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MEMS and MICROSYSTEMS DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE
Tai-Ran Hsu, ASME Fellow, Professor Microsystems Design and Packaging Laboratory Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering San Jose State University San Jose, California, USA
Textbook: “MEMS and Microsystems: design , manufacture, and nanoscale engineering,” 2nd Edition, by Tai-Ran Hsu, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2008
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Overview of MEMS and Microsystems Working Principles of Microsystems Engineering Science for Microsystems Design and Fabrications Engineering Mechanics for Microsystems Design Thermofluid Engineering and Microsystems Design Scaling Laws in Miniaturization Materials for MEMS and Microsystems
Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Microsystems Fabrication Processes Overview of Micromanufacturing Microsystems Design Assembly, Packaging, and Testing of Microsystems Introduction to Nanoscale Engineering
Chapter 1 Overview of MEMS and Microsystems
pumps and microfluidics.) ● Read/write heads in computer storage systems.) ● Micro actuators (valves. ● Micro device components (e. biomedical. linear and rotary motors. chemical. micro surgical and mobile telecom equipment. (1 µm = 1/10 of human hair) Available MEMS products include: ● Micro sensors (acoustic wave. inertia. palm-top reconnaissance aircrafts. tweezers and tongs. mini robots and toys. ● Inkjet printer heads.) . etc.WHAT IS MEMS? MEMS = MicroElectroMechanical System Any engineering system that performs electrical and mechanical functions with components in micrometers is a MEMS. grippers. electrical and optical relays and switches. optical. pressure. radiation.g. etc.. thermal. etc.
Microcars . or smaller! Two examples: .HOW SMALL ARE MEMS DEVICES? in plain English please! They can be of the size of a rice grain.Inertia sensors for air bag deployment systems in automobiles .
Inc) .Inertia Sensor for Automobile “Air Bag” Deployment System Micro inertia sensor (accelerometer) in place: Sensor-on-a-chip: (the size of a rice grain) (Courtesy of Analog Devices.
Aichi. Japan) Rice grains . Denso Corporation.Micro Cars (Courtesy of Denso Research Laboratories.
and an inevitable trend in industrial products and systems development .MEMS = a pioneer technology for Miniaturization – A leading technology for the 21st Century.
A remarkable case of miniaturization! Size: 106 down Power: 106 up The ENIAC Computer in 1946 A “Lap-top” Computer in 1996 Size: 108 down Power: 108 up A “Palm-top” Computer in 2001 This spectacular miniaturization took place in 50 years!! .Miniaturization of Digital Computers .
” and “Low-cost” market demand industrial products.MINIATURIAZATION – The Principal Driving Force for the 21st Century Industrial Technology There has been increasing strong market demand for: “Intelligent.” “Multi-functional.” “Robust. Miniaturization is the only viable solution to satisfy such .
Multi-Functional Products .the evolution of cellular phones Mobil phones 10 Years Ago: Current State-of-the Art: Size reduction Palm-top Wireless PC Transceive voice only Transceive voice+ multi-media + others (Video-camera. e-mails.Market Demand for Intelligent. and access to Internet. Robusting. Smaller. GPS and a PC with key pad input) The only solution is to pack many miniature function components into the device . calendar.
• Miniaturized devices are particularly suited for biomedical and aerospace applications due to their minute sizes and weight. . This allows the packaging of more functional components in a single device. • Less material requirements mean low cost of production and transportation. It is thus ideal for precision movements and for rapid actuation.Miniaturization Makes Engineering Sense!!! • Small systems tend to move or stop more quickly due to low mechanical inertia. • Small systems have higher dimensional stability at high temperature due to low thermal expansion. • Smaller size of the systems means less space requirements. • Ready mass production in batches. • Miniaturized systems encounter less thermal distortion and mechanical vibration due to low mass.
with active R&D began in around 1995 There is a long way to building nano devices! * 1 µm = 10-6 m ≈ one-tenth of human hair ** 1 nm = 10-9 m ≈ span of 10 H2 atoms .1 nm – 0.Enabling Technologies for Miniaturization Microsystems Technology (MST) (1 µm . 1 µm)** Inspired by Richard Feynman in 1959. but the term “Micromachining” was coined in 1982 Miniature devices (1 nm .1 mm) A bottom-up approach Nanotechnology (NT) (0.1 mm)* A top-down approach Initiated in 1947 with the invention of transistors.
cfm?document_id=3424 .smalltimes.$132 billion* by Year 2005 ( *High revenue projection is based on different definitions used for MST products) Source: NEXUS http://www.com/document_display.The Lucrative Revenue Prospects for Miniaturized Industrial Products Microsystems technology: $43 billion .
.5 billion in Year 2003 (if include products involving parts produced by nanotechnology) $1 trillion by Year 2015 (US National Science Foundation) An enormous opportunity for manufacturing industry!! ● There has been colossal amount of research funding to NT by governments of industrialized countries around the world b/c of this enormous potential.The Lucrative Revenue Prospects for Miniaturized Industrial Products – Cont’d Nanotechnology: $50 million in Year 2001 $26.
MEMS Products .
MEMS as a Microsensor: Power Supply Input Signal Micro Sensing Element Transduction Unit Output Signal Micro pressure sensors .
MEMS as a Microactuator.motor: Power Supply Output Action Micro Actuating Element Transduction Unit Rotor Stators Torque Transmission Gear Micro motor produced by a LIGA Process .
Components of Microsystems Power Supply Signal Transduction & Processing Unit Sensor Actuator Microsystem .
Typical Microsystems Products .
Inc.) .Inertia Sensor for “Air Bag” Deployment System (Courtesy of Analog Devices.
Inertia Sensor for Automobile “Air Bag” Deployment System Micro inertia sensor (accelerometer) in place: Sensor-on-a-chip: (the size of a rice grain) Collision (Courtesy of Analog Devices. Inc) .
Unique Features of MEMS and Microsystems .A great challenge to engineers • Components are in micrometers with complex geometry using silicon. si-compounds and polymers: 25 µm A micro gear-train by Sandia National Laboratories 25 µm .
A Injection Channel Separation Channel Analyte Waste Reservoir.A’ “Plug” Waste Reservoir. .Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) Network Systems for Biomedic Analysis A simple capillary tubular network with cross-sectional area of 20x30 µm is illustrated below: Buffer Reservoir.B Analyte Reservoir.B’ Silicon Substrate Work on the principle of driving capillary fluid flow by applying electric voltages at the terminals at the reservoirs.
shutters.Commercial MEMS and Microsystems Products Micro Actuators: Grippers. e. filters.g. waveguide splitters. lenses & mirrors. phase modulators. Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) • Microaccelerometers (inertia sensors) .linear and rotary Relays and switches Valves and pumps Optical equipment (switches. latching & fiber alignment mechanisms) Micro Sensors: Acoustic wave sensors Biomedical and biosensors Chemical sensors Optical sensors Pressure sensors Stress sensors Thermal sensors Microsystems = sensors + actuators + signal transduction: • Microfluidics. tweezers and tongs Motors .
Micromechatronics systems Package on a single “Chip” INPUT: Desired Measurements or functions Sensing and/or actuating element Transduction unit MEMS Signal Conditioner & Processor OUTPUT: Controller Actuator Measurements or Actions Signal Processor Comparator Measurements .Intelligent Microsystems .
.Evolution of Microfabrication ● There is no machine tool with today’s technology can produce any device or MEMS component of the size in the micrometer scale (or in mm sizes). ● The complex geometry of these minute MEMS components can only be produced by various physical-chemical processes – the microfabrication techniques originally developed for producing integrated circuit (IC) components.
Significant technological development towards miniaturization was initiated with the invention of transistors by three Nobel Laureates. Schockley. ICs have made possible for miniaturization of many devices and engineering systems in the last 50 years. The invention of transistors is thus regarded as the beginning of the 3rd Industrial Revolution in human civilization. Brattain of Bell Laboratories in 1947. Bardeen and W. This crucial invention led to the development of the concept of integrated circuits (IC) in 1955.H. W. . J. and the production of the first IC three years later by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments.
silicon compounds. quartz. polymers. ceramics and plastic materials Fewer components to be assembled Mature IC design methodologies Complex patterns with high density of electrical circuitry over substrates Large number of electrical feed-through and leads Industrial standards available Mass production Fabrication techniques are proven and well documented Manufacturing techniques are proven and well documented Packaging technology is relatively well established Primarily involves electrical and chemical engineering Microsystems (silicon based) Complex 3-dimensional structure May involve moving components Perform a great variety of specific biological. GaAs. but with no standard procedures Distinct manufacturing techniques Packaging technology is at the infant stage Involves all disciplines of science and engineering . electromechanical and optical functions Delicate components are interfaced with working media Use single crystal silicon dies and few other materials.Comparison of Microelectronics and Microsystems Microelectronics Primarily 2-dimensional structures Stationary structures Transmit electricity for specific electrical functions IC die is protected from contacting media Use single crystal silicon dies. or on customer-need basis Many microfabrication techniques are used for production. ceramics and metals Many more components to be assembled Lack of engineering design methodology and standards Simpler patterns over substrates with simpler electrical circuitry Fewer electrical feed-through and leads No industrial standard to follow in design.g. chemical. e. material selections. fabrication processes and packaging Batch production.
The Multi-disciplinary Nature of Microsystems Engineering Natural Science: Physics & Biochemistry Electrochemical Processes Quantum physics Solid-state physics Scaling laws Mechanical Engineering • Machine components design • Precision machine design • Mechanisms & linkages • Thermomechanicas: (solid & fluid mechanics. fracture mechanics) • Intelligent control • Micro process equipment design and manufacturing • Packaging and assembly design Material Science Electrical Engineering • Power supply • Electric systems for electrohydrodynamics and signal transduction • Electric circuit design •Integration of MEMS and CMOS Materials Engineering • Materials for substrates & package • Materials for signal mapping and transduction • Materials for fabrication processes Chemical Engineering • Micro fabrication processes • Thin film technology Industrial Engineering • Process design • Production control • Micro assembly . heat transfer.
• Manifold absolute pressure sensors at 40 million units per year. Recent Market Dynamics Old MEMS Pressure sensors Accelerometers Other MEMS New MEMS BioMEMS IT MEMS for Telecommunication: (OptoMEMS and RF MEMS) .Commercialization of MEMS and Microsystems Major commercial success: Pressure sensors and inertia sensors (accelerometers) with worldwide market of: • Airbag inertia sensors at 2 billion units per year. • Disposable blood pressure sensors at 20 million units per year.
Application of MEMS and Microsystems in Automotive Industry 52 million vehicles produced worldwide in 1996 There will be 65 million vehicle produced in 2005 Principal areas of application of MEMS and microsystems: • Safety • Engine and power train • Comfort and convenience • Vehicle diagnostics and health monitoring • Telematics. GPS. e. .g. etc.
Principal Sensors (7) (4) (3) (6)(1) (2) (10) (9) (5) (8) (6) Gasoline direct injection pressure sensor (7) Fuel tank evaporative fuel pressure sensor (8) Engine oil sensor (9) Transmission sensor (10) Tire pressure sensor (1) Manifold or Temperature manifold absolute pressure sensor (2) Exhaust gas differential pressure sensor (3) Fuel rail pressure sensor (4) Barometric absolute pressure sensor (5) Combustion sensor .
Silicon Capacitive Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor .
Application of MEMS and Microsystems in Aerospace Industry • Cockpit instrumentation. micromirrors and optics for laser communications. chemical sensors for leak detection. • Power systems with MEMtronic switches for active solar cell array reconfiguration. .g. seat ejection • Wind tunnel instrumentation • Sensors for fuel efficiency and safety • Microsattellites • Command and control systems with MEMtronics • Inertial guidance systems with microgyroscopes. • Sensors and actuators for safety .e. arrays of single-shot thrustors. accelerometers and fiber optic gyroscope. • Attitude determination and control systems with micro sun and Earth sensors. inductors and oscillators. radiators and thermal switches • Communications and radar systems with very high bandwidth. low-resistance radio-frequency switches. continuous microthrusters and pulsed microthrousters • Thermal control systems with micro heat pipes. and micro variable capacitors. and electric generators • Propulsion systems with micro pressure sensors.
etc. annual production 20 million units/year. unit price $10 Catheter tip pressure sensors Sphygmomanometers Respirators Lung capacity meters Barometric correction instrumentation Medical process monitoring Kidney dialysis equipment Micro bio-analytic systems: bio-chips.Application of MEMS and Microsystems in Biomedical Industry Disposable blood pressure transducers: Lifetime 24 to 72 hours. . capillary electrophoresis.
Application of MEMS and Microsystems in Consumer Products Scuba diving watches and computers Bicycle computers Sensors for fitness gears Washers with water level controls Sport shoes with automatic cushioning control Digital tire pressure gages Vacuum cleaning with automatic adjustment of brush beaters Smart toys .
Application of MEMS and Microsystems in the Telecommunication Industry • Optical switching and fiber optic couplings • RF relays and switches • Tunable resonators Microlenses: Microswitches: .
Projected Market for OptoMEMS Unit: $million .
Micro Optical Switches 2-Dimensional 3-Dimensional .
4. 3.Concluding Remarks 1. 2. Miniaturization of machines and devices is an inevitable trend in technological development in the new century. (1 nm = 10-3 µm = 10 shoulder-to-shoulder H2 atoms). Despite the fact that many microelectronics technologies can be used to fabricate silicon-based MEMS components. There is a clear trend that microsystems technology will be further scaled down to the nano level. microsystems engineering requires the application of principles involving multidisciplines in science and engineering. . Team effort involving multi-discipline of science and engineering is the key to success for any MEMS industry.
End of Chapter 1 .
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