Compression Ignition Engine

2103471 Internal Combustion Engine

Diesel Fuel

Effect of aromatics and cetane number

Combustion in CI Engine In a CI engine the fuel is sprayed directly into the cylinder and the fuel-air mixture ignites spontaneously. These photos are taken in a RCM under CI engine conditions with swirl air flow

0.4 ms after ignition

3.2 ms after ignition

3.2 ms after ignition

Late in combustion process

1 cm

In general most of the combustion occurs under very rich conditions within the head of the jet.Combustion Characteristic Combustion occurs throughout the chamber over a range of equivalence ratios dictated by the fuel-air mixing before and during the combustion phase. . this produces a considerable amount of solid carbon (soot).

the higher the friction loss.Compression ratio limitations in CI engine • • • The higher the combustion pressure. The higher the sealing pressure. the higher the combustion pressure. and friction loss. the higher the sealing pressure. The higher the compression ratio. sealing pressure. .

Advantages and disadvantages of diesel engines Advantages • • • • • • • • Fuel Economy Durability Low HC Low CO High torque Reliability Low fuel cost Low maintenance cost Disadvantages • • • • • • • • Noise Weight High NOx High PM Low speed Low air utilization High engine cost Low exhaust temperature .

• Ignition triggered by compression heating of fuel-air mixture.Diesel Combustion Process Diesel Ignition Flame Front Propagation • Spontaneous combustion (auto ignition) due to temperature increase of reactants. • Ignition initiated at random point in combustion chamber • Fast combustion process • Less complete combustion process .

The Four stroke Diesel Operation .

DI and IDI Combustion chamber designs .

• Important Combustion Bowl dimensions • Straight-sided Mexican hat Bowl .

Features of Combustion Bowl Designs .

CI combustion cycle .

P-crank angle and P-volume diagram .

Valve timing events .

net heat release rate and cylinder pressure for a direct injection CI engine. Start of injection Start of combustion End of injection .In Cylinder Measurements This graph shows the fuel injection flow rate.

Heat release diagram of CI combustion .

Combustion of any unburned liquid fuel and soot is responsible for this. The fuel vaporizes and mixes with the high-temperature high-pressure air.Combustion in CI Engine The combustion process proceeds by the following stages: Ignition delay (ab) . the burning rate is controlled by the rate at which mixture becomes available for burning. The liquid fuel atomizes into small drops and penetrates into the combustion chamber. Premixed combustion phase (bc) – combustion of the fuel which has mixed with the air to within the flammability limits (air at high-temperature and highpressure) during the ignition delay period occurs rapidly in a few crank angles. Mixing controlled combustion phase (cd) – after premixed gas consumed. Late combustion phase (de) – heat release may proceed at a lower rate well into the expansion stroke (no additional fuel injected during this phase). . The rate of burning is controlled in this phase primarily by the fuel-air mixing process.fuel is injected directly into the cylinder towards the end of the compression stroke.

Four Stages of Combustion in CI Engines Start of injection End of injecction -20 -10 TC 10 20 30 .

Combustion steps in DI diesel engine .

. Good atomization requires high fuel-injection pressure. high cylinder pressure (large divergence angle). small injector hole diam. optimum fuel viscosity. fuel volatility. Physical processes are fuel spray atomization. Chemical processes similar to that described for autoignition phenomenon in premixed fuel-air.. velocity. pressure and temperature of the air. only more complex since heterogeneous reactions (reactions occurring on the liquid fuel drop surface) also occur. evaporation and mixing of fuel vapour with cylinder air. Rate of vaporization of the fuel droplets depends on droplet diameter. Both physical and chemical processes must take place before a significant fraction of the chemical energy of the injected liquid is released.Ignition Delay Ignition delay is defined as the time (or crank angle interval) from when the fuel injection starts to the onset of combustion.

For high cetane fuels the ignition delay is short and very little fuel is injected before autoignition. the heat release rate is controlled by the rate of fuel injection and fuel-air mixing – smoother engine operation. The ignition quality of a fuel is defined by its cetane number CN. . For low cetane fuels the ignition delay is long and most of the fuel is injected before autoignition and rapidly burns. under extreme cases this produces an audible knocking sound referred to as “diesel knock”.Fuel Ignition Quality The ignition characteristics of the fuel affect the ignition delay.

This has since been replaced by HMN which is a more stable compound.Cetane Number The method used to determine the ignition quality in terms of CN is analogous to that used for determining the antiknock quality using the ON. In the original procedures α-methylnaphtalene (C11H10) with a cetane number of zero represented the bottom of the scale. The higher the CN the better the ignition quality.e. shorter ignition delay. The cetane number is given by: CN = (% hexadecane) + 0. C16H34) has a value of 100.15 (% HMN) . isocetane (heptamethylnonane. The cetane number scale is defined by blends of two pure hydrocarbon reference fuels. HMN) has a cetane number of 15 and cetane (n-hexadecane. i.. By definition.

. The blend that gives a 13o ignition delay with the same compression ratio is used to calculate the test fuel cetane number.3 With the engine running at these conditions on the test fuel. the compression ratio is varied until combustion starts at TC. ignition delay period of 13o.Cetane Number Measurement The method developed to measure CN uses a standardized single-cylinder engine with variable compression ratio The operating condition is: Inlet temperature (oC) Speed (rpm) Spark advance (oBTC) Coolant temperature (oC) Injection pressure (MPa) 65.6 900 13 100 10. The above procedure is repeated using blends of cetane and HMN.

Cetane vs Octane Number The octane number and cetane number of a fuel are inversely correlated. Cetane motor method octane number . Cetane number Gasoline is a poor diesel fuel and vice versa.

The increase in the delay time with earlier or later injection timing occurs because of the air temperature and pressure during the delay period. Intake air temperature and pressure – an increase in ether will result in a decrease in the ignition delay. Increasing the load (bmep) increases the residual gas and wall temperature which results in a higher charge temperature at injection which translates to a decrease in the ignition delay.Factors Affecting Ignition Delay Injection timing – At normal engine conditions the minimum delay occurs with the start of injection at about 10-15 BTC. . an increase in the compression ratio has the same effect. Injection quantity – For a CI engine the air is not throttled so the load is varied by changing the amount of fuel injected.

Factors Affecting Ignition Delay (gauge) .

indirect injection is used where high swirl or turbulence is generated in the pre-chamber during compression and products/fuel blowdown and mix with main chamber air. . increasing amounts of swirl are used to achieve fuel-air mixing (deep bowl in piston) • For small high-speed engines used in automobiles chamber swirl is not sufficient. or one or more orifices. • As engine size decreases and engine speed increases. • For very-large engines (stationary power generation) which operate at low engine speeds the time available for mixing is long so a direct injection quiescent chamber type is used (open or shallow bowl in piston).CI Engine Types Two basic categories of CI engines: i) Direct-injection – have a single open combustion chamber into which fuel is injected directly ii) Indirect-injection – chamber is divided into two regions and the fuel is injected into the “prechamber” which is connected to the main chamber via a nozzle.

Types of CI Engines Glow plug Orifice -plate Direct injection: quiescent chamber Direct injection: swirl in chamber Indirect injection: turbulent and swirl pre-chamber .

DI and IDI Combustion chamber designs .

• Important Combustion Bowl dimensions • Straight-sided Mexican hat Bowl .

Features of Combustion Bowl Designs .

Direct Injection quiescent chamber Direct Injection multi-hole nozzle swirl in chamber Direct Injection single-hole nozzle swirl in chamber Indirect injection swirl pre-chamber .

General characteristics of DI and IDI Engines • Combustion Characteristics differences .

Combustion Characteristics differences DI Characteristics IDI Higher Higher Harsher Higher Higher Lower Higher Higher Heavier Peak combustion pressure Peak Combustion temp Combustion severity Rate of pressure rise Noise harshness Heat rejection Fuel economy Fuel system pressure Engine structure EMISSIONS HC CO NOx PM Lower Lower Harsh Lower Lower Higher Lower Lower Lighter Lower Lower Higher Lower Higher Higher Lower Higher .

Electronically Control SOHC Vs. Four stroke Turbocharged Vs.Other Types of CI Engines • • • • • • • Two vs. Naturally Aspirated Low speed Vs. On Highway Direct Vs. High Speed Mechanically Vs. Indirect injection . DOHC Off Highway Vs.

Interesting points about CI Combustion • Combustion delay lead to diesel knock • Fuel properties . cetane number is measured – High cetane number low octane • Fuel concentrated – no minimum fuel limit • Fuel quantity can control engine – Higher injection lead to higher engine output – no throttle thus higher part-load efficiency than SI engine • Poorer mixing – – – – require excess oxygen Minimum practical air to fuel ratio is 18:1 to 25:1 Improving with combustion chamber design Lower CO than SI Less power than equivalent SI .improve performance.

Functions of the fuel injection system Main Functions • Injection timing control • Injection quality control • Proper Atomization and Penetration Additional Functions • Pilot injection • Rate shaping • Post Injection .

Effects on Injection Controls Show effects of • Injection timing .

Effects on Injection Controls Show effects of • Pilot Injection and injection rate shaping. .

Effects on Injection Controls Show effects of • Injection timing • Injection rate control (IRC) • Injection Pressure .

Effects on Injection Controls Show effects of • Injection timing • Injection rate control (IRC) • Injection Pressure .

time .Characteristics of Injection pressure Injection Pressure Vs.

Types of Injection Systems • Pump-Line-Nozzle (P-L-N) .

Types of Injection Systems • Unit Injector (UI) .

Types of Injection Systems • Common Rail (CR) .

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Regulater Emissions from CI Engines .

Un Regulater Emissions from CI Engines .

Sources of HC .

Sources of CO .

Sources of NOx .

NOx Reduction Technologies • Injection Timing Retard • Intake Charge cooling .

.NOx Reduction Technologies • Injection Timing Retard caused lower peak combustion pressure thus lower maximum combustion temperature that results in lower NOx.

NOx Reduction Technologies • Effects of colder intake charge air on peak combustion pressure. .

NOx Reduction Technologies • Injection Pressure • Improved Fuel economy .

NOx Reduction Technologies • Injection Rate Shaping – Effects of Injection rate shaping on rate of pressure rise .

NOx Reduction Technologies • Injection Rate Shaping – Effects of Injection rate shaping on combustion pressure. .

.NOx Reduction Technologies • Injection Rate Shaping – Effects of Injection rate shaping and pilot quantity on emissions.

Effects of pilot injection on combustion noise .

NOx Reduction Technologies • Injection Rate Shaping – Effects of injection pilot quantity prior to ignition on emissions. .

– Effects of EGR on NOx formation. . – Effects of EGR on intake manifold temperature.NOx Reduction Technologies • Exhaust gas recirculation – Effects of various diluent in intake mixture.

NOx Reduction Technologies Effects of Injection Timing Retard Vs. Exhaust gas recirculation on Fuel consumption .

NOx Reduction Technologies This method may affect PM emissions as shown below: Effects of Injection Timing Retard Vs. Exhaust gas recirculation on Particulate emissions and composition. .

Effects of water emulsion on NOx emissions at various injection timing and compression ratio. .NOx Reduction Technologies Diesel with water Emulsion may be used to control NOx.

Definition of Particulate Matter .

Composition of particulate emission .

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Sources of PM .

Effects of Fuel Sulfur on PM distribution .

Effects of EGR on Particle size distribution

Comparison of Nanoparticle concentration between different combustion systems

Particulate Reduction Technologies
• Improved Air management – turbocharger for low speed high load conditions – Increased ait through turbocharger – Increased air by increasing density through air cooling

Particulate Reduction Technologies
• Improved combustion system
– Improved PM oxidation. – Improved mixture preparation through intake port design (swirl port) – Improved combustion system design

Particulate Reduction Technologies • Improved combustion system – Improved PM oxidation. – Improved mixture preparation through intake port design (swirl port) – Improved combustion system design .

Particulate Reduction Technologies • Improved oil control – Through cylinder bore honing (cross-hatch) – Through piston ring design .

Particulate Reduction Technologies • Improved injection system – – – – Increased injection pressure Optimized injector hole size Reduced nozzle sac volume Electronic injection control .

Particulate Reduction Technologies • Rated speed optimization – Effects of Sharp cut-off for end of injection .

Particulate Reduction Technologies • Reduction of sulfur in diesel .

Technology options .

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