- Yl. the has been considered peculiar to .

The stupid science of the time was wrong. destroy o ^ ^ hives of bees. cause iron 7 OM suporstations in regard to was considered and and menstruating women. that red-haired . to be •^ 85 mysteriously dele- terious. much to the annoyance of himself and guests. she is generally ailing at least Long one week in four. in this respect positively. that the moment she touched the bottles. female ^ o-rafts. the wine was turned into vinegar. dry up fields of corn. and called impurity. La Motte had implicit belief in this opinion. always believed this. Whenever woman does not blot out her sex by excessive labor. etc. is also a trouble- some one. and often in the middle of the lunar month. to bli2:ht corn. by many. is precisely woman's holiest crisis what constitues her an Woman's holiest eminently poetic and religious object. drive dogs mad. But the week which that precedes that of the crisis. in at this period. wherever she remains a woman. and the tide rising. and carried the absurdity so far as to it is and firmly believed women are worse than others and he gives an anecdote of a redhaired servant of his who spoiled some choice wine. could not be but which is defined now known be the . formerly..ME N ^TR UA TIO X. a menstruatino. if the process be conducted by one so circumstanced. advance of. weakness. The most — vulgar woman. follow this And into the eight or ten daj^s is week of pain it prolonged a languor to and a . Michelet says. she gives touching indications of her approaching transformation. copper to rust and smell. He asserts assert. which. that meat will not take salt. and Love was right. the wave is coming. as he was about to sit down to enjoy it. Love had crisis. that which the middle ages insulted and degraded. Elllotson has remarked. is not without poetry. In the time of Pliny. On this subject. Already. etc.

other impressions. Exempt at this age from cares and troubles. the interval between the tenth and the age of puberty is a period of j^ear transition in the female. exhibits it follows imagination every object most attractive colors. becomes a woman in her countenance. non-sexual creature. of her in her sensibility and in her character. Colambat says. . the period of gentle the pleasures and that most unrestrained gayety. Her extreme the happiest period in her life only an invalid. her in- clinations. her tastes. . wounded one she ceasefrom Love's eternal wound. — they proceed along a flowery path up to the age when nature which they owe to The young girl who. they weep. all and even in her the traits of resemblance . in her constiA^oice . wound. in the melodies affections .se MENSTRUATIOl^: cicatrization of an interior Woman. and laugh at the same moment and as their joys. as well as all their under the . -^ all this traofedv. and that the existence of young females is agreeably varied by a piquant freedom of action and a great mobility of tastes and affections. so their pleasures and their grief. stage is. Very soon. . an equivocal. real cause fifteen is or woman not lessly Her happiest period. they sing. are ephemeral . but a suffers — nervous mobility prevents her being too deeply impressed by the grave sentiments that might be As this fitted to interfere with her happiness. the So that really.-— a sort of passage from which appears to be childhood to adolescence. was their species. and beauty of her calls on them for the tribute form. for 3^oung females. an of invalid teen or in each fif- ° twenty days out of twent3^-eight. her habits maladies. until now. and in all the parts of her bod}^ in the elegance of her stature. the delicacy of her features tution .

The mesh . within the principle of life. This important in period. The bud newly expanded blossoms amoniy the flowers. system soon becomes a centre of fluxion nature makes great efforts to establish the periodical discharge and the whole machine. rosy tints of the cheeks and lips. the same time. this first which nature seems to renew herself. and the perfect development which discloses the arrival of the age of puberty. and by various striking and admirable phenomena. in its inmost re. now acquire their full pro- . which. seems to announce that they are soon destined to become fitted to act an important part the breasts become rounded assigned to them by the law of nature. like a veil covering the organs of modesty (pudenda). and bring out those contours that belong to the tender sex alone. a violent tion. which put an end to the social inertia in which the young girl had lived from the period of her birth. while they establish their correspondence and sj^mpathy with the womb. At . which were in a rudimental condition. portions tive . The mons veneris comes out into complete relief. other important changes take place the pelvis and the sexual organs. is announced by a sentiment of necessity to multiply. The sexual . the whole system of . the The new energy of impulse to functions rapidly . the throat rises and becomes more sensi- and full. cesses. between the two sexes arc found to be effaced. and clothes itself with a thick down. their become more the body grows the various portions of the figure become graceful more expressed. womb active imparts a powerful or-gans . moment of triumph. a commo- general movement. experiences a succession. o J and this brilliant metamorphosis is signalized by the i- 87 ' pharacterlatica of puberty.MENSTRUATION.

presaging new dispositions. and climate. whose principle is founded in ingenuous love. Among these circumstances premature passions may be enumerated. Certain moral circumstances may likewise accelerate pubert}^ thus. and reacts with energy upon the whole system. A new sentiment gives rise to desires. A new sentiment. becomes. object. general sensibility — duces the impression of a touching melanchol}^. have no definite This rising want proit knows not what. habits. and this new want it that troubles her heart. which lends the highest splendor to the The attractive freshness and beauty of youth. a charming bashfulness. have the eff'ect wholly. a source of multiplied disorders either of . the necessity of loving makes her seek it solitude . of the Under the the sjnupathetic irradiations uterus. and announcing that the inclinations and habits Of childThe hood are exchanged for other sentiments. young virgin becomes timid.88 M E N S T R UA TIO N. . but the artificial maturity thus result- ing always acts injuriously upon the organization. soon impart to the surface of the body a voluptuous plumpness. augments more and more. and dreamy. of the cellular and adipose tissue. play of the vital forces more active. reserved. if satisfied. exercise a marked infiuence upon this vital phenomenon. becomes changed. as yet. manners. She sighs less for pleasure than happiness . its arrival . and even excited in a peculiar manner. which. which render the derangements. and engages Artificial maturity always injurious. and pleasures the arts of . abstract. retarding or precipitating the age of abundant and stimulating food and drinks. becoming rapidly filled under the influence of the uterine irradiations. action of the new form of vitality established within the sexual organs. remain unand Various causes.

dependent upon individual diff'erences. Mahomet is said to have consummated his marriaore with one of his c> wives when she was full eight years old. in ten . It has been esteemed a general law. at from forty to years. in four.pu^^ny. with power of fecundity.ME y S T R VA TI O imitatlon. but there is reason for doubt- With us. in eighty-five in the fifteenth. in . . . in the fourteenth. again. 39- . in seventy-six . ^^® of menstruation varies. in England. These estimates are. however. in . and the sooner it ceases . of which too many examples These are unfortunately furnished in great cities. beyond the ages that have been specified. .^^ sequence of the great vivacity of the imagination. In rare cases. liable to many exceptions. romances the inspection of lascivious pictures the the bad examples and the theatre and the ballroom premature libertinism. ninety-seven . in the seventeenth. In some of these protracted cases. Menstruation commonly ceases. twenty-six . in nineteen in the thirteenth. the most common period of commencement is from thirteen to seventeen years. menstruation commenced in the eleventh year. that the warmer the climate. the miserable con. in fifty-seven in the eighteenth. .V. painting . music. Of four hundred and fifty cases observed at the ing the correctness of this prevalent belief. even in childhood and. met with as early as the eighth or The age at which menstruation com- mences varies in individuals and climates. specimens of premature are sometimes pubert}''. in the nineteenth. in fifty-three . the perusal of obscene . in the temperate zone. in twenty-three and fifty in the twentieth. in the sixteenth. twelfth.• . tenth year. Manchester Lying-in Hospital. the catamenia have appeared at a very early age. the menses. the earlier the discharge takes place. have continued. in the . in particular instances.

at . after a long suppression. in four. at fifty-three . at forty-five . seven . who was a grandmother at the age of twenty-eight. one. in others. On the twentieth of 1834. that in . in seven. eight. in one. four hundred upwards of forty j^ears of age three hundred and ninetj^-seven. in twenty-six. four . she was delivered of a child weighing seven and three-quarters pounds. at forty-two forty-four . and Hagedorn. were tropical regions of It -^ -^ . in their forty-ninth. New the year 1828. in whom menstruation continued till the age of seventy-one Bourgeois. thirteen. Of one sevent3^-seven individuals. at fifty in two. at fort}^.90 ME NSTRUATIO N. till the age of eighty On the other hand. little and was preg- over nine. . was delivered of a child at the age of sixty-four. the catamenia have been regular . at sixty and in one. at forty . one. at forty-three . has been successfully shown that the age of ^ ° puberty is about as early in the cold as in the a the earth. in one. in their fiftieth fifty-third . . being ten j^ears and three days old. . in three. Holdefreund relates the case of a female. it may be remarked. in her fifty -fourth. old. the discharge. who menstruated when one year nant at a April. nine. in two. A woman at Whitehall. and that. at fifty-one . in ten. from forty to fort}^thirty-six were . and five. fiftj^- at fifty-two . Of ten thousand pregnant females registered at the Manchester Hospital. York. they have ceased in at the age of thirty-live . A case is also recorded of a female. has returned. in her fifty-second . a lady was a visitor at Ballston Springs. Cause of early maturityin the Tropics. at in four. at forty -nine . at forty-eight . till ninety. in seven. in two. in their forty-seventh year . . in three. in her and one. in one. six. at seventy. in their forty-eighth. at fifty-seven in two.

not to between the sexes. females have become mothers without ever having menstruated. debasing systems of religion. and. Dewees asserts. . but to ill a moral and political degradation. by statistical evidence. . — after this. and marriages to take place in tlie 91 early intercourse attributed. indeed. the loss of Yet. that there is not a menstruated for the first time. having never menstruated. Early marriage. United States at as juvenile an age as in India. ignorance of letters. both of whom were mothers before they menstruThere is another case of a young woman. became pregnant four months after her delivery. are to be any particular precocit}''. of a mother and daughter. ated. but miscarried . she was a children. Vargas.M E y S r R UA T ION. Dr. Yet. in the negress than in the white Dr. although thirty-five j^ears of five A age. healthy. As a general rule. who married before she was seventeen. of Philadelphia. who had menstruated but once in seventeen years. . . she became pregnant again and four months after the second delivery. the enslavement more or less of women. of Caraccas. when she again became pregnant. that menstruation does not occur more early female. There is a case recorded in the books. French medical writer says he attended a woman. exhibited in the laws and customs. It and impure and has been shown. instances of very early fecundity would be as common here as there. precocious menstruation more common in the white than in the colored. the appearance of the menses denotes the capability of being impregnated such capability. she and continued to do so for several periods. that is to Professor Meigs. in a letter affirms. and the mother of third time pregnant. or equatorial South America. and their cessation.

independent of pregit generally results in disease. state. there much The discharge continues from two to eight or ten da3's. and there discharge of blood from the mouth. uneasiness. there is a suppression. In some relaxed constitutions. properly attested instance on record of a female conceiving previous to the establishment of the catamenia. but in this. arising from the want of proper but where I have been attention to these matters confinement by ill-health. Suppression Bleeding at the nose. or have found. there and. the sanguine. to a certain extent. frights. When nancy. fits. the more lax the constitution. and knows sufficiently of his business to detect this discharge from a discharge of fresh blood from a rupture of the lungs. and sometimes insanity. or a disturbance of the functions. The quantity of blood discharged is in menstruation is from four to ten ounces . attended with pains. is favorable in cases of suppressed menses. . and the luxurious. have generally a large periodical evacuation. is its discharge. the larger variet3\ . The indolent. a copious it will generally be found to benefit the person and the physician. will not regard it as an un- favorable S3''mptom for the health of his patient until he can restore the evacuation to its proper and usual course. The most frequent causes of suppression are exposure to cold. in my experience. consulted in season. AVhen the is menses have been suppressed. anxietj^ of mind. falls. is occasionally not more than a week's interval in general. I . women often continue for years. who is acquainted with the philosoph}^ of this matter. I have seldom failed to afford . numerous cases of consumption. runs into tumors or cancers. and the longer is its continuance. In this weak Causesof.92 ^^E ^' STRUATIO y. sometimes fever.

Difficulty of menstruation is a it 93 similar disorder. corresponding nearly with the rev- olution of the lunar period of twenty-eight days each . monses. Menstruation is the consequence of the periodical maturation and rupture of a Graafian vesicle with the escape of an ovum from is the ovary into the Fallopian tube. that an embryonic germ is developed and hi'ought to perfection at stated intervals. for prevents conception. I treated. difficult I have treated numbers alwa3''s afflicted witii ^^J. one ovum being ripened every month. the existence and 1 dependent on • mnuence first n oi _t> the ovaries. Excessive menstruation experiences of is a difficulty with which females are sometimes sorely troubled. excepting within a short period before and after menstruation. we have cohabitaT ^^'^^' approached in the slightest degree to a .^^'? g^^^^^^^^g^g^j menstruation. and with the most gratifying success. after all. and that sexual intercourse may be indulged in without the usual consequences. if can say that it is correctly understood and properly practice. From the my easily curable. as well as conception. • It is now 1 • generally acknowledo'ed is that Menstruapendent on iniluence of the ovaries. An impression prevails. and a serious one. there is it is alleged that whatever to impregnation on the part of the female. the female is not likely to conceive. nancy wfil Physiologists are obliged to confess that not. menstruation. After the expiration of ten days. no liability no certainty that conception will not follow a coitus which takes place even twelve days But there after is After ten not certain the cessation of the catamenial discharge.MENSTRUATION. It is based on the physiological law of the sex. the desired relief. which washed away by the menstrual blood. that. from whom it received its name. 1 mi i. seldom failing of a perfect cure.he ovarian vesicle was discovered by De Graaf.

The passing over of the men. bowels often accompanying this epoch. the increase in size. is pregnant and her exact state can be determined only by an examination per vaginam. even in the mind of an experienced female. The period of the . for those of pregnancy. -^ ' . unless some cold. Sometimes. the aptitude for conception is greater immediately after menstruation. the change is gradual. the uterine functions acquire an increased activity shortly before their final cessation. Menwhen the usual ao^e o at which it disappears is arrived at. This period is also which often excites the fears of females. and capricious state of the appetite . occurs and occasions it. of the movements occasioned by belief. then ceases for several weeks. and afterward recurs for a few periods 7 accidental .94 ME N STRUATIO X. Fitful re- turns of discharge. final cessation of the menses is variable and. etc. knowledge of the purpose served by the periodical catamenial discharge. so that females who have not had who have been barren hitherto. strual period . and is attended by irregularities as to the intervals between the periods. or even months. have unexpectedly become pregnant. More frechildren for years. — notcoaseat struation rarely ceases at once. More commonly. sometimes induce a that she Menstruaonce. swelling and pain of the breasts the sickness and disorder of the stomach. the discharire returns o every two weeks. In a few cases. exposure to an acute illness. and the flatulence. or by the exhibition of purgatives. females mistake the symptoms often attending the cessation of the menses. and the abundance or scantiness of the evacuation. or quently. as fright. by time. even in healthy females. . circumstance. however. Undoubtedly.. the change may be attended by phenomena requiring discrimination on the part of the physician.

ns 95 altogether. the suscep- of irritation subsides. during the earlier epochs of their have been liable have subsequently enjoyed a much better state of health. During the functional activity of the uterine edb3' better organs. and gradually disappears and consequently. originate are no longer felt. up to the period of this change. the disorders which they . On the other hand. to hysterical and nervous ailments. and then ceases Maii}^ females of delicate constitution. the cessation of the menses generally aids in aggravating the former. healthily. or even when a predisposition to disease exists. A disorder. hemorrhoidal affections epileps}". and . '^ and lived long and when this chano-e has been brousfht about carefully and fortu. hysteria. cutaneous eruptions ties . or so even an organic lesion. but will assume a rapid and The maladies which most commonly active form. will no longer thus remain latent. become thus developed are the various organic and malignant diseases of the uterus and mammge gout. upon irritation . . and while these organs are highly susceptible of irritation. when disease already exists in some organ.^^^a^JJ^fof ^ ^ life foUownately. and a recurrino^ evacuation of the * ^ A'ascular system. and paralysis dropsies structural changes of the lungs liver ' . organic diseases of the apoplexy. regular as ever. who have complained much existence. which slight or so little may have been advanced as to escape detection as long as the menstrual discharge has continued. many of the disorders depending of them are more or less frequently this experienced but when these organs undergo the change characterizing tibilitjT- epoch of life. '. ulcer of the lower extremi. and has proved a periodical derivation from the affected or2:an. . l^^^ent dis- orders deveioped change of .MENSTRUATION. or who. or continue stationary. or in developing the latter. oftentimes.

leucorrhoea occurs and continues long at this epoch. ing to the circumstances or . exert some degree of derivation from an organ dicStkms of JhouW b carefully- watched ^^P^sed to serious disease.96 ME N STR UA TIO N. The medical managei^^i^t of impending disease at this epoch is of great importance. and powerfully tends to prevent the vascular fulness which might develope and aggravate these or other disIn some instances. In many cases. and regular tion means which are applicable to all cases characterized by vascular When disease of some fulness or consrestions. and of oppression of any organ. hemorrhoids supervene. and have the same effect and even the appearance eases. ought to be met with local depletions. perpetual blisters.urgency of particular cases. . Signs of vascular fulness. which should be repeated accordfulness. ing a recurrence of vascular determination to. exercise in the open air. and issues will prove of service in removing the remaining irritation. still. the bowels . of cutaneous eruptions. of local congestions. to promote biliary secreDiet and treatment a light farinaceous and vegetable diet. diet and regimen are the means on which we should chiefly depend for the permanent removal of the period of life evil. A regular state of . or obstruction of conditions the this bowels. mental disorder. are pathological of and although local bleedings are necessary to remove impending mischief. etc. or . and the earliest indications of disorder should be carefully watched and duly estimated. setons. — are and when the more acute or active state kas been subdued by depletions and other appropriate means. or a very moderate use of animal food. or ulcers in the extremities. Vascular the . and in preventinternal organ is actually present. the occasional exhibition of a mercurial.

and then they ought to be resorted to in conjunction with the remedies just mentioned. as sometimes the case. nevertheless. means should be used to impart energy to it. these. narcotics. — whether epileptic — although following the cessation of . In all treatment should mahily depend upon the states of the vascular system. and convulsive disorders be associated with this state of the vascular system. anodynes. or The menstrual discharge may be it de- layed or absent. congestion of. the nervous manifestaattention. This is simple amenorrhoea. the the affected organ. the ferruginous or iron tonics should be prescribed . attended or hysterical. may be joined with seizure. does not make Some cases of simple amenorrhoea are actually instances of protracted puberty. If require the nervous sj'stem be morbidly susceptible or sensitive. in connection with those of the chief viscera tions . with a if painful or deficiency of the blood. ^7 cases. as well as If it by other agents. disorder. unless the signs of general and even local and local fulness depletions should be cautiously and sparingly em- be quite conclusive. the whole . antispasmodics and anodynes constitute a principal part of the treatment ploj'ed. and thereby. owing to functional inactivity or may be its obstructed or retained by Late apmenses. to remove is this condition.MENSTRUATION. organic change. Sometimes there is an absence of the life menstrual discharge at the period of suppression of it when it is usually regularly established. or the suspension or after it had recurred regularly for some time. In some persons. by convulsions. be connected. menstruation appearance until four or more years after the usual period. and antispasmodics In most cases of sudden the menses. the vascular system being neither too full nor oppressed.

the functions of the digestive organs languish the bowels become irregular the countenance pale the strength reduced and the breathing short and the general health gradually declines. absence or presence of malformation or obstruction. and general febrile symptoms. and occur occasionally between the efforts at menstrua- - Chlorosis and tubercular con- and are attended by flushings and throbbings of the face and head quick. particularly in the more plethoric cases. full pulse . or of associated with paleness. or even jxionthly. occurs. and protects for a time the patient . and again. with an incapability of bearing light and sound. deficient in blood. Various hysterical symptoms. In both. or into tubercular consumption. and are often succeeded by severe headaches. In the more delicate class of cases. to pass into chlorosis. After two or three days. merely with a discharge of the whites. simple amenorrhoea causes the patient tion. or even several hysterical paroxysms. these sufierings are severe. however. in persons relaxed fibre. . frame betra3ang imperfect growth but care should be taken to ascertain the nature of the case. and is characterized by pains in the back and loins by weight in the lower part of the abdomen by aching in the tops of the thighs. and the . In the more tion. . these symptoms cease without scny menstrual evacua- . diarrhoea. . . there is little or no fever and the symptoms are slighter and more chronic. Simple amenorrhcea occurs in persons of full habit. an apparent attempt at menstruation occurs occasionally. with lassitude and uneasiness. . or plethoric cases. occasionally appear. conjoined with rigidity of fibre and robust health . . or delicate constitution. As these disorders continue or occur. In a few cases. sumption. In the pale and delicate. thirst. . . or some dis- charge. .98 ME N-STR UA TI O N. and a weak Symptoms.

membrane may cover the mouth of the womb. that where the uterus and aff'ected. from the more dangerous consequences of the obstruction. Then the canal of the cervix uteris may be nearly or quite obliterated. etc. . the voice harsher and deeper than usual and a beard is observed on The general health maj^ not be the upper lip. which continues to run for some days. with myrrh. The patient should live partly or chiefly on fish and vulva.. or not properly formed. and and take regular and active exercise in the and use the hip-bath. by applying leeches to the ping. The emmenagogue purgatives may be given with the stimulating emmenagogues. or by active purging by means of aloes. as the uterus slowly contracts. etc. the sexual is . The hymen may be what is called imperforate. ovaria are wanting. extract of colocynth. thick. The vagina may be wanting. no means can be of "When the menstrual discharge is accumulated in the uterus. and has onty been obstructed mechanically. . service. formation.M E y S T R UATIO N. treacle-like fluid. air. the ovaria. or the absence of one or more of them. The breasts and external organs false A of generation are not fully developed propensities are not manifested . open the uterus. 99 TJie treatment of this local or is florid form of amenorrhoea . Dr. such as shell-fish. Where there is a deficiency of the ovaria. there is a more or less masculine development of the body at the period of puberty. is by even general bleeding when the complexion Bleeding ° ^ ^ and cupand the habit full. the removal of the obstruction is followed by the escape of a dark. It is obvious. by cupping on the loins. The next kind of obstructed menstruation is ^om^m^ai?" caused by malformation of the reproductive organs.

. but commonly followed by morning sickness and Difficult menstruation. females. the characteristics of neuralgia. often very great. tions. Difficult is a form of uterine disorder which is of frequent occurrence. when very this severe. Pregnancy cannot be inferred to be the cause. when the suppression of the menses takes place suddenly. Prevents conception. The All the forms of dysmenorrhoea. The ally it is arrest of menstruation by conception is generunattended by other unpleasant symptoms. and nervous temperaments. and is not only productive of extreme suffering. if pregnancy has occurred during its continuance. It is of three kinds. but often of very serious conmenstruation sequences. Although in itself it is there is risk of abortion. gener- ally^ prevent conception but the slighter degrees of effect. by alteration of the size of the breasts. than others. and a broad binder to be applied around the abdomen. and it is generally Both married and single . — neuralgic. scrofulous. In one of the severest and most obstinate cases for which I have been consulted. the patient had a family after the complaint will not have . hysterical. In neuralgic. temperaments and habits of body but more frequentlj^ in vfomen of irritable. not a fatal malady.100 Churchill MEN STRUATIOK. or from ^nj of the more energetic causes Arrest of menstruation from pregnancy. the monthly paroxysms of pain have all inflammator}''. recommends the vagina to be syringed in these cases with warm water. the latter Difficult more particularly. and. yet malignant diseases have followed its protracted existence very difficult of cure. Three kinds of. producing it. and of spare. It often prevents conception . sujffering is and obstructive. or mechanical. are liable to all it. causes abortion. or difficult menstruation. during the period of the discharge. aud phthisical constitumenstruation occurs in .

severe and erythema extending along the limbs. • 1 • 4. *' .1 . technically denominated menorrhagia. & 101 Excessive monstruation. distressing manner. insides of the thighs.MENSTRUATION. excessive. it may continue for a long period. about seventeen years of who was suffering in a ^°^Pstance. and after- wards ceases. the labia. after irregular and prolonged periods. or for organic disease of the uterus. marriaoje. Even when the unusually large. irritating as to inflame the vagina. it varies from four to Woofi usually (lis^ -u + ten ounces from a five to seven or eight being the charged. That climate influences the quantity of this discharge is extremely probable but I do not believe . x- 4. I was once called to a Offensive age. a word compounded of two Greek terms. and again recurs. The quantity of blood dischars-ed from the uterus Five to ^ soven or at each menstrual period has been variously esti. and nine or ten. in consequence of the irritating and offensive state of the catamenia. called excessive menstruation. that it has this effect nearly to the extent estimated by some quantity writers. implying a menstrual rupture. the discharge or may take place in a short period. young lady. or bloody flux. . In temperate climates. in a boarding-school. Irreorular ^ menstruation menstruation. and confining her for several days .©igbt ounces of mated. is Menorrhagia is Irregular often mistaken for early abortion. usual amount in the countr3^ Less than four may be considered as scanty . for it is impossible to obtain pre- cise information is upon the subject. as a slight or moderate drain. There had been no detention of the discharge but it was so . and for a considerable distance over the hips. that in which the discharge is premature. There is another kind of morbid men- struation. or during a longer time in recurring gushes . Offensive or otherwise morbid catamenia are occasionally observed.

. . very dark black. The discharge in these cases is diseharge. or pitchy. offensive She had suffered in a much less seyere manner. 3/£ NSTR UA TIO X.102 to bed. I have since met with instances of this state of the catamenia being complicated with erysipelas. in some of the preceding menstrual periods. and very offensive and it is at other times pale or serous. or greenish-black. The offensiveness of the catamenia is generall}^ owing to ^ morbid state of the circulating fluids.

as shivering. a single of the state of heat indicating that the generative organs are In the human female. pains about the umbilicus. are said to have occasionall}^ denoted occurrence . ripe for conception. likely to follow a single intercourse for. the period of conception can be determined with accu- racy . In animals. — the existence cases. in which generation is only accomplished in a period of generative excitement. her genital organs are rarely. its Certain signs. or carrying the the womb. takes place without the . MATERNITY (PHYSIOLOGICALLY CONSIDERED). Conception. where all sexual intercourse can take place at periods. although she may be always susceptible of fecundation. and often the indications afforded by one female are extremely different from those presented by another. so powerfully excited as in the It is not for the animal during the season of love.CHAPTER Conception usually VII. in by far a majority of such copulation fecundates. sterility in either physiologist to inquire into the morbid causes of to relate all the visionary notions male or female. perhaps.. slightest consciousness on the part of the female foetal hence the difficulty of reckoning the precise period child in of gestation. etc. conception is by no means as . nor is it desirable which have pre103 vailed regarding the circumstances that favor con- . but they are rare exceptions . for.

A French medical writer made the wild assertion.104 ception. Sex of child either to beyond control of bj'' any exercise of parents determine the sex of the child begotten at ^ a given time. and succeeded to their wishes But this pretended power of determining the sex of a child to be begotten at pleasure. It MATERXITY. within their power. These statements gave . mined upon in confirmation of which. interfere and modify the operation of that power to ! suit their pleasure It is an ancient opinion. which seems to be in some measure confirmed by what we notice in cer- tain animals. who are the mere instruments of creative power." which has been seriously revived in our own the time. The older philosophers. that the character of the offspring is . and the same organs on the left side. or to determine its physical or moral character. as might have been deter- TransmiS' sion of qualities. As if the parents. Yet idle and absurd schemes have been devised for both one and the other. could. rise to a pretended " art of procreating the sexes at pleasure. believed that the right testicle and ovary furnished the rudi- ments of males. those of females and some of the old writers on breeding assert that such was the result of their experiments with the ram. that she should cer- tainly have a . has been demonstrated to be an absurdity and mere pretence. it is obviously not their will. that he could so manage the position of woman during copulation. he published the names of mothers who had followed his advice. as Hippocrates and Aristotle. boy or girl. than at any other period. Conception being entirely removed from all influence of the will of the parents. would appear that more women bear children between the ages of twenty-six and thirtyyears. under the advice of some medical charlatan.

in the lusty stealth of nature. the ratio of instances of bastards." limits . largel^y 105 depenclent qualities upon the moral and phj'sical of the parent. individual regulates the sex of the progeny. signalized for unusual vigor — — mental or corporeal is who have been to the whole number of illegitimates. stale. of Melanchol}^ " "Why brand they us ? base ? base ? Anatomy — "With base ? With baseness ? bastardy "Who. and it has been fancifully maintained that the race of perpetuated by uniting the men of genius may be them to women possessed of an old view. regards their organization and fortes of constitution. not greater than in the case of those born in wedlock. The remark. It is creative energy of the parents has much to do with the mental and corporeal activity of the offspring. Than doth within a dull. Hence his " it is that bastards have been presumed to excel in this respect. Secondly. that the pro- same faculties. that on the average. in " put. about one infant in twenty is still-born. First. That the dangers .MATERNITY. Much strehsfth doubtless depends upon the condition of as the parents. Such is . Go to the creating a whole tribe of Got 'tween sleep and wake " ! fops. That the dangers and difficulties of parturition are greater to the mother in male than in female births. take More composition and fierce quality. There are grounds for believing that the stronger It stni-bom. " is creantur fortibus et bonis. and the same idea is by Shakespeare. Three facts are worth recording here. tired bed. true within certain but we have no proof that the ardor of the procreative effort can have any such influence and . the idea of Burton. into the mouth of Edmund. would appear.

her. for the very marked difference between the perils and difficulties. has reached the cavity of the womb. That. within a very short time of each other. that on a particular day. immediately after her husband had left his bed. are greater to the child in male than in female births. South Carolina. Buffon cites a case of a female at Charleston. from that which exists in female births. j^ is a question in physiology. to obtain the nutritive fluids which may be required for its development. white. One of these was black the other. and compelled her to gratify his wishes under threats of murdering is . there Superfoeta- no other traceable cause except the larger size of the head of the male child. attains the interior of the womb. When the ovum. When fertilized the fecundated ovum or egg that has been by the seed from the male organ of generby the fimbriated extremit}i of the Fallopian tube. and the ciliary motions of its lining membrane. and to remain there during the whole period of pregnancy. The circumstance led to an inquiry when the woman confessed. who was delivered in 1714 of twins.106 MATERNITY. Thirdl}^. both to the child and the mother. . it: : ^ and its results. and accidents from parturition. Pregnancy. in male. it forms a ation has been laid hold of — — union with that viscus. and through this perhaps by the contraction of the tubes. and be delivered at an interval corresponding to that between the conceptions. which it probably does within the first ten or twelve days after conception. :^ a connection with the uterus by means of the pla- . whether two conceptions may not undergo their respective developments in the womb. channel. And. a negro entered her room. in a short space of time. it forms. or fertilized or utero-gestation. germ-cell.

which before pregnancy and at the uterine Its portion of the cervix uteri. One of of itself. on the contrary. in order to afford room for it. is necessary that the uterus should be correspondingly enlarged. on a level with the Fallo. and the increase is more . is the suppression of the catathis but. . occupying a larger estimated at a foot inches . the female affected nausea and vomiting. but in the fourth. Some fe- males. at this time.^°pp^|® °^ most common signs menial discharge relied after . first two months. was from fourteen to eighteen drachms. is. no disturbance of the it is whilst with others. pian tubes. especially in the morning after rising . from a pound and a half to two pounds. size is not great. its transverse diameter. During the next four the embryo child in- months. and crowding the viscera into the flanks and iliac region. being times desired or longed for with the greatest avidity. the increase of chiefly occurs in the pelvis . at twenty-six inches weight. however. it increases that is. whilst. is Soon with impregnation. the appetite is most uncertain — arti- cles of at food that previously excited loathing. rapid. cherished articles . the whole system commonly sympathizes more or less in the altered condition. as it may result from disease.. a period of incessant sufferino. the earliest and ?. as well In the as to supply it with its proper nutriment. 107 it During the development of the embryo. thirteen inches. cannot be on. centa. Along with the changes that supervene in the generative apparatus during ^^1^°^^^ pregnancy.MATERNITY. pass through the whole course of gestation with but slight or ordinar}^ functions . and larger space in the cavity of the abdomen. at nine its circumference. The length of the uterus at the full period has been creases in every direction.

and is. The urine in pregnant women is said also to undergo a modification. not alone of the nipple. and of the rational signs of pregnancy. even in those possessed of remarkable at even dispositions other times. and to contain a peculiar substance or pellicle. The areola round the nipple becomes of a darker color in the first pregnancy than it is in the virgin state. a whitish. stance. and sometimes darting pains are felt in them and a secretion of a whitish serum can often be pressed out. A bluish* tint of the vagina has also been It is the affirmed to be a sure test of pregnancj^ general opinion. These appearances constitute one of the best single proofs of the exist- ence of pregnancy. which forms on the surface after it has stood from two to six days. Quiokening. It is called k^'estein. a musty odor resembling that of semen. . The the temper unusually sleep is apt to be disturbed .108 MATERyiTT. puffy turgescence. when far blood. been reckoned as one In fact. irritable. and it is darker during each successive pregnancy than when the female is not pregnant. but of the whole surrounding disk. There is also a . Along with the the uterus gradually enlarges and about the end of the eighteenth week. The breasts enlarge and become knotty. pregadvanced. of diet cannot be regarded without disgust. sooner or later. that the blood of pregnancy always presents the buffy coat and other characters of inflammation . though not always proof positive. quickening . that pregnancy always accompanied by a peculiar smell of the vaginal mucous. in appearance. sensibly changes the this has it A is German physician gives as the result of an eighteen years' obstetrical practice. nancy. fatty subsigns alread}^ mentioned.

according as it is double. the beatings of the heart of the foetal child are audible. for the purpose of verifying the existence of preo-nancv. Prior to quick — from . by what the French term. or the motion of the child this. the application of the stethoscope has been used as a means of discrimination in doubtful cases.Examina^ ^ tion per tion per vaginam. This can rarely vaginam. may indicate the presence.MATERNITY. child — the female is ^s'lih but it is not until then. the mouvement de in utero. takes place. by means of the other hand In this wa}^. Where there is much corpulence. that the foetus has undergone the development necessary for its movements to be perceptible. This instrument may indicate also when the pregnancy is multiple. of intercourse resulting in pregnancy. indeed. as it is 109 usually but erroneousl}^ termed. triple. hallotteinent. as it is called. is — and — giving the foetus a sudden succussion. but. of the foetus This examination consists in passing the forefinger of one hand into the vagina. "^ ' afford much evidence prior to the period of quicken- ing . This occurrence establishes the fact of pregnancy. after the month. placed on the abdomen. the female being in an erect attitude. the examination. may be necessary. . the moment. How- it is asserted that the sound has been heard in . or the contrary. to institute an examina. By applying this instrument to the abdomen of a fifth pregnant female. is first felt. etc. Of late years. by the pulsations of two or more distinct hearts ever. whatever doubts may have previously existed. which is often of an unequivocal character. a sensation communicated to the finger placed in the vagina. is or where the fluid surrounding the foetus in such it quantity as to throw obscurity round the case. after this.


eases of tumor in the

womb and

other kinds of


The pulsations of

the heart of a foetal

child vary from one hundred and twenty to one hundred and. eight}'' in the minute. Many uneasy feelings attendant upon pregnancy are owing to the increased size of the uterus. These occur more especially during the latter half of pregnancy. The parietes of the abdomen may not yield with the requisite facility, so that pain may be experienced, especially as the part where the soft

parietes join the false ribs.

The pressure of


uterus upon the vessels and nerves of the lower
extremities occasions enlargement of the veins of the legs

transudation of the serous part of the

blood into the areolar tissue, so as to cause considerable swelling of the feet and ankles numbness,

or pricking, of the lower limbs, and the most violent

cramps, especially when the female
bent posture, so that she
of the night.


in the recumrise


be compelled to

suddenly from the bed several times in the course

The same pressure exerted on


bladder and rectum, especially during the latter

months, brings on a constant desire to evacuate
Duration of the pregnancy.

Contents of

those reservoirs.


human pregnancy has

given rise to

The duration much dis-

While it is agreed on all hands that nine calendar months is the usual period of uterogestation, it is maintained by many high authorities and accomplished accoucheurs, that pregnancy might

be protracted to nine-and-a-half, ten, or even eleven
calendar months.


difficulty that arises in fixing

upon the precise term
bility, in

owing to the impracticaexist where conception

ordinary cases, of detecting the time of


But few cases

has taken place after a single intercourse.

In one

reported case, where the exact time of conception


was known, the child was born exactly two hundred and eighty days from the time of conception. The
usual durancy of pregnancy


be set down as

from thirty-nine to forty weeks, or from two hundred and seventy to two hundred and eighty days.
sensations of the female are fallacious guides, Cessation of ^ the menses, and, accordingly, she is usually in the habit of a fallacious


reckoning from ten days after the disappearance of the catamenial discharge but pregnancy might

have taken place on the very day after their cessation, or not until a da}'' prior to the subsequent period so that, in this way, an error of ten days at

least is liable to occur in the estimate.



does not always happen that



immediately succeeding


The period

of quickening, which generally happens about the
eighteenth week of pregnancy, does not afford us


positive evidence, seeing that it is liable to

vary, being experienced

and by


by some females earlier, somewhat later. I am, however,
ordinary durancy of

justified in

stating, that the

pregnancy is ten lunar months, or forty weeks but I have no less hesitation in affirming, that it may be
protracted, in particular cases,

much beyond


In a case detailed by Dr. Dewees, an opportunity occurred for dating with precision the time of conception.

This case also shows that conception does

not necessarily stop the succeeding catamenial discharge.

The husband of a


who was


to absent himself for

many months on account


embarrassment of
wife, her

returned one night

his visit being

known only

to his

mother, and Dr. Dewees himself.


lady was, at the time, within a week of her men-



and, as the catamenia appeared as

strual period;

usual, she

was induced to hope that she had escaped impregnation. Her catamenia did not, ho^Yever,

appearance at the next period; the and in ordinary signs of pregnancy supervened nine calendar months and thirteen days from the


of her husband, she was delivered.


North Carolina, who went either two hundred and ninety-three or two hundred and ninety-six days before delivery. The
case is recorded of a



University of Heidelberg allowed the legitimacy of

a child born at the expiration of thirteen months from the date of the last connubial embrace. A case of gestation protracted to three hundred and seventeen days, was admitted in Cambria County, Such a case, Pennsylvania, in the year 1844. though unusual and improbable, was not regarded
as impossible.



like uncertainty exists as to the earliest period

which a child is viable, or capable of carrying on an independent existence. The period is generally but fixed at near the end of the seventh month children have lived some time that have been born earlier. Children born at the expiration of twentyfive weeks and six months have lived some time, though barely alive when born, with little motion,

too feeble to cry, and without hair or nails.

end of seven months of utero-gestation, or even a month earlier, the foetus is capable of an independent existence, provided, from any cause,
j^^ the

delivery should be hastened.





the fall period; and although labor


occur at the

end of seven months, the usual course is for the end of about ten lunar months. If it be extruded prior to the period at
foetus to be carried until the

capable of maintaining an independent existence, tlie process is termed abortion^ or miscarit is


riage; if between this time

and the

fall period, it

called premature labor.


certain records,

abortion, or premature labor, has been estimated to

and a half cases. With respect to the causes which give rise to the extrusion or pushing out of the foetal

on the average, once

in seventy-eight

child at the expiration of the full period of pregnane}',


are in utter darkness.

appears to be limited to the

Our knowledge that when the

has undergone a certain degree of develop-

ment, and the uterus a corresponding distension and organic changes, its contractility or power of

called into play,

and the contents

of the


and systematically exIn cases of twins, the uterus will admit of
are beautifully

greater distension, before its


A day or two preceding labor, a discharge
from the vagina
of a

occasionally observed


more or


streaked with blood.

called the sJiow, because it indicates the com-'

mencement of some
of the

womb — the

dilatation of the neck, or mouth,

forerunner of labor or travail.

The external organs, at the same time, become tumid and flabby. The mouth of the womb, if an examination be made, is perceived to be enlarging and its edges are thinner. Along with this, slight grinding

pains are experienced in the loins and abdomen.

After an uncertain period, pains of a verv different Beginning



on, which


in the loins,

and appear to bear doivn towards the os uteri, or mouth of the womb. These are not constant, but recur at first after long intervals, and then after


body of the uterus manifestly con-


tracting with great force, so as to press the



against the


mouth of the womb, and dilate it. way, the membranes protrude througli the os

uteri with their contained

the pouch being


Sooner or later, occasion all}^ termed bag of waters. membranes give way the waters are discharged

and the uterus contracts, so as to embrace the body of the child, which was previously impracticable,
except through the medium of the liquor amnii.


commencement of

labor, the child's

head has

not entered the pelvis, the occiput being generally towards the left acetabulum but when the contrac;

tions of the

womb become more


and are

accompanied by powerful efforts on the part of the abdominal muscles, the head enters the pelvis the mouth of the womb becomes largely dilated and the female is in a state of agitation and excitement, owing to the violence of the efforts and the irresistible


desire she has of assisting

them as

far as lies in her



the head has entered the pelvis, in

the position in which the long diameter corresponds

to the long diameter of the pelvis,



an arc of a

circle, the

face passing into

the hollow of the sacrum, and the occiput behind
the arch of the pubis.


the continuance of the

pains, the head presents at the vulva.


become urgent and forcing.

The pains The os coccygis

pushed backwards, and the perineum
the anus


at times so considerably as to threaten

undergo laceration

also forced

and even open

and protruded


the nj^mphse and caruncalss of the

vagina are effaced the labia separated and the head clears the vulva from the occiput to the chin,

The birth,

experiencing a vertical rotation.
out, the shoulders


the head


and the

rest of the bod}-^ readily

on account of their smaller dimensions. The child, however, still remains attached to the mother by the navel-string, which has to be tied, and divided at a few fingers' breadth from the




After the birth of the child, the female has
a short interval of repose


but after a bearing-down pains are experienced,

owing to the contraction of the uterus for the separation of the placenta and membranes of the ovum,
called the secundines, or after-birth.

The process of parturition,

or child-birth,



plished in a longer or shorter time in different

and in the same individual in


labors, according to the particular conditions of the

female and


parts, however,

when once



easier afterwards

so that the



generally the most


After the separation of the secundines,

the female


left in

a state of debility

and fatigue; but

this gradually disappears.


their openings are stopped up.

become small, and For a short time blood continues to be discharged from them but as they disappear, from the return of the womb to its
also contracts




usual size, the discharge loses


bloody character,



replaced by one of a paler color, called


which gradually disappears, and altogether

ceases in the course of two or three weeks after

For a day or two

after delivery, coagula

of blood form in the interior of the uterus, especially

which excite the organ to contraction for their expulsion. These contractions are accompanied with pain, and are called after-pains and as their object is the removal

in the second

and subsequent

of that which interferes with the return of the uterus


proper dimensions,


obvious that they

ought not to be
the uterus

officiously interfered with.



dimensions, the other

parts gradually resume the condition they were in
prior to delivery

so that, in the course of three or

four weeks,



be impossible to pronounce

positively whether delivery has taken place or not.

The presence of shining, broken streaks, like the remains of cracks, in the skin of the abdominal
parietes, or walls of the

abdomen, has been regarded

as a sign of some value as indicating that delivery has taken place; but this sign is often wanting

where delivery has occurred and it will be readily understood that any cause of distension may produce these streaks. Labor, as thus accomplished,

more deserving of the term in the human female, than in animals and this is partly owing to the size of the foetal head, and partly to the circumis

stance, that in the animal, the axis of the pelvis is

the same as that of the body, whilst the axis of the

brim forms a considerable angle with that of the outlet. In rare cases, the child is extruded or pushed out without labor-pains. I was called in
the night to a female,

who declared

that she


abdominal uneasiness, when she found both the child and the secundines expelled and other cases of a like kind are on record. These facts should be borne in mind in cases of

awakened by a

alleged infanticide.
of labor.

The duration of labor
ous circumstances.

varies accordins: to numer^


reason to believe that


more tedious

in civilized than in savage

and in colder than in warmer climates.
tion of the child

occiput before

— constitutes

— with



the face behind and the
the usual presentation

whenever any other part of the foetus Unnatural presents. and converting the case into a foot presentation. born at the Hospice de la Maternite of Paris. In 1839. birth. women throughout England and male infant. however. and in the All these. . When the child has been separated from the mother.MATERNITY. dred and forty-seven. Wales. — with that — as . but after birth. — about . and continues to live by the exercise of its Lactation. with the view of bringing down the feet. 117 six Of twelve thousand hundred Natural labor. children being born during the night. the mortality The parturient and child-bed conyet less dition is not devoid of danger to the female is than is generally imagined. It is found that the period of twenty-four hours has some Time influence five of upon the process of child-birth. for four during the day. that the and requires hand should be introduced into the uterus. and ninety-eight were breech presentations . the knees. in one hun. twelve thousand one hundred and twenty were of this presentation sixty-three had the face turned forward one hundred and thirtj'-thrce children. in natural labor. Whilst in the womb. In 1838. be dependent upon her for nutriment adapted to its tender condition. this nutriment consists of vital powers. it has still to fluids own placed in contact with it . the position is unfavorable. child-birth was fatal to two thousand nine hundred and fifteen. there were only three hundred and seventy-two fatal cases. are cases in which labor can be effected without assistance knee and feet presentations being identical regards the process of delivery bre'ech. Fatal cases occur more frequently in male than in female births. But. a . owing to the larger size of the Some years are more fatal than others. . ' . the feet presented three. of the labor.

which are fifteen or eighteen in number. but forwards and outwards. mammella. there are supernumerary breasts on other parts of the body. the pectoralis major muscle. In the middle of the breast is the tubercle. At times. It is formed of by somewhat dense areolar of smaller lobules. and open on the nipple. near the base of the nipple. and about the size of a poppy-seed. the ducts of any other lobe. : — . and transparent. These granules cannot be distinguished in the breasts of the virgin. united tissue. or teat. there are two nipples on one breast. or reservoirs. the mammce^ or breasts. in technical language. and situa- tion of which are characteristic of the human Instances are on record of three or more distinct breasts in the same individual. which have been thus depicted by Sir Astley Cooper ''The natural obliquity of the nipple forwards and — . and resting on what is termed. or larger breast-muscle. of a rosy-white color. several lobes. size. without having any communication with each other. The nipples do not project directly forward. All these finally terminate in sinuses. In some cases. surrounded by the fat of the breast. which has to be re- ceived into the stomach and under2:o the digestive process. and have no communication with. capable of They enlarge. a prominence. which and consisting seem again composed of round granulations. consisting of an erectile. so that those of each lobe remain distinct from. This secretion is milk. called nipple. which are crooked. Each breast contains a mammary gland. It is prepared by species. difi'ering in color from the rest of the breast.secretion serves the purpose. and extension. There are excretory ducts. called milk-bearers. unite with each other . spongy tissue. the number. for wise purposes.

in a most inconvenient and fatiguing position. and becoming shrunk and withered old age. and some that. instead of its reclining on her side and arm. In unmarried to and chaste is female. although largely dependent on the generative functheir at in — the breasts undergoing chief development puberty. although the blood whence milk passing the breast. because the child rests upon her arm and lap. and for defending from the action of the secretions from the infant during lactation. whilst the lower part of the breast forms a cushion upon which the cheek of the infant tranquilly reposes. and even in the male sex. from time it. if the nipple and breast had projected directly forwards. — the secretion may independently arise . in the most convenient position for sucking for." The skin at the base of the nipple is rough. which is . is one of the most beautiful provisions in nature. mouth of the The the secretion of milk is liable to longer inter- missions than any other function of the kind. of pregnancy for it has been witnessed in the unquestioned virgin. the superannuated female. that when the child reposes upon its mother's arm. But it is wisely provided by nature. It is formed may be constantly no secretion takes place only during pregnancy. it has its mouth directly applied to the nipple. both for the mother and her cliild. To the mother. Yet. as a general rule. « turned outwards to receive it . it. with a slight turn of the nipple upwards. the necessary excitation exists to produce tion. There is an intimate and mysterious sympathy . and secretes a fluid for it the lubrication of the part. afterwards.outwards. the child must have been supported before her in the mother's hands.

in order to prevent the too rapid succession of children. The milk and butter of cows indicate unequivocally the character of their pasturage. and incapable of being made into cheese. The secretion of milk usuall}^ continues until the period when the teeth of the infant have acquired the necessary de- velopment it for the mastication of ordinar^^ food . The milk is more abundant. or the w^hole of this time. the flow of milk is small in quantity and poor in qualit3\ Whilst the secretion of milk continues. In a certain . by a dose of mor- vegetable diet — — phia administered to his wife. Milk is composed of water. who nursed his child for five months on the secretion from his breasts and there are several such cases recorded in the books. thicker. tMrt3'-two years of age. sugar of milk. hence the importance — were that not even more weighty reasons — of the mother suckling her own child. For a great monthl^^ turns part. food . and generally ceases during the second year. Medicine given to the mother may almost Serious in this way act upon the infant. especially if they have fed on turnip. Human milk has more sugar of milk. fatal narcotism was induced in the infant of a professional friend of the writer. less coagulable. and certain salts. the female is less likely to conceive. the are suspended.120 MATERsn'rr. wild onion. etc. than that of the . Humboldt adduces the case of a man. cow hence it is sweeter. chees}^ matter. casein. The quantity and character of the milk differ according to the character and quantity of the food. and less . and if both the menses and lactation go on together. when is used. between the breasts and the womb. if the female and possesses the opposite lives on animal qualities. and less acid. more liquid.

number of recorded cases. AVhen the menses flow during suckling. it is an evidence that the womb has again the organic activity which impregnation.121 for .MATERNITY. fifty-six per cent became pregnant whilst suckling. befits it .

some feeble signs of the principal organs. a grain of barley. are visible . Good descriptions of the human . four or five lines. or to monstrous or Its distorted embryos. twenty-first day. it is On the thirteenth or fourteenth day. the embryo appears under the . and of about the size of a pea. upper limbs. according to .CHAPTER YIII. have a and those that have aflittle more consistence form bone assume the cartilaginous terwards to this period. The human ovum does not generally reach the womb until about ten or twelve days after concep- tion. a child in the egg-state. shape of a large ant. according to Aristotle of a grain of lettuce. the shape of the child 122 is . or after its discharge from the ovary. and of the situation of the length. the future situations of the brain and spinal marrow are said to be recognizable by powerful instruments. — About the fortieth day. EMBRYOLOGY. are very rare and many of the accounts appertain to diseased ova. its different parts . On the thirtieth day. perceptible in the uterus. ovum. thrown off by abortion. within the first month of conception. fluid. weight at this period has been estimated at about On the a grain length. Burton. On the seventh or eighth day after conception. contain- ing a turbid The child in point is sute. in the midst of which a dark suspended. At condition. one-twelfth of an inch.

nose. — the head bearing a conThe . Prior to this period. in the language of some physiologists. but the shoots of vegetables fourth month. nose. and are extremely transparent the nose begins to stand out the mouth increases and becomes open the brain is soft and pulpy and the . the latter name until after the beginning of the determinate .EMBRYO LOOT. as they are lips are very dis- tinct and approximate. . or the body lengthens. . The '''^^^S. preserves its oval shape. indeed. it is not entitled to foetus. Black- points or lines indicate the presence of the . most of the parts ^^^^^ exist. They cover the region of the kidneys. the eyelids are more developed. and fowl. siderable proportion to the rest of the body. they disappear in man very early so that but slight remains of them are perceptible after the ninth or tenth week of pregnancy. A small hole is perceptible in the position of the ear. The black points. heart is largely developed. Length. In the second month. and toes are now In the third month. are The wings of the The distinguishable. and firmly closed. . . mouth. . The . which represented the the eyelids are eyes. and similar parallel points correspond to the situation of the vertebrae. and becomes According to others. called. so that the mouth is closed. are presumed to be organs of urinary secretion first during the fingers periods of foetal existence. substances or bodies are perceptible. base of the trunk ish is pointed and elongated. which were first described as existing in the According to Muller. and eyes ten lines. The organs of generation of both sexes undergo an extraordinary increase during this month. ceases to be embryo. enlarge in every dimension sketched. very early. distinct. 123 and it The limbs resemble tubercles. now.

owing to the absence of the feet. areolar tissue. ' . is The vulva is apparent. ears. except. glued together. and the movements of the foetus unequivocal. and of a purple color especially on the face. and soles It seems pUited. The . seven nine inches weight. as well as the spinal marrow. of fat ill the subcutaneous. Fifth or six inches month. marrow acquire greater consistence ceding month. three-and-a^^^^ inches. Weight. four or five ounces. which increase less in proportion than other parts. at the . the muscular system. The skin is delicate. large. the scrotum empty. Sixth If the foetus be born month. The head is still very manifest amongst them. palms of the hands.124 penis is EMBRYOLOGY. pulp3^. six or eight ounces. =' ' During the ^ month. all the parts acquire great development and character. . smooth. one hundred and twenty days. The brain and spinal and pulp}^. compared with the rest of the body. and is covered with small silvery hairs. long . selves. and slight almost imperceptible movements begin to manifest them- The length of the foetus is. perhaps. the wei":ht. and The brain. lips. frequently conwater. The lungs are insignificant soft the liver very large. During the fourth month. but mS? and appears to secrete scarcely any The upper and lower limbs are developed. two-and-a-half ounces length. the head and liver. the derma beo-ins to ^ be distinguished from the epidermis. which began to be observable in the pre- now distinct . though still forcibly. end of five months. The to eyelids are Length. taining a little the clitoris prominent. it may live for a few In the sixth month. minutes. the development of every part goes on a distinction is but The muscular system is well marked. considerably developed. at the five end of fifth . The heart beats . . bile. is .

EMU nVi) LOGY. begin to separate. now certainly viable. and its lips are separated by the projection of the clitoris. under two pounds. The length. Length. and upwards. Should the foetus it it is sufficiently developed to breath and cry in a short time.age weight about seven pounds. eighteen or weight six or seven pounds. 125 towards the The nails appear. inches . ten or weight. . In the eighth ^^^^ij* month. and can be felt by the finger passing into the vagina but it is still very movable. at seven months. the parts are better propor. The scrotum is small. Length. cheesy substance. so that the form is is rounder. ribs. which previously closed the pupil. The fat is more abundant. or capable of supporting The testicles period. is fourteen weight. Dewees says the result of his experience in this country makes the ave]. sixteen inches . the foetus increases proportionally more in breadth than in length. be born now. . acquired the development necessary for the con- tinued existence of the infant. begins to disappear. All its parts are firmer and more formed. and limbs are more or less completely vasified. the organs have The fuU ^ ° independent existence. secrete a white. . which it. and of a vivid red hue. at six months. and the membrane. Dr.Seventh The head is directed towards the mouth of the womb. Its sebaceous follicles. twenty inches . Length. The nails exist . The skin redder. and the testicles are in progress to the scrotum. vulva is prominent. four pounds. and the child is an descend into the scrotum the bones of the skull. that covers are formed . At the full period of nine months. but generally dies twelve inches tioned. During all the seventh month. The eyelids . He has met with two ascertained cases of . under three pounds. and end of the month are somewhat solid. weight.

with the head lowest. ^ life. Simpson affirms that the usual position of the foetus. of each When there are twins. and the . . it seems to be merely suspended by the cord. the arms folded in front. The estimates above vary in individual in give no more than an approximation to the general truth. or to is fancy that the nice adaptation of the foetal position to the parts through which the child has to pass. body . It is difficult. Xhe position of the foetus in the womb. -. so that the . is not assumed until Gravit}^ can afford us about the sixth month of intra-uterine Position at in full period. however. At . no explanation of the fact. in twelve thousand one hundred and twenty cases. and it has been conceived. and one or both lying upon the face the . it is the lowest part. simply dependent upon such a mechanical cause. cases. the knees separated the legs crossed and drawn up. the full period. bent forward. the weight . and the feet bent upon the anterior surface of the legs . ." 126 fifteen B MB R YO LOGY. the occiput towards the brim of the pelvis . cause of such position at various periods of preg- nancy. . to admit this as the cause of the position in such an immense majority of cases. . that owing to the weight of the head. Dl'. and is many that he believed to be of equal weight. The The facts will be found to difficulty must necessarily be great periods of foetal existence Position of loetus m making any accurate estimate during the early and the changes in the after months are liable to considerable fluctuations. that the face. of twelve thousand five hundred and thirt}'. have been topics of some interest. or is life the womb. was behind and the occiput in front. usually less than in a uniparous case but their united weight is greater. thighs bent upon the belly . the . utero. the chin resting on the chest . In the early weeks. pounds.three.

in a few days. fluid this liquor varies in different indidifferent and in pregnancies. resting — the head. an examination per vaginam was deemed prudent^ The mouth of the womb was found to be dilating. The amnion contains a serous fluid. which it ii Y () L o (} r. and the breech corresponding to the fundus of the organ. on the neck. and called amnion^ or amnios. This cord. as to give the impression of dropsy rather than pregnancy. connects the unborn child with its mother. is transthat of the foetus is •^ parent smell. or navel-string. called the fluid.E Jtli oval. found in such quantities. What first. of two membranes . Then there is a spongy. at the full period. it is ounces to as many pints. and even on the mouth of the womb. but. with a which the foetal child swims. In fact. The abdomen of a lady had been for some time enlarging with what was supposed to be the dropsy. from four Occasionally. at the It full period. . vascular body. in chorion the innermost. the . when first.— the filled outermost. it has a milky a spermatic appearance. 127 thus forms. only a few ^ g-rains. there is This is Then a cord of vessels It extends called the umbilical cord. has a saltish taste. But as she com- plained of intermittent pains. has been estimated at about ton inches in the long diameter. . situate with- out the chorion. covering about one-quarter of the ovule. it with the womb. At ^^^^^^ amnu. consist. in fact. she was deliYered of a healthy child. the quantity of which is in an inverse ratio to the size of the new being so that its weight may be several drachms. The quantity of viduals. from the placenta to the foetus. / " and is sticky and glutinous to the touch. are called the foetal dependencies. . and connecting called the placenta. the liquor amnii^ for so it is called.

and that the future sex is as to occupy both hypochondriac regions determined by first accidental circumstances during the foetal life. of a dark color. period of pregnancy in the but its rudimental formation are the chief anatomi- commences. The very large. fill the cavity of the chest. the arteries of small size. the clitoris of the female being transmuted into . but of considerable vessels which proceed from the child number. is The head of air in the foetus large in proportion to the rest of the body. lungs. are those contained in the umbilical foetal cord — the The head. arrested at an inferior point of organization. — the The — veins . always con- tain a quantity of greenish or deep-black matter. The former proceed from the womb. of the poppy. and do not adult. The urinary bladder is of an elongated shape. Suffice it to that the drojjsy at once disappeared. owing to their resemblance liver is to the juice so. w^eek of is Others maintain that the female sex the male. to which the term meconium has been applied. from two mother and child. The following : cal constituents of the placenta as usually described First. Some physiologists assert that the sexes are originally neuter. so much . umbilical vein and arteries. gush of liquor amnii being enormous. The heart is proportionably larger and more conical than in the The bowels. with the arrival of the foetus womb. is The The placenta not in existence during the early . ^®^* and the right and left lobes are more nearly of a size than in the adult. The etc.128 EMB RYOLOGT. perhaps. Not till the fourteenth week is the sex distinct. and extends almost to the navel. are collapsed and dense. feSfes^^^^ pr faeces. lungs not having received respiration. Blood-vessels. at the full period. like the liver. sa}^. and consist of arteries and by anatomists sources.

The power of motion. a penis. and hence it possesses the child readily feels sense stand. indeed. death is generally preceded by irregular movements. the latter months of pregnancv. voluntary as . that the any impulse given to it through the mother.Th® exter° nal senses. These senses in the foetal child show that it is not intended to remain permanently in its uterine cave. manifest to the mother. which may have become tiresome festal . We have strono. Of course. eral are manifestly not in exercise in the womb. '' The external senses in gen. reason for believing: that pain may be experienced by the child in the womb for.EMBRYOLOGY. 129 This is a mere fancy. or feeling. and can motion. and hearing. felt by placing the hand upon the it At cause times. but it is to be an inhabitant of the outer world of light. well as involuntary. there can be no use of the sense of sight and the same remark applies to the senses of taste. there is good reason to believe that the braiu and nervous system of the foetal child receive impressions made through the medium of the mother. for I have already remarked. ' motion be distinctly belly. of these movements by no means It is probable. . In regard to the sense of touch. of feeling . is The clear. the^o^^rof i o J voluntaryappears to be almost incessant. and sound. is manifest to sight. and probably much Durinoj ^ earlier. and every embryo being originally female. that they are for the purpose of changing the positions. exists after the fifth moifth. and. odor. smell. as we can readily under- may experience fatigue from the maintenance influ- of an inconvenient posture. could it be appreciated. and frequently leading her to anticipate the result. and send nervous . if it be destroyed by any sudden influence during the later periods of pregnancy.

it has been fertilized by the seed of the male. anything like maternal blood could be supplied to What silent supports its vitality during this period ? Physiologists. . that the whole of the nourit x'eceives ishment which is from the placenta. and lecturers. live child has On the other hand. . but by those around her. writers on midwifery. where children are said have cried in the womb. the same. does not reach the womb before ten or twelve days. it becomes at- consequently. before before. on this important stage of embryonic Since the time of Hippocrates. and the constant decomposition and renovation. formation of the various parts of the organized machine. .130 ence to EMBRTOLOOTi^ to the appropriate muscles to change it. and Galen. it A is asserted that there is no authentic instance . that it has but is a part of that of the mother no separate powers of existence no faculty of independent growth and that its organs are nourished by the plastic materials which it constantly The ovum. Some time must still elapse tached to the womb. that month. different anatomists and physiologists have asserted that the umbilical vein is the only channel through which nourishment reaches the foetal child . however. — the Their object is. Nutrition of child in tne The functions of nutrition are not as numerous womb. There are cases on record. is. and it. probable theories for the first One of the least that have been entertained reits first garding the embryo at formation. after derives from the maternal blood. been born without an}^ umbilicus. so as to have been distinctly heard. not only by the mother. Aristotle. its vitality is not independent. It died In about ten minutes. in other words. in the foetal child as in the adult. are life.

uterine attaining full growth. to be.EMBRYOLOGY. and are supplied with nourishment from a gelatinous matter by which they are surrounded. That the liquor amnii is possessed of nutritive properties. conceive in. in my judgment. 131 devoid of umbilical cord and placenta. however. gritty. new being than is generThe placenta is sometimes a hard. necessary that the fluid should come in contact with the mucous membrane of the alimentary passages and they aflSrm. but by the fact that new-born calves have been nourished for a fortnight on fresh liquor amnii. rendering calcareous any circulation between the mother and child impracticable. What are called marsupial animals. that the placenta and navelswallowed. that it . not only by its containing albumen. that navel-string or placenta. it can only be during the latter months. such as the kangaroo. animals with a pouch. Some suppose that it is simply absorbed. that the waters and undergo true digestion. it is simply cess. are Others. breed their young without The embryos are inclosed more membranes. may have more agency in in one or the nourishment of the ally granted. But I have no space to go at length into the pros and cons of speculative opinions on this moot The better opinion seems physiological question. must be first subjected to that proAccording to the former opinion. cake. differ as to what hap• pens to it in that organ. The liquor amnii. in which the foetal child floats. which are not attached to the coats of the womb. of a foetus. all. is shown. who believe that the liquor amnii is received into the stomach. that if digestion occurs at others. or sucked string are not indispensable to the nourishment . is. Physiologists. without undergoing digestion .

The German phj^siologists include these three kinds of monstrosities under the head of excessive^ defective^ and perverted action of the formative or plastic force.13^ of the foetal EMBRYOLOGY. as with two heads to one with four arms trunk two trunks to one head . may ties. The cutaneous envelope of the child is such a surface. be preternaturally developed. band uniting them. twins. as the head. . These monstrous formations have been attributed. and other . etc. We may violent emotion of the mother dSilw. It both floats the child unharmed in the womb. with a second includes is those in which a part or parts . . surrounded by a nourishing substance that can be absorbed. and the liquor amnii such a it. it is only necessary that there shall be an absorbing surface. fluid. Small-pox. to it accidental experienced at some period of existence in the womb and. etc. or some particular part. or eyes and the third where there is a transposition of the visceral organs. and four legs The as in the case of the Siamese twins. to some know that any original defect or fusion of the germs. and nourishes Monstrosi- However it is the child in the it womb is nourished. Three kinds of monsters may be considered The first comprises such as are born with an excess of parts. to the influence of the imagination of the mother on the child in changes its the womb by . . In order for the child to grow and be developed in the womb. second. or be defective. the liver on the left. so as to give rise to what are termed monstrosi- to exist. thirdly. are wanting. child. first.^"^ destroy the child. as where the heart is on the right side. the different Owing to unappreciable parts of the foetal child. certain that grows rapidlj^ causes. measles.

A young female. tinct ence it yet they are never attributed to the influence of the mother. and the child has been born minus a hand. a few termed. Monstrosi- . Similar cases occur among the lower animals. that the circulation of the child in the womb is totally dis- from that of the mother. for instance. condition affected her extremely. can her excited feelings cause defects and deformities in her unborn child? How can she have power to arrest and extinguish the growth of an arm.EMBRYOLOGY. 138 is indirectly. How. not only in human beings. to all kinds of motliefs marlis^ as they have been Mother's marks. It is a fact. dependent upon the con. Monstrous formations and growths are continually occurring. These are samples of thousands of recorded cases. etc. had been shocked by the sight of a person who had lost a hand. which the mother. These may consist of spots resembling Cases have occurred in raspberries. ' so as to give rise '' . but in the lower animals and plants. who was wounded in the side. Combe. visited a brother in His a hospital. contagioas diseases can be unquestionably communicated to the child in the womb so that its life . but largely. then. that must have already been formed ? Cases of harelip are continually occurring. Influence of mother's imagina- gone with child. when a few months advanced in pregnancy. But it has been asserted that the mother's excited dition of the mother imagination may occasion an alteration of particu- lar parts of the unborn child. months Her child was born with a deep pit in the same part that was wounded in the brother. and many striking examples of the influence of the mother on the constitution of her unborn babe are given by Dr. grapes. who can only influthrough the nourishment which she furnishes.

disturbing influences from in the womb. eruptions of the skin. etc. It some degrees lower than that of the possesses the power of producing its Secretions. which is Temperature of foetus. such as dropsy. the child womb is known to be frequently attacked with spontaneous diseases. ulceration. the The temperature of the child in womb is mother. Some of these diseases are fatal before birth. whether its temperature be higher or lower. Congenital excesses The proportion of deaf and dumb amongst in the and defects. as well as the adult. The secretion of urine is supposed to be active from the earliest period of the existence of the child in the womb. At other times. the nerve. proceeding to it have likewise been found wanting so that the want of the organ has been thus explained. "Where a part has been found wanting. or blood-vessel. six fingers. They occur independently the of any maternal influence. one in two thousand nine hundred and thirty-three. the main point. it is born with them. or connate malformations such as . because the kidneys exist at a very early period. whites in this country has been found to be one two thousand one hundred and twenty-three amongst the colored. or both. can be classified. and they are then called congenital. gangrene. closed anus. eyelessness. hydrocephalus. Independently of all mother. or own contains urine. .134 ties Diseases of child in EMBRYOLOGY. plurality of fingers and toes. club-foot. animal heat. etc. harelip. and the bladder at the full time caloric. or blood-vessel. without our being able to account for the deficiency of such nerve.

Campbell. Smiles on her slumbering child with pensive eyes. image of thy father. Her silent "watch the mournful mother keeps. Respiration becomes 135 . ah. IX. She. my boy No No lingering hours of sorrow shall be thine. As child is soon as the ushered into the world. the son shall be. . . thy worth. — generally between birth about seven months period of the years . and a series of changes occurs in its functions. or up to about two separates the and the third includes the interval that first from the second teething. a second embraces the whole first teething. and surprising character. With many a smile my solitude repay. Shall sooth my aching love for all the past. sigh that rends thy father's heart and mine. of the most sudden ° afterbirth 9]l?^^S®^xi. or until about the seventh or eighth It is sometimes divided into three periods. it assumes an independent existence. Thy fame. year. Bright as his manly sire. And chase the world's ungenerous scorn away. at the couch.CHAPTER INFANCY. while the lovely babe unconscious lies. dentition. sleep. In form and soul but. more blest than he. The and one the comprises first the period or teething. Lo. The age of infancy extends from birth to the The period second teething. where infant beauty sleeps. thy filial love shall last. And weaves a song of melancholy joy Sleep.

The circulation through the vessels peculiar to the . The blood of the infant. established. are reflected to the different dependencies of the nervous system. consequently. . and to result from the change of position which the child undergoes at The lungs are liberated from the pressure to which they were subjected in the womb the vital air rushes into them. receive impressions from them. to cry. first The and and act after the child is born is to breathe. to the nerve of the muscles of breathing. or the inspiratory muscles cles. becomes and from this moment. the organs being at the same time suddenly subjected to the contact of their proper irritants. these musthe thus excited. same time by which the What are the agencies. the soil in which the lungs are rooted and developed. first at the then. fected during the remainder of it is to be afand the whole of the peculiarities of foetal circulation cease. in as the heart is stimulated to same manner its renew contractions during sjmcope. perhaps. inspiration the disagreeable impression which causes the newly- born babe to cry made ? Causeof ing. The atmosphere is. and. thus exposed to the air in the lungs. after the manner in which life . is when a stimulating vapor to be inspired.136 INFANCY. painful branes . . by its coldness and weight. and sets them in motion. as it were. as well as on the origin of all the mucous memof the senses. enter into contraction. is effected. These different impres- sions beins: transmitted to the brain. esting topic of inquiry among The external air. the distinction arterialized between arterial and venous blood is established. must cause a disagreeable impression on the skin of the infant. birth. and. . The first act of breathing seems purely mechanical. This has been an interphysiologists.

The y^wJe^^ first. before the without the slightest repugnance end of the period under consideration. in was born alive or dead? After respiration has been established. in a case of alleged — infanticide. functions during period undergo considerable development. the babe enters upon the first period of infancy. the lungs. it begins to be active. which has now to engage this attention. even without any liga- ture being placed upon the umbilical cord. and appetite for is Respira- partly involuntary. sudden and important changes occurring in this manner guide us to the decision of an interesting medico-legal inquiry whether. are swallowed indiscriminately and but. We have daily evidence. or respiration. Respiration. whether . however. At touch will . Breathing.INFANCY. provided they are not irritating. Taste can hardly be said to exist at first. existence. or breathing. become of a florid-red hue are light and spongy. is not exerted under the influence of the but towards the termination of the period. that the at an early period of most nauseous substances. sense of touch but it exists. water. the sense of taste becomes very acute. The is animal slight. appears very sensible to external cold. When the air becomes irresistible. made to take nauseous substances. foetal 13? condition now ceases. Some think it is probably exerted on the first day. and float on other words. depends partly upon the will. as regards the fluids which the infant sucks and drinks. having once been thoroughly established. the muscles concerned in the mechanical operations of breathThe ing are immediately thrown into action. such as medi- . so that the babe is . as the child of sexes. the child has it breathed or not . from being dark-colored and dense.

etc. connected with the animal and nutriHunger and thirst appear during the first day of existence the desire of passing the urine and faeces is doubtless present. The muscular system is not yet sufficiently developed. In the first few weeks. being instinctive.cine. Locomotion. at ^petueg and desires. and to distinguish between the faces to which has been accustomed. owing to wind. Soon after birth. the infant begins to Thosquailing period. The babe has not yet learned to keep the centre of mode of expressing has at this period. . as well as an erect attitude. During the first part of the period. are at this period utterly impracticable. The inter- nal feelings. which cannot ^^et be considered as any at conventional speech. notwithstanding they appear to be discharged involuntarily and the morbid sensation of pain is often ^^^® functions. sight and hearing are imperfectly exerted. in the course of a few weeks. Squalling is the only . exist least. the child exhibits no mental and moral manifestations but . that are all those. especially such as are brilliant. before the end of the period. gravity. . it is almost . they are in full activity. as well as squall. ± o ? ' and tries to utter sounds. experienced. the development its organ being more tardy. . its feelings which the babe This indicates uneasiness of some kind but.138 . smile. the nose small. INFAXCT. Sleep is largely indulged. of but soon after. — it awarding a smile of recognition or of satisfaction to the former. Smell is probably more back- ward than any other of the senses. a look of gravity and doubt to the latter. and those of strangers. especially in the intestinal canal. it begins to notice surrounding objects. and the nasal sinuses not in existence. ' and even effort lausjh. with difficulty. sourness.

explanation. therefore. ^^^l®''*^ The nourishment is now the milk of the mother. or more. the waking but is intervals pro- throughout frail much sleep is needed. plished — the evacuations being frequent. . that the great frequency of the calls of appetite is occasioned hy the habit. large. with putting the child is many mothers. which is sucked in. During the first days after birth. soon exhausted by even feeble exertion. perhaps. or some analagous liquid. The compared with the size of the body and the want of teeth enables the lips to extend forward. . undergoes a change. broken in upon apparently for the mere purpose of supplying the wants of the system. owing to the which is condition of the nervous system.YCY. the child has to subsist upon a different kind of nourishment from that with which it was supplied while in the womb. to a feeling of pleasure experienced in the act. except 139 taking nourishare ment. when the child Gradually. which demands constant supplies of nutriment and partly. two or three. of breast. or the artificial desire produced by frequent indulgence. and seize the nipple more conveniently. in the course of the day. Its digestion.lyFA. constant. Often. and requires intermission of After birth. For this mode of taking nourishment. we have the strongest reason for believing. and equally incapable of is tongue . constantly to the speedily accom- Digestion. partly owing to the rapidity of growth. the mouth is well adapted. activity. and having after- by no means the offensive smell which they wards possess. Sucking is doubtless as instinctive as the appetite for nourishment. longed . The appetite appears -to be almost incessant. which is generally followed by ^sleep. at this age.

Animal heat becomes gradually more and more marked from the time of birth. the whole of the waking hours is spent in incessant activity and amusement. Looomotion. more rapid. One of the most important changes going on at . Breathing — the senses are continually conveying information perception is therefore most active. but imagination and judgment are feeble . owing to the In this centre of gravity between situated low. But it still requires much sleep. attitude. the child endeavors to imitate it with its own larynx. nearly in the proportion of two to one. until. Gradually it passes from place to place on its feet. finally. In it. It is surprising how soon it may be made to understand the wishes of those having the care of it. degree. by holding on to surrounding objects. and gradually succeeds. When once fairly on its legs. . which is en- Second period of infancy. is accomplished by desired. in almost any manner that may be Locomotion. tirely healthy. by hearing spoken language. at first. it succeeds in standing erect and walking alone. or locomotion is effected by pushing a chair before it. circulation is being twice as numerous as in the adult. it moves about for some time.140 lyFAXCY. as well as memory . the pulsations. and how easily it may be moulded at this tender age. they are dark and adhesive. The faculty of imitation is strong so that. a position assumed much creeping on all-fours more easily than the biped attitude. Young mothers are apt to be alarmed at this appearance. and limited. and always exists to a greater or less is more frequent than in the The adult. and is considered to include the age between seven months and two years. at birth. The second period of infancy embraces the whole time of teething.

this is 141 the age concerns the function of digestion. a . the middle incisors of the lower jaw appear about the seventh month. grinders. and till continues the end of the second year. they have not pierced the gum until after the period I am considering. in the mucous membrane of if the which is called the primitive dental groove and in jaws of the foetal child be carefully examined. Occasionally. the same month of pregnancy. and upper molars of each of the next. and later those of the upper. When the tooth passes through . second grinders teeth jaw. and lower canine teeth the eral successively and lastly. the upper and lower lateral incisors in the lower in succession . and a little sooner jaw than in the upper. seen along the-edge the gum. children have been born with teeth whilst in other cases. About the end of the third month. Prior to the appearance of the teeth. groove. of horseshoe shape. month of its life in the womb. then. at least. or a which resembles it as nearly as posThe appearance of teeth would seem to indicate that the infant is about to be able to eat. The age at which the teeth make their appearance varies. usuallj^ commences about the seventh month. the germs of teeth are perceptible in their substance in a pulpy state. mastication is of course impracticable adapted for the delicate that and the food best powers of the infant is . . or dentition^ which Teething. As a gen- rule. Generally. of the jaw. This process of teething. a is depression. the upper . first the first lower molars.INFANCY. or take more solid aliment. or . these germs begin to harden into bone. afforded by the breast of the mother. At about the sixth substitute sible. next. the lower jaw precede those of the upper.

but apt to be a cause of numerous diseases. its The one of great whole period of nervous susceptibility. There is something in the confined and deteriorated atmosphere of a town which seems to act in a manner directly unfavorable to human life. The food of the child is now diversified. the growth of the child goes on l^^hitations. The deaths under two years of age. the dental capsule. the skin and mucous membranes more and more energy. . . During the third period of infancy. The cholera of infants is the less than a third. and tlmy it begins to participate in the ordinary diet of the table. but belongs to the permanent set. so that the surgeon never and operates during it. but gradually acquires Within this period a third molar tooth appears. Whilst the teeth are appearing. eterious^o the young. in some large cities. During the whole of infancy. whilst in rural regions it is comparaand it is always found to prevail most in crowded alleys. may lay the foundation for numerous diseases. as in the preceding period. that the pressure exerted by the tooth on the gum." The is first teeth are called the milk-teeth. temporary. and to the life of the young especially and this applies also to animals. the proportion is ber. the muscular structure of the body is acquiring continuance is . strength. are nearly thirty per cent of the whole numIn some healthier towns. which is not. Teething it is necessarily a physiological process. great scourge of our cities during the summer months. ^^' infancy. and in the filthiest and impurest tively rare . unless when compelled we can understand. '^^^ number of deaths during this period is great. the child is said to have " cut a tooth. and the consequent inflammation and irritation.142 INFANCY. however.

are by no means unfrequent. and other affections of the head. bronchitis. are extremely liable to be morbidly affected . 143 hence the frequency of eruptive diseases. croup. fatal tendency.INFANCY. and of diarrhoea. many of which are of a very Owing also to the susceptibility of the nervous system. . convulsions. etc. hydrocephalus..

Even the poetic aspect of the instinct which inspires the young with their 144 . frequency. Importance of subject. the political of social science. It nullifies the Durposes of nature tion final purposes of Deity. . . " Be fruitful. series of caustic. says.CHAPTER ABORTION. whose especially in our tion. and subdue it. under the head of " Modern Mothers. and. The mainstinct. but of the pulpit and the press. its subject discussed. whose may be said to be the continuance of the species. . strikes at the very roots of the family. and the Deity. and the statistician. Induced abortion nuU'fles the The crime of induced I say. and the professors abortion. country. I had almost on the higher aflfection classes of his country- women. and cause . own land. ill-natured. in the crea« and peculiar organization of woman. X. God blessed the male and female both of the human species in Eden and his primal command to them was. articles who has recently been writing a said. replenish the earth. importance cannot be exaggerated the crime of induced abortion. I write this chapter with a fall sense of the for momentous importance of the Indeed." A own sarcastic English writer." "No human has praised as maternal love. and multiply. has attracted the atten- not only of the medical associations of the economist. which ig the foundation of the state or nation. been so passionately and none is supposed to be SO holy or so strong.

In the mad race after pleasure and excitement let Duties of disagreeable restraints. it moment It may Maternity able. maternity is looked on as a kind of degradation and women of this stamp." I wish I could controvert this assertion of the foreign writer. will not. patiently laid among themselves of the base necessities on them by men and nature. and stigmatize it as a foul aspersion . to judge . dearest dreams. sensible enough in everything else. that is. society none the less has put maternity out of fashion. . and Abhorrence especially this abhorrence of maternit}^ is carried nity among to a still greater extent by American women. grave national consequences resulting. English women are particularly poor. now going on all through Enorlish. but is nursery is. But all women are not equally rich in this great gift and. . neither comes near the sanctity and grandeur of the maternal instinct. not of pleasure. the increasing disinclination of married . and how hateful to them is everything connected with their characterisduties. With some of the more intellectual and less instructive sort. nurse their own children. does not rank so high as this affection nor fraternal. being mothers. or cannot. the tender duties of motherhood have become simply disagreeable restraints and the old feeling of the blessing attending the quiver full is exchanged for one expressive of the very reverse. to the modern mother. and the to say. talk im. by appearances. tic This wild revolt against nature. with women. at this the higher orders. and. women to be mothers at all the other. mne times out of ten. Two points connected with this subject are of growing importance at the present time : The one is. American society. seem a harsh thing true. 145 and filial neither lovers* love nor conjugal love. me add. a place of punish- ment.ABORTION. the large number of those who.

146 '^ ABORTION. unless something can be done to bring our women back to a healthier tone of mind and bod3\ No one can object to women declining marriage altogether. but not without wives and And those times in a nation's social history when women have been ornaments rather than family homestays ha»ve ever been times of national decline. my fair The : upon not. but are . is a crime which cannot be perpetrated with impunity by any of the parties concerned. when married. goes on Transatlantic limit. but. he takes the that a married pair. honorable than social get on without balls The world can calls. without an}'- reservation or circumlocution. not only have a right. countrywomen . in favor of a voluntary self- devotion to some project or idea it is . ground of Malthus. and that natural functions are less excitements. In the first place. writer. a monstrous doctrine to hold that they are in any way degraded by the consequences. with the facts of my medical to sa}' experience staring — " But though we have not yet reached the writer. ject is The delicacy of the subimportance to the it exceeded by its vrelfare. as manifested by the female organization. but of unborn generations. me in the face. John Stuart Mill." These words of a truth. not only of the living. I canfrom whom I am quoting. Therefore. I shall discuss thoroughly. not apparently over friendly to the sex. And first. the state of the feminine feeling and physical condition among ourselves will disastrously affect the future. and of moral failure. but. on the subject of progeny and I refer to intersexual love. let me notice two singular remarks of a great living E-nglish philosopher. and morning mothers. state nothing more than the To thwart the very end and aim of existence.

thank God. Except in our crowded cities. the passion of love not al- ways prudent and it judicious. crowded countries like England. but the Deity has made all-conquering and intense to the last degree. Therefore. foeticide and infan. Early poverty here death b}'' inanition is not is as likely as not to emerge. To go on multiplying mouths. that the passion ^ and . But a highly educated population will hardly consent to beget children to be hewers of wood and drawers of water. They will look before they leap. . may insure the propagation of the Irish is irrepressible The fecundity of the under the most adverse circumstances. where population is so dense as to be acidein drug and man is a mere weed. . where actual starvation or an uncommon incident. Doubtless. not to multiply and in. even in the exercise of the sexual passion. semi-civilized Foeticide ° andinfantlcountnes. Mill goes further. his is to be a great sin as well as foll3\ doctrine not without plausibility in old. In China and some other paoran.John Stuart A c> ^ Mill's opincreasc beyond their ability to support properly and ion of proglaunch into life under favorable circumstances the intereexuai fruit of their loins. ' ticide both are regarded as perfectly justifiable . such an incident can hardly occur. into wealth and respectability. ^ 147 under solemn oblijjjations. and avers. Mr.human progress. the doctrines of Mill and Malthus are hardly applicable to American societ}^ Mr. to be life-long subjects of privation and suffering. and that it is a terrible human ex. and in the lowest and most vicious purlieus of our cities.AB onrroy. '^ove an obstacle to of love plays far too important a part in istence. in order that he species. later in social influence life. and rearing innocent children to be the sons and daughters of want and misfortune. Mill holds Certainly. obstacle to human is progress.

if of New-England and Puritan flesh. At page 65. George Francis Train says that New England is paved with infants* skulls and that the only hope of keeping up population here is intermarriage with German and Irish Catholic women. while I write. i>r. If they were not resorted to. It is indeed a book for every woman. H. the practice of inducing abortion its tenets are uncompromisingly hostile to crime. he sa3^s. in any way encourages. or all indeed permits. So great." The following the concise and convincing solution of the paradox that has been given "It is not. who do not kill their children. H. pose a priori^ that the Protestant especially. as such. Professor of Obstetrics and the Diseases of Women in Berkshire Medical College. either in embryo by the aid of the abortionist or after birth. Storer has made a specialty of the subject of his prize essay. criminal abortion. methods of keeping down a redundant increase of human beings. however. and are treated as such by criminal statutes. and are regarded as such by public opinion. In ancient Sparta. I have before me. immediately after birth. Dr. such resorts to check population are simply murder. of course. " We should sup. would be much is the safer against all such assaults of the world. a prize essay by Dr. But in Christian lands like our own. stgck. to quote from the essaj^ in question. no deformed child was suffered to live. is the popular ignorance regardis ing this offence. as it were. R. ever}' American woman especially. R. in the course of this chapter. the and the devil. starvation would quickly dispose of the mouths for which no food could be provided. that an abstract morality here . to imply that : — Protestant- Protestantism. I shall have occasion frequently.148 ABORTION. It was suppressed. namely. Storer. PrizeEssay.

it is undoubtedly true that the disinclination more common among American women than those of any other country. women than among American evanescent. abroad. of course. of do what the high-minded physician will never do. evading. flanked on the one hand by the confessional. even is by question- While such will the feelino^ among the ^ empirics eager for money will be found. by means whatsoever. and by denouncement and ex. who In general. that a woman doing it exposes herself to the most serious conseit is quences. Youth here." Notvvithstandhig the ease with which subsistence lives. true. In general. the perform- ance of the functions of her sex. A generation or two back.The confossional saver communication on the other. American mothers bore as large families and as robust a progeny as English or German or French. can be obtained in this new and sparsely-settled country. which the French denominate beaute du diable. I simI offer no explanation of this phenomenon ply signalize it. that ill-health to child-bearing is prevails to a greater extent among our fair country- European lands. no . comparatively powerless . Certainly. fair sex. But it is a fact. except in cases of desperate emergency. will be a powerful incentive to avoid able means. that for the practice of abor.ABORTION. both moral and physical. stake. A feeling of incompetence to cope with the pains of child-birth. I reply to an}'- all inquiries about in Serious eonof abortion. and the beaut}^ of early youth. tion there never can be offered an excuse that can in reason be considered as weighty. is more evanescent in our young females than it is their sisters of . 149 and there can be no dou])t that the Romish ordinance.physical. where the life of the mother is actually at course. it altogether. has saved to the world thousands -J ' •^ ' of infaut thousands of infant lives.

150 ABORTION.after the sixth month. and from false I delivery^ signifies expulsion of a mole. tion generally. whereby the sin of abortion need '' never to tempt them. is. it This definition of abortion will distinguish ter is from premature labor. ^evention nancy. Even where there is self-control enough on the part of the husband to withdraw from the embrace before it is consummated. he not unfrequently finds himself at last made incapable of reproduction by such a ^fiUftlon of ftbortion. sixty-five cases of abortion in one thousand seven hundred and five deliveries another. is not unfrequently without its bad results to both parties. or false germ. one the will sa}^ that life a woman able to bear a child with- out danger to should resort to expelling . but about aborI^io of In regard to the frequency of its occurrence. instead of an embryo. whom. am not now writing about induced or criminal abortion. foetus when the which may the live . womb before the natural time of birth from and for it those it is Safe proteotions. practice. there are provided safe protections. obstetrical experience. and thus prevent conception by voluntarily consenting to forego a part of the venereal pleasure. one hundred and sixteen . as the result of his own . dangerous to have children. the expulsion of an embryo or foetus which is either already dead. two hundred and ninety -three premature cases in sixteen thousand four hundred and fourteen deliveries . But I must warn married people that even prevention of pregnancy. by reason of infirmity or malformation. which latapplicable to deliver}'. by what are thought to be innocuous and justifiable means. one authority records. "^^^ general definition of abortion in the medical books. or is at a too early period af fo3tal existence to live. still another.

What are called periodical abortions. and another. excessive joy dancing . of course it acts as a foreign body The in the uterus. even the extraction of a tooth the use of irritating purgative medicines. . the in other most serious injuries. hysterical and epileptic convulsions lent pain . syphilis . sea-sick- iujuries in the loin or abdomen any sudden . vio. large blood-lettings. and feebleness and relaxation of the neck of womb. shock. riding on horseback.ABORTION. exciting the womb to expel it. cases of abortion in twenty-one thousand nine hundred and sixty cases of pregnancy. . Some of the predisposing causes are referable to the mother. . acute diseases . which refuses to dilate to accommodate the growth of the foetus too great a flow of blood to the uterus and ovaria. are produced by too great a rigidity of the womb. par- . vomitings . severe coughs . the slightest exciting cause will produce females. or in an uneasy carriage. It may even be life said that there is scarcely an occurrence in w^hich may not be occasionally concerned in producing abortion. or such as have a tendency to promote the monthlj^ flow foot-bathing . or on a rough road ness . The chief causes of this class are. ^f^^J^J" occasional exciting causes of abortion are extremely numerous. and the most violent mental and moral impressions. hiccup . that it . disappointment and anxiety of mind . anger. are insuflSlcient to occasion it. If the foetus dies. excessive venereal indulgence . pediluvia. or hot baths . sition to abortion is in 151 some females so strong. fright. The dispothirty-five in four hundred and twenty. others to the foetus and its appendages. or those which abortSSa) occur at the same periods of pregnancy. . immoderate laughter .

a pregnant woman is more liable to mis- carriage or abortion at the period at which the menses would have returned Tlio pro- in the unimpregnated is state." states that he has been consulted by a lady who had miscarried ten or twelve times during the second month of gestation and he observes. at about the fourth month and at length. and convulsive movements of the quick Influence of habit. the third month. The production of act. Generally. instance where the female aborted eighteen times in the course of ten years. . Dr. A single patient has been known to miscarry as many as twenty-one times. Churchill. and. after has happened several times. that besides the force of habit in these cases. to wit.152 ticularly ABOUT from the cliilcl I C N. not susceptible of explanato predispose to a The tion. carried thirteen times in succession . the last child having survived to the full time of gestation. at or about the same period of gestation. a felonious act. influence of habit in inducing abortion is a fact familiarly known. in my judgment. great an aptitude for conceiving as for miscarrying. abortion. I once ex- tremely difficult for the pregnant female to go safely had a patient who misand there are cases recorded in the books where this accident has happened as often as twenty-one times. in the womb. there is often something to prevent the distension of the uterus beyond a certain size. duction of abortion. Instances of miscarriage. I have known one . that it is remarkable that these patients seem to have as beyond that period. if Each occurrence serves it repetition of the accident at about the same period it is . feet . It is highly probable. of course. to. in his *' Midwifery. a felonious will resort and one which the practitioner never except in case of irreducible retroversion of the . the woman died in parturition.

stimulating injections into the vagina . . which are more More dangerous than danscerous than ordinary child-bed. or to procure the discharge of the uterine water in which the embryo child floats. also. etc. -. and occasion the death of the mother as well as that of the fruit of her womb. Many of Frf^'^®^*^^ the foregoino^. frequently ? f ° °' & 'fatal to will often fail of producing the desired effect. juniper. large bleeding from the feet . such as and savine. but had occasioned vari•^ ous internal. . medical character. hellebore. either surreptitiously or otherwise.^^^^^^ selves. upon the colon and rectum active inciters of the monthly flow. or by persons who criminally usurp the abortion. without acting in the way desired. excepting the last. even to the expert surgeon. by far. Many ordinary ° -^ cases are on record. are. pediluvia . or such a degree of malformation as to ren- 153 der child-bearing simply impossible. by puncturing the made membranes . and the uterus fatal itself has been penetrated. various mechanical means. where attempts have been to produce abortion . employed to break the membranes. drastic purgatives. violent emetics . ergot of rye. Every physician of large practice must have met with numerous cases in which they had been carried to the utmost extent. to puncture the membranes is at that period of preg- nancy when it usually attempted by ignorant . in order to extract the child. The means usually resorted to by females them. and employ feloniously the little medical knowledge they have acquired. . uterus. a matter of the utmost difficulty.ABORTION. and thus oblige the practitioner to have recourse to the csesarean section. The uncertainty of the means above detailed has been often shown. child-bed. inflammatory diseases. with It is consequences to the mother. or all of them. . particularly those which act . frequently also succeed. They mother.

which perished . appetite. or miscarriage. thirst. by feverish chills heat. it is sometimes expelletd without any remark. indeed. and the nearer. instead of a true Abortions resulting ' '=' abortion. very much shrunken and shrivelled. ej^elids. is In some instances. nausea. etc. is ^^^^hs of pregnancy. I was led to recommend an examination. resultino: from a diseased state of the patient. decomposition. Upon of the appendages. pain in 'lassitude. A dead foetus. after-pains. A case occurred in my own practice. milk-fever. and shiverings. ABORTION. livery at the full time . lowness of spirits. — the only persons. which indeed. It is make Spes^fi^'' the attempt. often At this early period. first where experts fear to tread. where a female carried a dead foetus. want of the loins. small. dull eyes. livid and bad breath. the nearer do the symptoms approach to those of de-. the practitioner attendance foetus to have come awa}^ two or three inquiry as to the discharge days previously. the ovum. followed by a more abundant and painful return of them than usual. able pain or hemorrhage often escapes without observation. The more advanced the term of pregnancy. females suppose that they have been the subject merely of an interruption of the menses. only fools who would who rush in. palpitations. In the two then months^of pregnancy. paleness of countenance. and without any signs of In a case of abortion to which I in was recently stated the called. Abortions. when they were found lodged in the . the dead foetus retained in the uterus an extraordinary length of time. but entire. as the discharge. about the sixth month of pregnancy. eight months and it was then expelled.154 persons. are generally preceded fromdis«f patient. do its consequences assimilate to those following upon a natural confinement. also.

cavity of the uterus. vagina. the flowers. fromhemand the risk is in proportion to the amount of the effhsion. Abortion is Abortion dangeroua chiefly dano. or even lodged in its mouth. Only mild laxatives of the bowels should be used. unattended by pain or difficulty. system is relaxed. Where there has been abortion. tonics should be administered. both internally and in the form of baths. the use of tonic mineral waters. and by an improved state of health. it is important that the practitioner should in every instance be satisfied as to the expulsion and the appendages. being often sufficient to keep up an exhaust- . The imparted to the generative organs by change of air. it is often abortion. leaving behind it scarcely any unpleasant consequences but this form of abortion is most liable to recur. Energy should be diet.erous from the hemorrhaore attending it. The maintaining of a horizontal position is ad- some patients. or catamenial Abortion sometimes beneficial. who had been 'previously irregular. with.Spon' ^ taneous out any very manifest or sufficient cause. The treatment * ^ discharge. and used. has "^ of patients liable to abort is various. All anxiety of mind should be prevented. been observed to become regular in patients. Mattresses should be Their rooms should be large.ABORTION. airy. In rare cases. 'Cheerful. when it occurs before the third ' month. ought to be light and digestible. visable for under ordinary circumstances. how treated. In such cases. AYhen abortion takes place spontaneously. Where the Liability to abort. for he may be a small remnant of the placenta. even promoting the fecundity of the patient. of positive good. 155 After their removal. when still left in of the embr3'^o deceived in this matter the . the patient rapidly recovered. or of the membranes. abortion may be productive '^ ^ .

as antimony. It is a very popular opinion among unpro- fessional people. low their administration. a few remarks inappropriate. may not be Upon the whole. . tion. In France. Ergot of rye. and accordoften resorted to for this purpose. and sometimes in this country. blood-letting may This be set down as among the popular errors. during pregnancy or the Abortion may foladvanced stages of pregnancy. The weakness occasioned by abortions requires the use of tonics. are unsafe Vomiting. the tepid or cold salt-water bath. Emetics can successful than general blood-letting. . are both used to effect a clearance of the appendages from the passages. or a curved dressing forceps. is nothing more than a vul- gar error. . by no means be considered as exerting any peculiar action on the w^omb . although such as produce a powerful impression on the general system. that bleeding from the foot is a certain means of bringing on an abortion. throu^rhout the entire duration of . In point of fact. the former. for nothing is more frequent than severe .156 Tonics. it ingly like it is But. with a view to bring Leeches on abortion . leeches are applied to the anus or vulva. but gentle exercise light diet and a wholesome air ing and even dangerous discharge. wholly unsustained by reason or experiment. bleeding is is a very old error. class. . but the practice is no more and emet ics. namely. In regard to abortives. are Certain kinds of mineral waters. and sometimes. ABORTION. vomiting during the early periods of pregnancy . often used as a preventive measure against aborFoot-bleed ing. those of the chalybeate found very beneficial. with mineral acids nourishing. as we see it follow any but it is well estabviolent shock to the system Ushed that emetics exert no specific influence over the womb.

Some contend . gam- boge. every morning brought for a week. pelvis. It the abdomen and on in region of the womb. the in the oil of savine. it specific influence over the womb that to contraction. and cantharides. a frequent occalled. These excite circulation to a sensation of bearesiDecially . increase the menstrual discharge. My own from their experience view of the subject — abortion is in accordance with this is J^-^Qj^ence. especially oil of tanzy. when given during these con- These all act if by their violently stimuit lating powers. for the purpose of causing abortion. in cases of pre- disposition to abortion. aloes. Emmenagogues. Ergot is which possesses a in excitino. and the w^oman died on the the sixth violent third da}'. hellebore. acting violently on systems and probably the onl}^ agent endangering their lives. after the delivery of a still-born foetus. Bmmena- currence in dysentery. that powerful cathartics. a violent I have exerted on the instance where known an sixty drops of the oil of savine were taken. and yet without prodncing abortion. in females predisposed to falling of that organ ditions.ABORTION. especially those which act chiefly on the rectum. but with the same uncertainty. and abortion follows. for the purpose of producing pain 'abortion in month of pregnancy. There in is no drug which will produce miscarriage it. give rise the ing-down in womb. action is in consequence of general system. are usually resorted by females. rue. 157 Cathartics. women who are not predisposed to their without 'Ergot. Cathartics have also been employed for the destruction of the It is said foetus. cannot be administered withlife out danger to the of the foetus. it. so to supposed efficacy in bringing on the flowers.

I have known pregnant females to jump violently from a considerable height run up and down stairs with great .153 its ABORTION. themselves upon the abdomen. But it is oftentimes difficult to determine. abortion amounts the child is to infanticide that infanticide. Mechanito the state of full expansion of the . But the most frequent and successful mode of inducing abortion is the introduction of instru- ments into the womb. rapidity roll . When duced abortion is and yet. for Sometimes. when a real abortion has been committed. Mechanical cal means for inducing abortion consist of external Instru- abdomen or loins. and womb and that it has no tendency to induce abortion. I conclude it is not so easily brought on as is generally supposed. unprincipled and reckless individuals of both sexes the most part. unless there is a predisposition to the habit to this accident. Life frequently sacrificed in this way by . powers are limited to the period of delivery. the IS. and all without success so that. in- After the foetus is quick in . they escape punishment. after the sixth or seventh montli of pregnancy. But I am satisfied this opinion is erroneous. may of the mother. as I have known contractions of the womb brought on during the early stages of pregnancy by its use. strike themselves over the floor. womb. from a medico-legal stand-point. \aolence applied to the violence ments. or of But the instruments introduced into the womb. procuring abortion. when capable of maintaining an inde- pendent existence. is This practice is carried on to an alarming extent in all our large cities. because we are to bear in miud that the same derangement of parts . and defeat be so great as to endanger the life its object. and for the purpose of . a female has been known to probe herself with a piece of whalebone.

*' ' difficult to estab- lish. in a very large proportion of is also a cases. criminal abortion is an offence." . been repeatedly requested to direct the course to be pursued. and a brief examination of. that children begotten during the drunkenness of one or both their parents are liable to be idiots. and thus very often found curable. at. where there exists mental derangement. in his work entitled " L' Amour. as from the expulsion In fact. Michelet. and also where a previous pregnancy has been attended with suffering and has terminated unfavorably'." It is a well-known physiological fact. ^ from the very nature of the case. Dr. It deep sense of the duties of maternity devolved upon them by nature. the conclusions and dicta of this essay. he says. Manifestly it is wrong to propagate congenital insanity and idiocy. Hence the extent of it can only be guessed I shall close this chapter with extracts from. the doctor relates his community. I have A similar question is that relating to habitual intoxication.ABORT I ox. form of disease. Storer's Prize Essay. from a false birth. was written with the avowed purpose of recalling our female population to a already quoted. either in husband or wife. relating to the duty of medical the woman is men. in cases where and where there is present some severe form of local or constitutional disease. " is sought. to be viewed and treated as such. but its general abilit}'' and exactness of statement have made it a powerful instrumentality for producing a proper sentiment on the subject of induced abortion in the In his preface. SSnfon!*'^'^ " My opinion." feeble. will result 159 of a foetus. experience. which. and it accomplishes its purI cannot agree with all pose most successfully. ' Criminal abortion difficult of proof.

Man's love is manifested much too often from the bass excitement ca^usecl by a luxurious banquet.160 says at ABORTION. The severest condemnation b}- belongs to that large class of married men." says Dr." saj/s Dr. when the harvest is in. Storer takes . and brutal behavior.her own . > ' -^ folly.y always daniierous. or another friend of the inquirer intentional^ miscarried. — '' nij^lit. ." " It is urged. for the various improper and unph^'siological measures to v/hich they resort." Thence come those numerous conceptions of tlie winter montlis." But the doctor patient that. and the unmanly baseness to which I have referred. Erutaiity of their Jiusoancs. Storer. is absolutely necessar}^ for the mother's sake. sooner or later. Few are aware of the extent of the misery. ren- a cause of improper measures." " This. " I am compelled to admJt to be true. " and this b3^very that mucli of the shame attributed to many v»'-omen. in realit}'' belongs to their husbands. " It is suggested to me. upon the vvife submissive but not consulted. uncompromising ground against induced abortion and miscarriage. save those of us to whom are brought the ." he says. " the subject even of a successfully -^ Induced ahortion induced abortion will find herself the subiect of some slowlv a prog-resslno. and insidious disease. feasts. ' inconsiderate. Dr. it should never be decided upon by a single physician. them. as ultimately fatal to the mother. for which she has only to thank. Storer. at the turn of particularly. begotten infamously without love. wdio. der their wives' health wretched and their lives almost Unendurable. selfish. that. especial!}' after winter and au- tumn full. " that this. and tells his life came off scot-free. even if temporarily successful and he thinks that vv^here abortion In general. perhaps o i o i canccr. the granaries and the grapes gathered. sooner or later.

death. their husbands are the real criminals. although he does not deny their sincerity. habitation. the So truly it woman who dares. almost universal lot is — worthy. breaking hearts and the sad tales of woe. and should receive. character of wilful abortion. the gratification of a brutal and If. that becomes a heroine. thousands." Ladies boast to each other of the impunity with which they have aborted. that " it is in a perverted and mis- taken public opinion that the secret of the whole matter lies. of their dress. The wretch whose account is with the Almighty is heaviest with guilt too often this the case. good and bad. and he thinks that the mass of our women are ignorant of the true ignorance ° as to true character of wilful abortion. since the discovery of anaesthesia. in lawful cohabitation. at the present day. child-bed can be robbed of pains." Certainly. Storer will not admit the force of the usual excuses and pretexts for induced abortion. are forced to unlawful to save themselves from rapid decline and ^^^eai^' criminals. many married. and Dr. women have rights 161 Jfl^^^^^co. He regards induced abortion as generally at the more perilous than natural delivery the usual period of pregnancy. end of . as they do of their expenditures. There is a fashion in this. and. in earlier times. in insatiable lust. means aye. Else- where he writes. publicly or privately to acknowledge the holiest duty of her sex to bring forth living children — that first. he will not admit as an excuse its because. The -. of their success in society. as in all other female customs. the highest admiration praise. which their husbands are bound to respect. fear of child-bed. highest.ABORTION.

is of no Beauty is of value a girl's whole prospects and happiness in life may often depend upon a new gown or becoming bonnet and. to marry. certainly the second requisite in most cases to a Says Sidney Smith. ' woman Shall I (other ? ' things being equal) marry for beauty I answer. . women to subdue the very As long as the sex possesses they can get along without the suffrage. of women. has said that beaut}^ swiftness is is to woman what to the deer. Let ugly people talk as they may about intellect. if not the first.CHAPTER XL BEAUTY: ITS VALUE TO WOMAN. effect (for I and indeed remember not the would be difficult to It has. in describing the sort of a a woman to marry. still. in gone-by ages. The great thing teach her the just 162 . she will find this out. and song. if she has five grains of common is to sense. famous for his love of the sex. some degree of beauty is. or wine. it. " I have been often asked." Sidney- Smith's opinion. and the evanescent charms of mere outward comeliness. exaggerate the pov/er of female loYeliness. in the words of Martin Luther. or. exquisitely absurd to value. dress of no use tell ! girls that beauty . An The sort of English writer on the subject of the reproduc- tive organs says. enabled subduers of the world. if you can get your beauty to accept you. lion. and strength is to the it something to that precise words) . An old Grecian poet. " How happy married life. Yes .

again. we a fact in zoology. the most unprejudiced witnesses possible. animals select the most perfect forms for their mates. perhaps worth pursuing. supposed acquire. A advantages of woman with a that other good physique starts with advantages women cannot ings. if this would be well. respects. in all ranks of life. because she or he has a nice face. even looking influence can touch him. low feel- breast — haunt occasionally the female with which her less favored sisters have to Physical attractions. frankly admit that they like So-and-so.^^^ good looks.u. not mere bloom or prettiness. It will occur in married Man's sexual sense will when no other be a curious whether. other and one temptations to — jealousy. a comely- woman was ever ill-used by her husband. We all know that good looks to ensure domestic happiness as are the best passport in the world. I have submitted the above remarks to a clever . over many domestic differences which be roused by beauty. has shown me that next to a likel}^ good disposition.v.BKAi'i'V: vaiuo. the woman's comeliness of face and form. in many example were more closely followed It by human beings. It is unwise to undervalue. Even children. find that In a state of nature. help to tide of those contend. would inquiry. iiiul rrs \ALi'E be -ro iro. little life. i63 that there iniist sometlihig Ijettcr under the bonnet than a pretty face for real happiness.i." A tolerabl}'' large acquaintance with the domestic histories of men. But never sacrifice the truth. especially if they are of a lasting kind. among the lower classes. She is spared a thousand and. thus instinctively providing for as perfect species as possible. nothing in a wife is so fastness JJ^^f. or pretend to undervalue. except when he was drunk.

that It is. It is. however beautiful in form. in his remarks upon personal beauty as affecting the destiny of women. seldom please an educated man. embodiment of female loveliness. Almost the first thing a girl hears in the nursery. on their first step over the . very It is beauty consists. Comeliness of form and beauty of feature ought not to be Milton's despised.164 Opinion of a clever BEAUTY: ITS VALUE TO WOMAN." resents Eve . It is said that Madame de Stael would have given up all her fame and renown to have been as beautiful as her friend. Madame de Rocca and I doubt very much whether we should have felt the same degree of pity for Mary. Sarai. and she has favored several additional observations me with woman. a woman discovers the fallacy of this early teaching. had she been as ugly as her its . and Mary. unmarried woman. A mere set of features. by artificial means. Elizabeth. rare to meet with vej-y ugly women. Queen of Scots. and that ugly girls are as much valued as handsome ones but. however. Queen of Scots. unless they . We see it portrayed in pictures and statues and one of the great reasons for supposing that it is considered desirable in the eyes of man. was beautiful and " well-favored. is. illustrious rival. was a fair woman to look upon and Rachel. threshold into the world. Jacob's best-loved wife. and I perfectly agree with Sidney Smith. where supply it does not exist. Milton rep- Eve. is. the wife of Abraham. however. as the difficult to define in what more a kind of pleasure conveyed to the mind of the beholder than any special personal attraction of form or figure. on the subject. that beauty soon fades. place women frequently try to Madame de Stael. All ages and nations agree in worshipping beauty of some sort or other. as they are the gifts of God. of which I gladly avail myself.

Let her have also the mens sand health . and few care to dance. He does not ^^f^r Lytton'S want a singing animal.BEAUTY: IT S V A are liglited L UE TO W O MA Y. is most the . what kind of a woman. and yet.one of them. After forty. Avoid believe. 1 G5 up b}' good tired sense and good temper. twenty-five. What man looks for most in the chosen companion of and home. and they often marrj^ a man who cannot appreciate any . and the comforter of his griefs. leges as his companion are great and many. his heart that she should have added to a pleasing exterior. woman. He wants a companion. the mind and b^^uty!'^^^^ the morals that in a great measure influence the appearance of women. A man soon gets of the pretty child. and heighten their attractions in the eyes of men and however much they . not he for her Now. capable of heightening his joys. I state of the digestion.wife. a wish to be pleasing and agreeable to the other sex. few a women can sing. yet I believe there inherent in every woman's heart. in a general way. nor a dancing animal. the bloom of youth begins to called beauty often lasts for it is and yet what . nor opiniou. in a general way. is years so that. — . After fade. these three last accom•^ _ — plishments have cost toil many women years of painful to acquire . a drawing animal. is. a well cultivated mind. and lessening his sorrows ? Bulwer Lytton has summed np what a man wants in a wife. Much of the happiness in wedded life depends mainly upon try to conceal or She should be the sharer of her husband's joys. in' corpore sano^ good and good temper for what we call happiness depends very much upon the temper and the and much more so. She and her priviw^as made for him. — may is deny it. than we are generally aware of.

there is no misery greater for a man than to be united to a woman of delicate fibre and weak digestion.IQQ BEAUTY: ITS VALUE TO WO MA X marrying. love The small cares and domesfall largely upon them. and no occasion. The poet Wordsworth speaks of a model wife as "A being breathing thoughtful breath. nobly planned. to command." . bear up against the vicissitudes of are the oak " Men women. if possible. A traveller between life and death A perfect woman. —a fit of hysterics. that women have many sorrows and much suffering to contend with peculiar to themselves. to counsel. upon all occasions. tic troubles of life require much . To warn. who. the ivy." The above are the views of a sensible lady. not seemingly of the strong-minded sort. perament. and they and affection to enable them to life. But. a A few tears woman may of a hysterical tem- be very interesting Hysterical during that treacle period called the honeymoon but in after-life. men must remember. throws herself into that incurable and misery-causing malad}after all.

tliere are. I propose. first. b}^ the influence of atmospheric changes. and possess smaller lungs. Women sensitive to they are. more injuriously affected than atmos^ are */ men . of course. the same wants. respiratory organs pherlc changes. in regard to which. in our uncertain latitude. and peculiar modifications. in regard to the air. and the same passions although the act of living ought to be in common as to the two sexes. nevertheless. GENERAL HYGIENE OP WOMEN. to make some remarks on the influence of the atmosphere. . that are more irritable and more liable to asthmatic diflSculties. to fix our most particular attention at the approach of puberty. Precautions in regard to the deserve. And. While air consider is it the very breath of life. as a tree is rooted in the soil. and the passions. of food. in the application of the general — hygiene of the female. certain shades of differences. drinks. in which we are rooted by our lungs. during 167 _ . exercise.^^' served. in the following chapter.CHAPTER XII. on the health of women. with its sudden and unlooked-for changes. in its various changes and degrees of temperature. are. are subject to the Though the male and the female same laws of life. in an especial manner. I it a duty to offer a few remarks. not unfrequently proves the cause of death. As women by nature more sensitive and impressionable than men. as an eminent physiologist has ob.

in fact. to avoid crowded rooms. to refrain from all places of resort where great numbers are assembled.168 GENERAL HYGIENE OF WOMEN. Women. There are numerous cases recorded in the medical books. Flower-pots and perfumes in chambers deleterious.es which give forth pungent odors. flower-pots and vases filled with flowers. and prone to consumption. Flannel jackets and drawers. at the change of life. shows. which are attended with the double inconvenience of affecting the nervous sensibility too powerfully. of . the act of menstruation. on account of the real danger which accompanies it. deserves notice. concerts. as balls. as far as possible. which keep up a gentle excitement of the skin they may also weaken the ill effects of dampness and cold by using mild tonic drinks. b}" keeping up warmth b}^ walking. where the air neither cannot be otherwise than unwholesome should thev pass carelessly from a high to a low temperature. ought. they should guard against the pernicious tendency of -sudden cold. Nervous persons should particularly avoid powerful odors and perfumes. and over-heated rooms. even the most delicate neither ought such to have in their chambevs. etc. an excessive use of perfum. Those who are of a delicate constitution. and. should wear flannel jackets and drawers. The habit indulged by many . They ought. When exposed to such a transition. such crowded . with iusuilicient clothing. and food both nutritious and easy of digestion. as far as possible. . ease Should avoid particularly those to whom luxury and have given a more than ordinarily delicate susceptibilit}^. at all the epochs of the life of the female that are characterized hy an increase of the general susceptibility. and of decomposing the air by giving off carbonic-acid gas. or any other brisk motion. where women of in ladies.

its activity. I am happy to say). Stimulating foods and health as leanness itself. are very fond of fruits. from carrying about their persons perfumery and sweet-scented bags. likewise. of asphyxia. have the habit of overloading the stomach with food. Women drinks to be avoided. of a bilious temperament. Ladies who desire to retain. Women are. But some there are. or oriental pastilles. preparations of milk. sensitive organizations have died from the effects 169 of perfumes and the odors of flowers. natural vegetarians. that the food of women ought to be proportioned to their constitutions and to the exercise they undergo. menstrual disorders. . false appetite. Those who thus transgress the laws of health are found to be barren. in fact. Women. should abstain from perfuming their apartments with essences. giving way to a to prefer such dishes . to which the sex are peculiarly liable. and therefore. which are capable. which deprives the body of its suppleness. and all the lighter kinds of food. who are extremely addicted to spirituous and aromatic drinks. not only of powerfully affecting the nervous sensibility^ but act as the exciting causes of syncope. regimen. or such as are taken from the vegetable kingdom. diseases and eruptions of the skin. and is as unfavorable to beauty and "^ . "^ In general. and a variety of spasmodic disorders. and also to inflammation of the womb and bowels. during the longest possible period. lean. I remark under the head of alimentarv ^oodand ^ drinks. and its natural pro^ portions.GENERAL HYGIENE OF WOMEN. who. and subject to hemorrhage of the womb. digestion Their taste naturally inclines them and beverages as are easy of and most of them. This leads to corpulenc}' and an excess of embonpoint. are also to be met with (they are exceptional among their sex.

to repair the waste of our bodies. Our health depends upon the harmony of this double action of the animal machine. pastry. in its various prep. Our bodies are all the time in a state of composition and decomposition. will wholly abstain from liquors. water. if necessary. meats of easy digestion dressed . fruits . herbaceous vegetables little and lastly. because we naturally look for delicacy and personal comeliness in woman. fish. from puberty to the change of life. from fat meats. Such should be the chief articles of diet for a woman. the advantages of 3'outh. but we are giving it back again in various ways in the shape of excretions. of beauty. it is needful. for . and less who shine by their intel- lectual qualifications than b}^ their beauty. to women . from all kinds of stimulating food artfulljT- prepared to stimulate the appetite its healthy craving. birds. Thoexcretionsto be attended to. Not only should the menstrual and foecal discharges be attended to. and game arations . from and highly-spiced dishes. A female glutton or inebriate is far more revolting than one of the opposite be3'ond sex. and in one word. that. plainl}^ milk. but also. I must give it as my opinion. We are being constantly rebuilt and unbuilt. as it were. Light kinds of . either pure or with a wine.170 GENERAL HYGIENE OF WOMEN. watch the state of the perspiremembering. above all. of health. and create. and. that the frequent use of tea and ' coffee is in general hurtful to especiall}^ to those nervous ladies. to guard against suppression or costiveness. We are not only constantly i -i -rx-r taking in matter from the outside world. on the one hand. too ration much perspiration brings on general weakness. an unnatural appetite. and all the perfections of their merely physical nature. and promoted. vegetable food .

when the dew is on. such are the means by which the female may keep up a constant and regular flow of healthful action in her system. of exercise. on the other hand.GEXEIiAL UraiENE and renders the skin of the weather . Air. The sun is its first and supreme initiator Michelet's " Woman." into life. to keep the person perfectly clean . tlie oxygen which is set free in torrents under the influence of liglit. and impart to the organs health and strength. and the young mother also. OE H'OMEN. The first duty of love is to bestow on the child. in this connection. To keep herself in a ^ perfect state of health. ." from his chapter entitled " Sun. ^ — . a sud- den suppression of the sweat occasions an infinity of disorders of a nature more or less severe. shattered by the accouchement wearied with nursing. health in ladies. — •^ . to dress moder- and suitably as to the season to abstain from all immoderate exercise and. "The human . and Liglit. I ought also. To keep up a gentle perspiration of the whole skin. lastly. 171 susceptible to the changes whilst. to speak of the 2-reat value of rural pursuits as a means of promotino." He gives us. The fragrance of plants and flowers exhaled at sunrise. all serve to excite the most delicious sensations. which should end.^^^'^l ^ ^ ^ ^ pursuits. who was only yesterday a child. as soon as it becomes fatiguing. the melodious song of the birds. however. . and to the mind cheerfulness and elasticity •— and here. only the poetry but the truth of the subject : — more than all others. to avoid sudden transitions from heat to cold. the ravishing aspect of nature. craves ^ <l«otation from the sun. plenty of light and salubrious air. Grant her the blessing of a good exposure. the Exercise should be fempJe should addict herself to a moderate amount moderate. I cannot forbear quoting from Michelet's " La Femme. not ately . flower.

have sought for sunsets in their Versailles to glorify but whoever sanctifies life b}^ labor. revolving round her at mid-daj^. and give good milk to that dear little one. and leaving her only with regret. body and soul i No . Thou. whose happiness it is to rear and nurture tlie 3^oung wife those two young trees of Paradise. even at two o'clock still warming and illuminating her. A pure and capable little "vYoman wants a garden. a garden. vile emanations. Leave to those who live tlie artificial life of the hecm monde. impressionable. She does not easily flourish away from its vegetable harmonies. thou must first provide her with the ing. the street to her — the that rise from breath of unclean spirits. and pene- woman receive the horrible melange hundred vitiated. he gives the joy. whoever loves and has his fete with his beloved wife and child. Kings. — — aliment of tune. which hover over our sombre cities. and tlie idle. not with of a impunity will a delicate. vicious effluvia. lives most of all in the morning. who lives in thee. the great. to expose pure. What a misfortli}^ how sad a contradiction. . when all life is energetic and productive. the first flower of gayety. vital air. To them. which enchants all nature in the happiness of its awakentheir fetes . charming wife to a dangerous atmosphere enough to poison trable her. the pell-mell of smoke. To himself. that the sun may cheor licr with his first rays. loving and regarding her long. and bloom.172 GENERAL nVGIEXE OF WOMEN'. chaste. ho secures the freshness of the early hours. and her child which is thine own. and un- healthy dreams. that if thou wouldst have her live. the splendors of apartments turned toward the evening. all aliments. consider well. All the legends of the East place the commencement of life in a garden.

. 11-1 all. and above it be not continued to a late hour .GENERAL HYGIENE OF WOMEN. . Speaking. healthy. people. singing. of the night. lumping. lungs. amusement or -1 -1 Kinris of exorcise dancing. Late hours are al. if on horseback. The waltz. and brain. conjoins with the disadvantage of fatiguing too much. Rest. •^ many "^ -^ -^ •* . because sleep. and participate in their labors as well as their amusements for awhile. females are those houselveeping. . reading aloud. as an scription. most suitable. nor indulged in immediately after a repast. It is impossible the surest to repeat too often. Her digestion will be restored freshness and bloom will revisit her cheeks her whole nervous sj'stem will be strengthened and languor will give place to a stable and brilliant state of health. . and above all. riding .-. pale and spleeny. or during the catamenial flow." Among snitable the exercises to be regarded as most connected with pre-. . . . . walking.Necessity ^ ot proper ways prejudicial to the health of the sex. which has a very good result with many opponents. and she will soon find herself changed for the better. and the prevention of many affections of the lungs and stomach. the greater one of propelling the blood too strongly towards the principal internal organs. should be enjoyed in proper proportion. village girls. believed that the world began in a I73 garden of for light. . . they cannot repair in the morning the losses of all the organs suffer sleep at night the functions the nutrition is imperfect the physiare deranged ladies in high life. that exercise is antidote to the continued suffering com- plained of by Let a languishing coquette. to the maintenance of the health. which is as needful as exercise. the Persians. especially the heart. contribute more powerfully than might be supposed. . . keep company with strong.

they are like a concealed poison. it ought not to be prolonged beyond from seven .the oro:ans. whether they act . and give place to wrinkles and old age. far more so than man. and shorten its date. . in fact. agitate the current of his existence. Their influence upon in health is questioned by none. is an important branch of ^^^® influence of the various passions female hj'giene. be to nine hours. Sleep solicited by too soft a bed. like a devouring flame. that vivifies the moral them that the arts and sciences owe and man the elevation of his position. and upon her health. that destroys in the latter. thepassfonf may on h?aith^^ and emotions upon the susceptible organization of woman. the female ought to retire early to bed. it ought not to exceed certain bounds that is. the greater proportion of them world to their discoveries. or burst forth with impetuous violence the former. Woman is a creature of emotion and feeling. with which nature endows us.174 GENERAL HYGIENE OF WOMEN. She is. . rather than by her rea- son or cold processes of is She feels that a thing so and so. slowly. up betimes in the morning. plunges the nervous system into a sort of stupor. But. Upon the whole. and pass her waking hours in occupations that exercise without fatiajuino. Notwithstanding that each one of the passions pos. It is true. although sleep is a means of restoration. logic. sions A it is noted philosopher says that the pasfire are the celestial . and not rarely by hemorrhage. She reaches conclusions by her feelings. cal constitution loses its energy SjJp^di^^ tiiitating. that while some of them are useful to him. brings weakness rather than strength. followed by torpor of the circulation. fill it with storms. impressible to the last degree. however. and the appearance and bloom of youth soon depart.

envy. upon seeing the piles of gold he filled had bequeathed her. that a sordid interest neice. and. symptoms. Valerius Maximus speaks of an Athenian lady who lost her speech in an excess of rage. whenever her rival was mentioned in her presence. impart shocks so violent. was so indignant at having for her father the assassin of her king.'*''*' 0^7 ' -Danger of excessive andsuddea shocks of joy or whether agreeable or painful. may be brought them. we see that a princess of Conde died of jealousy on hearing that her husband had attached himself to a lady of honor of Catherine de Medicis. that they disturb the legitimate action of the organs. Let us fell who into convulsions further add. such as iealousy. * liate. that she expired before she could count them. 175 by characteristic signs. fear. In the annals ofFrance. when his avaricious heiress caused his trunks to be opened. direct their action principally upon the stomach. was so with delirious joy. Tissot knew a female at Lausanne. liver. The case of a lady is recorded. sesses a charactei' peculiar to itself.GE^EnAL TTTGIENE OF WOMEN. and orrief in its varied forms. The intense passions. and even death on b}'' itself. We also observe that the daughter of Cromwell. that she died of despair. they all mon. . after the execution of Charles L. that the most alarming tions. and womb. felt in excess. with which she was seized upon reading a letter announcing the death of her son. Deaths from a broken heart or hopeless affection sometimes occur. who perished with peripneumonia in the course of two daj^s. as well as emo- and shows itself have this in com- . led to the cele- sudden death of Leibnitz's That brated philosopher had scarce yielded his last sigh. The intense passions. all whose functions they are capable of disturbing.

and chieflj'' among women. flicts Con- of the mind are especially hurtful to them at upon them to fulfil the important functions of their sex and at an age when they ought to shine. concentrate all the vital forces upon the organ of thought. rather by the advantages and graces of youth. Although the lively emotions and impetuous movements of the soul do not always produce such Mental labor prejudicial to "health of an injurious manner upon the system. that literary labor. the period calls . which. protracted meditations. which men even never purchase but at the expense of their health and happiness. and the charms of their conversation. by the art of pleasing.176 GENERAL HYGIENE OF WOMEN. than by a scientific or literar}^ reputation. I fatal effects. when nature . they alwaj^s act in conclude with remarking. whose imaginations are commonly of an exalted cast. in a female. abstract studies. are also very prejudicial to females. manner.

all the sorrows That wear out the soul. and the cruel Red mouth like a venomous flower. a spasmodic attempt was made. that hide like a jewel Hard eyes that grow soft for an hour. attempt to igbut it will not be ignored. But tliy sins." to reclaim British societ}^. What shall rest of thee. of late. ? O mystic and sombre Dolores. and American the hosts of paA^ements of magdalens who nightly infest the New York but I have searched in . And then they would haunt thee in heaven. with their glories. the New-York journals for au}-- notice 177 . of course.CHAPTER MAGDALENISM. what remain. XIII. Fierce midnights and famishing morrows. Our Lady of Pain Seven sorrows the priests gave their virgin. When these are gone. by what was called a " Midnight Mission. then . — — In a work on sexual physiology. Swinburne. nore Not long ago. Seven ages would fail thee to purge in. and especially the physiology and to some extent the pathology of woman. they are seventy times seven. The heavy white limbs. VICE. . I cannot. omit the momentous social subject which forms the caption of this chapter. THE SOCIAL Cold eyelids. It is a subject which the prudery of both with their strong admixture of Puritanism. And the loves that complete and control All the joys of the flesh. OR. vain.

results in another circle . The self-righteous world may wrap itself in a mantle . OR. and ruined the character of one daughter. a remarkable degree of ignorance. " to such grievit society cannot readily cure.'hieh we are periodically subject. and in ages. the same sad the subject . One of the greatest and most caustic of British female writers has ances as trul}' said. that. . it of this movement. . Few love to know the . he who dares allude to the subject of prostitution in any other than a mysterious and whispered manner. ^^ notorious. that what affects one may injure all he who believes that the malady in his neighbor's family today may he who dares to intimate visit his own tomorrow that a vice which has blighted the happiness of one parent. to prove the existence of prostitution. and I therefore conclude that was simply one of those A'irtuous spasms to T." A writer who has probed the at prostitution. may produce. that none can possibly gainsay But when its extent. sa^'S arguments are unnecessary Remarkf'Soranco subject. is m-anifested. must prepare to meet the frowns and censure of society. a carelessness. which creeps insidiously into the .178 MAGDALENISM. secret springs from which prostitution emanates Society disinvestiga- few have any desire to know the devastation it causcs. The evil is it. to the quick. both home and abroad. nevertheless. which we deem a sufficient notice of a momentous subject to entitle us to another long period of neglect and forgetfulness. there is now existing a of prudery moral pestilence. or its effects are ques- tioned. its causes. Society has laid a formal prohibition upon and he who presumes to argue. this scorn its being onl}^ a sort of tinselled cloak to deformed subject of all weakness. in short. usuall}' forbids utterance on pain of its scorn. must inevitably produce.

and women from grant. . "Whole barbarous communities in the Pacific have been extirpated by those diseases. that the mankind is largely tainted with the terrible diseases of prostitution through inheritance. It is a mere absurdity to assert that prostitution Prcstitution can ever be eradicated. as from a serpent. sinful pleasures in this world. . and Prostitution the threatened punishments of an after-life were futile the blood of to deter men from seeking. made at times. where it possessed. so fatally destructive. which swells the public taxes. and draws thence 179 myriads of its victims. could they but appreciate its malignity. that the world would recoil. privacy of the domestic circle. not in their own blood of Indeed. not merely a spiritual.with its ing. The whole power of the Church. but an actual secular arm. until it extinguishes families and races. and increases individual outlay for a vice which has hitherto been kept in studious concealment. In Tain has medical science shown that infected parents of this generation will bequeath to their posterity a heritage of ruined powers that the malady which illicit pleasure communicates is destructive to the hopes of man and that the human frame is perceptibly and regularly deteriorating by the effects of Prohibitory this poison. has been in vain directed against Nature defied the mandates of the clergy it. There is an ever-present physical danger. persons.THE SOCIAL VICE. The widespread dis- ease of scrofula is supposed to be the far-off effect of syphilis. that been there the baneful are influence comparatively few but if through friends or relatives. cursing generation after generation. it may be said. . civilized have suffered. There is a social wrong. Laws have been placed upon the a'Sure?^ . So widespread has of prostitution. Strenuous efforts have been bie.

diseases were infectious all . with fine linen of have perfumed my bed with . passing through the street near her (the strange woman's) corner . an idea may be formed from the very vivid pic" For at the ture in Proverbs (chap. and morals. now is she without. drive class of public peace . and houses of prostitution. and that Moses forbade Prostitu- intercourse with persons so infected. declaring prostitutes. I with coverings of tapestr}^. and with an impudent face said to him. their traffic with impunit}-. behold. I discerned among the youths. It is man society. now in the and lieth in wait at every corner. vii. Tho Jewish prostitute. At certain intervals. Prostitution Prostitution is as old as human society. there met him a woman heart. in the twilight. in fact. this da}^ have I paid my vows. with money. I have decked m}^ bed Egypt. etc. 'I have peace-offerings me.) So she with caught him. . legally domiciled in early period. Certain that Jews and Jewesses were subject to diseases similar to common gonorrhoea that these . and the OR.180 MAGDALENISM. as described " Judea at an and never lost the' foothold it had gained. statute-book. some poor and friendless woman is made a scape-goat of. and.). and beheld among the simple ones. in the black and dark night . Of the manner in which it was carried on. with carved works. and subtile of (She is loud and stubborn : . and kissed him. ^ -r i i i standing. 6. Therefore came I forth to meet thee. with the attire of a harlot. in the evening. for five thousand of her while others equall}^ g^^ilt}'. a young man void of undertion was. diligently to seek thy face. i looKcd through m}' casement. her feet abide not in her house streets. t window of my housc. and I have found thee. and he went the way to her house. violaters all who live b}^ such means.

she selves with loves. forms. remained there as long as three years but. knows how beastly and abominable the pagan life of the old Greeks and Romans was. with the flattering of her lips mjTrb. when woman was regarded as a mere . were highly educated. religious ^ .THE SOCIAL VICE. Some. festivals of ancient ." He Eorypt of old was famous for harlots. one who has been to the unburied cities of ^^Jg^'f* Pompeii and Ilerculaneum. rection of the stocks. paid her debt. to great social influence. . the woman could not leave until she had plain. in its vilest ^JSsof*' ancient ancient Pagans..-1^ Egypt were J full r ot jy sexual abominations. who were . 181 goeth after her straightway. as the grounds were alwa3^s pleasure. ever}'- female was obliged by law to prostitute herself once in her life in the Temple of the Chaldaean Venus. In ancient Babylon. The 11 Prostitution in Egypt and Babylon. many be dwelt upon to modern The higher class of Grecian prostitutes. . or as a fool to the corshe forced him. as an ox goeth to the slaughter. Once inside.. The pictures and sculptures dug up there. the filled with voluptuaries in search of to young and beautiful seldom needed subject of remain over a few minutes. like Aspasia and Lais. Girls ^ are nubile at ten. and attained ears. would Any Christian blush.' caused him to yield. and which have been found in the houses of the higher classes. . titution is the Its details are too vile to Ancient Grecian proselaborate treatises. alces. let us take our fill of love until the morning let us solace ourWith her much fair speech. and cinnamon. of gratifying make the most abandoned Unheard and unspeakable modes their lusts were resorted to by the Mociarn prostitution. . does not approach to the beastliness of that of antiquity. Come. Egyptian blood runs warm.

The Romans could not conceive a chaste soul in a body that had endured pollution. One of them recognized and argued.auism was altoo-ether foul in the matter In fact. that even the most austere Pao'an moralists recommended chastity. Pa2. ties. OR. committed the grossest immoraliIn comparativel}^ recent times. on economi^ cal grounds alone. we have seen. The chastity of the was. capricious lusts will Some of the early Christian prostitution. — the purest Eomau virgins among them and lewd accustomed to unchaste Marriage. of sexual love. a of Christianity. America. it was nothing but mere Perhaps the most marked originality of the it Chastity. The Oneida Communists. Some have e\e\\ wor- shipped in a state of nudity. as Mary Magsafct3^-valve . as a moral and religious duty. and hence. it must be brutal force had soiled. institution. but beino: partial. lust. from time to time. that many eccentric Christian sects have. son . Certain tcross confessed. for Lucretia. From the first. even against the will of the ravished per- was no resource But the Christians asserted that the crime lay in the intention^ and not in the act^ and that a chaste heart might inhabit a body which Nevertheless. and indulged in pro- miscuous intercourse. the Christian communities made just boast of the purity of laid It -^ Christian doctrine. was a holy among the early Christians. a vaivo of and protection to decent women. that if Prostitution you suppress overthrow society. and the Mormons in Utah. MA GDALENIS M. The apostles exacted it. there but the poniard. was the stress their morals.182 animal. lano^uasie spectacles. are instances familiar to all. at best. as well as in Savoy. on chastit3% has been remarked. that. a few persons of Aveak minds give way to religious enthusiasm in a in manner which warred against public decency. It is fathers asserted. Oliristian sects.

who repented. immorality twelfth. prostitution. that the last eight years of civil ^fyji^^r war. both foreign and domestic. thirteenth During the tenth. as to every other vico. centuries. find fittinof would hardly be possible to words to record the abominations of the old French Monarchy. She had a court of sometimes two or three hundred ladies of honor. as he instituted . Sanger. and an prevailed to alarming degree. in regard to American prostitution. such as can be found in no other work. so might any prostitute. investigation Vv^as was concerned. 183 dalen had been saved. Sanger. figures. The result of his published in 1859. used prostitution as a mainspring of her policy. whom she employed to worm out the secrets of the politicians of the day. I cannot longer dwell upon the historical part of my theme. and fast life generally.THE SOCIAL VICE. William W. and. and conclusions arrived at by Dr.*^^^fgJ immense impetus to . at that time resident physician Prostitution g?ij^®^ of as Blackwell's Island. Civil war is a fearful demoralizer and ours has been no exception. so far New-York city aided by the city authorities. but must come to our own time and country. it appears. Were Dr. as it exhibits itself in our great metropolitan city of New York. In 1855. they performed their It duties successfully. I shall fill the remainder of this cliapter with the facts. however. One of the French queens. I must first premise. eleventh. Sanger to institute such inquiries now. form of social vice. in a volume. made a searching investigation into the subject of prosti' tution. before the French Ilevolution. have probably given an '^J^^. They were known as the Queen's Flying Catherine Squadron . Cath- erine of Medicis. and comprises an amount of information in regard to prostitution.

according to his account. Her step is elastic. ' and is live. Canst thou believe thy living So stinkingly depending ? a "While juvenile degradation is an inseparable is adjunct of prostitution. through the aid of the New-York police. . life. about three-eighths of the number of prostitutes are found between the ages of fifteen and twenty years three-eio:hths J o ^ ^ more between the ages of twenty-one and twenty. Seven out of eight.ys of such — p^re%"desoription of ^ ^ ^ ^a-wd. a wicked bawd The evil that thou causest to be done. Beyond each year shows but a few. had not this standard.184 MAG DALE YISM. OR. Now. joremature old age Thoeourtesan. these ages include three-quarters of the aggregate prostitution. in 1855. but about six thou- sand public women in New York in 1855. that is. its invariable Take. According to Dr.atthe beginning of her career. The habitues of the place flock round her gloat . sixteen j^ears of she is age. Sanger. ' five . I eat. live times that number. Shakespeare. women. for example. they must number four or The ages of prostitutes. I drink. who included all human existence : in the sphere of his observation. he would probably reach a more melancholy and deplorable result than he did in 1855. array myself. His Census of Prostitution would be fearfully swelled. That is thy means to live do thou but think What 'tis to cram a maw or clothe a back ** ! : From such a filthy vice. say to thyself. the career of a female who enters a house of prostitution at result. There were. sa. the majority were keeping houses of ill-fame. who came under this investigation. her eye bright . reached thirty years of age. and of these veterans. the observed of all observers. From their abominable and beastly touches.

from the beginning to the end. Her mind . This is the melancholy decline and downfall of the .THE SOCIAL over lier VICE. Today. none will be too low for her company. virtue flickers own As level of depravity the last spark of and dies in her bosom. . that 3'outh the the strand desi- grand desideratum. there are exceptions . she may associate with the wealthy of the land tomorrow. . in her downward career. you find her in aristocratic promenades tomorrow. and try 185 ruin while they praise her beauty. succession of J^oung people will be driven into this deratum. From it the fact. she will be found in some able theatres one of the infamous resorts which abound in the lower part of the city. Follow her. becomes tainted with the moral miasma around her her ph^'sical powers wane under the trials imposed upon them. from one step to another. that one-fourth of the aban- . Today. she scale. evident that a constant Youth. glittering at one of the fashiontomorrow. she also becomes conscious that the door of refor- mation is practically closed to her. . and she becomes sensible that she is indeed lost. course. As soon must is as a courtesan's j^outh either descend in the is and beauty fade. Today. to drag her down to their while flattering her vanity. and her career in a fashionable house of vice comes to an end she must descend on the ladder of sin. she will be forced to walk in more secluded streets. she may be buried in a pauper's coffin and a nameless grave. arena. The end. average prostitute. either by force or treachery. Of it is a tolerably well-established fact. Tonight. that her anticipated happiness proves but splendid misery. 3'ou may see her. or starve. . The average does not ex- duration of life among these women but ceed four 3^ears. she has servants to do her bidding tomorrow.

ss Negfrom the world unannuall^^ noticed and unwept. seduced at the ports from whicli they sail during the middle passage." who talces part . Almost every common woman. The Southern and Western States. they are liable to fall victims. have was this : Among the facts brought to Many of these women who have been married continued to cohabit with their husbands. and a share in the v/ages of their shame. but who exercises an arbitrary and brutal control over her at other times.18^ MAGD ALEX ISM. Oftentimes an actual love is felt by the woman for '^ her man.York never been married. and when they tarry in New York for any length of time." or lower classes. Five-eighths of the New-York prostitutes were born abroad. as they are liable to outrageous as- from lawless rowdies. Of course. Emigrant girls are . light. the constant flood of emigrants landing at New York is a fruitful source of supply of unfortunate females. had a knowledge of their wives' degradation. who beat them for in the little or no provocation. has attached herself to some indo- who acts as her protector (•' "lover. doned women of OR. saults New-York prostitutes are shorter-lived than those of Paris. middle or bully.) when she becomes involved in any difficulty witli strangers. dependencies furnishing the prostitutes The majority of the New. from their sparseness of population and excess of males. of course. who. lent fellow. of course. Three-eighths of the New- York prostitutes were born within the limits of the United States." is the common designation. its — Great Britain and largest proportion. tliey pa. die New York lected while living. contribute but a small quota of the American-born prostitutes of New York.

where . subject. also Perils and tend materially to shorten their In addition shortness of ^ courtesan's life. to the physical dangers which they undergo. In the earlier stages of their career is . an agonizing ." must be short under such circumstances. an age of crime. let us see what are the causes which in make prostitutes of women. which admit of a perfect would be no cause of alarm but. gonorrhoea. C. — " But iu an instant. five of whom Causes Now. It may be said.. A life of pain. Everybody is competent to determine for himself the amount of public mischief likely to result daily from cure. while virtuous. had visited dance-houses. she providing funds to keep idleness. at times. And gather. course. First women order stands " Inclination. The real number is probably greater. in this instance. out of eyevy are confessedly diseased. a mass of prostitutes.THE SOCIAL VICE. two. The intemperate habits of ^ '^ the prostitutes ^ lives. in that drop of time. J. M. him in 187 in her quarrels. willingly sacrificed her virtue to a man she loved. More than two-thirds of the prostitutes examined confessed that they had suffered from S3^philis and Life •^ More than two-third3 of the courtesans diseased. In other forms of sickness. they suffer As they proceed in their from anticipation of the future. this . o'er the soul Winters of memory seem to roll. which inevitably To this." A. even the most pre^'s upon the constitution. in the words of Byron. the mental anguish must be considered. depraved of them ory of the past are. it is a mooted point among medical writers. mem- thoughts of home regrets for the position they have lost. both here and hereafter. whether the syphilitic taint can ever be eradicated from the system where it has been implanted.

she became acquainted with prostitutes. man went into an intelligence and represented himself as a storekeeper. Glancing around the waiting-room. He wished to hire a girl as a seamstress and chambermaid. The old saying is true. The wages he offered residing . who must go home with him the same afternoon. a potent feeder of the ranks of pros- Seduction and abandonment. flies to the house of ill-fame for refuge is ! A drunken husband means everything that brutal to But it is not necessary to proceed farther with the life catalogue of incentives to a of prostitution. Desertion oi husband. And here it should be remarked. and cause of prostitution. is own ignominious condition. he soon saw one of sufficiently attractive appearance. Where the husband is ' a drunkard and beats his wife.188 MAGDALENISM. in which their un- is gratified. Drink." Ill-treat- ment of parents. and the desire to drink. some twenty miles from New York. that fallen women generallj^ take a malicious delight in reduc- ing the virtuous to their Destitution titution. All our large fices cities are full of traps and pitfalls for un- sophisticated young girls. elopement of the husband. Traps and A respectabty-dressed office. to whom he made the proposition. Desertion. consciously or unconsciously. what wonder that the woman a wife. adulter}^. another. husbands. woman drinks. Even employment of- may become. drives many to an abandoned life. and who persuaded her that they led an easy and merry life. often drive them to prostitution. relatives is a prolific Parents who try to force their daughters into marriage with old men. OR. from merce- narv motives. she is lost. the traps in which debauchees catch their victims. brings a large quota of Y/omen to a sexly craving that " when a life of prostitution.

An incomplete statement of the causes of prosti. Boardin^schuold — tution would be presented. the prominent design of which is to impart a knowledge of the (socalled) modern accomplishments. detained him mained. and within a fortnight. if the injurious effects bad of. in some cases. insult. He told her that he had a little business cit}-. lead to unhappy results. told the girl that she would be welcome to sleep there that night. waithis sister. she consented. A S3^stem of education. work was described as light. to transact before he could leave the but that she could wait for him at his sister's until the cars were ready to start. but concluded that his business had and with apparently a kind feeling. and then the proprietress ofl'ered to engage her as a servant. to the almost total a proposition appear. and the woman made an arrangement to accompany him were liberal. to make the pupils present the most dazzling appearance in society.THE SOCIAL VICE. Her suspicions were lulled by the seeming respectability of the persons. of some of our fashionable boarding-schools were suffered to pass without notice. and destitute of money. regardless of their real interests and duties. ing his return. slie was enrolled a prostitute. the keeper of which he stated to be Here she remained for some hours. She had but a slight knowledge of the temptations of New York. A very few days in such a hot-bed of vice was sufficient to deaden her sense of right and wrong. and went with him into a brothel. In the course of the evening. the 189 forthwith. solemnly promising that she should not be exposed to any Almost a total stranger in the city. does. and she re. The " sister " expressed her surprise at his absence. it may is exclusion of moral training . . Startling as such no more strange than true. the character of the house became evident.

Importance oi a knowlod<5oof is Physiology.



Qj^g of the real imiDrovemeiits of '

modern times,

physiolooy as a branch of the introduction of * ^*^

Yet it is to be regretted that the knowledge communicated to youth upon a
education in our schools.





extremely limited.

Indeed, such

the present state of public opinion,

that any text-book or teacher, that should impart

thorough instruction in regard to
functions of the
entirely unfit
this, the


the organs and

human body, would be considered
use or duty.



young of both sexes do become informed upon the subjects of marriage, procreation, and By force of natural curimaternity. And how ? It is the imperaosity and injurious association.

duty of parents to rightly inform their children

concerning the things which they must inevitably

know. In consequence of their neglect of this duty, both boys and girls are left to find out all they can about the mysteries of their being, from ignorant servants or corrupt companions. Let fathers teach their sons, and mothers their daughters, at the
earliest practicable age, all that

their future well-

being makes


necessary for them to know.


information thus acquired will be invested with a
sacreduess and delicacy, wanting

when obtained

from unreliable and pernicious sources. Thus^ would many of the injurious influences, consequent upon present secresy upon such subjects, be avoided. Of the evil habits and practices common among
youth, ph3^sicians are well cognizant, and



parent has had to mourn the sad results, in the pre-

mature death or dethroned reason of children, who, with proper physical training, might have been their
pride and joy.


to the responsibility of pa-

rents in this matter,

that of teachers, who, with





and delicacy, should supply the


of ignorant or incapable parents, in


physiological education of

committed to

their care.

no space to go into tlie subject of the wages of needlewomen, and others in our great cities, who can earn by their utmost exertion but a scanty pittance, to keep soul and body
I have

tion, a


course, here


a source of prostitusociety are exposed ^Ji -^ ^

most fruitful one. Facts show that all classes of

of society

which result in prostitution, from the children of men of property, bankers, merchants, and professional men, down to the families of comto the influences






be assumed as an almost

invariable rule, that courtesans in all countries are
in the

habit of using

stimulants, to


greater or less degree, in order to maintain that
artificial state

of excitement which is necessary to

their calling.

London girl of this class said to one, inquiring into her mode of life, "No girls could


lead the


do, without gin ^



— and

drinkino: o

is Drinking


undoubtedly universal among abandoned women,









considered a disgrace to be absolutely intoxicated,

and the keeper of a
retain a boarder


house would scarcely
to habitual in-

who was addicted

Still, the fastidious are ready and eager to champagne, or what passes for it, to any visitor of liberal disposition, and will generally condescend


to assist

him to drink


— of course, inviting


ladies to participate.

seems a very incongruous association, to connect religion and prostitution to place in juxtaposition the most noble aspirations of which
It certainly




capable, and the lowest degradation to

which the body can descend.

a professed


rcspcct for rclisflon is common amon^: courtesans. o o Even with their neglect of the outward require-

and while in the actual commission of known and acknowledged sin, they still preserve many traits which are to their credit. They possess one of the chief virtues belonging to the female character, which never seems to become
ments of

extinct, or

materially impaired, namely, kindness

to each other
all v^^ho


sick or destitute


and, indeed,


suffering or distressed.

of checking the social

J have not space to proceed farther with details, '


and must w4nd up with a few remarks on the possi^

_ _


of checking the social vice, or at least mitiit.

gating the terrible evils which flow from


was computed that the enormous sum of
thousand cases were treated in hos-


Extent of

and privately, for lues venerea^ in New York To such an extent did the courtesans of that city, who w^ere suffering from S3'philitic taint, infect their customers and thus scourge humanity

for generations to




the actual extent of venereal disease in any
city, it

impossible to speak with absolute

lation, it is
niothod of

As for prohibitory measures and legisnow generally admitted that they have

The French sjo-nally failed everywhere.



The French method


to put prostitution under the immediate supervision

of appointed


of the law and medical inspecregistered,

Prostitutes are

and subject to

periodical examinations.


diseased, they are




Where suppression of a
it is

vice is impossible, government should extend
the protection

can, so that, where

capable of

a deadly infection,
its its

be as few as




Government should be patriarchal
and exercise an


but pa-

rental supervision over its subjects.

I*rostitution is

more perilous to courtesans and their customers, both in England and America, than it is in France, because the governments of the latter
countries content themselves with repressive penal

and exercise no supervision.
that venereal poison

When we remember



not so suddenly
of effective





every motive of philanthropy


economy urges the necessity


mental means for its counteraction. Since remedial or preventive measures have been adopted in Paris, the number of cases of disease and the virulence


materially abated.

Our prohibitory


cause prostitution to be conducted in se-

and philanthropists cannot reach the daughters of misery, to advise and direct them, when they They only reach such are capable of being saved. as have become, from disease and destitution, inmates of magdalen asylums, hospitals, workhouses, and penitentiaries, when body and soul both are in an almost hopeless state. Even if American society is not yet prepared to take a

course directly the reverse of


present prohibi-

tory practice, prudence dictates the adoption of

some medium rule by which prostitution can be
kept in check, without being encouraged or allowed,
as in the Prussian laws, which expressly declare that the vice is " tolerated, but not permitted."


for the


woman, "let her

while there

is life,



— dependent on the

feel, '

IS life,

there hope.

only one condition, that she shall sin no more.


and what a future you open to her What a weight you lift off from her poor, miserable spirit, which might otherwise be crushed down to the lowest deep, to that which is far worse than any bodily


— ineradicable

corruption of soul."



In a work devoted to sexual physiotogy, it will certainly not be out of place to introduce a brief

wantonwhich has exerted such a wide-spread, deteriorating influence on the physique of all modern civilized communities. I allude to what has been called, by way of eminence, the venereal plague^ ov syphilis. This dreadful malady, which has been robbed of some of its lethal poison by the discoveries of modern medical science, has been the bane of illicit sexual intercourse for generations, and has diffused its venom through
ness and

historical notice of that terrible scourge of



the veins of the guiltless, as well as the lewd and
It is

supposed that the nations of antiquity were

not cursed by this disease.

probably a mistake. *

But the supposition is Whether the diseases termed

-^Jiopen question,






" the

shameful diseases," so called, of the ancient Ro-

mans, were the same as the modern sj^philis, is an open question, to be decided by each investigator, as his judgment may determine. It will suffice here to say, that, throughout the Middle Ages, a species of disease, termed sometimes leprosy, sometimes pudendagra, appears to have pre- The fifvailed in France, as in other European countries, century.


and to have chosen for its chief seat t^i oro"ans of gcnerp.tion. It was not, however, till the ^lose of the fifteenth century, that public attention begi^ti
to be generally directed to the subject of sexual





Naples in




the French king, Charles the Eiglith, en-

tered Naples in 1495 (three years after the discov-

ery of America), he found the city suffering from

a plague (s3'philis), to which the prejudice of the natives gave the name of " the French Disease,"

by which name
The French


The king


is even now sometimes called. who was of an amorous disposi-


Italy, said the writers

of the day,

was attacked simultaneously by the French army and tliis new disease. Most of the Italian writers accuse the French of its introduction. They affirmed that they got it from the Spaniards, who got it by intercourse with the natives of the then newlydiscovered continent of America. At any rate, it



appearance, so as to attract general

notice in Naples, in 1490


its origin



Superstition in regard to origin of

an untoward planetary conjunction, to use the superstitious jargon of the time. The disease appeared in various parts of Spain in the

But sixty years before, in 1430, public regulation had been made in London, to
3^ear following.

prevent the admission of persons attacked with a
disease ver}^ similar




houses of

stant watch over such as should

and requiring the police to keep conshow symptoms

of this infirmitas uefanda, or direful infirmity.
1497, large

persons in Paris attacked by "the all pox " were ordered to vacate the city within twenty-four hours, and not to return till they were

Most of them had chancres upon the organs of generation. Large use was made of holy-wood (the wood of the lignum-vitse tree). be taken for granted. and one or two treatises appeared on the subject. It they prevailed to a ver}^ alarming extent through- out Europe at the close of the fifteenth century. barbers. These were obstinate when cured in one place. therefore. strangely misapprehending assailed its duties. etc.wood. But we will not give the loathsome details. which are said to have saved the life of the great Erasmus. patients is still extant. Sudorifics seem to have been the chief agents employed. . appeared upon the skin. that the faculty. however." given by medical authorities of the time. that whether syphilitic diseases had existed before. and old women. refused to treat patients by this new plague. In was doses of holy. was provided for those who could not be moved and agents were appointed to pay the expenses of their journey. About the beginning of the sixteenth century. or not. for the victims of the new disease. sort of Jiospital . which was imported from America for the purpose. they reappeared in another and the work was never ended. within cured. 197 A a limited sum. in decoction. the extent of the mischief provoked sympathy from the physicians. They were left to the tender mercies of quacks. which would answer for a modern description. curious historical fact. The diagnosis of the " French Disease. . with a hard surface. fariy diagnosis. The and broken down their faces were pale. but no .THE SOCIAL SCOURGE. generally on the head first. may. Pustules. It is a were in low spirits. A house of reception was established in Paris.

a small hospital was But built in Paris for syphilitic patients and persons from itch. They were left attempt was made to treat them. Such was the barbarity of those " good old" times. a hospital for such upon as accursed. persons attacked by venereal diseases were left to suffering it . when they entered it and by way of punishing them for In the middle of having contracted the disease. and physicians were directed to examine all women who showed symptoms of syphilis on the face.198 THE S O CIA L S C UR G E. to die. and. or to Les grai ands quack themselves. was got into operation . too abominable to be described. but the Salpetriere. verolies. per- when they left it. named . up to nearly the close of the eighteenth century. The condition of the French venereal hospitals continued. victims were still left to built. the care of Providence. In 1828. a hospital was ordered to be built in Paris for persons attacked by " large pox" (les grands veroles). epilepsy. La Salpetriere. caught syphilis from a child her mother was nursing which had inherited the disease. but it was not Thirty years after. was a failure and for a century and a quarter. rot and die in the streets. A terrible case. In 1505.looked Finally. who had been diseased by their husbands. residing in the vicinity of Paris. as it was called. the daughter of a professional nurse. was established for courtesans it was closed against the poor victims of syphilis. The girl was sent to the She found herself whose language Hospital du Midi for treatment. Infected prostitutes were mixed with poor. thrust among the vilest prostitutes. innocent women. but in obedience to the law of sons were soundly whipped its foundation. Yitus's Dance. the seventeenth century. . a hospital-prison. In 1535. and St.

This. and there was reform in the mode of treatment. it was found that she was a virgin. . She was drowned. six out of every hundred courtesans are ^^^J^ January . and on the autopsy of her body. shocked her so terribly. next. This dreadful incident aroused the public mind. April. in some. Her request not being granted. August and September while February. sonie j^ears. the poor girl contrived to get into the 3'ard. only three percent. show that the proportion of disease to In J^o^yi^bie courtesans varies widely in different years. and 199 threw herself into a well. and July seem seasons in which they are least likely to be infected with disease. diseased. Prostitutes in Paris are visitations Statistics now subject to periodical by physicians appointed for the purpose. however. may be wholly due to chance.THE SOCIAL SCO una E. May. has been found to be the most fatal month . that she insisted on leaving the hospital at once.

life : spring-time of " In the spring. if yielded to. is XV. trouble. In the child. and which is all must pre- soften the misfortunes whereunto humanity destined. there should be an absolute quiescence or inactivity of sexual organs. anguish. In an unhappj' marriage. more ruinous. and disquietude today. when each peris son is a perpetual cross to each other. it is the fuller In the spring. to well-being. infinitely to the . a of love. manhood and womanhood have theirs . health. pubert}'-. ever3'thing . the crimson comes upon the robin's breast wanton lapwing gets himself another crest livelier iris changes on the burnished dove In the spring. because to its vital energy is all wanted build up its frame. everything conduces life is enjo3^ment. infinitely harder to overcome. MISCELLANY. 200 . has its sexual temptations.CHAPTER Youth the Youth. around which are collected the other possible pleasures." The dangers as well as the powers and delights of If childhood this new energ}'' are increased tenfold. a young man's fancy lightly turns to thoughts In the spring. there is a kernel of felicity. a as the poet says — . the time of love. But the second is period of j^outh. a time of ex- of the most animated life. that of citement. and longevity for passed without shocks and agitations . A happy marriage. In a happy marriage. torment.

alike in prosperous and sombre hour. peare saj^s the course of all true love runs). and the lovers are happy. either circumstances. . If all goes well. When we consider the strength of the passion of love. at each moment. says ^^^'^ frequently given where it is least wanted. tomorrow. good men and women smart very sore before now. A special case of this general rule. is the scanty heed it pays to the woes of parted lovers. dis- carded lovers tried to bring back the affections of the objects of their love. the reverse of smooth (as Shakes. or by the changed feelings of one of the cooing doves under . that the world does not care very nicely to proportion its sympathy to the amount of suffering. approaches an 1 touches the lips. whether the separation be effected by the cruel wisdom of parental serpents. we cannot wonder that it should called philters. 201 Is there a constitution sufficiently strong. In old times. to flatter itself that it A it is can resist such cruel attacks? writer. There is true cynicism in the fun which people its make of love's young dream. to be crossed in love has made catastrophe. and always. Pathologically considered. disappointment in love is often attended with very serious consequences to the health of persons of both sexes. people outside survey the deso- lation which follows with wonderful self-possession. it is withheld where really needed.MIS C ELL AX Y. speaking of the world's sympathy. by means of what were which were often composed of poisonous drugs. as my professional experience has taught me. and lo^e. a soul sufficientlj^ firm. they laugh equally at so great a fuss over so small a Yet. full to overflowing. the bitter cup. wicked men laugh at a folly which the while the future will expose in its full dimensions course of runnino. a health sufficiently robust.

potent over sun and star. In the early days of the Christian church. both in man and woman. The hopes of man and woman lie in a nutshell. And though Thenecessity of his favorite seat be feeble Woman's breast." To have offspring is not to be regarded as a o o i. or Of magic. so destructive to the health of body and mind. mankind have been willing to submit to the smallest proportion of food and leisure which the human frame want of love could for a season endure. is The so miserable a state of constraint. and leisure? Rather than resign love. allowed to indulge the exercise of all their organs. the sway though oft to agony distrest. is the most fundamental error in medical and moral philosophy. except those of the most violent -^ namely. moreover. love. but as a great primary necessity of health and happiness.202 ^^^ S CELL A XT. They are all comprehended in this question of Is it possible to have both food and questions — love? Is it possible that each individual among us can have a due share of food. was lauded by the doctors of the church as one of peculiar sane- . all their feelings. Single lifo. necessity of sexual intercourse to the health and virtue of both man and woman. The poet has said. a single life. sexual love. that people who have a choice in the matter will rather put up with any evils than It is curious that young people are endure it. — "Mightier far Than strength of nerve and sinew. luxury. produce the most ruinous and tragical consequences when crossed and thwarted. rather than practice increased sexual abstinence. and so check population. and. love. of which every man and woman The ignorance of the should have a fair share. Is love .

. peculiarly approved by the Deit3^ the voice of nature denounces this But doctrine most For man or woman to lead a life of celibacy. Undoubtedly.^®" and long engagements. marriage is than fornication than bought embraces. If such betrothal be truthful. and in age. loveless. says a writer to the young. these earl}^ engagements have their dangers but the}^ are less than those of an Hope deferred may someunengaged condition. as well better as advisable. I do not advocate the union of two immature persons. and left it longest unexhausted. indeed and she is. no doubt. in her childlessness and loneliness. than illicit. a pitiable object. and the temper sour but two hearts can only really coalesce and become by In early intimacy and conformity with each other. For woman. the offspring of people fully matured. is to do violence to their nature. the desires will not become vas-rant. early marriages are feasible. joyless. 20^ and. causes sexual impotency frames. Let the affections be engaged. an}^ rate. . . unendeared. The heart will be kept steady to a single object. existence. many advantages will be enjoj'ed. A life of celibacj' is cheerless. and preserved in fidelity. the ancient Germans. desolate to the last degree. and ^ roaming. and to defeat one of the prime ends of their emphatically. Of course.MISCELLANY. this country. J^^^Jy. and the prospect of marriage occupy the mind. But legitimate love is far more likely to leave youth in man and woman both unexhausted. It is true. aimless. are alone sure of health}^ and perfect There was an old rule amono. At . selfish. times make the heart sick. truly . ordinarily. tity. Corpulence. it is an anxious and aimless existence. By no means. that late indulgence was best for youth. at least.


man, and barrenness



Carpenter says

there is a certain

of antagronism between the

and the

s:Gnerative functions, the

one set

being exercised at the expense of the other.
^j^^j^^ ^j^g^^


excessive corpulence tends to barrenness

and impotence,

brought almost daily under


doubt can exist that abstinence from, or extreme moderation in, fat, butter, milk, cream, bread, potatoes, sugar, and beer, will in one week
considerablj^ diminish the weight,



in fat per-


remove man}^ uncomfortable sensations.



has, until his marriage, lived a



so has his wife.


as soon as

they are wedded, intercourse
after night, neither party

indulged in night

having any idea that this
simple ruin.

an excess which the system of neither can bear
least, is

and which, to the man at
practice is continued



impaired, some-

times permanently


and when,

at last, obliged to
' '


medical advice, he or she, or both, are thunat


that their



from such a cause as this. People often think that connection may be repeated just as regularly, and almost as often, as meals may. Till they are told, the idea never enters their heads, that they have
nor been guilty of great and criminal excess is this to be wondered at, as such a cause of diseases is seldom hinted at by the medical men they



in addition to indisposition to cohabitafeel,

which many modest women


find a

persistent aversion to

so strong as to be invinci-



habit, or

by any amount of kindness on the

husband's part, a very painful suspicion

may some-

times arise as to the origin of so unconquerable a




followiugr is a case in

which these


suspicions seemed to be gentleman came to ask

by the


opinion on the cause of

want of sexual feeling in his wife. He told me he had been married four years. His wife was about his own age (twenty-seven years), and had had four children but she evinced no sexual feeling, although a lively, healthy lady, living in the country.

I suggested several causes,

when he

at last


was possible that a woman might lose sexual feelinsj from the same causes as man, '' I A case in =^ point. have read your former work,* and though you only
if it


allude to the

subject iucidentall}^, so


as the

female sex


concerned, yet, from what I have

learned since


marriage, I


led to think that

want of sexual feeling may arise, if such a thing is possible, from self-abuse. She has confessed to me, that at a boarding-school, in perfect ignorance of any injurious effects, she early acwife's


quired the habit.

This practice




not so connection, which she views
aversion, although
it gives her no him that medical men, who are con-

with positive
pain." sulted
I told

about female complaints, have not unfrequently observed cases like that of his wife. It
appears that, at

nothing but the morbid excite-

ment produced by the baneful practice can give any sexual gratification, and that the natural stimulus fails to cause any pleasure whatever. A similar phenomenon occurs in men and. this state

of things never ceases, as long as
I feared, therefore,

self- abuse


that his surmises

vrere correct,

and that the lady practiced self-abuse
of Life;
or, Self-Preservation."

*" Science



willing to admit.

more frequently than she was


the practice of solitary vice, both in the

one sex and the other, that it is carried on, even in married life, where no excuse can be devised,

and comes to be actually preferred to the natural
just as

Venereal excesses

engender satiety

certainly as

satiety is

any other indulgences, and by indifference and disgust.

If the unnatural excesses
place early in

masturbation take

life, before the subjects who commit them have arrived at maturity, it is not surprising that we meet with women whose sexual feelings, if they ever existed, become prematurely worn out.

Doubtless, sexual feeling differs largely in different



yet I


here say, that the same causes

produce abnormal sexual excitement in boys, have similar effects in girls. This tendency may be checked in girls, as in boys, by

which in early



education in early


But, no

doubt can exist that hereditary predisposition has much to do with this, besides education and early

have elsewhere

alluded to the

perils of boarding-schools to girls

about the period

of puberty



and the conventual life of Catholic known to be fraught with similar


Apropos of

statement, the writer was pro-






married lady, whose case resembled that of the lady already cited. She was educated in the convent of


of the solitary vice, embraces of her husband, as she frankly confessed to

where she learned the practice which she now preferred to the


Indeed, she was perfectly frigid during sexual


Cases of this kind might be multiplied


two suffice. Masturbation, from its usual name of Onanism, might be supposed to be the peculiar vice of the male sex. But it is not so.
let these


the flower of extend to females also whose beauty it withers, producing in them the same
Its ravages

melancholj^ effects, bodily and mentally, physicall3^




that are observed in its male victims.

Indeed, that unnatural love between persons of the

same sex, which is so seldom found in northern latitudes and among our own race, is not unknown among the female sex. This was known to the Of ancients by the name of the Lesbian love.
the effects of masturbation in both sexes,
possible to exaggerate the evils.
ignorance but seldom that matters pertaining to sexual among ^ married intercourse are treated of seriously and instrucpeople. tively, with a really virtuous object in view, in books.



It is



Nevertheless, ignorance, or false ideas respecting

them, has caused much evil and much domestic

I believe,

generally assumed that
here, that

instinct teaches adults

how sexual congress should
should say

take place.

But from several cases

come under


notice, I

many would

be entirely ignorant but for previously incontinent habits, or such notions as they pick up from watching the practice of animals.

For instance, a short who had time ago, I attended a member of years. The marriage had never been married seven been consummated and I believe that the almost
, ;

^Jted"^"^* marriage.

incredible ignorance displa3'ed in this case, as to the
duties of matrimony,

was not

in the least assumed.
it is

So common

is this

ignorance, that
I have





that I meet with cases in which the

hymen has

never been ruptured.

no doubt that there are

many husbands and wives

living together,


lieve that everything usual has taken place, although

the marriage has never been actually



and that

this is far

cause of infertility.
called the
ried, often

from being the least unfrequent This ignorance, of what may be

mechanics of love among the newly-marproduces disgust and estrangement, and

a total extinction of desire.


first failure will

sometimes so


men's sexual feelings, that

they are never able or anxious to attempt connection a second time.

There are cases of amiable men,


carry their consideration for



love to such an extent, as to render


practically impotent from very dread of inflicting
pain. singularly agreeable, gentlemanly^, but very mild-looking man, called on me, saying " that he had been lately married, and had not succeeded


in performing his marital duties."

I treated



the usual way, and he got better

but there v/as still which I perceived was not to be attributed




After some hesitation, the lady con'

suited me.

I found her one of those ^ pleasino;, prettv, ^ ^ "

but excessively nervous and excitable persons, to be met with from time to time, and in whom the least

approach of anything towards the generative organs
creates excessive

alarm, in

consequence of their

excessive sensitiveness and nervousness.



the mere application of cold water could not be

some time, and after a good deal of careful management, an astringent lotion could be used, when the morbid excitability was somewhat reduced, the hymen was found not onl}^ entire, but

but, after

very tough, presenting the appearance of a finger of a kid glove on the stretchers. Division of the

hymen, and dilatation of the vagina, at length accustomed the parts to bear contact, and a perma-

nent cure was effected,


have reason to believe,

that cases of supposed impotence arising from this







not likely to be followed by impregnation when the husband has been previously continent, and his natural disposition renders him particularly unwilling to distress or hurt his wife, while she is in
this state
It is

of unnatural and morbid sensitiveness.
as these

not improbable that divorces have taken place


now from such causes



when interfering envenomed the
young couple.









French writer

has remarked, SeasureL

perhaps with some exaggeration, that if the pleasurable moments, as well as the torments, which
attend love, lasted, there would be no



capable of





our actual

condition was changed.

In newlj^-married people,



sexual intercourse takes


frequently than later along
that conception often

and hence


happens the first few

months of wedlock, when probably the semen of the male contains but few spermatozoa and, in

such cases,



only when the ardor of first-love

has abated, and the spermatozoa have been allowed
the time necessary for their full development, that

Nature, howbecomes impregnated. ever, provides a kind of check upon the too frequent repetition of the act, in the effect which pregnancy produces on the female, and through her upon the male. If the married female conceives ever}^ second year, during the nine months that follow conception, she experiences no great
the female

sexual excitement.

The consequence


that sex-



^^ i



somewhat diminished, and intercourse takes place but rarely. And, again,
ual desire in the male



are suckling, there


usually such a

drain on the vital force

made by the organs

ing milk, that sexual desire

almost annihilated.


as all that

we have read and heard tends

prove that a reciprocity of desire is, to a great extent, necessary to excite the male, we must not

be surprised married life



learn that






and that


man become
in his

sobered down,

The Celebrated Jeremy Taylor, ^

Rules for

Married Persons, or Matrimonial Chastity," says " He is an ill husband that uses his wife as a man
treats a harlot, having

no other end but pleasure.

Concerning which, our best rule is, that although in this, as in eating and drinking, there is an appetite to

be satisfied, which cannot be done without

pleasing that desire, yet, since




for other

ends, they


never be separated from those ends, but

always be joined with

or one of them, with a

desire of children, or to avoid fornication, or to

lighten and ease the cares and sadnesses of house-



or to endear each other


but never

with a purpose, either in act or desire, to separate
sensuality from those ends which justify it."

Nuptial love, says Lord Bacon, raaketh mankind
friendly love perfecteth

but wanton love cor-

rupteth and embaseth
in his quaint


old English,

The poet Chaucer says, "For three things, a
assemble (come to-

man and

his wife





in intent

of engendure of

children for the service of



certes that

decency . amusements. she commits a suicidal act. is in ever}^ hensible. to 3'ield every of Tlie second cause them is." says that the first purpose of dress is. quantity rather should be." The famous writer in the Saturday Review^ an rious English journal. first element of dress. his debt unto other of his body . perfectly legiti- . than qualit}^ is looked or for. so. fresh girl is " flesh of the flesh" of a man used up from age. and what will he do with to me?" said a clever j'oung girl of eighteen. who has made himself so notoby his severe strictures on " Modern WoCostume and morals. tastes. men. whose parents marry an old gentleman. from the primary fig-leaf. and domestic . great strength appertaineth to the love . inquires a French writer. first and great feebleness to the last. for neither of them has power of his to own bod}'. way loathsome and repreNature avenges herself by spreading "^^^^ scandals. y. disposi- tion.yrisci:LLAy is is. how Another mate object of dress is attractiveness. doubts about paternity. Evidently. it is easy to see what will become of them in these unequal marriages. The ill assortment of rich old dotards with young girl-wives. But. We have a right to suppose that women do not adopt a fashion great things have arisen. and mayhap from excesses. 211 the cause final of matrimony. no bigger than a man's hand. troubles ever3'thing is at variance. or and for this. The third eschew lechery and villainy. know the diff'erence between love in youth. " What shall I do with him. as with the little cloud. Would j^ou. With regard to health and vital force. character. more or less rapid or certain. and in old men ? It is this wished her : " of a truth. — age. where a young.

unmarried. that nothing but actual observation could have inferred the fact of their being the different sexes of the same insect. wingless female." however obscure the place up at the of her abode. an animal resembling a caterpillar its light proceeds from a pale-colored patch. as is is the case with luminous insects. approach of night. notice the wonderful design evinced in bringing the Phosphores- sexes together by means of a phosphorescent light.212 ^>i'is CELL A :v F. and the some species. which nature employs to bring the sexes together. at and more vivid the very moment when the meeting takes place. please Sexual fp|-jg men in particular. The duties As I have adviscd continence for the riage. None. The object of this light appears to be to attract the male. so to speak. the duty. but medical men can know at all (and they can know but a fraction). Antiquity was . unless tliey suppose that to their attractions in general. that terminates the under-side of the abdomen. of moderation in sexual indulgence. of the misery and suffering caused by ill-regulated desires and extravagant indulgences among married people. and possibly. so not the less young and urgently would I impress on the married. It is. since in it is most brilliant in the female . for their own sakes. are among the most No one can fail to interesting facts of zoology. indeed. is present onl}^ in season when strikingly the sexes are destined to meet. The glow-worm . perhaps. will add also. the perfect female of a winged beetle. lights doomed to The torch which the crawl upon the grass. devices. if not all. is a beacon which unerringly guides the vagrant male to her " lone illumined form. from which it is altogether so different. it or a costume.

ancient nations. the patient is able so to restrain his feelings. Solon required three payments a month. if sexual repeated the same night. I advise those wishing to control their passions. lodge a complaint before a magistrate. that sexual congress ought not to take place frequentlj^ than once in seven or ten days and when my opinion is asked by patients whose desires are naturally strong. course." that the Turkish law obliges husbands to cohabit with their wives once a week and that. . to indulge in intercourse twice in the same night. . a man was allowed one or two week's leave of absence. sensible of the expediency of regulating to 213. in many empty arise the vas deferens. on the score of a religious vow of abstinence. is. . My opinion more . Many ordinances existed among tracts. without reference to the husband's avocations Mottray states. I have noticed that a single interpersons. of which I give a few ex- The Jews would have the conjugal debt paid regularly by the husband. and that within the next twentyfour hours. that ten days or a fortnight may elapse without the recurrence of desire. does not effectually . the wife can energy used in his avocation. strong sexual feelings intercourse is again whereas. in his " Travels. if they neglect to do so. in proportion to the According to the Mischna. some extent these indul2:ences.MISCELLAXr.

and through them all their descendants were bidden to do the same thing. lovers. Stigmatizes all intercourse which tre- church. but I find the above facts in my way in discussing the 7)iorale of sexual love and intercourse between the sexes. It is through that mendous agency. the confessional. declares fruitless. The Roman-Catholic Church. doubtless.CHAPTER eexuaiiove. and her clergy are forbidden to marry. also. in seeking a mere temporary gratification ^^ ^^ of 'Sf ture? ^^^® an imperious desire. that the Cathochurch frowns upon the love-act. as sinful. through the very intensity of sexual love The that the continuation of the race is secured. a life of celibacy. accomplishes nothing but the gratification of the sexual appetite. as peculiarly meri- torious and virtuous. as a Under the head of Onanism. sin against God. thev so denounce love and it. are nature's agents for scrip- propagation of the species. which is lic The same church. as sinful. fruitless also. XVI. or a single life. The nun and the monk have been among I the foremost figures in that church. The Jewish tures denounce all sexual intercourse. they were to do it 214 . which does nothing more than gratify the sexual craving. do not propose to enter into any theological discussion. SEXUAL LOVE. pair When the first human was bidden to increase and multiply.

to do so would be to increase the . appetite in each impulse of the sexual gratified. What is It is the fact in regard to the sexual appetite ? ^^^e^j^f^*^ natural. but be kept The is fertility " of some of the lower species of ' Fertility of animals absolutely appalling. because they would be merely bringing into the world poor. keeps up a swarm and the spawn of a single cod- . overmastering it appetite imNature's cunning. a female. sinful. unless abused. in the case of healthy human beings of both sexes. Some of our virile is Mormon power patriarchs are exemplifying the °^ -^^^^^f in our own Christian borders. member of a given up. him could be fertilize and his sperm in each time the germinal vesicle children. she always overshoots the mark that is. When nature ^ c wants to make sure of attaining a certain end. becomes a curse and a plague. There an excess of sexual power lodged in each health}^ species. beget a small army of Where polygamy exists. > make it sure that the species will not die out. we know to what extent a single male is capable of propagating his species. man under proper restrictions and qualifications. as soon as they reach the age of reproduction. and not. If not gratified legitimatel}^ like every other strong. or tends to become such. and a woman in absolute poverty should not beget children because. living races agoing. who both radically diseased and tainted in their blood. in order to power. A lower single queen-bee animals.opa|a?e misery.SEXUAL LOVE. certain to endure constant pain and die early. ' . should not beget children. to keep the planted in our nature. It *^^™^J^^_ tion. she enables each is healthy pair to produce more offspring than if necessary. demands gratification. sum-total of are human misery. A healthy man could. 215 A ^j. A man and woman. . short-lived creatures.

and the that the it should be from the earth. as a moral question. or not. The solitar}'' system of confinement in vogue in the Philadelphia Penitentiar}^. and that nature. cities a prudential. or an attempt to suppress the natural appetite. that the proper and reasonable gratification of the sexual propensity itself. if all the rest were annihilated at a given moment. The . their reason in this matter. intended fail human fair race mi"ht not inference from this state of things is. The}'' They have no right to fulfil the divine command. and the means of live- lihood are easil}^ obtained. when food is abundant. or capable of more than accomplishing the mere . primitive. tlie sexual passion in the vigorous healthy men and women. makes that institution a nest of solitary Aice. Enforced celibacy. fish would soon replenish the ocean. both during life. has often broken out in crimes the most appalling. A living English philosopher maintains that their circumstances will married couples have a right to decide whether admit of their having children. in absolute povert}'. A^^^^ always in excess. juvenile criminals. from prudential and other motives. their without hope or prospects because parents were without . I wish facts. that while the begetting to show from these of children ma}^ not alwa^^s be proper or right. and . an end in and is not because it stops short of fruit. It is must exercise as in everything else. human starve- lings. is allowable merely as sinful. number of marriages and the population also. is and reproductive period of continuance of the race Aut'ior of nature. as well The purlieus of our great are overrun with wretched.216 SEXUAL LOVE. In prosperous times. the will be increased.

If children are begotten and are born in defiance of circumstances. herself one Nature shows her displeasure them. Neither deny themselves a temperate gratification of the impulses of nature. without causing conception. whether or no. " The old Romans encouraojed ° Why the old Romans were constantly at war. the ra- rather than the theological. intelligGiice 217 obe^'cd the and foresight. because they encouraged childbearing. in view of the above facts. regarded as a crime. married people will consider their circumstances in will take into bringing progeny into the world sins which incur a special curse . mid blindl}' impulses of nature like beasts. view of the child-bear- subject. will be availed of. In view of the above facts. but with the diffusion of intelligence and civilization. Milltary governments have always. a knowledge of the modes in which sexual intercourse may be indulged in. and the laws of health. at the production of pun}". before begetting them. and other conditions necessary for crime. their successful rearing and growth. and each new child was wanted as food for the sword. is the scientific modern doctrine . been especially favorable to . without discourse of reason. even if they are not able safel}^ to bear or properly support offspring. they are simply born to misery and This tional. prevention is is not Prevention.SEXUAL LOVE. proper. congenitally feeble children. by speedily suppressing Circumstances do and will control the increase of population. or to speedy death. while induced abortion of the worst in the criminal calendar. and. and modern times. both in ancient ing. Theologians may decry a as fruitless gratification of the sexual appetite among the from heaven. account their will the}^ own health and ability to properly support children.

because they laborers. thereby their furnished with cheap who de- and lead miserable. low populations increase and without regard to the future. In seasons of industrial depression. the lower orders. While multipl}^. because he wanted fail. and misery. in order that conscripts to fill their armies might not leon praised fruitful Napowomen. bauched lives. the English proletaires are decimated by starvation born into the world. at least. or to their ignorant. circumstances. The first unlimited food for powder. . do not increase so The great English manufacturers encourage the increase of population are fill among coffers. where the sexual appetite is gratified. is . to be born to a fair chance in the lottery of life but he cannot be in an old community. social plane — populations on a more elevated fast.218 SEXUAL LOVE. filthy. ought. Every human being that without foresight or regard for the welfare of the children begotten. in the shape of vigorous young men. the increase of families.

of a h3''gienic nature. which most commonly happens between the age of forty and fifty years. women now and henceforward live only for themselves. to which health-pills. time. and mode of life . and their organs of generation are sealed up with the This great revolution. constitution. and oftentimes appearance. stormy prospect than that of their first Compelled to yield to the power of cease to exist as for the species. as long and all the recipes that are loudly proclaimed by ignorance. features are but which position.CHAPTER XYII. elixir of are attached such life. Their stamped with the impress of age. puffed quackeiy and by popularit}^ each certified old-womanism. THE CHANGE OF The period of the no less LIFE. is. nostrums. remarkable epoch of life. to the social and the healthful or diseased condition of the patient. is subordinate to the influences of cli- mate. as may serve. final cessation turns exhibits a less flattering. of the monthly A a delicate period. to reject all sorts of drugs and titles avoided. requires such care and precautions. women are then known The first advice they ouorht to receive at this Quack medi*^ •^ ernes to bo critical period. by a long list of grateful beneficia219 by recommended . this signet of barrenness. as far as possible. to prevent the evils to which to be liable. and and by millions of pretended cures.

All womcn. where one . ought to make it a rule to tal^e moderate exercise. sleep. A woman all arrived at the critical period. whe}^. deciduous fruits. fine. and watching. Exercise taken in attending to houseis hold more favorable.220 Plain diet recouij. go to inhale the bracing cares air of the morning the . where the land is high and diy. black and salted meats. should renounce late suppers. such as succory. should drink beverages.J mended. veal. with a view to distribute throughout the system the excitability which is withdrawn from the organs of generation by the cessation of the monthly discharge. . as it is proportioned to the physical strength. especially in agreealso constitute the kinds of exerable compan}^ cise from which may be derived the happiest results. at tlie period of life in question. may . ragouts. the internal satisfaction arising from the fulfilment of duty. Lastly. and in gestible food. excesses or indulgences in the matter of diet. demanded for the proper culture of flowers short excursions into pleasant regions of country. spirit- uous liquors. cooling Importance of moderate exercise. J 1. fresh-water fish vegetables. Women who have reached their critical period of — . infusions with succor}^. riding out in the country. and may be composed of white meats. The diet ought not to be too nutritious. and superaffairs so much the adds to the natural effects of toil. j^^ h^q approach of the ' •• critical period. are sure to be attended with serious consequences.jgg^ THE CHANGE OF LIFE. any . or in emotions and passions. should reject sorts of spiced dishes. . coffee. who are subject to copious discharges during the catamenial flow. chicken. spinach fruits. cooked and raw very ripe. all stimulating and indifull Women of a habit. tlie bodily exercise. dress. tea. and acidulous mineral waters.

. particularly at those times when they they used to have their monthly turns. which should henceforth be as possible. the sole dominant passion of the sex.T 11 ]: C 11 A y G K life. damp atmosphere. sexual intercourse The venereal act to cannot be too moderate at this period of life.. produce the greatest disturbance in the nervous system. where only impure air crowds au'i can be breathed they ought not to sleep upon beds. close rooms. a passion which is. if pro. etc. much all exercise of the mental faculties . nor in any bed that is too soft a-nd too warm. feelings. would do well to avoid. Under such circumstances. at the critical — — age. . feather beds. be entirely discontinued. large assemblies. for such are attended with the disadvan- tage of promotiug fulness of habit. may. and disposing the system to attacks of bleeding of the womb left. generation. They would also do well to avoid. long watchings . . — — . Love. which often gives rise to catarrhal disorders. ^^f}^ theatres. whites. with more than usual care. heated. and especially from that of a cold. should. On this account. withdraw themselves from the influences of sudden changes of the atmosphere. 221 should. — these are especially hurtful to a woman who has ceased to have her monthly turns. so to speak. of causing costiveness. or L I F E. and be discontinued. longed beyond six or seven hours too . and reawaken a venereal fueling. and exciting the organs of as far Sleep. I say. a sentiment so gentle and natural to the female. in a state of inaction. whether too deep or too keen anger . it is the dictate of prudence to avoid all such circumstances as might tend to awaken any amorous thoughts in the mind. that ought rather to become extinct such . in case of the appearance of any signs. love of play and sorts of passionate feeling.

the reading of love-tales . indeed. issues. among which may be reckoned and purgative medicines. for charms that are and enjoyments that are ended forever. passed. in short. baths. . How great soever may be the advantages of the measures which I have just proposed. . The ^ persons who prospector a long life. as the spectacle of lascivious pictures and figure . and it should be repeated from time to time. Active remedies necessary. early period. greater or less. They should be reassured on this point. Bleeding in the foot ought not to to be preferred.222 '^^^^ CHANGE OF LIFE. their sex has a far better chance of a than the other. the health of affections. * & and seek. many women tion demands the vigorous observaof various precautions. that their monthly turns are designed and to purge the body of some poison or impurity that the cessation of the flow is about to become They should be the source of numerous disorders. everything fied. to inspire them with more pleasant Assisted by the counsels of medicine and of friendship combined. representing the future in the most gloomy colors. . and disabused of the false idea they generally form. that when This period lons: life ^ this short period is once live ' fairly past. the sex may hope to spend many happy days far beyond an age at which they suppose there is no further happiness for them. and at intervals. with them ouoht to turn aside their sad thoughts. . reminded. according Bleeding at the arm is alwa3-s to circumstances. on account of the fulness ^ which is likely to follow the stoppage of the monthly Recourse should be had to it at an discharge. calculated to cause regret Most women exaggerate to themselves the dan- gers of the critical age. and arming themselves with courage for the conflict. Bleeding is recommended. of certain remedies bleeding. and the employment still . and.

— it may be increased or diminished. rejected. I invariably forbid purgative injecas hip-baths . as well nor do I recommend recourse to common injections. especially purgatives of aloes. because it acts upon a more extended surface. Those women who in early life may have been subject to swellings of the joints. tamarind whey. to ophthalmias. 223 resorted to in these cases . .:iilar womb and the rectum. employment of them and only in cases of absolute necessity.. has afforded no relief. too much. sweetened with hone}^. in which leeches may be applied with advantage such are the cases. and cutaneous eruptions and those.. such as sedlitz water. the pelvic viscera are afflicted with acute pain. etc. However. This last method of taking away local irritation and fulness". ought always to be for they excite the viscera of the pelvis. For reasons. — with advantage to the patient. are means that may be employed broth. containing a weak infusion of sulphate of soda. . who happen to labor under chronic or mucous inflammation. The latter is preferable to the former. nor should leeches be applied to the vulva and thighs. Drastic cathartics. especially the si. when the lower belly and blood tends to increase the . vcr}^ rare ones. without care in the . infusion of wild succory. and especially by a blister. and the irritation caused by .THE CIIAXGE OF 'be LIFE. Costiveness ought to be combated by the use of fal of olive oil. several times repeated. there are cases. in which bleeding at the arm. or prepared with the addition of a teaspoon- The use of the plunge-bath. injections. and of gentle laxatives. which it is so desirable to remove. ptisans with prunes. lastl}^. tions. will be benefited by an issue. veal broth or vegetable and other drinks of the same sort.

therefore. that infractions of the laws of health may lead them into the arms of art. were it not that former excesses. and an existence exposed to much fewer dangers. death at a period which should have been for them the commencement of a more tranquil life. which is a physiological phenomenon. would almost always terminate well. that the cessation of =" the monthly turns. .6« not unfrequently foreign to the principles of the oppose its progress. and a treatment -^ oftheiaws punishedat tflXlS tilI0. I cannot. too loudly proclaim to the sex. careless dieting. Let me close by remarking.224 ?^^riy infractions THE CHANGE OF LIFE. as natural as their first appearance.

in the female.) . that they surpass those of men. But. there can be no doubt that sexual The sexual feelin*. and shock public by their exhibition.abeyance.ble if it requires positive and consid. which are so productive of mis- no apology for giving here the true state of the case. that this malady will be found discussed in in another part of the volume.CHAPTER There so is XVIII. passing. let me remark in conversant with. with these . I admit. of course. is. excitement to be roused at and. 225 . chief. so much ignorance on ideas are the subject. in a majority of cases. are habitually. that there are some few women who have sexual feeling desires so strong. terminating even nymphomania. and that era. THE SEXUAL FEELING IN WOMAN. a form of insanity that those accustomed to visit lunatic asylums must be fully (And here. sad exceptions. I admit. and the result of my Inquiries. . women are only excep- It is too true. even roused (which in many instances it never can be). and many false current as to v/oman's sexual condition. that I need offer : — What men tionally. feelino. all . in ii^ tho ° " ^ female in abeyance. I have taken pains to obtain and compare abundant evidence upon the subject. I may briefly epitomize as follows I should say that the majority of women (happily for them) are not very much troubled with sexual feeling of any kind. the existence of sexual excitement.

at least. They are fond of admiration tion of males. The best mothers. from the vile aspersions cast on it by the abandoned conduct and ungoverned lusts of a few of There are many females who its worst examples. low and There is always a certain number of females. and early in life young men. if appealed to. men. whether he altogether overcome all by wo- the syren or not. Others. from this reason dread and avoid or marmedical men Married men — — ried women themselves. and marriasie. never felt any sexual desire whatever. tell a very different tale. capable of experiencing is it but this capacity till often temporary. compared with that of the male. to a Umited degree. again. though not ostensibly in the ranks of prostitution. form at least. would. do become. however. therefore. seems to corroborate such an impression and it is from such erroneous impressions that so many 3'oung men think that the marital duties the}'' will have to undertake are beyond their exhausted strength. it they have not sexual feeling. and vindicate female nature A vile aspersion. who. that she. novice does not suspect but that is .226 THE SEXUAL FEELING IN WOMAN. must have. is very moderate. immediately after each period. they like to attract the attensusceptible is Any boy is easily led to believe. loose. counterfeit that the sexual feelins?. make a kind of trade of a pretty face. or. and managers of households. wives. if so well. Many men. Such women. . compared with that of the male. Association with loose women it (who. . their ideas of woman's feelings from what they notice among vulgar women. and. particularly Moderate. give a very false idea of the condition of female sexual feeling in Loose women counterfeit general. and will cease entirely the next menstrual period. as strong passions as himself. genuine).

THE SEXUAL FEELING IN WOMAN. but for the desire of to be maternity. some conversation with me. are the sreneral rule. for his sake. Her husband and herself. faltered in telling her story . children. She believed it was his natural condition. She was dotingly attached to him. She him debilitated. from no indiscreet act on his part. Love only passions ^ home. had been acquainted since childhood. Speaking with a freedom as far removed from desirous of having assurance as false delicacy. had grown up together. I found the lady a refined and highly sensitive person. and would not have determined to consult me. but. . became mutually attached. In 186-. as it would. came to me on and was account of sexual debility. and domestic duties. and that there to the completion of the act then. would far rather be relieved from his The married woman has no wish treated on the footing of a mistress. her duty to consult me. that connection had taken place but once since the commencement of some doubt as the year. know of '' 227 little or nothing of sexual indulgences. about thirty years of age. and. a gen- tleman. One instance may the case. to have a family. modest woman seldom desires any sexual gratification for herself. than much better illustrate the state of Author's experience. he said. she hoped. description. but only to please him attentions. she said. as she was fully conbelieved A^nced. As a **^ woman. as she was. but that she wished. On cross-examination. sh6 told it me she thought She neither blushed nor and I regret that my words must fail to convey the delicacy with which her avowal was made. I found he had been married a twelvemonth. She submits to her husband. a A modest they feel. and married. He brought his wife with him. .

self-sacrificing. if she was capable of them. their aversion this if to the least maj^. not only evince no sexual feeling. find it diflfi- when we admit cult to restrain their passions . considerate.228 THE SEXUAL FEELING IN WOMAN. except for the hope of having a child. men. She she doubted whether it would be right or not. while their more . or unwilling- ness to overcome the natural repugnance which such females feel for cohabitation. selfish indifference to please. depend upon disease sooner the suffering female frequently. the better. and often does. however. and sensible so pure-hearted. conduce to their mutual happiness. in consequence of hereditary predispolike sition. who. . A great contrast to the unselfish sacrifices such women make tation is of their feelings in allowing cohabi- offered norance or utter they are by others. . as to be utterly ignorant of and averse to any sexual indulgence but so unselfishly attached to the to be willing to give man she loves. . but. on the contrary. or ill-directed moral education. they were dormant. manifestation of Doubtless . scruple not to declare it. as up her own wishes and feelings for his sake. either from igalthough want of sympathy. PositivQ tocoSabi- I believe this lady is a perfect ideal of a true wife and mother . Much more it depends upon apathy. — model wives in every other respect. I think. that there are some few women who. loved him as he was. We offer. no apology for light conduct. kind. the is treated. She assured me that she felt no sexual passions whatever that. Her passion for her husband was of a Platonic kind and far from wishing to stimulate his frigid feelings. and so. and would not desire him to be otherwise.

women do The not feel any great sexual large tendencies. This. unfortunately numbers whose to be lives accounted would seem to prove the contrary are for on much more mercenary giddiness. does not alter the fact. that. love of dress. hunger. make women prostitutes but do not induce female profligacy so largely as has been supposed. greediness. . never fallen. and have. therefore. however. Vanity. which I again would venture to impress on the reader. motives.THE SEXUAL FEELING IN WOMAN. fortunate sisters 229 have never been tempted . in general. distress.

and conducting them to premature graves. phevention op conception. whether there are not times. On . Dunsflison says ' CD J J ^ — many modern struation. the catamenial discharges. A mooted Such appeals are of a nature not to be resisted by the skilful practitioner. They were anxious to be advised. the subject of prevention. from the male. inevitable doom before them. detailing to me in heart-rending terms the wretched- ness of their situation. now ffive such a most extensive experience qualifies mc Thousands of women have written me. is what the sufferers are entitled to. causes conception or fecundation. " By On this important subject. la- dies resident in almost all the States of the Union. because the v/oman not liable to impregnation cell because there is no ovulation or emission from the ovaries of the germor vesicle. intercourse may is take place with impunity. when .CHAPTBE Author's experience. which. I will advice as to give. on the ovular theory of men- it is is eight days maintained that a period of about needed for the passage of the unim230 . who feels that he can afford relief and that relief. when J fertilized by the sperm : Dmv^iison's opinion. owing to compulsory child- which was undermining their constitutions. writers. is. under such circumstances. One of the mooted questions of physiology. so as to escape the birth. in the interval between . XIX.

to . however (a French writer on the theory 231 whose "tenth fundamental law. But. from llic ovarium to the womb. that in the human species. for from two to six days. . bound to observe abstinence from sexual intercourse for eight days and it is affirmed." in the human species and the mammalia. extends the time much beyond this. during the first twelve days that follow the its monthl}'. the egg and the seed from the male meet normally in the womb. a vesicle of De Graaf (the discoverer of it) is torn normally at each menstruation (or monthly turn). is generally required for and it is subsequently retained in the womb. His view is. conception it may take place hut never can he effected at a later period^ inevitahly have heen dragged because the egg must out hy the discharge. or egg. of ovulation). that it is the custom among Jews who are scrupulous.VnEVENTlON OF CO X O E P T I O N. pregnated ovum. or four days following. period of A from two to six it days tube . first either within the immediately afterwards. or in the portion of the Fallopian tubes near it and there fecundation is accomplished.turns. sexual intercourse. by " If/' he adds. it is objection to this doctrine. — according — or little Qgg. which spontaneously discharges its contained ovule. and rarely up to the fourteenth daj^ there is . on the other hand. for the wife to retire from the society'' of her husband . Ponchet. and its discharge from the female." M. that the Jewish women are women. that is. " during the time of "the decidua. to clear the passage and sojourn in the genital apparatus. that a an overwhelming woman cannot be of impregnated after the twelfth or fourteenth day Practice following her menses.

or even become pregnant unconagainst their wills. reckoning from the of being " nyddar. how fatal is this fact. if they wish to avoid pregnancy. case against I have instance. and consider a disgrace not to bear children .232 PREVENTION OF CONCEPTION. single In fact. that is. especially when it is borne in mind that the Jewish women are celebrated for it being prolific mothers. involuntary or a. One single authentic it. How and when conception takes disputed questions cal authorities. among physiologists aud medi- Women sciously. the last menstruation occurred the eighteenth of October . that in general among this singular people. whence it is inferred. are still venereal act. to the doctrine that intercourse is safe after twelve or fourteen days after the monthly turns have taken A dangerous doctrine. — by who are strict. child which a woman may not find after having indulged in the place.ainst the will.i. place. that to act upon this doctrine will be dangerous. or tiventy-three days after- wards. — . I can assure my lady readers. it would be enough to disprove cases in and known multitudes of such my prac- An In one instance. there is not in the whole month a moment with in herself Pregnancy. and the intertice." or unclean those first da}^ sajr. that is to five days are (for the kept. and it is added. took place on the tenth of November. no female bound to be a mother before at least nine calendar months and a half have elapsed. as prescribed by the Rabbinical law purpose of making surety doubly sure). course which resulted in pregnancy. and when . that pregnancy must have is taken place immediately before the monthly turns. How fatal is this fact. I sa}". in addition to the eight days enforced by Moses. as a fact. for a period of thirteen days.

out of whose commingling life is the result. or really disinclined. or not. in consequence of no spermatic emission taking place in her. as rational creatures. it is given to beget children to have them. I do not advise a resort to abortion. . been effected between the materials furnished by the male and female. for it frequently occurs before or after emission by the male. as in the male. or the Fallopian tubes. After the kind of convulsive excitement into which the female is thrown. is not to bear children. Fecunda- This is all we really know of the matter. we know nothing. a sensation of languor and debility is experienced.after a fecundatinoc copulation. conception or fecuyidation results. Preg- nancy. the act of copulation fills 2 them with is disgust. she is capable of a renewal of intercourse more speedily. by no means. as is well known. in this manner. it is supposed by some ph^'siologists. in which they can only propagate their species. and is perfectly justifiable for prevention is in- nocent.PREVENTION OF CONCEPTION. Prevention is the proper remedy in all such cases. but it is dependent upon some inappreciable modification in the female organs in the ovaries. . with strons: can resist impregnation by a muscular effort. As to the nature of the sperm and germ. or the union It is not of the two sexes. but not to the same extent and. as they please. and the rudiments of the new being are immediately constituted. and can better support its frequent repetition. health. at will . the result of copulation. in ill A woman bound wills. owing — . To man and woman. Some women. to the contact of the male sperm. A mixture having. Animals have seasons of heat. .

but to suit his fancy and answer the and his innate love of beauty. and changes forever in the e^-es and countenance with illusive 234 oil}^ . variety. raiment made with art and ingenuity. stand for the ether and unresting fire. that goes out and in. but textile fabrics must have quickly taken its place. CLEANLINESS. or dress. are prolongations of the hair. not from the milliners' cency. An eccentric. I shall discuss dress." The materials of our garments tally with its emanations. has called clothing.CHAPTER DRESS. however. . man is cast into being. COSMETICS. The linen is the cool and watery envelope of the body the cotton is the middle. with their metalline glow and ocular glancing. . the original of all garments worn by men. " the art and mystery of clothing taste. The figleaf of Eden may have been the starting-point of dress. or earthy woollen and cloth . — to weave himself raiment. fallen de- XX. the unctuous and the silks and satins. Dress. whether on the backs of animals or in a vegetable shape. but original writer. but hj^gienically. stand-point. not only to shield him against the weather. and splendor. " fal- len decency. out of the raw material ever5^where growing about him." While the lower animals are pro- vided with an unalterable vestment in which they enter into life. To quote again. demands of good — is first given in the skin.

*^°** spring. and Tyriansexes. wdth their stuffs and laces. and events. The its Persian cloth the Thibetan wool. descend from their countenances and skins. England and France. with of gold. to a certain extent. In winter. because. CLEANLINESS. they should w^ear in winter. and make dress into rank and dignity. their chromatic refractions.DRESS. China. are of the brotherhood of the eyes and face. It is equally important for them. or doubled. and thus of annulling. jta construction. or silk stuffs. purple are but scarf. stances in which they are placed. White. all it is very important that parts of the female dress should be constructed female^ ^ life. The costumes of nations. which. while they are both supple and light. Although furs are possessed of the same property. yet keep up a good degree of warmth about the person. with reference to their manner of the circum- dress. at all seasons of the year. and the prevailing temperature of the woollen stuffs. the influence of atmospheric vicissitudes. also. at times and . garments. to lessen the ments. they should make use of linen whereas in the fall and . females ought not. 235 Jewels and ornaments. air. COSMETICS. *^ Fail and spring ciotiiing. the variableness of the season requires the use of dresses that are moderately warm. they are inconvenient. with- out great care. upon leaving them off merely for a short time. In summer. •^ Lastly. the person becomes sensible to the slightest cold. or suddenly chansje number of their garthem for others less all Sudden changes of preservative against sudden changes of the weather. from their being bad conductors of caloric. times. Inasmuch as there is attached to our clothing the precious advantage of guarding the body from the immediate impression of the atmosphere. and scarlet. only continue in measured movements the infinite fabric of the weaving corium. lustre. ^rm. wadded.

A costume. and nothing behind. in — .23G DRESS. enousih not \ be larsre motion. the attire mentioned by Rabelais. which has been described as consisting of a smock. and most especially of menstruation. that in her speech.were standing together at the opera. who is an avowed satirist "We remember a of modern womankind." Not very long ago. two gentlemen . seasons. CLEANLINESS. and all below the chin was chest " but now." was the suggestive repl}^ than the feature of an exposition Dre?sof females should be loose. and a frill. etc. CO SUE TICS. also deserves It should always . and charms that were once reserved. compress the breasts. important during the act Apropos of undue exposure of the bosom in obedience to the dictates of fashion. The form of the female dress attention. and . whose ideas of decorum were such. they painfull3^ with consumption. to interfere with a . to keep the bosom and is it the arms covered. Moreover. and in consequence thereof. seems to exceed the bounds of honest liberality. or too tight. " Did you ever see anything like that?" inquired one. not to exert a compressing power on any parts of the body . a waistband. disposing them to be attacked with inflammation. and perfect freedom of -. all above the foot was ankle. with a significant glance directing the eye of his companion to the uncov" Not ered bust of a lady immediately below. a recent writer an English journal. are now made the common property of every looker-on. Exposure of the bosom. says: venerable old lady. female bosom is less a subject of a revelation . . especially when badly conmotion structed. interferes with the of the bod}^ prevents the expansion of the lungs. since I was weaned. perhaps. and resembles most. with sleeves of the same. — the corset. " nothing before.

COSMETICS.. well with ample gussets to receive the breasts. she so deforms her person as to injure the unborn babe. and fitted to the shape. on the subject of female dress. 237 But it is just. unprovided with the busk. in the ^ words of another. the nourishing before and after birth. too tight. as pregnant and lying-in women. „ arrangements of the habiliments of the female than than man. and . I will say. the child and if. 1 . inasmuch as the welfare of offspring is much more dependent upon her than upon the man. when well made. The fashion of dress is in daily fluctuation. deserve the strict attention most scrupulous attenP'*operar- tion of the female. met with in some the of the muscles. furnished besides. It should be said. when too . support to the bosom . act as causes of cancerous engorgements and indurations. habits or fashions of dress. and to cleanliness. that a corset. by indulgence in foolish . and other parts of the body. without compressing them. to state.. and. asu^^oft^' while the corset. Fre- quent changes of clean linen. of the male. and gives a useful fine. that small. ought to adapt itself to the hips. . increases the energy of the muscles on the chest and abdomen. and the bringing into the world. and not these latter to the corset. that there is much ^^ ^^^^s more nugreater necessity for the proper and healthful portant to woman .DRESS. further- more. in obviates a disposition to divide. CLEANLINESS. lends grace to the figure. a great sin must ever lie at her door. however. and prevents the escape of abdominal viscera from the cavity of the well as the deviations of the w^omb in belly. In general. and supplied with strong whalebone and a steel busk. and moderatelytight. The female has the charge. is almost always hurtful the elastic corset.

if not a corset to boot. CLEANLINESS. but they must fail a dozen powerful hooks and eyes. and she spits blood. the ingenuity of the manufacturers is constantly taxed to develope some new phases in its appear- ance. and the heart. said. — — delicate blood-vessels lining the bronchia. so common in the ranks of fashion. and to pass it through the lungs fast enough to preserve the balance of circulation. *' upon the insane adherence to fashion in our country. tender from congestion. of the throat. the lungs. is as injurious to the health of the body as to the purity of the soul.238 DRESS. why should it not be so ? It is a part of an Effect on hesbvt and lun"'3. and one is just as bad as the other. in an article on consumption. and the total want of that knowledge that would compel precautionary measreflect Tight dresses. Diseases . and thousands of the est of the fair are annually the victims of consurap- . upon the heart and lungs? These organs struggle to overcome their bonds. at least." am happy to say that this is not so much the case now. many when we years ago. American female's education to wear tight dresses and thin shoes she esteems herself. COSMETICS. resist the efforts of the muscles to raise the ribs. m-es. A medical publication of great weight and authorit}^. are the fair- necessary consequences . It is merciful she does it had better come out than remain in the substance of the lungs. if she does not do it. and the . give way here and there. as at the time the article from which I am quoting was written. as an incentive to the devotees to purchase. of four or five pounds out of the twenty a female has in her body when it is driven from her extremities by cold. The exposure of the neck and chest. — — . I temporarily degraded. "What becomes of the blood that is.

and the substance of the organ diseased. but after that. organs are placed is covered which are capable of. losing so their elasticit}'. principle that we are to learn from Nature. two parts towards which the pressure occasioned most injuriously directed portion of the bowels. Is it extraordinary that S^"'^° ^^ many cases of falling of the w. they will force other organs it. and intended for contracting and dilating. abdomen will be pressed out of more or less. turbed. 239 If the lungs have not room enough to play. There is. A fashionable ^ . therefore. and the organs of maternity. that the beauty of a pressure . Upon the point of beauty in this matter. They resist pressure to a certain extent. the whole viscera of the place. out of place.omb should occur? pair add to the weight of resistance in the abdomen from ten to thirty pounds what wonder if something give way? It would be a wonder if something did not. and dis- however. they give way and stretch. COSMETICS. will palpitate. in their efforts to obtain The moveacj^tlrfered "^^^*^^' heart. tion from this cause alone. Indeed. will its and diseased in be pressed its substance. woman cannot have : maternal organs in a state of health fore. — the womb. deprived of comfortable space for its ments. CLEANLINESS. not teach her. woman requires this for this is to pass by unheeded the great her Fashionable dress. There are. while its function of digestion will be disturbed. and be irregular in tion. all the functions appertaining to those and theremodes . fashionable A of corsets will . its down out of The stomach place by the superincumbent diaphragm. no room for the gument.DRUSS. and The by tight dress is usually the last ' cavity in which these in with muscles. we may ar- remark that the laws of beauty are the laws of nature.

of costume. and are thus left to unalloyed companionship. We see. From a^^n?Tiat to the earliest times. even when unexceptionable in material and quality. COSMETICS. or rather not to see it. proving it to be so characteristic. point out this style of dress for woman. Says Combe. must be disordered and disturbed. all alike. Drapery has ever i^P^^®^ appropriately veiled the form of woman. pliment that can be paid to a woman. and show h3^gienical knowledge as well as good taste. From the tightness with which it is made to fit on eased organs ' the upper part of the body. and consequently the than that which would result from the same dress more loosely worn. play between the dress and the skin. and a flowing garment. and modesty. CLEANLINESS. face to face. not only ble perspiration injudiciously is the insensi- but that free and hurtfully confined.240 DRESS. health. ^ '' Female dress errs in one important particular. from writings of distinguished ladies. the greatest comSOU. Oakes Smith says. . is altogether together prevented. Dress is alwaj's to be considered as secondary to the perMrs. difference of sex has diflference woman. functions of gestation. as it were. of existence will necessarily be accompanied with inconvenience and pain. parturition. debilitated and dis- S^^Sfl^ opinion and from the necessity of the case. decency. and the action of the cutaneous nerves and vessels. and lacare performed with . is to forget her dress. An uncomfortable dress is never tasteful. and not through starch and whalebone. The tation. which latter is so beneficial in gently stimulating the friction at every by movement of the body. E. that we are not incommoded by observation." The following remarks on female dress are seheat generated is less lected Quotations tinsuished writers.

the light and transparent robes of brilliant i- 'J ' Brilliant colors for youth. tricked ^ & o out in the gay robes of j^outh. always to be preferred to that of the thermometer which-. and 241 now at de- ceased ladj'-writer. although it indicates the temperature of the water. leaves to beauty J all her empire. yet does not indicate last is . with false tresses 5 and all the other artificial and factitious devices to hide the breaches of time. and thus assist nature in one of her proposed ends. The what may happen to suit the state of the bather. Nothinsf can be more revoltino.DRESS. Her robes should always be long and more ample than . to take a tepid bath at least the eflfect of it being to cleanse the promote the peripheral circulation. CLE Ay LIN ESS. River or sea bathing in the summer season most . tion in its admiration of the lovely outlines. Iso heavy orna. colors may appropriately if adorn the limbs of beauty. be thicker in substance. and of a more sober color. of youth. and they should also ^aise tresseain age. brilliant. COSMETICS. Woman. sensation neither of heat nor of cold . the In the snrino. render it supple. ^ fi^'ure. The female ought once a month . excite perspiration. it should simply be agreeable.postoes -J for different ments should load the 3'oung or distract the atten- styles of beauty. Especially the maid possesses the airy form of a Hebe. when all is lively and ^ ^ ga}^. a lightly flowing drapery is best This simple garb suited to display her charms. than asce. may take a lesson on dress. says an eccentric. The her woman of graver mien should style select apparel with reference to those of her gayer sisters of beauty. The temperature of Tepid bathg the bath ought to be so adjusted as to excite a skin. from the garments which nature puts on various seasons of the year.

except winter. of which a the attentions to cleanliness. Hip-baths. should be eschewed by females Toiiet vinegars.242 DRESS. at the . should alwaj^s be forbidden. COSMETICS. in all countries. . It is just that I should state. that all these toilet vinegars. are positively A de- and to conquer all hearts by her and in all ages. it should be made as warm is in the warm season. ex= cept under some special indication. to kuow. etc. place in the ^lic rank those that refer to the care of parts. same time.. it ought to be tepid as it . To attain this end. it is. by the Corruption of public manners. and which destructive of morals and good looks both.. these essences. the astringent compositions. lias. and thus bring on the whites . which tend to produce a congestion of the pelvic viscera. and giving them a dis- be affected with hemorrhage. who attach any importance to the preserva. Very cold water might produce inflammation of the mu- cous membrane of the vagina and uterus. fruitful . is fresh water. avoided. sire are the occasional resources of libertinism. Among Fresh water. that is. that certain preparations invented . I ought to first skilful ph3^sician is alone the fitting judge. generally agrees with the constitution of the sex . Water artificial for injecting the vagina is better than any preparation. sexual ^ The only liquid that a a ^ woman ouafht to usc for her toilet at all seasons of the ° year. to please. been one of the most powerful desires in the female beaut}'. under a variety of picturesque titles. her imagination. CLEANLINESS. breast. and all those mysterious waters that the perfumers have the talent to produce. essences.•. jj^t hlp-baths. tion of their health for them . as an article of the female toilet. moreover. In the winter season. useful . whereas the frequent employis ment of warm water position to attended with the risk of relaxing the genital organs.

the greater proportion of them. etc. who have formed them into a thousand shapes. tremors. palsy. C O S M E T I has suggested to her . compounded of metallic -... is sure to follow. etc. such as lead. ruin the of old age skin.11. are designed to embellish the skin. trans- philosophy. and amonsj others the red and the white. various means metic. the of paint. the best and most to efficacious of cosmetics. cone3^e3. the action of the . '"pour reparer des there are really arts Virreparahle outrage. will not suffice suppleness. in the first rank of Avhich is the cos- Cosinetics. 243 inventions of the : ' sort. pro- longed vigils. them may succeed in dispersing spots and some forms of cutaneous eruptions but a worse thing and are. and erysipelas."' If any cosmetics which are unattended with injurious effects upon the skin. arrest the perspiration. which. mercury. bring on tetter of Some of different sorts. antimon}^ bis- muth. etc. or restore its brilliancy lost and by the abuse of use pleasures. of the liver and the lungs. . Salivation.S. ^ — espeMostly hurtful. have fallen into the hands of a set of charlatans. arsenic. painter's colic. courtesans. AVhere fresh water.. Far from preserving the j^outhful appearance. more or less prejudicial to the health. such as the aromatic distilled waters. cially the different sorts of rouge . pimples. — cleanse the skin.DRES S. as their name shows. their These articles. at the present day. vulsions. these various preparations actually hasten the appearance they deepen the wrinkles. diseased inflamma- stomach. preparations. ill CLEA X L 1 N K S S. wlioll}^ . have been the miserable consequences produced tion of the b}'' the to application of various metallic prepara- tions the skin. and old coquettes. — are extremely hurtful abandoned to the use of players.

compose an electuary which is very suitable for whitening the teeth.^ the ladies may sucand the solar rays. of fecula.. COSMETIGB. Cleaning the teeth. or merely a little eau de colosrne. lotiou. I think it a duty. and six ounces of disThey might likewise make use tilled rose-water. with cool wine and v/ater and to do the same thing every morning with water containing a portion of some one of the liquid dentifrices we have mentioned. . the 3'olk of an Qgg. No one should clean the teeth exnor should they take cold cept with a soft brush drinks immediately after taking their food very hot. with a view to their neatness. As for the teeth. salts that certain perfumers are in the habit of mixing with them. and of. and the spirit of cochlearia. may also be very beneand the powder of Peruvian bark. ficially employed or charcoal. toilet soaps are but ill suited to preserve the soft- . and without any combination of the metallic air . removing the tartar that encrusts them. the vinous tincture of bark. or burnt bread. and all the cutaneous surfaces. The electuary ought to be used at least once a week . — A useful lotion. etc. are the best dentifrices for the preservation of the mouth. with a few grains of sal-ammoniac. a drachm of sugar. and it is right to rinse the mouth after each meal. A mixture of water and alcohol. to say that the most fashionable . the tincture of goaiacum. however. aromatic soaps. and thereby preserving them from attacks of caries. consist of pastes and flour of sweet and bitter almonds.244 D R E S S. The cosmetics prepared for the hands. prepared by cessfully employ a balsamic mixing ten drops of balsam of Mecca. incorporated with honey. taking care to get of sweet-almond ointment fresh. CLEAXLIXESS.

1 ' violet-powder. — all . ^ j^ ^ 1 • bistre for n the e3'elids. and mineral acids for the hair. donna. CLEANLINESS. that they do not fulfil the end proposed. . 1 1. which are used for dyeing the hair. she it dandruff occasionally with a brush. and perfume occa- oil. but to compare notes. ness and 245 suppleness of the skin. not only may they give rise to serious symptoms. but there is the further objection. Paint and powder are. to pa}" that homage ^ and in a verv direct " way J too.DRESS. as to what it relates to the care of the hair. that she ought to confine herself to the use of the comb . sist They mostly con- of nitrate of silver. to get hints. lastly.-. on female costume and its an English journal. of course. of lead and quick-lime. COSMETICS. rouge. grows again. and to detach the and. which enter into the composition of depilatories. to be diluted with water at the time of using them. All those metallic substances. and to engage in a sarcastic writer A morals. to wash from time to time with water should treat sionally with it . always contain an excess of at last cracks it. the first requisites for the end in view and these adjuncts have to laid on with much skill. also. be There are pearl-pow. etc. yellow-dye. in short. or preparations for removcaustic substances The ing hair. for the hair which they cause to fall. because they alkali. which vice is formerly said to have paid to virtue. in kind of friendly rivalry to vice. belladonna for the eyes. should be banished from a lady's toilet as being very dangerous articles. should be sufficient motive for rejecting their use . our modest matrons meet not to stare the strumpet down. with grace. Belia- der. white-lead and black-lead. or a mixture of sulphuret I will add. which dries and pepiiatories. 7 Modem Cosmetics. says.

COSMETICS. namely. she fixes on to a huge nest of coarse hair. is most comical. jjiay ^ be interesting to o know that the reif^rn o of golden locks and blue-white visages is drawing to a close. burn it. until the effect is to produce the aspect of a mad-woman in one of her worst Sd^means fits. frizzle it. otherwise torture in it until it has about as much as last-year's hay .* -^ poetical plij'siologist appendage of the skin cle. painted and varnished her little. anointed with phosphorus and oil for theatrical purposes. to cut the hair short in a crop. . presume. generally Baked hair. well-baked. and then to shampoo rumple it. she then proceeds. curl it. this gives an unnatural hue. j+^ Biuo-white visages. bleach it. it. Sometimes the white-lead that it is used so unsparingl}'. and tousle it. to the utter destruction of both hair and The effect of this " diaphanous " complex- ion and " aurified " hair. of course. and life it. the grass. it. CLEANLINESS. tendins!: skin. to tire her head and. to her face. own satisfaction. there is 3'et another fashion creper .246 DRESS. . which glistens until the face looks more like a death's-head. has quite a blue tint. in order to be free from the parasites abounded when it first adorned the person of some Russian or North-German peasantwith which it girl . If this style be not approved. like Jezebel. whether she has much hair or the back of it. * London Saturday Review. as it — a prolongation of the says that the hair is an cuti- were. -a rAfricaine^we When fashionable madame has. than tlie head of a Christian gentlewoman. in a person intended by nature to be dark and swarthy. WMte-lead. and that it is to be followed by bronze complexions and blue-black hair. of our skull.

CLEANLINESS. this rule Whatever shadow : is complement of their required. and energy and young. hair like down by Prolific instinctive of the Courage wire. are lank old and deca3dng tribes. COSMETICS. consisting. like the negro. clustered curls of woman catch and be-net with the cination feeling same witchery that glitters from her eyes. on one complexion. will of the hair with hot curling-tongs dries and makes the metallic combs cut it.'* red hair is the contrast in keeping with from Wilkinson. Low-browed head logic crisp . means that an intimate connection between the hair and the temperament. The emotions on the hair. every state and makes^ as free with the hair as fear itself.DRESS. self-abasement has a straight-haired it its very comb puts correspondence. clothing. and a sympathy between the hair and the mind in health and disease. comes by Q^o^tl?. like our North-American and drooping in their locks. and black hair with another. and between the hair and the nervous s^'stem. yea. the various pomatums recommended for improving the growth of the hair have no other effect than to cover it with a coat of grease. of occasionally mixed with oil or beefs marrow. "Warmth. perfumed. Life throws the hair as a substantial shadow around offers a native the principal organs. pression. The narratives of fear turning theEfTectof It is observable that there is hair white in a sinofle night are well attested. that too frequent dressina. * Wilkinson. blooded races. are woolly as sheep Indians. and I the most part. 247 beaut}''. to which contrast. forming the colored it grace. for colored tallow. hair protection. and it early turn gray . a fasfrom her smile . . — every conduction.* I ^ remind the ladies. exall.

are the most powcrful cosmetics or adorners. and that when unadorned is adorned the most. CLEANLINESS. different from what we feared before these processes were undergone. and. observe. mind Morning though the do not know how wc are in the morning. I will close this chapter with a quotation on the subject of personal cleanliness. in fine. by Wilkinson. produced which we may term materialpsychical. " is the plainalready quoted. The model and mirror of these effects is presented in our daily In washing. . in whatever seeks to . but brilliant It is one of those terms that will hardly be chained . feel dean. and blossoms into morals. COSIMETICS. Frequent ablutions wash away the sordes of our bodies. the The myscieaniiness. to a ph3^sical sense it.248 DRESS. also. whom I have " Great. or what is the promised complexion of our day. We ' This clean feeling tions. which make us an effect is rienced. as well as of the will The best mind. and between us and other things and enables us to discriminate between clean and unclean. It gives is the basis of correct percep- us self-respect. and equally great the mystery of cleanliness. and with freedom to take in what the atmosphere can yield us. that cleanliness and native elegance." he says." of vigor. we no sooner begin to treat than it buds. enable us to emanate with freedom. until our abluThe result is often quite tions have taken place. good temper and modesty. as itself — a sentiment ' new were washed in the skin. open our pores. ncss. like Aaron's rod. and which every one must have expe- washings. the graces of the body. quaint. A poet has said that real beauty is its own sufficient ornament. establishes a ring of healthy sentiment around us. ph3^siologist.

until at length. finds another specific sickness is conceived in the struggle . as a troop of angels around the bed and before the path of the faithful. he must go forth as a messenger of life and death to those about him. or aspires to 249 stay there. life places a cordon of pure upon the skin is not merely dirt. And when he ceases to transpire health. sweat). enter our feelings. This is one class of clean- physical evils.DRESS. . CLEANLINESS. by the neglected not of 3^ears alone. Dirty feeling not know dirt when it comes. In around our short. travels soulwards. On the other hand. and the maladies appear. but dirty feeling and the latter is no sooner set up than it dirt . own the . The skin is given. The purity of to the sentinel is of the greatest value this exercise of his functions. an by it. crusted over with itself (in the shape of its and and violent eruption in disease. by clogging the pores. admits a material adulteration organs. it prevents the blood from escaping outwards. it bodies. COSMETICS. system makes new terms between a part of the privileges of various itself and nature life is ceded. the body. Furthermore. For nobody can stop long in himself. among other en- ends. engendered liness. abrogates the skin functions. besides adulterating to the the feelings. and lets it pass the barrier. as a vivacious sentinel. does unclean skin. but of generations. but is bribed Hence. to prevent the trance into us of whatever is alien and impure.

or tracing it to some modification of the uterine system acting sympathetically on the general nervous system.in implanted is every individual is taken into account. the present day regard the It consists of a womb as the starting-point of the different pheV\^hich nomena constitute hj^steria. i. suffocation of the cal vapors. than by a sense of suffocation and strangulation. what 250 . There are varisome ous opinions as to the seat of hysteria placing it in the uterus. etc. by local symptoms. hysterical spasm. and accompanied by convulsive and spasmodic phenomena in the vital organs and those of relation. hj'sterivarious names by . lesion of the uterine apparatus.i.i. are some of the womb. cite But I have not space to The womb.CHAPTER XXL THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. Diseases which are of a nervous character partake. extraordinary and abnormal character.. of the myster}^ whicli wraps the nervous system. wliich are manifested less Theroproductive force. and their dismorbid phenomena of the most H3"sterics.. When the strength ^ of the reproductive lorce which . followed by more or less complete loss of consciousness. which this disease has been called. in--point of Most physicians of merely h3'pothetical opinions.i. more or less. union between the orders give rise to The nerves form the means of mind and bod}^. giving rise to par- ox3'sms devoid of fever .

exquisite nervous sensibility and ardent temperament. that through it the nerves is irradiates every part of the frame.TnE wonder that its ir ys tn n iaa l sliould u a l adv. excite all the wonderful and mysterious phenomena. The most com- mon between and the period of puberty and the cessa- tion of the menses. though it occurs both before childless after these periods. It oftenest attacks girls at the period of puberty young widows life . an effeminate moral and affection is physical education. or psychological. that enjo3^s a power equally urgent. residence Predisposins causes of hysteria. It is not remarkable. There is no other substance amongst the whole S3\stem of organs. in large cities. in t!ie impressionable female sj^stem? ovaries and 3'ct. The tar}' ^ predisposino: causes of hysteria are. then. of the hysteric malady. . idleness. so womb. that disordered and states of the reproductive modificfl organs may. and especially Avho are fat . give rise 25 to disorders especially strange attacks. when disordered by whatsoever cause. and in whom the menses are painful and irregular. a feeble constitution. heredi^ =* *^ transmission. in the female influential and diffusive is it. It a pervading vital force it is a constitutional sense. it becomes it . where it maj^ rave and rage in its caprice and fury. The exciting causes are the menstrual effort at the period of puberty. or their difficult discharge forced continence abuse of intercourse masturbation and all causes capable of producing irritation of the womb. ph3'siological.'omen . and indeed do. those near the change of and those and of a full habit. becomes excited by disease since. suppression of the menses. and there alone. . . . . whether physical. . when capable of carrying confusion into every department. v. . This great force exists in the .

252 THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. One writer has said. of a spasm of the brain. soon after. Those who are thus and irascible. violent all and sudden disappointment it. incidents or incentives. cohort of diseases. Effect of in stinctive may produce related of a A case is sympathy. paleness. and not of true hysteria. generally ex- of a very excitable temperament levity. at a boarda paroxysm of hysteria in the presence of her companions. frivolit}'^. . to another without any apparent cause. pears before the age of puberty. \yhatever the causes of hysteria. passing . hysteria are as variable as the The symptoms of causes which produce them. are truly unfortunate. really nervously diseased. of the ovaries. they are commonly marked with . ing-school. fell into young girl. hibit all the signs women affected with. feign hysterics to gain their own ends. of anger. "Women subject to hysteria. so large a number were attacked with the disease. which scarcely ever apsiderable period. . and deserving of all sympathy but there are women who These Symptoms. fright. . or predisposed to the disease. by feelings to which ma}'' be of depression and uneasiness redness of the face. latter are the worst of false pretenders. Instinctive sympathy may excite an attack in a spectator of another suffering from Violent transports of feeling. in fact. or remarkable obstinacy they are apt to be capricious from one extreme of feeling from noisy laughter to tears and sobs. but a whole Sometimes the parox3'sm atbut it is gentacks suddenly without warning erally preceded by some derangement. who. and added yawning. that powerfully excite the nerves. the malady. as to make it necessary to close the school for a con- Such attacks are the mere results of nervous sympathy. . that hj^steria is not a single disease. .

In some hysterical women. which. which cover the whole eyeball. palpitations. strike meet with dreadful falls themselves upon the head.THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. numbness 253 and cramps of the limbs. When the attack is violent. and others are unconscious until the attack is completely over. heard. after having performed A^arious circumvolutions in the cavity of the abdomen. The jaws are shut and the e3^elids. intense headache. struggles. a state of suUenness and sadness. tremors. convulsive move- ments of the limbs and trunk take place. tone. producing a sense of tightening in the throat. in spite of the efforts of the assistants. towards the stomach and thorax. and Often a period of quiet occurs. accompanied by tears and sighs. ascends chiefly on the left side. so violent as to make it difficult for several persons to hold the most delicate woman . teric When not prevented. with im- moderate laughter. produces a dread of suffocation. the senses are more acute than in a state of health. rolls. Some patients are conscious during the still spasms. bends forwards. which leads felt. and twists herself upon her bed. just as in epilepsy. bod}^. who. others for a few moments. the patient feels a sort of mysterious ball. which is stiffened. and The forcibly thrust aside any object they meet. . that passes . and some can only make signs but after the attack can describe all they have seen. is said They hear see all all that even in a low. to the right and left. quiver with rapid and continual patients . hys. At the commencement of the spasm. in very severe cases. and following the course of the oesophagus. Some of these can answer questions. which. backwards. coldness of the extremities. which alternate. and around them. tear out their hair. in certain cases.

as She sometimes remains immovathough in a state of ecstacy or somnambuthe hysteric Theendof lism. and accompanied by vomiting. the patients. When utters paroxysm . by sardonic laughter. is exhausted. which sometimes entirely blinds the sight. The pulse is hurried and painful. which is abundant and limpid. ej^es. which have something peculiar in them. air escapes from the mouth. rapid cries. the and agitated at the slightest noise or shock during the remission of the symptoms. . After each violent fit. the patient becomes conscious she opens her and deep sighs soft and plaintive moans regular. . paroxysm. a dazzling sensation of sparks before the eyes. or a kind of thick mist. of an attack. utter piercing. paroxysms arc passed but the In the severest patients are seldom deceived. which can be compared only to those of the wolf. and someafter the times by pressing desire to expel urine.254 T^^ HYSTERICAL MALADY. if we have had any experience with it. . but of the end of continues panting Generall}-. The saliva is sometimes slightly to a belief that the . alternately with sobs and tears. ful cries Most of the patients utter fright- and howls. there remains nothing but a sensation of fatigue in the limbs. from the beginning of the attack. cases. and which leads us at once to recognize the disease. froth}^ There is noise in the ears. preceded by noises in the throat. ble. the fit. vertigo. the the pulse becomes natural . These patient last symptoms are not only the forerunners it. and breathing . they also abandon themselves to immoderate laughter. and a sort of genSometimes the eral lassitude and despondency. which commonly terminates by involuntary tears. a moisture breaks on the surface finally. confu- sion.

the patients remain for a long period it immov- so much resembles. used. end of the attack.THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. the it. was holding her hand and bathing^ it with his tears. church. the that appearance of death. or the scent of quills. whose body remained for eight days giving any sign lived of life alteration. to prevent her Her movements and struggles injuring herself. in the year 1745. Let her have free air. to see the most frightful symptoms . when able. and affects the patient Loud remarks should not be made upon her state. should not be entirely hindered by confinement. * ^ the attacks are of long duration. and be made worse. old leather. who vehemently op- posed her burial. who a long time after. It is 255 more Persons arc astonished and a species of agon}'. so to speak. horn. and especiall}^ alarming than dangerous. . The patient should be made to lie down on a bed. as she may hear them. as she will be more exhausted if they are. was aroused by the sound of the bells of a neighboring whilst her husband. with her head elevated. and be made to reunfavorabl3% spire such pungent odors as acetic acid. In order to diminish the force of the attack and shorten its everything binding in the Treatment. Death-like appearance or patient. This woman. most unfortunate mistakes have resulted from There without is recorded the case of Lady or Russell. duration. give place in a few moments When to perfect calm and all the sions of health. in certain cases. as it A strait-jacket should not be is humiliating. liquid ammonia. shape of clothing must be removed which hinders breathing and circulation. at the patient. It will take at least four persons to control the when the attack is violent. disorder ceases after a single attack.

and even to the arms. full habit. recommends marriage to the hysterical female. two ounces liquid ammonia and turpentine. fruits. . A titillation of the clitoris has even been said to dissolve the paroxysm. it is . sprinkled with mustard. and some of the white meats. sliould The diet must be according to the constitution of Strong persons. or well-cooked vegetables . applied to the temples and forehead. only increase It is its violence. .256 THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. and moral means. milk. may be employ dry or stimulating frictions over the whole bod}^ and particularly the limbs and vertebral column. applied to the hypogastric region. the attack. a moderate use of ripe. that the action of theraaided peutical agents cannot be followed unless by careful diet by good results. each one ounce Sydenham's laudanum. But my space will not permit father of medicine me to enter very deeply into pharmaceutical details. A lotion of well to eight parts of water. to one of cologne or vinegar. and she will become immediately convalescent. as a general rule. thrown upon coals. The order . sufficient to But it is say that there are as many h3'sterical persons in houses of prostitution as in convents. or a liniment made of olivecamphorated alcohol and spirits of oil. or wool. cohabitation would. as an escape from the dis- and another bids the husband have connection with his wife. and that married women are more exposed than Far from calming virgins to uterine convulsions. to the thighs. with camphorated alcohol. proper to remark. of the patient. Feeble and . Dry-cups may be added and especially flax-seed poultices. be prescribed a diet consisting of thin soups. In very violent attacks. each one drachm.

This disorder is called in the There has always been great uncertainty as to its nature. . exercises and amusing reading bodily riding on horseback means for employuseful . and menstruation. domes- cares . age . . and. and in those past the critical . ing the mind pleasant society . during the fine season elling tic . especially those of the circulation. GREEN-SICKNESS. languid 257 persons should have a restorative healtliy situation . also. hereditary predisposition The predisposing causes . and derangement of most of the functions. and even prevent the hysterical malady in moral persons predisposed to it. and point of It may make its appearance in girls departure. authorities consider it a nervous aff"ection. — such are the and hygienic means which assist medicinal agents. agreeable occupations . that a diseased state seems probable of that organ may be the most common cause of it. morning and evening.THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. the age of puberty rapid and premature . and dryness of the skin . in men. of chlorosis are. sea-bathing . location. . and puffiness of the face loss of color. confined almost exclusively and. diet. in children of both sexes . who have their monthly discharges regularly in pregnant women. chlorosis. moreover. pale-greenish tint. accompanied to the female by an excess of serous or watery is This disease . finally. some pure trav- and temperate air walks in the country. general debility. Green-sickness is a disorder accompanied by a . residence in . female sex . in the . Some blood. as the it womb is de- ranged in a majority of cases. books. Finally. digestion.

growth phatic. and sighs involun. deweaken the nervous system their abuse . where there is not sufficient light. of green fruit. . the eyes are sad and lan- guishing the ej^elids. . life. the state of widowhood . and ventilation. that the color expressive of love. melancholic constitution scrofulous. veiled . or green-sickness. deprived chlorotic girl . a l^'m. want of luptuous and a sedentary. or . The excessive use of and of all vine- crude. and the melancholy which accompanies unfortunate love. grief. any circumstances which may as. disease inspires more tender interest or more touching compassion. . articles. marked by a state of habitual listlessness and the patient becomes sombre and melancholy silent . jVfo functions. even before its The approach of this disease is blossoming. Excessive fatigue. Sa3^s Ovid. . suffering. all and vo- mode of give rise to the derange- ment of the Symptoms. indigestible leads to exercise.258 THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. the lovers* is hue this is always pale. and the lazy. finally. . . weeps without cause. tarily is. sadness. which withers and droops awaj''. which constitutes chlorosis. — of the beneficent raj^s of the sun. disappointments. are encircled a blackish areola. than the state of paleness. Low. which are swollen. gar. or onanism sudden and continued suppression of the menses frequent hemorand their too great abundance rhage and. she is a flower. . it. like some delicate plant. nervous temperament the privation of the physical enjoyments of love. a feeble. pressing emotions. . the face becomes bloated it . and languor observed in a young. for example. damp situations are conducive to disorder. the poet of love. especially b}'^ in the morning. heat. the expression as were.

most depraved tastes manifest themselves. from the fact that the sanguine fluid cient in fibrine. and other equally disgusting is The appetite gradually diminishes. such they seek with as salt. plaster. pale. established . until complete disgust for food times. nose. to speak truly. while weakness. It is is soft and very compressible. ashes. is dry and is diffi- cool. and almost icy. nutritive. and the pallor of the lips skin. and grows pale . weariness. which organ is not duly stimulated it is full and well developed. and green fruits . spiders. is in excessive quantity. particularly of the the extremities. flies. a desire for sleep. because it . on the contrar}-. earth. chalk. occur. is frequent the breathing palpitations digestion is deranged. seems. however. the patients prefer the most sapid substances. the functions of the . vinegar.THE n rSTE RIC A L MA strongl}'' LA D Y. the sclerotic coat. soft. avidity indigestible substances. as well as the whole collection of symptoms. while the ingestion of food is followed 'by a . augment from day to day. As the disease progresses. . at other it is increased be3'ond meas- ure. as charcoal. and very gently impelled by the action of the heart. in The pulse some cases of chlorosis. to be small. and defi- The animal heat is diminished the lips. stomach are more and more deranged the strangest and. because the blood is waterj^. or rather for repose. she at a distance does not lose the red portion of her blood. and such as are in no way insects. but acquires more of the white than is necessary in proportion to the red. swelled. hands. 259 contrasting with the pearl-white color of . for. and all the organs situated from the centre of circulation are The young girl becomes cold. the pidse cult. though serous.

the patient all is sad. partial loss of sight. and forms spots which lose The nervous system partheir color by drjdng. pale and limpid. far from procuring repose. accompanied by the most diverse nervous disor. as in all the nervous affections. ders by colics. odd. cephalic. cervical. felt. ticipates in the general languor of the functions . the secreted fluid. sighs involuntarily. times nervous pains in the course of the oesoph- agus. Ringing in the ears. and irascible of happiness is gone. tremors of the limbs. and some- times . The tongue is generally large. . sensation of weight at the epigastrium. brings her onl}^ broken slumbers enjoyments. . and frightful dreams. and is affected with . . persist and but. especially in the morning a feeling of heat and weight in the epigastric region. vertigo. . . and indifferent to She seeks solitude. other .260 ^^^ HYSTERICAL MALADY. and in her despair she often speaks of suicide to conclude.ved b}'' vomiting. by pains in the by great depression. and weeps without cause she is often her temper is catormented by sinister ideas for her. the night. and by a kind of stupidity even. and covered with a mucous coat frequent nausea occurs. make themselves diarrhoea. longer than natural — times. and some- ^6P^3. When which is pale and watery. and extending through to the shoulders. There is is alternate costiveness The urine small in and quantity. The sexual organs an are commonly discharge abundant at leucorrhoeal is most fre- quently. all thought pricious. melancholy. separates from the napkin into two distinct portions. menstruation continues. there failure or suppression of tliey the last menses . far sufferings of the patients. the return of the is from alleviating the menses loins. and dental .

it commonly terminates by a return to health. which comes at last. in from one to two months. =* general ' ^ -^ ' extreme The fatal repugnance to all kinds of exertion. finally. surprising the patient under a complete state of marasmus. disease is not at all dansjerous in itself. and almost feebleness. and pal. which pearl-white in chlorosis. the symptoms increase in aggravation the head is the seat of severe pain. forebode approaching death. of palpitations. alteration of the features. and particularly of unnatural sounds in the arteries. . The duration of chlorosis has no fixed limit but when properly treated. . the skin assumes a greenish or earthy hue. Jaundice rosis. may readily be distinguished from chlo- i^istin^ion by the yellow color of the skin. and. even hysterical occur. the abdomen is hard and tumid thirst arises difficulty of breathing. of the sclerotic coat of the eye. peculiar palpitations in the epigastrium. When the patient can be placed in fa- . . recovered in less than twenty days. invincible stai^e of the disorder. incipient. and Treatment ^ of greenoften disappears upon a mere change of air and sickness. progress. pitations are increased fever. 261 neuralgia. faintness. and. Finally. . and by the nature of the stools and urine by the yellow tint . without shock. The regimen. and a paleTiolet color of the lips. is always by the absence of nervous symptoms. without pain. 1 LA D T. In twenty-eight cases treated by the writer. and a single case was protracted only to the thirtysecond. in some rare cases. diarrhoea. onethird Duration. symptoms When the disorder is not checked.THE TTYS T E RIC A L M . creep in. as well as hectic and the emaciation makes rapid infiltration.

and swimming in running water. the patient should be removed from exposure to cold and humidity. irritate are to be preferred to any others. A breezy situation. and moderately warm air. Pood and drink of patient. should be recommended at places. A mixture of chalybeate water with wine astringent. and promoting per- The food must consist of roast meats. she should breathe dry. with of the the view of the action capillary vessels. is the patient. Pleasant. in a sunny exposure. however strange they may seem. succory and celer}-. elevated scenery. to. . it is sur- Whatever all may have been the cause tliat has brought on chlorosis. For a time. to Flannel. recommended. Burgundy wine.262 THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. music. ripe fruits. A slightly acidu- good at other times. . of inviting the blood into them. should be Clothing. salad. and bitter and aromatic plants. Fruit. farinaceous vegetables. fresh eggs. should likewise be exciting proposed. must be respected. where the air is pure. and drink all crude articles. Boat-excursions. pure. taken choly women. and melanThe use of mineral waters. their tissue. and especially worn next and aro- matic frictions of the whole surface of the body. Exercise is should be insisted upon and when the patient too feeble to walk. a dry. are different hygienic means which will be found salutary to nervous. Clothes slightly which. prising to See the rapidity of recovery. by the nature of the skin. should be proscribed. for example. spiration. riding should be resorted invigorating to sea-bathing. alcoholic the skin. sad. at the springs. vorable hj^gienic and moral conditions. is may be used as a drink during meals. which lated is is preferable. the longings of the patient.

is now understood an irresisti- ble and insatiable desire. which I subjoin as a I very convenient and successful one. urging the woman afflicted As to the cause of this dis- . two drachms water. This metal. one . parsley. combined with sulphate of quinia. so that it may be carried with the chyle along the course of the bowels. cinchona. or associ- chlorosis. wine). regarded with in good reason as a specific green-sickness. or alone. (chalybeate chocolate. the extracts of succory. as in the following formula. It has also been prescribed in combination with saffron and aloes. quinia. or with conserve of roses. By nymphomania to the venereal act. tartrate of potash. which distract the attention from sorrowful associations. Everything that stimulates the passions and emotions too powerfully should be avoided. has a been employed ated with number of other remedies. in syrup and water. gentian. Travelling and new scenes. white wine have made a most advantageous use of citrate of iron. on account constant efficacy. rhubarb. half a drachm . that should be placed in the front rank. are excellent remedies. 263 Of of its all the therapeutical agents. absinthium. lemon-juice. ounce mix. and direct from twenty to thirty drops for This should be the dose. such as etc.THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. sulphate of fluid taken within half-an-hour after each meal. EROTOMANIA. anise. where there is a numerous and brilliant society. Sleep should not be in excess. iron is the one iron. in the disorders dependent upon an excess of serous blood : — Take of citrate of iron.

and in the latter. and sometimes in the womb and its appendages. it is a primary irritation of the organs of generation reacting sympathetically upon the brain. who have to regret frequent enjoj^'ments girls. the clitoris and the nj^mphse. the breasts and all the attributes of puberty have been developed at an earl}^ period. the disease is developed under the influence of moral causes which secondarily irritate the genital parts . which is determined by the predominance of the sanguine system. married to men whose cold and feeble constitutions seclusion of venereal pleasures to which they . The point of departure is sometimes in the brain. who have been suddenly deprived hj . are endowed with exquisite sensibility. generally attacks women of an original uterine temperament. . In the former case. public forcible had abandoned themselves to excess. and by extreme irritability Women who of the abdominal viscera. for the manifestation of which required the concurrence of the brain and the organs to which amorous sensations are referred.264 THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. Women of tliis constiare most liable to it. The affection. . Sappho their stature is small. appetite is less of the brain and This morbid fury of the venereal a disease than a is symptom. which may appear at all ages. and their complexion highly colored in them. ardent women. the better opinion seems to be that irritation it results from a simultaneous sexual organs. which are generally of uncommon length. tution have some of the characteristics of the amorous Grecian poetess of old. Young widows. their skin dark. in which part of the brain phrenologists place the seat of the animal desires and amorous propensities. and especiall}" on the cerebellum. Srder moral and pnj'sical. ^-^se.

a girl of twelve years of age. of lascivious and impasintimate sioned works the sight of licentious paintings . in which the passions are the imagination most exalted. nor remonstrances. and There are some women whose genital organs acquire such a pre- ponderance as to make it almost impossible for them to control the amorous flame that devours them. Such was the young girl of whom Buffon speaks. " I have seen. be frightful. amorous and romantic conversations communion with corrupt companions. frequent visits to balls or the theatre the too assiduous cultivation of the fine arts. especially when they inhabit warm climates. and accidental sight of ." Amonsfst the causes which act i primarily on the ^ . the attack. with a rounded neck. 265 often-repeated those sexual connection . an accession of excitement in the sensitive centre. which Yet she did not lose her reason and was carried to such a point as to . affection. prevent finally. of a bright and highly-colored complexion. a could control her in this neither the presence of her mother. ceased the moment she remained alone Causes act- with women. but already full}^ formed. are most exposed to this frightful disorder. and secondarily on the sexual organs. and who are attacked with some chronic cerebral affection. of small stature. most vivid.THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. nor punishments. . and I have regarded her as a singular phenomena. should be included all conditions capable of producing brain. — nothing action at the simple appearance of ./ mg through the brain. and of increasing the exaltation of the senses and ideas such as disappointed love concentrated . and embonpoint. perform the most indecent man . the reading . a dark brunette. .

charms for her. pleasures . silent. the clitoris and n3^mph£e inflammation I of the cervix uteri and of the ovaries. the abuse of sexual intercourse rigo of an herpetic irritation of affection. S^throu^h the uterus. that the age of pu- and that of the phj^siological cessation of the menses.266 TUB nrSTERICAL MALADY. most favorable to development of the disease which now is under consideration. or pru- the vulva . nymphse. which. but which shame comThe care which she takes pels her to conceal. are. Sometimes. solitary . labia majora. whose action is felt in the first place directly upon the womb and its appendages. clitoris. as well as the epocli of their flowing. amorous interviews. as well as the illusions of platonic love. the presence of ascarides. in order not to be distracted from which has irresistible . . and which may afterwards react sympathetically upon '^^^^ causes. by exciting the brain and the general sensibilit}^ and exalt the venereal appetite. and render her sad. exalt her imagination. may add. and vagina. bert}^. and melancholy. which are strongest at the menstruating periods. induces in the genital apparatus an excitement and itching which compel the patients are circumstances to scratch themselves to such a degree. In the beginning of the disease. by irritating the rectum. Symptoms. to hide the obscene ideas that constantly disturb her imagination. the As is equally capable of pro- regarded the abuse of what aphrodisiac remedies. as to give rise to the most violent erotic diseases. ducing nymphomania are styled liquors. or of spirituous immoderate use of aromatics and perarouse fumes. rj^|^(| the brain. and seeks solitude. She loses her appetite and sleep. the female experiences venereal desires.

makes indecent . the patient from seeking to hide her irreemploys all her address sighs. spasm of the oesophagus. and often indecent gestures finally. make it known by frequent by encour- aging finally. if termination the disease sometimes It complicated by organic disorders of the its womb and is appendages. lassitude The female experiences of the extremities. is always clear and the genital parts. which are constantly red. son of in Constantine the Great. the pulse of the nymphomaniac her face becomes redder and more animated. Marriage sometimes known to put . the thoughts with which her imagination stantly preoccupied. and irritated by handling. grinding of the teeth. she proposals. variable in quantity. that Eusebia. into furious delirium. are of some cases. died an attack of the uterine madness. sensation of itching heat in the loins and breasts the urine.hydrophobic symptoms. in is tendinof this disorder. proposals. and falls last. and sometimes even purulent discharge. burning thirst.THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. swollen. other phenomena atand. commonly are the seat of a fetid. fatiguing palpitations. her senses are obscured. cites the case of a beautiful woman the who perished in a paroxysm of is same kind. or of the ovaries. to far sistible passion. by complete forgetfulness of all modest}^ is agitated. and. Lastly. Egina likewise of Delphos. by voluptuous attitudes. . % when at the irritation reaches the highest point. hurried breathing. is 267 con- After the disorder has made some progress. wife of the well known Emperor Paul of Constantine. The fatal. she strikes and tears everything that opposes her. At the sight of one of the masculine sex. her respiration tumultuous. and a .

says trul}'-. leucorrhcaa. . patient's thoughts The course. Ovid. travelling. some herpetic affection. earlier stages of and sometimes is. sweetened with syrup of orgeat or of currants whey broths made of beets and sorrel. and application to the genital parts of cloths wet with decoction of popp3'-heads. the therapeutical means are to be applied to the brain. applications of leeches be- hind the ears. had escaped from her house and gone to a house of ill-fame. and exercise by walking. the society of men. general bleeding. caresses. When the disorder results from masturbation. in a erotic insanity.. are proper treatment. emollient and narcotic injections. The nausea . must associate only with persons of Sedative and cooling drinks. relates the case of A writer on this subject paroxysm of an Italian woman. My it. a milk and vegetable patient The her own sex. reading novels. shows. of lettuce. The treatment depends upon disease. lemonade. if the subject of the amoOf rous passion is' kept busy and employed. Camphor may be employed internally. who. must be diverted fi'om lascivious subjects. The old poet of love. because the disorder partly moral. a stop to nymphomania. are good. genital organs. etc. of cicuta. prurigo. balls. where several men satiated their passions upon her. Cupid's bow is unbent. should be avoided with the greatest care. recovered her health in the midst of their brutal Treatment. the seat of the to the Sometimes. own opinion that in the hygienic measures are better is than drugs. diet. or the pres- ence of worms. and of chicken or veal with nitre. — are useful methods of treatment.268 THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. . of henbane. for which purpose constant occupation.

to be taken in teacupful doses every 269 hour. is to be shunned. excited by one or two grains of tartar emetic in a pint of water. of treatment. in intervals of calm. and abstinence from stimulating food or drink.THE HYSTERICAL MALADY. such as titillation of advised by some authors. which is dishonored by her shameful practices. the patient should Fi- be reminded of her duty to herself and family. are indispensable. all ^^®*' A milk and vegetable diet. nally. lie the best for the patient to Hair mattress is on. . quells amorous desires. Any immoral the cli- mode toris.

particularly her geni- The order of disposition in the sexual organs of the female presents certain points of contrast. the ova are prepared the other organs are merely accessor}^. is passive. and definitive of the parts to which they English Of course. Physiologi- My readers have observed that almost all the derived names of organs used in ph3^siology and pathology both are derived from the Latin and Greek Ianguagcs. when translated into equiv.CHAPTER XXII. these learned scientific terms are obscure . will t be found mvariaol}^ ap- p t • • i i propriate designate. alent English terms. but as science is somewhat not the property of any better that its terms particular nation or countiy. and are not to be found in a large proportion of the animal king- dom. or. . from Greek -^ . as compared with man. "Throngh fatal furrow of a female field. •.-. and Latin. The essential part of tem is that in which the female generative sj^s." Swinburne. though dead. are intelligible to the educated everywhere. rather than active. the merel}^ reader. Woman. Her organization indicates her relation to man. it is from languages. which. and should be derived acted upon. THE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS. but is something uni- versal and cosmopolitan. Tliese names. 270 . tal organization..

after the manner of the The clitoris. to those of the male . male foreskin. rather inversion. or duplicatures. The former consist of the vulva and tory. Beneath. whilst is the penis which introduced during intercourse. and in some women are very elongated. consid- ered from a true physiological point of view. to within an inch of the anus. In some females they are very . mountain of Venus./ . or greater lips of the pudenda. or labia minora.(or sheath. body. named the clitoris. they exhibit a beautiful and perfectly symmetrical design of nature.) and the the vaging. the vulva and the anus is called the perinseum. of the . 271 but. Their size is by no means uniform. in English. or at the top.") is the appropriate name given to the opening which commences at the anterior part of the hairy protuberance upon the pubes. called the mons veneris^ or. womb. or more internally than these.THE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS." folding doors. into The vulva. and decrease towards the orifice of the vagina. to the receptacle in clitoris . and the elabois rate but simple process semen by which the natural virile safely conducted from its original deposi- which it is destined to animate a new and immortal being. Expanding from this on each side. . i i ^ phse. Tlie space between piidendi ^ Labia pudendi majora. are larger above than below. mucous membrane of the vulva called the n^^mThey approach each other The nymphse. The term vulva (from -yaZvce. they become thicker in the centre. . as illustrated in the adaptation of elastic the vagina to the erectile penis. constitute the internal ones. or uterus. The vulva is furnished with double membraneous folds on each side. The two exterior folds. The female organs may be divided into external and internal. enveloping a prominent and sensitive labia minora. are situated two other folds. called labia majora.

and press on each other . projecting beyond the larger labia. is formed by a cellular tissue which is thickest at its . or gland. surrounding the outside of the canal as far as the womb. The vagina. FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS. and constitution. so nearly resembling the penis as to cause the unfortunate subject to be set down as a " hermaphrodite. The canal. in connection with remarks upon such varieties of conformation as the external genitals of the female shall But I may As present . low. as it were. to the clitoris. orifice. which communicate with glands situated on its exterior surface. a foreskin to cover its point. leading to the womb is The substance of its denominated the vagina. at is the edge." It is situated at the upper part of the labia sensitive. it is very long and miniature. as in the male but in the female there is no prostate gland. and perforated by diminutive ducts. and causing great incon- venience. enfolded by the nj^mphse. is and called the conquiescent vaginal. according to differences of age. exterior orifice. not more than three or four inches in its internal sides extent. the nymphae forming. speak of this farther. which is very has no The vagina and becomes erectile during coition but The internal membrane of the urethra is a little plaited. and in others very large. or sheath. progressively diminishing this texture. . Upon a small muscle in its situated. . and bearing some resemblance to the penis in In some women. prominent.272 2"^^ small. to close the orifice. lower margin. prominent body. beneath the mucous membrane. strictor state. it is supposed by some physithe principal It is a hol- ologists that this sensitive organ is seat of sexual pleasure in the female. or lips. cli- mate.

called Jimbrim. The ovaria are placed between the folds of the The ries. The womb. flattened body. beneath the convolutions of the small intestines. shaped like a pear. • 273 but it is capable of great distension every wa}^ the length easily extending to six or eight inches under the excitement caused by the introduction of the male organ. They are about the size of a Spanish nut. which are supposed . The internal or hindmost extremity of the vagina terminates by surrounding the neck of the uterus or womb. which is desisfned for the lod":ment ^ ^ of the foetus from the period of conception until delivery. called ovaries. expands without diminishing the thickness of its sides. ova- broad ligaments. from the cavity of the uterus at each angle. behind the bladder. smooth prominence. symmetrical organ. and extending in a horizontal direction. containing fifteen or twenty Graafian vesicles. or uterus. It is a thick. with a hard. called the os tinccet having a transverse opening in the centre to the cavity of the uterus. having a diminished cavity in its unimpregnated state. which.THE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS. is a hollow. The Fallopian tubes laterally are two soft canals. and is attached inferiorly to the vagina. which are generally hovering over the small oval masses. when impregnated. tough. and uniting with the male . Th® womb. as they are termed. similar to an inverted pyr- amid compressed. with fingers at each end. It is placed in the pelvic excavation. in front of the rectum. however. to be grasped by the fimbriae in coition then to pass down the tube. ^ passing: The Faiioo ^ pian tubes. which protrudes an inverted bottle. These extremities are formed like the palm of the hand. into it in the shape of Ostincae.

In males. silentl}?life. in the male. to the penis. anus. uniting with them at the blad- der . in the female. the spermatic cord . allowing for the between projection and reception. The supply these organs with sensation have connection with the great sympathetic nerve. and to the gland and here it is an important aid to erectile and clitoris . matic cord. in either sexual pursuing her great object of repro- ducing and perpetuating the generations of mankind. the the in fe- corresponding cord of nerves follows artery in its : spermatic distribution in to the ovaries and womb. that. the l3^mphatics from the direc- womb and From the vagina also follow the same tion. going to the muscles of the anus and perinseum. descends with the vessels to the testicle males. semen. Here the analogy between the reproductive agencies in the different sexes is exemplified in an interesting manner. . and with those that issue from the spinal marrow." for its destination in the womb. and join the lumbar glands. The lymphatic nerves also furnish an example. Others (in the male) pass up from the seminal vessels. it Again the pudic nerve in the female. be seen. Nature works by an analogous process system. or " lifethis it will difference seed. of the same . to form the nucleus of the nerves that foetus. and for the important operation of secreting and preparing in the male organs the semen. In males.274 THE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGAXS. whilst. they pass up in sets from the testicle They accompany the sperand its coverings. forming several trunks. joining those of the lower extremity. sends branches to the vulva. action. it accompanies the artery name.

and are also of a firmer texture than at soft au}^ other period. but acquires a brownish and violitceous hue in such as have been the frequent subjects of coition. the beyond the level nymphse generally ^J^"^™" of the labia in young In the commence- virgins. like the soft. mucous mem- brane of the labia. in which respect they differ from those of women who have borne children. At birth. they grow flaccid. particularly after child-birth. from being firm. Meigs thinks it dijfncult to imagine any other foundation In T^® ^*^|^ for the above assertion than the imagination. •• ' . English. and who have had . and more southern i o climates. Per contra. In married women. and of a larger At the age of pubert}^ they are in mutual contact. although they are more prominent. Dr.1 "w-omen. the partssexual ]n sexual parts are found a little hio-her up. many project children. The mucous membrane that lines the interior sur- face is of a lively red in the virgin. ment. and containing a more abundant and elastic cellular tissue. than in cold and damp countries. these organs later are not so near together as at a period. in the Scottish.THE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS. but they again be- come salient in child-bearers. below. in Spaniards and Italians. the labia are thicker above than females. young females. or violet-col- . in front. and. losing become form and evenness. and of a rosaceous hue. size. erectile. the labia conceal them. turn brown. and Dutch women. Thus. In early life. latter are known to have the labia of a more rounded form. and pendulous. ' 275 '^'^® Colombat asserts that in southern climates. relatively. closing the genital fissure. and the labia their original ^^^^^^'5^. the vulva is not so directly in front and the womb is lower down than in French women of the southern The departments.

J^J?i^^°^" and^Persi women. their upper extremity. Le Vaillant. but of the labia themselves. by their unfolding in labor. known as the Hottentot apron. the nymphae being forced backwards into the vaghia. they contribute It is supposed. ored.^liic]j is tot apron. Several distinguished naturalists have spoken of a very The Hotten. that. considerable elongation of the -^ ' njanphse. says that this hideous conformation. and offer a greater variety of appearances than the labia do in different races and climates. Most of the accoucheurs suppose that their use consists in furnishing. in some of them. The uses of the nymphae are Se^nym-"^ P^^' The ancients conferred stood. is not an elongation of the nymphse. the celebrated Dutch traveller in Southern Africa. in allusion to the fabulous nymphs who presided over springs and fountains. . but little under- upon them the name of n3'mph8e. that it is removed by means of the excision of the swollen part. which surrounds the clitoris as a fore- drawn forwards and downwards. according to his account. as they are en- dowed with the highest sensibility. It has also been said.276 TEE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGAyS. grow to the length of eight or nine inches. this sort of fleshy apron of the Hottentots. Amono. is . they grow so very large as to obstruct the entrance. so as to compel the clitoris to touch the dorsum penis. and which seems to be a conformation natural to the Bosjesman women of Southern Africa. the Turkish and Persian women. to augment the sexual excitement. and constitute a disorder so disgusting. which occasions a much more intense erotic sensaskin. the nym^^^ ^^'^ naturally much more prominent than in European or American women and. which. more material for the distension of the external parts. that during the act of copulation.

If.THE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS. and which ture penis. ^ . on the other The upper tall lip . The clitoris soon ceases to increase in size. who prefer the kind of occupations generally devolved upon men alone. . illicit and are said even to be fond of the ment of other females. ° the knowled(^e of which is of much importance to ' Varieties of conformation in the vagina. This state of a case. the frequency of a to conception in a direct ratio to the intenseness it is of the erotic excitement in the sexual act. the practitioner. and at puberty is commonly four or relatively five lines lono. much importance in surger}^. in consequence of their sensitive endowments. are bearded fact. ' women are to Women in whom the be met with. in whom the clitoris is six inches lono. Such women commonly have very small breasts hand. which has been compared to the uvula. it a considerable resemblance to the of great length. and is observed in women of a very masculine character. ^ But in a few cases. appear to be the principal seats of the erotic excitations. and chin and. greatly developed. but the muscular and pilous systems are. in they are of stature seem to belong really to neither of the sexes. consideration of respect. as has already been obgenerally gives rise to a suspicion of hermaphrodism. both the clitoris and nymphse. the tube is .. tals. In the virgin state. tion. which. clitoris is which gives male organ. served. There are varieties of conformation in the vaccina. as far as possible. is is like a minia- much larger at birth. . than at any other period. 277 Like the the clitoris other parts of the external geniis found to be the subject of differences which are worthy of mention. enjoy- as is generall}^^ is believed. This exquisitely sensitive point.

In such cases. This as membranous fold. is sometimes found to be several lines in In childhood. by a mem- partially closed. however for. The vulvar orifice. and only at puberty that it Thehymen. from rupture by the violence offered it. by its thickness and elasticity.278 TIIE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS. brane called the hymen. in its posterior part. which is correctly regarded one of the best signs of virginity. and polished vaginal orifice. thickness. Examples of this sort are very rare. it is torn constitute certain Notwithstanding the great moral importance attached to the integrity of the hymen. long over-passed that critical period. which. many persons. youno. this membrane forms a it is semilunar fold. is. As the sex- ual organs at this age have no functions to they become atrophied . in an immense majority of cases. sometimes found to exist in 3^oung persons who have ceased to be virgins. whitish. it has been preserved. of the vasrina. becomes smooth. so contracted as scarcely to admit little finger. and especially in such as have fulfil. although ordinarily very thin. the change of life. which in j o & marriageable girls is| not very dilatable. instead of being a supple and easily dilatable ring. nevertheless. of the introduction of the . . becomes hard and resisting. assumes a circular form in some instances. there are cases met with in practice in which the surgeon is compelled to destroy the membrane. and in . the hymen is ruptured at the first sexual approaches. the vagina contracts its mucous coat. is much orifice ' The vulvar in more so its women who have borne children while dilatation is almost nothing in women arrived at . and the fragments into which small fleshy eminences. which was soft and full of pleats in the youth.

faults Most of these some disease tain affecting the individual. measures * from twenty-six to twentj^-eight lines in length.THE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS. only a single ovary has been found. the womb higher up than in those In cold and moist in countries such as have had no children the . adhesion. but especially in virgins. in very tall women. occlusion. Being retained in the its place by very lax ligaments. consisting in their absence. and yet differ continues to exercise . either before or after her birth. ' ments. of dis- womb. in which it remained in . without being itself the subject ease. in which the neck of the womb womb alone existed and others. or upon shape. connection. . they have been found closed in some instances. while all Faulty conformation of sexual organs. In some rare cases. and absence of. The height of the womb in the pelvis may SitioS?" according to the stature of different women. near the ovary in others. The Fallopian tubes have been found . their some peculiarity of the constitution of the individual. In 279 '^\®^^°^^ subject to dispiace- women who have had no ^ children. or in warm is . with one tube and half There may be absence of the ovaries. to have contracted adhesions with the peritoneum in some rare cases. others. the other sexual organs are in a natural condition. and depend upon some arrest or aberration in the law of their development. near to Cases are on record of absence of the the womb. narrowness. latitudes. or those in whom physical conditions I have stated are absent. in women climate. The records of the science con- no instance of complete absence of all the internal genital organs. voluminousness. The sexual organs of females are subject to vices of form. all its functions. of a womb. . Thus. . ' from the top of the fundus to the os tincce. is readily subject to displacements. the ' womb. .

the not covered with hair. is .280 TEE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS. It has been known to open into the rectum. The womb has also been found divided into two equal or unequal portions. Internally or externally. and that in the same case. but it generally remains undis- covered Curious case. in on record in the each of whom the womb was not larger than it is in a child nine or ten years old. — it may be wholly or partially wanting or the exterthat. the age of pubert}^. Such a case constitute what is called a double uterus. like the natural uterus of a quadruped. or two-horned uterus. womb . does not compromise those quences. and gives rise to the most serious conseIt may be wanting in its upper or middle and not communicate with the womb. Faulty or deficiency va^^'ina. prevents the escape of the menses. There an account of a girl who conceived by the rectum. affected with it . each of them opening by an os uteri into a separate vagina. But this deformity. Or. were both moderately fat. has been so very little developed as are to render utterly unfit to perform its functions. it may be perfectl}^ divided into two separate wombs. Double uterus. either entirely or partially. at nal orifice may be closed by a membrane. portion. which is always complicated with imperforation of the vulva. till the menstrual discharge taking place in the rectum causes its existence to be discovered. of. that the It has womb it happened but very rarely indeed. Specimens of faulty formation of the vagina are as frequent!}'" met with as those of the . and the other external genitals They mons veneris was presented the same character as are observed in childhood. The cases of two women books. the rudimental state. and was brought to bed without any other accident than the rupture of the sphincter-ani-muscle.

such as the womb. either individually or alike. the sym. thies of the uterus with other parts of the body. the S3^mpathy with the brain is perfectlj'- evident. quire enormous size or the external genitals may be wholly wanting. when its desires are unsated. and a temperament independent of the general conposed that stitution. wanders about within the body. Of course. do. . or vagina. with the breasts by the decided coinci. becond.Sympathy of the dence which is observed at puberty in their growth womb with the breasts in the development of the genitals.ciently manifest by the qualms the strange appetites the nausea and vomiting and certain hysterical afl'ections observable in some pregnant persons . ' -^ . that obeys no reason but which. Third. or some disease of the womb itself. pathy of the womb with the stomach is rendered sufl9. . sup- was endowed with a special existence.^Jies^o?the J[^™ ^f the ancients. who were ignorant of the sympa. ac. or may be co-adhesive either by a single point of contact or throughout. properly a cage. : The sympabetween the — ' . it The}^ thought that the body. womb is a wild beast." thies and the connection that exist womb and all the other organs may be made manifest by the following phenomena First. enjoyed the faculty of movwhile the latter could not ing in any direction. and the first ap. and of affecting any organ to which it might proceed it exert upon the smallest influence.and stomach. Plato says "that the .THE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS. . the all 281 labia. and ^ pearance of the monthly flow. and in those who have irregular menses. speaking. in certain cases. and excites all sorts of irregular motions. involves barrenness as a matter of course. ' . The clitoris.brain. the absence of any of the principal genital organs. and the nymphse. The ancients. should be regarded merely as within which the womb .

headache. or and a variety of other phenomena. on account of the same organ and its S3anpathies. the sensation often a child or a lover excited in genital organs part of the body when imprints a kiss upon the lips.. have their it greatly strengthened? that imagination is much more gent . or. they wish to bite persons are prompted become maniacs. man must ever in vain seek to lift veil that shrouds the impenetrable secrets of nature. the indigestion . ? The change in the voice in puberty and at the close of the menstrual period of life the alteration of the voice sometimes met with in pregnancy. or that that they exhibit they become symptoms of insanity less intelli. . or merely touches any . rest of the body and lab}^- organs which compose would be to enter a rinth of theories easier to imagine than to unravel. that. and other felt in symptoms the energy different stages of pregnancy . of acetic acid. Any that researches made in this direction would up the cer- tainly tend only to prove. An attempt to explain the causes of the great influence of the womb upon the it. still more conclusive!}'. imparted to the womb in labor by the inhalation . that . woman is what she is and that woman suffers every disease in a twofold manner. cruel.282 THE FE MA LE SE X UAL ORG A N S. lose their memory . etc. the application of cold to the bell}'' . on the other. they really love or to homicidal acts lose their reason etc. thievish. lively. by frictions with alcoholic liquors. compose a mass of proofs capable of establishing the sympathies that exist between the womb and all the other organs and prove the accurac}'' of the saying of Von Helmont. on the one hand. colic. whom . ringing in the ears. on account of the womb alone. both physiological and pathological. toothache. Do we not find that pregnant women. tain affections of the womb . and in cer. .

impregnation might not may occur. in other words. for. take place in a natural manner. first is The '^wo kinds of natural barrenness. which are perfectly natural. and. I mean inability. and upon and. conditions of fecundation. perfect competency to interexist. be effected. 1 have intercourse. "Wothat which exists in . were the impediment to due intercourse entirely removed. to -If. •/»! impotence. causes 01. There are two kinds of barrenness. Sterility is ver}^ much more common than impotence in the female. BARRENNESS. and even than impotence in the male. may be defined to be an incapacity any woman to conceive notwithstanding copulation may. A woman prevent may be impotent. The causes of impotence 283 in the . impregnation course may take place as regards the latter condition. but not sterile. in her case.the privation term impotence.CHAPTER Barrenness XXIII. . and yet conception may never She ma}^ also be both impotent and sterile or. intercourse.. and be accompanied with all the apparent in . young girls previous and the second takes place in women who have passed beyond the change of life. as respects the former condition. vice versa. to puberty men giving suck are very apt to be barren. its removal. • By . sufficient to state of the sexual organs may yet. . a exist. through or malformation of the sexual parts.

to tion of the vagina was said have existed in the Adhesions of the labia or lips. Congenital narrowness. Joan of Arc.284 fenicale BARREN'N'ESS. after the age of puberty I have seen several these adhesions. or partition. In a child examined after death. sions of the sides of the vagina. where. upon dissection. and firmness. They . or narrowness of the vagina dating back to birth. has been observed in a very few instances. . and the passage the became enContrac- progress of pregnancy. instances of duration. . impregnation occurred. or of the labia and the termination of the passage abruptly in a cul-de-sac. from inflammation or becoming first remarkably the passage contracted. There is a case recorded. in consequence of inflammation. . as almost to prevent the passage of the urine There are cases recorded. y o no doubt that one or more of the different . parts forming the female organs may be wanting.h such instances are rare. so complete. J there is Althouo. no trace of genital organs peculiar to either sex was found. externally in the soft parts Absence of parts. of various extent. An impervious vagina may be caused by changes irritation. celebrated -^ "^ labia pudendi are not unfrequent in children. The division of the canal by a septum. an impervious state of the vagina. and then obliterated altogether. or internally. the womb and vagina were found to constitute one solid mass. larged in In one or two of these. has been met with in Firm adhesions of the ^ very few cases only. without any cavity in either. absence of this canal altogether remarkable constrictions of it the division of it by a septum running downward from a double uterus adheare. however. are rare in females but they have been met with in some cases. of obstruction by a .

When the It w^anting. or entire obstruction of the OS uteri. thickened course. gen. notwith- standing: these difficulLies. womb . erally incapacitate for sexual intercourse although pregnancy has Sterilitj'' happened in rare cases. or of both. The tubes may be either partially or alto- gether obliterated. closing up or occlusion of the Fallopian tubes.^^^^4°^ causes of. Ming: of womb. from tumors in its substance cavity. 285 These obstructions may be im• puted to adhesions long previously formed. or in some part of the passage. or of the ovaria. may proceed from absence of the womb. or mouth of the disease of both ovaria. and from The mouth of the womb may be completely obstructed by the agglutination. from narrowness. womb is may also ^^^. or falling of the and thus be a cause of impotence. tumors. or attached to its from potypl neck from the . or . or adhesion of their fimbriated extremities to adjoining parts. rather than to an unusually firm hymen. cancer of the vagina or uterus. . in consequence of the extension of inflammatory action to them from the womb. either internally or externall}^ The openings of the Fallopian tubes may be also closed b}' a membrane. the vagina is usually short. which have afterwards taken an organized or membraneous state.BARE E y y E s s. A hj^men. may prevent inter- not a permanent cause. strong membrane at the entrance. or sticking together. and extreme brevity of the vagina. or by an albuminous exudation from the internal surface of the womb. prolapsus of the vagina. of its sides. retroversion of the uterus. proceed from a scirrhous or hardened state of this organ in its . however. although Complete prolapsus uteri. or by a false membrane stretched across it.

Delayed. Al- though tumors developed in the body or neck of the womb. but there are others. and yet. jet instances have occurred in which conception has nevertheThese are. the patient may conceive and bear a child at its full time. and polypi attached to its internal surface. after its removal. or whites. womb or of its appendages etc. it may be removed upon the disappearance of its cause. because til prevents the retention of the the ovum units it has undergone the changes necessarj^ to attachment to womb. A tumor or polypus may be formed on the internal surface of the womb. dis- on the part of the female. various other contingent changes. which .286 BARREXNESS. conceived. females have. too profuse . sterility must necessarily follow. retained./ jr admit of removal. or too frequent and difficult menstruation constant profuse leucorrhoea. or suppressed menstruation frequently occasions 1 • 1 barrenness. either favoring or pre- . productive of perThe abovc causes are mostly x manent barrenness*. or ma}^ not. however. or the whites. affections of the like. Temporary causes of barrenness. and abortion has alwa3^s occurred during the early months. proceeding from local relaxation or general debility. obstructed. disgust. adjoining parts. inflammatory . When these alterations extend to both tubes. generally prevent pregnancy. less taken place. When barrenness de- pends upon leucorrhoea. or These are. pre. however. or concurring circumstances. menstruation. is is Profuse or frequent menstruation j^Qj^ a more com- cause of barrenness than it generally supposed. Some who have never had the monthly flow vent pregnancy . chiefl}^. very rare. Obstructed menstruation. and the mere suppression or obstruction of the cataraenia may.

There are other causes of temporary barrenness. supaphrodisiac properties. Among 3'et most common are too frequent. and in modern both. aphrodisi^*'^- and savage. but influence also depend much upon other circumstances. the inefficient . and yet have inclination^ had children from a second marriage. have not conceived. will prevent pregnancy inference . or prop- posed to possess is erties exciting the sexual appetite. in the main. by females of all ranks in society.BARRENNESS. Numerous instances have occurred of fe- males. or sup- pression of the orgasm or thrill of sensual enjo}^- ment. yet their is correct. venting this result. rarely experiencing. riages general ill health. these. light upon certain of the fact. are sometimes deceived in this respect. other temcauses. merel}^ feign pleasure. and the community gen- . or after relinquishing -promiscuous intercourse. and although they This is J°^|J[t^®°^® coition. causes that of this many of this and particularly the class have had children after marriage. too early marsexual intercourse . the removal of impotence and barrenness. worn-out The prematurely aged. having been obliged to marry against ^laffi"^ their inclinations. by the use of heating substances. has been. semi-civilized. that indifference during the venereal act. and in countries civilized. will Difficult 287 is menstruation its some- times a cause of barrenness. and frequently attempted. In ancient times. It is generally understood. some state . connected with perhaps. who. thrown barrenness prostitutes have. and who. whose embraces are merely venal. tion of the female organs. one of the principal causes of the barrenness of prostitutes. debauchees. or inability to conceive. and weakness or exhausowing to premature or Various circumstances in pJogj^^^gJ* too frequent excitement. at most.

oysters. may be employed as being. unless . as in cases where the sexual function has not been restored after exhausting and depressing diseases.. in which may be proper to prescribe some of these as stimulating and restorative but others of them ought to be employed with extreme caution.ysi^^ effects they produce. spices. when they produce more commonly injurious than beneficial. caviare. etc. often employ substances which are reputed possess these properties. tlie hot ginseng. ambergris.. in BARRENNESS. truffles.. or shell-fish. but the medicines are prescribed. her- rings recentl}^ pickled. castor. has Circumstances may . some to parts. as ' pigeons' eggs. The poet Pope. vanilla. in his tale of January and Ma}^. are supposed to possess aphrodisiac virtues and a diet consisting a similar repute. that the prolonged. aromatics. are Their effects ]\j. etc. phosphorus. Ksempfer states that a combination of musk. and aromatics. phosphorus. etc. saffron. oysters. arise. as an aphrodisiac and I believe that it is not without some degree of efficac3^ But it is very obvious. and borax. .288 erally. the under certain circumstances which may occur to require them. coffee. particularly cantharides. opium. in the form of small pills. or too frequent recourse to . ambergris. least. Certain articles of food. particularly raw eggs. etc. to be resortcd to. The nostrums said to possess the virtues in question ought not Pigeons' eggs. borax. it chiefly of fish. especially in China." But the an}^. opium. speaks of " Cantharides that fire the lazy blood. are much employed by the Chinese and Japanese. injurious. Japan. cantharides. at less that harmless . Africa. heating better.

or the salt- water douche on the loins. or . these 289 and similar substances is most injurious. whites. Contractions of the vagina. tional. or by a morbidly striction or thick hj^men. is generally pro- ductive of impotence and barrenness. recommended. and even con- narrowness of the mouth of the womb. frequently also removed.! to the funcless some are hopeyet a few of them may be deficiencies. both morally and physicalh'. For females. either Yet. lesions. The barrenness of females must be treated with . of health}^ occupations. ma}^ be remedied. or part. a stopping up of the entrance of the vagina by adhesions of the labia or lips. an imperfection only. ^^ °^®^ * strict reference to causes. and remediless assisted by art. falling of the womb or vagina. either temporarily or permanently'.BARREN X E S S. In cases of organic difficult}^. occasioning inability in the male. be of great service. essentia. in either sex. the shower-bath. or barrenness in the female. tion of generation. or practices. and the use of the chalyand early hours. estimated. and disease of one or more of these organs. and inflammatory states of may be severally remedied and although barrenness may not be always. difficult or painful menstruation. and abstemiousness. is of chalybeate or other tonic mineral air. the will cold salt-water bath. attention should be given to the digestive and uterine functions beates. with exercise. of The importance of should be dul}^ a due regulation of the mind. . and . as well as males. Absence of an organ. . uterine potypi. springs. it will be the uterus. or by a false membrane. When it is chiefly funcb}' and induced by exhaustion. as far as they may be noxious ascertained or inferred.

as to temperament. yet the mental as well as phj'sical imbecility that the often characterizes them. from moral and functional causes. third. that women who abuse more^com"^^^^^^ class . when incapable of procreation. Barrenness seems to be more common in hot. . are more A want of consonance properly termed impotent. continue to be without offspring. There is no doubt. . moreover. is it the woman who is generally in fault. those which proceed from disuse. which. the causes of it. The abuse of baths and of venereal pleasures are. between it is hardl}^ proper to apply the Masculine women apt to be also. those which from excessive mental and physical excite- ment. is far It more common is. perhaps. empirics. not without some show of reason. a constitution in the female that resembles too „ 1 . . brings them more frequently in the hands of pretenders. those which depend upon second. such as we observe in tall women with small mammae. of proper age. very subject to barren7 » monin ness women than men. are. . and quacks.1 closel}'^ that of the male. . first. The cases which proceed be from these causes may arranged exhaustion into. like the of i^rostitutes. arise and. too violent causes infecunditv in marriage ^ ^ and too frequently repeated transports as well as . . . althougli they require the most scientific and judicious treatment. who. coarse voice. in women than among men. strong. barren.2gQ ^^^ BARRENNESS. Cases of inability and barrenness. are the most common. than In those of the qualified practitioner. and. or breasts. that when a couple. . and who are covered . Perhaps word barrenness to men. husband and wife. and brown skin. j these pleasures. . than in temperate and high northern latitudes. or an imperfect exertion of the function. therefore.

even such as mani- fest the greatest indifference for their husband's who have been very fat. Though certain women have been known not to have been impregnated by one husband. yet without any change of husbands ? Anne of Austria gave birth to Louis renness the first . Henry it Is not also known that women. Hippocrates. on the other hand. married ten years to her husband.fruitful ^ ^ women. do they are fat and flesh}^ too not menstruate well ardent or too cold in love. after she had been II. or had been in the lethargy of the profoundest narcotism ? There are no certain sisrus by which to distinsruish No signs to ° ^ distinguash a barren from a fruitful woman.BARRENNESS. and are troubled with the whites and with headache. we meet with fruitful women of all the various temperaments . that a woman shall be sterile for a certain time only. and that many women have become pregnant after being several years married. is it not often the case. in. deed. unfruitful women are pallid. with hairs in 291 of places usually destitute them. while we also observe a great many barren ones who . or ing the least voluntary part in the genital act. ought we to count for nothing the greater generative power of the last husband? And. of dark complexion. inasmuch as they had been surprised by force. '^ . with the womb He adds that.. are there not many who become mothers without takembraces. after twenty-two years of barand Catherine de Medicis brought forth one of her ten children. remarks that fruitful women are small. besides. The fact is. neither contracted nor too low. dry. menstruating freely that they have welldeveloped and projecting breasts. could j'et impregnated by the embraces of men of age be and temperament the most various? Further. . XIV.

and moment when the mouth when the organ has the Excessive ardor. we might advise the frequenting of the ball- . celer}^. recommend country air. we might recommend a coitus more ferarum^ in acnot a disease. ardor in the genital act ness. In fine.^aters. eggs. we might and stimulating baths. baths. that nonfecunclation depends upon an inclination. sago. and particularly upon an ante version of the womb. or insensibility to the ardors of sexual inter- course. and to put an end to the sterility of Queen Catherine de Medicis. If it be supposed that an excessive degree of greatest action. tonic for a substantia] diet. amount of cure of. w^ould be proper in all cases to recommend the sexual approach just before and after the menstrual discharge. where the woman is of a lymphatic and cold constitution. mushrooms. containing a tea- spoonful of lime-water to CA^ery cupful. This is is the of the When the womb is most apt for conception. It was by giving to Henry II. and cooling drinks. especially sea baths.. If rarum.292 BARRENNESS. it Further. etc. and especially the use of cold milk. walks and journe3'S could not but be useful. barrenness is Intercourse more fe- we suppose in a case. and remains indifferent to the conjugal caress. Lymphatic In contrary circumstances. enjoy the most perfect health and the most regular conformation . strictly speaking. chocolate. Long temperaments. the counsel previously imagined for such cases by Hippocrates. womb open. light food. it is the cause of the barren- might be useful to prescribe an emollient regimen. that Fernel was so fortunate as to procure for France a dauphin. a cure of sterility cordance with the advice of Lucretius. for. a glass of generous wine. that is. where there exists a complete state of anaphro- disia. likewise. and chalybeate and sulphurous v. a and is therefore most apt for conception. sometimes. The patient would be the better.

Meigs prefaces his account of this singular case with the recommendation that marriage should be postponed until after the appearance of the monthly discharge. and even the reading of romances 293 and other works of a somewhat amorous character. ' •^ attempts ^ Excessiveir fiit women. and presents all the exterior apsence of the womb. from *^® womb. or nutmeg. Dr. aged twenty-two and a half years. The following this opinion . that the genital organs may and yet the womb apparently be all be wanting. he says. and to reanimate the action of the womb. was married to her present husband more than two years ago. acidulous. but has a certain emhonpointf a good . the venereal and to milky. but the existence of the amorous proMrs. and cooling Where the barrenness may be supposed from ex^' of venereal indulgence. as showing. Where the female is excessively fat. saffron. external right. there breasts. Meigs. of a fair complexion. ' to arise from excess parties ought to be separated for some time. cite it is sufficient to confirm and I the more willingly. In women of too strong a constitution. This case illustrates the fact. pensity. iJ^^^^isence. pearances of a person in perfect health. balm. case. She is of middling stature. might be made to add to the energy of the entire system. by prescribing the internal use of mint. the theatre. or at least learn more moderation as to their sensual gratifications. aloes. not only that coincidently with the ab- may be well-formed and external organs of generation. to a half-diet. or . room. mammae. She is not fat. Dr. drinks. Before closing the present chapter. I will quote A ^^^® *^^» an account of a woman who was wombless. recourse should be had to venesection. to tepid baths.BARREN^NESS.

perfect. that some unknown cause acted as an impediment to the congress. or any organ that might be contained within but as all the tissues were ductile the cavitj^ . and the os magnum and of a natural appearance . in length. was sought. medical advice with the expectation (of her friends) that the marriage would be followed by the eruption of the catamenia. has ease slie . well developed. as well as the clitoris.294 figure. but the vagina was a inches. not more than two probably less than that. Upon press- ing the point of the finger against the bottom of seemed to have no connection with any part above it. I explored with it the excavation of the pelvis. however. I requested the lady to lie upon her back. at the period of the marriage. and the puden- dum amply supplied with hair . mere cul-de-sac. the mons Veneris the labia and nymphse. and introducing an index-finger as far as it possible into the rectum. perfect development of the sexpresent. after more than two years of concealment. all the phenomena of a ual system were office. and she was married. indeed. . and. and most agreeable expression of countenance. as she did not menstruate at the sa^'S followed in the treatment of the case. he consulted me upon the subject. She is. The mammae were. the cul-de-sac. in order to discover any tu- mor. and That treatment proved unsuccessful. I . except the menstrual The husband found. BARRENNESS. found the external organs perfectly formed large . proper period. suffered pain or any severe attack of disthat. indeed. An opportunity being allowed me of making a full investigation in the presence of her mother. She has never menstruated and a very feminine . a handnor some woman.

or amorous feeling. even though the uterus had never been evolved in her way readily constitution. The aphrodisiac sense. in a conscientious discharge of duty. Having. in this lady is very strong. I began to suspect that there Therefore. which might well be the case where the ovaria are fully developed. by the most careful exploration. . or I must it. in manner discovered the unfortunate state of the young lady. which I could . laying the fingers of the left hand upon the lowest part of the hypogaster. the was accompanied with all the appearance of that violent distress and agitation that might naturally flow from such unhappy circumstances. 1 felt obliged. and pressing them firmly towards the finger that was used in exploring the internal parts. so near was the approximation of this finger of the riorht to those of the left hand. and very yielding. as to that 295 make it perfectly clear there felt have the was no womb in the case.BARRENNESS. to I did in the best tell her the whole truth. misfht be no womb at all in the case. and yet. as may be knowledge of her situation supposed. I found that they could be brought so near to each other.

The scientific name signifies simply a white flow. it has been remarked the menstrual blood. Without regarding inflammation as the sole cause of leucorrhcea. in Latin . in G-reek and in English. . and upon the whole surface and lining memwomb and vagina. we may safely assert. .CHAPTER XXI Y. as a principal and constant character. regarded as slight fluor albus. at present. ordinarily precedes the appearance of the monthly and that when this latter evacuation is turns irregular. sistence* and of variable shades and conis Though it generally agreed. leucorrJioea. whites. that leucorrhcea has its immediate source follicles the Leucorrhoea and menses. more or less white in color. It is a disease which has been observed Definition of whites. from the remotest antiquity. it has. that a serous fluid. This disease the is known as the Jluor albus. or running. various circumstances would make it appear probable that the leucorrhceal discharge may also be formed in part by a serous exhalation from the vessels that secrete In fact. escaping from the vulva in uncertain quantity. WHITES. that whatever be the origin of this affection. which 296 brane of the . an unusual secretion of mucous fluid. in Source of. and has been called by as many names almost as there are authorities who have treated of it. it alternates with a leucorrhcea.

are large. is ^^^l^^ll^lf of* developed under the influence of so many causes. who are completely free In large Although this affection makes its appearance particularly from the first approach of men^^°® struation up to the period of its cessation. I myself have had occasion to observe several examples of it early in life. delicate hair. that there are few women. that the appearance of the menstrual discharge commonly stops whites. who.®^^ o^* cessation of the flowers. by the remark. on the other hand. increases in proportion as the sanguine discharge less . positive facts and without them. and . Though women with a brown skin and black hair are not exempt from it. only six is free from it.WHITES. have whites. slight. nervous. in this condition. that the final same thing often occurs in them at the inti. no age ^^^^^ Girls have been met with. cities. are wanting .JjJ^™^*. We moreover often see suppression of the menses and we kno\y replaced by a salutary leucorrhoea that women. and in those with red and such as have the skin covered with stains. that whites may have its origin in any of the sources that I have just mentioned. Though the mate connection of these two discharges can be rendered still more evident. . It is met with more frequently in females who . suffer less injurious results from suppression. Unfortunately. it may be proved. or in either one of them at a time. A cold ^^^tlp^ri' and moist climate. fair. there remain only leucorrhoea conjectures and uncertainty. ^^^J^"""^' 1^^^^^ t<^ ^^' hysterical. who were attacked v/ith it from it. and prolonged residence in low ^^uve of. 297 is abundant and vice versa. or eight years of age. in such pla-ces. it is rather incident to those who are of the opposite temperament.

ablutions too often repeated. Causes of disease in Thus. in large cities. and the abuse of warm baths . whether . the premature shock of the genital organs . late dancing. and of preparations of milk. . — indigestible. that give imagination . . new activity to the . The mode of cities delivers life which women lead them over. marshy situations. frivolous occupations and the study of the arts. shell-fish farinaceous substances. against the numerous causes of the chronic inflam- mations of the utero-vaginal mucous membrane. which. of purgatives.298 WHITES. solitary pleasures the concentration of the senti. large cities. same is true of the too frequent use of salt meat and fish. so to speak. reading of love stories the perni- cious establishment of an early and artificial pubert}^ . and the frequenting of places where everything hours. react Womb. of emmenagogues. centre of morbid action in female. a sedentary the constant contact of the two sexes. more particularly upon the sensibility of the womb. defenceless. are particularly apt to produce in large leucorrhcea. that organ in the female being not only the most apt — to lend itself to fluxionary Kind of diet productive of it. a number of vicious habits and excesses of all kinds. . spiced dishes . movements. finally. inspires pleasure . organs in a sort of permanent excitement. ments and thoughts on objects which keep the genital. beer. idleness. but likewise the centre towards which all the diseased actions seem principally to ten-d. The use of tea and coflee may also contribute a the good deal to the production of leucorrhcea. — may be cited as causes of the life. by causing changes more or less serious in the general constitution. or too succulent . disease.

seton the The suppression ^ * oian issue. wet- whom or the simple fact of having the arms uncov- ting feet. or sudden fright. of the supthe striking in of diarrhoea. . in perspira^ ' tion. accounts. lad}'. A young suddenly arise. There are some women. also. disappearance likewise so of a pulmonary catarrh. we often see it pathy of. such as a cautery. that general or partial perspiration of the feet. under the influence of some vivid emotion. de- rangements of the monthly turns failure of lactation weakness of the gastric system the sudden . cutaneous eruption affection . or twenty-three years old. or . the sudden cessation of excretions. of hemorrhoidal discharges. was suddenly inundated with a leucorrhoeal" discharge. of puration of an old ulcer. and armpits. anger. to a certain degree. However it may be. for the development or augmentation of the affection which engages our thoughts in consequence of a moral disorder. or any all other disease of the mucous membranes. seeing an only daughter on the point of being torn from her by brain-fever. Sudden i X ^ 1 stoppage of hands. . of wetting the feet. and owing her own safety to chance merely. is sufficient to give rise mediately to a flow of whites. effect of. amongst others. to range 299 llie among causes of leucorrhcea. or sitting upon a cold almost imSuppression damp •^ seat. having seen her lover killed by some soldiers during a revolutionary outgirl. or the a retrocession of any and. ered. lastl^^. become increased where it already exists. or a blister. break. whether natural or of artificial. some profound disappointment. A Instances. etc. It is necessary. suppression of habitual vomiting. . some tormenting chagrin.The brain and organs ofgenera- gans of generation. of an exutory. are many The close sympathy between the brain and or. of the skin or joints.WHITES. causes of leucorrhcea.

been knov/n to prevail epidemically. and may be white. soon increases. thicker. The patient feels dull pain in the hypogaster . as the spots on her linen during the monthly flow are 3^ellow or greenish. groins. damp weather. the urine is frequently accompanied with some difficulty and a feeling of uneasy and painful heat. or sanguineous. and sometimes even with a feverish movement. Subacute leucorrhoea. there is not unfrequently conjoined with hysterical at these diff'erent strangulation The discharacter of. serous. by adding that it has Whites Bometimes epidemic. of a milky character. diag- and period thus being developed by entirely opposite conditions of the atmosphere. . Finally. clear. I shall conclude what I have to say upon the causes of the disorder. under certain states of the atmosphere. and The voiding of sometimes by venereal desires. was immediately attacked with profuse fluor albus. Epidemic leucorrhoea has been particularly observed during cold and . The discharge. that the female is compelled to guard herself. begins with slight pruritus or itching. which opens with inflam- matory symptoms. and give it a starched stiffExploration by the usual means reveals to us ness. sensations of heat and weight in the pelvic cavity She is tormented by frequent desire to urinate. also during a drought of excessive heat. draggings in the loins. becomes and presents a color which is variable. which is at small in quantity. which is at first confined to the vulva. symptoms a sensation of and spasmodic oppression first the upper part of the thorax. yellow. but soon extends itself to the vasfina and vv^omb.800 WHITES. Subacute leucorrhoea. and thighs. — . especially if it follows hemorrhage of the womb. Finally. or The secretion is sometimes so abundant greenish.

equally frequent in women whose with the genital organs are relaxed by excessive labor or ordinarily excessive the venery. lips are pale. amenorrhoea. Passive chronic leucorrhoea. depend' Peculiar appearance ing on debility of the organs of generation or of ofciiroiiithe sfeneral constitution. and sometimes even is womb excoriated or slightly ulcerated. the eyelids are often swollen. the e3'es surrounded by a dark areola. that the mucous membrane of the os tineas and vagina is swollen. women and in cold those of a and is it is for this reason that the in- much more common It and moist regions. The chronic leucoris discharge resulting from this form met with chiefly in lymphatic loose fibre firmity is . doughy. a corrhoeai a ° o women. but may even depend rhoeal primarily upon a state of general relaxation or local debility. all and an expression of to their whole languor in the features gives air appearance an of dejection. although succeeding often to the subacute form. more dilated than in its normal state finall}'. ' ir- generally have a peculiar appearance. which nition of the disease may help to enlighten the physician and lead to a recog. and seeming to enjoy good health. without presenting any inflammatory character. Women afflicted with chronic leucorrhoea. more inflamed and sensitive than usual the that the neck of . . — the face and finally. It co-exists green-sickness. may not only exist ^^^onic leucorrhoea. that all 301 the organs of generation are redder. cause. . althousfh possessino. and may be effect.WHITES. vermilion tint. or index of a state of general debility and relaxation. Essential chronic leucorrhoea is never accompanied by signs of irritation of the genital organs the period of the attack is almost alwa3^s unknown.

it A mere inconvenience. and which are trayed by sensations of weight about the rectum and bladder. hardly stains the linen When small in commonly mucous. the leucorrhoea be abundant. it of whej^ If. consistence. no matter what the cause which may have produced its progress is very irregular. vary in different cases. from its color. stiffens the linen. but be- these lesions of situation. and is flocculent and . which increase the in- conveniences of leucorrhoea. whitish. or of a milky nature. sufficient resemblance to milk. and or vicious falling womb . the color. very similar to that produced by mucous discharge from the nose. deepest at its edges. to the so-called to have attracted credence milk on Under these circumstances. . is not unfrequently. which are easily prevented or dispelled by lotions and local bathings. and consistence. it escapes from the vulva in sufficient quantity to keep the external and the upper part of the thighs constantly wet. and has scarcely any odor. and quantity of the discharge. and the color is on the contrary. when and leaves a grayish spot. and to produce slight excoriations and superficial inflammations of those parts. like that sometimes bears diseases. and it is then a mere inconvenience. that the affection inclination of the complicated with relaxation of the vagina. which attention to cleanliness prevents from becoming . and. at other times. discharge. the mucous discharge is commonly lactescent. As happens in the acute form. are rather the quantit}^ the discharge is effects than the causes of fluor albus properly so called. genitals It happens. and its duration unlimited. Effect linen. its amount is often very slight. the dried. Sometimes the secretion has more consistence.302 WHITES. too disagreeable .

When the discharge is constant. they perspire but in the they complain of unusual heat . and especially when J of long standino^. frequent yawning and hiccough the skin is cool. nauseous vomitings. the paleness soon passes away gayety and the functions of the stomach. ' i. of vague sensations of of pains in the epigastrium. exhaustion and sapping of the con- . excessive coldness of the feet left occa- under the breast. and they weep without cause become careless. symptoms returns as .WHITES. headache. — in . fine. it alwaj'^s occasions certain lesions. and hypogastric regions. hj'pochondriacal. or ceases entirely . are listless. change . when abundant. Whatever be its color and con° '^ even clieese-like ^ 303 "^^en abundant afd of long standing. the leucorrhoeal discharge diminishes. of the heart sional pains . a sensation of strangling and choking. When menstruation becomes reestablished in cases of amenorrhoea and greensickness. disappear all the nervous . palpitation . sistence. impatient. the eyes hollow. and at the same time increase their languor and exhaustion. never exhibit the happy physiognomy charof the sex. profuse. return to their natural condition. and of from depraved appetite. and are often tormented by acteristic amorous desires which drive them into vicious Bad moral effect. from sourness of the stomach. and an involuntary sadness they pale. the face becomes . weariness . or in- juries of the functions. the}^ melancholy'. and of long standing. — with it. as well . head of dizziness of S3mcope. They J^^"atient sensitive to the little . habits. and feel a sort of the}^ languor and dejection. least atmospheric . the general health. and suffer . and a great number of sympathetic phenomena. The patients complain of weight in the lumbar colic.

. after all having destro^^ed Confounding syphilitic that lends a charm to life. together with hectic as fever. eructions. them. at times. and especially in the neighborhood of urinary passage. in the loins. and whicli seems to attract to itself the sources of all the other excretions. It is possible to confound with essential leu- discharges corrhoea. situated the .304 stitution. and of pains along the. difficult to distinguish Benjamin Bell placed the seat of S3qDhilitic . and from obstinate costiveness she is subject to nausea. WHITES. moral debility and settled despair. burden. and in small quantity. are soon found to be the unfortunate Extreme caso of wliites and necessary results of this discharge. floceulent. her faculties become enfeebled. she unfitted for reproduction as is much by her indifference . The skin now becomes more and more discolored the emaciation increases the flesh becomes loose the breasts are soft the pulse small and frequent. discharges in the canal of the urethra corrhoea is while leu- supposed to be seated in the vagina and uterus. or parts below the bell}^ She is tormented with constant thirst. exhaust the few remains of strength. which never ceases. life Renders a When leucorrhoea reaches this degree of severity. and acid vomitings the urine is turbid. The patient complains of almost continual colic. and thus to cause a drain upon the whole system. and it is. and in the lacunae. discharges which depend upon a syphi- with whites. . . and the breath bad the eyelids become bloated the legs are always cold and the whole body sometimes becomes cedematous. . and h3'pogastric regions. . by the disgust which she inspires finall}^. vertebral column. . the appetite is lost she suffers from habitual pain in the stomach. the patient acquires a disgust and indifference for everything. . hips. litic taint.

may likewise lead to error. The age. properly so called. In venereal discharges. and discriminate . and also by the sensation of heat and smartinor while urinatinoj. S^^philitic discbarges are accompanied with pain. having the appearance of scales from the mucous membrane. and does not stick to the fingers it reddens litmus paper. thick. of true leucorrhoea is . whilst leucorrhoea may become so irritatins: as to communicate an acute blennorrhaofia. discharge ril06£ll discharges. or Upon being interrogated. or pus. there is always a certain Difference ^ of venereal amount of purulent matter. the moral character of the patient. and all of whom were supposed to have the fluor albus. And the microscope The discloses infusory animals in this matter. are not calculated to better from for daily experience shows leucorrhoeal discharges possible to cohabit with a woman having that it is a syphilitic discharge. cine supplies no certain sign by which to distinguish gonorrlioeal discharges from whites. transmission by sexual intercourse. are not 305 But these symptoms upon which a positive opinion as to the nature of the out. mixed with the and leucor^ proper mucous of the vagina. and seems to be composed of little oval bodies. disease can be safely made and its The contagious property of the discharge. Finall^^ it never contains the infusory animalcules found onlj" in S3^philitic . they disclosed whites.WHITES. between the nympbos. creamy. which is said never to be present in leucorrboea. the whom was only nine years old. syphilitic the antecedents. medifected by some vicious domestics. is The eldest case of three little girls recorded. without contracting the same disease. of enough to show that they had been venereally inIn fact.

the applicathe intervening of another disease from the excessive use of quack remedies. . . finally. an emunctor}^. If the discharge proceed from cancer. besides. I do not mean to affirm that a sudden suppression of a discharge of long standing can occur without inconvenience. In general. the gerous is its sudden suppression. temperament and. I believe to be greatly exao-orerated. finall}^. the more danHowever. the duration of the discliarge. The more abundant the secretion. the complications. the less the chances of cure advanced age. its quantit}^. the victims of this disit is gusting infirmity may be sure. . which does not occur in the contrary case. and . or vagina. the progress of the disease to arrest. a pol}'pous tumor. If it seem to be hereditary and constitutional. as the use of astringents. — in women of with scrofula. or. which is Still. of purgatives. the hj^gienic condition in which she may be placed. the strength of the female. and. number of disorders which are likely to follow such a suppression. an abscess. of emetics. Of one thinoj. or any other organic affection of the womb touch. if it be complicated . cold baths. it is almost always incurable. finally.306 discharges WHITES. ammonia gives it a slimy and ropy consistence when it is mixed with pus. the fact can be ascertained by The prognosis of leucorrhoea depends upon the cause. of^whitS^*^^ is difficult The suppression of the leucorrhoeal discharge ma}^ take place suddenly. taken internally or applied to the genital organs tion of ice. that not in the nature of beneficial to health. or drain. her age. the older the discharge. from the action of different physical causes. A true cure of whites can only be effected gradually.

in bleedings. made by means of a large. which acts by lessening the fluxmovement.and of full subacute habit. mucilaginous. and the female youno. canula. disease should be attended to itself. we ought. introduced into the vagina. holes. most cases. near its termination. into a chronic and passive form of the disease. or gum-elastic canula. either as a derivative. by which to withdraw and renew be necessary. and acidulated drinks . we might often produce weakness. and emollient and opiate injections the same nature. with a ribbon attached to it. and especially decoctions of hemp-seed with nitre enemata. In the subacute form. I in^ treatment. 307 to its normal to ^"5J . . being pierced with a great number of it. curved . contains a small sponge. or ionar}^ .WHITES. general bleedings. irritating effect of a jet of the To avoid the fluid. medicated I employ a tin. and continuous poultices of irrigations. and which. it . especially . elude a more or less strict abstinence . by restoring the system generally condition of health. are erate •^ sufficient of themselves to modpief^tic ' or entirely remove the inflammation. Amono: the measures which serve to increase the Small ^ general effect of small. instead of diminishing the general susceptibility. however. quences. if disease be recent. if left may lead to unfortunate moral consethe Treatment form. and run the risk of turning a subacute leucorrhaea. which tends to localize itself upon the genital mucous membrane. to employ bleeding with prudence and care else. emulsions . the end of which. as often as may If the local inflammatory symptoms refuse to yield to the measures now in- . diluent. to resort to general bleeding. It is necessfxry. It is all-important that the because.

In spite of the careful employment of the curativc means enumerated. purgatives must be used. which the skill of the first physician of Rome had failed to relieve. It very speedily cured the wife of Boethius. so to speak. which is. should the disease prove ofieeches^^ leeches about the margin of the anus. and by proper attention to hygiene. by the use of purgatives. we may have recourse to applications of be hemorrhoids. To "^ this purpose. and particularly of cinchona. efforts The regimen should be directed on the same prin- . efficacv of ° of rhubarb in small doses. When leucorrhcea becomes chronic and passive.308 clicated. is at the same time purgative. cinchona. and frictions over the whole surface of the body. that Galen owed the brilliant success which spread his renown even to the palace of Marcus Aurelius. at one and the same time. diuretics. such as rhubarb. The patient eo-operate with physician. and giving tone to the various functions which are in a more or less — — perverted condition. Galen's method. which tonic. by reconstituting. also. but the whole sj^stem is to be modified and restored to its normal condition. The object we must then seek. or to the vulva. it is not a mere local alteration that we have to treat. unless he be seconded by the patient. This celebrated physician of ancient times. was to the application of this derivative method. in cases Finally. experience Gentian and j^as shown the orentian. acts as a ino^ which tonic. leucorrhoea often resists the of the physician. Rhubarb. the cause and effect of the general and local debility. by interrupt- the habit of the discharge. WHITES. is to dry up a morbid discharge. suffering from a profuse leucorrhoea. and perhaps. and astringent. very obstinate. especially if there of amenorrhoea.

respect the critical discharges. overcome certain without carrying it to fatigue . which means have been known to dispel a chronic leucorrhoea very speedily. Prudence demands that we should wait until their and that we should also influence is no longer felt . ^ The patient must use ' all her endeavors to mid t habit must be overcomo. proach of the first will dispose her to take food. it should be fortif3dng. as far as possible. and flannel next to the skin ought to be recommended. without being irritating the clothing must be warm. life. which are frequently the chief and unknown cause of her sad and disgusting malady. has again appeared at the approach of winter. and besides. I should advise a . of which they are the substitutes. and the critical age or change of are so many causes which should not be rashly interfered with. a relapse. on reason and the nature were resorted to. especially in the summer season. which." '"' WHITES. in a pure and healthy air. that is to sa}'. and then more abundant and more I shall conclude by saying that the apsubstantial. at first light menstruation. 309 ciples as the medicines. is a sketch of some of the resources of . if a of bolder and more energetic curative treatment always based. and illicit habits. however. except where persists after the primary affection . of the disease medicine in leucorrhoeal discharges — — . by means of an the use of saline purgatives. or on returning to the city. residence in the country. for fear of recalling the disease. the treatment which would doubtless be more successful. issue we must always take and by Such the precaution to prevent. is It it not proper to cure leucorrhoea. She should compel herself to take muscular exinclinations ercise. as this course and of easy digestion. however. the pregnant state.

and susceptible. material. domestic and improper diet love the artificial and stimulating life of great chagrin cities sudden transports of joy or sorrow the morbid emotions excited by the reading of current novels in fact. . . I may remark. all the violent passions. ESPECIALLY FALLING OF THE WOMB. unfavorable to health . made and all in the female are reflected . produce a prompt reaction upon both the physical and moral nature of the female. illicit enjoyments jealousy . live in a state melanchol3% restless. — Effect of diseases of The first effect of diseases of the womb is to TTomb. organs are more subject to disease than the male tion ease thau the male. that the female sexual . every disregard of such as an insadisappointed . . She becomes sad. the laws of health and every circumstance. because the female's share in the act of reproducis vastly greater than that of the male. a luxurious . withdraw fi'om society.CHAPTER XXY. DISEASES OF THE WOMB. or rush into 310 . moral . imposes upon her organs of generation a most painAs the womb is an organ upon which ful function. lubrious climate excitements and commotions of . most of the impressions. the centre of impressions. both physical and moral. and every all these are detrimental species of mental shock to the womb and the causes of uterine disease. with forebodings of ill. . Why female saxual organs are more subject to dis- In general. kinds . and The womb. . and troubled Those who of opulence. .

the limits of a single chapter are inadequate to a thorough and exhausting discussion of subjects so extensive. incomplete development of the womb. being but loosely supported within the pelvis by means of its liga- . in its natural state. which in fact cover the whole ground of the sexual pathology of woman. excesclitoris. whether sexual dating back to birth or accidental of the sive . The womb.DISEASES OF THE WOMB.. the Yortex of company. with their sufferings. congenital occlu- sion or closing up of its neck. rendering sexual union impossible. from a sentiment of false delicac}^ they per- mit to become so aggravated. etc. diseases of the womb. or extremely perilous. Of course. therefore. The present chapter. such as polypous. accidental d'Isere classifies all the above diseases under the head of lesions of form and development. as if evil 311 to escape from an it. fungous or syphilitic excresences. and that the malady. imperforation of the vagina. development of the congenital opening of the vagina into the rectum or bladder. I have adopted. which keeps even pace uteri. and pregnane}''. etc. will be little more than an enumeration and perfunctory definition of the diseases in question. I have briefly noticed the . unhappily too those particu- beyond the reach of art who are attacked with erotomania of the cervix soon find that their beauty and freshness are gone. Colombat or lips. such as absence womb. that often gets lar I3' it . that they fear without understanding and which. cohesion of the labia development of any substance filling up the vagina. In another chapter. as the caption or topic of the present chapter. both wrinkles and fades them. Faults of form and diseases of females which comprise all cases of development of faulty conformation of the sexual organs.

scientifically. parts.312 DISEASES OF THE WOMB. they are the more worthy of of medicine. portions of the genital apparatus. and in women. Where the displacements are slight. consequently^ said that of the monthly turns. or with the viscera contained in the cavity of the abdomen. becomes also a disturbing cause as to the surrounding and may prevent the womb itself from such fulfilling some of its appropriate functions which require consideras pregnancy and labor. liable to a A^ariety of displacements and mS^oftii ^^^^^^5 i^ genitodeviations that affect its relations with the other urinary organs. has jugal state. Displacement of sexual jj^ i]j^[q respect. and in common parlance. as likely to result in in- convenience or accidents that get beyond the reach Although too great mobility of the womb is attended with numerous bad effects. » organs m virgins more rare for the displacement of the sexual organs is much ^ ^ niore rare in virgins and barren women. whom the womb does not con- tinue always empt}^. raerel}^ enumerating the other lesions of . I shall devote myself principally to an account of this displacement. who regarded an absolute celibacy (or abstinence from sexual union) as one of the principal causes of derangement and. . the father of medicine is in error i 7 . able changes of its situation. the}^ scarcely occasion inconvenience to the patient. state of Hippocrates. if to a considerable degree. thosc wlio are married and who have children. Sewomlf What is called. attention. than in ^ than marTied women. therefore. engorgement in the con- of the womb. falling of the womb. its immobility. Jiysteroptosis. are less subject than virgins to disorders of that organ. and. but when they are considerable and permanent. is by far the most common displacement or lesion of situation of that organ .

it projects more or less considerably into the vagina. also. the In this variety of prolapsus. In the first degree. and the vagina two-thirds of it is completely filled up . which is merely variety of prolapsus. in whom it is rare. and may be seen completely in the latter case. as were the finger of a glove. the womb settles down into the middle of the vagina. but does not descend below the inferior fetrait. is . tirely In the former case. which it enlarges. as soon as the finger is withdrawn. in order to make a lodgment for itself therein. which but a slight affection. or falling. Falling of the womb may . the small size and lightness of the organ. contrary. because of the tightness of the womb JJ^^S vagina and surrounding parts. The second degree of prolapsus. and by too long to. take place. but also while the for it has been met is not pregnant even in virgins. while are turned inside out. the neck of is womb easily touched. is In this kind of displacement.DISEASES OF THE WOMB. There are three degrees or varieties of this displacement. a depression or incipient falling. not only during pregnancy and after delivery. unless the womb has if it The projection may be easily raised grown to the walls of the vagina. but that ought to be speedily attended complain of dull pain in the groins they also complain of a sense of weight in the fundament. the patients a walk. and probably. whicli ma}'' be complete or incom- plete. the womb escapes en- from the pelvis. on= the outside of the vulva . and a pressure that becomes more painful by long standing on the feet. 313 Falling of the womb is a displacement of it downwards. situation. but it falls down again. upwards by the finger. because of with.

the act of oeneration has been known to be consummated in tlie very cavity of the womb itself. produced b}^ the pressure of the womb upon the its bladder and rectum. incomplete descent of the An . in which els and bladder. and particularly polypus of the womb. serious mistake. with severe peritonitis. In- complete descent of the womb may be confounded with elongation of the neck of the womb. this may be avoided.aM DISEASES OF THE WOMB. whereas their violence is redoubled by standing When the second degree of disand walking. and particularly by rest in the horizontal posture. ligaments. By is bearing in womb of the always easily mind that falling of the reducible. placement takes place suddenl}^ it is frequently accompanied with long fits of fainting. in a standing posit is because the falling is then greater than in the it may even examination should not The wholly disappear. so that surgeons have been known to extirpate the womb itself. so do not occasion such attacks of sickness. fungous tumors of the neck. and that polypus confusion womb is not. or by the stretching of Second variety. The patient must be examined ture. then all fal- of the womb becomes the symptoms caused by the compression of the blad- . prevent conception. and it pregnancy followed. when they mistakenly supposed that they were going to extirpate polypus. The symptoms are diminished by rest. floodings. womb does not In a complete case of falling womb. and sometimes When it comes on slowly. where protruded beyond the labia. vomiting. and A. severe pain in the pelvis. ling Whenever an incomplete complete. take place until after an evacuation of the bow- horizontal position. the organs get used to the unnatural position.

and procure more abundant alms. and the tumor either strangulated. body of the womb has passed out beyond the vulva and the whole organ. oval. giving rise to another swelling of greater or less size. the bladder. is projects outside eight. but also appendages. and fills up the whole orifice of the vulva. The distance is to which the womb to six. prolapsus. and by the constant friction of the thighs and dress. or persons of ambiguous sex. in even ten inches some cases. intestines. but most commonly. copious hemorrhage the tumor that with' it constitutes. has dragged down in In this variety. or globe-shaped. it is in the shape of a cone. filled with the convolutions of the small of the rectum. becomes inflamed. its fall. . on record. which keeps them always open and apart. whose labia seem lengthened by the presence of a foreign body. who. had imitated a falling of the womb by means of a bladder. in order to excite pity. der and out ^IQ the rectum immediately diminish. and evacuation of urine and by stool take place withdifficulty. which prevents the reduction of the womb itself. and gives rise to . irritated from being always wet urine. and a portion The displacement of these organs soon forms a cul-de-sac (or passage without an exit). the entire J'^^-^e^^f . which its is inverted. wholly Girls thus aflaicted have or partially gangrenous. that the womb thus displaced be- comes aff'ected with violent pain. It sometimes happens. or equal. which is seen movable and suspended between the woman's thighs. excoriated. passed for hermaphrodites. half filled with air and begrimed with case of a is The woman . and indeed. not only the vagina.DISEASES OF THE WOMB.

abortion. For the most companied Attitude of patient. sec. part.SIG DISEASES OF THE WOMB. to position. so as to have the pelvis somewhat higher than her head. etc. the descent greater. of sexual jolting in intercourse . restore womb to its natural The patient lies upon her back. to prevent the recurrence of the displacement. tlie and pressure on the lower belly by a in dress carriage . and violent exercise shortly after confinement. is An exciting cause posing being too much on the feet. When is left to nature alone. and the attending circumstances more disadvantageous. or who have attached to it. ond. stage. and and violent labor- also exciting causes. the physician the always to increase alwaj^s . blood. straining at . singing. — are dancing. a falling of the its womb maj^ soon become quite incurable. passing the urine in coughing. stool or in vomiting . especially in women who have been delivered while standing up. riding on horseback. walking too much. are is impotent. Displacements of the womb are most frequent and easy to be brought about in the first days that follow child-birth. Repeated pregnancy is a predisposing cause the abuse scirrhous tumors formed in the womb . and can only suggest palliations. pains. Exciting risen too soon after l^dng-in. for tendency and the chances of success more unfavorable. as the case is of longer date. and skating . Treatment. falling is in the first or second where the and unacthe by any complication. sneezing. . Where complications become too great. to reorgan in its natural situation and.. it is an easy matter. place the There are two kinds of treatment first. chronic leucorrhcea. which she adjusted by means of a sponge and introduced within the vagina. and the womb is gently .

which they attached a string. or. than it is among the the itself. Dr. Meigs. . or inversion of the organ. for the purpose of extracting it when necessary. either to maintain the reduction of a hernia in the part. with lect. cut in a proper form. pushed by the introduction of two its 317 fingers. leaves of plants. the lint. oil. finall}''. who can enjoy The neither health nor comfort without the aid of artificial supporters of the genito-urinar^^ organs. There are cases of women who have concealed it. whom it has fallen mostly into negor linen. — to. pessary should be anointed with Pessaries are made of a piece of cork.DISEASES OF THE WOMB. injections Cold the astringent reduction. while admitting that great abuses are to be scription met with in the pre- and use of a great this instrument. the sufferings of the a patient increase daily and a simple depression and. effect conceal disgusting and painful infirmity from the notice of the physician. There is an instrument designed to be placed in the vagina. most commonly and deviation of The use of the pessary in the treatment of displacements was much more frequent among the ancients. or to prevent the falling in. what the case. if unattended . soon becomes a positive falling. and even to an advanced age. without any very serious symptoms but ordinarily. towards proper place in the cavity of the pelvis. to prevent the falling is p^g^ry. affirms that there are many women. womb moderns. «sty. to The ancients made the pessary of wool. Others are made . should be used after No to feeling of false delicacy should lead this women ^^^^^' f^j^gQ^^^^j. becomes aggravated . complete case of prolapsus in the third degree. and repeatedly dipped in melted wax. the malady. rolled.

troflexion. retroversion. Such artificial helps excite irritation and are ate liable to corrosion. and ovaries. arising from contusions. The vasfina is ex- posed to rupture erations during labor. a wound. the disproportion between of the two sexes. elevation. are exposed to contusions. obliquity. inversion. The external sexual veneris. erations. or a silver globe. wounds. silver. wit. of glass. whether the organs the violence has been especially whether she done to a virgin still girl. namely. etc. Ruptiu-eof The perineum frequently ruptured by child- neam. ante version. birth. the hernias of the womb and There are diseases of the external and internal organs of the Wounds and female. My limited space will only allow me to enumer- by name the other displacements of the womb. severe in proportion to the resistance the female has made. or a blow from the first attempts at sexual intercourse or from the efl'ects of criminal copulation. 11 and the and • lac- accidental introduc- . and 1 r. and lacerations which may result either from a fall. and imall mobility.3i8 DISEASES OF THE WOMB. blown into convenient size and form . anteflexion. . and also to lacand perforations produced b}' wounding . the mons and perineum. but much more frequently when the woman is delivered without assistance. of this organ . and others are metallic. . The disorders depending upon the latter cause are the more labia majora. re- namelj". and after awkward attempts Rupture of at delivery with the forceps. after imprudent operations. lacerations Of the or. and be far from her is full development. which takes place sometimes in the most natural labors. 1 fistulas. wounds.1 -I tion of foreisjn bodies into the cavities of these to organs. gold-washed. hysterocele. the parts.

being intro- duced into the vagina criminally. A whole class of diseases. There are cases recorded of young women who have been ruptured bodies or in this way. are treated of in this work in chapters specially devoted to them. Vital and ©^^es. and hysteria. syphilitic excresences. or in cases of nymphomania to produce a titillation. ^7efj^°° bodies in vagina. to which the female genital organs are subjected. These are functional be devoted to disorders. 319 on the first night of marriage. or diseases or lesions and sympathetic phenomena produced by conception. cases recorded of a pomatum-pot. able and rarely injured When empty. narcotics. venereal chancres. very by external violence or wounding '^^ bodies. .DISEASES OF THE WOMB. arise from deepseated inflammations. The presence of foreign bodies in the vagina causes more or less violent inflammation. and lactation. foul discharges. labor. tumors. cancer of the etc. womb being movis concealed in the pelvic cavity. genital organs. or through idiocy or childish curiosity. severe pain.. hectic fever. a and other foreign bodies. fungus. etc. by external violence. Dis- eases of the female arising from derangements of menstruation or the monthly flow. After extracting such bodies. There are needle-case. pregnancy. with fatal the consequences. encysted tumors. A separate chapter will what Colombat denominates lesions relative to reproduction. and local blood-letting are resorted to. warm bathing. and womb. nymphomania. dropsy of the ovary. ulceration. and antispasmodics. and from chlorosis or green-sickness. hydatids breast or spurious pregnancies.

DISEASES OF PREGNANCY."^ sympathetic phenomena of conception.CHAPTER XXYI. first. labor. If I have succeeded in popularizing the physiology and pathology of the sexual organs. pregnane}' The author's aim. minute work.*" But the writer aims rather at a comprehensive. pop- ular treatise for the general reader. in producing the present work on the physi- ology and pathology of the female genital organs. the reader should not False preg- and perplexed by prolixity of discussion and technical details. in which. and barrenness. or miscarriage. than at a purel}^ scientific. The writer's object. I have attained the goal which I had in view at the start. which natuin separate chapters . has been to present the public with a luminous and readable book. would require many chapters. overloaded with tedious dewhich would only be useful or interesting to the professional man and practitioner.' rally fall under this head. of false pregnancy. nancy. affections that may simulate true pregnancy. tails. and lactation. This term comprehends a variety of herself repelled . and all the^ . It 320 . while nothing important in the way of explanation or advice find should be himself or omitted. and to do full justice to the accidents. I have already considered the subjects of abor-tion. I will now give a comprehensive glance at some of the disorders of pregnancy and.

who are nervous. supposed pregnancy ended literally in a discharge — of gas. such as enlargement of the breasts. but after the lapse of nine months. irritable. over. few men who have to. A ^^pp^g^^^ was delivered by flooding. or hysterical pregnancy. perhaps. in widows. it is met with life . or even been such mistakes.DISEASES OF PREGNANCY. Bloody Queen Mary. that there are. pre^ancy. not witnessed. historians. and had the baby-clothes ready. among women approaching the change of in women accidentally affected with stoppage of their monthly flow. Another woman. and in those who. nausea. morepregnancy most commonly met with . which gener- depends upon some spasmodical aflTection of the abdominal viscera. is to commit an error medical subject so easy. pregnancy. The ally collection of symptoms known J t- as nervous Nervous ^ pregpaaney.. vomiting. hysterical. It is a well-known historical fact. engaged a midwife to stay in the house but her with her. etc. exhibited all the signs of pregnancy. is the form of false and. fifty years of age. For the most part. and sometimes upon a chronic inflammation of those organs. believed herself pregnant. who imagine themselves pregnant by a second husband. as she by Protestant II. after her marriage with Philip of Spain. Under these circumstances. is 821 turns unquestionable that the stoppage of the monthly may give rise to the symptoms of pregnancy. and particularly in the unmarried further. Pregnancy has been woman has mistaken for and treated as dropsy. in her anxiety to have an . having lost their first children. that Queen is Mary styled of England. placed. the one that most generally gives rise to mistakes. are extremely anxious to have them re.

heir." pregnancy which There are other kinds of false ir o j from a conception natural at the commencement. and has still further changed arise Moies. But her imagination and the wish. "I have but one rule of action. For my own part. which. and with the various other tumors that is are produced in the womb . which is. and. led her astra3^ With all women laboring under such the menses hallucinations. but not careful exploration of the womb *' always. fleshy. . serves to remove doubt. of variable and indeterminate shape. in many cases. the abdomen swells nausea. These depraved conceptions are called Moles. expelled from the cavity of the organ. generally softish. From the fifth month onwards. that moles are alwa^^^s the result of depraved conception. Moles have been confounded with polypus. yet there one very im- portant difference that distinguishes them. but the product of which has been changed as to its nature under the influence of some cause of diseased action. is. sometimes hardish. after having been begun. and that decide. instead of a foetus. mola." writes Dr. Meigs. disgust. to impose on ful accoucheurs. all the usual signs skil- of pregnancy appear. which means mass. the breasts. and signifies an after the death child. was pregnant. and dispel the illusion of false pregnancy. the generally. and products of generation disturbed . so as. which was mother to the thought.322 DISEASES OF P II E G X A N C T. and having been developed within the womb. sooner or later. insensible body. from the Latin. is. enlargement of cease to appear insisted that she . to admit very candidly I have not the clear my inability to when and undeniable signs of a pregnant womb. of the embryo organized. indeed. Depraved conception. and made preparations for lying-in.

The ancient opinion was that a mole consisted of a mass of flesh developed in the womb. that has become ^ depraved from some cause. and besides. exhibits the usual envelopes of the ovum. . though always thicker and J"ie a^f false moles. authorities that there are true and false moles that is to say. and without any appreciable cause. developed spontaneously. and which is called a false germ.DISEASES OF PREGNANCY. Ridiculous prejudices used to prevail on the subject of moles which some medical men promoted by their of a 3^oung . It is claimed by some . li\'ing and fantastic or dead. in strong. at the same time. was long supposed that the genital act is necessary for the formation of a mole. or embryo mole. appreciable causes. girl. brought into the world by women. in consequence of an imperfect conception. robust girls and one of them avers that some women produce that . in its formation 323 and altered in its composition while other tumors are parasitic bodies. marvellous histories of live moles. animals. where the product does not remain more than two or three months in the womb. some are supposed to be the result of abortive conception while others form spontaneously. which latter. and without any clear. Whatever may be the supposed value of these opinions. The great French physician Velpeau recognizes the possibility of the mole in a virgin but regards such cases as very rare. moles without the intervention of the husband and it has even been pretended that a voluptuous dream has often sufficed to give rise to a mole in the womb . it is at present generally admitted by pathologists and accoucheurs. the It — ancient medical authorities speak of certain bodies grow within the womb. that a mole is the result of a conception.

it causes the abdomen to become larger than it is in real pregnancy. by stoppage of the menses. . emotion experienced during the genital act. more There is no spontaneous motion as of the quick foeThe weight of the womb appears to be greater tus. after the birth of the child. bad quality of the semen. and at the conclusion of the term of pregnancy. ' womb. False germs. and more fatiguing than when it contains a foetus . more dense than the healthy ones. nausea. been found to co-exist in the womb with the foetal child. it is The ordi- causes of moles are very obscure but narily supposed that they may be produced by any cause capable of disturbing the development of the new being such as a sudden fright. or in any of the early days of pregnancy. have also by some been looked upon as capable of giving rise to depraved conception. harder. only as to the longer sojourn of the latter in the womb.. swelling of the breasts and belly. Moles have been thicker and A mole has often known Causes of moles obscure. and intercourse during the monthly turns. are yet either with a transparent or "which are discovered the filled a bloody differ fluid. amid early lineaments of the then. In some cases. such a mole produces abortion. has come away either immediately or in the course of a few days afterwards. at the corresponding stage painful. it is generally and more evenly distended. disgusts. After the mole has remained some months in the womb. or a lively .324 DISEASES OF PREGKANCT. and disorder of most of the functions. from fleshy are both moles. embr^'o. A A conception of this kind is attended by the same symptoms as a genuine pregnancy viz. and as the membranes more consistent. to remain for years within the '' .

the patient suffers pains like those of real labor . occur frequent irregular attacks of uterine hemorrhage. because there is risk of mistaking The a true pregnancy for a mole. where the signs of true pregnancy are not to be found. it was The treat* supposed that a mole must be got rid of as soon as possible by means of more or less violent agencies. and The breasts then fill w4th other secondary symptoms take lying-in. and after the first five months of symptoms like the above. and the woman suffers from pain in the loins. The breasts. all the dilated. its orifice is the mass milk. finally shrink. the womb contracts. and from lassitude. from difficulty of passing tlie urine. particular we should wait until nature expels the foreign body. treatment for the most part requires nothing . 325 and. which is generally the case from the fourth to the seventh month. When the mole has attained its maturity. But such a treatment is dangerous. becomes place. as she turns from side to side. and instead of milk. Generally speaking. more than she does in an ordinary pregnancy. lastly. a serous fluid is secreted . and then extend the same care. as in a common Formerly.DISEASES OF PREGNANCY. the we are authorized to suppose symptoms derivable from the presence of a foreign body within the womb. and make use of The the same precautions. or depend upon the influence of that organ on the different functions with diseases connected . and where the local uneasiness as well as the floodings continue to increase. pregnancy are jcither seated in the womb. and expelled. as in an ordinary accouchement. which were first enlarged. also feels something like a ball falling about within her.

All that is commonly necessary. -throbbing. when the quantity is very great. the pain tooth . in some cases. There . that pair of nerves. nor any trace of change of tissue. in toothache of this kind. The aching one or both is some- times so violent. I have^lready or miscarriage. when it produces debility of the patient and derangements of digestion. of the rest of the bodily treated of abortion. with more or '^ less violent pains confined generally to the lower jaw.326 DISEASES OF PREOy^Ay^CT. both induced and that which is brought about by various derangements and disorders I will now briefly glance at the various affections which most usually accom.nant women are subiect to toothache or a ^ dental neuralgia. lasts until the end of pregnane}^ or even does not make its appearance until a short time before labor. If the ache is is owing to caries. When the salivation is slight. which commences. Preo. it extends to the whole face. Qne of the first signs of pregnancy sive secretion is an exces- from the salivary glands. is to keep the bowels open by laxative drinks. . Saiiyation. pany pregnancy. all the teeth of sides of the jaw are painful. it is wise to moderate the amount. and ceases commonly towards the fourth month but. especially Toothache of pregnant women. organs. it is to be left to but though it be dangerous to arrest the nature . following the course of the branches of the seventh There is neither swelling. confined to the diseased otherwise. far more inconvenient than dangerous. and by substantial and digestible food. This abundant flow of saliva generally appears soon after conception. heat. as happens when the pain of the teeth depends upon inflammation. or decay of a tooth. by fluid magnesia. secretion suddenl}^.

and which becomes sometimes a necesimperious as to amount to delirium. It is may be generally unnecessary to do as it much for this commonly ceases after the fourth month of pregnancy when it lasts longer. either condition of the stomach. and retain their plumpness and freshness through the whole of the pregnancy. unless the female is in which so irritable. often J^ry^^*^" yields to the employment of nourishing liquids. Besides. loathing of food by a nervous by derangement of the bowels. especially in the early months. This species of affection. but . the want little of appetite seems to have but influence in some women. this must be promptl}^ extracted. Though we generally lose their appetite find that pregnant women kinds and take disgust to all of food. or by a state of fulness. in some cases. is Disgust for food often observed in pregnant women. and the application of a plaster of opium over the course of the diseased nerve. to prevent plethora. there are some. When the toothache depends upon the decay of the tooth. a means employed by nature afifection. treatment must be resorted to. it becomes. which often gives rise to vomiting and difficult digestion. who. exists in regard to it In some some kinds of food This only. caused. during pregnancy. as to make us fear abortion . appetite. as they bear well-formed children. case.DISEASES OF PREGyAXCY. such as subcarbonate of iron. which latter is met with in women of stronsj and sang-uine constitution. sity so . to alleviate the pain. combined with rhubarb. and antispasmodic remedies be used both internally and externally.generally includes all descriptions. pispst for have an unnatural appetite. cases. . or fulness. are 327 various remedies for this kind of toothache.

such as broths.828 DISEASES OF PREGNANOT. but those of the most disgusting character even. . sugar. in that case. and iongiags of pregnant women. it does not appear until the later months but ceases. ever. is and exces- of the ferruginous kind. tension. women are liable to dyspepsia that is. or eggs in shell. Pregnant they expe- sive thirst. likewise be allayed. aniThe hunger may mal jellies. such as the infusions of gentian. for it commonly begins with pregnancy. have become affected . If the dyspepsia be brought on by excessive drinking of fluids to is assisted .. or else to the use of substances containing a large amount of nutriment in a small space. in the employment of the bitter medicines. though usually dainty and fastidious. usually accompanied by general uneasiness by more or less thirst. and by soups. after eating. who. chocolate or Dyspepsia when excessive. The action of these remedies by the use of mineral waters. and in small quantities at a time. beneficial. a sensation of fulness and dis. and sometimes by nausea and vomiting. and especially of chamomile. This affection is favorable. rhubarb. The longings of pregnant women are as variable Some are tormented with a as they are numerous. with the pregnancy. by morsels of The use of mineral waters. quench an excessive thirst. and very ripe fruits. it may be remedied by a few grains of nitre in lemonade. desire not only to eat substances not included in the list of food. taken frequently. and disappears Sometimes. sists . it In seems to exert but little influence upon The the health and development of the child. howafter the fourth or fifth month. rience. rice-milk. I have seen women. Capricious appetite. it contreatment of the disorder is very simple . and chocolate . white mixed with a little wine meats. all cases. mint. among others.

and even excrement. may The disease is often left to itself. and deformities said to be occasioned by the strange longings and caprices of pregnant women. indeed. permits us suppose that is nature which inclines the condition. to a it certain extent. caterpillars. I am of opinion that there is no good reason for denying them an^^thing. no evil has resulted to . and commonly cure it themselves. ried to a certain extent. plaster. suet. In general. vinegar. quite frequent in the early months of pregnancy. which chlorotic sickness). that a disappointed wish and ungratified longing. in this condition. unless. car- produce dangerous consequences to the mother. charcoal. strong liquors.. in this connection. that there is no accounting for their tastes. Singularities in of the above h3-sterical are also observed (or and or women those affected with green- and in those who have suppressed are irregular menstruation. It may be said of pregnant women. the things longed for are manifestly hurtful.DISEASES OF with a depraved appetite. and thus interfere with the formation and development of the embryo child. to cat chalk. It is readjly conceivable. kind. . or for refusing to yield to a strong appetite. because it almost months of pregnancy. and P It E U XA N C T. green fraits. cinders. 339 who longed flies. that whatever be the substances introduced into the stomach. and generally relates to substances that do not prcr vent the female from taking other nourishment and always yields after the first enjoying comfortable health. which. woman to introduce into her system materials necessary for her logical new physio- lous stories Without crediting the marvelabout marks on the unborn child. spiders. has been remarked.

it generally occurs months of pregnancy. Cinchona.330 Buniing pain stomach. that produces a very painful sensation of heat throughout the oesophagus. — as fried dishes. in the greater number of tients find all their is still from a vitiated taste. since the pafood to be sour. It is a frequent symp- tom of dyspepsia cases. Heart-bum. I prescribe also. is heavy and difficult of digestion. and by the sensation of a body arrested in the throat. I have cured this trouble by giving is to the patient a little cherry brandy. Magnesia and limewater may be administered during the attacks. with the rising into the mouth of an acrid fluid. Difficulty of Difficulty of swallowing. modic contraction of the oesophagus. or anisette. lo which consists in a feeling of burning pain in the stomach. in order . but. it ceases towards the fourth month and when it comes on in the latter period of pregnancy. It commonly occurs in persons who use ' food that liquors. is a phenomenon often produced by the sympathetic influence of the womb in pregnancy. and alcoholic In pregnant women. salt meats. Heart-burn a very common indisposition in pregnant women. especially in blondes and those of a lymphatic temperament. or else. gentian. and extract of valerian and opium by way of anodynes. results . mixed with water. m There is another affection of prearnant women. it terTreatment. and rhubarb are good remedies for this affection. rum. and even in the mouth. DISEASES OF PREGNANCY. without our being able to assign it to any other cause than the sympathetic influence of the womb upon the stomach. in the first It occurs in the early periods of conception . accompanied by spasswallowing. it is produced by acids actually existing in the stomach. minates with the delivery. which more common. . old cheese.

in and residence in the a dry and temperate air. In this state. and bilious matter. especially during the early months of pregnancy. Then there is a complete and generally sudden loss of 1 • • /» 1 1 • Various other affections. Spitting of blood is one of the most dangerous -r complications of the pregnant state. Pregnant women are also subject to more or less frequent evacuation of mucous. by burn- When there a constant. As I have said. which is characterized by acute pain. the principal organs are liable to be sympa- thetically affected by the womb. with tumultuous movements. nourishing moderate exercise. . etc.DISEASES OF PREGNANCY. country. and with stronger impulse than ordinary. especially towards the end of pregnancy. it is Difficulty of breathing is also another affection to which pregnant all women are liable. the patient is sometimes troubled with palpitations of the heart that is. or Nervous >' colic cramp of the stomach. to neutralize 331 the acids of the stomach. accompanied ing heat at the fundament. It is generally caused by the pressure of the enlarged vromb upon the colon and rectum. and nearly uncalled tenesmus. magnesia. Constipation is very common in pregnant women. availing desire to go to stool. and by a feeling of dragging and laceration at the epigastrium. painful. blood. When is the evacuations are mixed with Constipation. be added a tonic soups. The hemorrhages which take place from the womb during pregnancy are frequent and dangerous. . or. there is a cough. Tenesmus. — roast To these means should meats. When the lungs are affected in this way. Pregnant women are also liable to nervous colic. at least. diet. serous. alkaline substances. whence results difficulty in the passage of the foecal matter. the attack takes the name of dysentery.

'* in a woman advanced blood. once every two or three days. abdomen. m women. poetical. especially that of the highest importance to health at it is during the pregnant it state becomes indispensable. Women and affechave been known to become thievlife. once a week. chest. women is are subject during pregnancy. of sight. smell. This sort of temporary death. . _ Vertigo. or after having been recently one of the most frequent and dangerous diseases which occur after Puerperal fever labor. which generally lasts only four certain or five minutes. or musical." in preg- saj's Dr. or dizziness. "While a pure air all is periods of existence. Pregnancy also causes disorders of the senses. ish. in labor. and lying- and lyino^-in o ' women. also complicates pregnancA^ in consequence of a nervous state of excitement. Pregnant women ought to breath an atmosphere which is pure and exempt from extremes of all Their clothing should be loose. with suspension of breathing. etc. ness is hearing. It also. Hygieno of J ^Q]^ close tMs chapter with a few words on the hyojiene of presfnant ° '' . sensation and motion. Meigs. at times. etc. " should be taken as a Sleepless- sign that she ought to be let one of the most distressing affections to which the pregnant female is liable. especially those of a nervous and delicate constitution. " A severe headache nanc}^. avoiding kinds. from being pregnant. once a month. recurs periodically in in women. Puerperal mania sometimes lasts as long as flashes of light. all pressure upon the breasts. Puerperal convulsions were called by the Greeks They are a species of epileptic at- tack to which pregnant delivered.332 DISEASES OF PREGNANCY. and even oftener. disorders the understanding and moral inclinations tions.

and where the general health is precarious. to execute a sentence. and acquaintances. 33^ After the birth of the child.DISEASE fi OF PREGNANCY. The time woman ought to remain . state of mind and rest for the body are indispensable. it was necessary merely to suspend a garland at the door. . necessarily very variable. particularly where there is a tendency to falling of the womb. The ancients were so well convinced of the nse of this precept. neighvisits. Furthermore. even the magistrate had no right to enter the house of a lying-in woman. or an hour at most. days are sufficient or even twenty days. in other cases. bors. are and among the frequent causes to to the which may be attributed a variety of diseases of the lying-in woman. fifteen of sitting up should not be protracted beyond half an hour. the first trial in bed is ?^® 9^ In some instances. that at Rome. in order that all the citizens might respect this asylum. six whereas. are indispensable. ceremonious of relatives. upon a couch or sofa. Juvenal says. calls ' The visits of friends. a calm and stomach. that. that lead that a most serious consequences.

specialty. I will close this volume with a few general remarks on the nerves and nervous diseases. " Canst thou minister to a mind diseased ? Shakespeare. human body. This is. inert clod. taste.CHAPTER XXYII. delicate and They mediate between mind and matter. to which the nerves of the rest of body bring reports in the shape of sensations. The nerves of touch. and especountr}'^ women. sight. the body would be a dull. between spirit and orEach man and woman contains a complete system of telegraph wires and batteries. The nerves are the seat of pain and pleasure both. of morbid. or diseased are the nerves. The nerves most mysterious part of the ganization. I Having made the treatment of nervous diseases in both sexes a great prevalence cially my have been in a situation to learn the among my countrymen. in fact. the land of delicate nerves and morbid nervous phenomena. AND NERVOUS DISEASES. through which information is conveyed from one part of the body to the other. and from which they receive mandates. The nervous sj^stem is said to be predominant in Americans. THE NERVES. the The brain is a great nervous battery. and 334 . Without them. smell. and of intelligence also.

In fact. the force. it is obvious that this world would be a land of darkness and silence. "travel. who are ambitious for wealth and political preferment. with paralysis. the banker. the physician." to use a slang phrase. with all manifold sounds. and im- part to his language eloquence and expressiveness. the mechanic and inventor. keenly alive to give a sensation. insanity. for instance. the managers of great corporations and companies. Our too eager business AVhat is the result? classes. the military leader. hearhiG:. and idiocy. set in motion by the The nature of the nervous system is a pronerves. the broker. brins: Z35 us into connection with the outer its world. and reckless of the laws of health. the lawyer. all the busy and leading men of this busy age and countr}^. optic Strong. was a country or a period when nerve-power was so much in demand and use. healthy nerves." but on their nerves. man genius and intellectual power. are there never smitten to an alarming extent annually with ner- vous diseases. in fact. The muscles are mere pulle3^s. found physiological mystery. and softening of the brain. There is a constant expenditure of nerveeditor. not " on their muscle. as well as the power which operates through it. which reduce multitudes of our most energetic men every year to helplessness. and Without the sen- system of nerves without.NERVES. . the skilful statesman. . organized for manufacturing or transportation. The merchant. objects of beauty tient and sublimit}-. AND NERVOUS DISEASES. They make all his thoughts and emotions vivid. the and auditory nerves. It is the nerves which are brought most into play in all the leading professions and avocations of life. sights.

in the cases of multitudes of patients. Our American women are of proverbially delicate organizations. that I have had the advantage of the instruction of one of the greatest living French neurologists. with confidence.336 NERVES. "Woman reasons. His methods of cure I have for several years put in practice. of both sexes. and whose name is known world-wide. of deli- cate nervous organization. Hence. . rather than She sees with a sort of clairvoyance. is ever the creature of sensibility. I will simply say to the hosts of persons. I can. She feels. AND NERVOUS DISEASES. invite all afflicted with ner- vous debility to a trial of my remedies. whose cures of nervous affections have been of the most astonishing description. The readers of the present volume will remember the superhuman strength which the hysterical malady (a nervous disease) imparts to the feeblest female. and unequal to the exigencies and demands of every-day life and business. whose nerves are jaded and unstrung. with signal success.

perceive that there were hidden medicinal virtues of the rarest quality in the flora of ^ this famous Californian valley. Dr. is shut in by stupendous walls of over whose perpendicular preci- pices. — walls. falling of the womb. or green-sickness. Hayes. which is extremely rich and luxuHis botanical knowledge led him quickly to riant. in fact. has been seen and admired by so many myriads. Dr. in the western part of this continent on a tour of relaxation. This valley granite. chlorosis. . HAYES'S YOSEMITE PANACEA. 337 general debility. which. while travelling. which he has found invaluable as a tonic and restorative in some of the most common and debilitating diseases of females . by the distinguished Hill. always been a great resort from time immemorial of the Indian medicine-men. While admiring the unique scenery of this valley. etc.DR. such as whites. The valley has. waterfalls tumble headlong two thousand feet or more. Hayes secured a large quantity of the Yosemite herbs in highest esteem among the Indians. visited the famous Yosemite Valley the great picture of artist. several years since. and from them prepared a panacea. suppressed menses. barrenness. Hayes was struck by the peculiarities of its vegetation. Dr.

Bulfinch Street. or Dr. Address. and used for ages by own sufficient recommendation. securely and safely packed. Boston.338 ^^- HAYES'S YOSEMITE PANACEA. a. Mass. is purely an essential extract of the virtues of certain medicinal plants of the Indians. O. price. on receipt of Price. otherwise. and its health-restoring propsomething wonderful. as agreeable as it is healthful. or a P. B. The Yosemite Panacea is prepared with the utmost chemical skill. It is prepared without regard to expense of ingredients or preparation. As a is its it is medicine. The Yosemite Panacea. The flora of California is peculiarly rich in medicinal virtues from the very quality of the soil. has given health to hundreds already. 4. which the Pacific Coast. N. No. no notice can be taken of them. The Peabodt Medical Institute. H. according to strength and quantity. and the languid victim of menstrual difficulties. order for that amount. (opposite Kevere House). to all parts of the country. Hayes. It known to. . from fifteen to thirty dollars. Sent. — All - letters of consultation must contain five dollars. restoring the erties are bloom to the cheek of the chlorotic invalid. and a distinct name and address accompanying each com- munication.

of before taking food. add 6 ounces of the wooden or earthen vessel. f 3ix. f 3 j. and the right side over the liver. Extract! Taraxaci. E Acidi Nitrici. Aurantii. Liquoi'is Taraxaci. of wann water. This should be continued for fifteen minutes.PRESCRIPTIONS. morning and evening. ana f 3j. add and apply it f 3iij. for a quarter of an hour. before taking food. Acidi Hydrochlorici. Acidi Nitrici diluti. Make a mixture. in a deep feet are in the As a foot-bath.on an empty R Acidi Hydroclilorici Acidi Nitrici diluti. the inside of the legs. and arms. ana f 3iss.ha. whicli iake Mix: make a mixture. and thighs. In Dysmenorrhoea and Amenorroe. twice every day. 125. . f 3ss. Infusi Cinchonse flavce. Aqusedestillatae. f 3 vij. of which take two tablespoonfuls twice a day. in a wlneglassfal of stomach. water^. f 5 ij. R Acidi Nitrici diluti. In chronic Affections of the Liver. "Acidi Hydrochlorici. of the above to Oj. dilirti. acid to 2 gallons of water. For sponging the body. two iablespooiafuls twice daily. 330 . In DysmenorrJwea. f jvij. f3 viij. should be sponged alternately. 122. Mix. R Acidi Hydroclilorici diluti. ana f 3j. 121. Mix: take a teaspoon ful 124. Tinct. Infusi Gentiante comp. f 3iij. Sj^rupi Zingiberis. and while the bath (the temperature of which should be 93"" or 98°). An aperient draught of salts in abitter infusion should be taken every second morning. 3 j.

a Rubefacient in Chest Affections. E: Mix make a liniment. In Rheumatic Pains. Inf. &c. Mix a : spoonful every two hours. 3j. fjiss. gr. granum unum. lohen the dil. 134. R Mix Tincturse Acidi Saliculosi. Oij. j. 3 Mix witli a wooden spatula. Olei Terebinth. f jiss. Infusi Chimapliilas. to be taken twice a day. iss. E: FRESCRIPTIOJSrS. f 3 ss. and Hcemorrhage. To be used as an ordinary beverage. Make a draught. Salivation. Acidi Nitro-muriatici. R Acidi Phosphorici Infusi Buchu. In 136.j.340 126. In Caries. 3 j. Decocti Salep. : Aquae Hyssopi. 3 j. 176. gr. Pareiras. Infusi TJv£e Ursi. 3 ss. (veZAvense). E. the same case. Aconiti Alcoholici. 3j. Syrupi Menthas piperitse. Syrupi Rubi Idsei {vel Mori). Decocti Hordei. Syrupi simplicis. Pulveris Glycyrrhizae. q. rect. Make a draught. : Acidi Phospliorici diluti. ij. f 3iss. 3j. to be taken twice a day. Adipis preparati. 131. with opaque mucus. E Acidi Phosphorici f3 ss. . E Extr. xij. Make a draught. Ii Mucous Urine with copious earthy excretions. 174. Kidneys are inactive. with inaction of the Skin and Kidneys. 3vj. a spoonful to be taken every hour. Mix make a powder. f3vj. Magnesiae. In Dropsy. xx. gr. Antimonii Oxysulphureti. gr. J 135. f 3 dil. In the same. x. Acidi Phosphorici diluti. R Extracti Aconiti. f3 ss. and add As 180. In the same. 137. 141. Mix make : into six pills. In Diabetes. one : to be taken every four hours. s. E: Acidi Phosphorici dil. gtt. f 3ss. E Make Acidi Phosphorici dil. a draught.

Myristicas Adipis. 3 viiss. E: 11 E SCRIPT I O -V S. TT|ii. gr. Make an ointment. q. TI]x. Cardamom! comp.j. icith Fever. Olei Olivse. Make into a draught. night and morning. gr. 5 Villi Mix : Antim. Liquoris Ammonise. morning and evening. a teaspoonful ever}' one. gr. OleiRicini. In Neuralgic Bheuraatism. . xx. E: Aconitinae. Potassio-tart. gr. In Nervous Headache. » 197. R Mix Extract! Aconiti. s. Misturas Camphorae. 177. Rub together. : pills. 3j. ana fSss. then add Adipis prseparati. ss. Misturce Acacias. f 3j. : fifteen drops to be taken three times a day. 3 ij. s. In Gall-Stones. f 3x. of which one may be taken In Chronic Rheumatisyn. to be taken two or three times a day. Tincturaj Guaiaci. B: Extract! Aconiti Alcoholic!. v. Tai^ye -Worms. xviij. 3ss. two. Tinct. Olei Bergamii. gr. ij. from 15 to 20 drops to be taken three times a day. Olei Santali. R JEtheris Sulphuric!. . 3ij. R Athens Mix : Sulphuric!. In Chronic Gout. In Painful Gout. 190. R Make Extract! Aconiti. Make into a mass divide into six every sixth hour. 3 ss. 179. Guaiaci Resinse. gr. q.P 176. Olei Cajeputi. R Mix : JEtheris Sulphuric!. Olei Terebinthinai rectif. into two pills : take one. In 198. In RheiLmatism^ &c. 341 Extract! Aconiti. &c. 180. ten or twelve drops to be taken in sugared water. 3!ij-vj. 3 ij Vini Colcliici sem. 196. viij. or three hours. 3 ss.

Olei Mentha pip. f 3ij. B^^east. 232. 3y. Syrupi flor. 3j-iij. TTIv. and repeat in two the flatulence continues troublesome. In flatulent 228. Tinct. Tinct. 3iij. Chloroformi. Make a lotion. ana f 3ij. sensitive Ulcers of the Rectum. Take one or two occasionally. 3 iv. Vin. f 3j. f 3xxvij. 3viij. Mix make an : ointment. 3-4. Aurant. R Bulbos Allii sativi incis. f 3iiss. Zinci Oxydi. according to art . Aqu£e. L. as necessary. hours. strain. destillatse. fjij. Colic. In painful affections of the 256. In Sluggish Boicels. f 3j. Mix. Tilise. dose. In 243. Misturse Camphorse. the same. Spir. ss. Cerati Cetacei. Sp. Sp. Make a draught. Neuralgia. Macerate for 36 hours. R Make into Aloes Socot. Make a draught. Chloroformylis. R Chloroformi. Aqu£e. Gallici.V "" 342 199. xv. In violent 231. 30 pills. JEtheris comp. 3j. Make a draught. E Chloroformi. Sp. Valerianje. No. Make a lotion. . f 3j.) 3ss. Mix: make a draught. Cardam. Aqu'B. 233. f 3j. f 3 j. f 3 iss. f 3iy. a dessert or tablespoonfal. E: Colic. R Chloroformi. To 246. To prevent Baldness. 257. and add Decocti Bardanee. if to be taken immediately. E: PP'^ -^^ scniPT/o x s. Oj. Tr|viij. Saponis mollis (Ph. comp. R Athens Aquae Chlorici. Vini Gallici. Olivas. In E: CJiolera. JEtheris compositi. In desperate cases of Delirium Tremens. or Asthma. 3 x. gr. 3 01. Aquas flor.

323. of which two or three may be taken. Pulv. Yini Aloes. Pulv. 3 ss. Aquae pura f 3 iiss. of which a portion on the nipple as often as occasion may require. Make an injection. Laxative and Vermifuge for Children. To Sore Nipples (applied after suckling). K. Decocti Aloes compos. 3j.. Extracti Conii. 3j. R Aluminis. R Aluminis. Pcruviani gr. Olei Carui. 9j. Ipccacuanhaj. gr. carefully. 3 ss. Aquae Ros£e. For Indolent Bowels in Aged Persons. One to be taken before dinner. Acacise. s. As a 299. occasionally. Acidi Siilphurici diluti. Make '261. 287. In Indigestion with Costiveness. . To be applied to the nipple may be necessary. xxiv. Extracti Glyc3^rrliizse. li I P T ION S. viij. Ttlxij. f 3ij. gr. and as often as make a powder. R Mix Aluminis Pulv. Syrupi Rhoeados.F It K N C 258. Make 301. gutt x. according to circumstances. x. a mixture. f 3 iv. In Gonorrhoea. 343 R Aloes Extract!. R Extracti Aloes aquosi.Cough. gr. xxv. f jiij. Mix 322. 3g. f 3 ij. 16 pills. Scammonii opt. 3iss. Mix one : or two teaspoonfuls twice a day. gr. and make a powder.Cough. Pulv. AqujB Anethi. q. xij. In the second stage of Whooping. R Mix Pulv. f 3 viij. Aluminis. Mix make : 20 pills. Cretse praeparata^. Zingiberis. Bals. 3 ss. In Whooping. Syrupi. f 3 iss. : take a dessertspoonful every sixth hour. take f 3iij every six hours. gr. v with great care. R Aluminis. 3 j. Syrupi Rhoeados. may be sprinkled 326.

s. Olei Bergamite. 323. Pulv. Sp. Acaci^e f 3 Mix make an : injection. 3j. gr. luith In Irritable Bladder. arom. Mistux-. Mix make an injection. Take a fourth part thrice a day. Liq.'i. ana 3 Cut. night and morning. then three. [Two or three spoonfuls to be boiled for some time in a quart of water. Auri C3'-aniJi. R Mix: two Infusi Berberidis. 3 j. fjij. Give at one pill. Mix make an : ointment. 5ij. JEtherJs jSntrici. Aqua destillataj. usti. F<c the Secretion of Milk. 3vss. rectificati. vj. Li LeucorrJicea^ 329. Spir. ana 3 boviuffi. In SyxthiUs. Foeniculi. 485. . f3 vj. Mist. Camphora'. the Oroioth of the Hair. ss. To Hard and Inflained Breasts^ &C.344 327. fjxv. Mczerei. Half a teaspoonful to be rubbed on the head. &c. Liq. Calumbffi. B: Radicis Fceniculi. To Promote 376. Tinct. Make a lotion. Amenorrhoea. Hj^oscyami. : Tincturse Kino. Aluminis MeduIIis Sodaj biboratis. Sodte Carbonatis. In Jaundice. f3ij. Aluuiinis comp. JuglanclLs.] q. first Make 794. Amnion. j. Scrofida. In CauliJiov:er Excrescence of the Uterus. into 15 pills. E. viij. gutt. 333. f3vj. Oij. • R R Aluminis. ss. then two. bruise. Semin. li PRESCRIPTIOXS. Mix: make an injection. E: Acid Urine. glassfuls. R Spir. and the strained decoction taken by To Promote 725. f 3 v. InfusiLini. gr. [gr. daily. Aluminis. fSij. iij. f3viij. In Gleet. Sij Decocti fol. S]DOonfuls twice or thrice a day.] ij. Extr. f 3ij. and mix. Althajii?. 3j. AmmoniiB Acetatis. foij. Tinct. 408.

Ergotas. In Piles. of which a sufficient quantity the vagina. In Syphilitic Sore Tliroat. R Pulv. to be thrown on a red-hot iron. gr. f3xij. Opii pulv. Mix make : a powder . Mellis RostB 3 j. R Cambogic^. 3ij. gr. 9ss." In IIer2jes and Venereal P^cstuJes. gr. R Gallgepulv. f 3ij. . Camphorse. 935. Make Li Mucous Discharges from the Bladder. Acidi Tannici. Decoc. 3j. 3ss. and the diseased parts (only) exposed to the fumes. prepare six similar doses. Take one. Oj. Quinae Sulph. till One to be taken every four hours they have sufficiently operated. Cerati. f:5vj. Opii. q. 825. gr. night and morning. R Hydrarg. a pill. Make an ointment. 1684. xviij. vj.s c niPTio X s.pR 820 E . Hyoscyam. 3j. gutt. Olei MenthsD pip. vnth Acid Urine. 3ss. may be taken every six hours. Acacise. Boracis pulv. In Uterine Hmmorrhage. gr. Decocti PareiriB. s. Mix : make 40 pills. 3 Pulv. Argenti Nit. In Leucorrhoea of Nervous Females. a mixture. four times a day. Hordei. gr. To Expel 976. Tinct. Extr. 3 j. Cantharidis. of whieh a wineglassful B: xxx. Dccocti Papavcris. Olibani. R Pulv. iij. 3j. to be taken every second hour. Tcq^e - Worms. Make 1497. Fcrri Sulphatis. ss. ij. 1343. Mix make a liquid. Sacchari albi. gr. 345 DecoctiBistortoe. through an ivory syringe. Cyanidi. x. Plumbi Acet. Mix : make a gargle. 1697. 3 ij. xij. Mucil. iij. 1. Sulphureti rubri. R Hydrarg. f 5 ij. gr. : R may be injected into In Chronic Leucorrhoea.


Sterility. late Surgeon in the United States Army. indications on Generative -Capacity. Symptoms of Gonorrhoea or Clap. Qualification for Inquiry. Impotence and bterilitj^. — — | '• prudence. Means of Cure. MediFriendly Counsel. or Seminal Weakness. and upon the wi. Evilsufln-lireeding. . Self-Preservation. A Vigorous Posterity. Friendly Suggestions. Importance of Examination. Multiplicity of Symptoms. The Causes of Evil. and the Use and Abuse of Mercury. . Urinary Causes. Xo. Self. Effects on the Mental Faculties. Relations between the Sexes. the j-oung will bo enabled to prepare tlicmsolves for matrimony in such a manner as to secure their OAvn felicity. Physiological Facts cient Ignorance and Errors. Nocturnal and Diurnal DisSymptons of Pregnancy. rimonial Disappointments Exemplified Mistakes of the Learned. Its History and General Remarks on the Treatment OF Spermatorrhoea.— The Mental and Generative Machinery. Puberty. Seminal Weakness and Sex- AXD Ulcer ox thb Cheek. ESaltfincb St. The Curse of Ignorance and its ble Secresy and Certain Relief. certificates. $1. —Anance of Calamity. Generative CapaciThe Curse of Self-Ai. and Offspring. Hayes's work. Body and Mind.t-terility and Impotence.IMPORTANT PHYSIOLOGICAL AAD MEDICAL WORK! Published by request of the Medical Faculty of the United States. Vexerf. Sexual Philosophy. Sexual Development. Morbid Complications. Impotence and Sterility.00. Stricture. Mattection.r tlie Autlsor. ' Courtship and Marriage lie at the foundation of all human happiness.Abuse and its Victims. and is The Science of A Life or. tod in their Effeot^. Symptoms of Spermatorrcea and ImpoStructure. sical Infirmity. o\ Phvsical Contrasts ts. BY ALBEBT H. Seminal Weal:ness. and render unnecessary the much-abused process of divorce. DeSTRUCTIOX Oi" THE NOSK BY SYPHILIS. Effects on the Testicles. Phycal Errors. To Patients and Invalid Esadsks. Swelled Testicle.^e management of these matters. Cure for — — ual lm]Dotence. -Presi- ]¥o. Generative Philosophy. ty. Plain and Practical Truths. Aptitude and Inaptitudofor Wedded Happiness. (opposite 31. AvoidDetections of Spermatorrhcea. Empiricism. Gonerativo Pliysiologj'. Spermatorrhoea. etc. tims. InviolaAbuse. Affections of the Testicle. Sjonptoras and Treatment of Venereal Disease in its Local and Constitutional Forms. Seminal Losses. Treatment charjijes. on Wedlock for Detection. InOF of ] THE CONTENTS: — — Mistakes. True Principles of Treatof Evil. Miscellaneous Causes. Pathological and Treated. Conjugal Precepts and Failures. Dangers of Hypocrisy. Anatomy AXD Physiology OF the Gex- e?^ative Ofigans. Symptoms and Effects... 4. etc. Useful Trutlis. Functions. Inllucnce of Sperraatorrhcea.uso. The Morale of Generative -Physiology. rrice. Jietv and lUvised Organs Throat and Luu. TEXCE. . The JMiseides of Im. '4.1).. — dications of Self-Abuse. Means of DeIn-Breeding. depends the welfare of the commiinit-'. Koston. The Sources Indications. nearly 300 pages.re«»t. iind Philosophy. Danger of Mistakes.. Edition. etc. has been published. oMiscellaneous Causes. Bot^toii H«ver« House). — Its Causes and Cure. HAYES. Medical Treatise on Nervous and Physical Debility. with now ready for delivery — : the following title. Gleet. Bulfincli Strcc*. Spermatorrhoea. with Practical Observations on the Treatment of Diseases of the (Generative Organs. Causes axd Effects of Spermatorrhcea. Selfment. Facts. 1^ A new Medical work. and Diseases. LIST OF Female for Gexeration.3. Manhood. Avoidance. Fatal ijladd_er. Venereal Imprudences Hlustra-! Remarks OF the Press. andPhysiology of the Organ. 13y studying Dr. Spermatorrhceaand its Vic- Syphilitic Erttptioxs ox the Face. HorrorsofSelf-Abuse.. Impotence. The P'hysiology of Marriage. Cloth. The Author's Principles. Perversion of Marriage. Diseases. i'or sale l». Proofs of the Extension of Vice.al Irritable Suppression of the Menses.



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