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.U A . sound like [he most complicated subject there is.. . physics is so simple that anyone 'with a.rasp its unlimited wonders. ".. ~. -..g you a robust introduction to physics using nothing motif: advanced than .n~s lecrures-e-intensively Hillustrated with diagrams~ ammatrons..' e '--1'" .'..0[. . the fundamental science. " .. ." '.. · .~'lHEG REA'TCOURSIES'IP.glng ... -' .ap h S:"an.~~ . "" ''--. " •..' .ow I.x . 'f": .. ".' . .. -..." . Phys...hitgh. In 60 enthralling lectures.ness to learn.. and more.a al-S~lntro I = -. ·· ..proves that case'. _t= r world -. -.iveFse: . f 0' 'f Physics-Made Clear Physics is...7%. =.' '.-'····1 -' . eiecmcity an·d. h d . gr. d....~-~ ~·"v == =-Ii -- =.-..ooill atlgf:b. quantum theory.ics and 'Our Un.:--U' .'II . can g.....r=.... waling.=~ ==~. an' .- -" 'Offer expires 05/'101. ~ osciillati ianons an d waves.e.." .. explains how the universe behaves -~ UI~ an __ ~=!.'. 0-'0" .AIl Works .t. I' .. ]. .." . But it isn't In fae[. -1 ..... .H'... .-sch. I' '-'-" '-'-:"1 .'!f"_'I!r_ over O-. ·Wh·j.COM. .=~.' . . tnerrnouynarmcs. ·1· .''-..d: gives ~o :~...r~ '~l K~i3 ~=J.=. e· traordinary . . j 'id' . '.'1 ". . ~.uce '" .. .d. ma···I'.. . -.11 ..a. nlagn. VLSU.:./7sc. -< .ra~ Notedl physicist and Professor Richard 'Wolfso. givin. o' -: _ ' './'12 1-800-832-2412 'WW'W. ~ . .. r ' '.'e[lSm~ ' optics." • "".-.. p"OlN~r _.h er 'eng.- -(...'" you to scores of fundamental ideas related to Newtonian mechanics.. ... ~ .'.l.'-::-~'1P PJlv:~. .... ..

I. . ~ BIANl[(lID IIREC:liDR jO H NI Mil ~ILER P~IUS.• progr em on hlim that al~lllied on Oct.~UIL SM IrTH pawll.AIS~R:. e H/AIP ~ IIL 21] 12 I 5 C ~IENe E I Ll. a uthor also. I II .5112: 'V ICE P~IES ~mIENlm.d have ~identitAii~d kiUelll~The axe the = '= IP~. :2 OJ2'0 11.roorlp.II wouLd I['ike to mention the PBS N'ova 'VU:IE P~IE]) m[JIE~U~mmGlULL ...11.gr18tt hat we: ca Ullnot a nswer LJ n p ulb Iiis hed letters..A MID..INII)I S:UIS CRIPTION 1Q.rc!J:nD. [Jan uary.IlI~ElFFiltt.~ •• II.lunacy of MalltJ1~la 4: IIM AI~ n terra for m ing~"Pred ators" P'llea se seli1l~leUelrs b} the ediitnr to II. 1111111 •• '!! ..ID L.R' A MAINDA GHU C. ~ i IDiEjli':[J.of the piece on Otzi in Science ijlpdat~..1Ii""'!6I' ng U'!G' .AIRl IDI RltliOlR EM I u E WH ITCOMlE..[)"i[: n M .1IJ. ft= SCIIEINGE IU US.A~JLAlNBAGG£Stj.'1I1I rl'~ 1I.s ~i~h@bo.F] EN S I[ MArI[HIIIES~NI ~IU1li'1ill tLil rlll~~IU~'III1!~-E' -DI~-lllji1ll I"':IH. · - _ "'.~ Uz@rpma:ssoc_c. lice AglB Murdle!r In l~'ght.1.: 'Vlie [ P~I[S i~IENII C IlR~IOIR I.2012] says that there is sn absence of gravity on the ISS.JPiI'pn '61' ~ i .A:SSIOIC TES'r IIETRmmm LI Z SC HWI~IIHlO fER I.~rou nIId.-~"! ~~'Lr. The.:91::"11 I •••• 1111.~om.tems '1 he joxtaposition of' '~'A New Eirar~ ut sbo .cal.A.' ~I-I-I:S.E AG REIEiME~T WITH E1lQiN~IIIE PUBLI CAliIIOINS.· Co (u~. AJRT IDIIU~'ffi'IDIR ~ANNI~ BO PIIC:T~WlIE EmllirlO R:S.utd'~r.bonnie. Y .. water is the on[y one of which the Uquid state ~5 heev ler th an the sol[id. lFull[er &..· ~~"'II'I r.E:s.. USE1TH BRO NINIIICHI. 1I1I!!-11 .] inadvertently show'S t he..C UHV E 0f'FIIC'EIR T E~\R¥ SNOW C.as left behnd ~ Researchers also.IO RAWEIRPM .ArUI~[. C:Ill1NS:UlMIER MIAIR KIEnNGi BIRUCE MIU E~ 'V lie! P~IES i[tlIEHI'~ PRI~ilIlcnDIM LISA IEARILYW~NI[ 'V'll(: E P~IES~mIE!U~ ~INFIOMAnn NI rEle~N!OUi$1' SHIA'WN ILARSO R NI 'VIIGE PRIES ~mIENlm.ifiIIDN:S. though not immediately fatat. G~oIk~"g1i.I_" (_" ~"" ~. III I L . C'O!PY' EII!'ffi'~1 CASSANIDRA P. R-·· I •.IN\·'-~f-iR·.e'ighth:!._ ':_." Centrifugal fore e.LIES: MAJrf HIC~A.II •• 1I..T~IID!NS.~from sustai iliaoily malliagied forests am d OOllifOIII@d W~ IT:@~. ICU:5Tm M ER S ERV~iCE . I: IMARIK~TI MG PETIE ~~IICHALSKY pete_mf:Ghals!~P/@.E •• I II •. Otii was not running from anybody.an Appli:cations: by Fuller. ecosystem single-handiedll:y" The 2009 research by '~~'Or ng th eoEa rth Aboard the ISS~~' biti C eilltrlifuga~.AIR b. 21217 .S9-~-763 GiR!DJIj~ IP'ROIDI~C. create a livling" self-susteinog ecosystem ona SIENIIIOREID ITOIR' BEC~. oree CorporaUOD C:ImAIR:M AMJO~lS 80~NIIE. IEA$iIr P.ai I Preferences.C:I]1RPrIDIRAU ICIDIMMIUIN~IC:AiF ilIiN$: DEAN TUiROOll.e hope to. The conclusion.'II'I.. E:KIE.. k As an ad diitli 0 na [ point of ~ rest. 3. FOR."I.t~UlmlY' ~ AUR.!pII'-!I was left b~h~indfor the sarne reason.¥ SfRA us'S .AILMIEH CI!IJNi~IIIBIU'T'IIMIQM.TRAfEID IS PH BUSHIE D U ND'ER UCENS. Red deer live in Europe and el[k in North America.-. IV. I ••••••.1111 !I.n mlienc~rp"co'I1n:. 1111111.eoppler axe a hig h-value item 'w." . ".AVER11CHlIIE. I Flragiii le :IIICOSYS. This is what rna ke 50 th ings OIrb~it'i mn the spac€ ng station w._"'IJi-il."t-yn.ercorp.points out the underestimated complexity of Earth"s ecosystems.9'=5 ]37C QiR'IU R ~UE $AIES.Ano NS R CO-PlEINHAGEN" D'ENIMAIRK. 40lf:571-4·86:5 ! 11 lI.AIM.roo F[p. the.2:7 ~89411S.mn..~om.1! I II""! I II . __ ". Ieckson C'ariisl'!e'.1"L.3 2142=023 5m terreforrnng Mars andl "Top Predators in Clrllisis'~ [January/February 2012. There a re lin 'fact other compound 50 'w~rtha [ower den sity a s a so [id th a n a s a l~iqu'id" the most wel~[ nown being bismuth...A THIE MlA.'. R:ijF [[li~IREICTIO IIGI~T'A $:~.i n:s@b Olmnie.IB.C TOIR: ~Nn:.cem'es..Accord~ing to that program ~ t}ti~'. arrow shaft was pulled out because iit 'woul~..-\onny Pri ~-n@! -e.I. I I• . IROIB. IE=m.. :5lJrv~-y .eU'f.- a I .r'l<r·· sao B'. Texas ! • ..R.TED 1m E:NM1RIK Lewistan~New York the Prleda.. The. s.etters@sciielnoe iIllus. caused by revolv ~ ...•• remote.Q~~'v'eFi@lb~n!i1lr. How can w. ~!i! III .5"1 ca I~ 386=597'=4.'.21:21779-._ •• 1.. co PVRllGHrr 2~H 21BONN IER PH B LIIG..~E $ALJ[S.s·-t one an..ed "com" We Ire.'..11 U.James F.- III !II AIDVIER:~nISI~N~'S~lES.111 ••• 111111 •.EIR' GEN(RALC~~N~ElJE~EM~lHOMPSQN scientist Mic. They are not.ncluding Hum'.A WALIUR 1iJl~IREICT'IO IUillm1iOlflIAL 0 PEIR A1Ii~10NSIT).. sc len ceulustreted ..iliIDN. ' •• ~.U STRA 1IiIE. the author . we already have? Jerry Biarrax Sherman..2 ]2n7~=5 W6 CIRP. DII R. '.lorp-com!.. .___::... 'GR~'GrG R_ I~AN(:l 'V IIGE PRIESmmIENlm. one he knew. murdered -lbY' someO E~n OIR-I~N=~ H IlE. ~'mj4.f:~T HOOC KJ PAli RIC~. .ha~l Kauffiman indicates . :SAlES... N:QiliAIRO~ mol liP IPARH..O':.. Letters m tW' be ~:dite:d for length er daliiity.11111 !I•••• ! 1111111. tzi 'was.f""I.11 •• 11 1 11"" •• ' •• iJ •• - 1.. Dij'I.n:.HII NIGC:OINSIffiL1U~IMT MARTlllN 'S. C:IiI~IEIFE:XE.A:SSIOIC bl'TE SA~IDIRA PATINO DIE. The co nseque nces 'in the food chain a ndl the env iron ment from the dlim~1n hing of' a few species u nde ris scores the 'interconnectedness of nature.iD'-I(!T--IIiIM n . ) BO' 111 1111•••• '. 'SIMIKII NS billll_s·illiffi~. mi IS301il@-bDliilnie.tors illl PIBril kiiiUer.C:!lIlRPcIOIRliE ~ALIES' ED IBAlKE~ A ed" b a ~eW@bolii ni.388 or w\Fit~ to Sc iellll~ II~I ustrated ~ lPa~ COB'SitI' fL..ilrlleIIANlI.r D :r.onm . _" I". Las.1 .. nte bisrnoth is found ~'n active egent the II JJ of PeptQ=8'~smoL ..M. barren planet if we are unable to manage the one.rr. same species. MARTI N IISAIL'OS NllI. [Janu8lry I Februa ry.. __ 1_ ". 1 II 11111111111111111. S.iq u ii'dati 0n In By the Numbers [Jaouary/February 2012] yo U 5 tate that "Out of ml~l[ion5 of chemical compounds.IRP'IO HAUfE~JU. un ~I~ fIi kl i\i"--:~I~IU" nl ~ ~ Iil U li~ ~ J11~ LUrtt.re:!1da .. C'olorej'.._ PIET ER ESE RHtA RIOT li When I received the Jan uary If"eb.iUL S\AlE.i. w'AJL~.sarrow' wound w'as deep enough to be lethal..SIlIr. LIEnERS This pt-odl!i(t li. D. uses th e te rms '~eUcn and "red deer" interchengeebly SIS though they Olre the.~M. M... impression that the reintroduction of wolves in Yel~[DWS1[One is restoring the.key Howard f.il . ~1I~IIIIIIl)'l"'IHI<-r~1I ~~II'IHI"r. Physics .~om.ANt iAL OJ"'I CER RANltttA LL KOUII3 [~ SIENI!IOIi'V'I C E '1st ES:IIDENiIr~~0~IPIO R:~.5s.a 1l.ed-ators 'in Crisis. 1111101 .1III1U. Paonia.do site t he force of gravity.irrIEDI sm NIG IBIIUNIDA 0 LlIVERI M.IID EIU DAVE IFREYGArI4G L. l much murkier picture. r.. Indiana' YmJI can a lso p..IllIIES.It-' he E~rt lhU.AI~A--ItNIN SC HIANO i r. ..0 12'1~. B i~~i Iilg a nd AcOOlillnt: status g() to'..G R.Etlml8 • WEST C OIASm VA NESSA rhli LSSOIN vallill!ssa. but his . Chalnges.S ml~REC'TOIR IBIU.A. gives..~uary :201:2 issue" I turned f rst to "lop Pr.. .NI R:. found evidence of blu nt force trau rna to the back of his head.tlrait:. lIilOi III!! f'llllllil !III' p. I .l •• llll •••• 11 • . possess ion wo uld have identified seliE NeE IllUllSIR A.CUrnV E ~iIRIE..I.com! 212/779-5251 M.~ ~~'I ~ iII~'~"I'1 I!~'I I'll -IIIII!. . II' •• 11.1'5"1I)'I1I1'1i l'r~"I"~1! ·'11'1 ~I'''')'I'I .' iUI '!G. ACIllVi IIN'WEIR E:Sli NIITW'IiIJIR:IK SIENlilO IiVI CE '18 ES.~x 42023.T~IINl [tI1~IEC TIniR DEFIF GASSEU PRlmlU p~lomlU I eno N DII11EIC110lR eno ~ !I 1111 •• A M Ie HIE~ILE IDOSlilE R .~ u.!I'e. d ~-I -. FuUer states" "The grsviteti anal force at th at altitude is reduced by onl~y about ten percent. The shaft of the arrow wa 5 pulUed out. L •• I nlllllll.. such as Renewals'l Address." F~irst.l Februa ry 2.

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may be at home in your starn ach right now. This bacteriu m is present in patients with chronic gastric problems and has been linked to gastric ulcers and cancer.AYERS 0 OF the Helicabacter pyloribacterium shown in this J colored-transmission electron micrograph (TEM). . though 80 percent of those intected are asymptomatic. pylori occu r in up to 50 percent of people throughout the wor d. Colon ies of H.

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OF THE World Wildlife Fund's Black Rhino Range Expansion Project.11 2 I .:2 . seven new rhino habitats have been established across South .Afr.ato protect the· critically endangered animals. helicopter from the Eastern Cape to the Limpopo prevince.ic.N. suspended sleeping rhinos tha n other relocation methods" 5 C mENeEl LLU ST'RA J EDJI: 0 M ~ MAI~~C~ IAlfl' ~llll 101].DON'T LODKNDW AS PART . Uncomfortable as it may leok. Last .ovember. 1'9 South A'f"rican rh inos were transported via. the 1O-min uta fl ight is aetna lIy less stressful for the.

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In his quest to create a topological insulator .TINYTDPIC RICE UN I'VERSITY physicists have created a tiny "electron superhighway" that may somedav be used to build a quantum computer. which will use quantum particles in place of the digital transistors found in today's microchips. un iversitv's clea n room. SCI ENCEI LLU5.l'RATElJtCIOMI I MAI~'C:~/APRIIL 21c]12 1113 ._ a vital component .Rice graduate student Ivan Knez spent h u nd reds of hours mod ifying ti ny pieces of sern iconductors in the.

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.. healthier than their sedentary counterparts. .c Iill LTU RE UBA '" LIVING C:DULD CAUS'E L:IFELDNG STR:ESS covered that l~lvingin Ibig cities maryaffect 'the braiin. mice hed ~..t a st ro [1a M ts. The' mic. the 500 scientists had some of the mutant ml~IC e run for 45 minutes three times a week from thre!e' months of age onward. .g .Ice Running Prevents III suffering rnltochondria DNA mutations. L.1 i' I : MiEDIC:liNE T:~ :~i~.~rmation.. and none died ear [y~End urance tral n~ing coul[dI possibly prolong the. a nd the clo ads reflect the SIJ n's r. . first time .~ice:~ to test the effects of exercise.e with the mutation .1/_ their own genomes.afte'r a le n g .jrigula te cortex WINE U -'lP GIRAPES AND ASTRONAUTS correlated with the length of tim e the person lived in .~ T-I). orotects aga inst bone loss a nd i nsu~i resista neen conditions that COLI Id. a com pou nd fou nd n red wine. The. urban li'fe may make peop [Ie more \J ulne rab[e' to the.Ii.g._I ~ ~ '::fI I).. :::!I'U!e ~ici '1. II ::ii i_:. ~Jve5. age prematu ogi C l fue . ~e 1I1I u. Largef-scale studies conducted on c'ity dw'ell[ers . and 'j actlvity 'in the perigenua [ a nteri or c.gh[~y susceptible to mutetions: experiments on enimsls have demonstrated that mitochondria DNA mutations can cause early aging sind deeth...peri od ~n spa ceo The co m POLl nd could be added to astrona uts mood in the tutu re.. m'ltoe.get sick.__ In I'.it big c ily as . evaparatien increases cloud 1.h cause early aging.yhave.aht!1 months of. dis- subjects as they' solved timed math prob tern 50 and have confirmed that evaporation from trees a ~d pia nts cools the Earth.. thereby reducing globa i wa rm in.l! 1'"-9"::iiC· -. wh~iclhare h i.~ QI~~ :~ .o. ege they w~rl~'far ~. n 0'1 1 ~ U'n' _ L:: 11 -l /g any A· ng In Miiiil ······.8 group of Canadian and Arnerican scientists has linked the two lines of research in an experiment 'w'ith mice r1ely an d die Ie'sr lier th a n nor rna l m. concurrent studies on humans have show n that endu ranee tr ain ing cain improve health and prolong life" Now~for the. affec. - sufferi ng from rare m'itoc hand ria d iseases. When the. corretated w'lth the size of the city th e test taker l~jV'edn... c~~ate scientists m received negative feedback from the.~rs1rt.over a long period of time are needled to confirm the findings. and that people contin U~ to react negative [y to stress even after moving away. Activity in the amygda la~an area ~nvolved in negative emotions such as fear.. t. .ays back ~nto space. f children o .. wh~ic.C!:~d~:n~e~:I~:!~~:~houses [II.. test admiaistrators. Experi ments have slno'wn that resveratrol. ."!I.~I~ .. . gli..._-I0JII d[ r-i ci L-. negative consequences of stress.. The researchers monitored the Ibra~'nsof test I 8 1 cientis ts from Hleidel berg Univ.8 ch~ The stu dy suggests that [[d..

~ a~Iong the ea ste rn .------_ . that Us. 5~ the gyrfalcons had to work harder for ..I northwestern Greenl-and. 50 fair doctmented in 48 gynf~:d. These vast areas sire 4 Scores bysund on the sesbl rds fro m ice bergs and pack ice.()i G-. 1111 __ > ol:'"ni~ k..on~'.sf~archers th ~nk that the he. ". .gen! u 'The wearer also experiences an extreme load on his legs.-- :(ll'ill_ d a 11--. w1h~c a [lowed th e h Scores bysul nd area' _ .c_'.lR'ATE[JtCOMI .mrnn itij re~: o S~mrnealcons had 1 . There.€! dramatically.... the 'Tal[cons hunt black guilternots. ILocati 0 Ii1 of' 'falcons dil!lr-ng the~ month IS I MARC H/A. olo I out to sea to hunt.n~ .' falcons spent all their time on land..y".P~IL '2'01'2' I SCI ENCEI LUJ5.. t'h. The brds w€r€ fitted w'itn sateUite bransm ittsrs.57'0 squa re m il[.!' . but diu rlng Greenland's Long t WI.n-er.ey h u"ted p rle.:I( 'II~_ til.. using areas of between 10~350 and 24~57 square miles. scientists thought that '-.!p .\I.._=' gists from the University of Oxford have rec:el~:Ve Isa tellite docum entation that d some G rlsen:[andie .avv armor caused the' larger and betterequi pped french a rm'y to lose to the.ob iI i ty. I u - I 'I' A.a it year. and that the birds O:IT1~Y briefly ventur~dI _I_'~ _ '_-'~La V. the ornithologists captured scentists have.. which mea ns that the ~11 scles get less o~. I .ig hi of:the arm o r tr~ggle rs 'fast and supedicial breathing. rl"e.cDn:s ~In ree Greerls ndic locations th connection with birds of prey.lli .RUARV 21~05rz Ka nge rlussuaq in central..e 0 n the east coast. Satell lte._. 8'u. su bj eet tilsis rep Iii c.. now :. Re. FEB. we. The tests dem n nst rated th a t t. 25.' .eas:iily. French forces had to struggle through mud en route to the batt le. Engl ~sh in the Baff~e 01 Ag:h~court' on Oct.h e. '.. th ey t' -urn t th e sea .air~I!. 'Once. east coast..: coast ornithologists to follow thei r movernents ..n g nets.' . pa &~ iee from whe ~~ • ::r. 1415 lhe. Th e blrds on the west coast werle eb le to fin d foo dI in areas ranging from jus t 146 to :2.II!.ats:d m IBid~IH13 I a rmlill ron a 'tre illdinll iII~ Falcons alr'e terrestrial birds.. the informston from satell ites was received ~the scientists not only 1[learnedi that the . w'h ich OOltSJ dera b Iy re d uees h ~s m. including Thu le in ~ .consspend part of the w~nter at sea. ... fa[cons were seabi rds in the winter but also that the SCO~:)f~' wi nter h unting varied of qu'it.. '[ .gyrfal~. 1-0.I .. _.' central. among the ~rgest w~inter hSllbltats.~. f western Greenland an d falccns located (]!Ill ~ velnJft u red Olurt on the: II .- AR'CIHAEOLDGY HEAVY ARMOR KNIGHTS 'he weight OTJ EXHAUSTED the armor of med leval kn ig hts m a:y have ~n1'1 uenced hi ste tV) a C·(:O rd in g' to sc iewrtists at the Un iversilly of leed sin th e United Ki'[]g:dlJm~ 'who have tested subjects wearing replicated medieval armor on tread m i~ ls.:j!.g:rou nd which eha usted them r a~d the [Engl~sh oven::ame them ..' I!!!! ntl'[ recently. ducks and other food.


e aqua web's structure allows it to function in almost the same 'way as the . the fl b oti c sphBlre s~t:s.SCIENTIST'S IOF THIE CIDMMDNWEALJIH..ND INDIUISTR~AL RESIE.E INI DNE y'EAR~. ~nterne.tf)nl~ e.LIDW T." Scientists previously thought that the spider needs d to reple nIsh the airevery 20 to 40 minutes.ected fro m th e S'U n as we U. underwater. The compounds are also passed on in the food chain .he.Australian be'am of scientists bas demonstrated that one refill can last up to 24 hours. PI CA.3U::IB. IS I MARie H/APRIL '2'012 I SCI ENCEI LLUSTRATEIJ~CI[]MI .I[rav fol et rays. Th.S ew research has shown that the diving .at K~~g~s Colh:.rtry to remember ·tth~n.The helicopter sphe re travels at a spe ed of .erman-.giUs of fish. can remain Immersed far up to 24 hour's at a time without coming up for air.j ntormation Con seq uent I'It sc lien~iS[S say.RE.3:'?' mph. the Internet functions as a 'kI n d 01 estern a I me m a ry. easi Iy accessible . _bell spider.i Ii1 its i TECHNOLO!GV A~~:~~~~. seto J apanese Mi n~istryof Defe nse ~An onb oard vid e 01 carnie ra t rans mits live images of wh steve r the be ~11'''s~a pled 'whiite ba s. but now a G.fish that ea teo rail s a reo plrO'~.e~ helico pte r sees. A. or ~. the internet has cha nged the way people use lheir mem:'~ry. n 'Web s u tiers are r h oweve r. 'which lives. Ac'cordijng to scientlsts.~'~~~~~emay soon be finding its walY through the narrowe st pa ssages to trapped victims of natural d isasters.at reln a m bed n g whe re to fi nd the .is desig ned to bounce back and co 11=.ZOOLOGY SUNSCREEN Stlentiists .Ih e d iSCiJ.N T. ell nd the s phere- sh aped ca ge enca sing' the fl[yin g dron€! protects the camera. ground or encoun- ters other obstacles on iits path .gs that are. II:sth at p rotsct t. THE INTERNET u.NIZ.ge. The sphe lie. Th e re I1liQittl.C0 mtroll h!ld Iheli C Il!I pte r is SUllrnJIU Idied by a IC:.IL.t users no ~onge.~n te n don have d scove red eo m pou nd s P H~u ced n stu ra iIy d by cor. SIC:IENTIFIC.r(fivingbeH. go 0 d . The diving bell spider breathes oxygen trapped 'in bubbles at the surface. which N A PILL it stores ina silk aqua web.very offers hope th 8'~se lientsts will so on be tfb Ie '~Od. ti nue its ffight ~ift hits i the.~~e~~. The fj[yi ng sphe re was ~Inv~nt@d the J apanese research by FI YING ROBOTIC SPHERE TO HELP FIND BURIED V~CTIMS engineer FUlm~yul~di of the.ATIOIN CONCLUDIE~ 8.ghts.m fro m the s u n's 'U .evei 0 p sunscreen I~il~s.s. in that it c ollects oxygen di rectly from the water and adds 'it to the bubble 'when the oxygen inside drops to a [ow level. CHANGED BY MEMORY SEED'S CA.AY UNDERWA FDR 24 HDUR.etwlele n II i'.ARICH OIRIGA.IN :SE PRI][]UICEDI BY A SINIGLIE GREY W.

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IF .8 nd-_'. hold 01 pproxirnately the sa rne body tempe rature .e'gre {e.oven:!d that gia nt sa uropods......'~ . sue h as the b rac hiosa u rus.".e IF~... Brachiosaurus branca.gree 5 IL .= a m~iner it S found in bone =.a nd carbon isotopes ~in the bios petite . '~'-'.'~' ..' 'u e.s IL' r. The sinsilyses 'Show that the ·anilm·a!s had body temperetures .1 teeth from two sauropod species. a' _. .-.~.. .as modern hurnans.'. . II Ive -":11 1 A Tooth Reveals Warm Dinosaur Body Temperatures 2D I MARCH/APRIL 2:1J12 I SCI'ENCEILLUSTRATED. The sde ntists measured the concentration of oxyge n .PALEOiNTOLDGV tea m of scientists 'from the eoilliifornia Ill1Ist'~tute 'Iechno logy in Palsoldena has of d~isc.C ... -~'. 9 -6: 3-" '.f 1:0:'0 'S.espec Jt-~... 'cc" ~ .·':-~-'ly.'.' and Ca·marasa·urus. ·d·.. 'in 1..


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One' key' to expanding your math potential-e-whether you're a corporate executive' or at ll,m,gh:-sch.oo] slude,F.]r(-,H"es in the power to petfo,nn mental math calculations, Solving 'basic math problems in your head, offers life'illong benefits including a competitive e,dg,e at work, at more active and sharper mind) and, improved performance on standardized tests,
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Yeilowsto ne N,ationi],IIPa rk w,a siesta bI ished in 18'72'1'

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VanJ'11 die plo:Sii'ls ,Int I1lalde iUlP If' IIig hI' an d d,1 r'k Iialylers~ 0 n I IIight: ,8 nd 0 iiie dark, l,aY'lelr sign ifj es a ,s,ing)1 6: ',ein~.,

some 3,47.5 sq uare 1m~les a nd is 'Vli:si'tt.ed by more th a n 3 m~IIion people a ye,a.r. The park ;1'5known tor i~,srich 'fa una a ~d geotherma ~ phe~o~nella such as the Old Fa ithfu ~g,eyse'r.;

n some cases, sedime ntary mate r~i,t31lis so finely layered tha t indivi d ual Yle',ars ca n be di see rned. Thes e strata 8 re C 81Uedv srves, SI term deriveo from '5---9d·sl.\...~,and oii"'~g"·nal'll-u~~. to.,''.'~~'. ~ '~II the fine describe !II~' . ll ~'6,'W'~ .I-~ '.. " •.•• !III ' _llt:y - - sed strata sedments ~ nice Age lake s. Classic: varve strate consist of nine laryers.of sand and clay, wliith alternating llght and dark layers; toget her" the two layers represent a single yea r, The color d~fference is seasons l. and is csu s.ed by the, differing texture of the materials, w'ith the [i,ght clay being coarser t han the dark, The, light larye r ~5deposited during the sum mer" when meltwater 'transports mlat,~r'ia[to tJh,€ lake, linthe wiirit'~IIi~ lallk~,wiU D€ the
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The C:O lor of li_ghtn;1 ng depends on the, weather and the surrou n~ i ng a ~r,Ra ~nin the clou ds produces. reddish i!i ghtn ing h,a ill creates blue ~i'ghtning and dlusty air prod aces ,ye,llo,w ~i ing,;, Wh'ite ghtn ~ ighln iog is a. sign of low h ~mid i'~y,and th u s it is the, kind that ca uses fi,res.


On iEarth, solar eel ipses OE:GU r when the moon passes by the: su n (seen 'from Earth} and fru ~~y r partie ~!Y' o pn::ve nts sun ~i g ht 'fro ~11re'3c hi~,g pa rts of! the p,la net. Those in the centrel p,art of the, S hadow1 which is ca lled the um bra, experlence a tota I solar eel ipse. Those ln the penu mbra see a partia II so lar eclipse.

Varve deposits harv,e been used to establish long chronologi c{3ll['i me segments, rna ki ng ~it[)it)SS ible to. t 1 date events v,ery precisely, For example, researchers can determine the, starti ng point 0 nd the duratio n of past vol[canic eruptons, IBy study~ing the pollen content ~in varve ~it's a[50 possiole to find out how the vegetstion bs s changed. In the studly-of climate change" VBlN,S is an mportant indicator of the ctmate of the past, 'Ioday, aU,sedimentary deposits with a seasonal pattern are ca[[edl varve.

Why Are the Lights Turned Off in Airplane Cabins d urin"g. Ta ike'o"'f"-f"-- . .. . ILa""..- nd 'g" at N""'·Ig" ht? and 1\.1 .'.1 . •.....
..._ ..n the ollir as well~,as for a few m'inutes before I[,and~ing~ is is done to help, both the, i Th passengers' and cabin crew's night vision adjust to. the darkness, Passengers must. be a bl[e' to. s.ee the lit-up lines on the floo r wh en ,exlit'ing 'in the event of a n elmer.gency, It is not nee essery to turn off' residing lights, beceuse they are '..._ _ .... too. weak to. affect people's night, vision,

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,ab~in I[ights are tYI[)i ca Uy dlim rned as, an ai rpla ne' ta >de50 to ttl e runway and until ~l is

but. . .: i~h::a~~."r.111 the ski n's rna ny cell.kj'n:u . and the fluorescent tubes typically €'mit 10 to 15 times as many UVA rays as the midday sun. Ihowever~some a bserption.~ -+!I".~~III iI~. freQ uendes. mean ing that radio. Two Types of Tans UVA RAVS caus.o waves have f'req ueneies . "I! Ii !l"1l .1 . 1I •• '... but t. per second. stimulate the SKin to generate more m uc h 'S tro nge r u lt ravi olet rad iat ion th an the sun. it may seem as though most of the tan disappears.5 .THROUGH 'WALLS? 'C'-A"'N":'· R·····A-· D'.very fa r fro m the reson a nce. ~+ .. wh ic h may' be a:bse rbed by' mum a! ra i:ny weather Ihis is a pro b I. Radio waves lyplc..t hat a re.: •• ".' .' •• ' ••• iI ••• lllri •• 111 •• '11 •• 1111 11111 •• • 'IIi. 'f'req uenlcy of' the electrons in the wait The 'waves thus oniy transfer a R EP'IDERMI:S 'taln 3Ift. •• ro:l • 'I! Ii •• l1li11 .·~. IBul: iiI: wiiill dis. "II'. Ii'.g.em f.. it may seem like the tan has been washed off."1'11. " -.' •• . however.. Can a Suntan Be Was ed Off? iI'IIlI .it true for normal sunbathing? . ThJ'Sis. !I'~ "11".l:bratio~s.".. 'ma ke co nt a C'E W ~'th [11' atter. the result wH[ still be visible several months later.a very S~..ti nl Ii iigmle!liIt tOI darken Thus I' "IOU ge!! al II i--~~ Horn cells ad ill waves.. iight or ra dle waves..quEmcy af ngh·t waves is close to many atoms resona nee freq ueneies. The fre. Of th ose~only the top layer.. and ~:t ay ta'ke two to th ree days to get go ing m _.caus:e tlilll~ . th us tra nster len er.. layers.! lexjj s.nera~e _ e s_ ___ 't:~1..IIJ J..he effect is short-lived and disappears after three to 24 hours. the: spri n. The same g~es for h igh-freq ue ncy r-ad i0 'waves. or fewer than 1019v.fIf. ca n travel t!hrough wal ls that absorb 31111 i ght.~1i . correspond ~n.~-~:..e!u a 'fiew h(u!llrs". ••••••••• 11111. Because these rays create a very' short-lived tanning effect.. the electron reacts al mosta s .gy to ii t Radi. Ught h a s fn~Q ue nc ies of' severs I ~undredl~z.~.9V€." . I! II 'I! "0:111 I have heard that a tan will partly disappear ifyou shower w'ithin20 minutes after using a tanning bed~Is that true? Is.atanning bed produces words.. •••• riI ••• Ii •• 1'11 ••• 11 ••••• 11.']" . . but in fact It has not. just a few hours after using a tanning bed+ If a shower is taken during this time.or m a ny m.if ~twere sitting on 'the end of a sm a i~ n..a Ily have frequencies under 1 GHz..' <'. '. Consequent~y~ the light qui c kIy tra IIsfers energy b] t~e atom s and! is absorbed. and ~fymj push a. even a small push can have a great effect ~1'ron the other hand. There ls.'.riI.g fre. 1I..!I •• "..ncy~ it is very ha rd to make the spring vlbrate and... ".I'11~~ . 'vibrations per second. The light from . When electrornagnetlc waves.apIP. recepton call be poor in places ~iketunn els. i h+.oalr' i'n 'Ulree ta.. UVA rays will almost immediately make the skin's existing pigment change color and become darker. you cannot wash off a tan. Nevertheless..0( :2:: 3 UVB RAYS .'.DW process. •• 11111. such as. II. iI 111."In". When a wave. The UVB rays. In other T ~:n~:~a~~~~:~~. S uch as a wal ~~ cause the matter's they electransto vibrate. a ta n tihalt.. because ~ight waves and radio W."'1'11'..ails.Et_ __ mlln-: p iig)lil116:llt Diver a 'few days~ The! re fUJIlit is. pigment. makes contact with an atom contai ni ng electrons..~dem sate ~Iites ~ which use :stm higher freq uencles to q u'ick~ytransfer large quantities 01' data..:~~~!~g . which consists of dead cells.S have d:ifferent treq ueneies. can be washed or sera ped off..~uIEmcy..1 •• 1iI.q ueney is fa r frum the resonance freq ue.IIO"" H WAVES TRAVEL IO"'W_"."1''' ".'rll Ii. Iiaists 'hl'li m I nIh! II .~y ess even throu gh th ick w.. skin reacts differently to the two different types of ultraviolet rays 'found in sunlight and tannmg-bed lights. 24 h~uJllrs~ srnal I a mau nt of energy'to the ato msan d tra veil mo re or ~ f ree. spring whose treq U e n cy is c:1 tOi t he resa n arlee ose fre..Ai~ spri springs have resona nee.g'[0 1014.

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..'aYI sa. •I~ II!! I ~ I I I~ t ~ "I . I . i II ~ ~ .actil. '. a II glaciers are. On~ partleu la r d inoTlag:€.. . 'W'IIIC.." " 1'1' - - - -- - -- WHAT IS A I_ "~.' -II d J' mosquito species. t I I J' ~ l ~ insects that react quickly.en th e rai ndlrrops wh e n it rain 5 rightly" This is ."~ ~.'. _~ CO' LD-'" G-'L"AC" I ER '} II •. malny sre able to. However. I I . " . .er. Not surprisinglY'~ most fl[ymng insects seek cover when the.an ants do not have a Q ueen. I .y w~iU.. ".. I hard and redu oe visibi liity.l Iii Obv~ousJy. fI" " "' ' ca n" move .' I'" 'I' I I'" I . .I ..•Sh.l I I ~ ~ I J I I~ .especi.! f I '- i J- I I ~ ~j .6.ge 'in. I ~ . It is ca used ~y monecell u lar or. '. J .. ..Y I:ook for 'food ~~d i\f~d ua lJy. Moreov. .. espeeia I~'Y' when its subjected to mechaniea I stim ulation.an be up to 1.~~!:~~'~~ ~~:=~~:~. I i.angry..S on c'II.~late. Ihese Sout~ Americ. . I II[ WHICH ANT IS THE WORLD'S LARGEST? Ibe South American ant D. I .WHAT IS PHOSPHORESCENC'E1 . almost aU insects th at have no' sought ·1 shelter ere knocked to. h are gooc at ~ . '.8 re d ry. N. . D h en omeno III ~~ at. . entire tou ndation along wi'[h it.I animal we'ighs more than a dry one. But 'i n h earvy ra in."".. i. th e' gro und I where they eith er die 0 r take f[jgh~ • aga inon ce' they . ~ ~i I I ~ .occu rs In t'-h e "" sea. Spec i mens c. by a fe'w' rai ndro p s.ra gig en tea is the g la nt Df the a rl'TI world.:sf~:~~t How Can Small Insects F y 'in the Rain!?1 j I j .'" . .I ~ ~ ~ ~ ._ ...sects cal n resis t be ing hit . .c~r~9ir1 ~ '"" • h. such as that from ."'.. _. inches long.. $0 the.g'ravel ~but It w~~~ talke~the. KrrlOWn ~or " its ~urn i rescence.~ ~ Phespborescence is a ~ig'ht i .aUy true for srnslt "dancing" through the air~Sim~8ll[ insects that reset sl[owl.i~ndlro s p w h'ile la r. ..U'ca miUaris is.. n d or . co:l'd but glaclers that are frozen to the bed rock are called "cold glaclers.ga n isms that em it Iight. . . navigate bet we .' . rain comes.: ..howeve r ofts III Ibe' knee ked to the ground by th e ra. II' . . a wet R~~i~. such as .i nOfJone. wh'ich means that fi[igiht through ra in is harder and more energy-consuming. '. and the:y m ake a udi ble no ises 'when . I J'I I II." This ty~e:of glac:ier .'~ .

't! len'ii e can be U$i!d as . correct ion.".tII' .· ~ . ~n.ad. t:o rea.." is '[11 .'\.I '".kef" b]F:i. 1·'.Do you '\:\11 sh to cxp'lore every ker.NS'C'OIPE is the :i ndi $..~nr.~:t]C ~1I1. This 1~~~a-lii. It is smallluxury that you will really e'njlolY and dlal Ul' ~ .~n)F1ihrec' 'i]15trurnent~ ~ontailwi~tg Adlm..lf/i~lly gi/i-b~)_. FilI~rng~L!'I~1eb"tiOpe $12. I...1lllJ'anry.'.unique .bl. '-a slli.. t1lfa ~10~..· ~:S~ .aIlUtJ~'1IU?'11 (' 29: 95. Dr :.AJvt12:XfVisar ' _a~terCll:d~ PJease ghlC .ties .. fer lorng teml.fiiJJ.BxJO.'.') use ~['3" a l'~ . an d ~. a. "'.ours 'isfl1~~Y _med over i'ls ch pW"C' bWM.~I hLt~' ClJui F.t b'e sure.d'II-. pl~~ C3. Much smaJ ler 'thallli even "'poe..AR[UIGUT 'S TELESiCOPE comes \. U·:20 111'111 o'bjec:~]velens af rds Uf~tUJsurd l.'~ en~arge~ne]1t.Sl-it 'IriJjOli .l1.'5:9.d 1 its bard .. or .L. '\vi'dl a remarkable field OF 3'' i5 it IDE ~"IUO 0 yds.3.f.g:.1UfJIJU!ld (()1~(!.rni rascepe sho uld ItJ .~ I about 'e'verybody who 'V~Ultsand needs to see th.ne._ irifi'nUe detaj'~ in lile 'lha:t is.rIO:Ut'.t1 nh 'e~Il·dli(m...e"': IOI! I c You.1lnm1.·.." . IC ' 9.nis !h.!li.! 10 . ma.IIISCIIP.ck...U.~~g .rDWflll the torpedoes.. 'inSl~ilDne]rrl-s .. .cL P' .plld 'Yi'rry case IJnd .l9~90 . "'''1111'"' makers. is a:bou~ 5~ long in its conap:s~d position and '13J~ when extended to fu ~1. ju~t H re urns to mOl]"tOl 'Ihe movement .as5I!UJI'iI. 1'0 asem l~ i flam. by mail or by 'fait: and pa~ b.x. 11v~1JagJ~ ijiC(!ltifJTl ~1·lz1~Ol } f~II~J' ifJ'vfil!Chtl!:e' ~1i'!fJS" If rOI 1-e5 . ~e Te. ..0 :IRD'Doculu 18 1 ._ iJJ ."I. not lreadily 2Ji\f. n~~ir~lflic{~ ~if1l~ tlie grt?Clll'ight~galhe. ~'talso Functions liS a 30x microscope ..39. .dUf{.day re!~.901)1 . e.e .JI. ~'¥buy an.ilCa'Ins t. JllIJe 5r:~ .odueL of one olf Asia's f.-stcUt 'be' your constant companion.) I! ! 1 1 j !" :. ith a. it d~li. of SC]lt!Uru: ts and professionals and of jm..ry qua'lil. A ih1'J.ah~e []l~ 'I:() unaid .'--'ticai i5"5tel\\)1 (the cDftl-~le~le 11f:rom UI.U.'95 for sbl~pjiQ:s~or one t .i' a {J~'llilablf!..r: f And 0 loonjdc'l the' 25x 01 ~CIDOcope artacbment s of ]abon'~o:rcY qlliilJ'i'~ which m~e!s j omirascope IfJ compl etc opti c[d' SI).OJ man's coat ~ocl()c..v:isl. 20 f111. (unngs .rg' ase.g~nal (ICN:CCp'~that AdnliFa.si. A ]5x ~tlicn):sc'l!}pe IIx ..tijier.'n. maO-'i1~ e.11m~ :ipptl"fti c«n". 11Inrdable p:rice. o. foT''Ihftt. in' _etzl:ar Jcrm:an).30".eye.ft'tire laid £. JJb/" S59JJIJ~ is a'. iii I speed ahead !-Oi) fought 11rns leDlendary Fa av.t . I'" " _ll!I~. What was ~:bal RltSllmg: in the bus hes? "Vi:lh jomirascopc you "II I Enlalrg.· b p~. ~harp fcc us~t han if vi ewed 'wrnt h .95 I(WhY.n" ~.m'htv'"' . may o[idem' y 11Q111-free.or DlBite ~ed~:JII /_'-~e ~I~ce '~.-. our exclusive prices* .ce m. hen AdlrninLl Fanagut (' . .'] j J S6.IJI. us allly .OO.I'mD'-e' e ~~.l~athe'·case a~~d"1111tA' pi(l.~ICept one Adm...'v8n.: ~ a f~.4_. '~r!11iL"fOs:C(~". IDD:le _~_:ha.capacity' (Jf {j.._.L .) discern ''he rings of S9J~urn?j omirascope will 'be' yOllr instrument of choice.iii '*Bu. • 'J • l1~eo_pr'ic~ of a .lt-luo. ~ l(on'Jy.~ . Tbi" beatl1~fll~insmunent is s~nnetbiJng::you :lh~ )Is \van:tJ d b~~lhought }flon couldn't t afford.ottd~rs..even'_ ~~.' mig optical. feahlre .' J~ i \virh bfn~~~nt hamil1 c:!"wtywnneedle.'.~ffam us Leica 'w'lhruch u ·ua. '''' 11·11! If:.[ .mir'a/.' j (}mm nbj:et:ti ~~e less: The' sC(Jpe' i.sas I jx I~.ervice f~r nlany yea..f' jOI.d.emen~ is 2:5"~"\whmch ~n.l.SCOP:£' is m.1LA-'D" " '~.~ aaly . some .~-.)~ (. F.dtJ.of~1:Ha' enemies' fleets.nnost.2'" lOllil1ff) contains 0.l m ~ ( . A pecial s'lalnd..it.·~ed o'p.glength.0/ AIr/mimi . St" '¥2l1" I Sa]1 Franc iscIJ.-Jeft [[nd 'S9.' etu i: ble first ehciee de~ivler~n.[llld and o.rs". P~ .c~'-" Ide-' :n:'1I-'.~·Ji.of" ..o..~ It~-rryingC&J'Sif:'.tor a hldyt" 'pUJ'" e.el _~'I •.Uy give :)ou no~ more than ox or~:lI1]Jt!rn~.--.1 F.'lJgf.~ hom .1II.. jo.harp' focus.ltaJ'ld witll~I~~ .gatt] e rrull~gle'en at dusk or dawn. 'Yet '~tpacks a tremendous '\\r.e·ciial Dleal! ' '-' n ..an.-'51 ~ 1119 ~~I l[Wbypa.._.-it:kD. 2.Y'. sn excellent 8x.{Jnngnl :'i' rel. It is 110Wava~'~ablefrenn us at a tno ' t.8 body)..Jx telescope-loupe in its m~TJ1iifymg mode..~~.95: .hfe'ly 1m. We' do 110~~::efl'l' d ~:s~age..8. Our exclusive imports.iO.fI.d'·' Opt·. jvwdmsC()IX! are .r~fest)ope r:~lnt!w wi[I~1 '5~ a Vit~~li r. This bea1l!lifuJ optical .' In asui I"I~ G".•• e giVe ID' -'-18'llll:a. '¥\rWt~ absohne cla'lity talld \VW th.ardllll~ P·I..rt ev e ry~~1Ull.~~1~ m.y chec.tt I· f1111 .P· ~ erb (.~~iJ.~~:II' .~' pm':~.'\ef~Jedoh ""'.rn.sro'P~ aft! '~I ) au get 2lr..anol. ..·107 is oUl"spe.arn'~..l {lJ~f.':'"S. 1 j .01 _ Thi s marvelous ~1'iUIe instrumen t.x l1l1&glli~ication .iJg'ht .OD.'n .21tj'0.. a fai'~d\'llreplica oflhe famous ori.~l p~"(}.. p[.F'?J~r~u. The Objetti11.orroer code shown~Add $6...! to.80 1~ Vou . belt-loop 'ViIlY.·. his is H"]c opric'a. ".lff:ed~omes witll ill!J: c jrjmt{~'"tIled . _ 6 v -.:: s·_1U1le' Its l(mJIe.-Ira.e'.liveTe:leIICDpe.lJnobtnls.d t'hi's e.I .ra'5].~olnpare that ~o binoculars. e' day 'we me. SJ made of brass .:.iii '.90..1.on the moon or (v i{h. image for ~nj~yuleD~ and expk~fmttk.90 and . ~.eM \'."X.f'I~.~~~: _ of labor.i~. . 'PA.eoated (1iptit" gi ve yo u S.~ut .~I ~ '~ . .OU ":la.onc. '~5 S X.()ipe'Ell. en 111~grllfi'ers ~Flld Ioup~'~: . 'F~:rra:§u1:'!5Tde-sc'Opt.S"p'.-able-lop tripod b (glll/allan...~ ~tlP i~ 'tru. system iffi it.H_ -L .na:vc:u: .te':I'iJI. obs _:rvation for 15')( and 3.al. ~and Iwi~Jn 'Dfreat'e" magn i11eal ion 1'11311 .rCA del h.1 \\~Hlg"ve YOtl: \VOuderfuI !i.3 I.t r discover 'fhat' ~'[was 1]1 ~fiowy·-bEned '~i(~lJdpet . '1. F Of C~ om'f!r sel'\~iee c r \-V'hnlcsale 'mfo.ine~.bilit. 'tc~e"cope O'F as D.n.al battles be '111 3l telescope sed..ar. ill ts cOI.e'se D'.ue -:-.:· JI! 'I!~' .rtl.~ybody.'MOH·13 to I!! flu]' opt~\cs ..~ .Y.~u.15tlll.is . needle .tI.r.' l.' PAJV.(~. 'tiny body.Hald tale.:.rumen' t' -.g ~~u.I X And to top wt all.'" i".Otl ~tMl use tbe objec'ive lens 10 r tin:'jomnascope as..de worJd iD your.I'Ye !you ." [. '"ssj for extr« h(!al~r. ·e $ . delle·'[oped Llluuded eye.ttnd ~le~ 'lDJt l~ '[o.-. fu]:1 chn:nnati. lor ex. omirasc ope ..iI.slro: .IBymom'?. t." is included u (. ]5 ' '9..·0 ~~l1aUd'ID:l~ it .ea!!n·'~bat. Y.rm.' • di.1._ 25' tunes cposer" any. '-'ee afth.. complete opliC3'~ mstrument. _.1'UbIl!UI}'I.:u 1n'l. -Ing T·h' ree ou. (RIO . There is all) a table-top tripod for ex:i~ln dIed·observations..

s).e wary 'from 'Ume! nWOi~S. ~I'~11 U Ib.8 ppeared and in the] 9505.. . 2.ght ~stu rned j nto edible meat.3lti ng . and ~:a~ly'~'Owater m 0 Ileeu Ias' a bill i~y bind t@ othelr w.aves. first 3~D'color li I'm .2'..-nrimn.a.all th.pt 2'7 192.ateiy SO percent of the ani m a~'5 wei.310dlolut m OhlDl ih e ~e!arve:s'.e.tus regnans).ater '.ter molecules.ppuoxi-.ee" bOI" ds gellillu.ilnes. 379 feet 'I Tasman ian 03 k tEuca!y{J.g h s a nyvv here betwee n 55] 81 nd 2 200 neunds.(I! cQlhes'ive column ofwatet The W'o Id's Ta Ilest Trees A tree's water su pply sets limits on its growth". it ta k. hrugh the Tree Irees' a bll i'tty' to absorb wate:r tram the ground is pa Illy due to '~hep ress 1]1 re g:enera ted by' eva porat ~0 WI 'fro m th e Ille.'he w. tloge~ber ~brollllgjb A cow we:I.e s a Iat of energy to mave wate r fro m a tree 's root's to it's c rOWJl. A._ miD lie cllllh:~sIbiilrild .s'r 'tllisfU\ell:s . m. 327 f1ee't Oregon pine (Ps6'lJdotsug. T1he t h ree ta 'IiI est trees are C a 'Iifo rn ia redwoe d S Iasmanlan oaks and OrE-gamp. bees use. Redwood (Sequoia semp. W'ater ev'lp erates tb rIu!h :5 ma~ _IP1mJre!sin i Ih e le'ave:s" a nd a ~OI mlm n 01 'w. In 1935.(l menziesifl 326 feet l. trees ge ne fa ill:y can nomgrow any taller than around 379 feet. J-D filrns' heyday' really !began" 1 1.vapo atlnn Moves Wale Up . 1 HOW MUCH MEAT IS THERE ON A COW? 'I hydro. the. to APPEAR?was lhe first 3~n 1 WHEN DID THE FIRST 3-D FILM fllm The POlwer of iov« whlch opened at the Anl bassador HetelIheater in Los Angeles on Se.e ste'm .

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Th'B sun may have formed in a dense cluster with fheusands of other stars and nlow the quest is on tD linld the sun's mis.siin. .a·y. scattered across t:he! Millky W.The sun is a IOlnely star in our sparsely populated solar system .but that has not always been the case.g siblings.

50 s houl d h ave bee 11. the solar system is 4.on years ego als we ll. a computational astrophysicist from Leid e n Un~ivelrs~ity 'in th e INetherla n ds. Ilf there had been humans in the S j ugges t that t h e SOU n newl. It was lit by blight ste rs. Astrono mers th ink that iro n-60 W'OIS In u rled out of an exploding star" called a supernova.g star W'8S 81 gi. severe l of whrch shone. w h.possibly w'ithin a distance of just 0.0 billion years old) Thus.ant of 15 to.a re bor n in den se clu sters with thousa nds of ne ighborin g stars. a nd it decayed an dI became n k:kel[. m Cast-off gas supernova must have exploded close to the s a lallr syste rn in ord er to s upply 'it with ~iron=60 .. day as we [[.led n~lc el-6. 2S sun masses.iIJ' RATE I]IJ:O MI I MAI~~C:IHI!APlRIIL 2012 I :i1::1l .Q n One of the me teo rites st udied was just :2 6 m i mon years old ~rneani ng that if's relat live [y young'.07 I['ight-yea r. night sky would have looked to them qulte d ifferent from how it looks to us today. 'The star cluster around the sun SCI ENCEI LLU S. ars" '9 which speckle the Earth's night sky. this W'oIS tr ue 4.a of' the M.st ' VBn ths ne. are' light-years !ajw'. and such giants are always formed together with at least a tho usa nd smaller sta rs. (Re'm'~' mber.y formed solar system.ght as a ful~. where sunliks stars are formed far apart from one another. the. IUp untll a few years ago astronorners thought that the soler system formed in an alre'.ollet radiiati.~ They tare small bright 1' __ :SP11ots.=6a m lj. M.O k where iron-. :iiall star Expl~oding STAR CLUSTER 0 SPER:SED 'lhe explod~in..a:y'.en the sun bega n to s h ine.ltravi.eteor'ites from the sotar system's early years provide the best proof. as much I[i. hile distant stars cast w a weak glIOIW~. S imu latio ns by Simon Portegies Zwart. todays ciata show that most sta r 50 .i'lky' W1ay that resembles the Tsurus-Auriga lnterstellar cloud complex. administered was bo rllii ina c lu ste r co rita ~111i1in g arc u nd 3 5a a other stars.6 bi l![i. the. They C ontai n a dec a:y p rodu ct ca I~.Because 'Olf the dlstance between stars. By con trast...ares: t S.[ moon" some stairs would have been visi ble dur'in g the.

0.owingthe su n's orb it ero und 'i nto two types. sun was born. Zwart says.at. ~rfhis estirn ates are co rrect.u _ 11[. models.I'llky Way's setelute galaxy. The first clue in sol vin g th~s mystery' came in 196.NSE CLUSTER FODLED ASTRDN(jM.'II. German astronome rs proved that t h.At 4. .40.~JZwart seys .6" where the.11 at for med in." containing 10"..o either category .. slim'ilar to tha t of th e 'S un. If w'e Way several billion ye'.ons of others formed in similar clusters.:iI'IG' I r~.1111 ':__ llcib ::. 'w··~ e·sun ~ v II".i'G.a .M. thII_. the I[ost sibllngs of the sun .. whiclh astronomers hope will be..A~e~/AP~IL '2'11J12 I scmENCEILLUSTRA. do 'ind~calte where to look fo r the sun~ . _ 11~__:~. .. Today.[tCOM . around 5. that it was born 'in .ag. The sun.l. wh~ch au~ often the same cloud of gas and dust.ky the. Whether sue h a cluster I~ater develops in to an open ga lacti eel uster or into a globula r cluster de pends 0 n its rnaS5 and the ga [a ctic e nv lilronlment. the large M. are formed from the center of the galaxy" at most 30.el['ite" whose. astrophysicists calln estimate hOiW' mal ny s tars were for m'ed u tho c oud th h. Th e quest wi Ill[ eal[ty sb r beg.and the sta rs a r. "Th e discove ry tha t sta rs [nu m b er- ~ing]~in e t house nd s ere born ~i C lu ste rs th fI so dens e that they can be mlsteken for 81 single star was an eye opener.E With e. Z:w..ll..cih woul[dl ensbte astroromers to test ZwareS. it a ppea rs to have been y bon'] 'in a globular cluster.an open galactic cluster.:::iIi!:'" 1IIIoc L·:. ~·We might find a U. identify them by determinin g thei r chemi ca I[ ma keu ~)~.0" when astronomers discovered ani nex pUcalbly I[arge star in the .~ now' scattered among Imilm. however.. S'ilrrH:'~then.. _: '!i.3 32. we.ars old. does not fit neatly 'int.(3 n d globu lar dus ters. sta IrS. ·1 i""ii 1_ j c 0...~'~If ~vveca n 50 calc ulate the ir orbits back ~ ti rule an dI n .000 light -y~a rs.t step of the sea rc h 'w~i be to look for sta rs ~in U places where '~t' [ike [y that 'those from the sa rne s which are usually young and disperse.yea r to rive Illght-yealrs fro m the Inew born so lsr syste rn. Ca lc u la tio ns revea l that 81 supernova exploded at 81 distance of OJ)?' I['ight..0 light-years away.ERS The idles that th e s un was bo rn 'in a dense c[uster confllcts with the clsssic theory concerni ng tho se ctu sters. open galactic clusters.0 of the A DE.1IiE." Zwart says.en G-!i'.s'~U ngs._ are born in clusters I[ike IR' 13. "Wl). w'i[l. . however. Tr aditiona Uy astron a rners have dlivided star cluste rs l' the MiU::y W.0 young stars that are only a few rnillion years old. whi.!t._" sted the C andid ates n_'_.l _.ollfl ~a rs old.00 s rna [[er ones" However. . and su ch large stars are norm a[ly formed together with Sit least 1 J 0.ither type of cluster.ugges t.dis persed lo rig ago. But the sun's present isolation and location ~'n the M~i[ky WalYwoul~dIseem to s.:. "Thus.art's simula- fi nd the s ibli ngs. The nlus.eUan~c Cloud.0are w~ithin 3. sun included .0. I M.6 bi Ui.." c luste r as t hie sun \Noul[d have gon e.'in ~n 2013 after the la unc h of th e European space Agency's G'aia s. Fifteen years later.(3 nd dyn amic c luste r w'ith tho ussnds of other stars.ay.ga~in '~ndlependent inforrnatio non where in the M~i~.. ~it iji Ua lso co nfirrn the' w theory that au r SL] n was born ~in dense ..~":::I! 1).. m~iss'ion~is create 81 map of the to Mill~~yWay Glal8xy~.:j:ll the sate mite.g _ i. thinlk that a[[ stars the =' s un's cohorts a re' scattered ac ros S SI ha Ifc ircle fol ~. wh ic h a re Q lder SI nd more compact.e R136 WSIS not a star but: a dense cluster COMETS D SCLDSE STAR PASS"AG.: another . sci entists have managed to observe several sJlml' ~aryou ng sta r c lusters 'i n tio ns.

On the other hand.!LII ~IUIA '_ III lUI -.' p.a hundred . 'T he 0 rigina i sta r clus ter was torn Gaid's measurements wi [l be much apart long' ago by forces ~inthe. Gaia' w'i II be .ry"that: the Earth and the.~lotolli1of sta rs has b~eQlm@..I dispelrsed.that . The crucist test 'will come..soun.g '::i< ~ g} ':__ I i i. . The. Gaia wi II ce ptu re the data ina 3~D model re. The. the more unusual its ~ i U escape vel. a ZWSllrt says. "' do one day s~Jcce'ed in . best place.... Th is will ms ke th em • don't get fa r away i a ndthey a[l go ~in the ': relatively easy to recognize · when astrophysicists sam e di rection._ with the s~n's. larger volume of space.oc'ity of each starr ~5.~sp t:~ 0-. center of the galaxy. th~. tJhey : a ndl helium. lL'indegren. • ~ .ts s ra II egy 110 ows " ! Zw.al[axy'= andl mn thie.. 1111:__..~" ..catllldiiidate ~is from ~iWhe n . s ol[a rUke a rbit w Ii be a nd the c:l[e'. that are beavier than hydrogen IiiiiiiI satellite was not precise eno ugh to.gi@'st:r.' of the Gaia'Science learn of advisors. ca refu l not to Im." more ace:urate th an eve r befa re.a bsolhJtely I' e- .a res exactly. star must be exemined with large • the. ca ndi= i. The stars ![nu m. sug-= .ib[ings has. at . S·~mon Zwslrt is by the lEuro ple'.. cOlsmic i.' ". to l.' · date. "H'·' t t' .irng all the way to the center of the.arer the times less than the'itr motio n in the orbit :..f rn II eedv-I it:" Illu .. 'F\IIrB. dat~si' ag~s must i a[so be consistent " • ~ ~ :S lllre~the i. stairs ~'n cluster.arsfrom th e s un.a meter O'f a human ha ir from a distance [Q1more than 600 miles away. 'i ri . sun).2'7 orbits since it was formed. lwarfs. .ar or bits.ach.. stick out fro rn ~its su rro un dings .ilky W:ay orbits.24 m iles per second.t= lk between th ree end 1 0 light-years .our understa ndi ng of the sun~'s ea rlie'st yea rs. • .ara' 'is launched..' niscen t of the sun's.9 sts r clu ster dis parses. the duster consisted of~at telescopes on Ealrth to deterrnoe if' most.: lit is als a am adva ntage that the .and his coll[. s tal r w'i U.ea nd il: DOZENS OF SIBLINGS l~VING NEARB'y · d crte!':s co lor -s pectru m Aft. 1 b~i[[ionstars 'in the Mlilky WalY and measure thei r br~ightnes-s a nd co lor spectra with un prec- SATELLITE TO MEASURE A BILLION STARS Over a seven-year period beginning In 20 1. 'identifYi ng arsta r as 0 ne of the ZWBllrt.glc_::~" '_ the. matches that of lk.aml haslmeasuredl the :. and it hard a d~jameter of 'its chemical makeup.000 nearby stars and determ'iIrH:!d their positions and movements. tationel pu[l[ of [he other d idates of solar si Iblings computati'onal astrophysicist "n' t. when a.n lr.ti U ha S 0 rbits re rni. The has made . . determ ne'tJh e dis ts nee to..stJliU ioc. q utile ~ 'it" To b@. 'IG " =.' • ~ . and our star "Both capabiliti es are very irn portent.efine] ii Iill t :-'e passage of the fore~'gn sta r thousands._ : sun and thus Its s. MHky WaiY. le.e to." tindegren says. The position of: m any of the sta rs will be determ i'ned with an accu racy of 24 microarescconds. 'whlch corresponds to measu ri ng 'the d i.-'G: ... t Ii Ie. pin poi ntling' the number of sl blings the su n has" The' s tartJlinlg' point of' his ca leu latio n is that the solar system s haws s~lgnsof another star passing by the young sun at . he lped oth er star has been C loser to the newbo rn : design the large satellite and is.fS 'e star. "Yo u can com pare lit wllth th e ~ racing eye hsts in the Tou r de Frs nee" Even i.M iU~y 'Way:.ennallrt. . n" ~. . However . I . tha n 1..000 d istance to near [y 120. an astronomer at regu l.te'. rather h~igh (:0 ntent of el[.':UQ _.ements ~ though some ofthem bresk away from .'" a roun d the center of the .at1ed w'ithi n 300 l~lght =ye'.--- astronomcet un'its (one astronomcst unit 'isthe average distance between '~Thediscove.a distance of 1.. II re says. def n ithrely find the other suns.of th~ sun's . burt the enti re fa m~jy s. .at-edi the density of' ~"Hlowevetr~. farther away a sibling . :::i""':::!!' 'Ij.0 rbits the !: n~'w satellite 'wiiUbe able to cover a much ~ .. .~'S''=ii\._'ii. . ." wh~ic 'indicates. alre born inl is evidenced by cornets on cllUistelrs so d1enlse .leslr what 5 b[i p re['~lminary 'Sle'arch in SI star csta l[og ma de.x:8lct!y 'it w'~Uadd to ..and others are lert behind.~':5Jt 'og' . that no h : tun d Unhrers ity" Lindegren has. ZWSlff . the pack. the :' the so ~arsystem.3 ble to observe stars that shi ne 400~OOOtimes wea ker tha n those visible to the naked eye. f~ \-. a member sun.an e'y. planets of the solar system have very:: ~ l.Zwart can come even closer 'to. ana lyze eac h . . G· .. d istance.miil\lI!!'talLe -.7 M. hawevelr~ that some 50 .a n Hipparcos sa b:~'lUte'~n " the 19905. The SUIi1 .ection.. ~ .!-h'slU" ro~n I L..ook for theml WQu[d be 'in the direction the sun movies through the g.3~the Eurepea n Space A." he explains. opposite dir.&. with ~itsmission to.gency'~s Gaia satellite wi II measu re the position.. 3~SOOstars"._N II 'UII UI think that ~'ts realistic i orbit the s un 'in a lopsided it srlllie stair .. Accord ng to the the slimul[ation..that: ..sagues have done a sIJIn~ m'issi ng s~i ngs~ ~rt~isnot c.sibl[ings are . ~ h~isteem have ce leu [.. 'G.as . =' i..ud"ed-. and the I • .I'" the othe r s ide -of Pluto that edented accuracy" Ii.a . f nd a n u rnbe r of can'w. bri ghtness and co lor spectra .! 1..order 'to 'id ~nt'~fy . ga Iaxy'~ so there is a good cha nee that some of th e su n 's si bl in gs wi II be inc I. sJmulartors.ay" because of tln€t graviopene~r!!'''' Simon Zwart... Based on this ~in-formaltion. be 'sure" each ca ndito . i.aikeprediic:biions" -.'I ~ r III I -. 'motion. • ~ ~ Even lif sciientists .and .~r 2. .of 1 bi II ion of the ro ugh Iy 400 bi IIian sta rs of the M i:lky Way Ga laxy.




hav Thou Thou jumps onto the rock: and stamps his foot hard a few' times..'[-I'IIInthe~'Jl-~'lluno-lEli vou rnust Iib.." he.._. A large In 2:0101. II a lways look for loose ttl ings.glB1clko Ili1der .~. and they h ave to be removed. poisonous plants" thorns and loose rocks.. "so we wondered if this was . f~1don't want to.of a new[y discovered species. "We suspected w1e' might finds lot of species" J •· · • • • i · and we looked up _. 11. trip on ~! ~ • • • • o · • . : ~ · a lm os t 'i nvis ible pa th ofte n b lCH: ked by pia nts.!UI'~ fit I j ~j he says.3 rmck shel. i~ II ~..a .aws the steep. Workiing' f ins a t the.. because we did not : plan to go thefle~" he says. nt -_ a scientist ~ Ilb~':i'. Th ou has been invol ve.as amazing.~. : · "Not all scientists are in good shape.a"s Pursat province thousendsof tmes before... as had Thou Sind his co[[ealgues during the ir ex plora bon of the very same a rea of the Cardamom Mountains. . from : the hot Cambodian sunlight as he foU. : a known or new' species" The teem collected several ~ speci men s.r wa Ii I. it w.anill ufl aged .d in d1e'5.i3 his balance." Th e trees protect h~lm. • • • • • ~ • · .i as .cr~ibing four new species in the Pursat region.JY ..oraSind Fauna Intern alt~lona[~he has traversed the Cardamom Mountsl'ins in Cambodi.Chai' 'Thou 'T he u found an in ere d Ilblly 'w'lelll'-lc.: .- · • the m on the w:ay ba ck..' · ll .fJ in C:ambo!dlia~ I't turned lui: I'D he al U In known spe!c. t iime of t his. wlri ti ng asan eco logist for the a rgani zstlon F~. · · ~ ..-to be . says.. burt jlf you • . he's wel'l versed in the tandscape of land mines.~'wh~ichlate r tur ned au t to be. mem bers . piece breaks loose and slides down the mountain while the Carrrbodlanscientiat stands sf ~'[a r a moment and reg. wh~lclhhas been named "" . including all new gecko spec ies ~Found 'in 20'07 the gecko had taken shelter under some rock shelves dur'ing a heavy rainstorm.

I'!. '.:it· ion.is .smoxyt" purpufosea wa s di. U' 1 .~ II hat howe v'er andl Ng' sa·'-s that this 1-· a k. p0 . actu a u. TodaY"~~item sins seve re ly r • ': three te ned ~tts p.• y..c ~llly"" n' . . Uao.l"I"I'·t'.-..scllv.an . . i..." '"... ~ .a ne'w '.gy reason~t _.~~ : ngheti'nhensis)~ which [oaks lika a crossbetween '~' a goat a nd a dee r. ..8 grOUIJ) of scie ntists discovered . e'· ..' 50 many...a s . 1111 pe'de Oa. .._ '" i • " : species are dl~scovered here._ 'll..ered. "That partly explains why so many' _l . jjdrilgonn miIU-.'. .'b IT"P'g'i.Ii-' a ~.a 'few . 2007 the peisenOIJlS.'nOln e'ned'..new species ere just niQ'Wbe"ing dl~scove-red" '~~Ithe ea·'r.' .' p.~".was described. ~. t as I~O'w .I.." she says. .i .!....t'iI. Thirteen years I[ater~the Laotian rock rat -. rna'y. • •.J.~~ ~ .' .010z'en.. nl . .a • ': rodent with dark fur and a thlick tail .y €!xpl[ored it before" '::'. ..o'p·-i.. " -a '" • '". s ·· '.the'". rea 'e"1'. " [" allowing researchers to go in and conduct research..'in the I.. • ..[~'. tory of the cou ntries al-ong the r~ive lis v1ery vi olen t. r '-:II!I II . Because no one..O'.se'ud'oFyx i .. Il-y: ~9.I '. • SAFE HAVEN FOR ENDANGERED SPECIES = · In 199:2. · mammal in 'Vietnam the saola (P-.



ar is a n~ th e se cond-largest known popul ations." mil .ar~ily vertebra tes.IL_. = 'j "We certain~y don't know everything~~J ter['ing S says. think we have a situaton w!ru:-rethe hunt ling stopped. j~Wehad no ~ide"ahere were that t many. f nal[[y rea ched the p latea UI where he found til e gee Ilea.are on the Iinternatklnai[ Un~'onfor Conservation of Nature's [lU'eN) III..sCDVE'RI'ES TO COME Neither th€1 h~lgh numbers of m on keys nor the dj's= c overy of new s pedes :S urprised Dr. count them" says MSlrk G atel y.s i8 new' species. rtJbin'ea~W'3. say ing ~"I t h l' n k it 1. IHe goes to the jungle twice a month and often spends the night to se'e what might turn up.amis 'i n €'d. Th au egrees... lii ke [o. 'incl[lJId~ing bi rd 5 and fis h.~l)Und s ve ry Co 11fident. eA·: rn erlca n Me usa m 'v IN· r ci.et.= which provid es an 0 ppo rtu nlty for rna ny dI~lff." is Slru~'thinks that pr'im.III .d Musa ''Il'i Id director of the Center fbr IB'iod iversity a ndl Co nserva·IO· of . dr~lforest" the plal ns and mountains . It is an u nders tud j._I.ral' His'tory olnd ha s partie ips ted 'in countless expeditions in ASI:a Latin America and A fries.. for a ve ry long time 'We need to know where these. Tfbis lolarlu' b3'1iI3 Iila. Hie ha 5. C onsist of 600 and :200 animals" res pectively.t til.. ca IIIB.gll".!UI sl HI . Burt. Thou says.am a N.ed erea ~sind a one had taken the tme to.gging and othe r things..Elea nor Sterli n g.n. ~·IIII~._' __ . e "l.II. t__ 11'10::::..j ·1 to ry S·L.. species are so we can target our conservation 'wo rk.-.kn own tn exi 51 in the Greater Meko'ng. ~lis the re.erents pedes to be d isc overe dI he re. In Janua ry :2009" Thou once agai n discovered (3' liza rd MORE DI. the progre m d irecto r -of Wi ld lilife Co n serv a tio n society cembodta.II I Ii:' . lit 'is a noctu rnal an'imal[ a nd not yet ective when he arrives.the eve rg lIe€HlllIraim~ fo rest.!I I II - !::iI'+.spis neangthyi..ed of endangered species. monkeys there. "We knew there werle. and they have been free of human interfere nee.atu.. In list C omp.Cne. l oca ted i:n nei ghbolUing Vietna m.He S. LJnd~1rthe rock shelf" way in th e back. will a p pea r as sc'~e ntists gain even more access to undis- turbed ha bita ts.~~ 'Says" he 1 1 lot of ~t stiU unexplored. and ~t stiH being' ex.-. there 'is a bll!lis h-white ~gg belonging to the ... is OJ COauthor of the book Vi. but no ha bitats . jjThe ._'-m:_'ci.ma.Mekong is made up of such different that looked unfamiliar.S di St DVfu'ed in 2DDB and is In I'y .

. and the cell phore is well on its way to becoming our primary computer.' '.. MP3 player. .CI[]IMI . e~-' _.a mobile phone. become the lindispensable :sm.gdesigned to be much lighter. 462 million n'8 W srnartphones were shipped worldwide. ~I .':--'I S . .al rtphone . '.-:' '__n'-_ on .._'~ _'-~ and th. ~.•. personal cornputer.e battery life of some lasts less than . ":_1- 1 42.-..._ S 1~I' "..a·.f U are b"ein.__l··' c . also led to sorn [e:5:5than desirable developrnents..IC-~ . . '" " . 0 'me ....-'_'. . . _~ .... Cell phones have beco nne :.. ... there are now more cell phones than people. .11 MAR[HJAFI~IL '2'012' II SCI EINICEI LlIIlJSiHi'ATlED. __ J . The simple cell phone has.-'t--'ure. y.'k -::_ 11.-Iworxs. Allthe new features have.."..pr iones 0'1" thre -f~l.ich as a lapt 0 'p 'U_I_.ed States. La. 1 .aday." . " .. camera and IG~iP-'._ .' .ceu h --.I st _'rea r_ " a IIrou-nd .O'~: as m.a~. however.SIX SHDRTCOMINGS AND HDW TD FIX THEM nl the Ulnit. Possible fixes for these issues are in the -.::.·r-nd e ..st ~. heve a flexible dlspley land have ani even faster Internet connection.~ h:"-."" ..'larger . .vie . .-.'.


UC h 18 S g ra pinene Va ice S:ea re h: VOl! ce recm gn itiii. Supe rca pacj'to r: A. usi rig new. Toshiba are experlrnenting wij'th small fu e [ cells ~wh ich alI[ow C!~U phones to runon rnetha n ol and glll~atl[y area to soak up' etectrica Uy ch srged particles and then let go of them quickly when power is needed.~~g charge.. wa ra a i I@ws f. electric charges are eccumulated on the 5 U rfsce of' materia ls as . whi. such a. Most promising are d ~iff~rent exotic types irnprove effklency. The pro ble m ~IS n fi nd~ mateng rials wliith a la rge en aug h 'S urfac e m Irdegra.. ~na na netec h no logy.. ~~ -. These batteries do not store e.Ie.'Wh e n the c a p.eries" .o retica I d OW[11 aa d speed owu I~'to 1. . -N·-anotech-·n o I-IODy· I-M-a-kes Capac'il'tolr· s uS'. Co rnpa n ies s u c has = = .. kind of none. Us.elill phone d ~~s1111. -: -- Ihe 'ene r.. is a form of carbon that: is.t inc reases th at s urfa De a rea wh ic h ca n be utilized in a suoercanaclterte 'I Gra IPihene S1tolr'Bs th e Ele:reY Separ.gh anergy deltlls.uaer -8··"atl.a cc es s..All[ the energy-consuming chemically: rather. New won d er ma teri a I .a~or sto re energy..gabyteisecomd"..: -.®we r us iItJ1 g ml81tlt3riiia Iss. _.exi le. supercapaeitor ~.~ I _' _-. ~ Ib 413. .g ra phen e.~ I~ .1_ .-_ .-.: _' I ~ .__ .iiiIe ~nte rn e~..h IC:3n use m leth a n 0111 to p OIWIBlr ICle~ IllPihon I:S".liity.eI BetTi c f e Id .. ~.'S carbon na notubes I)lr crumpled-u P gra phene. RegUitar chemical batteries are not efficient enough to. 5upe rcepaotor s can also be.: .giv~s it ell lila rg~ surtace a rea Cir u mpiled IlJ p. providing a very h ii.[[ pho n es. C'I 0 ud co mp ut i 111':' 'Ihese server ta r ms a~I.ij]~ soft .g diode tee h n 0 hl gy' P roviii des IJI ltras h a rp p ietu res .~wmo n~~ ata stera ge ~.~ ha n ds-free I~)() r rdl~olof 'th e celill phone.ys m ~. ha~dllng IBveryth! ng from sound and video te GiPS a [TId Wi . D rocessers wii IIIIi nerea se the ir c a p a b iI iiity even moriS. only 1 atom thick.~d 1f (U ml'~re d calculations to be made in 'tthe"cloud ~ _.a kin d o:f'stat lie ele ctricity.g.a. recharged lin secon ds. battery Ufe of cell phones. .nergy of ca rllbon. l Tf: Advanced: fhe next-.it~es of p.gii . be used ~in '(.. ----H Nanotechno ogy Provides a Longer Life components not lesst of whi'ch are the large dli splays festu red 0 n sma rtphones have severely affected the. so eel [ phones do not have to be plugged ~n for hours.~" ~= .nd \1\fii i heilip ma kG: future c.ch .=.ted chi p: Futlure cell phone.a"citn r ~s rec h arged ~0 ne el eetrod e rec e ives a pes It Ive e hi a rge wh i !e t:he ot h er re ceives a negafi ve Toshiba has dllvl~IDPld a sfnall~ fill e~ee 11!1'whii c.h.hla electrodes can store a n el(tra-~81rgecha rge. ex perirnents with carbon nanotu bes an d gra phen e have also de livers dIvery go ad resu lts.~ . Much is also expected of :50= cal[led superca padtors.. j.a. w'ith a t.rge surfaces re~1 t hi'S a to thelr size._=:. it iis PlOSS ~b Ille to create m aterl a Is w it hi ve ry II.Fi.e. mast ~nternet connectians.hem lea I battery t hat ca lin ste re Iarge qlU a IIrIm._-..I::: .gy of a ea I~a c ito r iis stored ina ~ .'. .~nelratior1 m 0 ~..a.-.. _' -.Dictionary OlED: OFlg'ainiiic I ~ght emlttl n.e.

' __ Y __ -y _____ . The newest smartphones a re ris in.single chip that takes up less than half a square inch of space.g to this c ha llenge by usi ng a microchlp. ma king 'it po ss ibl~"e g!e.s-poken _.- SMALL KEYBOARDS ARE HARD TO USE' _"II _I Inte ligent Software Un e stands Voice Commands It ~isnotorious ly-d~iffic ul t to. keyboard" Sp eech-rec ognition technology has developed v.••A··· 0 u -peR d'uces S-···.ze 5rnartph one S eire expe cted to halve many.and a d~igitalcamera Everything ~s ~'ntegrated into one. 8. 1mege-analysis tech nology lis also becomi n.The technology.of the.CJj nd to sea rc h for it.. which lis able to recogni z€ photos" such as one of a building . all[[owing co mpu ten. I.t typing anth~ng. tCD. If('eys a re s rna l[ and close together. -t _ G IDIOII m Yo i1c I Sma re h IU1Jlk~e's. With the right software it CQlU ~dbe much faster and easier to... .gy called Siri.e:ililphones 81riB PDrWln!d by 31sm a III.-m-une Ch. which contains not only one or mo r'e pro 08'5050 r cores and a graphics processor su ppo rting' 3-D and h~igh-' dlefin'iti-on v~ deo._.gnition te ch nolo. and esch shows the searcb results on the dl~splay.ity of a photograph ed s ulbje ct with the ph 0 ne's camera. but they must also be sma Ua ndl light and must not us e a lot of' power. . talk to the phone rather than using the. wh~lchworks room for improvement when it comes to. -.U and aUO'wing the use of complete se ntences. d lident. ih e newest c.g mlor€' sophistica ted.[uetoot h.=.iit plossi hIe 'tOI 'tldl th e p1h on te! 'what to se:arrchft~r~ 'wi ttl rnare tha lin two dozen [anguages.at:led c h iipl th at hand les 81111 fleatlll"e. or to ask for directions... .. t YIPe 011 cell p hone keyooards.~ 'Vo.th'~ng···s __ y witho IJ. ~.s... but a[50 electron ics for sound mod e m.can also be used to write e-rnsils. iinrte.k::~ Search feature..iTh e Giaag-[.-.~ry qu ick ~Y.. U__ ._ __ -'0 -mderstanding language . Salime cape Ibil~rt'ie'5 a as personal computer..gr.~.Appl[. 'GPS . Wi-lFi:. 180th features SIUOW use rs to verbali ze com rna nds.··· nearbv _ __ Goag[e has atso urwei lied the Goggte-s epplkation.. allows users to search the lnte met by speaking into 211 s rnartpho ne . texts and notes. Though the new software' 'works fairly w'eU~ there 'is . endmlstekes due to a uto cor rect feat u res have lied to websites memo riallzing th e gaffes. iscern the.e also recently introduced the ~ilPhone4S" wi th sim ilar vole e-rec o.t 'info rmstl on a bout tOI ____.

not a slmalJ[phone screen.lIlI'DI 'fI'exJiiblle pllasUc Drgalm j'e mlole DUBiS fgMJng Il]f in Ihe Ihtlc e fu ndamentall CI ors. O'lil De e.. (catha de) o~m. OLEDI diiplap.a oeU phone 'iNa uld be able to.ow. :20'1 l.nill ~lhJ. flex iible d isp lays rn ay be ollble to roll.gali've e:llectrade. wh ich m SI kes demonstrated flexi ble d~is lays. 'Iecbnology is in the works to make d1~ splays fl. ." And most websites ere des igned to look good on a large. reveal a dis pl~ayttl at is twice as la rge as the us uat srna rtpho ned is play. produce a large.: 'fran spa rent positive ~ nanotubes electrode. res u It in g' ~n brill g'ht co I 0 rs . touc h-se nsitive d~lsplaiywhen users su rf the· lnternet.ota I "~ c& ::r. the ultrathin.m 0 lee U ies I'iiE hti!' n g' up iiin '[:10~or w h em p. libe dl$~ pllays 'wiiI~lend III p iin Sa mlsunlg: t II~ Din es plh ~iatefth iis ye3lr" consumption compared to LCDl wstcb a movie.28S a Irs p nJ.eter this year.llelctrode s are IPlwerled INe.[._' ~n 'I.a. The 13:1 cmrode:s c.efled. l. Eventually. [00 k at photos 0 r 'lIlP!!II'n . high-resolution wh ich ca n be LI nfold ed to. 01 nd Sarnsung Inas a [readlt to surf th e II ntemet.elY' iiim a .lla'Ybeco m es 1iexi b ieri ~--' &Ont.a n e be m ade to bellnd so m.lh {j'~.r co n So LWm ~. fa st resp onse times ·and [ow p ower rna 55 prod Ulct~ionof the flexlble displays. ~t: n -1101_' .d1JI..CeU It' ohones are inc rea sl n:O'!y·used QJ ..e)d bls enough to be fo lded 0 r Irothe dIu p~ Some cell phone manutacturers alrea dly use· OlliE D dis plays..the d is1P.mIUlD.: 'inuodulld Is n-. displays. OlED d ~s p! .~}edby 0 rf a n ~. n d low' pow's. . p a sm a ll[ d isp lSIY pro ble mid tic. wh~ichfeature bright co lors.'1-1ib!1-. the company will begin screen.m:ion. (ano de 1 that can be made of ~ . up so tightly tha t ...

··ud .3 gra ph ies . C urrent techno kJi. but very few smartph ones SIJIPP art the a IUy 01 4G foreru nner ca [I[.Films' MlllIsic Calculations in the Cl. 4JG~ men)' be just around the corner . _orne' '-d· ~__ k _ y~ _y q u_ _lv re'. ~y_ ..QYtie.g power 'is a short battery life·~ And even the most powerfu l c.1 y .. 31ble to U.S.."as 'it is ca lled Hlighl.'viide Ihii.IF rei 4G networks w'i II utu be based on the ILTE Advanced sta n= da rd. in leav jing the s calk:ul[. or a t least claim to.t--u ____ lin_tha t W'S.y com plex calc u lati OInS such as.heavy' gam e.') cell p~oli1e:s wUI be..e tetecommuncatlons compsnes ere alresdy offer~ing 4G te lephony. The. Fast.g'igabyte per secon di" users wi ll no [onlger need to wa ~t.eUphone.I smartphone could have the process- ing power ot a su percomp uter. face recognition a na sent to the cloud vral the cell phone's Iinteirnet connection" w~lthan answer -~ic.SOIm.l. fourth-generstion mobile network..atklrlS to lnternet servers .estill to 0 slow when it comes to completing heavy tasks sue:h as vid eo editing and image processing. I h e 4. srnsrtphones feature processors that c.. _ __ 8.gh. to cost of that process in. I!: IloUid etworkVery Fast Peit]pie an~ ~'ncl~eas~ingly using C!@I[~phones techno logy.edi ong le rm L IEvol~urt'ion(LTE).to Social metwork iAI: Photos Contacts Games have the work done 'in the "clo u d1.'(: nv U. a prD'ce·ss images Dr watch a nt.an make more than I bi ll[ion C:81I[c:ul[·a n s per sec and" bu t the.at ion powe r wh e n use rs wish to p. for websites to open and on a large cell[ pho ne dllispllay.gy is actu- to s uri' the Internet as welt as to stream music and v~d~eols~o Inte met con= s nections faster than the ones the 3G ne·twol~kcan provide. prov~id~ing sers w~rthspeeds of u 100 megabytes to 1 . ciaIe ul.SpIB!I'd Imterna! ale Class" .' F'ltur.~they 'wi[[ be able to watch h~gih-definition films streamed directly fro m the Internet.6 iii iB:twlolf'k w~~IIplro. are needed. c hips a r. The solutio n lie.

One: particu liar hyd rogel.as a starter aid to help plants grow. Th is method may have great potential to help peep e in dry regions. has demonstrated its va IU8' over yea rs of resea rch and tests.els a re hi gh~y absorbent polymers. when it's mixed with soil end used .Hydro. .g.

decided to take action.aresult of climate ch anlge a ndl h umal n-p op ulati on press ures. a n Africa n cou ntry wUh dry) exh a usted sci t Two yea rs Iater.any' Terra Cottem eli tried out: a tree-pla nti ng proiect ~na region of B u rki na Fa30. wh ich ca n red uce a pla nt's need fa r wate IT' by 5.soll[ conditioner celled terracottem for trees and plants. which helps the m ta ke root a nd even thrive in dl~y regions. The to hydrogel consists of the cross-linked polymers acryl- THE DESERT BECOMES WOODED The com p. whlich can absorb I[. POi neutr alized rtly by potassium and ammonia salts. A1ter another two years.0 percent.they are an 'important . He [p is ba d l:Y' needed t. the trees had grown sign ifi caRlt~y. Is used ~ Th e com po u nd co ntains more tha Iii 2:. After many years of research.some hyd rage Is are so efficient tbat they can hold hundreds of tmes their own weight in water. he developed a kind of . The chains form a polyacryl[aml~ide·~ a fungusuke substance.r.n a n ~increa:si g' rum ber of places throughout n the world. A series of experiments has demonstrated that many more trees can survive drought conditions 'if the prod uct. the: a rea \1V3s wooded.ase ~t plant roots.o grow thriving crops in these chs ll[enging' cond ition s. nutrientexha usted la ndl es .ep reneu r. most 'important ones is hydrogel.0d iffe rent ingredients. a s uperabsorbent polymer that ca n absor b la rge qua ntities of water and slowly r'el[e'. farmers are struggling with arid. and Belg'isln Wi'lUeml Van CotthemL~ a botanist turned soc ~iallentr. a mid e and acrylic acid mole cul[es:. on e of the. Most fa milies vlJ~ith yOLUng en ild re n a re u nkn owingly familiar w'ith hydrogels .a rge qua ntitiie:s -of w'ab:~. whi ch are mixed with soil on site.

i. a ndl fo r every centrneter of root.ither through eva poragrowth st'imul[ators gels used to hoki water 'i In soi[are slightly different.ciirs. • MElHOD-B.odiurn-based hydro gets. wh ich ha PIP!t:! s via root hal~irs that. but the hyd IrO F' Q1[h~ rwise have been plaint c()ul~dlilnotreach lost. grou nd that th€l it. some of the dry regions of the world.a long' pe riod of time. as wiell as those that mat~ re faster. dlfiiUedi dli!JWI1l j till '~mrue . e. The water should slso be rieleas!ed slowl[y so.e. N..and! su bse quentJy in exp e rim e nts 'in '•..000 root. A pta nt gets wate r from the soi l. 2. Tiru~'Y m us t all lso IfD e no ntoxic. that can absorb it over .i . ~in order to rna ke the roots grow' deeper 'into the.j 'I 'I SEVERA ROADS TO A BETTER START FOR PLANTS Scientlsts are develapl ng a n umber 01 methods to provide better cond itions for plants a nd trees in dry regions.mpone nt '~ndl~ sposable d iapers _. there may be 100 to 1.15 ce ntirneter long.€!to. FROM HYDROGEL PI~lants re typ~ica[I~~r a made up of more 'than 90 percent water. hairs" Van cotthem reellzed that h~'ssoil condl~l'ioner for ptants in dry regions should not only contain hydrogels but elso components that can stimulate the pta nt to develop . n ~incease th e a bsorptive surfs ce a rea.tnst ~n '. :: • ':.mrna ny places. it wiil[ often be closely bound to tJhe mli nera [50 of the so'~t . since climate change and unpredictable rai nfa ~i ave made. Each in.e I.e IP~llie. wh'ich some s. d· drnl ~".erslty's ''. • • the unlv.8 tion or by s~itr1 k~ingso deeply into the.ed~ient went through 01 test in which ''•". a c:m rrelt:-C3!lrlryii nlgr il~ ro '11JJ1W'IDrJ:r ilIIlnsas .I llilegati. A team of scentis ts teste dI a flood of • . lf the 50~'contains [ only a little water.ASED MULJIPLE EXPER'IM'ENTS hyd roge l experi ments 0n plant ROOTS DRAW WATER.at the. h 0 [d on to l~lttl.11I1 ..trelmielly' dry Dry :Sie miidry' C(ij.g ~nthese a reas use ~ow-teGh methods. la boratories .A pla nt's roots must be abl[e to reach the zone where there 'is wateln" to be found.8nd pia nt debris or placi I1g co In post] elay or peat in the pia nti rn~ holes. . Ex.aU pores plaint growth we re' '~ carried out . '.'~tyof Glbent in Belg'~uml :: in 1 '983". mgrec ients an rmxtures. leaf formation and there by increa se the biomass of the plant. i Th e first " " I!! . Farmers ai so cope with the con dition s by ehcesl n g hard ler crops that ca n more easi iy survive drought. such as m Ulet.l~ (Jrt Illev. Uln'iven3. a nd they ne ed a steady SUlIPP Iy of it to. land I.oprom abe.livelly' c aWI!'td pl(Jllle!'g. such as [:ovl:ri~lg the soi'l 'w~th straw . These all~5.. to hold on to the rei nfa~!.lb~tween san d a nd clay particles. T hese ha irs .. People Ii\d n. I hose hydrogets m ust not on ly be a bl. ldeas ra nge from genefical Iy mod ified crops that can overcome long periods of drought to methods based I) n wea k electric fie:1 us that create a ki nd of incu bator 'for n ewi'y planted trees.gliomluldw.alle~. as 'in dry regions. ground ~Th~inroot ha irs penetr ate the hydrogel and draw rninerals and water that 'wDul[d More Ul. they must als 0 be a ble to let ~it o at the right time in order for the roots of a g pla n t to ben ef t from it. . grow.8 higher than normal number of roots and root h.2 bllilli on peoplle livle' ill dry reli ens. L.are r 10. ere not. It harder to eu ltivate the h 1 A pog. 'in slm.gr. a 1 to 0.ewsolutlons are needed more than ever. amounts of water.

both 'ilmportant to the. Experi rnents in the Sa ha ra have s hnwr1 that 'with the hel p 01 the w'ster box. Hydrogel experiments had 811[ready been carried out in the ]l '950 s and 1960s~but they got a bad re putation b eca use they contained residua l s uhsta nces that proved toxic for the. IFrolrilii t ere" it' dlfiips :51owliy into ~be sOlii Vhl a 'wick. IDuring th~s pe riod ~t wells when ~it..g. -.- '!. the q uantity of biom as s produced and the Q Ulan tity of wa ter absorbed or eva porated. the starter packs are composed 'in such a 'way that . d s.• :11 ".ary SU bsta life. Conseouently. everything from replanting forests to rnalntalning HYDRO.. lin experi ments in Iindia" they managed to increase the production rate of tomato plants Iby as much as 118 percent. it w d ecomposes ·'t nornt OJ(~Ccompoun. and Van Cotthem discovered that some combinations prod uced a syne rgi stic effect.. -- I!. . IU TREE INCUBATOR Many trees die from drought betore they ever take root. at the same time.a [though the. s~ have also.. . comp etltively priced 'when compared to bu'ilding dams and esta blishi ng irrigation projects ~For the people of the affected regions. The research led to the found ing of th e T@fraCa.el is active fa r e~ight years.: ". the hydro. .•. . These. . An dI0 ld ~ind ustri a l. box. plant U ses all the hormones a ndl nutrients during the fi rst growi ng sea so n.CT VE F'OR: YEARS 'The Selgi. plants.. Belg'ian researchers that the hydlrag." -" . TerraCottem expects fo r there to be a lot of opportunity in developing countries and the dry regions of the world ~and hydro-gels.9 nci U[.. have' a I[ong from the soi [ and from the plants.ater ~and a nee '~t ee rs 0 ut. th 8'j' have been used to do m growth improvement ~inmlany parts of the world.e through the application of hydrogels. SCI ENCEI LLUSil"RA'IE. 'W here scienlists managed to. --.a. desert heat 1~'Watelr C 0101S all11 .~l. Severa l.: mlOiny refugees have managed to cu ltiv a te s rna U ga rdens T he pate ntia I[ for hyd rogel products is enor rnou s. green [if.colll1d e nsss 0. -- ' .".eUas successfu Uy in UN lie EF refugee cam ps ~in dry pla ces Uk..aterboxx ~ that keeps p.an scientists were not the 'first to. -. but the. 0 r more. use synthetic: substances that can hold on to water. - . as w.gelr"i. I -. '.scie ntists exam ~ ned the lII1l1 mber of germ in ating seeds. . the method may offer help for efficient cuitivs tion of dlry and exhau stedlan d.'" .'.t1ltelm company. tes been given a new. hu ndlred nces were tested. .ClIn Cotthem has retllired fro rn ritesea rc h. 'Willern 'V. I .the G'f02Sis W. field ex peri ments were carried a ut in cooperation w'ith scientists from universities aU over the world w~ithpromis ing results eve n in the very dry Sahel region south of the Sa hare Desert. -.111 'to ~ of d 'the. whk:h is now' s~l[l~ing soil conditioners for potentiel . coml~)any is contin ually r!esei3lrc:h~inghow' to improve t he prod uct. . This problem ln spired Dutch flower eperter Plater Ho1f to construct a DUX .D~COM I MA~C~!Af!lRll 2[112 I 51 . nea rly' 90 percent more trees survived the." PLENTY OF POTENTIAL The Ihydroge [s have been us ed ~In United Nationsa fsranced erosion-control project ~inIran. Thus it was ve ry ath letic fi eld s..GEL IS A.'i n their sta rter pack be' nontoxic an d biodegradable and. Sire.llants hydrated in dry regions. make trees and bushes take root and survive the f rst c ritica l pe riod. om es s c 'in co ntact w~ithw. Ino . .@ AI[.

send. locate d d e. and ice-tbck rH~'5S mees urements a n drads r ree dngs between the 19505 and 19'705 further supported th e theory. Due to the. I he. despite sheet has also been examined by ground red a r and scie ntis ts a Ire now certain that j being in Antarctica.28 degrees F _ the .atea u. evolved there undisturbed 'for m i~ions of y'e.ey quic kly boa rd ed Lake V'os'tok._ of the 19th century. eady 1 '9910 50 that airp lane.. · :2 all.aibiing I PI[. On Feb. world's most inaccessible take has become less so _.8 few degrees bej[~)w the no rma l 'fireezijing pont of 3. ne The.~~ _ making it. . ~i ntendiing to reconstruct paleoc [irnatic changes ~ Scientists had been proposing that pockets of' fres h water might be tra ppe"dl 'in the Antarctic ice sheets since the er(.. constantly rel1levved at one en dI"the to p layer of the lake 'water freezes.dliegrees F.y' have.2. and life m. The lake is lsulated from the rest of the world by a 2 ~Yi. 'R ussla n scientists attempted to d ril ~the last 951 teet to Lake Vas'tok" located deep ben eat h Antarctlc».2 . scientists at the site have sped up the process. • ~ • • under the ice. impossible to.a tempera ture .t' -a~Ion.= surface 'i explosions throughl the ic~ and analyzing the echo. In the 197'0 5~ Russia n scientists began drilling at the Va stok Sta tlo n ~inthe centra l Anta rctic th ~re is a 6~ 06.BREAKTHROUGH u ANTARCTI CA: In Februa ry 2011.a. the : Rus5ians hav€ carried aut mare : co ldes t temperature recorded an Ea rt:h t ha n 30 0 sei srn ic s u rveys. and th. the.. and · : • :: i i. the.5 q ua re-rni le ta ke ben eath ti tlh. But ~t sn't 'wa until. However. 'work there all ing sound! waves from i • ice covering the la ke ca ptures the heat corning from the Earth's interior.e elsewhere the ice melts" After a break of several years. is hiddenfrom the outs. :51. 6. satellite measurements confrrned the presence of a large to! ke buri eel • • • • • •.ep beneath lhe ice.5~m~il[e-th~ck[ayer of '~nsul.0-..ars. The 'ice : but a few months of the yea r. h~lghpressure from the ice" the water conti nues to f1[ow at . ternpereturesat the Vostok Station can reach minus 1.ide worlld~ . whi[. And the lake water ilis. Antarctic summer "ended for : l th e sc ie ntists.lte-th ick m ice s h eet. Since then.

the frozen lake water consists of large Bedrock FliQ.o f no traces of organ is ms j Proud scientists in front D'f the driillin. last a irplane and left the base a nd the Antarctic: wlinterm B~lthe e rid of tha t :2010=·11field sea sa n. scientists . water that they have encountered in the la st few years of drU ling ha s a.w..the.. Vos to k.g rilg on Jan. that was once ic. 'thin.s= thick ~'ce '(over~ing the lall~e. than the m uch thicker regular ice sheet. sc ientists W~ re o n ly an esti mated 95 feet from reaching Lake vostok. ~yer. which formed nearly 35 m'i[Uon years alga.3 re now only an es.€of [ake wa ter.1-12 fi'eld season .s and collect water sam ples. when they reached a depth Df 12. fiinoll. Th e 'few hum d red teet of froze n Ia ke.'ttimated 95 teet f rom the. different texture. s ubgla1c is ll[a ke. 211 t. but. a no it has made dri II i ng more d ifficult. they have drilled alilother 16m feet such as bacteria Russien scienti sts have a [ready fou rid tra res of bacte ria in th e the bore hole.CT'ERIA IN 'THE ~CE lhe scientists are not expecting to find f sh or other rneri ne a ni rna ls in th e [a ke. Sililce. In contrast to iCB' created from snow. scie ntists hope to be abl[!eto find out whether life exi 51:5 lin the. fhey ha d hoped to fi na lIy reach the flowing water during the 201. cap When jjhey b re'ollk through the. water Sojlla~rer Froze m lake wale r NEARLY THERE After dlrlll ing 12'1300 teet down 'through the ice. drim'ng through the last few feet of th e m~il[e. 2'1. s urla ce of la Ike.jIile. "RACES OF' BA.140 'feet. ra th e r t.

• •. Afterwa rd.othe d rl U.. • . · • .h e drill ing fluid and sinks to the bottom.. . and d uWlingthe . The fl uid is heav ier than t.rm1ol'u teo.. • . .g lake watEI!Ii' l . • • ..ly' Tr. .ICO M sterile probe" 'Wh1en the trans port reaches the surface of the water.ghlyun usual cond itions. Cabe'---~ .r. .wl~e!r c.a-I le so that i11stead of -Ie':_ ·II~h0 the dr~i[mng fluid running into the lake" the 0. • .cry sta ls. .e lake. " · • . they must ta ke extra care not to in trod uce co ntam instion by surface bacteria or other chemicsl substances" The risk of contarnnating the lsolated a ndpristi ne lake water has been on e of the biggest c:hSiUenges.ges of its sUirfa ee. i 'Ii ..rlse up 'int. Flujd pre've nts eanta m inatlen Scientists peu r a sterile 11uid into the dri II hole.tons of kerosene and Freon to 1 • ..iU5 bacteri urn. and ~l necessary is to fiU iit wirt:h a mqu~idto prevent the tube from collapsing or freezing over during .ce capsule '~ntothe past. . drlll breaks through thle lee.are not known to.2013=14" scientists w"iH lower SI pro be into the lake.AL As the sd enti sts d ri U their w. most llrlkel~y in the Anta rctic summer of .ay to the W'oter and take sarnp les. "!' t . wi Usamp1. At the bottom of the drill hole.iUwork.aw~dI'to..4 million years and ml~lghtbe a sort of time The outline ot the lake lean be seen in s ate IIitel im a. it is im med iatel'y withdrawn. tube will be.. selentists hope to r recover water sa mples and a na lYle them one year later. i .-. th€ IRu ssians have used 60. • .nophilu5 t.w th e Vostok Statio n surprisi ngly halve contained D'NA. when Ufedevelo ped in h~'. be occu rring beneath the la ke~ The bacteria. .y. • .. '!!!!!!'I!I Frlzen ~ake. functions as a habitat for Uln~iquel[ife-form'5.· • . as it wou ld almost certain ly j 1..he. " . as l CAUTION IS CRUC . o I~ak~ water wi U. " • down through the ice. . and sc~e n- tists are more "interested 'in finding out whether the take.ake. • . an dI d ri U.. it has been iso lated fir-om the outside 'worl[dI for 1. lit wliU be withdrawn. Drill I ing 'fl uiid -e . • • .eezes a nd the. however. ·Ii · · . hole..ze the newly frozen [. covered in ice. The d riU pol n t wr U lib e firtted U with sensors. fh e i. METHOD ENSURES NO WATER CONTAMINATION B:y usin g a sterile liq u id and cha nging pressu re.. th e lake water ~in the boreho [I@' wli'I[[ be a U... and as so an as it ree cines the water. Frolzen w'lter recovered 'he lake water close to the su rfaee slow.•· .. " cause contamination Sc'ientJlists have "found a method that they hope w. . kee p the drill hole 0 pen but 'it is V'1~ry lmpo rta nt that the liquid d OI~'S not end up ~inthe lake. d rlill~. is relatlve. Ihe pressure in the lake causes some water to f'olioW 3.i • . the environmentally hazsrdous dri [ling fluid wHl be replaced by nontoxic s~i co n e o'i l. . " . " . · o . 'To date. A" hermetically seated transport mod ule wii [[ be lowered th rough th e dr'~ Uhole togeth er w~th the next field 5 ea son~ entists sci the arill.00a feet oel[{J.. • • • the winter. . sa m ples ro ugh ly 1 :2. aQ'1] atic Iife (if a ny existed' could not be disti ngu'ished from nonaquatic I i~e. R~siim. " . Sc'ientists thrn k ttl at some kind of seisrnc activity must " · o .~ If 'it existed before Antarctic a was. · • . wh~ich has otherwise been found only in hot springs. freeze. the.•.. If the. The scientists 'wn[ adjust the pressure lin 'bI!. the Ru ssla n scientists hope to prevent conta m lnatirn of' th. 'The borehole extends several thousand feel oplpos8!d to above the bedrmck.. • . " '. p resume bly sapa rately from the drillmg flu~id. . • .€ and anall. lake does became conta mlnated.. Ii I MA~CH/AJ~II~ Il 2CH2 I Be I EN eEl LlLUSTRAiTED.later 5tiU~. .ly flat above' the water. • • .... oj.. from ttl e Hydroge. su rvive 'i n the cold water.'walter. 2~Pressure forces the water up When the.

th ere 'w~il~[ an e~ec.h fh e !a ke in the 2012-13 field. located :~:i~:::~~~~ m i'~eLake E~lsw(Jrth. becau se the drtl i hole w. ..'. Whii lans ~n West AntarGriGa ~n December 2012. Using a specia I bot-water d ri Ii they I 1. Seienti sts expect to mac.iU be filled with water. There". Mlost sediment.OOO-yea r-old.to D1 e:3SlUIneand m alP 'lh e :8IIIbgl aci a I' Iakes~ opened.sub. -III ::..~~an. The' gla cier ice' ga ins extra speed when it moves on water instead of rock.lake Vostok . which ise type of lake that is alternately fmed and drained._. l l-squareI T ~~e~U:r~:~~: expect to reach the. ANTARC'TII C:A RICAN SC'I to Anta retic subglacial lakes.1-m ile-leng hose.tr'ic hois ti ng mec hanis m be on a long cable.g~ 'Ihe iCle~. whelre the ~ is thi c kef. 1'1c k. sa th e s u bgla cia l lskes play' a ro le ~nth e material. sten ~eprobes leaded with sensors will: be lowered into the water.~~acia~ lakes: recent mapping' of the Antarctic underground ice's movement toward the ocean. in ~ust three days" They wil ~d ri'l~a 360-illH~ imeter-wide hole by sending 194-degre.. The probe will[[be eq~jiplP~dI ith video w cameras.rlca n scienfists \Ni~ also I use hot water t. '. instru rnents for the detection l\. lake. top of the transport module.i ng two muc'h sma ller lakes: Lake.·400cubic miles of water beneath the Antarctic ke. which means that its water leve~varies.. lake.p Lake Whi~~ans. lakes are located beneath the Antarctic Scientists hop e to soo n f~ndlout wh ether PI[atea u.a[ ~las revea.•. After rea ~h=· ing the ia..11.. the friction between 'ice 01 nd roc k ge n erates a little ext ra heat. ". be cal us e ce' this dynamic lake 'envllUonmlent beneath the ice cover needs to be.Sci EllliIt'i sa b I ow h iiiIlles th rou. EIIswm1h and.9 ml les beneath the ice. day. i't is p asslbl e to illS e s 0 IIIiii d a iii a Iysii s .. season ...8·te 1':" 'Th U s.cU:C'OUtri1[S fair ~ Th e re Sire. rna ki ng it as lallrge as a[][the other la kes combined.-. Sc i.. British scientists wU I d ri U down to the 400.. the United K~l1gdom ·and the United States also have plans concern.ng the probe to go deep into the la ke. icing u p in jl] st one.. sending the probe into the water. ! lakes". c rea ting a massive unexplored ecosystem.entists es ti mete th at there are' 2. At the. very thick to : the Antarctic ice contains more than i. Scientmsts be lieve that many of the lakes are. which is subseq uelltly f ltered and steri I~zed with u ltraviolet i i'ght to prevent contamination 01 the lake water by surface bacteria.ow. Just water. and contei ners to be f lled 'with lake 'water and lake bottom of ol~anic rno re th a n hal f of it.3"'87 su.•. a ls 0 'S rna ller la kes c lose r to the coast. 'where th e glaciers move faster. [i nked by s ulbgtalc islrivers. taking sam ples at different depths'. IBy this trne.e F water through a 2.~. fhe hot water is obta lned by meUing lee. Ih is must be done ~u ic'k'ly.'~aC:l.~e-_ no 'IeWter' th ..o dri II down to the 26~foot~dee.ke.bgll . other research teams maly also have drilled through the ice to find other . Arne. ~/·.d . aU. and W. .31ndi th e sou nld W'8V'18S ar e refl Blcted dii'filerently' ~by'i'ea. which may be enough to melt some of th e ice.

s u rg'Bry' ma y save the pat'j ents Ili'me.o prevent the d isease in the futu re.ge.y take years for a cancer to develop. Whe Iil a mut atliion is.8 b ie. Doctors are hoping t.but: many pati ents ca n sf II seern h ea 'I t hy 0 r be sym I~tom ~n~e. C he m om hi era I~Ya n~.he . not tepa i red r iit ge~.gainst the most cem mon cancers. A tumor is developmg.6 0 'Years. . cancer cells continue to divide.Ihe rii sl~ mil]st be d e1'ine din ordelr fo r f:1]I rther da 1m a ge to be p reve nted.Cancer Develops Slowly It m3. = 0-21 V·ears.e. to re pa ir the dam a .: late Sta ge rhe tumer is 13 r~. noc. 'Very illl and possi b Iy dyiii ni.'~genes mluta'~:. the ~ody' coul d be ii m mil]nized with vaecines that guard a.nd has metastaslzed: the paili'ie~ntis. daughter cells and becomes permanent. Early diagnosis is possible with genetic and biochemical tests. 40-50 Ve·ars: Middle Stage The.A ce IIIIis elposed i burt ii·t is sf IIII.assee 0m tOI '~. 2'0301 Ys:ars::: Ea rilly' :Sta g'le Th e f rs.~ b ui: they ca use seve Fie siii de l?if1'ecm·s.e~.s p.to rs bo pe that.:Beginning Stage Before a lily' cancer develops. 510. in the 'f utu re the d iseasewi I~net prog res s t h is fa r. These are the first cancer cells. ..

8I. e..~i hood that he:aJthy l~ divid uals wll I develop ca ncer during a 'test period..en. COM Id ~re\fEmlt the deve. 81 n d c hi re n iiic: hep at it i s B iin teet 1.of '= HOWl.e d.Ioi:..fought by' vaccl natl ng agai nst the m lcroorganism s if' the: vaccine ca n p rev.. which is not vaecln ated. 1 H PV' v'.lllies uD 'no 1llllller' :KIlI.LLENGE HPV vi'rus ilf'Bct'ions Ic. I Wi the ~ ~lted S~. of a few years is small .em t the m iiere ~ r.wotype:s IOf I~IIPV and th us.cenfi~call c.g the body.veioping cancer vaccines is 'provi'ng their e.ac-ci nes.ad to 31bno rma I leslens Illlal may beclDlm e cancereus. of deve h].alclciine~s 10rfif'ler'a 1II0it olf pirate eli I n aga iI:st C 8 rvii1C81111c:31il !eer. of '~he'dislln. Tlh ese ea [l e ers ca n th u s be..i sea Sf.ges in cells or tissue that occur in abscesses are as-soc iated with .er~ three Y1e.k.ancer. expect very few cancers. t nate th e. ~ ca n .'ates.lln isms. Gillinillea i m'8sti ng for Galrdaslll publlshed In 2007'~ which included 17.r. colon colon cancer.-filusi:ng mlicroorg. For example. can ~l!Ilidy1igh't two Ilif' fhe Ima t.STRATEG'y AGAINST VIR'U:SES AND BAC'TER~A Vaccil es·['revent Cance ·s Severai ca acers are ca used ~.aJg~~ndicaj[esthat the vaccine ca n n:ducif~the ris.tt.ess. . 11' cajllclr~alus~ IiIIIHPV vinlses~And! en t'o DlJh 'lhrDS.:0 . of 'the eha llenges . .ga n ii' s ml f:rOlnl in1'ecti n. vaccines Cervarix . -~.000 'young' ~NI)men orvelr a p. Vac:cine:s Are Hard 1:0 Test One. .ya bacterial or viral inmIBc. ~fa vaec i~e. .arl iest stages I:1f cancer but a re not pa rt of t h.. 'there are mamynmilflls.~..ill'ion" IForexampi e. The like.UlleVlDe..a.8 0 pe re en t ot a ~IIII 'iiver e a ncers.. . A vaccine that p revente d '1h e abscesses cou id reduce the r~sk.0 ns a Ire resp ~ WI sib Ille mOlr .a nc er a re C 81 U sed by' '[hie hi 1]1 ~na n pap i111= os ~om a vi ru S (H PV).fflectiv.e:riod . ..pi n.an Ile.and. CHA.g p re-ca n ee ro u So ce rviea II esio ns ~yup to '99 .arethe .agal nst .nt of early symptoms~ it may be a b~eto prevent the ~evelopment of certa in ca 11 eers that f:o~~ow!. .w I~.pre:lfe ntili~e va ee i nes Ihsve bee n intro d ueed.s protection agal nst the . Ilind ~.even ~n the control grou p.··1 .. researchers con nection w~th the.WlIS. 'lunaif' 'f. .~f de.rdasiii~ are ofterec the: mutl neillY'to you n.d ImOSj~II!. a 11m t aJ ~IIIcases. Co nsequBntly~ scientists are: looking for cha~.' . 01 cervi c a Ilc. two ca ncer. . #Io .. rilis k of' deve lop iWi g' ca nee L So far.of ca ncer..dnst ClNwcal C~Ulc.a.p'ercemt n.e:.Helicobacter pylari has beem ~in k!ed tOI stom ac h ea n cer.aml1iu:.DmlllDlllJ~ (I 'Vlrumsl~..~ . AI .ratemttln .{l.lopme. :two HPV . ..g 'wom'e. wh ilet he ba c'b: rjiiu m .eliiim i.n ..

5 peres nt of al ~Iknow n hum a n ea ncer ..11\1[..~l t IllIG" .g Blreasl: ICanCI'r Whe." po 't en t'"111.Im Ding '1'1-' er.a. u. 1 . al ~co ntrcl-su biect m ice th at ha d nat been vaccinated had d eve.. "j I .ve~op breast cancer.10 ped b reast can c e. r011lJ i WIg' hea Ilithy f s s ue. .8Y pmven. aJ t-h elm cou. ~.I'·. and accora ing to Vi. c .0 n the irs u rta c:es'" By dev.IllIGtl~..":li ii:1Il tri.':. Ii:!Ilm~ !i:" pOC. ~'I'i' _. '. t J.g ye.t _.d s'hen.~cc i n e . " .ST'RATEG'y AGAINST PRO'TE~NS Ca neer eel ~s ca n ofte n Ib e ide ntif ad by pa rti cu Ia r protei In s tin ey secrete ar fra gm ents '~1f m'h os e protei 11sin m:h e lbi O~ dstrea 1mer other bod ii'~y u iiids 'f~ ~ike urine or sa! iva.ein is ~vel" a exp ressec I) ram p I ~fr.t13.J.te~~foM:h a In d devel ~)I~lm t wh ie hi . .t.eetIIIru mOil If. In no [] breast ~feed img wom en ~ usua Ily those beyond c I~i ld-bearl n.Ji~..:_'.'types o~ca nears. 'll.e.h is IC:(I mnilon 'J I' '.:..tt:ha't are n ta rgete d aj'~:sue h p mteili 11S~ re se arch ers a re he p e~u ~t halt th ey c.' '.i!:iiU lu 1[.ou IId t part t reat.1. -d _.i!:ii r.. .!if ~ 1lJI. "il ... .' .ghtiiln'.' - ' I" ' ':" '..'.! 1118a re co mm em for many d U'f. Scientists w~11try to repl icate the. _. _.' or I.ilnl...ncent TuohYI espeetatlens are h. i.:_. it wou Id IOn~ybe givel1 to adult women who did not intend to become pregllB nt.'8. it Both miile!! 'havll! Iblreast 1C31I1'C.in the photo)1 wilil Dilly gl to wo'rk in the v3 ccinltlted D1011lSB. there were no s ig n S 01 brea sl c.cei Ilg.ed~n 30 pe ree rr~.r tu m 0 rs..a V.. O! ivelra Fi n n mnJllm the Un i vers ity I~mIPltts b IJI r:gih Sc h (l 011~1f Mad ic: i in. ..g.a II tyjplles lof c\anIC:ler~ [NEW RESEARCH Fi.'I'I' IIIa .pes Other p rote. COWld I' Sc ianti sts a te 'lasting 81va CIC~I e :ag81i1nst: t~e 1MU C 1 p1rote. ~jW'e could e~irni nate breast cancer. '"over .'u'8'". br . Th e HER2 '~lhlllJlrm n eplderma ~g:n~wthfactor receptor 2l/neu pnJl~. _. ~tnt ~ :Ei...ancer whatsoever.:..g a vaccine that attacks the overexpressed rn i'lk protei n ~" breast cancer pat'i ents and ki'lls the eel ~sthat prod uce it. . results in h uma ns.gtlh. But ~u st as the p ro~eiiins Ii VB ea neer ce Ills a ddnd .e as 501[. w'h ile 80 perce n t olf' a I~I~Ir'~sta te can c er cells have the IPSCA (p rosta te stem ce IIII ant igen) p rote. m .ays.1.e in Pennsyl'van~a is t 'I ucti n. thIII b .a rs. -.e I OllPlili g' V'. -0 '''lI "8'" II"'II!:II 11115' UI.. 'thlllUfIlune . . ':.'..s tou nd in the brea st miik of all mammals but is usua~ly only generated by breast-feed ilm g mothers. . thls will be monuments ~~ he s." Because the 'lace! ne co u [d cause earn pllcatlen s during brea stteee i n.. and I' ~~~ 'i'. .. The vacci ne was testes in mice that had been genetics l'Iy progra:m med to de.-.(U}C iIn es .' . to '~'~lit.5ry.. ova n a n ea ncers..S. ~n the m ice 'tthat ha d been vacelnated. By the a ge of I 0 months.POSSIII"'bi Y ~re\1en_~' tl leu ~a r ty 0m' ca ncer.ated) plroite~ 1111 sUlrWC]' is.elr... S" 11II .rge -_::". " "" III " '. whi c.Ii n Ie in Oh lo and 11 is co lileagues bega n developl n.igh: ul...\face.. explFl8s..m a d s p". ---.i:ii I ' 1UI.. they' may a Iso ml a Ike t he:m vu 1111 era bille .t a.:_.h. !'~" .. pa ncreatic o@lon and . Jhe ca rcerous cells use the proteins to mod iWy the body's syste:m s that Ire~'lJII.n a cell in breast t'i ssue first becomes cancerous" it produces the a Ip ha-lacta 1'0u m in mil k protei n Ih is protein i...CiO U Illd be! desig ~ed to stim u!ate the ~ IllJ IIIl e system to atta ck mm SlO m e ca IIIcer p mteiii ns are spec: iii i c te ce rta i n ty pes of cane er.ereltJTtt.a..1lJ for exa m ple the IMUG 1 '~muti In 1 cJelllll1 [.of 8.giilves ant O'.g cliiimicaill tie st img om a va cciii ne th at co u Id fig hit bre a st. .ili Iili . thle protei n is one of thle fi rst positive signs of breast: cancer I t:1 20 1O~Vi ncent Tuohy fm m the Cievel!. II " .' .' 'I":' -".1nes '.sed on an esf mated 7.IG'j a n.f I:tworks in humans 'the way i'M works In mlce..('. 'I - c:a n cers.a no C..1 ~ Ib rea st ca n eers.g . ".arnJW.slem (11118 brown :spots but mar'kerd by .

g has IhaplP'Bl1ed yet that m·hn~a~ens·the is persa n's hea It h:i' ilf~ iirr1 t he ml]tu re.r: 0 1M II MA.g m'h e a Ialrm em ~y ii't them.e. ~t person a both smokes and has low OGG a.SEARCH Lazy IEnlz.al·s C:alcler 'Whe.ect any s. 'S 1(.asi'ly ~eadto cancer I genome . n DB!r.~. Typ lea IIy~th e d etects are ra pa ired by enzym.s.' Slltll . celld ivides.g b n33 st a In d ova Irir. lvi Livneh of the W'r~izrnann ~n st'i fu ~Ieof Sc len ce in 'Isra e I and his col ~eagueshave developed a method of mea s·ur~n g 8v :-~fil'lrh"inO'__"C111'd-_ "--amllTila-c lvib& ..om ca neer.ate more iiinfec[iiioin-ca I]IS~n g fra ns m iiltter S I] bsta nces.y have becom e s Iigbtly more or mutatlons 'i n the ian~ term.temljne an Indii- less a. 81 md IIater tih.. Be! Ma Piped A nurn ber of genes pll.n d s pe. Ad d it ii.deve.iorl Altho ugh hered i:tary HI utatlons ~npartieula r genes ca n i ncrease the risk of cancer the methods that doctors. n.eIV.i gn s iIn thle body fe.iowly~ resea rc h S uggf~sts th at it may lead ·~ocancer-en usi ng B'iog"c I Marers Revea Ea r -y Stages tong befo n~the a p peara nCB of the f rst ca n091F1.pi. or ~'he:lm mune system ma:y' have be.1. Glene EXlpreS.on allYl sc I.vea. If' ba bi es have [h eii r g'le nOlm es scree nad mo r the presence 01' mil utat i. 111 ca 11ce rs. e a n ee r ce iIIIif ] ust OIne of these ge nes has n baa n in va iiiid. Sc ~Ieintiiists a! Irlea dy kmow :a~ out m a m:y'af these rut a rk.ctiiive than nonnal~. wh ich increase the rislk of d. " STRATEG'Y AGAINST INITIAIL STAGES defects conlt·inumJ.es.i gns om d aJ n gar' a Ind r. doctors co u id d eitiect· s.ST'RATEGY' AGAINST CANCER GENES •• Co Igeni a Ca cer Genes 1-1-I-S.1' abi ~U:y*'0 dlv~d~.beta rrmi~ g a. Doctt:olrs cou ~d iin itiii a te ta rgeted exa uni lin altii ams to reve 81 pal rt:i e u.~helm to t provi de. So ma WG:IIII. ay '1' CHALLENGE E.e:styh:~ c ha In g!es iinord er to a I~ the inc rea sed ri s.a:y get a n ide a. noth~n.Chan!ge. ~"t hei r pa Iv'Snts a nd doctors =. ba b es them selves rrrm.ige neiic.ay such central ml~ifls in c:e:IIIs.etivit. They haw found that people wIth ~owOGG acti\dty have.- liivneh malim ds.t·E ~I LUJ:8 TIRA l'EO.-fr!!.QSII' .a. rormal Iy use to screen the from b.growth ~or react to damage that the eel ~has a Ihigh risk of ill utal'~ n g a.to seven-times hi gher risk of .eme C81ni ers ii ~ater iIn !ime to m a Ik. Am' '~'h e:arllry stage.ated 'foll ow in g' a 1m utatla n.ii n.ciilfiiic~ sou nm. minor ·t he a ct~vity of th 13: D NA-re pa i ri ng enzyme OGG ('8-ox(lgua~ine DNA N~g Iyc.Ihe best-known eplgelle.(l sy I ase).gu n to .i9 aJ big d ifierence. ·a rei ia bile in d i.k of' davel op ~n m ca. tse ca ncer r~sk ls 70 to .. biilGehelm lea IIs.ijrth the sa me genes caul d e.s~yoccur in th e ge.ers'I' but the c h a lilian gif~iiisto Gom Ibi IWH..n g.enn . particu Ia r ge n es m·a.ca ~~ad "ca ncelr 2'19nes. crf t h e se enzym es.a.rk.eInt'j sts have map ped out aill: 1IIIB. I~IlEiN .celll is. wdual ~srirsk mflung Itanc If.yme Reve.IR C H/A ~ ~ IIL '2 (J]:2 L I 5i51 . In I hie m. w'hich essentia Ill' has the sa me effec:t as being tnva:1 idated by m utation gene wIthout alteri ng the DNA seq U en ce lh eS'9 e pigenet:i c cha nges ca nnot be revealed by I NEW RE.Y.. but if I]n e.t~cchange is called [lINA methylation ~i n w~ iC:'n the 'without be ing m utaied. So-ra lied e p. facto rs carl chan ge the fu notion of a DNA on or arou nd a gene has severa I m'ethy! groups added to 'il~wh'ich make if. a five.20 times higher than rks.elry IEH) rly 0 r ad viiise the g'.i g ca nc·erl' both in gene ra III and in i)O mn ecti om'wlitlh spec i'fie tYl~ es n .n a.ge. must be both $Iemsiiitivler in ord er to de~.eaci Qui ck !y~it COI[l id m a k. the re by oetermi ni ng a person's risk of cancer..s iiis rea I d. lnactlve.1 d isea se A celli I mlay Ihave: becom e Iless ca pable oi' repa iri ng da 1ma grB to iilts ON~.ers.YIPes of ca rrl C er v.~n.known exarnpies are hered ita ry' m utatians ~rrl the BRCA g'enes.a.0 S -.e Iii'f. Ia rly tlh rea'~.et'ic Factors.taii I)ln o~·the ~ d IV id u all's ri s. of' tlh ei r ri sk .~" s i n so me of the :50.k in nonsmok'ers with nonna ~ o G G a ctiV'ity'..:st12'0 ge [1as tlh a~ i n 1m utated vers ~Din sri nerea s e lhe ri s k of at her ~ypes of ca ncer.l(Jp~ng lung ca ncer tha n ind ividua I~rwith norm a~ enzyme acti'vity. -'.s..melr.k. .om deve~0 ~. regu ~ale.8. sta rt s to W(J rk more ~s.ig ns i~m dan gerr ·a.[1]let ie code.ge'n.veiOl~.g '~.

U UI n III b efore th e.00 perce nt rel ia b le.: " ~n many eeuntries."." .' ~~Hf~ v'~ Q I f\Q ~ ~ ~~'Irli:rl.ii It ew and v'lelr. t _-[liS A. g' ~[iirtlt]· ~~tI ~ III~· a u~ m a. canee r t u mo rs may n O'~. the d i s. ra yi ling the 1 Ik re ~S" t(!' uli rldUliIlm' iii' l~ ilJi'lllt1im u n!lJ ..x". Ih e best . '~'.).]need 's't' .k groups i n the IPOPU lation are se ree~ned ea 1~I:y'for part j.[S.slensitivity and specificit.STRAT'EGY AGA~N'ST INVISIB.!l. screen i ng method m ust be a b~eto detect at least 90 percent 01 the ind ividu a ~sw'ho are .curi'iy.!il ('Ill.e!ase ~'ItJ!' ~ ad.k. . CHALLENGE Misdlagnesls .. ~ ~ L'j] 1l1"li tlill ~~l.' iii".ji:' lUI " I gW i.l~. an e I . of almost aU screening methods is that they a re nat: 1.LE TUMORS ._v'(.risk initlatl ng U rl necessary treatment - .n 1'13 lse se.. fiI.'10' ..e. '11-. ed r 1i"ii'Pi ' ILl '8' .e.o rs beg ~n .y.~a:~.kn '~wntypie om se ree n in g iii'Sm (11 mm ognal p hYi i!lil 'W hi i e h d oct...A dr. detected by a l~rea st exa mi. specia ~ hi~h=ris.. A~'. IJ Ia I~ typlBS 10m ca ncer. i'1 specificit.y. The. sensiUve! :S.g t 'tnl U lit'll d : .'I[.R.'.r' 't. I "1--'" Ie y_"".ed w~th i(~autli Din.L ". I I • .n 'e' r{'bI~1 'ffil f' t II1I ml' ors J e IUI!. Th 0 ugh detecte d.!I fii ~ lor' Ul "U1 U Ui:!I. Ih ere' a re tw~ c ritica ~ pa ra mete rs ..awbac.actua'lly I~~and at least 90 percent of the :i'ndiv~d ua~s r classified as i I~ must actu ally be ill If sensit~vity is too low~ sick i ndividuals are give.Cre IInI iHI m ml'h ods IlnllUlst bl~ IlJl:s. ' screened -ar 't.[1-..y is too Ilow~ilea ~thy people wor~ a nd doctors . .!:)I ~ t'fiI'1 e ~ III se A I~. " '""'.'.I~"'-k': -.y cam be.et ca use a n:y s'ylm pta ml S in tin e pa ti e nt.~ '!:Ii " _.[.

i 5.zing the. ~sr:ae~ In stltute of Te. resp iration ln 2010.NEW RESEARCH .ilic." wh ileh ca n be re ado n a com pu t~r: r l The ge ne or protein ch a nges th at accompany' tumor growth often lead to the peroxidatio n of the ca neer ce. . M18.r ~flIillGeS'el... IB nH~~1ru _.. Nanoparticle:s uS·lmle~IIII' Their' W'SIY 10 Cancler Ih e pati en t IS breath is expos. some 01 its cells wi Ii inevlta bly break aVIHIYJ' rna kIng it possi ble to detect a tu mer in the b locd..•. NEW RESEARCH .tlde a IP1ilrt ~CWlI:~U' 'WUUiilruuv I· .. . By' a n a Iy.'2 lEU! . organic compeunds (VOCs). bflleath mlo~lec.g.l~rpi nt..gh a (lletwork of ch an nels ca rved i nto a piece ~f si rico n and li ned with a nti bod ies.als.. plrOdll!lC Imga hiwh er emrrent.ica I School developed a illleroch ~p j'll .INCEIIl. breath of 22 healthy individuals and 96 patients wilh I un g. he Fir.icrochip Re've. • . where thley esca pe vi a.eompen e nts are a bsor1bed tlhe electri ca I qua I ~t s om the el ectrede ch a n ge ~c. _ .1 ~ membranes. I..ooII "'" . Etu~h 'SEU~!SJmllt ai~lraltb' 1..h m el 'T I III I F' has d evell oped :a milcr Ilchil Pi Ih at ea 111 re:ve a I..g volati I. Hoss.2010 that ca n fJ~ nd cancer ceJis frDHI a blood sa m pie in ~p to 93 percent of a ~~patients w'lith metastatic ca nears.e .CO M IIMlA~eH/A~I~. .A. colon. wi'tth ind:ividua I dissolv~nts that can absorb d ilff~rent chemicall COIMPOrl(BJilUs om expin~~d ~Vherilthe air.ancer tu mor is located or how sma ~~it. . A small number of these VOCs ~eak into th e blocdstream wh ic h carries them t~the Iu ngs.-• I • A Breath Coull£i! IRevleal Cancer Ce'll.. I lUr:liE.s In a ~ Iood sa m plh:! I..akeu p of' the b reath to a n ellectrc . ~nthe ~11icruch ip the blood travels th re u. enab[i Ilg treatment to begi n ea rly. the device ldentrrled the ~II patients and deterrn lned what ty'pe of cancer thS'y had by detecti ng the un iq ue patterns of VOCs associated wit~ particul ar ca ncers. This sensitivity m akes it posslbl e to fln d the earl lest cancer cells.a m H a ick of the.. .st Sick C.chnoiogy in Haita and his co lleagues developed a device..' I_.eotniH ta I reslstanee.. Toner of' Harvard Med.s t.. wh ich tra p the ca ncer ce.onv!ert ing the ch e m j'eaII e m..ed to a seq uence of 10 d rff"erent electred es loon sisti ng Clof go IM]J na!nopa rtic Ies1.can car celli..jfi n. thereby releasi n.IIL 20]. . to diagnose..! Is I I.erof mo'leculies t on a se nl~u.ells t No m atter where a c. b mast or prostate ca ricer. Meh met. ea ncer that a na !yzes the VOCs in exhaled air. I'" e.LUSTAAIED....· '.k ~Ia.

g: both a COlli vex a In d lenses iin a tu be. .olk Mie rogra phia. h eye'= glass maker Hans Ja nsen and his son Zacha rias bllll i Id th e 'f'i rst cOlm p.Anl'U ndl15 910: D u tc. 16 J 4:: Antoln van IL. concave liens. cope ~ a f'e:a'[ U Ifi n . he coii ns the word "cell' for shu ctu res in cork ba rk. 1 is published. enabfin g the first detaille'd observati on s of ba cteri al to be mad e. lilt is written by Robed Hlooke and d ocu m ents hi is ebsevati on S. 275 ti mes ma gin li'ficat ilon.oU rid mlie rosen p e 'iN ilth two 1[609:: Galilleo Galiliei develops a cempou nd 11m Ieros '161651:: 'he bo.ee'IJW'BIIil hoek h uiiIds mllerose opes tlh alt c a!n rea c h IIlJ p' to. Ma gm ifieat ion : '9 times.' ~In it.

llhe electron m ic rosce p e ls en.all electren m icrosee pes~t.t used In 16.a n I1f a ctu re rs of the d. .miklos. w hie h he re~...ft: R IJ ska ~who iis . = uses electrons. In trad ition.. SubJ eet s m u S'~. The word .®rds .g placed U rider a mlcrnscepe. r t" 00' ~l.f small to.named aft. m 801 n'i'ng "sma 11~1~ nd skopein.lh~ 1miic rnscope invents the phase contra s t ml ilerose 0~e w'h ic h erna b les the study amcollarless and t ra til s parent 1ma tt'fri 3111 s. th erelore lb e eiJ~'ered ina tlh!1n ca rbe 11 olr m etal.(0. '1903:: IReh a rd .ord wo:~ m iCHJ S ce pe.000000002 m).inve mft'led by Em s. II~~t untu11°3-'0 "!~"d 'L ce~ H 1rt..zsii glrrJondy a n d He~ iii Mieh Sii ed€! ntop. M.ope productio n.8 nd C hljin~. meanimg "to leok" a • A first-rate optical miiicirosc:oPI3: can revea IIIdata i~down to 200 na n®mate rs '(0.awaill~led th e Nobell Pri ze fu r iitin 1986. I1he so uthern celestial S-Ip here harbors a cmnstellation ~ IMic!tJ'os'copiuml . .micros1cope wa s f i'rs.11 bec:om e e Iea r that what he saw we re a ctu a ~!Y' P lant ci8ll s.ere~ to.1'"It j's mads u p of two Greek w.tas..'~ IIs. ln l953. wh ich must be fulf 11.0000002meterl • An u Iitram icroscope ca rnshow deta i II down to 2 nm .0000000D005 m).he S3 m pie m'lud be con d uctlva.~o.As-If<obed' Hooke exa min ed co rk ill a mi erase ope J n ] 66 5~he saw thlam the cork was made UI~ of ti ny pores. . G'Ewd lB'i rll1lli. rather th a n Ilght. res ~ectively:~ deve I0 ~ th e a ulltralmicroscope~ alillowililg users to see objects.81111deta ii dow n to 0 1 n m i .5. Zemike is (n~J. • An eillecmlron m ic rolSCOp s ca n show data iI down '~O50 nm (0.er the lati n w.a I i01/ layer before bel n.~c ist Ern st Abbe disc oVlers (]I to rm u IIa wor len ses ~ r1I ow' kn o:wn a s the Ab be sine condition.jII abJ ms..1i111 g 1mIic rn scope" wh iclh prod u ties 3 D iimages at the atom le level. '186 Dis: Germ a iii Phy"s. • A scanni nlg tu n neilli ng microscope cen rf!ve.tJ and Ge~rm rlV.~dto IPro d uee s ha rp ilinn ages. too 193'1. j 19:34: Ifrlts Zern ii~e 1981. be seen under an oro rnary ImicnJsoope:.a th e Nobel rded Pri ze fur his ~nventi (H~ '.ay [J se it to r m prove m erose 0 ~ e dies i g n.g and He:iluich Rohrer i111 vent 'the sea 111 n iln g tu n ne.GermanYi' Ja pa n .tto d iisti ngu i sh in d i'vlid IU.0000000001m). lh rae CD U ntr ies d oml n'lte m !ICmse. of Au sttri'.

lvpi call1ll:Ylt hie instru nent wjilll~ cllek Iaster as it a Pi p rua tin es a of radiation SOIU ree wb8~n radi. ~a r. S 0 mif~. lt is.~3JrB an sma IIer -cente md clusters.Ho rs stat! sjii' cs a Tille olth er later.a rUe- ularly io.d to in Turk'ey.g Daiichi nuclear The G. p.him.artiiaily or fu Ily encased ina green husk whiclh ho:lids an r n d llv id11Hli nu t.!.s in cl u d Be. Ih e so n e'wlh:at: exott ic na mf11 e •IS P OS. Jes ~s TO U rid f'OII_u' O'f h~lsd ise ii~ lie.1 FOOD food help'E!-d the i[l the EHbl1e..to a s "the g.t! U.rs and s. 11.S. 1 for the make bread and jelly Eucharist.81 n d SytJ'ia..t rees name is Cory/us" a nd bt~shes.This fa mily canslsts of some lS species of dec id uou s . yea rh 00 ks a II so ea m e to ihielud e prover bs medica II advice and B8 sy=to= rea d stQ ri es.lmenic hiaNolJ'...oDtk wo rd .a.0.At 6 B 6 feet be Ilow sea level J' it is. .GEOGRAPHY t. thlis Isreel ites survive th e 40 'yea rs b etwt!e n tlh e Exo d us fro 111 E.boratio n w~th Ern est R.s.gVpt and eflltry i'mlo the PromisJed Land. wit h el ectmd es Many' people on the usedte measure ra.. iT1ivetIlrtted in The reliatively small If1IlUts are either p. indudi'ng alpha. . I' Over ti me.d iOI3Ctivi'ty'.g e iilts f she ume n and wa Iked om lts water. 11slaf ill ~ o!li A On' 0." JOlday.s a mrun .n' p-. indudii'mg .ermlum Hans Gelilge u d evell Q ue d 'the in stir u me ~t.niling radlation.11L. ACCQIFdirng. beta and .o some versions of tlhe Bi bl~e. i'~ shares its name with lichens In IChristiani[ty~ it.his la ke 00 rd~ red a cease-fire line ~ro In 1 '94.a s. a symbol Ih e food'i'$ na me ma y deri ve frn m msn nu CW'hat is it?'''') wbich the Bible says tine lsraelites asked when they tasted it.~ ~ 4~INVENTION The 'ii~ shu 1m e nt is Th e sen so r co n..siilsts ota tube Hilled wiirith en eithe r end pro d ueing a Il~S8~of cun~nt I makes it DO-rid uct~\te. . r 2.ILl Jr" wi d es pres dJ s pecliles is {: O'f'y/'u s avellana. ~ (iii 'LI' [iJ.81 rud fe male flowelrs sit in sie p a rate places ~ 110 ~g =' Ihs nuts .e.to 1967 between israel 'I' th rOluIg11i! iiit j ord toea ted 'iitil I sra el th e 'i a rn R iver vi ows The lake bas ~o fe'wer th an fou r l names.g.was plUl fu II is he d in 14.all. ~'tIll co a. West Coast of the United States bought these after disaster.ively" rea the 1940s. o~e of the worl d 'IS IOlAfle.SI'1:. ilo..g~m ma rays. some dedvedJ . IY Itill yell~w catkns and Ih s m.bii'c and Hebrew vers'iiOitliIS. t.51' jiln EurolP~" us aTUII intenn aUo n forh~nD@.times fe'flelrred . -n.attii'on the 2~ 11 fUJkus. tru e b rea d from heaven. The f rst of these bo~ k. Is th at are us e.via Bre~k ~ from the ~. Eng:lisrn' Ara. respect.st lakes.ilJt he rfo rid.a. weatlhlerr tida I~ wa. il1gred itmt ln Nlu"teilia spread.

DV or W'W'W~ athfuterf VD~com .G/P·REC. OF.II.] . T 1 H 0 U RS . or physics that there is help available at .calculus.9 '1 H 0 III RS ..CTS: BASil C MIATIIt RIECENT' ST' DI __ FEIED. ~l Raise grades or your money' back TO O~'DE: 877-MAT . 'VOL 2 PHYSICS PROBABILITY & STATIST1CS - point! and the pace w. n Sophla A~ ·N 1 found the lectures 'veoy clea I..Ourmethods are .G'IE R.. ViSH mn~ WH~SnE rn VlfJN SA.-Ie E:D.os just r.. 11 H 0 U RS .99 = CA CIULUS 3.$2J6.':___._:.' Ha'ving Math Prab'/em.$26 .991 10 H 0 U R:S .99 UNIT CONVERSIONS A. '1 "11 rW~~~1 'n~l M~'.'}..II topics taught entirely throug h worked example problems. GE:O I 80n loVO. 1 B AlOEIBAA 2: AlGEIBRA WDR.98 11 HOLHlS . d~fficulty in te algebra.10years and needed to come up' to speedfast.'9. II would be selfish to keep this information to myself! 1 have two words for you.9'9 8 HOURS .Al'CLJlUS ---C:AlCIULUS 1&2 AD VA .M'a1hTulorDVD.n Gary G~. Les J.en. AlO E:B RA MIATRIX .$36.e~Eii AWARD 'WINNING MATH a PHYSICS' " TUTOR/At DVUS! .r-il~..~" t 1----- 5 H au RS .'99 PIlU~:BAl.1JJURSl : II ·1 D~'Ei!E!!1 [.. you s.$4'9.s. VO . FLU I .. 1~'m picking up some new things as lNe U.99 10 HOURS .. ·3.99 = of' teaching dejini'te"ly makes the vi ewe r very comfonable lrvi h the mate rial being presen ted.lE.MPl'E .AIJGEBRA 'TR..81~I(]iUR.MIEIL'! I I' ~ \rmEI] curs.~' Dennis $"..ny sev.$39.s grasping the trigonometr» lessons.1 CALCULUS..'ght l'Dr me.$39.S3:~ .AlA L6ilE B R'A. you work theproblems. '~J II all my friends lovho ha 11(:.com.(1 serious teach ing gift.haw and explain every step... who has not seen any calculus or-trig in the past .OBlE:NlS .S . Marilyn. S.:U.$21. ".t 14 H OU RS $4'9..$3..'9'9 ADVA . straig hi to the r Y(}u have . . D~ "Al! '~f the instruction and examptes on the .'99 10 HOURS $44.'99 = Doug:F.UB.I]' PR.'9:9 = ET1R'Y 9 HOUR:S . '-. thank you.'919 = because. .$2\0.year aid 6 HOURS $216.9'9 1 BAS e MAT1H 'WORD PIROBlEIM. EV£RY [.r ~~.'] .IBACK:..ICIE:D' CALCULUS.2 DVD'j are 'very cleariy explained and your style 7' HOURS $3.s?' W'E CA.99 4 HOURS .NWatching ~y'Our ideos is wonderful v so clear tha: . as 6 HOURS $2J6.$:2J6.- .N:Y.~~~I~ 'S.

•.a d·' f II. .•.' ~ I[ I I h_I ~ ® What number should go in the empty penta.': ed . "t v u __~'8' tt ..··I" .. . w hl-Bn~"s ho I.'". Ihere are 'twilee as Imi8ny hearts as clubs and 'tw'iice as ml. _ .':_. 8 21 .·-8-.'what··· A ':::_ A car d p Ia. sequence below? . - u 1 20 2 23 - 29 6. A B .5 4 - The. ® .··..yer h 0 Id s e __:_' blac k cand s sn d SIX seven b _~ red cards ln his ha nd.. .: ~II OUl..h colerm is diff.11 13 .. _ --:r 1_ _ _I ...hlt be pII ace ~c.. What sheuld X._. "_ a"'c·_ a -Ie·.'1" . 2' 10 1'7 3 ....gon 'in orderto be canslstem with the other two fii... HO'~V' my spades sre there? ma :. .and 'y be ~n orde r to prese rve th e patte rn ?' c IFivie.<·t 0 nJ: [-bl-I u e"· o n e d.t". II 114..n the Ii gu rle is retated 2'10 degrees ii n the d rectien shown!. t\.•..t~·-· 'f~' ne races penn . Iways s. 30 111 "1 C 22 '15 '17' 2 .. __:_·II I 'cC c 10 -I :1" . C'es 01. ..I a.'.II? .e:liS .. ~.-..fl. .~ . . . 's e "It at green and one orarge IClin~:e?If iit ls possible._I tl .~ re h3:S.a...~.. .lmllg ce .of these CI()~Umns ()f numbers share a certan proplerty~Whilc. 1 -k:' .a.. I. ··1 I . r E .eve n ~f'ea C ill d IIIe .-2-3-·8 -? ' is to '. 3 .-6-5-·4.<D ... " fiY\ Which sYf!1bol should \6) the questen mark? replace .1ng yOIJ~ 'I 1'- I w'.ny diamonds as hearts.:.I 4.I .f . .gures? i!"ll the .. what wii: I be the tctal number of -..a. @ What number comes ned ..• : .- 1- 'I ~ I" .." s i't poss iib e to place a kni'ght on one oif the uncccupied scuares so .rewaro .. ~.erent?i A 17' D 9 13 24 .. F 11-3 8 119 1'7 3. _ "'0 [-I.~I PIPS on . su m of the: pips (dots) on two oppaslte ~ .. D 2'1 22' - E '29 19 I" .. . f1\ The figure sho_ws a \!) chessboa rd w'~tha ~umber of spaces oceupied by colored 1[.d-· thee ~~'·r..

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mental disorders an d .. In order 'tOI survive. scientific.rmer students of Mr .'..:0'1 '_.'.·· . SO.~:_ isth I. itZ.- get notoriety and ple are needed that understand the law's basic message and.. .lf. th is civiliza ion m us.. careers" and prominent positions.w I.1 tr t :_-f .r" spiraling upward in lOUT growing population..g results that develop from our every thought and action.~..rebellious riotin :.-l!!.\. :r. physics such as gravity.U..b-. For an. pridefu . P"Q B.. > I .. 11.". 'Td 'bI rouay.REE".JJr...II.. corruption.~..._. 11.•. PA 19468~ Thispubiic-service rueSSG8'fZ isjJ~o}rl: . of nature's law of absolute right Read.. There needs to b-e a realization_ II. the ~ I' .ueveis I I pron ems .I _ '.NT With the aid of scientific researclt over the 'years. . t on y when people accord to nature's behavioral law'. In the past century.... _ ..anybody likes it or not.V'.."l.<.~. ~JJ:Jl.alphapub. the creator's form 'U'" t la for life" calling' for behavior 'hat the law deems is rational and hon~.: ei S~_'tf 1. honest people are able to serve the purposes qf' ereauon's plan oflife~ . .l '... '-'.. '".. . .F. ..O d c.' .'" . . '''B .:.. ~ J" ."'" ' .1 -. . . . 'Wetherill.. and electricity probably come to mind. f go. d ."... 2'--.'..d.e.s:eif~firlanced: a nonprofi: group o..eom Natural-law 'Essays and Books describe the function. But despite the fact that 'nearly 300. .e'nforcing as evidenced 'by peop e's failures ' 0 . . said and done Prevalent blocks pre venti ng people '" . people have learned to carefully conform 't!O' each law of physics to en sure th I!~r--safety-..'..'n.. ..... or religious appreach of man did not nor could not resolve society's escalating 'bI d trouble .resolve their wrong results. found in creation's natural low of absolute right mentioned above.. What only a comparatively few people have learned is that there is a little-known. m. 00. ].' I ' .:ee:r..ADVERTI~SEIME. " . la .ffo.a_ denance . ".' It 'is.. Royersford. . .000 people world wide h "::t. overweening natural l._ ..~" 1 1] m ore peo I...' ":.s ..-.. 'I' I r tion is here.-i]JJ:.. consider that everybody's very existence is a gift of crea ion.. · II..< '" . .-. creation's law of absolute right.~. What a depressing Iist o -..a. and well b e~ iQ.. download. calling for their attitude and behavior tlO comply with.._~ ontinue .:r credit for what they' believe are their efforts: money. " t . .-J . - Website: Nature's behavioral law is also autonomous and s..(.."....:).. rsxamptes WtJ. .com... R ·.e 0...._. '." .. The 'use of every philosophical.1:1. 'write to The Alpha Publishing House.g. print books and essay's . K 1t C: behavior is inappropriate when you. the late Richard W~ Wetherill identified a natural law of behavior that he and now a group of his former students have been presenting to the publie for several decades..with regard ~O taws of .. All such.'fo'ng results! w h .COc" d. '" I... destroying one civi ization after another. 0.' . ". .Q visited 0-'-"U'[ Web .. f you lack access to the Website...IS stoppee d "n.ttL . people have learned that the functioning of natural laws controls their resulting right or wrong output when their input conforms to that specific law or instead is somehow noncompliant. a . I .OIX 255.con fo rm to. --yes.· .> ought . Since tne created raws of physics are autonomous and self-enforcing. .. i from conforming are their desires ito get their way or '[0 site as of October .Q'ul'that controls the right or 'wron.. order form.. chemistry.own'I d-. only rational. that in the end. Could the entire buman race have been consistently defying that natural law for eons? The brief answer is u ....prnt.I] est in what'Ii.. _ _. practical."" ..ut.1: of crime.. wi I he. FREE On-Line eBooks www... A--' d th . 11.'. people have been paying' with their lives for their misbehavior regardtng the law of absolute right~ That tells it like it is! Whether .!Il.U ..' p by sending others to alphapub. our books are also available ]11 print at low cost. h B 1 . 08_..1I'5'" nO' n~'. '. i. ' ".<_ i .

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