Cast Iron Pipe Handbook | Casting (Metalworking) | Pipe (Fluid Conveyance)

CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS HANDBOOK

Revised and Edited
under the direction of the TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP of the CAST IRON SOIL PIPE INSTITUTE

CAST IRON SOIL PIPE INSTITUTE 5959 Shallowford Road, Suite 419 Chattanooga, Tennessee 37421 (423) 892-0137 www.cispi.org

CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS HANDBOOK Copyright© 1967, 1972, 1976, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006 by the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute. Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved. This book or parts thereof may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher. Twelfth Printing 2006

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 86-071884 PRICE: $50.00

PREFACE
Publication of this edition has been sponsored by the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute to provide a reference handbook that fully meets the needs of those requiring information on the industry’s products. It was compiled and edited by the Technical Advisory Group of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute, and the content has benefited from the collaborative effort of its members and their experience in the manufacture and application of cast iron soil pipe and fittings. This publication is subject to periodic revision, and the latest edition may be obtained from the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute.

50TH YEAR ANNIVERSARY 1949-1999

The year is 1949 . . . . . The minimum wage is increased from 40 to 70 cents per hour, the New York Yankees win the World Series, Billy Joel, Bruce Springsteen, Tom Watson, and Meryl Streep are born. Babe Ruth dies at age 53, Harvard Law School admits their first women, gold is $35 an ounce and a new house is $7,450 . . . . and the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute is born. A group of 24 manufacturers of cast iron soil pipe and fittings meet at the Roosevelt Hotel in New Orleans, Louisiana. These pioneers identify the need to standardize product design to aid interchangeability of different manufacturers’ pipe and fittings, the need for distribution of product information to aid specifiers and designers, and the continuing education of specifiers, installers, and inspectors of the benefits of using cast iron soil pipe and fittings. These goals have been the focus of the Institute for over 50 years.

Roosevelt Hotel New Orleans, Louisiana March 21, 1949 Alabama Pipe Co. Anniston, Alabama Charles A. Hamilton American Brass & Iron Foundry Oakland, California Arnold Boscacci Anniston Foundry Co. Anniston, Alabama William H. Deyo William T. Deyo Anniston Soil Pipe Co., Inc. Anniston, Alabama R.M. Blakely Attalla Pipe & Foundry Co. Attalla, Alabama Joseph M. Franklin William B. Neal Buffalo Pipe & Foundry Co. Buffalo, New York Cameron Baird Phillip J. Faherty Central Foundry Co. New York, New York J.J. Nolan, Jr. Paul Singleton Harry Maasen Charlotte Pipe & Foundry Co. Charlotte, North Carolina Frank Dowd Clay Bailey Mfg. Co. Kansas City, Missouri George Clay

Shannon R. Hallman T. McFadden S. Alabama G. Davies Rich Mfg. California J. of America Linfield.J. Anniston. Harberger Earl H. Alabama J. Virginia William Hayes Williamstown Foundry Corp. Macungie. Inc. Struve Ed Alt Rudisill Foundry Co. Singmaster Emory Pipe & Foundry Co. Ritter William Davis Somerville Iron Works Somerville. Hickey Tyler Pipe & Foundry Co. Alexander City. Walt East Penn Foundry Co. Chattanooga. New Jersey Walter Schaufler . Reading. Pennsylvania Deems W. Moses Eastern Foundry Co. Northington A.C. King Joseph King A. Pennsylvania Howard M.. Anniston.C. Alabama T. Weathers Sanitary Co.C. Pennsylvania Harvey D. Co.W.F. of California Los Angeles. Boyetown. Hamilton Dean Helle Lindsay Builder Russell Pipe & Foundry Co. Pennsylvania George L. Anniston.J. Roanake. Williamstown. Shackelford Hajoca Corp. Quinn Reading Foundry Co.N. Tennessee E.50TH YEAR ANNIVERSARY 1949-1999 Combustion EngineeringSuperheater. Tyler. King Pipe & Foundry Co. Lansdale. New Jersey David B. Texas Mike Harvey Walker Foundry & Machine Co. Inc. Pennsylvania William M.F. Alabama Frank T.

. . . . . . . . . . . . viii CHAPTER I — CAST IRON SOIL PIPE HISTORY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Low-Cost Installation . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TABLE OF CONTENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Shielded Hubless Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Early Production and Use in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergence of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 PRODUCTION OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS . . . 11 i . . . . USES AND PERFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Product Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resistance to Abrasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Versatility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HISTORY OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE . . . . . 8 The Compression Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expansive Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 2 4 USES OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 THE CAST IRON SOIL PIPE INDUSTRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Types of Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 REQUIREMENTS FOR A SAFE AND DURABLE DRAIN. . . . . . viii The Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 CHAPTER II — THE MANUFACTURE OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS . . . . . . . . . 9 The Lead and Oakum Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Growth and Dispersion of Foundries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Manufacturers of Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings . . . . . . . . . Corrosion Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Soundproofing Qualities of Cast Iron with Rubber Gasket Joints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1880-1890 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 7 7 CAST IRON SOIL PIPE JOINTS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . 9 ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 The Casting Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Casting Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 NEW TECHNOLOGY AND IMPROVEMENTS IN MANUFACTURING METHODS . . . 16 Centrifugal Pipe Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 PATTERNS FOR CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 The Melting Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Types of Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The Cupola Furnace for Melting Iron . . . . . . . . . 36 VENTING AND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Results of Technological Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Cleaning and Finishing Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Sand-Lined Molds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The Start of the Operation of the Cupola . 12 The Modern Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Foundry . . 18 Permanent Mold Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Building Sub-drains and Sub-soil Drains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 STATIC CASTING OF FITTINGS . . . . . . . . . . 15 CASTING OF SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Materials Handling Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Metal Molds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 THE USE OF TRAPS. . . . . . . . 12 NUMBER OF OPERATING UNITS . . . . . . 18 Sand Casting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 STORM DRAINAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Roof Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Page DISTRIBUTION OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 THE MANUFACTURING OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Raw Materials and Melting Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 POLLUTION EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 CHAPTER III — TYPICAL CAST IRON SOIL PIPE LAYOUTS . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 PAINTING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 THE SIZING OF SOIL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Horizontal Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Water Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Testing and Inspection of the House or Building Sewer . Underground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Excavation and Preparation of the Trench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Peppermint Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WASTE AND VENT LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Vertical Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 INSTALLATION OUTSIDE THE BUILDING . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Maintenance of the House Sewer. . . . . . . . . . . . 44 HANDLING. . . . . . . . 50 Installation Inside the Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Horizontal Installation of Large Diameter Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 JOINING METHODS FOR CAST IRON SOIL PIPE . . . . . . 45 Hubless Joints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Vertical Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 METHODS OF CUTTING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suspended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Protection of Pipe . . 49 ABOVE GROUND INSTALLATION PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Line. . . . . . . . . 47 UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Protection of Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Smoke Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Horizontal Piping. . . . 57 Air Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 GENERAL INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Compression Gaskets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 TESTING AND INSPECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Seismic Restraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Polyethylene Installation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 PROTECTING CAST IRON PIPE FROM CORROSIVE SOILS. . . . . . . . . 59 Thrust Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Suggested Installation of Horizontal Fittings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grade and Alignment of the House Sewer . . . . . . . . . 47 Caulked Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Placing the Backfill . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER IV — INSTALLATION OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Infiltration. . . . . . . . 71 BURIAL OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 CHAPTER VII — RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEEP BURIAL OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 RING DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 DETERMINATION OF EXPECTED LOADS AND CRUSH VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 PRESSURE CONCENTRATION FACTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 DEFLECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 CHAPTER VI — UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION COMPARISON: FLEXIBLE VS RIGID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 BEAM STRESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 WHY SELECT CAST IRON FOR YOUR UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 VERTICAL SOIL PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 TRENCH BOTTOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 UNDERGROUND SEWERS — ARE THEY INSPECTED CORRECTLY?. 88 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF BURIED CAST IRON SOIL PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 DESIGN SUMMARY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 CHAPTER V — TRENCHING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CAST IRON SOIL PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 TRENCH WIDTH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 THREE EDGE BEARING FORMULA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 COMPACTION OF BACKFILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INFILTRATION AND EXFILTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Exfiltration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 INSTALLATION EXAMPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 CHAPTER IX — WHY YOU NEED TO SPECIFY CAST IRON PLUMBING FOR YOUR HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 The Best Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Test Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 What Makes a Building “Green”? . . . . . . . . . and Safety. . . . . . . . 115 EXAMPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 MJM ACOUSTICAL CONSULTANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER VIII — FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 What Makes Cast Iron Soil Pipe “Green”? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 The Green Building Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 PIPE MATERIALS AND THE CONTROL OF PLUMBING NOISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Cost Myths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 PREMISES GOVERNING FLOW DETERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Availability Myths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 CAST IRON – THE GREEN PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Environmentally Friendly . . . . 100 LAMINAR FLOW AND TURBULENT FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 CHAPTER X — ADVANTAGES OF SPECIFYING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE FOR A QUALITY PLUMBING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 FLOW IN SEWERS AND DRAINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 WHY CAST IRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ITS MEASUREMENT CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 The Role of Neoprene in Plumbing Noise Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Test Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Specifying The Green Pipe . . . . . . . . . . 104 DESIGN OF SEWERS AND DRAINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 FLOW CAPACITY OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE SEWERS AND DRAINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 NOISE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 FORMULAS FOR FLOW DETERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 The Quiet Pipe® . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 CAST IRON – THE QUIET PIPE® . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Ease of Installation. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 141 Above Grade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND PLUMBING DESIGNERS FOR SANITARY WASTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Combustible Piping Penetrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Testing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 HORIZONTAL SOIL SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 CHAPTER XI — CAST IRON SOIL PIPE FOR CONDENSATE DRAIN LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARCHITECTS. SEWER AND STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Assembly Procedures and Comparative Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Test Rigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Prevention of Fire Spread. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute Standard Specifications . . . . . . VENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 APPENDIX A — STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF THIN-WALLED SYMMETRICALLY LOANDED RINGS . . . . . . . . . . . 142 FIRESTOPPING SPECIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 PIPE STIFFNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Joints. . . . . 147 SAFETY FACTOR . . . . 141 Below Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 DESIGN SOIL PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 CHAPTER XII — SUGGESTED SPECIFICATIONS FOR ENGINEERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CAST IRON IN FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 WHY SPECIFY CAST IRON SOIL PIPE IN YOUR PROJECT . . . . . . . . . 137 ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION OF MATERIALS TESTED FOR USE IN CONDENSATE DRAIN LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Piping Exposed in Plenums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Non-combustible Piping Penetrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 ASTM Standard Specifications . . . . . . . . . . 138 DESCRIPTION OF TEST RIGS AND CHRONOLOGY OF TESTING PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 ABBREVATIONS USED IN THE PLUMBING TRADES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Flushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 RECOMMENDED SYMBOLS FOR PLUMBING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 APPENDIX D — ABBREVIATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 DEFINITIONS USED IN THE PLUMBING TRADES . . . . . . 190 INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Page APPENDIX B — TECHNIQUES FOR PLACEMENT OF SOIL AROUND BURIED CAST IRON SOIL PIPE . . . . 151 Vibrating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Mechanical Impact . . . . . . . 164 APPENDIX E — STATISTICAL TABLES AND CALCULATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 APPENDIX C — PRESSURE REDUCTION FACTOR K FOR COMPRESSIBLE SOIL ENVELOPE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Dumping and Shoving . . . . . . . . DEFINITIONS AND RECOMMENDED SYMBOLS FOR PLUMBING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

viii .

and distribution of cast iron soil pipe and fittings. which are the collective marks all of the Institute is provided by the I member companies may place on their products. at Fordham University. Reynold King Watkins. Throughout its preparation. achieve standardization of cast iron soil pipe and fittings.INTRODUCTION The Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Handbook presents useful information of technical and general nature on the subject of cast iron soil pipe. primarily as a result of changes in the industry and its products. close contact was maintained with the Technical Committee of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute for contributions of technical information on the manufacture and application of cast iron soil pipe and fittings. and new products and new jointing methods have been developed. of the Industrial Economics Research Institute. and through a program of research and the cooperative effort of soil pipe manufacturers. Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at. Further. These recommendations have been included in this edition as Chapter VII. Recommendations for Deep Burial of Cast Iron Soil Pipe were developed by the Institute’s Technical Committee in 1983 under the guidance of Dr. Since the founding of the Institute. In recent years.. Through the preparation and distribution of technical reports.D. conventional products have been improved. The Institute is dedicated to aiding and improving the plumbing industry. Utah State University. under the direction of William T. and a number of new products have been introduced. the manufacture of its products. and provide a continuous program of product testing. Ph. fittings. and their application. The original handbook contained copies of the industry’s standard specifications for cast iron soil pipe. which was organized in 1949 by the leading American manufacturers of cast iron soil pipe and fittings. and development.J. . The first edition of this handbook was compiled and edited by Frank T. together with new installation procedures. S. evaluation. product standards and specifications have been revised. Koeble. Assurance that pipe and fittings meet the approved standards and tolerances ®. These specifications are now available under separate cover from CISPI. member firms have standardized soil pipe and fittings. Hogan. it seeks to advance interest in the manufacture. or C NO-HUB® trademarks. the volume and diversity of this information has increased.. and accessories in addition to information on the history of the industry. it strives to improve the industry’s products. Technological changes in foundry practice have been introduced. This handbook outlines these developments and provides useful information to professionals and laypeople alike. use. The Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute The publication of this handbook is consistent with the purposes and functions of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute (CISPI).

lead. 313. pp. Census Office. Sir Thomas Simpson. January to June. invented the bell and spigot joint. general information and statistical data on cast iron pipe did not distinguish between pressure pipe. 443. 1898. bathing. Inc. Manufacturing Census of 1890. AND PERFORMANCE The origin of cast iron soil pipe manufacture in the United States and abroad is interwoven with historical developments in the production of cast iron pressure pipe. Henry Jeffers: “Development of Cast Iron Soil Pipe in Alabama. However. Department of Interior. Second Edition.” Supplement to Pig Iron Rough Notes. London. 74–5.S. which has been used extensively ever since. which used butt joints wrapped with metal bands. 268. 232. Vol. 358. pp. Immediately following this development. 533—4. All of these materials proved unsatisfactory because they were prone to deterioration and frequent breakdown. The Engineer. pp. it became necessary to divert water from its natural course to provide for drinking. 389. pp. and bolts. 1929. and wood. Ancient civilizations constructed aqueducts and tunnels. Cast Iron Pipe Research Association: Handbook of Cast Iron Pipe. January 1941. Victor S. Volume III 1893–1928. a lead gasket. This was due principally to the fact that high-cost charcoal was used exclusively as a fuel to reduce iron ore until 1738. production costs on cast iron pipe were considered prohibitive. McGraw-Hill Book Company. American Iron and Steel Association: Directory to the Iron and Steel Works of the United States. It represented a genuine pioneer effort because. at the time of installation. by the Chelsea Water Company.: History of Manufacturers in the United States. Historical information on cast iron soil pipe and fittings is contained in Noble. and other needs. Chicago. the first full-scale use of a cast iron pipe system for the distribution of water was installed in 1664 at the palace of Versailles in France. Philadelphia. XCI. which was developed to serve as a companion product for gravity-flow purposes. Prior to 1890. Germany. sanitation. when it was replaced by coke in the reduction process. they filled a need and were used for hundreds of years until the introduction of cast iron as a pipe material. Sloss-Sheffield Steel and Iron Company.CHAPTER I CAST IRON SOIL PIPE HISTORY. 1952. 1 1 . Clark. Birmingham. 1901. HISTORY OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE The early development of pipe systems was related to the growth of cities.1 The earliest recorded use of cast iron pipe was at Langensalza. bronze. which is used to transfer liquids under pressure. pp. However. A cast iron main was constructed to carry water some 15 miles from Marly-on-Seine to the palace and surrounding area. The system is still functioning after more than 300 years of continual service. 587. In 1785 an engineer with this company. cast iron pipe was installed in a number of other distribution systems in France.. As people began to concentrate within confined geographical areas. 487 and 490. and soil pipe. It represented marked improvement over the earliest cast iron pipe. England. and a later version that used flanges. 127–8. and manufactured pipe and tubing of clay. U. USES. New York. and in 1746 it was introduced in London. where it supplied water for a fountain. 9–13. in about 1562. 157.

The advance in municipal improvements in these areas and the dispersion of the pig iron industry encouraged the location of plants closer to new markets and at points where pig iron and fuel costs were low. Metal direct from the blast furnace was cast into 16-inch diameter pipe for the City of Philadelphia. with the largest works located in the immediate vicinity of Philadelphia. and after 1861. the foundries of New Jersey and Pennsylvania supplied the great majority of the nation’s cast iron pipe requirements. also produced limited amounts of cast iron pipe. a foundry located at West Point. Prior to the early 1850s. Production at this foundry and at other foundries that began production of cast iron pipe in 1819 was strictly limited. As the demand for cast iron pipe increased. At about the same time. Vertical casting was used to produce pressure pipe in 12-foot lengths. Pennsylvania. The rapid growth of the industry between 1880 and 1890 was indicated by the large number of foundries constructed during the period. when a foundry designed specifically for cast iron pipe production was constructed at Millville. horizontal green-sand molds and dry-sand or loam cores were used exclusively to produce cast iron pipe. New Jersey.2 HISTORY. As early as 1801. there were 33 establishments in the United States engaged principally in the manufacture of cast iron pipe. principally those in the northeastern section of the country. Table 1 presents . The first manufacturer of cast iron pipe in the United States was located at Weymouth. By 1854 the “cast-on-end-in-pit” principle of pipe manufacture using dry-sand molds and dry-sand cores gained wide acceptance for the production of pressure pipe. when coke made from bituminous coal was widely adopted. who also is credited with inventing the drop pattern used in machine molding and the application of core arbors to the green-sand molding of fittings. Most of these were of comparatively large capacity. It was introduced by George Peacock. cast iron pipe manufacture was started in western Pennsylvania and Ohio. and this was the first method employed to manufacture cast iron soil pipe. so that by 1890. The small blast furnace was tapped. One of the first cast iron pipe installations was at Bethlehem. USES. and the stream of molten metal filled one mold and was then diverted to another. A green-sand core was developed for use with the horizontal mold. It was imported from England and Scotland to be installed in the water-supply and gas-lighting systems of the larger cities. 1880–1890 Prior to 1880. eastern Pennsylvania and the adjoining sections of New Jersey developed as the earliest sites of the industry. The company at Millville had been in existence since 1803. when production was begun at a number of charcoal furnace plants in New Jersey. During the census year 1890. The foundry used the same ore and the same casting process as at Weymouth. the City of Philadelphia sought to promote domestic manufacture of the product. the share of total output by the foundries of New Jersey and Pennsylvania had declined to 43 percent. although wooden pipe continued to be used for the distribution system.000 tons of pipe per year. where it was used to replace deteriorated wooden mains. The plants in eastern Pennsylvania used anthracite coal to reduce iron ore. and the pipe was cast in molds laid horizontally in the casting beds used to cast pig iron. New York. and the industry was dormant until 1830. And was used to replace the old pine-log pipe for the force main from the pumping station to the reservoir. The iron was obtained by melting New Jersey bog ore. Growth and Dispersion of Foundries. but this campaign was not successful until 1819. but during the 1880s production spread to the South and the Midwest. while horizontal molds continued to be used for shorter lengths of pressure pipe. but it produced cast iron pipe on a regular basis and had a capacity of 18. New Jersey. PERFORMANCE Early Production and Use in the United States Cast iron pipe was first used in the United States at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The largest number of cast iron pipe foundries built during the 1880s were located in the southern and midwestern sections of the country.

The demand for standard sizes of pipe necessitated its production on a large scale in foundries designed and equipped specifically for this type of work.215. and both pressure pipe and soil pipe were manufactured to meet the specifications of these codes.827 513.407 3.942 $13.067 1.382 Source: U.218 7.579 185. Oregon 1. fittings. machine shop equipment.209 Number of Establishments3 3 Pipe Production Capital $ 589. 19.510 48. A number of pipe manufacturers also produced hydrants. and a few made hydraulic and gas machinery.186 $14. Foundries devoted to general work produced a small amount of pipe. 487 and 490. and shall extend above the roof of the house.S.091.179. Wisconsin 1.162 1. Census Office. When necessary to lay a soil pipe under a building. One of the first plumbing codes was published in 1881 in Washington. 6 6 8 4 6 33 4. D. shall not be less than 4″ in diameter. The data presented by the Census Office was the first statistical tabulation of cast iron pipe works separate from the operations of general foundries that had ever been published. 2 Includes establishments located as follows: Colorado 1.S. and connections.463 Employees Tons4 337 13.253 73.175 1. However. Such pipes shall be kept above ground if practicable. but a few used small quantities of scrap iron.311 2. Most of the foundries used pig iron exclusively to manufacture pipe. but this was primarily for the local trade or for use in specific applications.440 3.680 1.733 2.178. this extension shall be at least 4″ in diameter.800.950. by States: 1890 States New York Massachusetts New Jersey Pennsylvania Southern States1 Ohio Other Western States2 Total U. and the foundry breakdown does not reflect the construction of a number of plants undertaken during 1890.543. PERFORMANCE 3 a statistical summary of the cast iron pipe industry in 1890.225. Tennessee 2.590 1.066 Value $ 412. TABLE 1 Cast Iron Pipe Industry. and contains the following references to soil pipe installations and specifications: Sec.964 1. Virginia 2. per linear foot . 20 lbs. Sec. USES. Texas 1. pp. and shall be so located as to be accessible for inspection.250 4.HISTORY. Michigan 1.644.C. Manufacturing Census of 1890.860 128.561.. Department of the Interior. this non-pipe production activity constituted only a small part of the total business of these establishments. such pipe shall be of iron with leaded joints. 3 Does not include two idle establishments located in Pennsylvania. 17 lbs.320.284 709 1. During the 1880s a number of municipal codes were instituted dealing with the use of pipe in building construction. and general foundry products. The weight of all iron pipe used underground shall not be less than — For 6″ pipe. 4 Short tons.204 1.734 63. Kentucky 2. It was not indicated just how much of total cast iron pipe production was pressure pipe and how much was soil pipe.829. Missouri 2. 17. Nearly all of the establishments producing cast iron pipe in 1890 were engaged in its manufacture as a sole specialty. 1 Includes establishments located as follows: Alabama 1. per linear foot For 5″ pipe.

Maryland. green-sand cores were made either by ramming the core material into a core box or by using tempered sand packed on a core arbor by hand or dropped through a sieve on a revolving core barrel. 10. two foundries each in Ohio and Indiana. and the Midwest. The state offered the advantages of excellent foundry irons and low production costs. 2 Noble. Pell City. All changes in direction shall be made with curved pipes. After 1900. In 1899 the Central Foundry Company. Attalla and Talladega. Emergence of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Industry The 1890s marked the emergence of cast iron soil pipe manufacture as a distinct industrial activity. by the turn of the century the cast iron soil pipe industry had penetrated the Northeast. with an annual melting capacity of approximately 560. Indiana. Anniston. Tennessee. was foremost among the states in soil pipe production. and limestone. New York. 51⁄2 lbs. Lansdale. PERFORMANCE For 4″ pipe. Holt. Newark. Consequently. The on-side method of soil pipe manufacture with green-sand molds and green-sand cores remained in exclusive use until the advent of centrifugal casting for soil pipe production. and some of the individual plants absorbed by the company were closed. Kentucky. 20. The manufacture of pressure pipe had become a factor in the iron industry in Alabama prior to 1890.2 An important development in soil pipe manufacture occurred in the late 1880s. coal. the South. Bessemer and Gadsden.” p. Alabama was the third-largest pig iron producer in the nation due principally to its deposits of iron ore. “Development Iron Soil Pipe in Alabama. New York. New Jersey. and one foundry each located in Delaware. and Illinois. By 1915 soil pipe foundries had been constructed in this state at Birmingham.000 net tons. and Tennessee. There were three plants in Alabama at Anniston. All iron soil and sewer pipes shall be coated inside and outside with coal tar applied hot. There were four foundries each in Alabama. and the number of foundries operated by the company was reduced to nine. divided equally between pressure pipe and soil pipe foundries. with a capital stock of $14 million. three foundries each in Maryland and Wisconsin. was incorporated as a consolidation of 34 of the nation’s principal cast iron soil pipe manufacturers. It operated as one concern. Alabama quickly moved to the lead among cast iron soil pipe producing sales.4 HISTORY. Missouri. South Pittsburgh. and soil pipe production was started there between 1888 and 1893. Bessemer. with seven foundries. and one plant each at Baltimore. and by 1898 there were 37 foundries devoted to soil pipe production located in 13 states. Medina. per linear foot For 2″ pipe. per linear foot For 3″ pipe. 91⁄2 lbs. per linear foot Sec. Pennsylvania. By 1903 additional operations had been combined. USES. and all connections with Y branches and 1⁄8 bends. Cities continued to install waterworks and sewage systems at a rapid pace. In 1900 the company operated 14 soil pipe foundries in different parts of the country with an aggregate daily capacity of about 500 tons of finished product. which served to attract investment capital. and Vincennes. and the total number of cast iron pipe foundries in the United States increased to 64 in 1894 and 71 in 1898. New Jersey. and eventually the hub of the soil pipe industry was shifted from the Northeast to the South. when John Foran introduced a machine that made possible the economical production of green-sand cores. Gadsden. Pennsylvania. and they met about 35 percent of the nation’s soil pipe requirements. Prior to this time. . 13 lbs.

pipe space. cast iron soil pipe is used in high. Following the war. REQUIREMENTS FOR A SAFE AND DURABLE DRAIN. septic tank. waste. and water closet fixtures. PERFORMANCE 5 The production of cast iron soil pipe and fittings in the United States. Alabama. In buildings. The product is installed in residential construction. five new foundries were constructed during this period. waste. which acts as the main source of air to and from the roof. By 1922 the nation’s production of cast iron soil pipe and fittings had reached 357. In Anniston. For this reason. the preferred material. and as construction activity increased so did the demand for building materials. areaways. USES. and courts.000 net tons. conveys the discharge away from the structure. and vent lines may also be tied in at a point above the highest fixture. waste. USES OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE Cast iron soil pipe and fittings are used primarily in building construction for sanitary and storm drain. to the point prescribed by the local plumbing code for joining to the city sewer. and vent piping applications.HISTORY. and sewer purposes without concern for building height and is. It is used for collecting subsoil drains. vent. which reached a peak level of 280. WASTE. Waste lines are connected to this main soil stack. waste. schools. which runs vertically from the building drain up through the structure and through the roof. building projects which had been deferred were undertaken. the lowest horizontal piping in the drainage system. where large setbacks accumulate substantial amounts of rainwater and snow.000 net tons in 1918. vent. and sewer plumbing applications in a given structure requires that the material possess the following important characteristics: • Durability exceeding expected life of the building • Resistance to corrosion • Noncombustibility and does not spread flame • Resistance to abrasion • Ability to withstand temperature extremes .000 net tons in 1916. lavatory. receives the discharge from the soil. It is also used for roof leaders. Extensive use is made of soil pipe for storm drainage on high-rise buildings. which raised the city’s annual output to 140. or 50 percent. The building or house sewer. and drainage pipes from within the building and conveys the discharge to the building sewer. The main line in this assembly is the cast iron soil stack. including soil pipe.000 net tons and made it the largest production center for cast iron soil pipe in the world. particularly when these are placed within the building. in turn. During the early 1920s the industry invested heavily in new plants and equipment. which are placed around the structure’s foundation for connection into a storm drainage system or into a sump. AND VENT SYSTEM The satisfactory performance of a piping system used for drain. or other means of disposal. the pattern of cast iron soil pipe shipments and sales is directly related to the pattern of building/construction activity. The building or house drain. and in commercial and industrial structures. and approximately 180.000 net tons. were produced in Alabama. hospitals. An additional use for cast iron soil pipe and fittings in building construction is for storm drainage from roofs. yards. or other area. the principal assembly of this piping is installed within the partitions and serves the tub. in fact. At present. decreased during World War I and totaled only 111.rise building construction for drain. In some installations vent lines are connected to a separate vent stack.

The majority of soils throughout the world are non-corrosive to cast iron. . In tests of severely corroded cast iron pipe. including the joining of different metals (iron and copper or brass. Electrolytic corrosion occurs when direct current from outside sources enters and then leaves an underground metal surface to return to its source through the soil. Fifty-three have mains more than 150 years old. The action is similar to what occurs in a wet-cell or dry-cell battery. Differences in electrical potential between locations on the surface of the metal (pipe) in contact with such soil may occur for a variety of reasons. Cast iron and steel corrode. soluble salt. pH. vent. have considerable strength. Corrosion Resistance Cast iron has. the graphitic corrosion products have withstood pressures of several hundred pounds per square inch although corrosion had actually penetrated the pipe wall. for hundreds of years. been the preferred piping material throughout the world for drain. metal is removed from the pipe surface and corrosion occurs. Gray iron can be cast into pipe at low cost and has excellent strength properties. Over 95 percent of all cast iron pipe that has ever been installed in underground service in the United States is still in use. More than 535 water and gas utilities in the United States have cast iron distribution mains with continuous service records of more than 100 years. Any one or a combination of these factors may cause a small amount of electrical current to flow through the soil between areas on the pipe or metal surface. Galvanic corrosion is self-generating and occurs on the surface of a metal exposed to an electrolyte (such as moist. The corrosion of metals underground is an electrochemical phenomenon that can take place in two ways: galvanic corrosion or electrolytic corrosion. PERFORMANCE • Ability to withstand traffic and trench loads • Low coefficient of expansion/contraction • Joints that resist infiltration and exfiltration • Strength and rigidity • Resistance to noise transmission Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Meet or Exceed All These Requirements Tests of cast iron soil pipe for these properties reveal its superior characteristics as a material for all drain. for example). Unique corrosion resistance characteristics make cast iron soil pipe ideally suited for plumbing applications. Differences in potential may also be caused by the characteristics of the soil in contact with the pipe surface. because of the free graphite content of cast iron (3 – 4 percent by weight or about 10 percent by volume). Where this current discharges into the soil from such an area. an insoluble graphitic layer of corrosion products is left behind in the process of corrosion. salt-laden soil). metal is removed and in this process corrosion occurs. oxygen and moisture content. Because of the absence of free graphite in steel. and form a barrier against further corrosion. however. adherent. USES. such as.6 HISTORY. and vent plumbing applications and water distribution. the corrosion products have little or no strength or adherence and flake off as they are formed. thus presenting fresh surfaces for further corrosion. waste. These corrosion products are very dense. temperature and presence of certain bacteria. waste. and sewer piping. soil resistivity.

both at low and high velocities. by avoiding low pH discharges altogether. Resistance to Abrasion Cast iron soil pipe is highly resistant to abrasion from sand. the soil absorbs moisture and expands. Man-made corrosive soils result from the discharge of various mining and other industrial and municipal wastes into refuse dumps or landfills. Information on these Standards is available from the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute and its member companies. Internal corrosion of cast iron soil pipe and fittings can be caused by strong acids or other aggressive reagents with a pH of 4. These joints are . Roughly 11/2 billion No-Hub couplings installed since 1961 in North America attest to the durability of these couplings. gravel. vent. USES. Those few soils that are somewhat corrosive to cast iron include natural soils containing high concentrations of decomposing organic matter (swamps. Because the 300 series of nickel-chromium stainless steel is even more resistant to corrosion than cast iron. or sewer system. American Society of Testing and Materials A674.3 or lower if allowed to remain in contact cast iron pipe for an extended period of time. watertight connections of two or more pieces of pipe or fittings in a sanitary waste. This characteristic has been very well documented by examinations of existing soil pipe. glass particles. one can limit or eliminate internal corrosion problems. and American Water Works Association Specification C 105 provide installation instructions and an appendix that details a 10point scale to determine whether the soils are potentially corrosive to cast iron. a procedure has been developed for determining the need for any special corrosion protection: a simple and inexpensive method of providing such protection using a loose wrap of polyethylene film.HISTORY. If this condition is present it is recommended that the trench be excavated to greater-than-normal depth and select backfill materials be used to provide protection from this movement. and debris being carried in suspension. DIPRA) have studied underground corrosion of cast iron pipe for many years. CAST IRON SOIL PIPE JOINTS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS The cast iron soil pipe gasketed joints shown in Figure 1 are semi-rigid. A74 and A888. In dry periods cracks form. or salt (tidal marshes). PERFORMANCE 7 Over 95 percent of the soils in the United States are non-corrosive to cast iron.) alkalis. If the run of piping into which the acidic waste is discharged has sufficient upstream flow of non-acidic waste. The information contained in American National Standard A21. peat bogs. assuring the building owner and occupants many years of trouble-free service. the resulting rinsing action tends to raise the pH of the combined waste to a level that will not corrode cast iron. As a result of these studies. garbage disposal residue. or washed along the lower portion of the sewer or drain. dishwasher discharge. etc.5. The National Bureau of Standards and the Cast Iron Pipe Research Association (now known as the Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association. the stainless steel housings on No-Hub couplings used to join hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings require no more special protection against corrosion than the pipe itself. However. Expansive Soils Some dense clay soils expand and shrink when subjected to wetting and drying conditions. and when wet conditions return.

Hub and Spigot pipe and fittings have hubs into which the spigot (plain end) of the pipe or fitting is inserted. The design. typically uses a one-piece neoprene gasket with a shield and stainless steel retaining clamps.8 HISTORY. Types of Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Cast Iron Soil Pipe used in the United States is classified into two major types—hub and spigot and hubless. Compression gaskets. The stainless steel worm gear clamps compress the neoprene gasket to seal the joint. offers rigidity under tension with a substantial tensile strength. Hubless pipe and fittings are also referred to in the plumbing industry as no-hub. and CI no-hub® are used interchangeably in this text and throughout the industry. These two different types of pipe and fittings can be connected with adaptors available from the manufacturer. wall creepage. and completely eliminates galvanic action between the cast iron soil pipe and the stainless steel shield. The terms hubless. etc. lubricant. in accordance with ASTM A888 or CISPI 301. Hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings are made in only one class or thickness.. There are many varied configurations of fittings. The 300 series stainless steel often used with no-hub couplings was selected because of its superior corrosion resistance. The gasket absorbs shock and vibration. to allow pipe movement without breakage or joint leakage. Service (SV) and Extra Heavy (XH) have different outside diameters and are not readily interchangeable. Hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings are simply pipe and fittings manufactured without a hub. classified as Service (SV) and Extra Heavy (XH). and yet provides sufficient flexibility. The method of joining the pipe and fittings utilizes a hubless coupling that slips over the plain ends of the pipe and fittings and is tightened to seal the joint. It is resistant to oxidation. and in other inaccessible locations. The joint is sealed with a rubber compression gasket or molten lead and oakum. and deformation. Couplings for use in joining hubless pipe and fittings are also available in these size ranges from the member companies of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute. The Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute maintains a trademark on the term CI no-hub® which it licenses its members to use on hubless pipe and fittings. underground. USES. and both pipe and fittings range in sizes from 11/2″ to 15″. The shield is corrugated in order to grip the gasket sleeve and give maximum compression distribution. depicted in Figure 1 (a). Hub and Spigot pipe and fittings are available in two classes or thicknesses. Because the additional wall thickness is added to the outside diameter. Properly installed. warping. Hub and Spigot pipe and fittings are made in accordance with ASTM A-74 and are available in 2″–15″ sizes. The great advantage of the system is that it permits joints to be made in limitedaccess areas. such as ground shift. . building sway. Shielded No-Hub Coupling The shielded no-hub coupling for cast iron soil pipe and fittings is a plumbing concept that provides a more compact arrangement without sacrificing the quality and permanence of cast iron. no-hub. and assembly tools are available from the member companies of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute. PERFORMANCE designed to give rigidity under normal conditions and still permit sufficient flexibility under adverse conditions. footing settlement. the joints have equal longevity with the cast iron soil pipe and can be installed in walls.

The use of neoprene gaskets and cast iron soil pipe reduces noise and vibration to an absolute minimum. Soundproofing Qualities of Cast Iron With Rubber Gasket Joints One of the most significant features of the compression gasketed joint and hubless coupling is that they assure a quieter plumbing drainage system. When the lead has cooled sufficiently. The problem of noise is particularly acute in multiple dwelling units. and root-proof. PERFORMANCE 9 The Compression Joint The compression joint is the result of research and development to provide an efficient. as does the lead and oakum joint. It absorbs vibration and can be deflected up to 5 degrees without leakage or failure. strong. and the neoprene gaskets separate the lengths of pipe and the units of fittings so that they suppress any contact-related sound. The waterproofing characteristics of oakum fiber have long been recognized by the plumbing trades. it is caulked into the joint with a caulking tool to form a solid metal insert. Although soundproofing has become a major concern in construction design. the compression joint uses hub and spigot pipe. it completely seals and locks the joint. (c) Lead and Oakum Joint. This is due to the fact that the hot metal fills a groove in the bell end of the pipe. sound is muffled rather than transmitted or amplified. (a) (b) (c) Figure 1—Typical Joints Used to Connect Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings: (a) Typical Hubless Coupling. The resulting joint is leak-proof and root-proof. The result is a lock-tight soil pipe joint with excellent flexural characteristics. The Lead And Oakum Joint Cast iron soil pipe joints made with oakum fiber and molten lead are leak-proof. The joint is not unique in application to cast iron soil pipe. the joint is sealed by displacement and compression of the rubber gasket. When the spigot end of the pipe or fitting is pushed or drawn into the gasketed hub. certain plumbing products have been introduced that not only transmit noise but in some cases actually amplify it. USES. As shown in Figure 1 (b). flexible. lower-cost method for joining cast iron soil pipe and fittings. A detailed discussion of the soundproofing qualities of cast iron soil pipe DWV systems is contained in Chapter X. The major difference is the one-piece rubber gasket. (b) Compression Joint. Because of the density and wall thickness of the pipe.HISTORY. The result is that objectionable plumbing noises are minimized. since similar compression-type gaskets have been used successfully in pressure pipe joints for years. . and when molten lead is poured over the oakum in a cast iron soil pipe joint. firmly anchoring the lead in place after cooling.

Performance The performance and durability of cast iron soil pipe are superior to any other product used for sanitary and storm drain. Low-Cost Installation Cast iron soil pipe offers the advantage of low-cost installation as a result of the speed and efficiency with which the hubless couplings and compression gasket joints can be made. ready for use the following day. . This eliminates the need to work in cramped quarters or muddy trenches and so speeds installation. and hubless couplings can be used either individually or in combination in a given plumbing system in order to meet the needs of any specific condition. including one-family homes. The choice is clear because service to the customer requires that performance constitutes the principal reason for material selection. which reduces the required number of joints in a given plumbing system. waste. and the various joining systems. USES. In many areas it is possible to place an order and have it delivered overnight. and vent piping material on the market. high-rise structures such as hotels and office buildings. multiple dwelling units or apartment buildings. waste. since the industry’s manufacturing capacity is adequate and because the basic raw materials for the manufacture of soil pipe are abundant and readily obtainable from domestic sources. and vent piping.10 HISTORY. Contractors need not be concerned about supply shortages. which discuss the uses of cast iron soil pipe. both above and below floors and beneath the ground. These facts are supported by the data presented previously in this chapter and have a direct bearing on product selection. and in the matter of performance cast iron soil pipe has no equal. It is adaptable for use in all types of building construction. The lead and oakum. Product Availability Cast iron soil pipe foundries are strategically located in various sections of the country so that orders can be filled on very short notice. and many commercial industrial applications. versatility. Further. and the with use of 10-foot pipe lengths. compression gasket. demonstrate that cast iron soil pipe affords a number of economic advantages. PERFORMANCE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE The foregoing sections of this chapter. cast iron soil pipe can be preassembled before it is placed in the ground or wall. All three joining methods are available in a variety of pipe lengths and with a complete line of cast iron soil pipe fittings. These advantages include performance. its properties. Versatility Cast iron soil pipe is the most versatile sanitary and storm drain. It is available with a variety of joining methods so that it can be installed efficiently throughout the plumbing drainage system. low-cost installation and product availability.

The overall acceptance and demand for C NO-HUB® in every state has I had an effect on the tonnage produced annually. Pennsylvania 18062 PRODUCTION OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS IN THE UNITED STATES Shipments of cast iron soil pipe and fittings have followed the path of the Nation’s economy. lower in recession years and higher in the more prosperous years. the tonnage of cast iron soil pipe and fittings produced does not indicate that the demand for soil pipe and fittings is declining.O. The introduction of C NO-HUB® soil pipe and fittings also reduced the total tonnage. Pipe sizes are divided as follows: approximately 59 percent is 3-inch and 4-inch. wyes. As a result. Tyler. Of the total tonnage of cast iron soil pipe and fittings production. As a result. according to figures compiled by the U. North Carolina 28235 Tyler Pipe Company Sales Office and Manufacturing Plant P. Texas 75710 Northeast Manufacturing Plant North Church Street Macungie. but the compactness of the fittings also reduced the consumption of iron. 25 percent is 11⁄2-inch and 2-inch and 16 percent is 5-inch and over. An all-time high in tonnage shipments occurred in 1972. The I iron required to produce hubs was eliminated. and often special cast iron soil pipe fittings are specified by individual codes. however. drains. These machines produced more uniform wall thicknesses. The large variety of cast iron soil pipe fittings required in the United States is attributable to the many types and sizes of buildings and to the variety of requirements of various city. and other common or special fittings. Cast iron soil pipe fittings are castings of various shapes and sizes used in conjunction with cast iron soil pipe in the sanitary and storm drain. There are many plumbing codes in the United States.CHAPTER II THE MANUFACTURE OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS THE CAST IRON SOIL PIPE INDUSTRY Manufacturers of Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings AB & I 7825 San Leandro Street Oakland. with or without side inlets. Tonnage has dropped since 1972. Department of Commerce. waste. it is estimated that fittings constitute 22 to 25 percent. and regional plumbing codes. consisting of bends. California 94621 Charlotte Pipe & Foundry Company P. These fittings include various designs and sizes. Box 35430 Charlotte. and vent piping of buildings. Box 2027. foundries in the industry make a large variety of special fittings to meet the requirements of their customers. 11 . the demand for extra heavy pipe and fittings decreased year after year to a point where it now constitutes less than 3 percent of the cast iron soil pipe produced. traps. state. tees. Tonnage of cast iron soil pipe changed drastically when centrifugal pipe casting machines made their appearance. which created a greater acceptance of service-weight soil pipe.O.S. The demand for cast iron soil pipe and fittings is strong and will be for many years to come.

The use of scrap iron and steel in the production process necessitated the introduction of radiation screening equipment for all scrap iron and steel used in the production process. Sales are made through plumbing wholesalers. exposes the manufacturing foundry to an additional hazard: radiation from contaminated recycled materials. Thus. 3) the melting area. to 38 in 1959. and silicon.) The Modern Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Foundry The design and layout of the modern cast iron soil pipe and fittings foundry is planned so that there can be a smooth and efficient flow of production from raw materials to finished product. This number declined to 47 in 1956. The foundries.9 percent between 1953 and 1972. The hardness of the iron is determined by its chemical composition and by the rate that the casting is cooled. the number of plants declined by 62. Product standards require chemical and tensile testing to be performed a minimum of once every four hours during the course of production. to 31 in 1967. or directly from castings. total capacity in the industry has remained fairly constant. It is important to note that despite the reduction in operating units. Bureau of the Census. efficient mechanized manufacturing methods allowed current producers to increase overall production capacity. Modern. Deliveries may be made on 24. although industry shipments increased by 53. In December of 1953 there were 56 plants reporting shipments to the U. All CISPI member foundries utilize post-consumer recycled scrap iron and steel in the production of cast iron soil pipe and fittings. EPA rules and OSHA regulations created overwhelming costs that a great many small producers could not endure. Nearly all of the industry’s production is delivered by truck throughout the continental United States. working cooperatively with wholesalers and plumbing contractors. and by 1980. will fill an order and deliver it directly to the job site so that it does not have to be unloaded and reloaded at a supply house. (See Figure 1. through environmentally friendly. even though industry output has been increasing.12 MANUFACTURING DISTRIBUTION OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS Efficeint distribution networks and large inventories provide ready availability of cast iron soil pipe and fittings.5 percent over the same period. NUMBER OF OPERATING UNITS Technological improvements in the manufacture of cast iron soil pipe and fittings have brought about a reduction in the number of operating plants. Cast iron also contains small amounts of other elements such as manganese. The chemical composition of the iron is determined by regularly scheduled analysis of samples taken from test blocks or test specimens. 2) the storage yard for raw materials. carbon. according to the Census.to 48-hour notice from inventories. Cast iron is a generic term for a series of alloys primarily of iron. there were 15 operating plants in the industry.S. the foundry consists of six major sections or departments: 1) radiation screening. Typically. This is of particular assistance to plumbing contractors working on large buildings. and phosphorous. 4) the molding and casting area where the pipe and fittings are . sulfur. Recycling. THE MANUFACTURE OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS Types of Iron Soil pipe and fittings are manufactured of cast iron.

The basic raw materials used to produce cast iron soil pipe and fittings are scrap iron.MANUFACTURING 13 Figure 1—Radiation Detector Screening Ferrous New Material for Radiation. Silicon and carbon may be added to the molten iron in predetermined amounts to provide the proper final chemical composition. steel scrap.) Cupolas are classified by shell diameter. The refractory lined well section includes the bottom doors . and 6) the storage and shipping area for finished products. A typical cupola consists of three main sections: the well. An overhead bridge crane is used to handle these materials for charging into the melting furnace. a testing laboratory. Coating equipment is located in or adjacent to this section. fins. and the upper stack. the melting zone. a storage area for finished product inventories. Regardless of the type of melting equipment employed. These materials are stockpiled in the raw materials storage yard. which can range from 32″ up to 150″.) The Cupola Furnace for Melting Iron: Melting of the raw materials to produce molten iron is usually accomplished in the cupola. the make-up of the furnace charge determines the composition of the molten iron. (See Figure 3. depending on the relative availability of these materials. Electric melting equipment. such as coreless induction furnaces. and risers from the pipe and fittings. The cleaning department contains abrasive shot-blast machinery and chipping and grinding equipment to remove sand. The cupola is a vertically erected cylindrical shell of steel that can be either refractory lined or water cooled. gates. alloys. manufactured. which is normally located in close proximity to the raw materials storage yard. and a packing and shipping section. coated and prepared for storage or shipment. may also be used. Adjacent is an area for mold preparation. The ratio between scrap iron and steel scrap for a given charge can vary over a wide range. Raw Materials and Melting Devices The cupola furnace is used as the principal method for obtaining the molten metal required for production. (See Figure 2. and limestone. 5) the cleaning department where the pipe and fittings are cleaned. and a core room is provided to house coremaking machinery. coke. The modern soil pipe foundry also includes a pattern shop and pattern storage room.

) Figure 3—Sectional Views of Conventional and Water-Cooled Cupolas. The bottom doors permit the removal of the sand bottom and the remaining material from the cupola after the last charge has been melted.14 MANUFACTURING Figure 2—The Raw Materials Storage Yard of the Foundry. and the taphole. which modern cupolas are required to have in order to eliminate particulate matter discharge into the atmosphere. The taphole is connected to a refractory lined slag separator. The Conventional Type Shown Is Refractory Lined. The melting zone features the tuyeres. that is in turn attached to the outside of the shell. which introduce the combustion air into the cupola from the wind box that surrounds the shell. The upper stack extends from the melting zone toward the charging door and may extend as much as 36 ft. that are hinged to the shell. (See Figure 4. the sand bottom. above tuyere level. Water-Cooled Types Incorporate Either an Enclosed Jacket or an Open Cascade Flow. . The upper stack is connected to the air pollution control equipment.

the bottom doors are closed and secured. coke. and limestone are charged through the charge door into the cupola. At the conclusion of the operation. The bottom doors are opened and the sand bottom. The rate of melting in the cupola is governed by the diameter of the melting zone and by the amount of blast air blown through the tuyeres. coke. (See Figures 5 and 6. slanted toward the taphole. a coke bed is charged to the desired height above the tuyeres. As melting occurs. When the meltdown is complete. The molten metal that is discharged through the taphole is either accumulated in a forehearth or holding furnace. they serve as a buffer or an accumulator between the melting and the casting operations. together with the material remaining in the cupola is dropped to the ground. the remaining molten metal and slag are drained. When the cupola is filled up to the charging door. A cupola charge usually consists of eight to ten parts of metal by weight to one part of coke. A sand bottom. and limestone are charged alternately into the cupola so that it remains filled up to the charge door. alternate layers of ferrous scrap.MANUFACTURING 15 Figure 4—Bag House (Pollution Control Equipment). combustion air is introduced through the tuyeres to start the melting process. The melting operation is usually continuous. The molten iron temperature at the taphole normally lies between 2700°F and 2900°F. is then rammed in place. the charges start to descend and additional layers of scrap. all the charge in the cupola is melted down. Directly on this sand bottom. Coke is used to provide the necessary source of heat for the melting process. or is taken directly to the pouring area in refractory lined ladles. Limestone is added to flux away coke ash and other impurities from the charge.) When holding furnaces are utilized. The Start of the Operation of the Cupola First. allowing molten iron temperatures to be controlled. Once the coke bed is thoroughly ignited and incandescent. . Cupola melting capacities may range from 10 to 100 tons per hour. The combustion or blast air may be preheated up to 1200°F to improve melting efficiencies.

CASTING OF SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS The casting of soil pipe and fittings in foundries throughout the United States is highly mechanized and incorporates the latest advances in foundry technology. Rigid control is maintained during the melting and pouring processes to assure the proper composition of the molten iron necessary to cast quality soil pipe and fittings. . Centrifugal casting and modern static casting provide rigid production control and yield high quality pipe and fittings of uniform dimensions cast to exacting specifications. Figure 6—Mixing Ladle Located in Front of a Cupola.16 MANUFACTURING Figure 5—Iron flowing from the Cupola Furnace to Two Holding Ladles. whereas static casting is used to produce fittings. During the operation frequent metallurgical tests are taken to insure the required chemical and physical properties of the pipe and fittings produced. The centrifugal casting process is used to produce pipe.

In the centrifugal pipe casting process. The centrifugal force created by this rotation causes the liquid iron to spread uniformly onto the mold’s inner surface.MANUFACTURING 17 Centrifugal Pipe Casting Centrifugal casting in horizontal molds is used to make long. and a mechanical sand slinger forces the sand through the opposite end and around the pattern with such velocity that a firm. One end of the flask is closed after the pattern has been inserted. (See Figure 7. Figure 8—Illustration of a Centrifugal Pipe Casting Machine. Sand-Lined Molds Sand-lined molds for a centrifugal pipe casting machine use foundry sand rammed into a cylindrical flask as it rotates in a horizontal position around a centered pipe pattern.) One type of centrifugal pipe casting machine is illustrated in Figure 8. hollow castings of uniform wall thickness. thereby forming upon solidification a cylindrical pipe conforming to the inside dimensions of the mold. rammed mold is . a sand-lined or water-cooled metal mold is rotated on a horizontal axis during the interval of time that it receives a pre-measured quantity of molten iron. concentric. Figure 7—Iron being poured into spinning pipe mold.

then rotates to the horizontal and a mandrel is introduced and offset to form a cavity in the sand with the same contour as the outside of the pipe to be cast. Sand Casting Static sand casting uses sand cores surrounded by green-sand molds into which molten iron is poured to form castings. Prior to casting. molding. The iron is weighed. coremaking.18 MANUFACTURING obtained. cores are automatically set into the ends of the flask to complete preparation of the mold. taking into account the length and diameter of the pipe to be cast and its desired wall thickness. it is allowed to solidify in the still rotating mold. still spinning. Patternmaking: A pattern is a form that conforms to the external shape of the fitting to be cast and around which molding material is packed to shape the casting cavity of the mold. Next. the mandrel shifts to the center of the mold and retracts. Both processes use precision metal patterns and are highly mechanized to permit the volume production of fittings to close tolerances. Sand that does not contain moisture is appropriately termed “dry” sand. and the mold is then ready for the pouring operation. the mold’s inner surface may be coated with a thin refractory slurry as a deterrent to sticking. The flask. When the pouring ladle is tilted. The sand is termed “green” because of its moisture content rather than its color. which closes off its lower end. pouring. whereas the other uses permanent metal molds. Another method of making sand-lined molds consists of positioning a flask vertically on a revolving metal platen.) . The sand-casting process involves patternmaking. After the pipe is cast. the pipe is removed from the mold and is conveyed to the foundry’s cleaning and finishing department. Casting Process Molten iron from the melting area is transferred to a pouring ladle. The pattern is then withdrawn. foundry sand drops into its open upper end. Pouring continues until the supply of iron in the pouring ladle is exhausted. the stream of molten iron enters a trough. and shaking out. STATIC CASTING OF FITTINGS Cast iron soil pipe fittings can be produced by two different static casting processes. which is adjacent to the casting machine. As the flask rotates. which carries it into one end of the rotating pipe mold. One process casts fittings in sand molds. It is made usually out of metal in a pattern shop by skilled craftsmen using precision machine tools and equipment. (See Figure 9. Metal Molds Metal molds used in centrifugal pipe casting machines are spun on rollers and externally cooled by water. Cores (see description of coremaking) are then placed into the ends of the flask to contain the liquid metal. Once this is accomplished. Finally.

In molding machines using flasks. The drag or lower half of the flask is then placed around it. The core forms the fitting’s inner surface. The second method of fitting mold-preparation for sand casting. This prevents the core from dropping to the bottom of the sand cavity or from floating upward when the molten iron is poured into the mold. Molding sand is released from an overhead hopper into the drag. can remain in contact with molten iron without the likelihood of fusion to the casting. the material used for molding is an aggregation of grains of sand mixed with small quantities of clay and other additives.” and the lower part is called the “drag. . It retains its shape when formed around a pattern and. Extensions on the pattern are provided to form “core prints” or depressions in the molding sand that will support the core at both ends. and the assembly is rotated 180 degrees to expose the cope. a simultaneous squeezing of both the cope and the drag takes place. the lower half of the pattern is placed with the flat side down on the platen or table of a molding machine.MANUFACTURING 19 Figure 9—Operation of Precision Milling Machinery for Patternmaking. it is not uncommon for flaskless molding to be several times faster than cope-and-drag flask molding. a molded cavity is obtained. are placed on alternate sides of a matchplate and surround the pattern. However. and the entire assembly is then jolted to distribute the sand evenly. The upper part of the flask is called the “cope. the resultant cavity in the sand corresponds to the entire outside surface of the fitting. when it is placed over the drag. after which the excess is scraped off. When the flask and sand are lifted from the pattern. both the pattern and the flask are separated in two halves to facilitate removal of the pattern during the molding operation. Some molding machines use mechanical jolting and/or squeezing to pack the sand about the pattern. In both cases. which is rammed into a solid mass. both empty. The cope and the drag. given its refractory quality. corresponding to half of the outside surface of the fitting to be cast. also mounted on the two sides. The cope is formed in the same manner. either in flasks or by means of flaskless compression techniques. and after this. a sand core must be inserted in the mold to keep the molten iron from completely filling the void. The void between the pattern and the flask is filled with molding sand. It is similarly filled with molding sand. The cope is then lifted so that the operator can remove the pattern and insert a sand core. Molding: Fitting molds are prepared by machine molding. which is rammed into both parts of the flask. Although molding time varies depending on the type and size of the fittings to be cast. A bottom board is then placed on the drag. which uses flaskless compression molding machines. has greatly increased the speed and efficiency of the molding operation.” The pattern is used to form a cavity in the molding sand. At the start of the molding operation. before pouring. Figure 10 depicts fitting molds being made.

are used in a compression chamber to form flaskless sand molds. In flaskless compression molding. moving outward and upward. The patterns are mounted vertically inside the chamber. also known as the “squeeze plate. generally referred to as “pattern plates. Figure 11—Illustration of Flaskless Fitting Molds. each conforming to half of the outside surface of the fitting to be cast. a string of completed fitting molds ready for pouring is obtained. In this manner.20 MANUFACTURING Figure 10—Making a Fitting Mold. their flat sides fixed against two of the chamber’s opposite ends.” moves inward to compress the molding sand. During the squeezing operation one of the pattern plates. A string of flaskless fitting molds is illustrated in Figure 11. two matched patterns. . The other pattern plate remains stationary until the mold is formed and then releases. The squeeze plate then pushes the mold out of the compression chamber directly onto a “pouring rail” to close up with the previously prepared mold just ahead of it. once a number of such close-up operations have occurred. and it advances a short distance as each newly prepared mold arrives on the pouring rail. whereupon a core is automatically set in the exposed pattern impression.” Molding sand is fed into the chamber from an overhead bin and is squeezed between the patterns to form a mold with a pattern impression (one-half of a casting cavity) in each of its end surfaces.

Some are computer operated with process controllers. . Most of these machines use sand molds. although some are designed to use permanent molds. are in use throughout the industry. Figure 13—Automatic Core Setter. Most cores made for soil pipe and fittings are shell cores. The heat sets the resin and bonds the sand into a core that has the external contours of the inside of the core box and the internal shape of the fitting.MANUFACTURING 21 In recent years several highly automated casting machines have been installed to make soil pipe fittings. sand which has been coated with resin binders is blown into a pre-heated metal core box. Coremaking: Core production must actually precede mold preparation so that a sufficient number of cores are available for insertion into the molds. such as those shown in Figure 12. Automatic shell core machines. Automatic core setters are shown in Figures 10 and 13. In this method. Figure 12—Shell Core Making Equipment.

(See Figure16.) The castings are then allowed to cool further in the open air. (See Figure 14). This may also be accomplished by an automated pouring device. At this stage. An operator pours the liquid iron into individual fitting molds. molten iron is transported from the melting area in a ladle and then distributed to pouring ladles suspended from an overhead conveyor system.) Figure 14—Hand-Pouring of Cast Iron Soil Pipe Fittings. (See Figure 15.22 MANUFACTURING Pouring: During the preparation of fitting molds. Shaking Out: After pouring. The hot castings are removed from the mold by dumping the mold onto a grating where the hot sand drops through and is collected for recycling. they are still covered with a small amount of sand which must be removed in the cleaning department. the fittings are allowed to cool inside the mold until the iron solidifies. Before pouring. openings called pouring “sprues” are provided to permit molten iron to enter the mold cavity. . Figure 15—Shakeout.

. Casting occurs with the molds set in a stationary position on a rectangular indexing line. some automatically. with the two-piece mold in an open position. Permanent Mold Casting The permanent mold process is an automated process that represents an advance in the production of cast iron soil pipe fittings. production steps are performed. and the mold is closed. A core is then set. water. two-piece. The mold is Figure 17—Rotating Wheel-Type Machine for Fittings Production.or air-cooled metal molds.MANUFACTURING 23 Figure 16—Castings Being Shaken Out of the Mold.) The latter arrangement employs multiple molds mounted in a circle. or on a rotating wheel-type machine. (See Figure 17. a coating of soot from burning acetylene is applied to prevent the mold from chilling the molten iron and to prevent the casting from sticking to the mold. at various stations. and as the machine rotates. At the start of the casting procedure. Permanent-mold casting produces fittings in reusable.

Coating: After inspection and testing. the fitting is released from the mold onto a conveyor for transport to the cleaning department. including shot blast. The cleaning operation may use any of several methods. Cleaning and Finishing Operations Cleaning: After the newly cast pipe and fittings have been removed from their molds and allowed to cool. The result is a highly efficient casting operation. (See Figure 27. which is cooled by a controlled flow of water or by air passing over cooling fins built into the mold. they are inspected and tested for strict conformance to all standards and specifications. Fins are usually ground off with an abrasive wheel. Figure 18—Permanent-Mold Casting for Fittings Production. The cast fitting solidifies in the mold. The mold is then cleaned and made ready for recoating. and risers. meanwhile. and grinding equipment. Modern conveyor systems and grinding equipment are shown in Figures 19 and 20. Molten iron.24 MANUFACTURING then ready for pouring. In the laboratory. The iron is poured into the fitting molds as shown in Figure 18. fins. reamers. and the entire production cycle starts once again. glossy. pipe and fittings to be coated are dipped in a bath of coating material. tumbling machines. hard but not brittle. core sand. Inspection & Testing: After the castings have been cleaned. Figures 21 through 26 depict the various analytical tools used to evaluate test samples. they must be properly cleaned to remove molding sand. gates. whereas gates and risers are knocked off with chipping equipment and then ground smooth. test samples undergo more exacting physical testing and chemical analyses. When sufficiently solid. . and free of blisters and blemishes. The finished pipe and fittings are then moved into storage or prepared for shipment.) Dipping is the most satisfactory method since it provides a finish which is smooth. has been distributed from a large ladle traveling on an overhead monorail system to a smaller pouring ladle.

MANUFACTURING 25 Figure 19—Grinding Equipment for Foundry Use. Figure 20—Modern Grinding & Inspection Department. .

and Raw Materials. Figure 22—Unitron Microscope. .26 MANUFACTURING Figure 21—Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer: Analysis of Iron. Slag.

Figure 24—Leco Carbon Sulfur Tester: Used to Determine Carbon Equivalent of Cast Iron.10 Minimum by Mass. CE=%c+%Si/3+%P/3.MANUFACTURING 27 Figure 23—Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES): Analysis of Irons. Carbon Equivalent Required by CISPI and ASTM Standards to be 4. Production Control Samples. and Final Product. .

21.000 psi Minimum. Figure 26—Brinell Hardness Tester: Tests the Hardness of Cast Iron.28 MANUFACTURING Figure 25—Tensile Tester: Tests Tensile Strength of Cast Iron Test Bar. . Additional Quality Control Testing Performed by CISPI Members Not Required by CISPI or ASTM Standards. Required by CISPI and ASTM Standards. Figure 27—Coating and Inspection of Fittings.

The centrifugal method makes it possible to produce an equivalent tonnage in less time than formerly required and consistently yields high quality pipe of uniform wall thickness. these developments have been complemented by the use of automatic core-blowing machines. as well as flaskless molding machines. where the air blast enters the cupola through two separate levels of tuyeres. other aspects of fittings production have improved as well. which insure a uniform melting of the furnace charge. for example.MANUFACTURING 29 NEW TECHNOLOGY AND IMPROVEMENTS IN MANUFACTURING METHODS The foregoing abbreviated description of the manufacturing process for cast iron soil pipe and fittings indicates that a number of technological improvements in mechanized production have taken place in recent years. A parallel advance in fitting production has been the introduction of automatic high production molding systems. which has long been used to manufacture cast iron pressure pipe. cupolas are equipped with automatic controls. The recuperative units utilize the carbon monoxide from the cupola effluent gases as a fuel or extract the sensible heat from the hot gases emitted from the cupola. Pattern shops. are also being used. These have increased operating efficiency and improved product quality. This led to a product that was uniform and always had precise dimensions. The Melting Section In the melting section. Divided blast cupolas. Manufacturers began developing new and better methods that required patterns designed for higher and more economical production. Finally. At the same time. beginning in the latter part of the 1940s. use the most modern machine tools and the latest patternmaking materials to insure dimensional accuracy. The demand for cast iron plumbing material increased greatly after World War II. These new techniques provide increased melting efficiency as well as increases in iron temperature and melting rate. Once it was adapted to soil pipe production. the process was widely accepted and quickly made the hand cast method economically and technologically obsolete. Air for the cupola blast is also being preheated to temperatures up to 1200°F in externally fired hot-blast systems or in recuperative heating units. have eliminated the timeconsuming drudgery of hand ramming and contribute greatly to the speed and precision of fitting mold preparation. Automation always requires precise tooling. which have made dramatic increases in operating efficiency. This accuracy of patterning and equipment made possible the . PATTERNS FOR CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS The manufacture of cast iron plumbing products has gone through several major changes. The water-cooled cupola can be operated continuously over extended periods and provides additional versatility in the selection and use of raw materials. which have kept core production in step with the simultaneous advances in molding and casting. The following is a brief review of the principal new techniques and equipment. Oxygen is now commonly available to enrich the cupola air blast in amounts of 1 to 4 percent of the air volume. Molding machines for cope-and-drag casting. The Casting Section The principal technological advance in the industry has been centrifugal casting. Shutdown for refractory repair and relining is less frequent because of improved refractories or the use of water-cooled shells.

Government regulations required that air pollution control equipment be installed on melting. About 1950. high-speed molding machines that produce 100 to 150 molds per hour. Many of the soil pipe foundries are situated in highly populated areas without anyone being aware of their operations. and that water treatment systems be installed on all industrial wastewater systems. Materials handling equipment has mechanized coating operations. called a follow-board rollover. Pouring ladles for pipe and fittings are also supported by overhead rail systems. and forklifts are used to stack and load packaged fittings and palletized pipe for shipment. the soil pipe foundry has gone from a smokestack industry to a leader in clear air and water campaigns. In 1970 fittings began to be produced with modern. These shell cores were used in both water-cooled cast iron permanent molds and in green sand molds. The pattern was simply a casting split on its center. machine-made sand molds and machine-made green sand cores on arbors came into use. The process of making cast iron fittings prior to 1945 was extremely slow. The core was made with green sand supported by a cast iron arbor.30 MANUFACTURING rubber compression gasket joint and the hubless coupling method of joining cast iron soil pipe and fittings. scrap metal. About 1960. the old green sand core made on an arbor gave way to shell cores made in a hot core box. The remaining foundries spent millions of dollars installing pollution control equipment and still spend similar amounts annually to maintain the equipment. sand handling. due to efficient air pollution control. in the mid-fifties. POLLUTION EQUIPMENT The passage of the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts of the early 1970s introduced one of the most critical periods of the cast iron soil pipe industry. computer-controlled equipment that can produce in excess of 350 molds per hour. requiring a highly skilled foundry molder. Very little information was available in the 1970s on pollution control. and cleaning systems. coke. is moved from the melting area to the casting floor on an overhead rail conveyor or by forklift. Then. large. Many foundries closed their doors because they could not meet the minimum regulations due either to financial or technical problems. . and limestone. Materials-Handling Equipment The latest mechanical equipment is used to handle materials within the foundry and to transport them from one section to another. mechanization has been introduced in all phases of the manufacturing process. Cranes and conveyors are used in the storage yard to move pig iron. filled with molten iron. Finished molds are placed mechanically on conveyors for delivery to pouring stations. More recent environmental regulations will necessitate the expenditure of additional millions of dollars for compliance. from the receipt of raw materials to the shipment of finished products. This process evolved into a matched pattern in a cradle. Thus. aluminum match plates using hinged aluminum core boxes and cast iron arbors became the latest production method. and another conveyor system carries pipe and fittings to the cleaning and inspection department. grinding. The cast iron soil pipe and fittings manufacturers are now using modern. Within the last decade. An overhead conveyor belt transports recovered molding sand to the molding section for use. The distribution ladle.

economical.MANUFACTURING 31 Results of Technological Improvements • • • • • • • • • • Improved metal quality Precision casting with controlled tolerances Straighter pipe Smoother walls More uniform wall thickness More uniform hubs and spigots Standardized pipe and fitting dimensions providing complete product interchangeability Assurance of long-lived. and trouble-free service Hubless couplings and compression gasketed joints Lower installation cost .

Corrosion-resisting mate32 . When connected to a sewage disposal plant. The contamination of rivers or streams may be injurious to marine life and may make it more difficult to use the water below the disposal plant. a gutter or some natural drainage terminal. STORM DRAINAGE Drainage for roof areas. the storm water should be disposed of in a lawful manner as approved by municipal authorities. If the sub-drain or sub-soil drain is located below the sewer or discharge level. If an excessive volume of stormwater is received at the plant. When connected to the sanitary sewer or combination sewer.CHAPTER III TYPICAL CAST IRON SOIL PIPE LAYOUTS An understanding of the principles of drainage and venting is essential in laying out a plumbing system. Storm drains should not be connected to the sanitary sewer unless permitted by the local code or municipal authorities. and yards is called storm drainage. Wherever the discharge. This is particularly important if drainage is being provided from a deck or areaway near windows. Storm drains may be connected to a storm sewer or may flow into a sanitary sewer or combination sewer. a backwater valve should be installed to prevent reverse flow. areaways. This will allow proper flow and also control sewer gas that may escape through a roof drain. Roof Drains The plumbing contractor may often have the responsibility for the proper installation of roof drains. it sometimes becomes necessary to let part of the sewage escape untreated. or where people may come in contact with the odor of sewer gas. storm drainage can often create a problem by increasing the total volume of sewage that must be treated. If the building may be subjected to backwater. Municipalities usually have storm sewers constructed to serve privately owned buildings. The materials used and the manner in which they are connected determine whether or not the system will function properly and provide satisfactory service. storm drains should be properly trapped and vented. including scuppers. This chapter considers the principles of drainage and venting from the standpoint of some typical cast iron soil pipe layouts. Building Sub-Drains and Subsoil Drains Subsoil drains placed around the foundation of a building may be connected to a storm drainage system or to a sump. thereby increasing costs to the community. Because of this problem. a pump arrangement and sump may be necessary to lift the water into the drainage system. a separate system for storm drainage should be provided where a sewage disposal plant is being used. it should not become a nuisance to adjacent property or to pedestrians. and a storm sewer is not available. leaders and cast iron boots connected to downspouts. Where connections for storm drainage to a sanitary sewer or combination sewer are not permitted. courtyards.

(See Table 1). Cast iron soil pipe and fittings are recommended for use with outside leaders. 3 and 4. *Round. A typical roof drain and roof leader is illustrated in Figure 1. A satisfactory method of sizing “vertical” roof leaders is to relate the area of the roof to the diameter of the leader. together with suitable strainers and flashing materials. square or rectangular rainwater pipe may be used and are considered equivalent when closing a scribed circle equivalent to the leader diameter. TABLE 1 Sizing of Roof Drains and Rainwater Piping for varying Rainfall Quantities and Horizontal Projected Roof Areas in Square Feet Rainfall in Inches 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 2880 1440 960 720 575 480 410 360 320 290 260 240 3 8800 4400 2930 2200 1760 1470 1260 1100 980 880 800 730 Size of Drain or Leader in Inches* 4 5 18400 9200 6130 4600 3680 3070 2630 2300 2045 1840 1675 1530 34600 17300 11530 8650 6920 5765 4945 4325 3845 3460 3145 2880 6 54000 27000 17995 13500 10800 9000 7715 6750 6000 5400 4910 4500 8 116000 58000 38660 29000 23200 19315 16570 14500 12890 11600 10545 9660 Source: Uniform Plumbing Code (IAPMO) 1985 Edition. Tables 1 and 2 provide information on the sizing of roof leaders. cast iron soil pipe is recommended. Figure 1—Typical Roof Drain and Roof Leader Joints May Be Either Hubless or Hub and Spigot. and three alternative means of providing roof drainage are diagrammed in Figures 2. These variables are shown in Table 2. and are permanent. pipe space or other area. When roof leaders are within a building. since they are root-proof. withstand heavy backfill and traffic loads.TYPICAL LAYOUTS 33 rials of cast iron are recommended. The carrying capacity of “horizontal” storm drains varies with the slope of the drain and the diameter of the leader and is based on the projected area of the roof. .

.34 TYPICAL LAYOUTS TABLE 2 Size of Horizontal Rainwater Piping Size of Pipe in Inches 1 Maximum Rainfall in Inches per Hour 2 1644 3760 6680 10700 23000 41400 66600 109000 3 1096 2506 4453 7133 15330 27600 44400 72800 4 822 1880 3340 5350 11500 20700 33300 59500 5 657 1504 2672 4280 9200 16580 26650 47600 6 548 1253 2227 3566 7600 13800 22200 39650 /8″ Slope 3 4 5 6 8 10 11 15 Size of Pipe in Inches 1 Maximum Rainfall in Inches per Hour 2 2320 5300 9440 15100 32600 58400 94000 168000 3 1546 3533 6293 10066 21733 38950 62600 112000 4 1160 2650 4720 7550 16300 29200 47000 84000 5 928 2120 3776 6040 13040 23350 37600 67250 6 773 1766 3146 5033 10866 19450 31350 56000 /4″ Slope 3 4 5 6 8 10 11 15 Size of Pipe in Inches 1 Maximum Rainfall in Inches per Hour 2 3288 7520 13660 21400 46000 82800 133200 238000 3 2295 5010 8900 13700 30650 55200 88800 158800 4 1644 3760 6680 10700 23000 41400 66600 119000 5 1310 3010 5320 8580 18400 33150 53200 95300 6 1096 2500 4450 7140 15320 27600 44400 79250 /2″ Slope 3 4 5 6 8 10 11 15 Source: Uniform Plumbing Code (IAPMO) 1985 Edition.

Figure 3—Roof Leaders and Drains Inside Building.TYPICAL LAYOUTS 35 Figure 2—Roof Leaders and Drains Outside Building. Figure 4—Combination Sewer (Sanitary and Storm) Where Permitted by Code. .

as depicted in Figures 5 through 15. . and trash. A cleanout is also recommended at the base of each leader. dust. along with gravel and even tar from roofing materials. Each leader or branch should be individually trapped. Two other methods with two soil and waste lines each may be used when the batteries are back-to-back with a wide pipe space between them. and tub are depicted in Figure 15. VENTING AND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS For a battery of fixtures. traps should be used. In Figure 13 a common vent and a vent header are used. will sometimes require removal. Leaves. lavatory. The difference in venting with these two systems can be observed in Figure 14. Cast iron traps of the same diameter as the leader are recommended and should be located in an accessible area where they can be cleaned out if necessary.36 TYPICAL LAYOUTS THE USE OF TRAPS If roof drainage is connected to a combination sewer system. paper. Two typical piping arrangements for a water closet. venting and drainage may be accomplished by more than one method.

.TYPICAL LAYOUTS 37 Figure 5—Piping Layout: May be Either Hubless or Hub and Spigot Cast Iron.

.38 TYPICAL LAYOUTS (a) (b) Figure 6—Typical Piping Layouts and Details for Septic Tank Use: (a) Houses Connected to a Municipal Sewer System. (b) House Connected to a Septic Tank System.

Figure 8—Branch Vent.TYPICAL LAYOUTS 39 Stack Vent. Branch Vent Figure 7—Vent Stack and Stack Vent. .

. Figure 10—Wet Vent.40 TYPICAL LAYOUTS Figure 9—Circuit Venting.

Figure 12—Island Vent. .TYPICAL LAYOUTS 41 Individual Vent Figure 11—Individual Vent.

42 TYPICAL LAYOUTS Figure 13—Drainage for a Battery of Fixtures Using Common Vents and a Vent Header. .

LAVATORY & WATER CLOSET EACH FIXTURE VENTED Figure 15—Typical Piping Arrangement for a Water Closet. Lavatory and Tub. Piping May Be Either Hubless or Hub and Spigot. PIPING FOR TUB.TYPICAL LAYOUTS 43 Figure 14—Drainage for a Battery of Fixtures With a Wide Pipe Space Available. .

These methods may be placed into two basic categories: those that require external power for their operation and those methods that require only hand operation. or crates. The first step upon arrival of the material at the jobsite should be a thorough inspection for damage that may have occurred in transit. A copy of this document should be kept in a safe place if damage or shortages are noted. and an electronically actuated hydraulic snap cutter. It is very important that any damage be noted on the shipping papers to assure that any claim for damage will be honored. the power hacksaw. the manufacturer’s operating instructions should be carefully reviewed for safe use of the equipment. These tags should not be removed. which can be eliminated by the use of proper installation procedures and materials. It is possible to unload these packages as a unit. The shipment will usually be accompanied with both a bill of lading and a packing list. They will withstand the shocks and stresses normally encountered in transit. Care taken during installation will assure the satisfactory performance of the plumbing drainage system. It is necessary that the total pieces be checked and any discrepancies or damage noted before the carrier leaves the job site. All products should be properly marked with the manufacturer’s name or registered trademark. The shipping papers or bill of lading will normally reflect total pieces. trailer. This chapter presents general installation instructions. Examples of this type of equipment include the abrasive saw (chop saw). as well as information on installing the house or building sewer. and the county of origin. Fittings are also prepackaged in crates or boxes.CHAPTER IV INSTALLATION OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS The installation of cast iron soil pipe and fittings should be completed according to plumbing codes or engineering specifications. 44 . Before using electrical equipment of this nature. All items should be checked against the shipping papers or bill of lading and any shortages noted on the delivery receipt or bill of lading. The packing list will give specific descriptions. The purpose of the bill of lading is the legal transfer of title for the material from the manufacturer to the carrier (truck line or railroad) and from the carrier to the wholesaler or installer receiving the shipment. HANDLING Cast iron soil pipe and fittings are customarily shipped by truck and occasionally by railroad. A crate or box tag is attached identifying the contents of each crate. Many manufacturers of cast iron soil pipe and fittings prepackage pipe in bundles and place these bundles on a truck. METHODS OF CUTTING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE There are several methods of properly cutting cast iron soil pipe. as they will be useful later in locating fittings when they are needed. or rail car as a unit. Care should be taken when handling these bundles. bundles. Methods that require external power are usually used for prefabrication work or high volume cutting operations. It also discusses the problems of infiltration and exfiltration.

Compression Gaskets The compression gasket is a precision-molded. such as safety goggles. Figure 2—Cutting Pipe With Snap Cutter. Hub and spigot cast iron soil pipe may be joined by compression gasket or caulked joint. and abrasive saw has been found to be the most effective method of cutting. one-piece gasket that is made of an elastomer that meets the requirements of ASTM C-564. The maximum number of wheels possible should be in contact with the pipe. Hubless cast iron soil pipe is joined by using a no-hub coupling. including the need to use protective equipment such as safety goggles. The snap cutter accounts for the majority of all cuts made on cast iron soil pipe in the field. when cutting cast iron soil pipe. should be used. protective equipment. JOINING METHODS FOR CAST IRON SOIL PIPE There are generally three methods used for joining cast iron soil pipe.The following procedure has been found to produce consistently good cuts: (1) After marking the pipe length to be cut. (4) Continue cutting as outlined above in (3) until the pipe is cut. cut a groove following your mark all the way around the circumference of the pipe.INSTALLATION 45 There are two hand-operated cutting tools that are used in the industry today: The standard steel pipe cutter using cutting wheels specifically designed to cut cast iron soil pipe. The procedure for cutting soil pipe with a hammer and chisel are as follows: (1) Measure the length to be cut and mark the cut line completely around the circumference of the pipe. The physical characteristics of this elastomer ensure that . (3) By striking the chisel with the hammer. (2) Score the pipe by applying pressure on the handles to make the cutter wheels indent the pipe. position the chain cutter squarely around the pipe to assure a straight cut. score the pipe several times before making the final cut. Again. This method of cutting is very time consuming and should be used only if snap cutters are not available. Scoring the pipe before the actual cut is the key to a clean straight cut. Installers should be aware of safety considerations. For eight-inch and large pipe. Cast iron soil pipe may also be cut with a hammer and cold chisel. Figure 1—Steel Pipe Cutter. This procedure may take several revolutions of the pipe before it is cut. If a piece of pipe is unusually tough. and the snap cutter. (2) Place the mark to be cut on a 2 x 4 so the edge of the 2 x 4 is directly under the mark. (3) Rotate the pipe a few degrees and then apply quick final pressure to complete the cut.

Sizes 2″ through 15″ may be lubricated using a manufacturer’s recommended lubricant. Figure 3—Compression Gasket Joint. strike the fitting on the driving lug or across the full hub. Fittings may be installed by using the tool of your choice or by driving the fitting home by using a lead maul. Hit it as hard as necessary. To do this. The sharp edge may be removed by filing or tapping the edge with a ball-peen hammer (2) Fold and insert the gasket completely into the hub. . The compression joint is made as follows: (1) Clean the hub and spigot so they are reasonably free from dirt. Only the flange that contains the identification information remains exposed on the outside of the hub. such as the puller depicted in Figure 4. Using the lead maul is the fastest and easiest way to install fittings on hub and spigot cast iron soil pipe. the lead will deform without harming the fitting. The sharp edge may jam against the gasket’s seals. (3) Lubricate the joint following the manufacturer’s recommendations. It should be noted that use of adhesive lubricant does not take the place of proper join restraint when required. make sure the sharp edge is removed. (4) Align the pipe so that it is straight. and other foreign materials. mud. push or pull the spigot through all of the sealing rings of the gasket. When installing pipe that has been cut. Some manufacturers recommend using an adhesive lubricant on large-diameter pipe and fittings (5″−15″). sand. Figure 4—Pulling Assembly. making joining very difficult. You will feel the spigot end of the pipe bottom out in the hub. Using the tool of your choice.46 INSTALLATION the gasket will not decay or deteriorate from contact with the materials flowing in the pipe or chemiicals in the soil or air around the pipe. gravel. Proper safety procedures should be observed in making the joint.

Cotton and hemp also can be used. An eight-inch diameter pipe would require six pounds of lead. The amounts shown apply only to cast iron soil pipe and fittings made according to ASTM Standard A-74. It must be noted that these installation procedures are not intended to be applicable for couplings other than those manufactured in accordance with CISPI 310. The following outlines the installation procedures of no-hub couplings that meet the requirements of CISPI 310. wait 24 hours before testing. (See Figure 5. Figure 5—CISPI 310 CI No-Hub® coupling. A rough rule-of-thumb method for estimating oakum requirements is to take 10 percent of the weight of the lead required for caulking. The following steps should be taken to ensure a proper joint: (1) Place the gasket on the end of one pipe or fitting and the stainless steel clamp-and-shield assembly on the end of the other pipe or fitting. a four-inch diameter pipe would require three pounds of lead as a minimum. Thus. Table 1 provides a more accurate method for estimating oakum requirements. The bands should be tightened using a calibrated torque wrench set at 60 in. Lead quantities can be roughly estimated by rule of-of-thumb as 12 ounces per inch of diameter as a minimum. In all cases. The use of the adhesive lubricant does not take the place of proper joint restraint. This allows for skimming-off and for a reasonable loss due to spillage in pouring.INSTALLATION 47 Hubless Joints Hubless cast iron soil pipe is joined by using the no-hub coupling. when tightening bands. they should be tightened alternately to ensure that the coupling shield is drawn up uniformly. the inner bands should be tightened first and then the outer bands tightened. For larger diameter couplings that have four bands. Table 2 lists suggested lead quantities for various pipe and fitting diameters.1 (2) Firmly seat the pipe or fitting ends against the integrally molded center stop inside the elastomeric sealing sleeve./lbs. Several different types of no-hub couplings are available. Caulked Joints Oakum is made from a vegetable fiber and is used for packing hub and spigot joints. The use of adhesive lubricants is permissible as recommended by the manufacturer.) These couplings are manufactured using a stainless-steel shield-and-clamp assembly and an elastomeric sealing sleeve conforming to he requirements of ASTM C-564. These materials are usually twisted loosely into strands or braided and formed into a circular or rectangular cross section. When adhesive lubricants are used. 1 . (3) Slide the stainless steel shield-and-clamp assembly into position over the gasket and tighten the bands.

6 2. Prior to the late 1950s.38 Wt. After cooling.08 percent copper.16 .56 3.14 .04 6.06 18.53 .25 1.24 .15 1.02 43.8 percent from the liquid state. The lead is ready for pouring when it becomes a cherry red.13 . and tin. .73 percent of lead and no more than the following maximum allowable impurities: . Pounds .93 6.71 2. Ins.17 .47 17. Lead for caulking purposes should contain no less than 99.49 2. To make a caulked joint. .20 .02 percent silver. 2.16 . .19 1.12 .15 .17 5.91 4.67 Cu.002 percent iron.49 19.90 4.98 6.94 Dry Unoiled Twisted Oakum Packing Pounds (Approx.24 7.93 10.04 2. Ins.40 .15 percent arsenic.25 6.61 .42 15. 1.46 . Lbs.09 .08 .15 2. and the proper pouring temperature is 790o–830o F.81 3. antimony.06 7.67 17.33 .13 .17 7.5 Extra heavy XH Cu. Braided Oakum Packing Pounds (Approx.44 . there is a shrinkage of approximately 5.) Using I ring . 2.10 .) .20 .90 25.15 15.09 Wt.25 per cent bismuth.53 43. the caulked joint was the only method of joining hub and spigot cast iron soil pipe.25 1. and a total of not more than 0.25 1.002 percent zinc.8 . The melting point for caulking lead is 621o F.71 Sq. .18 .10 .07 .48 INSTALLATION TABLE 1 Quantity of Oakum Packing Required Per Joint in Standard Hub and Spigot Cast Iron Soil Pipe Tarred or Untarred (Oiled) Twisted Oakum Packing.35 7.75 10.45 Pipe Size in Inches 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 The standards of the Lead Industries Association contain the specification for lead quality. 1. the following steps are used: TABLE 2 Lead Required to Caulk Cast Iron Soil Pipe Joints Service SV Pipe Size in Inches 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 Lead Ring Depth Inches 1 1 1 1 1 1.34 26. Lbs.21 .

The molten lead is brought up to the top of the hub. UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION PROCEDURES The physical properties of cast iron soil pipe make it the best DWV (Drain. Many times in the installation of underground soil pipe it is necessary to change the direction of the line. The trench bottom should be stable enough to support the complete barrel of the pipe. Holes should be provided at each joint for the hub or couplings to allow for continuous support of the barrel along the trench bottom. For changes in direction greater than these deflections. (a) (b) (c) Figure 6—Type 1 Trench Condition: (a) No Pipe Bedding. Total load on the pipe includes both earth load and truck load. Waste. . the barrel should rest on even and undisturbed soil. including provisions to avoid collapse of the trench wall. Safety procedures in trenching should be observed. Caulking the joint sets the lead and makes a leak-free joint. Note: The caulked joint is a very time-consuming method of joining cast iron soil pipe. (c) Continuous Line Support with Hub or Coupling Holes. (4) After the lead has solidified and cooled somewhat.INSTALLATION 49 (1) The spigot end of a pipe or fitting is placed inside the hub of another pipe or fitting. Installation should initially be completed in a straight line and then deflected to the appropriate amount.g. Maximum deflections should not exceed 1/2 inch per foot of pipe. For additional information. it becomes necessary to excavate deeper than needed. (See Table 1. The two keys to proper underground installation are trench preparation and backfilling The trench should be wide enough to assemble the joints. If possible.. and Vent) material for underground installation. (2) Oakum is placed in the joint using a yarning iron and then packed to the proper depth by using the packing iron.) If the ditch must be excavated deeper than the depth of the drainage pipe. rocky. (See Figure 6. e. (b) Hard Trench Bottom. a pouring rope must be used to retain the molten lead in the hub. Use customary precautions in using or handling molten lead. Cast iron soil pipe will allow this through deflection in the joints. an appropriate fitting should be used. safety procedures should be observed and protective equipment and clothing should be worn. The vast majority of all hub and spigot cast iron soil pipe installed today is joined by using the compression gasket. (3) Molten lead is then poured into the joint. This would allow five inches of deflection for a tenfoot piece of soil pipe and 21/2 inches for five-foot pipe. the joint is ready to be caulked. then place and tamp backfill material to provide an appropriate bed. place and tamp backfill material to provide uniform support for the pipe barrel. In certain conditions. see Table 2. making sure that both are clean and dry. Any time caulked joints are used. Caulking is performed with inside and outside caulking irons. refer to CISPI’s brochure.) For specifying depth of lead for each size and class. Trenching Recommendations for Cast Iron Soil Pipe. If a horizontal joint is to be made.

manufacturer instructions. the installation of cast iron soil pipe and fittings is easily accomplished. • Closet bends installed above ground should be firmly secured. that could damage the pipe. Installers should always consider local conditions. Cast iron soil pipe laid on a solid trench bottom requires no tedious placement of selected backfill materials. or rodding and/or bracing. the underground section is ready for test. ABOVEGROUND INSTALLATION PROCEDURES With attention to a few basic rules. (1) Cast iron soil pipe installed in the horizontal position shall be supported at every hub (hub and spigot) or coupling (hubless). Riser clamps. Approved metal clamps or hangers should be used for this purpose. Horizontal Piping. Horizontal Piping. stabilize the pipe in the proper position by partial backfilling and cradling. When backfilling. (2) Installations requiring multiple joints within a four-foot developed length shall be supported at every other or alternating hubs or couplings. After testing is completed. care should be taken to protect the pipe from large rocks. sometimes called floor or friction clamps.50 INSTALLATION Once installation is completed (for joining methods. (3) Vertical components shall be secured at each stack base and at sufficiently close intervals to keep the system in alignment and to adequately support the pipe and its contents. This may be done by partially backfilling and leaving the joints exposed for inspection. refer to the previous section). or frozen fill material. it may be necessary to restrain the system or joints from movement prior to testing. are required for vertical piping in multi-story structures in order for each floor not to exceed 15′0″. • Piping laid on grade should be adequately secured to prevent misalignment when the slab is poured. • Support terminal ends of all horizontal runs or branches and each change of direction or alignment with an approved hanger. secure the piping in its proper position by means of adequate stakes or braces fastened to the pipe. Because this portion of the system is usually the largest diameter pipe. Joints used for connecting cast iron soil pipe possess sufficient shear strength to require one hanger per joint or hub. Suspended • Support horizontal piping and fittings at sufficiently close intervals to maintain alignment and prevent sagging or grade reversal. stones. the trench can be properly backfilled. . The hanger shall be placed within 18″ of the hub or coupling. codes. Support each length of pipe by an approved hanger located not more than 18 inches from the joint. and architect/engineer instructions in any installation. Support stacks at their bases and at sufficient floor intervals to meet the requirements of local codes. GENERAL INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS Vertical Piping • Secure vertical piping at sufficiently close intervals to keep the pipe in alignment and to support the weight of the pipe and its contents. • Closet bends installed under slabs should be adequately secured. Underground • To maintain proper alignment during backfilling. • If vertical piping is to stand free of any support or if no structural element is available for support and stability during construction.

depending on conditions or what is regarded as essential by the contractor.. Supports should be adequate to maintain alignment and prevent sagging and should be placed within 18 inches of the joint. or other structural members. toggle bolts may be used. For fastening to “I” beams. Studs shot into the masonry by the explosion method may also be used. Examples of sway bracing are illustrated in Figure 9. often called sway bracing. bar joists. Fasteners for masonry walls may be expansion bolts or screws. Hangers may be fastened to wood members or beams with wood screws. junior beams.) Figure 7—Hanger Spacing for Aboveground Installation. sufficient beam strength is provided by cast iron soil pipe to carry the load with hangers every 10 feet. ten inch in length may be supported at ten-foot intervals.INSTALLATION 51 Installation Inside the Building • According to most authorities and plumbing codes.” Where components are suspended in excess of 18 inches by means of non-rigid hangers they should be suitably braced against horizontal movement. Adequate provision should be made to prevent “shear. care should be exercised to make certain that the line has a proper grade (1/4 inch or more per foot). or where a void is present.e. . or large nails. i. five-inch pipe should be supported at five foot intervals. Whatever method of support or clamp is used for the horizontal line. it is sufficient to support horizontal pipe at each joint. lag screws. Figure 8(a)—Horizontal Pipe Supports. Along a wall. or engineer. architect. (See Figure 7. Any of the horizontal supports or clamps illustrated in Figures 8(a) and 8(b) may be used. When the system is filled with water. beam clamps or “C” clamps may be used. a bracket made of structural members or a cast bracket may be used.

52 INSTALLATION Figure 8(b)—Horizontal Pipe Supports (continued). the proper grade will be maintained. rodding or other suitable method. Figure 10 illustrates several methods of bracing. Horizontal Installation of Large Diameter Pipe Horizontal pipe and fittings five inches and larger must be suitably braced to prevent horizontal movement. Suggested Installation of Horizontal Fittings • Hangers should be provided as necessary to provide alignment and grade. to prevent movement or joint separation. This must be done at every branch opening or change of direction by the use of braces. Hangers should be provided at each horizontal branch connection. . By placing the hangers properly. Adequate provision should be made to prevent shear. Hangers should be adequate to maintain alignment and prevent sagging and should be placed adjacent to the coupling. blocks. Figure 9—Horizontal Pipe With Sway Brace.

. Closet bends installed above ground should be stabilized. traps. Refer to Figure 10 for illustrations. Where vertical closet studs are used they must be stabilized against horizontal or vertical movement.INSTALLATION 53 Where pipe and fittings are suspended in excess of 18 inches by means of non-rigid hangers. trap-arms. Figure 10—Bracing of Large-Diameter Pipe (continued on facing page). often called sway bracing. • When a hubless blind plug is used for a required cleanout. and the connection of hubless pipe and fittings to soil pipe hubs may be accomplished by the use of caulked lead and oakum or compression joints. and similar branches must be firmly secured against movement in any direction. floor and shower drains and similar “slip-over” fittings. they should be suitably braced against movement horizontally. see illustration for strapping a closet bend under a sub-floor and how a clevis type hanger has been used. In Figures 11 and 12. • The connection of closet rings. the complete coupling and plug must be accessible for removal and replacement. • Closet bends.

Figure 11—Cross-Section View of Closet Bend Showing Flange Properly Secured. .54 INSTALLATION Figure 10—Bracing of Large-Diameter Pipe (continued). Figure 12—Method of Using Hanger for Closet Bend.

sometimes called friction clamps. . Floor clamps. Figures 13 and 14 show some typical brackets or braces for vertical piping. are required for vertical piping in multistory structures so that each floor carries its share of the load. or if no structural element is available for support and stability during construction. Figure 13—Bracket for Vertical Pipe. If vertical piping is to stand free of any support.INSTALLATION 55 Vertical Piping Vertical components should be secured at each stack base and at sufficiently close intervals to keep the system in alignment and to adequately support the weight of the pipe and its contents. Figure 15 shows a method of clamping the pipe at each floor using a friction or floor clamp. Using a Friction Clampor Floor Clamp. Figure 15—Method of Clamping the Pipe at Each Floor. Figure 14—One Hole Strap for Vertical Pipe. secure the piping in its proper position by means of adequate metal stakes or braces fastened to the pipe.

c. Trapeze hangers may be used. • Longitudinal bracing: 80′-0″ o. . if the bracing is installed with 24 inches of the elbow or tee of similar size. Figure 16—Method of Supporting “Multi-Fitting” Installations (Hanger Spacing 10 Ft. At vertical pipe risers. • Provide large enough pipe sleeves through walls or floors to allow for anticipated differential movements. 1 Reprinted with permission of the Plumbing & Piping Industry Council. maximum spacing unless otherwise noted. • Horizontal Piping Supports: Horizontal piping shall be supported at sufficiently close intervals to prevent sagging. etc. Max. Seismic braces may be omitted when the top of the pipe is suspended 12 inches or less from the support-structure member and the pipe is suspended by an individual hanger. One pipe section may act as longitudinal bracing for the pipe section connected perpendicular to it. braces at both hangers are not required. whenever possible. All installations must comply with local codes and instructions of architects or engineers who are responsible for the piping design. • Vertical Piping Attachment: Vertical piping shall be secured at sufficiently close intervals to keep the pipe in alignment and carry the weight of the pipe and contents. it shall be braced on each side of a change of direction of 90 degrees or more. Where top of the pipe is 12 inches or more from supporting structure.c. Stacks shall be supported at their bases and if over two stories in height at each floor by approved floor clamps. • Traverse bracing: 40′-0″o. such as fitting-fitting-fitting-fitting. Provide lateral guides at the top and bottom of the riser and at intermediate points not to exceed 30′-0″ on center. support the weight of the riser at a point or points above the center of gravity of the riser.).. maximum spacing unless otherwise noted. • Where multiple shield and clamp joint occur in a closely spaced assembly. a 16-gauge half-sleeve may be installed under the assembly with a pipe hanger at each end of the sleeve.56 INSTALLATION Seismic Restraints The following recommendations are some of the factors to consider when installing cast iron soil pipe in seismically active areas.1 Note: Seismic braces may be installed at either hanger. Inc. • Brace all pipe two inches and larger.

These are water or hydrostatic. The manufacturer’s identification markings should be visible at the time of inspection.INSTALLATION 57 Figure 17—Other Suggestions for Hanging and Supporting Pipes. A water test. TESTING AND INSPECTION Once the rough-in is completed on a cast iron piping project. codes. Tests of this type may be made in sections on large projects. and peppermint. Proper safety procedures and protective equipment should be employed during all testing procedures. changes of direction. When testing. and ends of runs. the system should be properly restrained at all bends. The installer usually is required to notify the plumbing inspector of the administrative authority having jurisdiction over plumbing work before the tests are made. is made of all parts of the drainage system before the pipe is concealed or fixtures are installed. After all air is expelled. also called a hydrostatic test. smoke.3 PSI) and checked for leaks. all parts of the system are subjected to ten feet of hydrostatic pressure (4. There are various types of tests used for installed cast iron soil pipe and fittings. manufacturer installation instructions. and architect/engineer instructions in any installation. it is important to test and inspect all piping for leaks. Concealed work should remain uncovered until the required tests are made and approved. Air test Air tests are sometimes used instead of the water or hydrostatic tests of completed installations. air. Installers should always consider local conditions. This test is the most representative of operating conditions of the system. Cast iron soil pipe and fittings joined with rubber compression joints or hubless mechanical cou- .

Proper protective equipment should be worn by individuals in any area where an air test is being conducted. threaded openings shall be sealed with a manufacturer’s recommended sealant.58 INSTALLATION plings are expected to have a reduction in air pressure during a 15-minute test. During the test. Upon completion of the test. an inspector makes a visual inspection of the section being tested to check for joint leaks. Persons conducting the test are cautioned to inspect for tightness of all system components prior to beginning the test and to avoid adjustment of the system while under pressure. Once the stack is filled to ten feet. Thrust is equal to the hydrostatic pressure multiplied by area. If leaks occur during testing of hub-and-spigot materials. where these leaks are found. depressurize the system and remove test plugs. All other openings should be plugged or capped with test plugs or test caps. if not restrained. a cast iron system is expected to have a reduction in air pressure during the 15-minute test period. test plugs are inserted through test tees installed in the stacks. changes of direction. (See Figure 18. To isolate each floor or section being tested. this is the recommended test by most plumbing codes. causing failure of the test. causing serious injury or death. lbs. The purpose of the test is to locate any leaks at the joints and correct these prior to putting the system in service. The gauge shall be monitored during the 15-minute test period. Thrust pressures. Caution: Materials under pressure can explode. and ends of runs should be properly restrained. In most cases. hubless couplings have not been torqued to the recommended 60 in. The system shall be pressurized to a maximum of 6 PSI utilizing a gauge graduated to no more than three times the test pressure. The Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute recommends ten feet of hydrostatic pressure (4.3 pounds per square inch). all bends. A reduction of more than 1 PSI during the test period indicates failure of the test. thrust forces are exerted at these locations. The pressure increases as the height of the water in the vertical pipe increases. it creates hydrostatic pressure. Water Test A water or hydrostatic test is the most common of all tests used to inspect a completed cast iron soil pipe installation. This drop in air pressure does not indicate a failure of the system or that the system will leak water. will result in joint movement or separation. water tests should be conducted prior to the “closing in” of the piping or backfill of the underground piping. Prior to performing the air test all. All air trapped in the system should be expelled prior to beginning the tests. Persons conducting an air test must exercise care to avoid application of pressure above 6 psig to the system under test by using appropriate pressure regulation and relief devices. Because it is important to be able to visually inspect the joints.) Prior to the beginning of the test. Some manufacturers recommend the use of adhesive lubricants on the gasketed joints when air testing. All additional openings should be sealed using test plugs recommended for use in performing the air test. Because molecules of air are much smaller than water molecules. . Extreme care should be exercised in conducting any air test. Once the system has been successfully tested. As water fills a vertical cylinder or vertical pipe. Proper torquing will correct the problem. it should be drained and the next section should be prepared for test. the joint should be disassembled and checked for proper installation. Fifteen minutes is a suitable time for the water test.

Peppermint Test Some engineers. Operators who pour the peppermint mixture must not enter the building to do the testing. not by a chemical mixture. or fixture. As smoke appears at the stack opening on the roof. which is then tightly closed. There should be no odor of peppermint within the building at any point.INSTALLATION 59 Smoke Test When a smoke test is required by engineers. connection. and plumbing codes require a peppermint test to be applied to all parts of the drainage and venting system after all fixtures have been permanently connected and all trap seals filled with water. A thick. Under this pressure. Figure 18—Test Plugs and Test Tees. connection. architects. smoke should not be visible at any point. or fixture as a result of the peppermint mixture having been introduced into the system. . All windows in the building should be closed until the test is completed. A mixture of two ounces of oil of peppermint and one gallon of hot water is poured into the roof opening of the system. penetrating smoke produced by one or more smoke machines. is introduced into the system through a suitable opening. it is applied to all parts of the drainage and venting systems after all fixtures have been permanently connected and all traps filled with water. or plumbing codes. The peppermint test is usually used in old installations to detect faulty plumbing. architects. the opening is closed off and the introduction of smoke is continued until a pressure of 1 inch of water has been built up and maintained for 15 minutes or longer as required for the system.

7 26. 847 1714 2562 3409 4276 5124 5971 6838 7685 8552 9400 10247 197.3 8. which is readily available in retail outlets. waste and vent lines should be based on “fixture load. SIZING SOIL. and thus it has a higher numTABLE 1 Thrust or Displacement Forces Encountered in Hydrostatic Testing of CI No-Hub® Cast Iron Soil Pipe.06 6″ Thrust lb. Table 1 shows the pounds of force tending to cause joint separation when using pipe from 1 1/2 to 15″ and a head of water from 10′.7 39.7 52.7 13. The latex paint prevents the bleeding of the bituminous coating.0 2″ Thrust lb.0 43. 237 480 717 954 1197 1434 1671 1914 2151 2394 2631 2868 55. is applied. 38 77 115 152 191 229 267 306 344 382 420 458 8.” The most accurate method of calculating fixture load is by using the “fixture unit basis. 134 271 405 539 676 810 944 1082 1216 1353 1487 1621 31. 95 192 287 382 479 574 668 765 860 957 1052 1147 22. AND VENT LINES The sizing of soil.0 17.5 gallons of water per minute.07 5″ Thrust lb. . A primer coat of latex emulsion paint. OD.09 15″ Thrust lb.60 INSTALLATION Thrust Forces Thrust or displacement forces are encountered as the pipe or cylinder is filled with water. 12 25 37 49 62 74 86 99 111 123 135 147 2. 2 11⁄2″ Pressure PSI 4.3 34. and the finish coat of enamel in an appropriate color blends the cast iron soil pipe and fittings with the interior surroundings.5 gallons of water per minute under maximum conditions. Following the latex prime coat. WASTE. Pipe Size Head.84 Thrust = Pressure x Area.0 30.15 10″ Thrust lb. 19 38 56 75 94 113 132 151 169 188 208 226 4. a water closet requires more water than a lavatory.4 47. 538 1088 1636 2164 2714 3252 3790 4340 4878 5429 5967 6505 125. and other fixtures are governed by this yard stick. 377 762 1139 1515 1900 2277 2654 3039 3416 3801 4178 4554 87. For example. Feet of Water 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Area.34 3″ Thrust lb. in. a finish coat of enamel may be applied. PAINTING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE Cast iron soil pipe and fittings that have been factory coated with a bituminous coating can be painted if desired. The higher the fill the greater the force acting to separate a joint.3 21.06 Thrust lb.17 8″ Thrust lb.81 4″ Thrust lb.” One fixture unit is defined as 7.58 12″ Thrust lb. 65 131 196 261 327 392 457 523 588 654 719 784 15. A lavatory in a private home is considered to use approximately 7. to 120′.

fixture unit tables. a careful examination of the entire area should be made. and pipe size tables. Advice from qualified engineers and those experienced in soil conditions or foundations may be needed. . and of the building drains. For this reason. • Add up the total fixture units for the stack. and it will be necessary to shore the walls or vee the trench as a safety precaution. With this information. If care is taken to gage the depth of the trench. align and grade the pipe. it may be necessary to over-excavate and place some stable material in the trench on which to place the pipe. add the fixture unit totals for the various stacks. and if it is equal to or greater than the minimum. • Add up the fixture units on each branch. it is the correct size. Should an unstable condition be found.INSTALLATION 61 ber of fixture units assigned to it. waste and vent lines are: • Familiarize oneself with the plumbing code as to the minimum requirements. A grade of 1/4 inch per foot provides adequate velocity for liquids to carry solids along the pipe. the pipe will rest on firm undisturbed soil. Another variable to be considered is that a lavatory in a residence will likely use less water than a lavatory in a public building. Line. • If there is more than one stack in the system. When such extreme conditions develop. the grade of the sewer line can be established. the elevation of the invert of the city sewer is important and should be compared with the invert of the house drain. INSTALLATION OUTSIDE THE BUILDING Excavation and Preparation of the Trench The house or building sewer is the underground pipe line for conveying building wastes from a point outside of the building to the city sewer. • Compare this size with the minimum allowed by the code. In deep-trench installations. When the ditch is exposed to the public. and lights should be provided at night. the trench should not be dug any deeper than necessary. The information in this table has been used with satisfactory results. Extreme cases such as quicksand or soft muck may require a reinforced concrete cradle or a continuous member supported on a pile foundation to bridge the soft condition. For economy. Mechanical ditching equipment can be used to obtain a neat. barricades should be erected where required for general safety. Grade and Alignment of the House Sewer When the house sewer is to be connected to a city sewer. Table 3 lists data for the sizing of vents. Table 2 lists the fixture units that have been assigned to the various types of plumbing fixtures and takes into account the type of building (private or public) in which the fixtures are installed. • From these totals look up the sizes of the pipes in the correct table. The procedures used to size soil. and to avoid the need for fill under the pipe. A pedestal type urinal will use more water than a wall hung urinal. septic tank or other means of disposal. uniform trench at a cost per foot generally lower than hand ditching. Code requirements for a given vicinity may vary. different fixture unit values are assigned for the type of building in which the plumbing fixture is to be used. The sewer trench should be wide enough to provide room to make the joints. and hence there are different values of fixture units for these fixtures. the possibility of a cave-in is increased.

8) (38. waste) 11⁄ 2 Wash basins (lavatories) single 11⁄ 4 Wash basins. (38. wash up sinks and wash fountains (2 in.62 INSTALLATION TABLE 2 Fixture Units in a Plumbing Drainage System Minimum Trap & Trap Arm Size (inches) (mm) Units Type of Fixture Bathtubs 11⁄ 2 Bidets 11⁄ 2 Dental units or cuspidors 11⁄ 4 Drinking fountains 11⁄ 4 Floor drains 2 *Interceptors for grease.1) (50.1) (50.8 mm) min. (one unit per head) 2 1 11⁄ 2 Sinks.8) (50. trap arm only 3 (38. Trap sizes shall not be increased to a point where the fixture discharge may be inadequate to maintain their self-scouring properties. Clotheswashers in groups of three or more shall be rated at six units each for the purpose of common waste pipe sizing. oil. waste) Sinks. public installation.8) (38.2) (50.2) (38. (50. schools. private (1 ⁄ 2 in. Source: Uniform Plumbing Code (IAPMO 1985 Edition) . etc. Drainage piping serving batteries of appliances capable of producing continuous flows shall be adequately sized to provide for peak loads.2) (76. commercial (2 in. Water closets shall be computed as six fixture units when determining septic tank size based on Appendix A of this publication. (50. waste)11⁄ 2 Sinks.8 mm) min. 2 Showers. 3 Laundry tubs 11⁄ 2 Clotheswashers 2 *Receptors (floor sinks). etc. commercial or industrial. service 2 Mobile home park traps (one (1) for each trailer) 3 Urinals. waste) 11⁄ 2 Sinks. dishwashers.1) (31. waste) 11⁄ 7 Sinks. (50.1) (38. etc. and/or dishwashers (residential) (2 in. etc. bar. single stalls 2 *Showers. indirect waste receptors for refrigerators.8) (76. in accordance with Table 4. equipment or appliances discharged thereinto.8) (50. trap arm only 3 Urinals. pedestal.8) (38. wall (2 in. auto wash. bar. indirect waste receptors for commercial sinks. (50. clinic 3 Sinks.2) (76.8) (50. airwashers.2) (38.1) (76. solids.8) (38.8) (50. 11⁄ 2 *Receptors.2) 3 6 2 3 6 6 2 2 1 2 4 6 *Note — The size and discharge rating of each indirect waste receptor and each interceptor shall be based on the total rated discharge capacity of all fixtures.1) (76.1) (50. trap arm only 3 Water closet.8 mm) min.1) (31. 2 *Interceptors for sand. gang.8) min. flushing rim. private installation. etc. dishwashers. including dishwashers. stall 2 Urinals.8) (31. in sets 11⁄ 2 *Water closet.1) 2 2 1 1 2 3 6 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 (38. airwashers.1 mm) min.1) (38.8) (76.

7 (See Note) 1 2 83 60 18.15 L/s) shall be determined by the Administrative Authority.) for Intermittent Flow Only GPM Up to 71⁄ 2 8 to 15 16 to 30 31 to 50 L/s Up to . (Not to exceed one-third of the total permitted length of any vent may be installed in a horizontal position. the maximum length limitations specified in this table do not apply. or similar device. 5 Based on 1/4 inch per foot slope.) (When vents are increased one pipe size for their entire length.4 10 254 12 304. such as from a pump. Fixture unit load values for drainage and vent piping shall be computed from Tables 2 and 3. multiply horizontal fixture units by a factor of 0.2 4 101.8 85 25. Note: The diameter of an individual vent shall not be less than one and one-fourth inches nor less than one-half the diameter of the drain to which it is connected.2 24 120 36. two (2) fixture units shall be allowed for each gallon per minute (0.8. For 1/8 inch per foot slope.5 256 300 91.6 5 127 6 152.2 600 390 118.1 2 50.8 148 45 212 64.95 1.15 Equals Equals Equals Equals 1 Unit 2 Units 4 Units 6 Units Over 50 gals.) Source: Uniform Plumbing Code (IAPMO 1985 Edition). sump ejector.7 65 19. and not to exceed three water closets or six-unit traps on any horizontal branch or drain.4 8 203.8 1 5 22 1 163 83 323 143 484 354 256 216 600 428 1380 720 3600 2640 5600 4680 8400 8200 45 13.06 L/s) of flow.89 1. For a continuous flow into a drainage system. air conditioning equipment. Units 1 Max Lengths (feet) 45 (m) 13.5 3 76.5 300 91.) (liters per sec. . per min. Except sinks and urinals.7 84 212 64.50 to . (3.47 . Length Drainage Piping Vertical (feet) (m) 11⁄ 4 31. TABLE 4 Fixture Units and Discharge Capacity (in Gals.01 to 1. per min.INSTALLATION 63 TABLE 3 Maximum Unit Loading and Maximum Length of Drainage and Vent Piping Size of Pipe (inches) (mm) Max.8 21⁄ 2 63.5 48 180 54. Units Drainage Piping1 Vertical Horizontal Max.8 11⁄ 2 38.95 to 3. Source: Uniform Plumbing Code (IAPMO 1985 Edition). 3 Except six-unit traps or water closets 4 Only four water closets or six-unit traps allowed on any vertical pipe or stack.6 510 155 750 228 HORIZONTAL (unlimited) Vent Piping Horizontal and Vertical Max.6 1380 510 155 36001 750 228 Excluding trap arm.2 390 118.

for commercial and residential work. Frequently. Batter boards are temporary stakes to which a board is nailed or clamped. Testing and Inspection of the House or Building Sewer Before the house or building sewer is covered with backfill material. They are carefully set at a predetermined elevation above the grade line of the sewer. The grade should also be checked with a level. It is good practice to provide a cleanout where sharp changes in direction are made. Once the direction of the sewer line has been determined. A required change in direction can be accomplished with 1/16 or 1/8 bends. Suggested cleanouts are illustrated in Figures 19 and 20. of head. On long straight lines. a manhole may be justified. “grade stakes” should be established and “batter boards” erected. because changes in direction add resistance to the flow and sometimes cause stoppages.64 INSTALLATION The house sewer should be run in as straight a line as possible. and general site conditions. a cleanout is justified every 100 feet. Methods of backfilling vary with the length and width of the trench. Placing the Backfill One of the most important operations in sewer construction is placing the backfill. it should be inspected visually for alignment. and it seldom receives the attention it rightly warrants.34 psi. A string. If a sharper bend is necessary. the type and characteristics of the soil. The test may be stipulated by a code or by the written specifications for the project. chalk line or wire may be drawn between batter boards in order to check the grade line along the entire length of the sewer. A test should be made to assure tightness of the pipe joints from the house to the street or from the house to the septic tank. It should be tested at 10 ft. bringing the cleanout up to grade for easy access. architects and engineers will write specifications for the backfill Figure 19—Suggested Cleanouts Using Cast Iron Soil Pipe. . cord. which is 4.

At certain seasons of the year and with soils of certain characteristics. It should be inspected and the grease removed at regular intervals. cement. gravel. Puddling the backfill. and this can make plant operation plant costly when an excessive volume is received. Not only can these items cause stoppage and damage to the sewer system. rock. pieces of metal. paints. They require floating. it will settle over time and leave a partially filled trench. glue. these include broken glass. Clogging of soil and waste lines can often be attributed to improper sizing of pipe and faulty workmanship during installation. can cause trouble along the sewer line and at the sewage treatment plant. Grease can be removed by having a properly sized and properly connected grease interceptor. garages. or certain gases into the sewer system. it may cause difficulty. creameries. and repairing it if damaged. pieces of rubber. plaster. cleaning the sewer if necessary. but they are sometimes difficult to handle when they reach the sewage treatment plant. oil. thoroughly tamped. hair. settling. It is unwise to deposit flammable liquids. but it is not always recommended. especially if it freezes or tends to float the sewer out of alignment. packing houses. grease. or water flooding for consolidating the soil. feathers. and certain liquids. This is an easy way to fill the trench. or screening out. when deposited in the sanitary sewer system. and concentrated corrosive acids from being deposited into the sanitary sewer.INSTALLATION 65 Figure 20—Twin Cleanout. Maintenance of the House Sewer Maintenance of the sewer consists principally of preventing stoppage. Grading machinery such as the bulldozer or front-end loader is often used for backfilling. and restaurants. Chapter V details proper bedding and backfilling procedures. Certain items should never be put in a sewer. mortar. to be placed in six-inch layers. A well-designed plumbing system provides a smooth interior . bakeries. lumber. steam condensate. Wastes from laundries. Some city and state ordinances prohibit steam. is sometimes used. Unless the backfill is replaced in layers and tamped. Preventive measures can be taken against stoppage. sand. hotels.

Man-made corrosive soils result from the discharge of various mining and other industrial and municipal wastes into refuse dumps or landfills.5. porcelain.008 inch. Two types of polyethylene have been found to be effective for this procedure: Low-density polyethylene film manufactured of virgin polyethylene material conforming to the requirements of ASTM D 1248 and with a minimum thickness of 0. Heavier solids settle to the bottom of pipes and traps where grease adheres. All lumps of clay. PROTECTING CAST IRON PIPE FROM CORROSIVE SOILS Over 95 percent of the soils in the United States are non-corrosive to cast iron. Sufficient slack should be provid- . but not tight. cinders. alkalis. sewers should not be affected by low temperatures. and high-density cross-laminated polyethylene film manufactured of virgin polyethylene material in accordance with the requirements of ASTM D 1248 and with a minimum nominal thickness of 0. If installed below the frost line. DIPRA) have studied underground corrosion of cast iron pipe for many years. Polyethylene Installation Procedures Material Selection: Cast iron soil pipe and fittings can be protected from potentially corrosive soils by encasing the system in a loose-fitting polyethylene wrap.66 INSTALLATION waterway where solids and the semisolids in suspension can be efficiently carried away. and enamel surfaces if improperly used. mud. but it is not intended to be a completely airtight or watertight enclosure.004 inch. and the like that are on the pipe surface must be removed prior to installation of the polyethylene encasement. a procedure has been developed for determining the need for any special corrosion protection and a simple and inexpensive method of providing such protection using a loose wrap of polyethylene film. encasement with minimum space between the polyethylene and the pipe. The National Bureau of Standards and the Cast Iron Pipe Research Association (now known as the Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association. The use of lye and certain trade-named chemicals to clear lines is seldom recommended.. and this reduces the scouring action. Where a sewer is carrying greasy waste. as they sometimes cause soap to be formed from the grease and the pipe then becomes clogged even tighter than before. or salt (tidal marshes). the velocity changes to a slower rate. if there is an area where a cooler temperature may affect the line. etc. causing a stoppage. as indicated in Table 5. Flexible coiled-wire augers and sewer rods are usually far more effective and do less damage to the system. During installation. The information contained in American National Standard A21. When correctly sized waste lines discharge into an oversize line. Tubular polyethylene wrap should be sized to fit loosely around the pipe. Those few soils that are somewhat corrosive to cast iron include natural soils containing high concentrations of decomposing organic matter (swamps. and American Water Works Association Specification C 105 provide installation instructions and an appendix that details a ten-point scale to determine whether the soils are potentially corrosive to cast iron. Such cleaners may damage glazed earthenware. The polyethylene film is fitted to the contour of the pipe to effect a snug.). As a result of these studies. care must be exercised to prevent soil or embedment material from becoming entrapped between the pipe and the polyethylene. Polyethylene encasement protects the pipe from corrosion by preventing contact between the pipe and the surrounding backfill and bedding material. A74. American Society of Testing and Materials A674. and A888. peat bogs. the grease may solidify and coat the interior of the pipe.

and secure it in place. Slip the tube around the pipe. (cm) 14 (35) 16 (41) 20 (51) 24 (61) 27 (69) 30 (76) 37 (94) ed in contouring to prevent stretching the polyethylene. to make a snug. 2. wrapped around the pipe. For installations below the water table. or other damage to the polyethylene with adhesive tape or with a short length of polyethylene tube cut open. Method A: (1) Cut the polyethylene tube to a length approximately two feet longer than the length of the pipe section. It is also recommended that circumferential wraps of tape or plastic tie straps be placed at two-foot intervals along the barrel of the pipe to help minimize the space between the polyethylene and the pipe. or both. it is recommended that tube-form polyethylene be used.67 TABLE 5 Polyethylene Tube Sizes Nominal Pipe Diameter. centering it to provide six inches of . Proceed with installation of the next section of pipe in the same manner. in. Confirm and adjust any necessary grade on the piping section. or fittings. (3) After assembling the pipe joint. (2) Lower the pipe into the trench and assemble the pipe joint with the preceding section of pipe. securing the fold at quarter points. and to prevent damage to the polyethylene due to backfilling operations. make the overlap of the polyethylene tube. couplings. Secure the overlap in place. Protection of Pipe: There are three different methods for the installation of polyethylene encasement. but not tight. (4) Repair any rips. Overlaps and ends are secured by the use of adhesive tape. in. slip it over the end of the new length of pipe. A shallow bell or coupling hole must be made at joints to facilitate installation of the polyethylene tube. and 3 4 and 5 6 8 10 12 15 Recommended Polyethylene Flat Tube Width. plastic tie straps. and Method C is for use with polyethylene sheets. or any other material capable of holding the polyethylene encasement in place until backfilling operations are completed. punctures. 11/2. Methods A and B are for use with polyethylene tubes. and bunch it accordion-fashion lengthwise until it clears the pipe ends. with both ends sealed as thoroughly as possible with adhesive tape or plastic tie straps at the joint overlaps. especially when bridging irregular surfaces such as hubs. centering it to provide a one-foot overlap on each adjacent pipe section. Pull the bunched polyethylene from the preceding length of pipe. Slip the tube around the pipe. and secured in place. fit along the barrel of the pipe. plastic string. Method B: (1) Cut the polyethylene tube to a length approximately one foot shorter than the length of the pipe section. Take up the slack width at the top of the pipe as shown in Figure 21. Then slip the end of the polyethylene from the new pipe section over the end of the first wrap until it overlaps the joint at the end of the preceding length of pipe. in areas subject to tidal action.

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Figure 21—Method A Slack Reduction Procedure.

bare pipe at each end. Make the polyethylene snug, but not tight, as shown in Fig. 21, and secure the ends. (2) Before making a joint, slip a three-foot length of polyethylene tube over the end of the preceding pipe section, bunching it accordion-fashion lengthwise. After completing the joint, pull the three-foot length of polyethylene previously installed onto each adjacent section of pipe by at least 1 foot; make snug and secure at each end. (3) Repair any rips, punctures, or other damage to the polyethylene. Confirm and adjust grade on the piping, as required. Proceed with installation of the next section of pipe in the same manner.

Method C: Use flat-sheet polyethylene with a minimum width twice that of the flat tube width, as shown shown in Table 5. (1) Cut the polyethylene sheet to a length approximately two feet longer than the length of the pipe section. Center the cut length to provide a one-foot overlap on each adjacent pipe section, bunching it until it clears the pipe ends. Wrap the polyethylene around the pipe so that it overlaps circumferentially over the top quadrant of the pipe. Secure the cut edge of polyethylene sheet at approximately three-foot intervals along the pipe length. (2) Lower the wrapped pipe into the trench and assemble the pipe joint with the preceding section of pipe. A shallow hub or coupling hole must be made at joints to facilitate installation of the polyethylene. After completing the joint, overlap the polyethylene over the joint as described in Method A. (3) Repair any rips, punctures, or other damage to the polyethylene. Confirm and adjust any necessary grade of the piping section. Proceed with installation of the next section of pipe in the same manner.

Protection of Fittings: Pipe-Shaped Appurtenances: Bends, reducers, offsets, and other pipe-shaped appurtenances are covered with polyethylene in the same manner as the pipe. Odd-Shaped Appurtenances: Tees, crosses, and other odd-shaped pieces that cannot be practically wrapped in a tube are covered with a flat sheet or split length of polyethylene tube. Pass the sheet under the appurtenance and bring up around the body. Make seams by bringing the edges together, folding over twice, and taping down (see Fig. 22). Handle slack width and overlaps at joints the same as in pipe installation. Tape the polyethylene securely in place.

INSTALLATION

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Repairs: Repair any cuts, tears, punctures, or damage to polyethylene with adhesive tape or with a short length of polyethylene tube cut open, wrapped around the pipe covering the damaged area, and secured in the same manner as used in securing pipe wrap. Junctions Between Wrapped and Unwrapped Pipe: Where polyethylene-wrapped pipe joins a pipe that is not wrapped, extend the polyethylene tube to cover the unwrapped pipe to a distance of at least three feet. Secure the end with circumferential turns of tape. Backfill of Polyethylene-Wrapped Pipe: Backfill procedures are the same as those specified for pipe without polyethylene wrapping. Take special care to prevent damage to the polyethylene wrapping when placing backfill. Backfill material shall be free of cinders, refuse, frozen earth, boulders, rocks, stones, job site debris, or other material that could damage polyethylene. INFILTRATION AND EXFILTRATION The best solution to infiltration and exfiltration is a well-designed, well-constructed, and properly inspected sewer with tight joints and having passed a pressure test. A good community plumbing code, well enforced by municipal authorities is essential.

Infiltration Infiltration may be defined as water that enters the sanitary sewer system through defective joints, cracked or broken pipes, the walls of manholes, manhole tops, and yard, areaway, and foundation footing drains. Usually the accumulation of ground and surface water accompanying a rainy period can be a factor; infiltration may also take place during dry weather if the sanitary sewer is near a creek bed or spring. In recent years, infiltration has become more important to engineers, health officials, and water-treatment and sewage-treatment plant officials. Sewage-treatment plants are usually designed for dry-weather flow with a nominal allowance for infiltration during the wet season. This allowance is usually 20 to 25 percent in well-designed systems. Reports indicate that some treatment plants receive 100, 200, and even

Figure 22—Method “A” Installation on Odd-Shaped Appurtenances.

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300 percent of capacity during periods of heavy rain. A report from a county engineer for the State of New York makes the following observations concerning infiltration: The quantity of ground, storm and surface waters discharging into county trunk sewers from sanitary lateral connections is highly excessive, resulting in overloading the trunk sewers, pumping stations and treatment plants, and increasing treatment and maintenance costs. This situation has resulted in the flooding of buildings and homes caused by surcharged sewers and in pollution of adjacent streams, potable waters and bathing areas. Unless this condition is alleviated, the ultimate capacity of the trunk sewers will be reached many years before the date contemplated by the sewer design, and the time will be brought nearer when the costly job of constructing additional facilities must be undertaken. The county is undertaking the preparation of construction standards, aimed to prevent leakage in sewers, for presentation to the contributing municipalities for their consideration. It is evident that that the greatest amount of infiltration originates from residential sewer connections. This is indicated by the following excerpt from Public Works magazine: Infiltration has been with us almost since the first pipes were laid, but with the increasing provision of treatment plants, the problem becomes more serious and costly. There is practically no way to cure it if it occurs. Careful specifications, the use of the best materials and rigid inspection during construction are the only preventatives. In many cases, the major part of infiltration enters through the house connections, emphasizing the need for our preventative factors of specifications, good materials and strict inspection in their construction. In one study it was estimated that house connection infiltration represented about 80% of the total (emphasis added). It should be remembered that in a residential area, the footage of house sewers may be twice as great as the footage of laterals.1 One of the main steps that can be taken to reduce the amount of infiltration is to install cast iron soil pipe and fittings. Another measure that has been adopted by many cities to reduce infiltration is to require a 10-foot head of water test on all sewers. A ten-foot head is equal to 4.34 pounds per square inch of pressure.

Exfiltration During dry seasons, a sewer that leaks may allow sewage to flow out into the soil and find its way into underground streams, thereby contaminating groundwater. This is termed “exfiltration.” A watertight sewer line is essential to eliminate this condition. Cast iron soil pipe systems are watertight and durable, and assure adequate protection against exfiltration. In May 1980 an infiltration test was conducted by the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute and witnessed by an independent testing laboratory. The test was conducted to determine the effect of infiltration of water through C NO-HUB® soil pipe and no-hub couplings. The no-hub couplings used in this test were I of a design to which the Institute previously held patent rights. The testing procedure involved connecting 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-inch size reducers with hubless couplings and measuring the amount of water seepage into the interior cavity of the soil pipe system when water pressure was placed on the exterior of the system. A pressure of 50 PSI was exerted on the system for 30 minutes, and no leakage was found. The pressure was then reduced to 20 PSI, and allowed to remain for 24 hours. Still no leakage was found.
1

“Infiltration Into Sewers Can Cost Lots of Money,” Public Works, August, 1958.

71

CHAPTER V TRENCHING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CAST IRON SOIL PIPE

“That out of sight is out of mind Is true of most we leave behind.”
Songs in Absence Arthur Hugh Clough 1819–1861

The installation of an underground piping material truly is a job that the designer or engineer wants to do only once for the planned life of the building or structure. With an understanding of the factors involved in the underground installation of the piping material, this can be accomplished. An underground piping material can be subjected to combined internal and external loads; however, because cast iron soil pipe and fittings are used in non-pressure applications, we will be concerned only with external loads. External loads on underground pipe are made up of the weight of the backfill, which is called earth load, and the weight of traffic plus impact, which is called truck load. Both these loads combine to equal the total load on the underground pipe. The effect of these external loads can be reduced by proper installation. Tests performed at the University of Iowa for the American Standards Association A-21 Committee established the basic formulas that are used in our calculations. The ability of a cast iron pipe to withstand external loads is determined by ring crushing tests. To determine the ring crush load a cast iron pipe will withstand before failure, random samples of cast iron soil pipe were subjected to a three-edge bearing crushing test. These pipe samples were placed in a compression testing machine and loaded until failure occurred. Hundreds of samples were tested in obtaining the values to be used for design purposes. These values are referred to as the modulus of rupture, which is 45,000 PSI for Cast Iron Soil Pipe. To determine the ring crushing load for the various sizes of pipe once the modulus of rupture is determined, a three-edge bearing formula is used: W = t2R .0795 (Dm) W = three-edge bearing ring crushing load (lbs./linear ft.) t = nominal thickness of the pipe (in.) Dm = mean diameter (inch) (O.D. – thickness) R = modulus of rupture (45,000 PSI) By using this formula, the ring crushing load for pipe can be calculated. This load can be found in Table 1. External loads are calculated using two formulas. One formula is used to calculate earth load and one to calculate truck load.
71

75 15. Using Table 2.50 5. 1. 18″. The values calculated that appear in the tables are the loads in pounds per linear foot that the pipe will experience at the depth indicated.38 3.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 1. In.30 6.D. The calculation of truck loads is based on two passing trucks with a wheel load of 16. Nominal O.38 5.17 0. determine depth of cover and trench width (12″. Next.75 12. Maximum Crushing Load* lbs / ft Pipe Size In. It should be noted that none of the loads in Table 2 reach or exceed the crushing loads shown in Table 1. Nominal Thickness In.88 0. In. These calculated values are found in Table 2 as (EL).38 10. The effect of external loads on the buried pipe can be reduced by control of trench width and by support of the pipe in the trench.17 0.28 8328 6617 4542 4877 3999 3344 3674 4317 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 2. In. Service Weight Nominal O. 24″.30 8.37 0.50 6. The laying condition shown in Figure 1 is a flat-bottom trench providing continuous support to the pipe.30 3. From Table 1.D. Example 10″ Hubless Pipe is being buried in a 24″ wide trench 6′0″ deep.18 0. Greater or lesser thickness will affect maximum crushing load.16 0.23 0.25 0.50 4.35 3. Extra Heavy Nominal O.19 0. TABLE 1 Ring Test Crushing Loads on Cast Iron Soil Pipe Hubless Pipe Size In. Maximum crushing load is calculated using nominal thickness.16 0.44 9331 10885 8324 6739 5660 6546 7465 6259 7097 * Pounds per linear ft.28 0. find total load (L) for pipe size and depth of cover being considered.D. find maximum crushing load for pipe being considered. Total load (L) is 1336 pounds per linear foot and the ring-crushing load for 10″ Hubless Pipe is 4317 pounds per linear foot.16 0.18 0. Total load (L) from Table 2 should not exceed maximum crushing load from Table 1. hubless or extra heavy).000 pounds plus an impact factor on an unpaved surface or flexible pavement.25 0.62 10. / ft. Nominal Thickness In.56 0.30 4.30 6.50 15.37 0.50 8.50 12.19 0. .30 8. Maximum Crushing Load* lbs.38 10.1 formulas.25 0. These calculated values are found in Table 2 as (TL).25 0.35 4.28 0.72 TRENCHING RECOMMENDATIONS The tables reflect the calculated values of the earth loads using the A 21.88 0.90 2.23 0. HOW TO USE THE TABLES Determine size and type pipe being considered (service.30 5. 36″). Nominal Thickness In.19 0.36 7680 5226 4451 3582 2997 3674 4342 3632 4727 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 2.31 0. Maximum Crushing Load* lbs / ft Pipe Size In.19 0.18 0.

From the time the pipe is taken from the casting machine until it is unloaded at the jobsite. By improving on this installation with tamped backfill. Handling Although cast iron is strong.TRENCHING RECOMMENDATIONS 73 BURIAL OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS The underground burial of cast iron soil pipe and fittings is often regarded as a simple task. In unloading. the greater the earth load on the pipe. Hub holes or coupling holes should be large enough to allow assembly of the joints but not so large that the pipe is not uniformly supported. Additional information on specific questions related to underground installations can be addressed to the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute or its member companies. Excavation The width of the trench for the various sizes of pipe is determined by the type of soil. (a) (b) (c) Figure 1—Type 1 Trench Condition. Figure 1 illustrates a type 1 trench installation with a flat-bottom trench and hub or coupling holes. the wider the trench. In rock excavation. the rock should be removed and a bed of sand or selected backfill. at least six inches deep. One of the basic reasons is cast iron’s inherent strength. the manufacturers exercise care to avoid damage to the product. (c) Continuous Line Support With Hub. the depth of the trench. the bearing strength of the pipe increases. the pipe should not be dropped or allowed to roll into other pipe or fittings. should be placed on the bottom of the trench to “cushion” the pipe. By following certain elementary requirements a trouble free installation can be accomplished. and the excavation equipment used. reasonable care should be taken in handling the pipe and fittings prior to installation. No Pipe Bedding and Hard Trench Bottom: (a) Coupling Holes. . The bottom of the trench should be excavated true and even so that the barrel of the pipe will have full support along its entire length. Generally speaking. This protects the pipe from sharp projections of rock or uneven bedding. There are several recognized types of trench bottoms for the installation of cast iron soil pipe. (b) Continuous Line Support.

D.5′ 5. EL= earth load.5′ 4.5′ 7. .5′ 8.0′ 7.0′ 3.s are based on service weight nominal O.D. L=total load.0′ Notes: All O.74 TRENCHING RECOMMENDATIONS TABLE 2 PIPE SIZE 11/2″ Depth of Trench Cover Width 12″ 18″ 2.0′ 4.0′ 6.5′ 3. TL=truck (live) load.0′ 5.0′ EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L 57 77 134 72 44 116 86 35 121 101 26 127 116 21 137 131 18 149 145 16 161 160 14 174 175 13 188 189 12 201 204 11 215 219 10 229 234 10 244 57 77 134 72 44 116 86 35 121 101 26 127 116 21 137 131 18 149 145 16 161 160 14 174 175 13 188 189 12 201 204 11 215 219 10 229 234 10 244 2″ 3″ 4″ 5″ 24″ 57 77 134 72 44 116 86 35 121 101 26 127 116 21 137 131 18 149 145 16 161 160 14 174 175 13 188 189 12 201 204 11 215 219 10 229 234 10 244 12″ 75 192 267 95 141 236 115 106 221 134 67 201 154 48 202 173 40 213 193 32 225 213 30 243 232 29 261 252 28 280 271 27 298 291 26 317 311 26 337 18″ 75 192 267 95 141 236 115 106 221 134 67 201 154 48 202 173 40 213 193 32 225 213 30 243 232 29 261 252 28 280 271 27 298 291 26 317 311 26 337 24″ 75 192 267 95 141 236 115 106 221 134 67 201 154 48 202 173 40 213 193 32 225 213 30 243 232 29 261 252 28 280 271 27 298 291 26 317 311 26 337 12″ 111 365 476 140 211 351 169 141 310 199 96 295 228 80 308 258 72 330 287 64 351 317 60 377 346 56 402 375 54 429 387 52 439 396 50 446 404 48 452 18″ 111 365 476 140 211 351 169 141 310 199 96 295 228 80 308 258 72 330 287 64 351 317 60 377 346 56 402 375 54 429 405 52 457 396 50 446 464 48 512 24″ 111 365 476 140 211 351 169 141 310 199 96 295 228 80 308 258 72 330 287 64 351 317 60 377 346 56 402 375 54 429 405 52 457 396 50 446 464 48 512 12″ 144 614 758 184 387 571 223 282 505 262 192 454 298 144 442 318 120 438 336 96 432 351 88 439 365 80 445 376 76 452 387 72 459 396 68 464 404 64 468 18″ 144 614 758 184 387 571 223 282 505 262 192 454 301 144 445 341 120 461 380 96 476 419 88 507 458 80 539 497 76 573 537 72 609 576 68 644 615 64 679 24″ 144 614 758 184 387 571 223 282 505 262 192 454 301 144 445 341 120 461 380 96 476 419 88 507 458 80 539 497 76 573 537 72 609 576 68 644 615 64 679 18″ 177 864 1041 226 563 789 250 422 672 276 288 564 373 232 605 422 196 618 471 160 631 520 140 660 569 120 689 618 112 730 667 104 771 716 96 812 765 88 853 24″ 36″ 177 177 864 864 1041 1041 226 563 789 275 422 697 324 288 612 373 232 605 422 196 618 471 160 631 520 140 660 569 120 689 618 112 730 667 104 771 716 96 812 765 88 853 226 563 789 275 422 697 324 288 612 373 232 605 422 196 618 471 160 631 520 140 660 569 120 689 618 112 730 667 104 771 716 96 812 765 88 853 2.s (ASTM A-74).5′ 6.

0′ 671 891 891 272 272 272 943 1163 1163 702 970 970 248 248 248 950 1218 1218 730 1048 1048 224 224 224 954 1272 1272 755 1127 1127 200 200 200 955 1327 1327 779 1194 1205 176 176 176 955 1370 1381 6.5′ 3.0′ 601 735 735 352 352 352 953 1087 1087 638 312 950 813 312 1125 813 312 1125 5.5′ 4.0′ 4.TRENCHING RECOMMENDATIONS 75 TABLE 2 (continued) PIPE SIZE 6″ Depth Trench of Cover Width 18″ 24″ 2.5′ 6.5′ 7.0′ 779 913 913 112 112 112 891 1025 1025 .5′ 5.0′ 8″ 10″ 12″ 15″ 36″ 18″ 24″ 36″ 18″ 304 1766 2070 365 1267 1632 421 986 1407 472 736 1208 519 624 1143 562 536 1098 602 448 1050 638 392 1030 671 336 1007 702 308 1010 730 280 1010 755 252 1007 779 224 1003 24″ 314 1766 2080 412 1267 1679 510 986 1496 674 736 1410 707 624 1331 805 536 1341 882 448 1330 943 392 1335 1000 336 1336 1053 308 1361 1103 280 1383 1150 252 1402 1194 224 1418 36″ 314 1766 2080 412 1267 1679 510 986 1496 609 736 1345 707 624 1331 805 536 1341 903 448 1351 1001 392 1393 1099 336 1435 1197 308 1505 1295 280 1575 1393 252 1645 1491 224 1715 18″ 24″ 36″ 359 2074 2433 476 1514 1990 594 1232 1826 712 896 1608 829 752 1581 947 648 1595 1065 544 1609 1182 488 1970 1300 432 1732 1418 396 1814 1535 360 1895 1653 324 1977 1770 288 2058 18″ 304 2279 2583 365 1684 2049 421 1360 1781 472 1023 1495 519 936 1455 562 812 1374 602 688 1290 638 612 1250 671 536 1207 702 490 1192 730 444 1174 755 398 1153 779 352 1131 24″ 36″ EL 207 207 207 T L 1114 1114 1114 L 1321 1321 1321 EL 266 266 266 TL 739 739 739 L 1005 1005 1005 EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L 325 563 888 384 384 768 443 320 763 501 272 773 560 224 784 619 192 811 671 160 831 702 148 850 730 136 866 755 124 879 325 563 888 384 384 768 443 320 763 501 272 773 560 224 784 619 192 811 678 160 838 737 148 885 796 136 932 854 124 978 325 563 888 384 384 768 443 320 763 501 272 773 560 224 784 619 192 811 678 160 838 737 148 885 796 136 932 854 124 978 264 264 264 1459 1459 1459 1723 1723 1723 342 342 342 1021 1021 1021 1363 1363 1363 421 421 421 774 774 774 1195 1195 1195 472 499 499 576 576 576 1075 1075 1075 519 480 999 562 416 978 519 578 480 480 999 1058 656 656 416 416 1072 1072 304 359 2074 2074 2378 2433 365 476 1514 1514 1879 1990 421 594 1232 1232 1653 1826 472 675 896 896 1368 1571 519 749 752 752 1271 1501 562 818 648 648 1210 1466 602 882 544 544 1146 1426 638 943 488 488 1126 1431 671 1000 432 432 1103 1432 702 1053 396 396 1098 1449 730 1103 360 360 1090 1463 755 1150 324 324 1079 1474 779 1194 288 288 1067 1482 415 415 2279 2279 2694 2694 512 560 1684 1684 2196 2244 596 707 1360 1360 1956 2067 675 854 1023 1023 1698 1877 749 1001 936 936 1685 1937 818 1149 812 812 1630 1961 882 1296 688 688 1570 1984 943 1443 612 612 1555 2055 1000 1590 536 536 1536 2126 1053 1737 490 490 1543 2227 1103 1884 444 444 1547 2328 1150 1985 398 398 1548 2383 1194 2077 352 352 1546 2429 2.5′ 8.0′ 7.0′ 3.

5′ EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L E TL L E TL L 248 9 287 263 9 272 278 8 286 292 8 300 307 8 315 322 7 329 337 7 344 351 6 357 366 6 372 381 5 386 395 4 399 410 3 413 425 2 427 248 9 287 263 9 272 278 8 286 292 8 300 307 8 315 322 7 329 337 7 344 351 6 357 366 6 372 381 5 386 395 4 399 410 3 413 425 2 427 2″ 3″ 4″ 5″ 24″ 248 9 287 263 9 272 278 8 286 292 8 300 307 8 315 322 7 329 337 7 344 351 6 357 366 6 372 381 5 386 395 4 399 410 3 413 425 2 427 12″ 330 25 355 350 24 374 369 23 392 389 22 411 409 22 431 428 21 449 438 20 458 441 19 460 444 18 466 446 18 466 448 17 465 449 16 465 451 15 466 18″ 330 25 355 350 24 374 369 23 392 389 22 411 409 22 431 428 21 449 448 20 468 468 19 487 487 18 505 507 18 525 526 17 543 546 16 562 566 15 581 24″ 330 25 355 350 24 374 369 23 392 389 22 411 409 22 431 428 21 449 448 20 468 468 19 487 487 18 505 507 18 525 526 17 543 546 16 562 566 15 581 12″ 411 46 457 417 44 461 423 42 465 427 40 467 431 38 469 435 36 471 438 34 472 441 32 473 444 30 474 446 28 474 448 26 474 449 24 473 451 22 473 18″ 493 46 539 522 44 566 552 42 594 581 40 621 611 38 649 640 36 676 670 34 704 699 32 731 728 30 758 758 28 786 787 26 813 817 24 841 846 22 868 24″ 493 46 539 522 44 566 552 42 594 581 40 621 611 38 649 640 36 676 670 34 704 699 32 731 728 30 758 758 28 786 787 26 813 817 24 841 846 22 868 12″ 411 62 473 417 60 477 423 58 481 427 56 483 431 54 485 435 52 487 438 50 488 441 48 489 444 46 490 446 44 490 448 42 520 449 40 489 451 38 489 18″ 654 62 716 694 60 754 733 58 791 772 56 828 811 54 865 850 52 902 890 50 940 909 48 957 920 46 966 929 44 973 938 42 980 947 40 987 954 38 992 24″ 654 62 716 694 60 754 733 58 791 772 56 828 811 54 865 850 52 902 890 50 940 929 48 977 968 46 1014 1007 44 1051 1046 42 1088 1086 40 1126 1125 38 1163 18″ 800 85 885 820 82 902 838 79 917 855 76 931 870 73 943 884 70 954 897 67 964 908 64 972 919 61 980 929 58 987 938 55 993 947 52 999 954 49 1003 24″ 814 85 899 863 82 945 912 79 991 36″ 814 85 899 863 82 945 912 79 991 9.0′ 12.5′ 14.0′ 9.5′ 10.5′ 13.5′ .76 TRENCHING RECOMMENDATIONS TABLE 2 (continued) PIPE SIZE 11/2″ Depth of Trench Cover Width 12″ 18″ 8.5′ 11.0′ 11.0′ 13.5′ 12.0′ 14.0′ 961 961 76 76 1037 1037 1010 1010 73 73 1083 1083 1059 1059 70 70 1129 1129 1108 1108 67 67 1175 1175 1157 1157 64 64 1221 1221 1206 1206 61 61 1267 1267 1255 1255 58 58 1313 1313 1304 1304 55 55 1359 1359 1353 1353 52 52 1405 1405 1402 1402 49 49 1451 1451 10.

0′ 10.5′ 13.5′ .5′ 12.TRENCHING RECOMMENDATIONS 77 TABLE 2 (continued) PIPE SIZE Depth Trench of Cover Width 18″ 8.5′ 11.5′ EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L 6″ 8″ 10″ 12″ 15″ 24″ 36″ 18″ 24″ 36″ 18″ 801 212 1013 820 200 1020 838 188 1026 855 176 1031 870 164 1034 884 152 1036 897 140 1037 908 128 1036 919 122 1041 929 116 1045 938 110 1048 947 104 1051 954 98 1052 24″ 1235 212 1447 1273 200 1473 1309 188 1497 1343 176 1519 1374 164 1538 1404 152 1556 1432 140 1572 1458 128 1586 1482 122 1604 1505 116 1621 1526 110 1636 1547 104 1651 1566 98 1664 36″ 1589 212 1801 1687 200 1887 1785 188 1973 1883 176 2059 1981 164 2145 2079 152 2231 2177 140 2317 2275 128 2403 2373 122 2495 2471 116 2587 2570 110 2680 2668 104 2772 2766 98 2864 18″ 24″ 36″ 1888 264 2152 2006 240 2246 2123 216 2339 2241 192 2433 2359 180 2539 2476 168 2644 2594 156 2750 2685 144 2829 2747 138 2885 2807 132 2939 2864 126 2990 2919 120 3039 2972 114 3086 18″ 801 324 1125 821 296 1117 838 268 1106 855 240 1095 870 224 1094 884 208 1092 897 192 1089 908 176 1084 919 170 1089 929 164 1093 938 158 1096 947 152 1099 954 146 1100 24″ 36″ 801 972 972 108 108 108 909 1080 1080 820 1031 1031 104 104 104 924 1135 1135 838 1090 1090 100 100 100 938 1190 1190 855 1149 1149 96 96 96 951 1245 1245 870 1207 1207 92 92 92 962 1299 1299 884 1266 1266 88 88 88 972 1354 1354 897 1325 1325 84 84 84 981 1409 1409 908 1384 1384 80 80 80 988 1464 1464 919 1443 1443 76 76 76 995 1519 1519 801 1235 1284 168 168 168 969 1403 1452 820 1273 1362 160 160 160 980 1433 1522 838 1309 1441 152 152 152 990 1461 1593 855 1343 1519 144 144 144 999 1487 1663 870 1374 1597 136 136 136 1006 1500 1733 884 1404 1676 128 128 128 1012 1532 1804 897 1432 1754 120 120 120 1017 1552 1874 908 1458 1833 112 112 112 1020 1570 1945 919 1482 1911 106 106 106 1025 1588 2017 929 1505 1990 100 100 100 1029 1605 2090 938 1526 2068 94 94 94 1032 1620 2162 947 1547 2147 88 88 88 1035 1635 2235 954 1566 2225 82 82 82 1036 1648 2307 801 1235 264 264 1065 1529 820 1273 240 240 1060 1513 838 1309 216 216 1054 1525 855 1343 192 192 1047 1535 870 1374 180 180 1050 1554 884 1404 168 168 1052 1572 897 1432 156 156 1053 1588 908 1458 144 144 1052 1602 919 1482 138 138 1057 1620 929 1505 132 132 1061 1637 938 1526 126 126 1064 1652 947 1547 120 120 1067 1667 954 1566 114 114 1068 1684 1235 2165 324 324 1559 2489 1273 2250 296 296 1569 2546 1309 2330 268 268 1577 2598 1343 2407 240 240 1583 2647 1374 2481 224 224 1598 2705 1404 2552 208 208 1612 2760 1432 2620 192 192 1624 2812 1458 2685 176 176 1634 2861 1482 2747 170 170 1652 2917 1505 2807 164 164 1679 2971 1526 2864 158 158 1684 3022 1547 2919 152 152 1699 3071 1566 2972 146 146 1712 3118 9.0′ EL 929 1502 1502 TL 72 72 72 L 1001 1574 1574 EL 938 1526 1560 TL 68 68 68 L 1006 1594 1628 EL 947 1547 1619 64 64 64 TL L 1011 1611 1683 EL 954 1566 1678 TL 60 60 60 L 1014 1626 1738 13.0′ 9.5′ 14.5′ 10.0′ 14.0′ 12.0′ 11.

5′ 19.5′ 20.5′ 18.0′ 16.5′ 17.0′ .0′ EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L 439 2 441 453 1 454 454 0 454 455 * 455 456 * 456 457 * 457 457 * 457 458 * 458 458 * 458 459 * 459 459 * 459 439 2 441 454 1 455 469 0 469 484 * 484 498 * 498 513 * 513 528 * 528 542 * 542 557 * 557 572 * 572 587 * 587 2″ 3″ 4″ 5″ 24″ 439 2 441 454 1 455 469 0 469 484 * 484 498 * 498 513 * 513 528 * 528 542 * 542 557 * 557 572 * 572 587 * 587 12″ 452 14 466 453 14 467 454 13 467 455 * 455 456 * 456 457 * 457 457 * 457 458 * 458 458 * 458 459 * 459 459 * 459 18″ 585 14 599 605 14 619 624 13 637 644 * 644 644 * 644 683 * 683 703 * 703 722 * 722 742 * 742 762 * 762 781 * 781 24″ 585 14 599 605 14 619 624 13 637 644 * 644 644 * 644 683 * 683 703 * 703 722 * 722 742 * 742 762 * 762 781 * 781 12″ 452 20 472 453 18 471 454 16 470 455 * 455 456 * 456 457 * 457 457 * 457 458 * 458 458 * 458 459 * 459 459 * 459 18″ 875 20 895 905 18 923 934 16 950 964 * 964 984 * 984 989 * 989 993 * 993 996 * 996 1000 * 1000 1003 * 1003 1006 * 1006 24″ 875 20 895 905 18 923 934 16 950 964 * 964 993 * 993 1023 * 1023 1052 * 1052 1081 * 1081 1111 * 1111 1140 * 1140 1170 * 1170 12″ 452 36 488 18″ 961 36 997 24″ 1164 36 1200 1203 34 1237 1243 32 1275 1282 * 1282 1321 * 1321 1360 * 1360 1399 * 1399 1439 * 1439 1478 * 1478 1517 * 1517 1556 * 1556 18″ 961 46 1007 968 43 1011 974 40 1014 979 * 979 984 * 984 989 * 989 993 * 993 996 * 996 1000 * 1000 1003 * 1003 1006 * 1006 24″ 36″ 1451 1451 46 46 1497 1497 1500 1500 43 43 1543 1543 1549 1549 40 40 1589 1589 1598 1598 * * 1598 1598 1644 1647 * * 1644 1647 1656 1692 * * 1656 1692 1668 1745 * * 1668 1745 1680 1794 * * 1680 1794 1690 1843 * * 1690 1843 1700 1893 * * 1700 1893 1709 1942 * * 1709 1942 15.0′ 17.0′ 18.0′ 458 1000 * * 458 1000 459 1003 * * 459 1003 459 1006 * * 459 1006 19.78 TRENCHING RECOMMENDATIONS TABLE 2 (continued) PIPE SIZE 11/2″ Depth Trench of Cover Width 12″ 18″ 15.5′ 453 968 34 34 487 1002 454 974 32 32 486 1006 455 * 455 456 * 456 457 * 457 457 * 457 458 * 458 979 * 979 984 * 984 988 * 988 993 * 993 996 * 996 16.

5′ 17.0′ 18.0′ .0′ EL 961 1584 1737 TL 56 56 56 L 1017 1640 1793 EL 968 1600 1796 TL 52 52 52 L 1020 1652 1848 EL 974 1616 1855 TL 48 48 48 L 1022 1664 1903 EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L 979 1630 1913 * * * 979 1630 1913 984 1644 1972 * * * 984 1644 1972 989 1656 2031 * * * 989 1656 2031 993 1668 2090 * * * 993 1668 2090 996 1680 2149 * * * 996 1680 2149 961 1584 2303 76 76 76 1037 1660 2379 968 1600 2382 70 70 70 1038 1670 2452 974 1616 2460 64 64 64 1038 1680 2524 979 1630 2539 * * * 979 1630 2539 984 1644 2617 * * * 984 1644 2617 989 1656 2696 * * * 989 1656 2696 993 1668 2774 * * * 993 1668 2774 996 1680 2852 * * * 996 1680 2852 1000 1690 2931 * * * 1000 1690 2931 1003 1700 3009 * * * 1003 1700 3009 1006 1709 3088 * * * 1006 1709 3088 961 1584 108 108 1069 1692 968 1600 102 102 1070 1702 974 1616 96 96 1070 1712 979 1630 * * 979 1630 984 1644 * * 984 1644 989 1656 * * 989 1656 993 1668 * * 993 1668 996 1680 * * 996 1680 1000 1690 * * 1000 1690 1003 1700 * * 1003 1700 1006 1709 * * 1006 1709 1584 3022 140 140 1724 3162 1600 3070 134 134 1734 3204 1616 3116 128 128 1744 3244 1630 3160 * * 1630 3160 1644 3202 * * 1644 3202 1656 3242 * * 1656 3242 1668 3281 * * 1668 3281 1680 3318 * * 1680 3318 1690 3353 * * 1690 3353 1700 3387 * * 1700 3387 1709 3419 * * 1709 3419 15.5′ 19.5′ 16.TRENCHING RECOMMENDATIONS 79 TABLE 2 (continued) 1 /2″ PIPE SIZE Depth of Trench Width 18″ 24″ Cover 1 2″ 3″ 4″ 5″ 36″ 18″ 24″ 36″ 18″ 961 92 1053 968 86 1054 974 80 1054 979 * 979 984 * 984 989 * 989 993 * 993 996 * 996 1000 * 1000 1003 * 1003 1006 * 1006 24″ 1584 92 1676 1600 86 1686 1616 80 1696 1630 * 1630 1644 * 1644 1656 * 1656 1668 * 1668 1680 * 1680 1690 * 1690 1700 * 1700 1709 * 1709 36″ 2864 92 2956 2962 86 3048 3060 80 3140 3158 * 3158 3202 * 3202 3242 * 3242 3281 * 3281 3318 * 3318 3353 * 3353 3387 * 3387 3419 * 3419 18″ 24″ 36″ 3022 108 3130 3070 102 3172 3116 96 3212 3159 * 3159 3202 * 3202 3242 * 3242 3281 * 3281 3318 * 3318 3353 * 3353 3387 * 3387 3419 * 3419 18″ 961 140 1101 968 134 2102 974 128 1102 979 * 979 984 * 984 989 * 989 993 * 993 996 * 996 1000 * 1000 1003 * 1003 1006 * 1006 24″ 36″ 15.5′ 18.0′ 16.0′ 17.0′ EL 1000 1690 1843 * * * TL L 1000 1690 1843 EL 1003 1700 2266 TL * * * L 1003 1700 2266 EL 1006 1709 2325 * * * TL L 1006 1709 2325 19.5′ 20.

corrosion resistance. nontoxic and meets all codes. And of equal importance. Ease of Installation Cast iron is easily installed using hubless and compression joints with neoprene gaskets. cast iron soil pipe is nonflammable. Meets Codes All piping materials must meet local.80 TRENCHING RECOMMENDATIONS WHY SELECT CAST IRON FOR YOUR UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION? Strength. and ease of installation. The strength. strength. and national codes. toughness. Because of the wide variety of pipe lengths and types and variety of fittings. special bedding necessary with other materials is not required. Because of cast iron’s long history it preceded many of the codes and today is the basis on which most codes are written. The product is stocked locally at plumbing and utility supply companies for local pickups. . and longevity record of cast iron is clearly established. Because of the inherent strength of cast iron. No Infiltration or Exfiltration By using compression gaskets or hubless couplings. durability. Design Compatibility Cast iron is easily modified to fit the requirements of the installation. Durability To be of true value. the material adapts well to changing installation requirements. piping materials need to withstand the abuse of installation and endure a lifetime of service. design compatibility. Availability Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings are produced at member plants geographically located within a twoday shipment range of most jobsites. Cast Iron The Industry Standard because of superior sound containment. infiltration and exfiltration at the joints is eliminated. state.

so the inspections to assure proper compliance have become increasingly complicated. ABS. and vitrified clay). The second classification is flexible (which includes PVC. Figure 1—Deflection in Thermoplastic Pipe: Deflection Limit Is Five Percent of O. concrete. A great number of installation specifications and types of pipe are being used. (See Figure 1. One is rigid (which includes cast iron. rigidity. we used ASTM D2321 (Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers and Other Gravity-Flow Applications) for installation requirements for thermoplastic sewer pipe. For comparison. The flexible type is designed to use the side-fill stiffness of trench construction to limit the outward deflection as earth and live loads are exerted on the top of the pipe.) The installation of the two classes of pipe are different. rigid types are expected to support the anticipated earth and live loads with little or no deflection. Listed below are the major differences in the installation of cast iron soil pipe and thermoplastic pipe for sewers.CHAPTER VI UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION COMPARISON: FLEXIBLE VS. 81 . steel and ductile iron). and stiffness to maintain its structural strength. As the names suggest. Any Deflection in Excess of Five Percent Is Considered Failure.D. This type depends on strength. A pipe underground is expected to support the earth load and expected live and traffic loads while limiting deflection so that obstructions and joint leaks are not caused. RIGID UNDERGROUND SEWERS … ARE THEY INSPECTED CORRECTLY? Proper underground installation is one of the most costly and misunderstood piping activities. Pipes for underground sewer construction are generally classified in two ways.

so the trench can be as narrow as the installer needs to make joint connections. (In rock excavations. even.) The reason for the increased width is to allow compaction equipment to operate in the spaces between the trench walls and the pipe. (See Figure 2. This additional compaction is required to enhance the flexible material’s sidewall stiffness. of Pipe Plus 12 Inches.82 UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION COMPARISON TRENCH WIDTH Cast Iron Soil Pipe This rigid material does not depend on sidefill stiffness. it is dependent on sidefill stiffness to limit deflections. Cast Iron Soil Pipe The trench bottom must be flat with hub or coupling holes provided so the pipe is uniformly supported. as illustrated in Figure 4. a six-inch bed of sand or other backfill is suggested to protect the pipe from sharp projections. 2—No Special Requirements for Trench Width Needed.625 O.D.) .) Thermoplastic Sewer Pipe As a flexible material. TRENCH BOTTOM The bottom of the excavated trench must be firm. No special bedding is necessary unless the pipe is installed in rock. and stable to provide uniform support.25 plus 12 inches. (Example: a 6″ (6. ASTM D2321 recommends a trench width of the pipe outside diameter plus 16 inches or pipe outside diameter times 1. CAST IRON SOIL PIPE THERMOPLASTIC PIPE Figure.D.) pipe needs a 20″-wide trench. see Figure 3. Figure 3—Special Requirements.25 x O. Trench Width Must be 1.

minimum density compaction can range from 85 to 95 percent. As noted earlier. . Because cast iron is rigid.) If the installation does not have suitable backfill material available. trench width must be sufficient to allow this compaction. Depending on soil type.UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION COMPARISON 83 Thermoplastic Sewer Pipe The trench bottom must be provided with a minimum of four inches of bedding unless otherwise specified. (See Figure 5. The bedding material varies by soil type. it must be imported. In rock excavations. Compaction in six-inch maximum layers is required to the springline of the pipe. a minimum cushion of six inches is required below the bottom of the pipe. (See Figure 6.) COMPACTION OF BACKFILL Cast Iron Soil Pipe Special compaction of the backfill is not necessary except for meeting the requirements of normal compaction of the excavated area. Thermoplastic Sewer Pipe The flexible pipe design is dependent on sidefill support to gain stiffness to control deflections within acceptable limits. Figure 5—Special Bedding Requirements Per ASTM D 2321. ASTM D-2321 provides a classification chart for determining the type bedding for varying conditions. CAST IRON SOIL PIPE THERMOPLASTIC PIPE Figure 4—No Special Bedding Required Unless Installations Are in Rock. it does not depend on sidefill support. Compaction around the pipe must be done by hand.

84 UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION COMPARISON DEFLECTION Deflection in all piping materials must be controlled in order to prevent obstruction of flow and assure that the joints remain secure.D. Lack of adequate backfill compaction to the springline of the pipe can result in excessive deflection. meeting flow requirements. Thermoplastic Sewer Pipe A flexible pipe is dependent on sidefill support to gain stiffness and some deflection of the pipe wall is both normal and expected. Figure 7—Deflection Limit Is 5 Percent of O. and integrity of joint seals. It is important to monitor the deflection both during and after installation THERMOPLASTIC PIPE DEFLECTION IN THERMOPLASTIC PIPE Figure 6—Special Bedding Requirements Per ASTM D 2321. with a maximum of five percent deflection allowed. There are varied specifications for thermoplastic sewer materials. because this compaction must help support vertical loads on the pipe. After selecting piping material. all of which have a 5 percent deflection limit during test of pipe stiffness.) Cast Iron Soil Pipe Because cast iron is rigid. This deflection must be controlled within predetermined limits to assure clearance for inspection. The amount of allowed deflection must be determined before installation. cleaning. Any Deflection in Excess Is Considered Failure. the applicable specification should be reviewed to determine allowed deflection with appropriate safety factors. (See Figure 7. . deflection of the pipe wall is almost nonexistent.

Cast iron requires no additional support. likewise. An example of the differences in three materials in buried conditions can be seen in Table 1. parallel plate loading tests are used to make a determination of the minimum allowable PSI necessary to deflect a pipe five percent. backfill. Table 1 lists crush strengths of cast iron soil pipe and the minimum pipe stiffness and ring deformation allowed by various popular “thermoplastic sewer” pipes. on 6″ pipe buried three feet. Thermoplastic Sewer Pipe Thermoplastic sewer pipe depends on the installer to limit deflection by compacting the sidefill support. one with a lower pipe stiffness requires still more. relatively easy to calculate. Thermoplastic pipe with a higher pipe stiffness and ring deformation value still requires sidefill support to limit deflection. In the case of cast iron. .342 pounds per linear foot. with their lower stiffness values and ring deformation values. Earth loads and live loads are. greater stiffness can only be obtained by adjusting trench width. but might not meet the total load on the pipe of 1028 lbs. The minimum stiffness and ring deformation values of the plastic materials stated in pounds per square inch and pounds per linear foot should be used in selection of the piping material. sidefill. Cast iron is eight times stronger than its plastic counterpart without relying on any compacted backfill or sidefill support. per linear foot to be within specification. In thermoplastic materials. We also include a table with calculated earth loads and live loads for various sizes of pipe in three-foot to seven-foot depths. per linear foot of pressure at five percent deflection. earth loads of 465 lbs. The added stiffness from the sidefill plus the pipe stiffness combine to resist the earth and live loads while limiting the deflection. Theoretically. you will note that the plastic pipe is rated at 596 lbs. a thermoplastic piping material could meet the requirements of the specification at 596 lbs. Once these are determined. whereas some thermoplastic piping is considered out of specification when more than five percent deflection occurs at a certain PSI or PLF. Then compare these loads to the crush resistance of rigid-type pipe such as cast iron. Again. and compaction. ASTM 2665 requires that 10″ Schedule 40 PVC pipe should not be deflected more than five percent at 503 lbs. In the case of cast iron soil pipe. However. respectively. Table 2 illustrates actual earth and live loads subjected to thermoplastics buried at three feet. and live loads of 563 lbs. For example. From an operating perspective. The trench widths are established by ASTM D2321 for the size of plastic pipe indicated.UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION COMPARISON 85 DETERMINATION OF EXPECTED LOADS AND CRUSH VALUES To select any piping material. minimum ring crush loads can be determined for the different classes of pipe. or compare these loads to the maximum allowable deflection of a flexible type pipe such as PVC. if you look at the pipe stiffness values and ring deformation values shown in the table. adjustments to backfill and compaction are necessary for the thermoplastic pipe to carry the combined weight of earth load and live load. Because cast iron soil pipe and plastic pipe are classified as rigid and flexible materials. begin by determining probable earth loads and live loads that can be expected to be exerted on the installed pipe.would be exerted. the specifier can select the type of pipe to use and know the safety margin. Earth loads and live loads are easily calculated using the minimum trench widths established in ASTMD2321. the tests for measuring the performance of each material are different. For plastic pipe. the minimum ring crushing load on 10″ pipe service is 4. Cast iron is measured to destruction. Cast Iron Soil Pipe Cast iron pipe has known crush strength.

Per Linear Ft.0′ 4.5′ 5. 503 482 540 477 518 387 383 125 183 238 297 352 513 378 Not Mfg.5′ 4. Not Mfg.5′ 7.0′ 6. 473 298 Not Mfg. . L = Total Load in Pounds.86 UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION COMPARISON TABLE 1 Crush Loads/Maximum Allowable Deflection for Sewer Pipes (Lbs. 4451 2997 3674 4342 3632 837 596 Not Mfg.0′ 3.) Crush Lod CI (No Hub) CI PVC SCH40 (Service Wt.5′ 6. TL = Truck Load in Pounds.) ASTM D2665 Solid Wall Maximum Allowable Deflection (5%) PVC SCH40 ASTM F891 Cellular Core PVC Sewer SDR 35 ASTM D3034 ABS SCH40 ASTM D2661 Solid Wall ABS SCH40 ASTM F628 Cellular Core 4″ 6″ 8″ 10″ 12″ 4877 3344 3674 4317 Not Mfg. Not Mfg.0′ EL = Earth Load in Pounds. Not Mfg. TABLE 2 Anticipated Loads for Buried Pipe PIPE SIZE Depth of Cover EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L EL TL L 392 282 674 439 192 631 482 144 626 521 120 641 556 96 652 589 88 677 618 80 698 645 76 721 670 72 742 465 563 1028 523 384 907 576 320 896 626 272 898 671 240 911 713 192 905 752 160 912 788 148 936 821 136 957 538 774 1312 607 576 1183 672 480 1152 732 417 1148 788 352 1140 840 312 1152 889 272 1161 934 248 1182 976 224 1200 611 986 1597 692 736 1428 768 624 1392 839 536 1375 906 448 1354 969 392 1361 1028 336 1364 1083 308 1391 1135 280 1415 685 1232 1917 777 896 1673 865 752 1617 947 648 1595 1025 544 1569 1099 488 1587 1168 432 1600 1234 396 1630 1296 360 1656 4″ 6″ 8″ 10″ 12″ 3.0′ 5. Not Mfg.

and long term. architect.UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION COMPARISON 87 As you can see. and inspector. . Cast iron is often less expensive to purchase and properly install in both the short. cast iron offers the greatest margin of safety for the owner. engineer. The installation requirements for backfill and support for cast iron are minimal when compared to those required for thermoplastics to perform reliably.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF BURIED CAST IRON SOIL PIPE To design is to compare anticipated performance with desired performance within performance limits. Design based on soil-load assumptions that give the worst stress is more practical than computerized analysis. Reynold King Watkins. and other factors. Printing Services).000 feet. trench depths. the allowable depth of burial can be doubled. Ph. the structural performance limit is leakage. truckloads. In using structural design information on underground cast iron soil pipe installations. Anticipated (analyzed) stress must be within the stress limit.D. which requires known soil properties and boundary conditions. Dr. so stress determines basic structural performance. Excessive deformation causes breaks and leaks. none of which are readily available or controllable on most projects. By creating a compacted soil arch over the pipe packed in a compressible soil envelope. diameter.S. and has two other texts to his credit as well as more than thirty reports and articles. He authored the textbook Principles of Structural Performance of Buried Pipes in 1977 (U. but such techniques are generally better than the installations they are designed to model. stress analysis is complicated. such as the finite-element method. Because of interaction between the pipe and the soil in which it is buried. This data is presented here as a convenient reference. it must be recognized that there are variations in soil characteristics and construction practices throughout the country.U. 88 . For cast iron soil pipe. called strength. Watkins is a registered professional engineer and engineers’ consultant. and installation conditions. Dr. but excessive deformation of cast iron soil pipe is directly related to stress. An acknowledged expert on buried structures. It was compiled and edited with the cooperation and direction of Utah State University Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering. depending on class of pipe. and resistance to stress. pipe stiffness. (See Table 1.) Cast iron soil pipe has the properties desirable for deep burial: beam strength. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Within the parameters of established trench widths and installation conditions described in this report. Dr.CHAPTER VII RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEEP BURIAL OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE This chapter presents the result of an extensive study on the maximum depth of burial of cast iron soil pipe when three types of bedding conditions are used. Available now are computerized mathematical techniques of analysis. Watkins has been an engineering educator since 1947 and holds membership in numerous professional and honorary societies. cast iron soil pipe may be buried at depths of up to 1. Effective design requires conformity with specific construction practices and recognition that the computations are based on design information regarding earth loads.

2) No Hub Pipe Size 299 189 89 73 49 34 35 42 34 28 26 89 73 49 299 189 P (lbs.2) Condition 3 Trench Width 18″ or Greater 2″ 3″ 4″ 68 44 38 45 43 30 31 3″ 4″ 5″ 6″ 8″ 10″ 12″ 15″ 5″ 6″ 8″ 10″ 43300 20000 13000 8400 5900 5400 225 104 376 174 112 73 63 376 174 112 73 51 376 174 112 73 51 12″ 15″ 5100 3600 3700 72100 33400 21600 14000 9800 9000 8500 5900 6100 75 71 49 51 58 71 49 51 47 44 38 51 2″ 3″ 4″ 5″ 6″ 8″ 10″ 12″ 15″ 144200 66800 43200 28000 19600 18000 17000 11900 12200 1200 557 360 233 163 150 142 99 102 89 ./ft./ft./ft.2) Condition 1 Trench Width 18″ 24″ 36″ Condition 3 Trench Width 18″ or Greater 11⁄2″ 2″ 3″ 89 73 49 42 45 42 95720 60400 28500 23300 15700 10900 9000 8200 499 315 148 121 81 70 75 68 499 315 148 121 81 57 58 68 499 315 148 121 81 57 47 43 11⁄2″ 2″ 3″ 4″ 5″ 6″ 8″ 10″ 4″ 5″ 6″ 8″ 10″ 57434 36300 17100 14000 9400 6600 5400 5000 299 189 191400 120900 57000 46600 31300 21900 18000 16800 1000 1000 475 388 261 182 150 140 DEEP BURIAL Service Pipe Size Service Pipe P (lbs.TABLE 1 Maximum Allowable Trench Depths (H) for Cast Iron Soil Pipe (In Ft.2) Size 2″ 225 104 68 44 31 35 43 30 31 31 27 23 28 68 44 31 225 104 P (lbs./ft.) No Hub Pipe P (lbs./ft. ) 2 No Hub Pipe Size Size 11⁄2″ 2″ 3″ 4″ 5″ 6″ 8″ 10″ Condition 2 Trench Width 18″ 24″ 36″ P (lbs.2) Condition 1 Trench Width 18″ 24″ 36″ Condition 2 Trench Width 18″ 24″ 36″ Service Pipe Size P (lbs./ft.

.2) 266 209 122 80 57 61 72 51 50 55 39 50 80 57 49 266 209 122 Condition 1 Trench Width 18″ 24″ 36″ Condition 2 Trench Width 18″ 24″ 36″ Extra Heavy Pipe Size Condition 3 Trench Width 18″ or Greater DEEP BURIAL 2″ 3″ 4″ 5″ 99 70 79 72 51 50 170400 134000 78300 51300 36200 31500 28800 20200 18400 266 209 122 6″ 8″ 10″ 12″ 15″ 51100 40200 23500 15400 10900 9500 8600 6100 5500 5″ 6″ 8″ 10″ 12″ 15″ 85200 67000 39200 25700 18100 15800 14400 10100 9200 444 349 204 165 116 131 120 84 77 444 349 204 134 94 101 120 84 77 444 349 204 134 94 82 92 65 77 2″ 3″ 4″ 5″ 6″ 8″ 10″ 12″ 15″ 1420 1116 653 428 302 263 240 169 153 P = Design Soil Pressure.90 TABLE 1 Maximum Allowable Trench Depths (H) for Cast Iron Soil Pipe (In Ft. (See Figure 3 and Appendix B. loose soil envelope placed about the pipe as packing. H = Maximum Trench Depth.2) 2″ 3″ 4″ P (lbs.) Condition 2 = Bedding placed for uniform support.2) P (lbs. (See Figure 1 and Appendix B. Condition 1 = No pipe bedding. soil under haunches of pipe should be compacted./ft. continuous line support. with a dense soil arch compacted up over the envelope. (See Figure 2 and Appendix B. The sum of the dead load and live load pressures at the level of the top of the pipe (maximum allowable vertical soil pressure). continued) Extra Heavy Pipe Size Extra Heavy Pipe Size P (lbs.) Condition 3=Select./ft. hard trench bottom./ft.) . the maximum height of soil cover over the top of the pipe.

D. when analyzed. the external vertical soil pressure P on the ring.) Dm = mean diameter (in. recall that the three-edge ring bearing formula is used: t 2R W = . These stresses are compared to strengths that have been reduced by a reasonable safety factor. yield the worst stresses. The test load (strength) is a laboratory test to failure of the pipe. why not equate the worst stress to the test strength in order to provide a design equation that relates anticipated soil pressure to test load? Design then becomes a process simply of comparing the anticipated soil pressure to an equivalent pipe test load that has been reduced by a safety factor. The soil pressure is the vertical soil pressure P acting down on the pipe./lin.=thickness) R = modulus of rupture (45. For cast iron soil pipe.0795 (D ) m W = three-edge bearing ring test crushing load (lbs. Consequently. Strength is defined as the vertical line load per unit length of the pope barrel at which the pipe cracks (failure. To determine the ring crushing load for a given size of pipe. and longitudinal beam design.) (O.DEEP BURIAL 91 It is not yet practical to bury a soil pipe in soil that has properties and boundary conditions as precisely known and as precisely controlled as assumed by the analysis.000 psi for cast iron soil pipe) Figure 1—Ring Test Crushing Loads on Cast Iron Soil Pipe: Three-Edged Bearing Strength W Is Found by Laboratory Test On Samples of Pipe Barrel as Shown on the Left and Is Analyzed as a Concentrated Line Load and Concentrated Line Reaction as Shown on the Free-Body Diagram on the Right. basic design includes: ring design. practical design is based on simplifying assumptions of soil loads which.) t = thickness of pipe (in. ft. It is sufficient to analyze each separately. see Figure 1). RING DESIGN For ring design. is compared to the strength W of the ring. Because strength is the maximum stress caused by a test load on the pipe at failure. .

/ft. the backfilling must be a conscious effort to compact a dense soil arch up and over the pipe springing from good abutments without loading the pipe and without compacting the select soil envelope. This occurs if the pipe is supported throughout its length (except for bell holes) by a hard.) The typical worst cases of soil pressure and reaction are shown in Table 2. (See Appendix A for a complete description. (See Appendix A for further discussion. Horizontal soil pressures help to support the ring and so increase the safety factor against failure. From stress analysis and with a safety factor as discussed in Appendix A. The pressures and reactions on the ring depend on installation conditions. Neither case can be completely assured in typical soil pipe installations. From stress analysis and with a safety factor as discussed in Appendix A. Horizontal soil support is ignored.92 DEEP BURIAL The strength so determined is called the three-edge bearing strength W. For design./ft. However. the above equation can be solved or the solutions can be found in Table 1. the reaction on the bottom is PDm. flat surface. The soil pressure on the pipe must be related to W.) For design. This occurs if the pipe is supported throughout its length by a carefully placed soil bedding under the haunches such that the bedding cradles the ring with a uniform vertical pressure.2) Dm = mean diameter of pipe (Do-t) (in. This is a justifiable simplification that results in the worst stress condition in the ring. Methods of achieving such a bedding are discussed in Appendix B.) Do = outside diameter (in.) W = three-edge bearing load at failure (strength per foot of length of pipe) (lb. For a vertical soil pressure of P on top. the allowable vertical soil pressure for Installation Condition 2 is: 20W P = D m (2) where units are the same as for Installation Condition 1. Even though loose soil might fall into its angle of repose under the haunches. Three basic installation conditions account for almost all typical ring loading. Installation Condition 3 (Figure 2) shows a uniformly distributed reaction as in Installation Condition 2 except that pressure on the ring is reduced to less than one-half by packing the pipe in a select loose soil envelope of twice the pipe diameter or more in height.) Values for W are listed in Table 2. as shown in Figure 3. the above equation can be solved or the solutions can be found in Table 2.) t = thickness of barrel (in. In a wide trench or in an embankment the sidefill must be carefully compacted in .) Installation Condition 1 (Figure 2) shows a concentrated vertical reaction on the bottom. the allowable vertical soil pressure for Installation Condition 1 is: P = 12W Dm (1) P = maximum allowable vertical soil pressure (lb. the effectiveness of horizontal soil support depends either on excellent compaction of the soil envelope at the sides or on enough horizontal expansion of the ring to develop horizontal soil support. loose soil would not change the basic concentrated reaction. To achieve permanent soil arching. Installation Condition 2 (Figure 2) shows a uniformly distributed vertical soil reaction on the bottom. (See Figure 1. In every case the soil pressure is assumed to be uniformly distributed and vertically down on top of the pipe.

TABLE 2 Ring Test Crushing Loads on Cast Iron Soil Pipe TABLE 2 Ring Test Crushing Loads on Cast Iron Soil Pipe

No Hub
Ring Crushing Load* (w) Pipe Size In. — 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 12.50 15.88 .28 .36 6.30 8.38 10.50 .18 .23 .28 5.30 .18 3582 2997 3674 4342 3632 4727 3.30 4.30 .17 .18 5226 4451 2.30 .17 7680 — — — (Do) (1) Load* (w) Nominal O.D. Nominal Thickness Ring Crushing Pipe Size In. 8328 6617 4542 4877 3999 3344 3674 4317 Nominal O.D. (Do)

Service Weight

Extra Heavy
Nominal Thickness (1) Ring Crushing Load* (w)

Pipe Size In.

Nominal O.D. (Do)

Nominal Thickness (1)

.16 .16

.16 .19 ,19

DEEP BURIAL

11⁄2 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 — 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15

1.90 2.35 3.35 4.38 5.30 6.30 8.38 10.56

.19 .23 .28

— 2.38 3.50 4.50 5.50 6.50 8.62 10.75 12.75 15.88

— .19 .25 .25 .25 .25 .31 .37 .37 .44

— 9331 10885 8324 6739 5660 6546 7465 6259 7097

*Pounds per linear foot

93

94

DEEP BURIAL

Condition 1

Condition 2

Condition 3

Figure 2—Structural Design of Cast Iron Soil Pipe. Condition 1: No Pipe Bedding, Hard Trench Bottom, Continuous Line Support; Condition 2: Bedding Placed for Uniform Support, Soil Under Haunches of Pipe Should be Compacted; Condition 3: Select Loose Soil Envelope Placed Around the Pipe as Packing With a Dense Soil Arch Compacted Up and Over the Envelope.

one layer below the pipe spring line and one or more layers above the pipe spring line, and on up to the top of the soil envelope without compacting the envelope. The soil should be placed on both sides before compacting in order to reduce sideshift. Of course the compacted sidefill part of the arch could be the same select soil used for the envelope, provided that a loose soil blanket is left in contact with the pipe. If the trench is less than about two pipe diameters in width, good, rigid trench sidewalls may serve as the sidefill part of the arch. In either trench condition or embankment condition, the soil arch is completed over the top by placing a lift of about one foot of soil above the envelope. This lift is then compacted from the outside of the embankment or trench in toward the center line of the pipe such that a soil keystone in the middle of the arch is compacted last. If the soil arch is compacted to 90 percent AASHTO-T99,1 and if the selected soil envelope is uncompacted fine aggregate for concrete, or its equivalent, the compressibility

Figure 3—Conditions for Developing Arching Action of Soil Over the Pipe To Reduce the Vertical Soil Pressure Acting on the Top of the Pipe Ring.

1

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Pamphlet T-99, 1981 Edition.

DEEP BURIAL

95

ratio is 1:4 and the vertical soil pressure felt by the pipe is about half of the average soil pressure at that depth. Consequently the allowable vertical soil pressure for Installation Condition III is: 40W P = D m (3)

where units are the same as for Installation Condition 1. For design, the above equation can be solved or the solutions found in Table 2. DESIGN SUMMARY In summary, for design, the vertical allowable soil pressure P on cast iron soil pipe must be less than the following values, depending on W and D, on the conditions of installation: Installation Condition (bedding) 1 Design Soil Pressure P (lb./ft.2) 12W P = D m 20W P = D m 40W P = D m (4)

2

(5)

3

(6)

P = maximum allowable vertical soil pressure at the level of the top of the pipe (lb./ft.2) W = three-edge bearing load per unit length of pipe at failure (lb./ft.) (cracking of a pipe barrel section in a laboratory test) Dm = mean diameter (Do-t) (in.) Do = outside diameter (nominal) (in.) t = wall thickness of barrel (in.) For a given pipe the allowable vertical soil pressure P can be found from these equations or from the solutions in Table 2 of typical cast iron soil pipe now on the market. Installation Condition 1 applies if no attempt is made to place a bedding for the pipe beyond a hard surface that is flat enough to provide continuous line support. If the line support is not continuous, the pipe must be designed as a longitudinal beam. Installation Condition 2 applies if a bedding is carefully placed under the haunches in order to develop essentially in-form pressure support. Soil under the haunches should be compacted. (See Appendix B.) Installation Condition 3 applies only if a select loose soil envelope is placed around the pipe as a packing and if a dense soil arch is compacted up and over the pipe and packing. A good, dense trench sidewall can serve as sidefill springing from a good abutment. The sidefills or trench sidewalls must be dense enough that the compressibility is less than one-fourth the compressibility of the loose soil envelope. If the sidewalls are not solid, there must be enough clearance for heavy compaction of the sidefill to 90 percent AASHTO-T99 density. (See Appendix B.)

96

DEEP BURIAL

PRESSURE CONCENTRATION FACTOR The vertical soil pressure P transferred to the top of the pipe is affected by many variables including the installation condition used, the width of the trench, and various shearing stresses that may be caused by tremors, thermal variations, moisture variations, and any other stresses that cancause soil movement. In order to compensate for these variables, a pressure concentration factor K was derived experimentally at Utah State University, and conservative values based on the ratio of trench widths to pipe outside diameters are as follows: Ratio of Trench Width to Pipe Diameter 2 or less 3 4 or more

K 1 1.3 1.6

Backfill Classification Trench backfill Transition backfill Embankment backfill

The value K is used to calculate the maximum trench depths H (or maximum depths of burial) in Table 2 by the following formula: P H = 120K When: H = maximum trench depth P = total vertical soil pressure K = pressure concentration factor 120 = soil weight (lb./ft.3) VERTICAL SOIL PRESSURE The vertical soil pressure P is the sum of dead load and live load pressures at the level of the top of the pipe: P = P 1 = Pd (8) (7)

P1 = vertical soil pressure at the level of the top of the pipe due to the effect of live loads on the surface (lb./ft.2). Pd = dead weight soil pressure at the level of the top of the pipe (lb./ft.2). For most installations, both the live load pressure Pl and the dead load pressure Pd as well as the combined pressure P can be read on the graph in Figure 4. In this graph the unit weight of soil is assumed to be 120 pounds per cubic ft. This is generally conservative considering the arching action of the soil over the pipe. However, if unit weight is significantly different, then a correction can be made for the deadweight. Table 3 lists the maximum live truck super-loads on cast iron soil pipe resulting from two passing H20 or HS20 trucks on an unpaved surface or flexible pavement.

x 5 ft. ft. ft.) • Total load at top of pipe = P = Pl + Pd P = 544 lb. Neglect the live load (truck load) when it is less than 100 lbs. If./sq. 2 21⁄2 3 31⁄2 4 5 Load lbs. ft. ft. longitudinal beam action should be evaluated. 1. ft. TABLE 3 Truckloads Trench Depth H in ft. ft. beam stresses are negligible. deep = 600 sq./sq. however./sq. When a piping system is properly installed. • From Table 1 it can be seen that a 10″ No Hub pipe installed in accordance with the above conditions can be placed at a maximum depth of 43 feet.1./sq.3 BEAM STRESSES Cast iron soil pipe should not be installed by a method that will allow it to be subjected to excessive beam stresses. 6 8 10 12 16 Load lbs. (Pd also equals 120 lb/cu./sq. 432 288 192 144 96 The above loads were calculated by methods found in American National Standards Institute Specification A21. + 600 lb. ft. proper bedding is not assured. Earth load is based upon a soil weight of 120 lbs. All cast iron soil pipe should be installed with a continuous bedding support which is at least equal to that of Installation Condition 1 shown in Figure 2. ft. This is the equivalent to 8200 lb./sq.2 of dead load. ft. ft. ft • Earth load = Pd Pd at a depth of 5′ = 600 lb. in a 36″ wide ditch using Installation Condition 2.DEEP BURIAL 97 INSTALLATION EXAMPLE Suppose that you want to install a 10″ No Hub pipe system under five feet of earth cover./sq. = 1144 lb. Figure 5 depicts a simply supported pipe with the vertical soil pressure loading it uniformly along the barrel and bending it as a beam. See Table 3 or Figure 4 for load determinations: • Truck load = Pl Pl at a depth of 5 feet = 544 lb./ft. The load at which beam failure will occur can be calculated as follows: ./sq./sq. 2074 1514 1120 896 752 544 Trench Depth H in ft.

98

DEEP BURIAL

Load (lbs./ft.2)

Figure 4—Vertical Loads for Cast Iron Soil Pipe.

P=

π 4

Do -D (Do -L i ) S
4 4 2 2

(9)

P = Vertical Soil Pressure at top of pipe (lb./ft.2) Do = Outside Diameter of pipe (in.) Di = Inside Diameter of pipe (in.) t = Wall Thickness of pipe barrel (in.) S = Longitudinal Tensile Strength of pipe (25,000 lbs./in.2) L = Length of Supported Span (ft.) In Table 4 the maximum trench depths H are tabulated for pipe sections loaded as beams. They were calculated using the following parameters:

Figure 5—Simply Supported Pipe.

DEEP BURIAL

99

• The vertical soil pressure P was calculated using Equation 9. • An additional safety factor of 1.5 is allowed for design purposes, and the soil weight is calculated at 120 lab./ft3. • The cast iron service soil pipe is installed according to Installation Condition 1 and in a 36″ wide ditch, except for the distance of the span between supports. • Each bearing supporting the pipe contacts the pipe barrel for a minimum of 12″ along the length of the pipe on both sides of the span. • The maximum trench depth, H (in feet), at the top of the pipe is calculated as follows: H= P 120KSf (10)

Where: P = vertical soil pressure at top of pipe in pounds per square foot. K = pressure concentration factor = 1.6 for embankment backfill. Sf = safety factor = 1.5 TABLE 4 Maximum Trench Depths H for Service Pipe Loaded as a Beam 2 Ft. Span P H
12250 18850 26875 33900 40800 69700 106550 128500 209625 43 65 93 118 141 242 370 446 728

Size 2″ SV** 3″ SV 4″ SV 5″ SV 6″ SV 8″ SV 10″ SV 12″ SV 15″ SV

P
7840 12064 17200 21696 36112 44608 68192 82240 134160

2.5 Ft. Span H
27 42 60 75 91 155 237 285 486

5 Ft. Span P H
1960 3016 4300 5424 6528 11152 17048 20560 33540 7 11 15 19 23 39 59 71 117

*External truck loads would be likely to cause failure of this pipe. **SV=Service Cast iron Pipe. Pipe with H values in the area below the heavy line do not require evaluation of beam stresses. They would tend to fail by ring crushing before the maximum beam load is attained. Therefore, the values in Table 1 would determine the maximum trench depths. H values or maximum depths of burial for No-Hub pipe would be similar to those for service pipe, whereas those for extra heavy pipe would be greater. As the span between supports gets greater, the resistance to beam load decreases and the maximum depth of burial decreases. As the pipe increases, the resistance to beam load increases and the maximum depth of burial increases. (It should be noted that the exact reverse is true for pipe subjected to ring crushing forces, i.e., as the pipe size increases, the resistance to ring crushing load decreases and the maximum depth of burial decreases.)

CHAPTER VIII FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY

Just as structural analysis is used to predetermine the structural stability of buried cast iron soil pipe, hydraulic analysis is used to provide an adequate flow capacity for the sewage or drainage system in which the pipe is installed. Hydraulic analysis considers the variables that govern flow capacity, including the pipe diameter, the length of the sewer or drain line, the slope of the pipe, and the roughness or smoothness of the pipe’s internal surface. All of these variables affecting flow in a particular system must be analyzed so that the pipe is sized and installed to efficiently carry the maximum volume of water expected to flow through the system under peak operating conditions. The question, “How much water will flow through a certain size?” is frequently asked regarding flow capacity. Unfortunately, the inquiry mentions only one of the variables that can materially alter the flow, and more complete information on the particular installation must be obtained before an accurate and useful response can be made. It is the purpose of this chapter to review flow theory and the determination of flow capacity, and thereby present practical information relating to proper hydraulic design for cast iron soil pipe wastewater systems. FLOW IN SEWERS AND DRAINS Most cast iron soil pipe in sewage and drainage systems flow only partially full (i.e., free surface flow or gravity flow), and would properly be termed “open channel.” Because frictional losses are generally independent of pressure, the flow of water in both full pipes and open channels is governed by the same basic laws and expressed in formulas of the same general form.1 The laws applying to conduit flow usually assume steady, uniform conditions, or an even distribution of liquid throughout the system. This continuity of flow, although generally not maintained over an extended period of time, is closer to the conditions likely to exist in cast iron soil pipe sewers—as opposed to those in drains, in which surge flow frequently occurs. It is customary, however, to utilize the same hydraulic principles to determine the flow in sewers and to estimate the capacities of sloping drains in and adjacent to buildings.2 Because the amount of suspended solids in sewage is usually too small to have more than a negligible effect on the flow pattern, the flow of sewage in a clean conduit behaves in the same manner as the flow of water, with one possible exception: namely, that sewage could conceivably cause a change in surface condition or an accumulation of slime on the inner walls of the conduit over a period of years. This would have a long-term influence on the conduit’s flow, altering its pattern from that found in a comparable conduit used to carry water.3 However, the many detergents commonly introduced into sewers tend to maintain their cleanliness, thus making water-flow measurements still applicable, even over the long term, to sewage-flow measurements in the same conduits.
1 Ernest W. Schoder and Francis M. Dawson, Hydraulics, 2nd edition, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1934, p. 237; Horace W. King, Chest O. Wisler and James G. Woodburn, Hydraulics, 5th edition, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1948, p. 175; Horace W. King and Ernest F. Brater, Handbook of Hydraulics for the Solution of Hydrostatic and Fluid-Flow Problems, 5th edition, New York; McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1963, p. 6-1.

Robert S. Wyly, A Review of the Hydraulics of Circular Sewers in Accordance with the Manning Formula, Paper presented at 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Sanitary Engineering, October 9–14, 1960, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, 1960, p.1. 3 Wyly, op cit., p. 4.
2

100

FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY

101

LAMINAR FLOW AND TURBULENT FLOW Two basic types of flow can occur in conduits used to transport fluids. The flow is termed laminar when the fluid moves, without eddies or cross currents, in straight lines parallel to the walls of the conduit. Once the flow velocity reaches a “critical” rate, cross currents set in causing the fluid to move through the conduit in an irregular manner, in which case the flow is said to be turbulent. The best criterion for determining the type of flow that prevails in a particular conduit under specified conditions is the Reynolds number, conceived by Professor Osborne Reynolds of Owens College, Manchester, England, and first used in 1883 to explain the flow of water in pipes.4 Reynolds determined that that a general increase in the rate or velocity of flow eventually transforms it from laminar to turbulent and that the flow reverts back to laminar as its velocity diminishes. By means of experiments using water at different temperatures, this phenomenon was found to depend not only on the velocity of flow, but also on the viscosity and density of the fluid and the diameter of the pipe. Reynolds expressed it numerically as: diameter of the pipe x velocity x density of fluid viscosity of fluid This expression, which can be written as DVp/u, is known as the Reynolds Number. It has no physical dimensions: It is a mere number, its value independent of the system of units (e.g., foot, second, or pound) used to express its components. At low Reynolds numbers, when viscous forces are predominant, laminar flow occurs. Assuming the flow velocity is less than critical, the tendency of the fluid to wet and adhere to the pipe walls and the viscosity of its adjacent layers contributes to streamlining the flow. However, once a certain value of the Reynolds number is reached, the flow turns unstable and following a brief transition period becomes clearly turbulent. Extensive testing of circular cross sections of commercial pipe samples has established that for Reynolds numbers below a value of about 2,000, laminar flow can be expected, whereas turbulent flow occurs at values above 3,000. The range between these critical numbers is referred to as the transition zone.5 As a general rule, turbulent flow is considered to be characteristic of all but an extremely limited number of cast iron soil pipe sewage and drainage systems, because the velocity of the flow of water in almost all installations results in Reynolds numbers above 10,000. Laminar flow, which is more akin to the flow of water in very small tubes and to the flow of oil and other viscous liquids in commercial pipe, occurs in sewers and drains only at unusually low discharge rates and slopes.6 The predominance of turbulent flow has been established in extensive studies made by the National Bureau of Standards showing that turbulent flow occurs in three- and four-inch gravity drains at a slope of 1⁄4 inch per foot for half-full or full conduit flow. PREMISES GOVERNING FLOW DETERMINATION Determination of the flow in cast iron soil pipe sewers and drains is based on the hydraulic premises discussed above, which can be restated as follows:

4

Osborne Reynolds, “An Experimental Investigation of the Circumstances which Determine Whether the Motion of WaterWill Be Direct or Sinuous and the Laws of Resistance in Parallel Channels,” Phil Trans Roy. Soc., London, 1993, or Sci. Papers, Vol. 2, p. 51.

Schoder and Dawson, op cit., pp. 230–2, 248–9; King, Wisler and Woodburn, op. cit., pp. 175–9; J. Jennings, The Reynolds Number, Manchester: Emmott and Company, Ltd., 1946. pp. 5–16 6 King, Wisler and Woodburn, op. cit., p. 178; Schoder and Dawson, op. cit., p. 231; Wyly, op. cit., p. 2.
5

with the drop in the gradient Hf providing a measure of lost head due to friction. the energy gradient. the mean velocity V and the velocity head V2/2g are constant throughout the entire length L.. in 1890 proposed the following equation for friction-controlled flow:7 V= 1. Civil Engrs. the cross-sectional area of the stream divided by the wetted perimeter. the length of the line of contact between the wetted cross section and the surface of the channel. Figure 2 provides a representation of uniform flow in an open channel.. Vol. . Robert Manning.102 FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY The flow is of the open-channel type with the conduit partially full and the top surface of the wastewater exposed to the atmosphere. As the flow moves through the hydraulic system. open channel flow. and the invert. the Manning formula has become widely recognized. • The flow is fully turbulent with the wastewater moving through the conduit as a turbulent mass. It is the only empirical energy-loss formula that is extensively used to determine fully-turbulent. Inst. an Irish engineer. 20.” Trans. It will be noted that the conduit is flowing only partially full. “Flow of Water in Open Channels and Pipes. and the invert are parallel. its slope established when the sewer or drain is installed. • The flow of sewage behaves in the same manner as the flow of drainage water. The hydraulic gradient represents the slope of the surface of the sewage or drainage water and depends on velocity head. it is retarded by friction and the loss of energy (i.486 r2/3 s1/2 n (1) • Over the years. showing the slopes of the hydraulic gradient. Figure 1 depicts a cross-section of a cast iron soil pipe open channel. The invert is a line that runs lengthwise along the base of the channel at the lowest point on its wetted perimeter. The distance between the energy gradient and the hydraulic gradient indicates the total energy or velocity head V2/2g remaining at any point along the sewer or drain line. The energy gradient is a graphic representation of total energy or total head. The hydraulic radius r of the sewer or drain is equal to a/P. the wetted perimeter P of the sewer or drain is represented by XYZ. Among its advantages are the availability of numerous test results for establishing values of n and its inclusion of the hydraulic radius. FORMULAS FOR FLOW DETERMINATION The determination of flow in a wastewater system centers around the relationship between the velocity of flow and the head or energy loss that results from friction. Ireland. The most prominent of these with application to open channel hydraulics was introduced by Manning (1890). It should be noted that the smooth inner surface of cast iron soil pipe permits an efficient use of available energy. A number of formulas have been developed relating the velocity of flow and the loss of energy due to friction. then the depth Ds of the sewage or drainage water. With Ds indicating the maximum depth of water in the cross section. the energy gradient. 1890. the amount of energy that must be expended to overcome frictional resistance and maintain the flow). and the slopes of the hydraulic gradient. an important factor to consider in constructing a hydraulic system. • The flow is uniform with the mean velocity and depth of the wastewater constant throughout the entire length of the conduit.e. which makes it adaptable to flow determination in conduits of 7 Robert Manning. When the flow between points 1 and 2 (in Figure 2) is uniform. with the top surface of the wastewater exposed to normal atmospheric pressure.

Figure 2—Uniform Flow of Open Channel Sewer or Drain. .FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY 103 Figure 1—Cross Section of Cast Iron Soil Pipe Open Channel Sewer or Drain.

) a = area of cross section of stream (sq. Q= 1.86 (60 sec. FLOW CAPACITY OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE SEWERS AND DRAINS The velocity and flow in cast iron soil pipe sewers and drains. three-quarters. computed by means of the Manning formula (Equation 2)./cu./min. op. written in terms of discharge rate (Equation 2).0010 to 0.486 ar2/3 s1/2 n (2) Where: Q = aV = discharge rate (cu. one-half.) to obtain the capacities indicated. ft. flow in cast iron soil pipe is commonly measured in gallons per minute. and a value of n = 0. Its derivation requires that both sides of Formula 1 be multiplied by the area of the cross section of the stream. is employed in the remainder of this chapter to determine the flow capacity of cast iron soil pipe. pp.10 ft.481 gal.) r = roughness coefficient Values of the roughness coefficient n in the Manning formula have been determined experimentally for various conduit materials. ft. cit. but a velocity of 2. or a velocity sufficient to carry sewage solids along the conduit. Although lower.012 is recommended for use in designing cast iron soil pipe hydraulic systems. This restricts the abrasive action of sand and grit that may be carried through the system./ft./sec. 7-10 and 7-13. . and consequently the formula results have been multiplied by the conversion factor 448. more favorable values of the coefficient are commonly obtained in controlled tests. and full. A minimum velocity of two feet per second is the generally prescribed norm consistent with the removal of sewage solids. are indicated in Table 2 and in Figures 3 through 6. and pipe fullness of one-quarter. installed at a full range of slopes from 0. It indicates the slopes required to obtain self-cleansing or scouring velocities at various rates of discharge. it is considered good practice to impose an upper velocity limit of 10 feet per second in both sewers and drains. particularly when coated pipe is used. the roughness coefficient.012 for n. permits the system to operate efficiently and reduces the likelihood of stoppages. 8 King and Grater./ft. Flow capacities are provided for systems using pipe sizes 2 through 15 inches. However. In addition to designing self-cleaning velocities into sanitary sewers. A self-cleansing velocity. 6-16.104 FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY various shapes.8 The Manning formula. it is most suitable for use where high velocity operation cannot be avoided. Table 1 is provided to assist in the design of cast iron soil pipe sanitary systems. the recommended value considers the possibility that bends and branch connections in an actual system may retard the flow. Both Table 2 and Figures 3 through 6 are based on the value 0.5 feet per second can be used in cases where an additional degree of safety is desired. Although Equation 2 expresses the flow or discharge in cubic feet per second. and on the internal pipe diameters specified by ASTM A74. x 7. because cast iron soil pipe is highly resistant to abrasion..

(Based on Mannings Formula with N = .72 214.01 71.) Slope (Ft./Ft.5 2.55 0.5 2.18 53.90 308.67 5.28 0.36 172.0 2.) Slope (Ft.0 2.0167 0.0489 0.0075 0.79 74.83 0.20 96.85 302.0015 14./Ft.0114 0.03 436.69 604./Min.0017 0.92 151.0090 0.0 2.52 289.0033 0.64 385.0278 0.98 77.0017 0.62 32.0036 0./Sec.29 550.0019 18.04 95.0045 0.50 120.0148 0.0019 9.0 2.0026 0.0141 0.42 344.90 241.) Slope (Ft.58 1101.0021 0.61 698.0026 0.52 218.79 483.0054 0.34 11.0012 0.0 8.0 5.0044 0.76 23.) (Ft.82 38.0017 0.5 2.23 40.79 29.0085 0.0066 0.5 0.) 1 /2 Full Flow (Gal.0 and 2.49 149.0071 0.15 174.46 523.46 26.) 3 /4 Full Full Flow (Gal.0032 4.0 15.0042 0.0 2.0133 0./Min.0313 0.0045 0.0012 0.07 872.0066 0.5 2.0 .0 2.0028 0.93 231.0167 0.0058 0.03 23.26 89.0054 0.0122 0.0085 0.0 6.95 154.FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY 105 TABLE 1 Slopes of Cast Iron Soil Pipe Sanitary Sewers Required to Obtain Self-Cleaning Velocities of 2.0042 0.0073 0.58 59.36 107.77 13.05 119.0114 0.45 42.5 2.012) Pipe Size (In./Ft.0231 0.0 2.) Flow Slope (Gal.0291 0.84 688.47 19.89 37.31 349.0186 0.59 11.0021 0.74 86.0178 0./Sec.68 1377.) 1 /4 Full Flow (Gal.0023 0.0026 0.0085 0.0 2.91 53.32 192.0 2.0043 0.0073 0.55 654.0067 0.0 12./Min.0033 0.0111 0.15 275.10 3.84 10.) 2.0013 0.0048 0.06 47.0056 0.) Velocity (Ft.0029 0.09 17.0034 0.64 76.37 43.0186 0.0036 0.40 362.0 4.0021 0.77 453.0107 0.0291 0.5 2.0029 0./Min.29 57.5 Ft.5 2.54 161.99 129.0021 0.0091 0.44 826./Ft.67 21.0 2.5 2.0 10.0191 0.0010 0.0053 0.0107 0.26 1032.

012) Slope (Ft.67 5.06 1.72 6.11 39.72 0.37 1./Sec.66 0.73 4.34 124.59 16.0090 0.0010 0.67 71.17 3.22 25.0840 0.) (Ft.62 0.57 5.47 1.0840 0./Sec.0600 0.68 1.04 13.11 4.87 4.49 46.0240 0.13 1.) (Gal.67 1.35 7.46 131.05 19.32 4.85 5.) (Gal.55 3.74 0.53 8.92 28.93 3.88 58.0600 0.21 2.88 4.66 32.35 3.23 65.39 20.33 4.69 9.99 3.42 5.88 41.22 1.1080 0.106 FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY TABLE 2 Velocity and Flow in Cast Iron Soil Pipe Sewers and Drains (Based on Manning’s Formula.) (Ft.19 3.52 0.87 4.07 2.0960 0.34 1.16 3.35 3.85 13.72 26.0900 0.04 1.75 7.0020 0.15 7.65 11.0050 0.75 4.11 2.71 6.51 0.3600 0.0 0.28 3.69 0.38 50.14 4.39 1.12 14.63 0.77 21.) Velocity Flow Velocity Flow Velocity Flow (Ft.0360 0.96 2.66 0.35 4.50 1./Min.74 33.84 9.62 1.47 13.47 6.0400 0.18 6.0800 1.92 8.12 5.81 1.55 19.0 .52 21.60 1.36 0.2000 0.33 35.) /4 Full 1 /2 Full 3 /4 Full Full Velocity Flow (Ft.81 27.24 29.42 1.22 1.0040 0.36 2.) (Gal.61 0./Min.29 3.74 29.31 1.0100 0.2400 0.66 8.0480 0.35 20.1200 0.2000 0.35 2.20 3.0400 0.73 1.28 5.0800 0.63 19.61 92.64 3.07 29.1000 0.6000 0.6000 0.52 0.47 5.73 3.4800 0.27 1.40 4./Sec.06 1.61 4.80 0.50 1.33 2.85 3.25 1.90 78.40 4.0080 0.85 110.0100 0.47 7.94 2.9600 1.62 109.0500 0.95 49.0090 0.9600 1.88 4.26 2.62 1.74 5.53 69.30 5.80 6.37 11.0200 0.19 1.90 6.0960 0.67 0.16 1.14 18.75 19.49 6.13 6.50 12./Ft.0120 0.3600 0.50 2./Min.37 1.46 0.47 2.23 1.06 1.95 1.98 7.76 4.00 3.14 22.04 1.63 0.28 3.25 6.24 43.01 1.10 19.06 2.53 0.93 41.31 1.83 1.86 3.68 20.47 98.47 0.93 2.03 4.97 92.0200 0.31 5.86 1.0300 0.0600 0./Min.74 6.60 3.0070 0.51 6.12 18.00 11.45 1.65 11.61 0.68 4.16 34.21 2.46 0.97 1.0060 0.59 3.56 9.18 25.0700 0.63 6.86 82.29 0.87 2.98 9.20 8.80 0.65 4.74 5.35 18.07 2.75 18.39 1.07 11.93 1.07 3.85 104.56 1.34 4.76 117.20 0.0720 0.) 2.36 41.07 17.29 13.8400 0.10 24.04 1.13 1.15 85.24 31.83 1.55 22.95 1.0800 1.) (In.80 0.83 24.47 2.82 0.68 15.36 22.70 10.13 1.78 34.53 1.0720 0.67 62.1080 0.93 3.83 1.50 2.18 1.93 2.77 101.07 1.13 34.35 6.0030 0.0500 0.80 6.26 33.35 3.59 3.7200 0.0050 0.0120 0.96 4.39 30.44 23.54 2.53 2.72 10.88 0.29 16.33 32.71 37.12 5.04 2.0800 0.73 1.33 8.77 36.23 1.77 2.) 1 Pipe Size (In.58 0.49 30.90 1.0080 0.37 1.0010 0.1200 0.0060 0.0300 0.67 36.32 4.0070 0.0240 0.38 1.0030 0.) (Gal.0480 0.73 3.0600 0.1000 0.93 1.42 13.39 3.07 23.8400 0.11 5.28 11.36 13.7200 0./Sec.81 54.22 7.50 4.0040 0.67 3.0360 0.98 16.12 6. Ft.54 2.67 16.37 38.64 2.4800 0.47 5.93 5.0700 0.67 11.24 4.74 0.06 3.0020 0.84 5.43 60.71 27. With N = .2400 0.14 4.05 15.16 1.86 1.49 58.0900 0.

02 74.48 62.0900 0.14 9.72 1.0070 0.70 9.19 2.87 125.77 48.62 7.0090 0.22 1.16 31.99 1.22 2.91 363.78 25.69 8.15 2.1080 0.74 1.81 2.68 5.81 1.01 72.94 429.40 1.34 2.40 0.73 0.41 57.49 1.44 6.6000 0.0050 0.65 1.88 68.19 6./Sec.28 2.0040 0.34 17.012) Slope (In.12 81.81 1.44 10.28 1.62 7.19 7.20 45.75 281.16 8.06 17.67 0.21 4.0720 0.30 96.65 1.31 4.25 62.36 1.23 51.01 83.63 1.94 14.12 39.12 162.) 1 Pipe Size (In.36 29.02 7.07 229.88 74.44 44.49 105.30 28.1200 0.65 5.82 42.62 9.0020 0.0720 0.86 198.) (Gal.17 122.97 68.10 2.0600 0.92 133.0100 0.60 14.14 3.80 281.17 1.96 77.55 109.) Velocity (Ft.55 2.0120 0.12 215.45 7.46 38.0 0.31 99.42 0.49 1.8400 0.71 77.96 2.24 361.98 102.05 4./Min.85 2.66 7.83 70.9600 1.82 459.0200 0.45 192.73 51.4800 0.1000 0.28 1.2400 0.48 9.72 3.81 7.63 33.77 154.80 162.12 334.69 211.15 1.8400 0.90 12.1200 0.05 117.95 409.77 199.0400 0.92 2.0030 0.0120 0.15 1.2000 0./Min.18 88.94 7.6000 0.34 3.86 6.91 305.0300 0.0360 0.19 6.89 74.89 3.42 149.23 24.91 24.48 34.18 13.4800 0.86 1.) (Gal.83 57.26 397./Min.0060 0.1080 0.31 6.0800 1.37 513.49 1.0700 0.92 2.11 2.02 385.58 181.72 3.54 84.58 2.76 1.0100 0.70 5.62 1.Ft.75 114.22 2.) (Ft.2400 0.63 23.48 1.0080 0.16 8.02 7.0050 0.31 154.45 136./Sec.0900 0.15 61.41 7.86 217.12 29.0360 0.97 236.02 197.04 177.0030 0./Min.37 72.67 129.0 .62 4.0840 0.0070 0.93 2.0010 0.60 28.58 48.05 1.72 1.88 70.92 47.79 125.08 6.86 8.56 5.03 2.0800 0./Sec.00 2.28 6./Ft.93 125.24 5.35 44.56 140.67 1.66 7.82 31.54 266.48 1.0500 0.72 1.0010 0.3600 0.94 1.35 26.74 86.05 1.95 6.05 4.) 4.92 145.36 2.44 1.92 257.43 2.05 4.05 4.0240 0.49 2.33 1.22 1.31 4.48 37.71 56.0840 0.09 2.11 2.83 1.0300 0.43 2.65 88.38 28.12 5.08 6.26 52.0700 0.92 243.0480 0.9600 1.) Flow Velocity Flow Velocity Flow (Gal.52 62.11 89.66 1.7200 0.42 6.41 16.74 1.50 0.0060 0.34 14.2000 0.25 39.28 2.58 2.34 3.28 43.19 7.43 5.52 51.0960 0. With N = .0960 0.86 1.92 94.06 8.7200 0.FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY 107 TABLE 2 (continued) Velocity and Flow in Cast Iron Soil Pipe Sewers and Drains (Based on Manning’s Formula.96 2.69 8.50 487.72 2.42 40.3600 0.) (Gal.0200 0.09 6.15 236.30 77.62 3.38 324.23 5.23 5.15 5.70 114.84 235.28 1.0500 0.06 0.0040 0.44 6.46 8.41 15.29 0.) (Ft.0090 0.04 99.22 19.0400 0.84 34.73 5.29 114.51 66.85 4.) (Ft.36 431.43 4.29 251./Sec.73 6.0020 0.71 36.34 272.68 54.45 62.71 5.84 135.72 105.46 229.0480 0.96 140.) /4 Full 1 /2 Full 3 /4 Full Full Velocity Flow (Ft.08 19.0800 0.54 5.31 5.05 129.81 0.88 62.96 1.23 44.1000 0.0240 0.85 4.09 2.64 4.52 42.56 3.88 22.79 5.68 5.34 224.51 1.40 0.37 88.71 5.41 79.44 167.0600 0.73 6.57 0.0080 0.46 54.88 2.23 24.0800 1.97 3.0600 0.0600 0.71 4.08 183.

89 1./Min.17 351.76 125.91 1.) 6.87 5.51 153.11 9.64 2.0840 0.14 9.108 FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY TABLE 2 (continued) Velocity and Flow in Cast Iron Soil Pipe Sewers and Drains (Based on Manning’s Formula.89 2.64 193.09 203.96 432.) (Gal.) (Ft.38 2.87 2.0600 0.0480 0.89 3.44 1523.78 6.93 249.42 2.40 352.71 135.0700 0.12 342.18 2.00 593.0100 0.75 2.07 4.0800 1.74 10.82 86.0500 0.0200 0.0900 0.26 575.84 1.0090 0.42 446.66 222.26 374.0070 0.13 8.19 11.92 3.16 446.84 325.0060 0.8400 0.81 643.51 273.58 1.87 7.11 32.36 9.91 315.72 7.17 2.74 3.98 59.35 5.79 91.18 5.87 7.92 459.55 1410.99 2.16 498.33 1151.73 5.93 265.55 11.08 5.1200 0.34 702.0060 0.10 157.28 6.36 4.53 8.0300 0.19 11.97 6.0900 0.1200 0.77 705.72 1.02 669.32 5.67 2.88 265.18 484.0050 0.2000 0.28 6.15 6.66 575.59 182.30 705.47 459.87 102.4800 0.46 8.29 2.0020 0.0800 0.0500 0.22 761.0090 0.12 3.20 141.54 1.94 2.27 3.0400 0.97 1.0700 0.43 1.90 407.0080 0.24 2.74 2./Sec.42 1820.) (Gal.67 2.50 296.96 118./Ft.42 167.04 2.7200 0.24 273.30 1.68 1.45 750.61 1280.89 3.87 10.46 7.87 546.47 398.0240 0.22 70.17 407.09 257.2000 0.0360 0.74 125.74 229.60 1369.0 .22 375.73 5.75 111.0040 0.86 531.45 1628.65 223.0800 1.68 1./Sec.76 172.61 0.46 7.46 36.Ft.83 2.1000 0.0120 0.2400 0.89 102.64 2.75 187.05 1082.44 2.0600 0.95 796.0080 0.70 8.96 93.70 9.17 8.16 153.34 9./Sec.20 498.94 45.78 145.92 404.00 5.36 2.0960 0.1000 0.) (Ft.50 1.32 6.07 1530.89 7.83 12.71 910.0300 0.0720 0.2400 0.6000 0.54 13.1080 0.0040 0.12 3.69 51.) (Gal.6000 0.71 83.13 8.32 6.0200 0.92 187.12 4.3600 0.02 1452.80 41.38 3.46 8.22 9.50 375.97 4.97 1.58 88.27 590.89 4.0100 0.08 3.25 419.9600 1.35 5.0960 0.03 294.0480 0.47 157.46 7.1080 0.32 1.34 3.29 6.74 205.66 9.04 2.31 863.58 223.27 334.0030 0.55 11.13 16.51 315.55 99.96 3.75 42.38 2.0 0.36 2.06 11.46 265.75 5.15 6.18 1.50 839.0030 0.7200 0.55 211.58 2.10 315.96 162.9600 1.04 128.81 186./Min.44 9.32 72.17 2.48 0.88 3.81 814.91 7.72 1.06 222.24 11.83 111.22 9.13 2.012) Slope Pipe Size (In.0240 0.80 83.72 814.51 838.35 10. With N = .05 70.62 1287.29 35.13 7.04 2.14 9.57 2.0120 0.0010 0.66 199.) (Gal.92 3.85 61.35 968.01 240.02 546.94 132.09 1.52 0.90 48.3600 0.0070 0.47 251.54 3.31 1185.07 118.0360 0.94 2.70 105.67 2.) 1 /4 Full 1 /2 Full 3 /4 Full Full Velocity Flow (Ft.) Velocity Flow Velocity Flow Velocity Flow (Ft.26 2.57 2.06 1.87 10.4800 0.25 49.27 631.33 10.88 257.13 287.0600 0.23 22.02 481.0600 0.68 1.34 9.07 7.75 515.) (Ft.64 114.70 9.68 650.29 39.82 6.63 1727.) (In.18 1.29 1.8400 0.0400 0.75 1.32 997.38 364.77 122.11 306.50 78.02 684.44 4./Min.37 1.0010 0.13 237.51 386.95 28.24 3.0050 0.0840 0.0720 0.54 3.34 3.75 2.07 4.24 8.74 145.37 72./Sec.69 182.0020 0.0800 0.64 2.06 216.86 8.64 8.37 1.26 99./Min.34 93.75 157.50 3.53 8.

69 4063.68 3.88 1048.37 1.012) Slope (In.0050 0.54 2642.75 1761.27 642.88 4.85 13.0080 0.36 3.05 3212.0720 0.55 1572.10 4.54 181.0800 0./Sec.74 2330.6000 0.69 10. With N = .90 6.56 393.0800 0.83 574.48 572.1080 0.8400 0.0080 0.28 10.57 15.94 2.10 3.21 8.93 1386.09 540.73 1201.96 169.0040 0.98 2961.0120 0.82 497.91 640.03 1709.89 835.7200 0.07 3.90 6.74 14.73 2157.49 165.69 874.0400 0.46 3.11 4.05 276.57 350.9600 1.47 12.74 2.37 1.13 2567.95 12.82 908.64 406.13 7.75 234.0020 0./Ft.0090 0.94 2.38 4.98 2564.21 5.0600 0.68 2.0960 0.54 661.11 4309.62 11.50 1.47 12.80 1482.24 192.1000 1.55 2.41 3419.0300 0.18 3.88 682.0840 0.28 907.0900 0.71 1.1200 0.0900 0.66 313.63 936.36 1.53 147.06 4.17 3518.0070 0.55 1815.) (Gal.96 5129.67 9.0030 0.17 2.51 468.1080 0.70 15.77 1525.69 10.0020 0.51 8.0300 0.4800 0.47 3.41 9.54 3823.56 295.55 270.24 540.00 13.36 11.68 604.07 2.46 3.80 10.38 4.33 6.48 1081.49 662.66 3.49 7.58 8./Sec.0040 0.41 287.0050 0.51 8.0090 0.0960 0./Min.37 2.0100 0.76 12.79 4.34 382./Sec.40 2.56 467.0200 0.19 2.53 1048.03 2261.57 934.71 1.63 811.0720 0.87 9.96 13.6000 0.4800 0.07 3.62 454.99 1324.30 5406.68 3.28 812.26 524.44 14.0010 0.91 5.62 2491.45 3.10 4.0480 0.0010 0.74 5.FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY 109 TABLE 2 (continued) Velocity and Flow in Cast Iron Soil Pipe Sewers and Drains (Based on Manning’s Formula.62 11.86 14.67 9.80 3.71 11.7200 0.06 1.71 1709.56 7.) (Gal.31 1.0360 0.53 2031.3600 0.99 1480.01 787.19 715.61 4.0600 0.98 64.87 8.3600 0.55 2488.34 4.37 2.88 4.86 6.49 8.77 1911.65 2344.11 739.55 2.12 2.68 764.07 4523.02 741.08 90.) /4 Full 1 /2 Full 3 /4 Full Full Velocity Flow (Ft.16 741.93 8.27 453.20 1.) Velocity Flow (Ft.39 3.0500 0.59 330.64 286.88 4.12 622.0600 0.Ft.95 991.63 3.59 4.49 1657.06 1283.) (Gal.33 6./Min.90 12.69 2.86 14.74 256.) Velocity Flow Velocity Flow (Ft.27 13.8400 0.63 4835.26 13./Min.59 3.48 557.48 9.0 0.0400 0.79 5.54 1015.1200 0.95 482.67 1045.00 12.93 3.76 3800.16 143.0240 0.69 1.76 9.48 10.77 2417.99 128.25 4.43 786.) (Ft.35 1208.46 17.70 15.00 13.54 2.35 4.80 6.88 1284.52 16.00 12.36 536.88 1208.05 209.14 607.32 1482.11 4.0240 0.33 737.57 4542.93 8.74 3.62 110.09 937.) 10.60 1.14 809.76 4.70 7.84 2.81 2417.0800 1.10 3.0700 0.37 2.65 4.36 3.2400 0.11 496.) (Gal.10 331.58 2094.50 1529.36 6.63 3.96 13.50 10.0360 0.98 405.0480 0.9600 1.67 2785.0200 0.24 202.0060 0.61 2965.0100 0.98 12.80 10.17 4188.75 2096.71 10.79 4.0120 0.25 764.17 3.47 9.0600 0.79 104.65 4.0800 1.97 3315.86 11.38 1.65 2703.01 854.48 9.35 278.32 1172.55 468.19 663.78 1969.38 1430.69 880.14 2873.29 156.0700 0.0060 0./Min.60 2.0070 0.26 13.19 2.00 3.) (Ft.2000 0.78 1112.2000 0.12 573.13 7.27 1622.0500 0.1000 0.06 233.32 468.11 3144.02 10.83 181.74 3.01 438.) 1 Pipe Size (In.87 1362.03 877.01 3.0 .65 994.49 331.95 12.86 2773.05 10.2400 0.43 3.0030 0.89 1245.52 15./Sec.0840 0.81 1436.51 370.07 3.

03 4.0030 0.97 2.21 4442.0240 0.88 1487.67 702.38 508.15 576./Min.95 2208./Min.3600 0.41 12.47 13.0900 0.97 15.0400 0.78 1920.67 2221.91 18./Sec.0090 0.12 2809.012) Pipe Size (In.24 7.13 17.80 2.98 3847.17 2628.Ft.69 3.73 6282.41 12.1080 0.0840 0.85 1180.55 3.) Slope (In.26 858.18 4155.8400 0.39 9.82 9.06 1404.0 0.64 5280.61 4.72 6.40 860.58 1216.30 2504.7200 0.06 9.54 4572./Min.58 2980.77 2044.01 1570.0500 0.) (Gal.42 2.0960 0.34 1110.9600 1.58 332./Min.0100 0.81 1214.82 7467.04 11.44 1.0800 0.86 10.29 15.54 2640.41 5.75 13.40 470.) (Ft./Ft.02 2.70 8.2400 0.80 1051.66 1717.07 543.03 4.50 4. With N = .0080 0.48 1606.0720 0.07 429.80 2.65 16.6000 0.42 3.79 3.77 5.0360 0.23 13.37 3141.88 11.03 5903.11 18.110 FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY TABLE 2 (continued) Velocity and Flow in Cast Iron Soil Pipe Sewers and Drains (Based on Manning’s Formula.21 834.64 8.03 8348.77 5.03 993.75 13.4800 0.0010 0.58 1314.06 6.01 3141.0700 0.) 1 /4 Full 1 /2 Full 3 /4 Full Full Velocity Flow (Ft.12 3.1000 1.09 16.70 8.0040 0.35 5.) (Gal.67 12.07 12.94 192.10 5.25 6466.0200 0.35 ./Sec.18 4./Sec.34 1404.52 4.39 1.0070 0.94 4.0800 1.12 3.34 5440.03 271.09 16.97 15.65 1445.07 19.0600 0.01 3733.0020 0.99 1669.78 14.) 15.86 3.1200 0.61 4.13 17.79 1490.42 4.12 3.33 4711.17 20.33 1.0480 0.06 9.03 496.66 9423.55 3.17 2720.95 5.04 4.0120 0.) (Gal.10 5.88 11.61 9933.) Velocity Flow (Ft.41 5.17 2433.0050 0.0300 0.41 7023.41 6.85 8884.42 4.61 384.25 993.) Velocity Flow Velocity Flow (Ft.) (Gal.51 1986.2000 0.0060 0.69 1866.0600 0.80 4966.35 8310.21 3511.43 4442.52 1357.60 2221.79 2361.07 7920.95 7694.) (Ft.10 607.79 1720.68 2./Sec.69 6984.80 11.60 1821.11 18.

012).FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY 111 ONE-QUARTER FULL* Figure 3—Velocity and Flow in Cast Iron Soil Pipe. Sewers. With n=. . and Drains (Based on Manning’s Formula. *Flow for 2 in. pipe size is less than 10 GPM at slopes indicated.

and Drains (Based on Manning’s Formula. With n=. .112 FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY ONE-HALF FULL Figure 4—Velocity and Flow in Cast Iron Soil Pipe. Sewers.012).

. With n=.012).FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY 113 THREE-QUARTERS FULL Figure 5—Velocity and Flow in Cast Iron Soil Pipe. Sewers. and Drains (Based on Manning’s Formula.

Sewers. With n=. .012). and Drains (Based on Manning’s Formula.114 FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY FULL FLOW Figure 6—Velocity and Flow in Cast Iron Soil Pipe.

/ft. (See Table 3) s = 0. the wetted perimeter. current peak flow can be accurately quantified. this analysis is generally imperfect from the standpoint of system design. condition. self-cleansing velocity. The peak load in a storm sewer.012 D = 1. and Figures 3 through 6 provide means to insure that cast iron soil pipe is adequately sized to accommodate the expected peak flow at a designed. it depends on the number and type of businesses to be serviced by the system. a 15-inch pipe size is assumed. (See Table 3) r = a/P = 0. the factors affecting peak flow are analyzed by means of procedures in design handbooks. This is the peak runoff that the plant is expected to generate in the future at projected maximum levels of production.500 gallons per minute when operating half-full. In most cases. as well as the location of subsurface obstructions. This requires that provision be made for any unforeseen increase in runoff. In a sanitary sewer for domestic waste./ft. and the hydraulic radius. depending on design requirements and the relative accuracy with which future flow can be forecast. The factors affecting peak flow vary with the type of system to be installed. 4. Tables 4 and 5 provide numbers to the two-thirds and one-half powers. For a particular hydraulic system. and 5. Table 2. In a sewer for commercial and industrial waste. (See Table 3) P = 1. . but only a rough approximation can be made of future peak flow.9635 ft. the area of the cross section of the stream. and slope of streets and other areas requiring drainage. Table 3 lists values for the internal diameter of the pipe. is planned. (See Table 3) a = 0. however.2500 ft.FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY 115 DESIGN OF SEWERS AND DRAINS Equation 2.3125 ft. the maximum quantity of sewage depends primarily on the density and distribution of the population and its per capita use of water. The following example illustrates a typical computation involving the flow capacity of a cast iron soil pipe hydraulic system: An industrial plant site is to be serviced by a cast iron soil pipe sewer that must provide a flow capacity of 1.6136 sq. Unfortunately. ft. Given: n = 0. Based on the grade and condition of the ground surface under which the sewer is to be installed.01 ft. is determined by the duration and intensity of rainfall and the extent. a system slope of 0. Initially. Information useful in computing flow capacities by Equation 2 is presented in Tables 3. The peak flow that governs design is that projected to occur in the future during the service life of a particular system. and therefore cast iron soil pipe hydraulic systems are most frequently designed for half-full operation at probable future peak flow.01 ft. which usually is based on population trends and area development over a period of 50 years. and it must be determined whether or not this will result in an adequate flow capacity as well as an efficient operating velocity. Greater or less than halffull operation can be employed.

4991 cu.6136 V = 5./min.10 Q =123. provided conditions at the construction site permit the designer latitude in selecting a system slope. also provide an efficient operating velocity.01 0.486 (0.116 FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY Solution 2/3 1/2 Q = 1.4605) 0.833 (0. It will be noted that a number of possible designs frequently can be employed to satisfy a given capacity requirement. per cu. GPM = Q x 7./sec. .e. with the system flowing half-full. the system design provides both an adequate capacity and an efficient operating velocity. between 2 and 10 ft.4991/0.10 Q =3./min.486 ar s n (Manning Formula – 12) 2/3 1/2 Q = 1.6136) (0.. ft.282563) 0.). the following calculation is made: V = Q/a V = 3. The combination of pipe size and slope selected should most closely satisfy the capacity specified for the system and. In order to determine whether the system will operate at a velocity consistent with good design (i.70 ft./sec. x 60 seconds = 1570.60 gal.833 (0./sec. Therefore.481 Gal. This indicates that the pipe is adequately sized to provide a capacity (Q) of 1.3125 ) 0. ft. The derivations of flow capacity and velocity made above by Equation 2 could have been obtained by referring to Table 2 or Figure 4.012 Q =123. if possible.500 gal.6136) (0.

229 .9567 1.0421 0.000 .08 .6616 0.282 .506 .2272 /2 Full /4 Full Full P 0.2071 0.2848 0.01 .2488 0.515 .0478 0.397 .497 .1692 0.295 .256 .) TABLE 4 Numbers to the Two-Thirds Power Used to Obtain r 2/3 in Manning’s Formula No.2500 0.2579 0.1924 0.215 .0785 2.0052 0.2466 0.5717 0.046 .364 .1220 0.9204 0.9834 1.4438 a P 2 3 0.00 .117 .1718 0.3792 0.1443 0.6522 0.3438 0.1259 3.1467 0.3244 0.428 .6466 0.534 .448 117 .3144 1.386 .5630 1.0484 0.186 .0847 0.201 .2488 0.3068 FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY D = internal pipe diameter (ft.153 .9767 2.342 .4041 0.0333 0.7776 1.0481 0.0841 0.04 .0635 0.0821 0.5551 2.9635 0.7747 1.1962 0. .1408 0.2950 0.1944 0.02 .0314 1.9950 1.0239 0.9270 r 0.7641 0.1126 0.2565 0.1347 0.458 .0617 0.097 .07 .1029 0.TABLE 3 Variables Required to Solve Manning’s Formula for Computing Flow Capacities of Cast Iron Soil Pipe Sewers and Drains 1 Pipe Size (in.418 .0860 0.136 .353 . ft.375 .3125 0.0962 0.0120 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 0.) a = area of cross section of stream (sq.5388 0.3888 0.3125 D 0.1331 0.4116 0.477 .) 1 3 /4 Full r 0.6022 3.407 .5157 0.2 .5832 0.331 .1 .0 .487 .0424 0.0157 0.4754 0.4950 0.307 .2125 0.0104 0.8283 0.1029 0.4832 0.0821 0.1654 0.09 .319 .0212 0.6455 1.2071 0.03 .0700 0.8177 0.3874 0.3283 0.2456 0.6136 0.0998 0.05 .1654 0.) P = wetted perimeter (ft.0559 0.0359 0.0733 a P r a P r a 0.170 .) r = a/P = hydraulic radius (ft.5130 0.2931 1.06 .0974 0.438 .243 .074 .1633 0.0407 0.0276 0.0209 0.1237 0.1886 0.1237 0.7776 1.0407 0.0666 0.3011 1.269 .0617 0.3 .2694 0.525 .468 .0393 1.4899 0.3707 0.1492 1.

03114 .0009 .007211 .2720 .09327 .07280 .09220 .2168 .005099 .04472 .02846 .01449 .008 .009165 .02646 .009381 .1342 .008832 .03271 .04 .03286 .01483 .06928 .006083 .3194 ---3 .2950 .05657 .005 .1703 .2881 .2775 .03082 .2757 .2490 .005916 .1817 .006928 .009950 .08062 .3130 .008485 .09539 .08124 .03873 .007141 .00009 .07141 .08775 .03000 .008124 .2429 .1643 .004 .01924 .00002 .02864 .09000 .08367 .005568 .2000 .0007 .01517 .3066 .09434 .10344 .02933 .02881 .03178 .07 .05745 .005657 .01342 .07071 .2702 .01817 .00003 .3225 ---5 .02 .2550 .006245 .005745 .02121 .02665 .01703 .02702 .01761 .01 .003317 .009899 .09487 .2345 .2569 .06000 .02950 .01049 .1612 .2470 .2191 .02739 .10000 .2214 .03162 .10392 .06 .1673 .003606 .02168 .07348 .2145 .06245 .3017 .1581 .008426 .010296 .006856 .10198 .001 .05385 .00006 .03256 .010100 .05196 .3082 .008307 .004000 .02074 .00005 .010149 .01975 .004243 .2280 .2258 .02811 .008185 .2898 .03209 .1414 .01612 .02588 .03464 .1732 .003873 .009327 .07416 .2966 .04243 .03066 .005000 .009695 .007874 .05 .09849 .005477 .2302 .10440 .118 FLOW THEORY AND CAPACITY TABLE 5 Number to the One-Half Power Used to Obtain s1/2 in Manning’s Formula No.006325 .1924 .009849 .02345 .08602 .10296 .2933 .01414 .1949 .3240 ---6 .1095 .003464 .2121 .09381 .09695 .1789 .009000 .01789 .009110 .09055 .0008 .03606 .3162 ---1 .005196 .01265 .09274 .007071 .02098 .02608 .09 .1225 .003 .02449 .007348 .02915 .2864 .04690 .0001 .09950 .2074 .01844 .04796 .003742 .006481 .02280 .02828 .2510 .009434 .03240 .1049 .03146 .08307 .00004 .004359 .08185 .06083 .1183 .3209 ---4 .10100 .03 .006403 .1549 .007 .007616 .01732 .1140 .008888 .1449 .07550 .09899 .04123 .010932 .007280 .08944 .02387 .2646 .05000 .010050 .0003 .004690 .010 .007550 .005385 .3302 .0006 .01225 .007810 .002 .008062 .01897 .006557 .02025 .07681 .2049 .02214 .006708 .0004 .01095 .09165 .006 .1517 .01549 .01673 .02258 .08832 .08718 .004899 .01378 . .02898 .02550 .3000 .008944 .2408 .01183 .06782 .07000 .0010 .2608 .01543 .007483 .10247 .009747 .10149 .1844 .06633 .007000 .3271 ---8 .006000 .05292 .03050 .2588 .3033 .1378 .03033 .009592 .06557 .09798 .2627 .02236 .009798 .07211 .05916 .02569 .03302 .008246 .008602 .04359 .2025 .008660 .04583 .1000 .02510 .02966 .009055 .1897 .01581 .03194 .3114 .0002 .2366 .07746 .02470 .06325 .08544 .08426 .03130 .2665 .02302 .07483 .004123 .01949 .08485 .009 .10 ---0 .07810 .04000 .2530 .1975 .3286 ---9 .02145 .2739 .008775 .07937 .00008 .02324 .02366 .3050 .2828 .05568 .03098 .2915 .0005 .02720 .08888 .1871 .009487 .03317 .02530 .00010 .008367 .02429 .2983 .01871 .08246 .006164 .09747 .06164 .02000 .004796 .004583 .01304 .007416 .3146 .2449 .2098 .1761 .02049 .2324 .1204 .005292 .10050 .010198 .03162 .006633 .007681 .009220 .010344 .08660 .02683 .03017 .010247 .02191 .008544 .3098 .09592 .06708 .09110 .05831 .007937 .01140 .009539 .02757 .07616 .2387 .05477 .00001 .03742 .008000 .004472 .005831 .1483 .02983 .01000 .3256 ---7 .007746 .008717 .07874 .1265 .010440 .006782 .009274 .02490 .1811 .003162 .2683 .02627 .00007 .05099 .02793 .06481 .03225 .09644 .2236 .06403 .2793 .02408 .2846 .3176 ---2 .08000 .010000 .04899 .009644 .02775 .06856 .08 .

as illustrated in Figure 1. and interior decorating themes. Homeowners realize that these hidden systems. and vent (DWV) system (the permanent and crucial system that conveys wastewater from the house across the property line to the city sewers and vents the plumbing system gases to the atmosphere). We suggest that you focus attention on the choices when selecting a cast iron soil pipe drain. waste. Insistence on different electrical outlets. plumbing. and electrical systems. Since then. new homeowners in the know are asking more and more questions about the materials in their new construction. The value-conscious homeowner is also looking beyond the frills and also asks questions about the mechanical. are not all the same. many homes have been constructed using plastic (ABS or PVC) piping systems. most homeowners do not know the kind of pipe they have.CHAPTER IX WHY YOU NEED TO SPECIFY CAST IRON PLUMBING FOR YOUR HOME For most of us. waste. which focused on failures of plastic piping. and vent (DWV) systems used cast iron pipe and fittings. This may be from reading about or watching television shows such as 60 Minutes. 119 . which provide for today’s living comfort. heating equipment. Astute owners no longer accept any old “guts” in their new dwelling simply because someone obtained a “deal” on the material. Today’s homeowner is inquisitive about options such as windows. Figure 1—Cast Iron in Residential Application. and plumbing products is often the result of prior unsatisfactory experiences. Because the DWV systems are hidden behind the walls. plumbing fixtures. the biggest investment we will make in our lifetime is the purchase of a new house or condominium. Whether constructing a new dwelling or altering an existing living space. Before 1970 most drain.

Studies done by the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute have shown that cast iron soil pipe and fittings. Reliable cast iron has proven its worth over the years in demanding applications. cast iron.) The owner of today’s $500. Figure 2—Noise Muffling Qualities of DWV Materials. Because of this problem. This time proven material is today’s choice for custom residences. Ease of Installation Did you know that cast iron often outlasts the building? Today’s cast iron systems use compression gaskets and couplings. .000 house will not tolerate the noise of wastewater gushing down the living room walls through plastic piping materials when the quiet alternative. With plastic solventcemented systems. which are easy to alter in case of a future modification.120 CAST IRON PLUMBING FOR YOUR HOME Many builders and homeowners have become aware of the noise problems associated with plastic piping systems. WHY CAST IRON? For centuries cast iron pipe and fittings have been used to convey waste and water throughout the western world. (See Figure 2. is so readily available. Cast iron plumbing installed in the White House in the 1800s still functions flawlessly. are 750 percent more effective in reducing plumbing noise than substitute materials. piping has to be cut out and thrown away if mistakes are made or alterations are necessary. Some people are unaware that No Hub (hubless) cast iron systems fit in modern stud walls just as easily as plastic systems (in fact they take up slightly less space). Cast iron pipe installed at the fountains of Versailles in 1623 is still functioning today. The Quiet Pipe® Cast iron is known for quiet operation. because of their dense molecular structure and rubber gasket joints. a historical track record unmatched by substitute materials. cast iron is now specified due to its superior sound suppression.

With cast iron. Durability. none of the substitute materials exhibit the strength of cast iron. Failures from expansion and contraction due to extreme cold and heat are virtually impossible. a Pipe Cutter and Torque Wrench. which should only be installed in accordance with ASTM D2321. Only Two Tools Are Required. . no special bedding is required to support the pipe. Thin-wall plastics such as ASTM D3034 lack the strength for under-foundation installation. Based on recent studies. the thermal expansion and contraction of cast iron is far less than that of competing materials. therefore. Environmentally Friendly Finally. and Safety In terms of strength. From a safety and liability standpoint.CAST IRON PLUMBING FOR YOUR HOME 121 Strength. and failure because of ground shifts. As well. Companies producing soil pipe and fittings are leaders in environmental control technology and have been energy conscious and ecologically aware for decades. Cast iron is permitted in all national plumbing standards and. They often cite to the homeowner that cast iron plumbing will drastically increase the price of the drainage system. will meet all local codes. your piping has high crush strength and resistance to tree roots. it is the safest plumbing material because it will not burn or produce toxic gases. Cost Myths There are several myths concerning cast iron soil pipe and fittings: The first involves cost and is a common objection raised by contractors or builders. soil pipe and fittings represent a savings to our environment. penetration by rodents. Made from recycled scrap iron and steel. buried cast iron is ten times stronger than some of today’s thermoplastic materials. the Figure 4—Assembling Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe Is Literally a Snap. In terms of crush strength. Unlike plastic pipe. cast iron pipe and fittings are environmentally sensitive.

Figure 3—Readily Available Inventory. well-capitalized producers located strategically across the United States. There are almost no locations in America more than two days from foundry sites. Continuing quiet operation of your drainage system is of far greater value. 1 Pricing reflects a range of differentials in actual wholesaler costs between cast iron and plastic pricing. and durable. Availability Myths Other myths about cast iron are that it is not available and is difficult to install. what you need to ask is “Can I give up my peace and quiet for this small price difference?” Perhaps a better perspective is obtained by dividing $150 by the total cost of your home. you can rest assured that your plumbing performance will be flawless with a cast iron system. for a homeowner. it can be an important selling tool in an eventual resale. quiet. Not true: The industry includes modern. the quiet system is a strong selling feature.122 CAST IRON PLUMBING FOR YOUR HOME wholesaler cost differential between cast iron drainage and/or vent stacks and their plastic counterparts amounted to less than $150 per bathroom. Later trade markups are not included.1 As a homeowner. time proven. (See Figure 3. most plumbing wholesalers stock cast iron soil pipe and fittings or have access to the manufacturers. Ongoing plumber apprentice training continues to teach the installation of soil pipe and fittings as an essential component of its educational programs. Because cast iron is so widely used in the United States.) Furthermore. Safe. The resulting percentage will be minor in the overall project budget. . For builders. You will be glad that you took the time to specify a product of long-lasting value to you and your family—Cast Iron Soil Pipe. Design or code requirements may differ from the model used. most plumbers are very familiar with its installation. The Best Value We are happy that you took the time to learn more about why you should specify cast iron—the DWV material of choice—for your new home or remodeling project.

in Washington. Human reaction to noise is determined by the intensity or loudness of the sound (measured in decibels). 1970. First. NOISE. conducted by Polysonics Acoustical Engineers. but cast iron has remained the industry standard. Two of the most important and conclusive test programs are discussed below. an increase or decrease of three decibels is usually required.. followed by a detailed discussion of installation requirements for achieving quiet DWV systems. CAST IRON—THE QUIET PIPE® A number of studies have been performed to determine the effectiveness of cast iron soil pipe versus other materials as a noise suppressant in DWV systems. and plumbing contractor to fulfill their clients’ demands for noise control and acoustical privacy. with an average difference of 8 dB) and ABS pipes (by as much as 15 dBA) whether pipes are open or enclosed by drywall. and commercial buildings. to determine the acoustical characteristics of different materials commonly used in drainage. June. Report No. waste. engineer. D.123 CHAPTER X ADVANTAGES OF SPECIFYING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE FOR A QUALITY PLUMBING SYSTEM Throughout the years engineers. A two-year research and testing program. In a separate. and vent systems reached the conclusion that only cast iron soil pipe systems. and reaction to it is largely subjective. and storm piping applications. Polysonics Acoustical Engineers. Intensity. increasingly aware of excessive environmental noise. 1 Polysonics Acoustical Engineers. Noise and Vibration Characteristics of Soil Pipe Systems (Job No. apartments. waste. are quiet enough to meet today’s demands for low noise levels in homes. one decibel is the faintest sound detectable by the human ear. 1578 for the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute). and by its duration or time pattern. For a change in sound to be clearly discernible. and building owners have recognized cast iron as the best material for use in drainage.C. 123 . The public. installers. vent. with their high mass and resilient neoprene-sealed joints. ITS MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL Noise is often defined as unwanted sound. and quality or character are the dimensions of sound. PVC. This study establishes clearly that DWV pipes made of cast iron are quieter than PVC pipes (by 6–10 dBA1. more recent study MJM Acoustical Consultants was retained by the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Association to study the noise emitted by three-inch diameter cast iron. frequency. by its frequency or pitch. 1409. Sound is usually measured in decibels. These must all be considered in determining the “noise criteria” or acceptable noise level for any area. There have been many different alternative materials utilized in these systems with varying degrees of success. inspectors. Polysonics’ published report of the test results and evaluation1 is a useful tool for the architect. and ABS DWV pipes installed in a typical building. demands greater acoustical privacy at home and at work. the principal conclusions of the respective studies and their recommendations are presented.

potential operating problems.124 SPECIFYING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE To create an appropriate acoustical environment. Yet the same solid walls. waste. The conventional considerations in specifying pipe include such variables as the initial cost of materials. repairs. The transmission of excessive noise has been found to be a significant factor in the occupant’s perception of quality and the owner’s perception of value. the engineer may choose the noise reduction factor for structural components and mechanical equipment. The substitution of lighter materials has greatly contributed to the transmission of sound from the mechanical systems to occupied areas. specifiers need precise information to help them select pipe materials most likely to produce a quiet drain. number. an advantage in the basic materials cost for a partic- Figure 1—Recommended Noise Criteria for Rooms. Traditionally. for example. Further contributing to the transmission of noise are advances in material technology that have enabled us to use lighter and stronger “engineered” materials. floors. and pipe life. Because noisy plumbing systems produce some of the most difficult noise problems to solve in homes and other buildings. . These considerations interact with each other. installation and labor cost. the large mass of building materials has served as a barrier to sound transmission in buildings. These curves serve as a precise design tool and provide guidelines to determine acceptable noise levels for interior spaces. noise criteria curves have been developed to express these factors scientifically in a single noise criteria. PIPE MATERIALS AND THE CONTROL OF PLUMBING NOISE Of all the acoustical problems that plague the builder and designer. or NC. plumbing noise is among the most serious. and double windows that help reduce the transmission of outside noise into the structure also may be a factor in retaining and transmitting noise and vibrations created within the structure. (See Figure 1. and vent system.) By using Figure 1.

The test rigs. including water flow. Measurements were taken at octave bands centered at 125. (See Figure 2. and vibration from disposers and other machinery. Because of its high mass.000. The Polysonics report indicates that high-mass cast iron soil pipe is harder to excite into vibration than other DWV piping. These field tests showed close correlation with the laboratory test results.000 cycles per second. Polysonics prepared two mockup installations for each of the seven DWV systems tested. The tests demonstrated that cast iron soil pipe sealed with neoprene gaskets provides the quietest DWV system. 500.500 data points were recorded and analyzed during the laboratory study.) Test Methods In the laboratory. and hubless coupling with neoprene gasket). and galvanized steel pipe with threaded joints. cast iron has inherent noise-dampening qualities that make it preferable to lighter materials. 1. Further. and 2. and measurements were then made of vibration levels at various points along the pipe.2 two types of plastic piping with cemented joints. control of plumbing system noise depends on the mass of the pipe wall. one using two-inch diameter pipe. Over 8.SPECIFYING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE 125 ular system may be offset by its higher installation cost. and its findings were then corroborated by additional tests conducted on actual cast iron soil pipe DWV installations in high-rise buildings. With the exception of lead. 250. These points were chosen because they cover the range of frequencies of most pipe-carried noise problems. The density of cast iron combined with the isolating qualities of neoprene make cast iron soil pipe the quietest of all DWV piping materials. flush. Ease in making changes or additions once piping has been installed may be an advantage on one job but not on another. A requirement for noise and vibration control is often added to these various considerations. the other using four-inch diameter pipe. were subjected to a vibration source (transducer). Figure 2—Test Rigs With Only One Bend Were Developed for Demonstration and Lecture Purposes. The Polysonics study included both laboratory and field tests to objectively determine the vibration and noise-transmission characteristics of the following major DWV systems: cast iron soil pipe joined by three different methods (lead and oakum. The advantage of cast iron is augmented by the use of resilient neoprene seals in either the compression gasket or the hubless joint. 2 The Polysonics Study was conducted using hubless couplings of a design for which CISPI previously held patent rights. copper pipe with soldered joints. . neoprene compression gasket. cast iron is the highest density material used as a DWV piping material. built in a Z configuration (See Figures 3).

Figure 3—A “Z” Rig Being Tested for Acoustical Characteristics (Cast Iron with Neoprene Compression Gaskets). data recorded on all pipe systems except those sealed with neoprene gaskets showed essentially no reduction in vibration in straight piping runs. The significance of these test results to builders and designers is stated by the Polysonics’ report in the following conclusions: . Test Results As Figures 5(a) through 5(f) indicate. The two cast iron soil pipe systems sealed with neoprene gaskets showed a substantial overall vibration reduction across each joint (as high as 20 dB per joint).126 SPECIFYING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE Figure 2—“Z” Rig Configurations Used in Development of All Laboratory Data.

.SPECIFYING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE 127 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 5—Vibration Drops Across the Pipe Joints of Six DWV Systems.

the less noise transmitted along the pipe run. With the hubless system.” states Polysonics. in both systems an isolation break is provided at every joint. In testing the various soil pipe systems. it was determined that both the compression gasket and the hubless system provide a positive isolation break at every joint by preventing direct metal-to-metal contact. Airborne noise (transmitted directly through the pipe wall) is controlled by the mass of the piping material. tightened with a simple torque wrench. and the gasket thus effectively isolates the two pipes from each other. have always been the quietest in this respect. Figure 6—Isolation Breaks in Cast Iron Soil Pipe Systems With Neoprene Joint Seals. and PVC plastic transmit vibration and noise. the center stop of the neoprene sleeve prevents direct metal-to-metal contact between the two plain-end pipes. The male spigot end is inserted into the gasket. with their heavy mass. • Lightweight systems such as copper. Thus. thus. established through many years of use in home and high-rise construction. such as occur in back-to-back bathrooms. and therefore should not be used where quiet waste pipe systems are required. Polysonics drew distinctions between airborne and structurally borne vibration. ABS. Structurally borne vibration occurs where the pipe touches plaster or drywall. Proper isolation of the pipe system therefore is another important factor in reducing plumbing noise. ceilings. the steeper the curve.128 SPECIFYING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE • Cast iron soil pipe/neoprene gasket systems can provide substantial vibration and noise drops over even a few joints. and/or floors. is now greatly enhanced by the use of resilient neoprene gaskets as joint seals. and floors are readily excited and radiate the vibration as airborne noise.) The neoprene compression gasket is inserted into the pipe hub. where it seats positively within the grooves. thus providing quiet waste pipe systems for areas in very close proximity. (See Figures 6 and 7. . “In summation. Cast iron soil pipe systems. The sleeve is secured with a stainless steel screw-band clamp. “the intrinsic quietness of heavy-mass cast iron soil pipe. Walls.” The Role of Neoprene in Plumbing Noise Reduction In analyzing reasons for the success of neoprene joint seals in reducing noise transmission. Figure 5 shows vibration drops across the pipe joints. ceilings.

All the pipes were installed in identical physical configurations and tested in the same acoustical conditions. three with PVC pipes. was retained by the Canadian Cast Iron Soil Pipe Association to conduct a research project on the noise produced by several three-inch diameter DWV pipes made of cast iron. respectively. The material isolates vibration because it exhibits excellent dampening qualities.or multidwelling homes: A water closet discharging into a three-inch horizontal waste pipe connected to a three-inch vertical waste stack. strictly following the same procedure to allow for direct comparison of the sound pressure levels emitted by each pipe during a 1.. enclosed in a wall constructed of 5/8 inch gypsum board. and ABS. Dampening helps to reduce the vibration that is otherwise radiated as airborne noise. and other equipment. PVC. The objective of the project was to study the noise emitted by DWV pipes installed in a typical building. Inc.6-gallon (6-liter) water closet flush. MJM ACOUSTICAL CONSULTANTS MJM Acoustical Consultants. fans. Test Method During the course of this research project.SPECIFYING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE 129 Figure 7—Testing a Hubless System. Neoprene’s value as an isolating material has long been recognized by acoustical engineers. This synthetic rubber is widely used for engine mounts and pads under noise-producing machinery such as pumps. The experimental setup used for this study was typical of a DWV pipe installation found in most North American single. and one with ABS pipes. Neoprene also isolates the high-frequency noises heard most often by humans. eight series of acoustical measurements were conducted on eight types of North American DWV pipes: four with cast iron soil pipes. chiller-compressors. .

tubs. where the waste flow is turbulent. • For each type of pipe under test. CSA B70 No-Hub Short – CISPI 301. The horizontal branch lines serving individual fixtures were not considered significant components in the generation of noise because TABLE 1 Overall “A” Weighted Sound Pressure Level Radiated by Pipe Assemblies Tested Global Sound Pressure Level (dBA. cast iron was chosen for use only on the main stack that passes through the wall from the upstairs to the downstairs. Table 1 below is a summary of the overall noise levels in dBA emitted by each type of pipe while evacuating a 1.130 SPECIFYING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE • The background noise in the 90 m3 reverberation chamber in which the pipes were installed was monitored to ensure that it was always 10 dB below the noise radiated by unenclosed pipes for frequencies above 125 Hz. ref 20 microPa) Type of Pipe Bare pipes Enclosed pipes Vertical pipe unenclosed 39 41 40 41 42 43 45 49 40 43 Horizontal pipe unenclosed 32 36 36 39 48 47 48 54 36 48 XH (extra heavy) – ASTM A74 No-Hub Long – CISPI 301. the noise radiated by the pipes was not always 10 dB higher than the background noise.6-gallon (6 liter) water flush in the four configurations for which the tests were conducted. CSA B70 SV (service) – ASTM A74 System 15 (solid wall) PVC 7300 – ASTM D2665 (solid wall) PVC 4300 – ASTM F891 (cellular core) ABS 3300 – ASTM F628 (cellular core) Average Cast Iron Average PVC 40 42 41 43 49 48 51 55 41 49 24 25 24 26 32 33 34 39 25 33 . The MJM test results also demonstrate two other important conclusions: Noise is Generated in Both Vertical and Horizontal DWV Piping For several years quality-minded contractors have used combination DWV systems to keep to a minimum the noise generated by the DWV systems in the houses they build. The MJM Acoustical Consultants test results confirm the advantages of pipe-material mass and neoprene joints in controlling noise in DWV systems. in the case of enclosed pipes. In many cases. Many plumbing designers have long believed that the majority of the noise in DWV systems is created in the vertical stack. especially at high frequencies. Most will use cast iron for all of the “wet” piping and use a less expensive material for the vent piping only. however. The less-expensive material was used not only for the vent piping but also for the laterals that branch off of the stack to serve upstairs fixtures such as water closets. a demonstration was made that the noise measured in the 90 3 m room was exclusively radiated from the pipes under test and that there was no contribution resulting from airborne noise transmission from one chamber to another. and lavatories. which could have altered the measurement results for the frequency range selected. • Repeatability and reproducibility tests have been conducted on each type of pipe under test.

and local gov- . and fossil fuels are burned to heat or cool a building. all of which can negatively impact the environment. the noise from the pipe will be transmitted to the drywall. The test results demonstrate that substituting cast iron for plastic in the horizontal runs is 400 percent more effective in controlling plumbing noise than the same substitution in the vertical stack. Neoprene gaskets are recommended. The remaining 33 dB noise level of the plastic is often exacerbated in the field because a 3 inch plastic stack has a larger outside diameter. The results. either the compression gasket type or the hubless neoprene coupling. with hangers or hanger materials that will not transmit noise from the building structure to the pipe. waste. and storm drainage. • The materials used should conform to all appropriate standards and specifications. Trees and minerals are taken from the earth to produce building materials. Although the test results do show that drywall reduces noise by 16 dB in both cast iron and plastic systems. Cast iron soil pipe. construction. • When joining pipe and fittings. Federal. demonstrate a very interesting phenomenon: The difference in noise levels between cast iron and plastic installed in the vertical position is 3 dB. which frequently causes it to come into contact with the drywall on both sides of a 2 X 4 wall. Such a material will help insulate and isolate each succeeding piece of pipe. a group of environmentalists studied the problem and developed a solution. Cast iron soil pipe is superior for these purposes. natural resources are consumed. state. Drywall Does Not Solve Plumbing Noise Problems A common misconception is that once the piping enclosed by drywall. and operation of buildings minimize their negative impact on the environment. • Proper methods of support must be provided. They established a group of practices for “green” buildings. the term “green” is used to indicate that the design. waste. a material with good sound absorbing qualities should be specified. making the noise far more noticeable. MJM Acoustical Consultants isolated the piping components and measured the noise generated in each. the noise will not be as bad. Fortunately. the following requirements must be clearly spelled out: • The pipe material should have a low coefficient of sound transmission and must also meet all applicable codes and serve the purpose for soil.SPECIFYING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE 131 these lines are smaller than the stack. or from the pipe to the building structure. By testing vertical and horizontal piping installations separately. CAST IRON—THE GREEN PIPE What Makes a Building “Green”? During building construction and operation. In this case. The difference in noise levels between cast iron and plastic installed in a horizontal position is a full 12 dB. and vent system. venting. Writing Specifications for Quiet DWV Systems In writing specifications for the installation of a quiet drainage. and one would not suspect that the lateral flow of waste would generate significant noise compared to that same waste cascading down the vertical stack. however. will fit inside a 2 X 4 wall without touching the drywall on either side. If the pipe material is allowed to touch the drywall. they also demonstrate that the difference in noise levels between cast iron and plastic systems remains identical at 8 dB. in Table 1.

indoor environmental quality. noncombustible. Some of the more important factors include energy conservation. What makes cast iron environmentally friendly? Post-Consumer Recycled: Today. The fact that these systems can often be reused lowers the cost of renovation and decreases the number of new resources expended in the renovation—another net gain for our environment. LEED® is a voluntary program that the building owner can follow from the planning stages through construction to building completion. Today “green” building practices are receiving substantial support throughout the construction industry. In fact. Recyclable and Reusable It stands to reason that a product cast from recycled materials can itself be re-melted and recycled after its useful life has come to an end.” The design professional strives to determine which materials are produced in the most environmentally sustainable manner. (See Figure 8. and materials selection. have embraced “green” building practices because they believe that expansion of our built environment should not necessarily come at the expense of our natural environment. Few of the materials used in construction can support this claim. in addition to parts from your old ‘72 Buick.132 SPECIFYING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE ernments. Today we are pleased to add environmentally friendly to the long list of advantages of cast iron soil pipe. and even into the building’s useful life. site development. engineers engaged in the renovation of old buildings often choose to reuse much of their old cast iron DWV systems. depending on the number of environmental “points” achieved by the project: Certified Silver Gold Platinum 26–32 points 33–38 points 39–51 points 52–69 points . water conservation and recycling. Environmental sustainability is a measure of how well a material meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. as well as individual building owners. The Green Building Council The Green Building Council administers a certification program for green buildings called LEED®— Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design®. old cast iron pipe and fittings. scrap iron and steel used in the production of new cast iron soil pipe and fittings includes.” The member foundries of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute have taken “environmentally friendly” to a level beyond “recyclable” by utilizing 100 percent post-consumer recycled materials in the production process. and highly durable. contractors. and consumers have long appreciated many of the qualities of cast iron.) In addition. reliable. There are many factors that must be considered when evaluating the environmental sustainability of a building. What Makes Cast Iron Soil Pipe “Green”? Engineers. Cast iron soil pipe systems have earned the reputation for being quiet. There are four LEED® certification levels. many materials manufacturers struggle to make their finished goods recyclable in an effort to label them “environmentally friendly. The selection of environmentally sustainable materials is an integral part of what makes the completed building “green.

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Figure 8—Scrap Metal in the Process of Being Recyled.

Points are awarded in six different point categories, one of which is Materials and Resources. The Materials and Resources category can be awarded a total of 13 points. Some of the aspects that can apply to materials include: • • Using five- to ten percent salvaged or reused materials. Using five- to ten percent total value of materials from reused materials and products. -The two factors above are most applicable to building renovations, where cast iron soil pipe is frequently reused. Using five- to ten percent of total value of materials from post-consumer recycled content. -Cast iron soil pipe can make a significant contribution to attaining this goal. Using 20- to 50 percent building materials that are manufactured within 500 miles. -Because our member foundries are within 500 miles of many large urban centers, cast iron can help the owner realize this objective.

• •

Specifying The Green Pipe Not every foundry that produces cast iron soil pipe and fittings utilizes post-consumer recycled raw materials, and not every foundry has achieved listing in the GreenSpec Directory. However, all of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute member foundries use post-consumer recycled scrap iron and steel, and have achieved listing in the GreenSpec Directory. In addition, all of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute member foundries mark their material with the familiar CISPI collective trademark. Design professionals can ensure that the pipe and fittings on their projects are environmentally friendly simply by specifying the following language: All pipe and fittings for use in storm and sanitary drainage systems shall be cast iron and shall bear the collective trademark of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute.

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CAST IRON IN FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION Cast iron piping systems have many advantages over alternative materials in fire-resistive construction. Cast iron piping is noncombustible and will not burn in the event of a building fire. This lack of combustibility offers two distinct advantages over alternative materials, which will burn in a building fire. Some materials have even been found to generate toxic gasses, which can be extremely hazardous to building occupants and firefighters who inhale them.

Prevention of Fire Spread Building and fire codes require that modern buildings be designed to protect building occupants and to provide them with an opportunity to escape should a fire break out. Building occupants are protected by fire-rated barriers that separate spaces within the building and are intended to contain a fire to the room or area of origination for a specific amount of time. In order for compartmentalization to be successful, every penetration of the fire-rated barrier must be sealed in order to prevent fire and smoke from traveling from one area to another. Penetrations to permit building occupants to pass into and out of the space are protected by fire-rated doors equipped with automatic closing devices to ensure they are closed should a fire break out. Other penetrations of these barriers are made to enable the passage of mechanical systems above the ceiling and below the floor. Systems must be in place to prevent smoke and flame from passing through the fire-rated barrier if a fire should break out.

Combustible Piping Penetrations When combustible piping systems are exposed to a building fire, they will burn and melt away, leaving a hole in the fire-rated barrier, thereby defeating the purpose of the barrier. Once the pipe burns away, flame and smoke can easily travel from one area to another, exposing others within the building to danger and facilitating the spread of fire and hazardous combustion gasses. Building codes have addressed this problem by requiring that penetrations of fire-rated barriers be sealed in a manner that returns the barrier to its original fire rating. Penetrations by combustible piping systems must be firestopped utilizing an approved through-penetration firestop system installed and tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479. These two standards provide testing procedures used to evaluate the complete assembly to ensure that the fire rating of the firerated barrier has been maintained after that assembly has been exposed to heat, flame, and a hose stream, as detailed in the standard. Most firestop systems utilized for penetrations of fire-rated barriers by non-metallic pipe are similar to the one detailed in Figure 9. This system utilizes an intumescent wrap strip and a metallic restraining collar. The intumescent material expands when exposed to heat, and the restraining collar directs this intumescent reaction inward, crushing the pipe and sealing the hole in the fire-rated wall with the charred remains of the intumescent material. This system, and all firestop systems, comes with detailed installation instructions that must be strictly adhered to in order for the system to be the same system that was tested and approved, Referring to Figure 9, 1. Item 1A indicates that this is a stud wall. This particular system shows two sheets of drywall (1B) on each side of the wall. 2. Item 2 is the pipe penetrating the firewall. The assembly instructions indicate that this system is for a 4-inch diameter non-metallic pipe centered in the opening and rigidly supported on both sides of the wall assembly. 3. Items 3 A, 3B and 3C depict the firestop system. This assembly requires that the installer wrap

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foil tape around the pipe prior to installation of the wrap strip. The wrap strip is a one inch wide, one inch thick intumescent elastomeric material faced on one side with aluminum foil. The wrap strip is tightly wrapped around the pipe with the foil side exposed and butted against the wall surfaces on both sides of the assembly. Four-inch diameter pipe requires four layers of wrap strip. 4. The next item to be installed (3 C) is the steel restraining collar. The steel restraining collar is sold by the firestop manufacturers and must be one inch deep with one-inch wide by two inch long anchor tabs. The restraining collar is wrapped tightly around the wrap strip and compressed using a minimum 1 inch wide by 0.028 inch thick stainless-steel band clamp at the collar mid-height. 5. Once the restraining collar has been secured to the pipe, it must be secured to the wall using four 3/16-inch diameter steel toggle bolts. The installer must then apply a generous bead of caulk or putty around the perimeter of the wrap strip at the interface with the wall and to the perimeter of the pipe where it exits the wrap strip layers. It is easy to read the steps above and think to oneself that there must be an easier way. One must remember, however, that the manufacturer assembled the system in exactly this manner for testing in accordance with the testing standards. Any alteration or material substitution changes the system, resulting in an untested and unapproved system. Does that mean that if drywall screws are used rather than toggle bolts to secure the collar to the firewall this no longer is an approved firestop system? That is exactly what it means. Does this mean that if a contractor uses plastic ties to restrain the collar rather than the specified stainless steel band clamp, the system will not function properly in case of a fire? Maybe… Are we suggesting that these complicated systems are not always installed in exactly the same way they were assembled for testing? Yes, unfortunately we are. Noncombustible Piping Penetrations

Figure 9—3M System No. W-L-2073, Through-Penetration Firestop System for Non-Metallic Piping.

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Fortunately, there is an alternative to these complex firestopping procedures used for combustible piping systems: Non-combustible cast iron soil pipe. Non-combustible pipe systems (including cast iron, copper, and steel) will not burn in a building fire. Because these piping systems do not burn away, leaving a hole in the fire-rated barrier, the installer is only required to seal the annular space between the wall and the pipe to firestop penetrations. In the International Building Code, for example, non-combustible penetrations up to six inches in diameter are permitted to be filled with a material sufficient to prevent the “passage of flames or hot gasses sufficient to ignite cotton waste where subject to ASTM E 119….” Although there are endothermic caulks made for this purpose, the most commonly used materials are grout, concrete, and mortar.

Piping Exposed in Plenums The use of return-air plenums is more and more common in commercial construction today. Returnair plenums are used to return air to the HVAC system utilizing the space between the ceiling of one level and the floor of the level above. Return-air plenums are very efficient because they do not require the installation of ductwork to convey the return air from the return vent to the air-handling unit. Because of the gasses given off when combustible piping and other mechanical systems burn, these materials are prohibited from use in return-air plenums. The logic behind the prohibition is that material burning in a return-air plenum is likely to affect occupants throughout the building as the combustion byproducts are circulated throughout the building via the HVAC system. Most codes require that combustible materials approved for use in plenums be tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 and achieve a flame-spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke development index of not more than 50. Very few combustible piping materials can pass the ASTM E 84 to be approved for use in plenums. Cast iron soil pipe, because it will not burn in the event of a building fire, is approved by all national codes for use in plenums. WHY SPECIFY CAST IRON SOIL PIPE IN YOUR PROJECT? 1. Cast iron soil pipe systems provide the quietness building occupants prefer. 2. All member foundries of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute utilize 100 percent post-consumer recycled iron and steel in the production of pipe and fittings. Thus, cast iron soil pipe is more environmentally friendly than many alternative piping materials. 3. Firestopping cast iron soil pipe is inexpensively and easily accomplished. 4. Noncombustible cast iron soil pipe is approved for use in return-air plenums, unlike many combustible piping materials. A recommended firestopping specification for both combustible and non-combustible pipe penetrations can be found in Chapter XII.

The cast iron soil pipe system tested was joined with neoprene compression gaskets. carbon steel.CHAPTER XI CAST IRON SOIL PIPE FOR CONDENSATE DRAIN LINES Condensation and recovery (for disposal) of treated water is common to high-pressure steam systems in many industrial plants. because of lower material costs and ease of installation. or a metal alloy. At several manufacturing plants owned and operated by the Du Pont company. The evaluation program extended over a 14-month period and involved tests of three different types of fiber-reinforced plastic piping (joints made with adhesives) and cast iron soil pipe joined with neoprene compression gaskets. developed mainly for use with indus- Figure 1—Materials Tested for Use in Condensate Drain Lines. equivalent to the best of the plastic pipes. the cast iron soil pipe proved far more economical than any of the plastic systems. a major evaluation of alternate materials was conducted at Du Pont’s Engineering Test Center near Wilmington. The piping used in these systems is traditionally made from stainless steel. Details of the evaluation program are reviewed in this chapter. because the aggressive condensate rapidly corrodes ordinary mild steel pipe. Delaware. Results showed that the cast iron pipe gave satisfactory performance for the full test period. In an effort to save the high materials cost of this coated and wrapped alloy piping. In addition. 137 . ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION OF MATERIALS TESTED FOR USE IN CONDENSATE DRAIN LINES The materials tested for use in condensate drain lines are shown in Figure 1. Return of reusable water to the power house—or its drainage to a ditch. both exposed and underground gravity condensate drain lines were traditionally made of stainless steel piping. or sewer—is handled through gravity systems that must be able to withstand condensate temperatures from 60°F up to 190°F. pond.

The three commercial brands of fiber-reinforced plastic pipe tested were all in the same materials-cost range. except in the case of the type with the rough O. the adhesive had to be kept cool or mixed in very small quantities to prolong pot life. and vent piping. the plastic pipe joint and adhesive had to be heated above 60°F before assembly. Prior to the introduction of neoprene joint seals. and condensate lines to the plastic pipes. cast iron soil pipe. . As a minimum. In cold weather. Above 80°F.D. which required more than twice as long to connect as the other two. in warm weather.) This was primarily a result of the negligible joint preparation that was needed to assemble the cast iron system compared to the strict cleanliness and assembly temperature requirements for the plastic pipe. Upon completion of the test assembly. No problems were encountered during installation. Basis 100 = Total Installed Cost of 2-Inch Cast Iron System. adhesive pot life would have been as short as five minutes. Previous experience with this system had proven that installation was practical at any temperature or in any weather condition in which a person would be willing to work. and all employed an adhesive system for making joints. and joints were made quickly and without difficulty. All three plastic pipes required strict cleanliness to obtain a satisfactory joint.. had not been used in steam condensate drain lines because the lead and oakum joints traditionally used would not remain leak-free under the extensive thermal fluctuations encountered. This was quickly done. it was apparent that a significantly lower cost had been incurred with the neoprene-gasketed cast iron soil pipe than with any of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipes.138 CONDENSATE DRAIN LINES trial and residential drain. surfaces had to be sanded. steam. Some joints in the cast iron system were assembled dry. despite its corrosion resistance.D. others were made using the recommended combination lubricant/adhesive. of one had to be removed using a drum sander. waste. Saddles were used to connect the water. (See Figure 2. The rough O. thus increasing its preparation time. solvent wiped. Figure 2—Comparative Costs of Steam Condensate Test Systems. Without these precautions. Major differences among the three were in outside surface finish and wall thickness. equipped with a dust collector for safety. Joint cure time was also dependent upon temperature. Assembly Procedures and Comparative Costs The amount of joint preparation for the plastic pipes varied with the type involved. and kept dry.

(See Figure 3. heat in the lines was supplied by the condensate water injection system. Pipe wall temperatures averaged 145°F before insulation. with the second approximately 12 feet downstream of the first. the upper end of a gravity drainage system’s vent stack would be open to the atmosphere. only the steam condensate was used. .) Separate water. and after two months of operation.CONDENSATE DRAIN LINES 139 DESCRIPTION OF TEST RIGS AND CHRONOLOGY OF TESTING PROCEDURES Test Rigs One system of each test material was assembled from two-inch diameter pipe. Pipe temperature dropped to 120°F during that time. This pumped 110°F to 120°F water into each stack for two minutes of every eight. steam. Each rig consisted of a nine-foot high stack and a 30foot long horizontal run. cold tap water was supplied for occasional manual thermal cycling.) The lower end of each system was left open. Two thermocouples were installed in each line to measure pipe wall temperature.) Steam was supplied from a 25 psi regulator. One was located in the first two feet of the horizontal run. and 165°F after. For the next two months. At that time. Then the cold water supply line to the stack was replaced with a warm water discharge from another test. Testing Procedures The test rigs were put into service. During the first five months of the test. with additional water injected upstream to increase the flow to approximately 2 gpm per section. and condensate inlets were provided near the top of each stack. (This was changed partway through the test to warm water. the introduc- Figure 3—Details of Steam Condensate Test Systems. all test lines were insulated with one-inch thick fiberglass with an asphalt-impregnated asbestos overwrap to maintain satisfactory pipe temperature during the winter weather and to simulate underground burial. with a joint located approximately every three feet along the line. Initially. (In actual service. with a 90° turn approximately midway in the run. and the system was equipped for automatic thermal cycling. A ball valve was mounted at the top of each stack to provide a slight pressurization on the system. An impulse-type trap was used for condensate supply.

Though considerably lower in materials cost. . After nine months the systems were modified to cycle from cold water (60°F) to atmospheric steam (212°F) in alternative ten-minute intervals. The cycling rate was approximately one cycle per hour.” ten minutes “off” cycle. the neoprene gasketed cast iron soil pipe and two of the plastic candidates passed all test requirements. The system was again modified a month later to a cold water (65°F). gravity flow. te minutes “on. non-pressure condensate drainage systems.” Figure 4—Pipe Wall Temperatures During Test Period. Unfavorable weather and low temperature conditions intensified difficulties of making the adhesivebonded plastic piping joint. (See Figure 4. 5 psig steam (225°F). Three thousand cold–hot cycles were run under these conditions. Cycling was then continued on the remaining systems to a total of 1500 cycles. Maximum pipe temperatures were then approximately 185°F. These decreased to approximately 145°F (in the plastic) and 160°F (in the cast iron) during the water flush cycle. One type of plastic pipe failed in an adhesive joint. Du Pont’s Engineering Department issued the following recommendation to its operating plant personnel: “Recommendation that cast iron soil pipe (ASTM A74.140 CONDENSATE DRAIN LINES tion of continuous low-pressure steam to each stack was also begun. After 300 cycles at this condition. labor-consuming preparation of joints. the same material had an adhesive failure at an elbow joint. and 85°F and 175°F in the plastic pipe. Recorded temperatures ranged between 90°F and 190°F in the cast iron. It was also the easiest and least costly to assemble. Pipe temperatures recorded by the thermocouples ranged between 90°F and 200°F in the cast iron pipe to 85°F and 185°F in the plastic pipe. All three materials were substantially less expensive than metal alloy piping. The pipe run was removed from the testing cycle. The elbow fitting might have cracked during the heat cycling or pressure cycling. XH or SV) with neoprene compression-type gaskets (ASTM C564) be considered as a material of construction for underground. In summary.) CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The cast iron and two types of plastic pipe passed all tests. but both materials and installation costs were far greater for the plastics than for the cast iron. A split in an elbow of one of the plastic pipes was detected during the first pressure cycle. This was because proper assembly of the plastics require special. Upon completion of the tests and full evaluation of the results. The only design qualifications shall be that the system be properly vented to free atmosphere. the cast iron pipe using the neoprene gasket performed as well as the plastics in all tests that were considered realistic in a condensate gravity drain line.

sewer. JOINTS Joints for hubless pipe and fittings shall conform to the manufacturer’s installation instructions. BELOW GRADE All drain. or ASTM A 74*. waste. Pipe and fittings shall be marked with a collective trademark of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute or receive prior approval of the engineer. VENT. Pipe and fittings shall be marked with a collective trademark of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute or receive prior approval of the engineer. ARCHITECTS. ASTM A 888*.CHAPTER XII SUGGESTED SPECIFICATIONS FOR ENGINEERS. AND PLUMBING DESIGNERS FOR SANITARY DRAIN WASTE. and storm lines shall be of cast iron soil pipe and fittings. All pipe and fittings shall conform to the requirements of CISPI Standard 301*. sewer. Hubless coupling gaskets shall conform to ASTM Standard C-564*. AND STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS ABOVE GRADE All drain. or ASTM A 74*. and shall conform to the requirements of CISPI Standard 301*. and storm lines shall be of cast iron soil pipe and fittings and shall conform to the requirements of CISPI Standard 301*. SEWER. waste. Pipe and fittings shall be marked with a collective trademark of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute or receive prior approval of the engineer. ASTM A 888*. Note: Referenced standards on following page. vent. ASTM A 888*. or ASTM A 74*. Building or house sewers shall be of cast iron soil pipe and fittings from the building drain to point of connection with city sewer or private disposal plant. the CISPI Standard 310* and local code requirements. vent. Joints for hub-and-spigot pipe shall be installed with compression gaskets conforming to the requirements of ASTM Standard C 564* and ASTM Standard C 1563* or shall be installed with lead and oakum. 141 . *Latest issue of each standard shall apply.

. Standard Test Method for Gaskets for Use in Connection With Hub and Spigot Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary Drain. Standard Specifications for Rubber Gaskets for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings. and Storm Piping Applications. Standard Specifications for Hub and Spigot Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings. and Vent Piping Applications. CISPI 310: Couplings for Use in Connection With Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and Storm Drain. Waste. Vent. and Vent Piping Applications. Waste.142 STANDARDS CAST IRON SOIL PIPE INSTITUTE (CISPI) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS CISPI 301: Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and Storm Drain. ASTM STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS A 888: A 74: C 564: C 1563: Standard Specifications for Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings. Waste.

2) Submittals. The time period that the penetration firestop system. 2. including the penetrating item. partitions. Submittals to include: a) Manufacturers Product Data Sheets for each type of product selected. Where this specification conflicts with other specified requirements. Where this specification conflicts with other specified requirements. or shaft enclosures shall be protected in accordance with the requirements of this specification and the Building Code adopted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. limits the spread of fire through the penetration when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814. . when installed properly on penetrating piping material. 3. E 119 Test Method for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials. roof–ceiling assemblies. 1. including the penetrating item. 2. Firestop materials shall be installed in accordance with this specification.143 FIRESTOPPING SPECIFICATION 1) Applicability. The time period that the penetration firestop system. b) System design listings. has proven capable of maintaining the fire resist ance rating of the fire-rated barrier penetrated. 3) Installation. how penetrations of fire-resistancerated assemblies shall be firestopped. the more restrictive requirement shall govern. Inspectors Field Pocket Guide 5) Definitions. b) Underwriter’s Laboratories Standards: 1. Recommended IFC Guidelines for Evaluating Firestop Engineering Judgments 2. All piping penetrations of required fire-resistance-rated walls. E 814 Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Fire Stops. with sufficient detail. Firestopping installatioin shall be performed by a certified installer. floor-ceiling assemblies. E 2174 Standard Practice for On-Site Inspection of Installed Fire Stops. Submittals shall indicate. the more restrictive requirement shall govern. c) T Rating. when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814. b) F Rating. 4) Standards. c) Installer qualifications to perform firestop installations. Ref. the Building Code. UL 1479 Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Fire Stops c) International Firestop Council: 1. Ref. floors. including illustrations from a qualified testing and inspection agency that is applicable to each firestop configuration. that has been tested to a standard test method and. and the firestop manufacturer’s installation instructions. limits the maximum temperature through the penetration on the non-fire side. a) ASTM Standards: 1. a) Penetration Firestop System: A specific assemblage of field-assembled materials. or a factory-made device.

with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0. No T rating shall be required for floor penetrations by piping that is not in direct contact with combustible material. and . Concrete. d) When piping penetrates a rated assembly. c) Penetrations shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or ASTM E 814. roof–ceiling assembly.01 inch of water. partition. the sleeves should be securely fastened to the fire-resistance-rated assembly. combustible piping shall not connect to noncombustible piping unless it can be demonstrated that the transition complies with the requirements of item 6c. or grout may be used to fill the annular spaces around cast iron. e) Insulation and coverings on or in the penetrating item shall not be permitted unless the specific insulating or covering material has been tested as part of the penetrating firestop system. Systems shall have an F rating of at least one hour but not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the assembly being penetrated. partition. roof–ceiling assembly. b) When penetrating a fire-resistance-rated wall. copper. height. floor–ceiling assembly. f) Where sleeves are used. The (inside) annular space between the sleeve and the penetrating item and the (outside) annular space between the sleeve and the fire-resistance-rated assembly shall be firestopped in accordance with the requirements for a sleeve penetrating item. floor. Floor penetrations contained within the cavity of a wall at the location of the floor penetration do not require a T rating. floor–ceiling assembly. or shaft enclosure. 7) Noncombustible Piping Installations. the fire-resistance rating of the assembly shall be restored to its original rating with a material or product tested to standard ASTM E 814 or UL 1479 and at an independent testing agency acceptable to the engineer and the authority having jurisdiction. The nominal diameter of the penetrating item should not exceed six inches. mortar. the fire-resistance rating of the assembly shall be restored to its original rating with a material or product tested to ASTM E 119 or ASTM E 814 and at an independent testing agency acceptable to the engineer and the authority having jurisdiction. and type of construction for use in specific occupancies to assure compliance and integrity of the fire resistance rating prescribed. floor. or shaft enclosure. c) Exceptions: 1. Systems protecting floor penetrations shall have a T rating of at least one hour but not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the floor being penetrated. b) When penetrating a fire-resistance-rated wall. and type of construction for use in specific occupancies to assure compliance and integrity of the fire-resistance rating prescribed. a) Noncombustible piping installations shall be protected in accordance with the appropriate fire resistance rating requirements in the building code that list the acceptable area. height. a) Combustible piping installations shall be protected in accordance with the appropriate fire resistance rating requirements in the building code that list the acceptable area. or steel piping that penetrates concrete or masonry fire-resistant-rated assemblies.144 6) Combustible Installations.

The penetrating firestop system is installed as tested.3. The (inside) annular space between the sleeve and the penetrating item and the (outside) annular space between the sleeve and the fire-resistance-rated assembly shall be firestopped in accordance with the requirements for a sleeve-penetrating item. Where sleeves are used. The required F ratings (1. 8) Required Inspection. to provide verification of satisfactory compliance of this specification. and applicable manufacturers’ product information. The penetrating firestop systems are appropriate for the penetrating items as documented through testing of the systems conducted by an independent testing agency. Floor penetrations contained within the cavity of a wall at the location of the floor penetration do not require a T rating. Unshielded couplings shall not be used to connect non-combustible piping unless it can be demonstrated that the fire-resistive integrity of the penetration is maintained.1.2. The thickness of concrete. Systems protecting floor penetrations shall have a T rating of at least one hour but not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the floor being penetrated. The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste for the time period equivalent to the fire-resist ance rating of the assembly when tested to ASTM E 119 or ASTM E 814. combustible piping shall not connect to non-combustible piping unless it can be demonstrated that the transition complies with item 7d. or grout should be the full thickness of the assembly or the thickness necessary to provide a fireresistance rating of the assembly penetrated. specifications. No T rating shall be required for floor penetrations by piping that is not in direct contact with combustible material. the appropriate manufacturers’ installation standards applied by the installer. the sleeves should be securely fastened to the fire-resistance-rated assembly. or 2. c) The authority having jurisdiction shall determine the type. mortar. 3.3. Penetrations shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or ASTM E 814. . size. or 4 hour) and T ratings (0. with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0. construction documents. Systems shall have an F rating of at least one hour but not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the assembly being penetrated. When piping penetrates a rated assembly. a) Prior to being concealed. or 4 hour) of the firestop penetration firestop systems are suitable for the assembly being penetrated. d) The authority having jurisdiction shall compare the field installations with the documentation supplied by the installer to determine the following: 1.2. and quantity of penetrations to be inspected. including destructive inspection. piping penetrations shall be inspected by the Authority Having Jurisdiction to verify compliance with the fire-resistance rating prescribed in the Building Code. b) Inspection shall include a thorough examination of sufficient representative installations.145 d) e) f) g) h) the opening size should not exceed 144 in2. 2. Insulation and coverings on or in the penetrating item shall not be permitted unless the specific insulating or covering material has been tested as part of the penetrating firestop system.01 inch of water.

APPENDIX A STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF THIN-WALLED. such as in cast iron soil pipe.) Horizontal soil support is not always dependable in the case of relatively stiff rings. The three-edge bearing load is equivalent to the parallel-plate load for purposes of stress analysis. mean diameter may be used for analysis without significant error. This is conservative because horizontal soil support decreases ring deflection and so decreases flexural stress in the ring. In fact. Ring deformations are small.) 7. It is essentially equal to the corresponding increase in horizontal diameter. SIMPLIFYING ASSUMPTIONS 1. Radial pressures. 6. It is equivalent to a depth in water of over 230 feet. If the ring is thin walled. internal hydrostatic pressure is of no concern in typical design. However. The ring is thin walled. the ring is so stiff that ring deflection is generally less than one. For example. provided that ring deflection is less than ten percent. HORIZONTAL SOIL SUPPORT Horizontal soil support on the sides of the ring is disregarded. Ring deflection is the percent decrease in vertical diameter due to soil loading. (Any horizontal support provides an additional safety factor.. i. 2. 5. with adequate accuracy for design of the cross section (ring) of a soil-loaded cast iron soil pipe. such as internal pressure or external hydrostatic pressure (including internal vacuum) are disregarded. Loads and reactions are either concentrated loads (truck load per unit length of pipe) or uniformly distributed loads (constant pressures). stress analyses are sufficiently accurate even though the effect of ring deflection is neglected. a cast iron soil pipe with Dm/t = 60 can withstand over 100 psi of external hydrostatic pressure and vacuum. Computers are not required or justified. the ratio of wall thickness to diameter is less than ca. Clearly.or two percent in typical installations. All loads and reactions are vertical. 4. SYMMETRICALLY LOADED RINGS The correct analysis of a loaded ring can be complicated enough to justify computer solutions using finite-element methods. Because it requires either excellent 146 . In fact. a few reasonable assumptions result in analysis that makes design simple.e. (See Figure 1. Moreover. 1:10. a cast iron soil pipe with DmT=60 does not deflect six percent without exceeding the modulus of rupture. The pipe material performs elastically. 3. Loads and reactions are symmetrical around a vertical axis.

cast iron soil pipe has a pipe stiffness greater than 250 lb/in2. ring stiffness is not important and is not considered further. . and material properties. the idealized loads assumed for analysis are adjusted conservatively to reflect actual installation conditions. allowable external soil pressure P can be written in terms of W. The test procedure is essentially the same as the three-edge bearing test described in the next section. compaction of the sidefill soil against the pipe or enough horizontal ring expansion to develop horizontal soil support. geometry.25 to account for statistical deviation of loads. Because of the ring stiffness. All safety factors include 1. In addition. For design. With Dm/T less than about 60. DESIGN SOIL PRESSURE By equating σ = R. ring deflection of cast iron soil pipe in typical installations is less than one or two percent. PIPE STIFFNESS Pipe stiffness is defined as F/∆. The three loadings are called Installation Conditions 1. the allowable P can be found from the design soil pressure equations of Table 1 in terms of three-edge bearing strength W and pipe diameter. where F is a parallel plate load on a ring and ∆ is the deflection due to that load. Because ring deflection is not a concern in the design of cast iron soil pipe. Values of P are listed in the last column of Table 1 for the three most common loadings in the design of cast iron soil pipe. 2. SAFETY FACTOR A safety factor is included in each equation for P.147 Figure 1—Typical Loads on Rings Vertical and Symmetrical. the failure stress is a function of the three-edge bearing load W at failure. If an appropriate safety factor is included. Neither can be completely assured in typical stiff-ring installations. P is the design soil pressure. and 3. the values of P are found in Table 1. For convenience.

From experience. and the additional strength of hubs or joints. It goes without saying that the margin of safety is increased significantly by such conditions as the arching action of the soil envelope. The actual distribution of the reaction justifies an increase of more than 15 or 20 percent in critical load PD.000 psi) at failure (called modulus of rupture). If only 15 percent. Figure 2—(a) Three-Edge Bearing Test to Determine Failure Load W. the adjusted critical load becomes PD = 1.08 W in units of pounds and feet. longitudinal quarter-round supports. the section modulus of the wall. The result is a critical load of PDm = 1.148 APPENDIX A For the concentrated reaction of Installation Condition 1. A section of pipe barrel is positioned on two closely spaced. the design soil pressure is P = 20W Dm For Installation Condition 3. the same rationale for the safety factor applies as for Installation Condition 2. Table 1. All of these conditions were conservatively neglected in the safetyfactor analysis. Of course. the critical stress σ can be calculated and equated to the three-edge bearing stress R (45. the adjusted critical load becomes PD = 2. (See Table 1). If the safety factor of 1. where Mc is the moment that can be found by the area-moment method. where c. The strength of a pipe cross section (ring) is measured by the three-edge bearing test.084 W. or Castigliano theorem. the critical stress occurs at point A. special installation conditions may require a modified safety factor. is t2/6. (b) Equivalent Free-Body Diagram for Analysis.25 W in units of pounds and feet. the horizontal support of the ring by sidefill soil. . as shown in Figure 2a.25 is included and Dm is inches. If 20 percent. virtual work. the actual distribution of pressure results in a slight pressure concentration that justifies a decrease of less than roughly 15 or 20 percent in the critical load PD. the concentrated reaction does not happen in the field. the same reasoning applies to the safety factor except that the uniformly distributed pressure cannot be assured in the field. The critical stress is the sum of the ring-compression stress plus the flexural stress Mc/I. the design soil pressure is P = 12W Dm For the distribution reaction PD of Installation Condition 2.25 is included and if D is inches. depending on risk. If the safety factor of 1. Noting that the ring compression stress is negligible for typical installations. Yet from experience.

547W K PDm = 2.375P(Dm/t) 2 PDm = 2. The concentrated reaction is./lin.APPENDIX A 149 TABLE A-1 Comparison of Ring Strengths for Various Ring Loadings Loading Moment at A = M WDm M= 2π σ = Stress . ft. The distributed reaction is not really uniform.) P= Soil Pressure (lb.) Installation Condition 1 M= PDm2 2 3π + 4π 3 8 PDm2 16 KPDm2 16 ( ) σ= 0. adjustment from experience is included in an adjusted load PDm. Consequently.375KP(Dm/t) 2 PDm = 2.08W P= Installation Condition 3 M= σ = 0.25W P= 12W Dm 20W Dm Installation Condition 2 M= σ = 0.084W PDm = 1.) Dm=(Do-t) = mean diameter (in. ***K = Stress Reduction Factor for Compressible Soil Envelope = 1⁄ 2 . ***Because in practice reactions are not as ideal as assumed in diagrams.0795 WDm t2 Load PDm at Failure For σ = R Design Soil Pressure P Reduced by **Adjusted PDm Safety Factor of 1. slightly distributed.547W PDm = 2. in fact.25 Three-edge bearing load at failure *R = Here units are adjusted such that: W= 3-edge bearing load (lbs. ft. PDm is adjusted up by 15 percent.08W K ***P = 20W = 40W Dm KDm *R = Stress at failure. so PDm is adjusted downward about 20 percent./lin.88 P(Dm/t) 2 PDm = 1.

The purpose is to cradle the pipe with uniform uplifting pressure under the bottom half. Recommended soil quality limits are as follows: • • • • Stones or rocks greater than three inches in diameter should not be in contact with the pipe. The sidefill may be compacted adequately by any of a number of different methods. (Critical deflections are either deflections at which longitudinal stress approaches the failure point. Installation Condition 2 Soil must be placed and compacted under the haunches (below the horizontal diameter that intersects the pipe at the spring lines). (See Installation Condition 3. These sidefill lifts can be compacted to over 90 percent density (AASHTO T-99) by any of a number of different methods. or deflections that can cause leakage at joints. is placed and distributed in one lift up to the spring line on both sides of the pipe. it should be overexcavated and backfilled to grade with select soil that can be leveled to become a suitable base. Soil must be moved into place under the haunches. or shift alignment should not be used as a soil envelope unless the pipe is appropriately anchored and alignment is fixed. This can be done by hand use of a 150 . Loose soil. This is especially important if the gap under the pipe is great enough to allow critical deflections or critical bearing forces at the support points. High impact compactors should not be operated down the center line of the pipeline. Liquid soil (mud) in which the pipe could float. This prevents sideshift. called sidefill. In so doing. RECOMMENDED TECHNIQUES FOR PLACEMENT OF SOIL AROUND PIPE Installation Condition 1 Soil supporting the pipe must be sufficiently level so that support is provided all along the full length of the pipe. Special soil engineering is required if the pipe is to be installed in expansive or collapsible soil—especially if expansion or collapse is not uniform. the pipe and loose soil envelope in which it is packed must not be crushed or compacted. The loose soil envelope should be at least twice as high as the pipe diameter. sink. Corrosive (hot) soils should be avoided. cast iron soil pipe is more forgiving of poor soil quality than is pipe of softer material. Sidefill is usually placed in lifts or layers on both sides of the loose soil envelope.APPENDIX B TECHNIQUES FOR PLACEMENT OF SOIL AROUND BURIED CAST IRON SOIL PIPE The soil in which a cast iron pipe is buried should possess some basic qualities. springing from good abutments or rigid trench sidewalls.) If the base is not sufficiently flat. In general.) Installation Condition 3 A soil arch must be densely compacted up over the pipe.

Flushing: If the soil is drainable. Soil should be placed in layers. It can be done by flushing the soil into place. it can be flushed into place by a high-pressure water jet directed by hand from a nozzle. commercial soil vibrators may be used. Water must be removed quickly enough to prevent flotation of the pipe or loss of flushing action. it falls into place at density greater than 90 percent AASHTO T-99. Vibrating: Some soils can be compacted by vibration. sidefill and topfill above one foot of protective cover can be compacted in lifts by any of the following techniques: Dumping and Shoving: If the soil is gravel or dry. Mechanical Impact: Many types of impact compactors are now available on the market. If the soil is not saturated. coarse sand. a concrete vibrator can be effective. or jetting. or vibrating the soil. If the soil is saturated. usually less than eight or ten inches. and then compacted.151 bar slid down on the side of the pipe by an operator standing on the pipe. or ponding. The soil should be at or near optimum moisture content. For Installation Condition 3. It only needs to be dumped and shoved into place. .

Note that a well-compacted soil arch is imperative. takes the brunt of the loads and shocks. is there no limit? The compressibility of the soil envelope could be 152 . If the height of the compressible soil envelope is twice the pipe diameter. Clearly. But if the vertical compressibility of the envelope is four times as great as the compressibility of the sidefill. which would be only one-fourth the vertical pressure in the sidefill for which K=1⁄4. and the allowable height of soil cover would quadruple. Figure 1—Pipe Packed in a Relatively Compressible Soil Envelope Showing How a Compacted Soil Arch Can Support the Load. the pressure reduction factor in the soil envelope would be only one fourth the vertical pressure in the soil envelope. This implies good. sand such as the fine aggregate used in manufacture of Portland cement concrete. This is tantamount to the compressible packing around a fragile object in a protective crate. like a compacted soil arch. The crate. (See Figure 1. It is not compacted. The sidefill soil must be of good quality. The compressible soil envelope is usually a well-graded. high-bearing abutments and densely compacted sidefill and topfill. Loose sand falls into place at a compressibility of good sidefill soil compacted to 90 percent AASHTO T-99 density or greater.APPENDIX C PRESSURE REDUCTION FACTOR K FOR COMPRESSIBLE SOIL ENVELOPE The maximum allowable vertical soil load over a buried pipe can be greatly increased by packing the pipe in a compressible soil envelope.) A well-compacted soil sidefill and topfill arches over similarly to masonry arch bridge and supports much of the load. and if the pipe is assumed to be noncompressible. then the vertical strain in the envelope is twice as great as the strain in the sidefill soil. Following this line of reasoning. Adequate clearance is required for compacting sidefills. then the vertical stress in the soil envelope is only half as great as the vertical stress in the sidefill.

Compressibility ratios must be less than 5. the pipe is entombed in a soil tunnel. But to maintain Px.e.8 times as compressible and more than 4 times as compressible as the sidefill if allowable depth of burial is to be doubled. it ceases to exist. the minimum vertical pressure in the soil envelope KP would have to be greater than: KP = or: K = (1 . K = 1⁄2. Unfortunately cohesionless sidefill soil cannot retain a tunnel without a horizontal retaining side pressure inside the tunnel equal to: Px = P (1-φ) (1+sin φ) Px =Horizontal confining pressure of soil envelope against sidefill. φ =Soil friction angle for sidefill. P =Vertical soil pressure in sidefill. then minimum K=0.8. in fact. φ′ = Soil friction angle for envelope soil.347 P. Then K=0.347.APPENDIX C 153 increased until ultimately it is completely compressible. that is. Apparently the compressibility of the soil envelope should be less than roughly 5.sin φ′) (1 + sin φ′) K = Pressure reduction factor for compressible soil envelope.sin φ′) (1 + sin φ) (1 + sin φ′) Px = (1 . so depths of soil cover would not be tripled without great care in placing the soil envelope. But values less than 1 ⁄2 are not easily achieved under average installation procedures.. If φ=φ′=15°. The compressibility would have to be less than 2/K times the compressibility of the sidefills. the height of cover is infinite and. With reasonable care and a pressure reduction factor of K = 1⁄2 can be accomplished.sin φ) (1 . . i. and the vertical pressure in the soil envelope would have to be greater than 0.

O.D. 90°) Bell and Spigot (also used for Brown & Sharpe gauge) Biochemical Oxygen Demand British Thermal Unit Centigrade Center to Center Degree Centigrade Carlson Fitting Cubic Feet per minute Cast Iron C NO-HUB® Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute Trademark I Cast Iron Soil Pipe Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute Chlorine Closet Cleanout Combination 154 . AND RECOMMENDED SYMBOLS FOR PLUMBING ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE PLUMBING TRADES A ABS AC ADAPTR & Assy AGA Al AISI ANSI API ASCE ASHRAE ASME ASPE ASSE ASTM Avg AWWA BD B&S B. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Society of Plumbing Engineers American Society of Sanitary Engineers American Society for Testing and Materials Average American Water Works Association Bend (1⁄8.APPENDIX D ABBREVIATIONS. 1⁄4. BTU C C to C °C CF cfm CI C® I CISP CISPI CI CLO CO COMB Area Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene Above Center Adapter and Assembly American Gas Association Aluminum American Iron and Steel Institute American National Standards Institute American Petroleum Institute American Society of Civil Engineering American Society of Heating. DEFINITIONS.

H.C. C. ID IN INC I. Ga or ga Gal. Fig.) Gallons per minute Galvanized Gate Valve Gallons per day Hydrogen (Chemical Abbreviation) Hose Bib Hub and Spigot Head High Horizontal Hour Hot Water International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials International Code Council Inside Diameter Inch Increaser. I. or Hd. FS FTG F. H&S hd.P. G.V.M.O.B.C. Ft. DBL deg.155 CS Cu Cu. Per. Galv. IPS LH Cast Steel Copper (chemical abbreviation) Cubic Feet Cubic Inch Cold Water Double Degree Drinking Fountain Double Hub Cast Iron Soil Pipe Drawing Electric Water Cooler Extended. gpm or Ga. DH dwg EWC EXT F °F Fe FER FF F.P. or ° D. In. GPD H H.G.W. Cu. FLNG F.P. In. I.C.F.U. Extension Figure Degree Fahrenheit Iron (Chemical Abbreviation) Ferrule Finish Floor Finish Grade Figure Flange Fire Plug Federal Specification Fitting Fixture Unit Gage or Gauge Gallon (231 Cu. Min. HI HOR hr.W.A. Increasing International Plumbing Code Iron pipe size Left Hand .

MN MS NAPHCC NBFU NBS NFPA NH NPS NSF O O. red. Pb PDI PIV pH PHCC NA ppm psi psig PVC qt R Rad RD R.156 ABBREVIATIONS. oz.D. lb LG LH LNG LS /MAIN Max MCAA MGD Mfr. SYMBOLS l or L L lav.H. MI Min. DEFINITIONS. Min. M. REV RH Length Less Lavatory Pound Long Left Hand Long Long Sweep On Main Maximum Mechanical Contractors Association of America Million Gallons Per Day Manufacturer Manhold Malleable Iron Minimum Minute On Main Mild Steel National Association of Plumbing. Heating and Cooling Contractors National Board of Fire Underwriters National Bureau of Standards National Fire Protective Association Hubless Pipe & Fittings Nominal Pipe Size (also called IPS) NSF International Oxygen (Chemical Abbreviation) Outside Diameter Ounce Pressure Lead (chemical abbreviation) Plumbing Drainage Institute Post Indicator Valve Hydrogen-ion concentration Plumbing Heating Cooling Contractors – National Assocation Parts per Million Pounds per Square Inch Pounds per Square Inch Gage Polyvinyl Chloride Quart Hydraulic Radius Radius Rate of Demand Roof Drain Reducer Revent Right Hand . P.D.

Uniform Plumbing Code Valve Velocity Vent Volume Vertical Vent through roof Waste With Water Closet Wall Hydrant Water Level Weight Extra Heavy Cast Iron Soil Pipe Wye . UPC v v v V VERT vtr W W/ WC WH W. Sq. Ft.L. Inc.) Sanitary Antimony (chemical abbreviation) Side Second Single Hub Cast Iron Soil Pipe Slotted & Notched Tin (chemical abbreviation) Side Opening Specification Square Square Feet Square Inches Service Sink Short Sweep Seconds Saybolt Universal Sanitary Tap Standard Service Cast Iron Soil Pipe Soil & Waste Tee Temperature Thickness Time Tap. Tapped Tap on Top Tap. (San Tee) Urinal United Labovatories. Tapped Tee Wye. In. Wt XH Y Roof Leader Rate of Supply Hydraulic slope (in inches per ft.157 R.L.L. RS S San Sb SD Sec SH SL & Notch Sn SO Spec Sq Sq. SS SS SSU ST Std SV S&W T T or t T or t t TAP TOT TP TY U or Urn U.

CROSS CONNECTION—(or inter-connection) Any physical connection between a city water supply and any waste pipe. waste. or at the roof sump or gutter if inside the building.1416). CIRCUMFERENCE OF CIRCLE—The diameter of the circle multiplied by π. CLARIFIED SEWAGE—A term used for sewage from which suspended matter has been removed. soil pipe. Usually expressed as a percent of the weight of the dry pipe. waste. CAULKING—A method of sealing against water or gas by means of pliable substances. The material above the pipe up to the original earth line. wastes. and sewer systems.1416). as set forth in the American Water Works Association and the American Public Health Association literature. BACK-SIPHONAGE—A term applied to the flow of used water. DEFINITIONS. DEVELOPED LENGTHS—Length measured along the center line of the pipe and fittings. DEAD END—A branch leading from any soil. BACKFILL—Portion of the trench excavation that is replaced after the sewer line has been laid. sewer. which is terminated at a distance of two feet or more by means of a cap. except branches serving as cleanout extensions. and/or contamination into the potable water supply piping due to vacuums in the distribution system. such as lead and oakum. ANAEROBIC—Living without air. ANCHOR—Usually a piece of metal used to fasten or secure pipes to the building or structure. drain. BACKFLOW PREVENTER—A device or assembly designed to prevent backflow into the potable water system. BACKFLOW—The flow of water or other liquids. plug. mixtures. or stack. rule. BRANCH—Any part of the piping system other than a main riser. . or other fitting not used for admitting water or air to the pipe. Area = π2 or (rxrx3. BASE—The lowest portion or lowest point of a stack of vertical pipe. CONDUCTOR—That part of the vertical piping which carries the water from the roof to the storm drain. AREA OF CIRCLE—The square of the radius multiplied by π(3. building service. CAST IRON SOIL PIPE—The preferred material for drain. or substances into the distribution pipe of a potable supply of water from any source other than that intended. Any potable water supply outlet that is submerged or can be submerged in wastewater and/or any other source of contamination. ABSORPTION—Applies to immersion in a fluid for a definite period of time. which starts either six inches above grade if outside the building. vent. CRUDE OR RAW SEWAGE—Untreated sewage. or building sewer. CODE—An ordinance. Circumference = πD. or any private or uncertified water supply.158 ABBREVIATIONS. or regulation that a city or governing body may adopt to control the plumbing work within its jurisdiction. or vent pipe. CI No-Hub® — A registered trademark of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute. SYMBOLS DEFINITIONS USED IN THE PLUMBING TRADES AEROBIC—Living with air. building drain. COMPRESSION—Stress that resists the tendency of two forces acting toward each other. COLIFORM BACTERIA—Organisms in the coili aerogenes group. water main or parts thereof.

SUBSOIL—Part of the drainage system that conveys the subsoil. DEFINITIONS. COMBINED—Portion of the drainage system within a building that carries storm water and sanitary sewage. In some localities it may include industrial wastes and rain water from combination sewers. or yards to the building or storm sewer. waste. or which receive liquids and/or discharge liquids. rock. FIXTURES. FLUSHOMETER VALVE—A device that discharges a predetermined quantity of water to a fixture for flushing purposes. DOMESTIC SEWAGE—Sewage originating principally from dwellings. gases. or piling that transmits the superimposed load to the bearing material. DRAINS. or building sewer. DIGESTER/DIGESTION—Portion of the sewage treatment process when biochemical decomposition of organic matter takes place. courts. EXISTING WORK—Portion of a plumbing system that has been installed prior to current or contemplated addition. or liquid-borne wastes. FIXTURES. STORM—Piping and its branches that convey subsoil and/or surface water from areas. devices. or appliances that are supplied with water. one cubic foot of water per minute. FIXTURES. DRAIN—Any pipe that carries wastewater or water-borne wastes in a building drainage system. ELASTIC LIMIT—The greatest stress a material can withstand without permanent deformation after release of stress. . BATTERY OF—Any group of two or more similar adjacent fixtures that discharge into a common horizontal waste or soil branch. FLOOD LEVEL RIM—The top edge of the receptacle from which water overflows. DRY-WEATHER FLOW—Sewage collected during the dry weather that contains little or no ground water and no storm water. and institutions. PLUMBING—Installed receptacles. other than storm drains. flowing from sewage treatment equipment. either directly or indirectly into a drainage system. and usually not containing storm water. storm water drain. COMBINATION—Any integral unit. DRAINS. or mixtures of these materials. roofs. solids. FOOTING—The part of a foundation wall resting on the bearing soil. EROSION—The gradual destruction of metal or other materials by the abrasive action of liquids. resulting in the formation of simple organic and mineral substances. DUCTILITY—The property of elongation above the elastic limit but short of the tensile strength. business buildings. or seepage water from the footings of walls or from under buildings to the building drain. treated or partially treated. DRAINS. alteration or correction. EFFLUENT—Sewage. such as a kitchen sink or laundry unit. ground.ABBREVIATIONS. FIXTURE UNIT—Amount of fixture discharge equivalent to 71⁄2 gallons or more. DRAIN. and drainage pipes. FLUSH VALVE—A device located at the bottom of the tank for flushing water closets and similar fixtures. BUILDING OR HOUSE—Part of the lowest horizontal piping of a building drainage system that receives and conveys the discharge from soil. SYMBOLS 159 DIAMETER—A straight line that passes through the center of a circle and divides it in half. powered by direct water pressure. from within the walls or footings of any building to the building sewer.

PIPE. OUTFALL SEWERS— Sewers that receive sewage from the collection system and carry it to the point of final discharge or treatment. WASTE—A pipe that conveys only liquid or liquid-borne waste. . PIPE. LATERAL SEWER—A sewer that does not receive sewage from any other common sewer except house connections. SOIL—Any pipe which conveys to the building drain or building sewer the discharge of one or more water closets and/or the discharge of any other fixture receiving fecal matter. SYMBOLS FRESH SEWAGE—Sewage of recent origin still containing free dissolved oxygen. HORIZONTAL—Any pipe installed in a horizontal position or that makes an angle of less than 45° from the horizontal. SPECIAL WASTE—Drain pipe that receives one or more wastes that require treatment before entry into the normal plumbing system. VERTICAL—Any pipe installed in a vertical position or that makes an angle of not more than 45° from the vertical. PIPE. and/or fittings that join two approximately parallel sections of a line of pipe. free of fecal matter. PIPE. OXIDIZED SEWAGE—Sewage in which the organic matter has been combined with oxygen and has become stable. PIPE. WATER RISER—A water supply pipe that extends vertically one full story or more to convey water to branches or fixtures. The journeyman plumber is licensed to install plumbing under the supervision of a master plumber. PIPE. a combination of pipe. Also referred to as hubless and CI No-Hub® NO-HUB Couplings—Used for joining hubless pipe and fittings. OFFSET—In a line of piping.160 ABBREVIATIONS. pipes. LOCAL VENTILATING—A pipe on the fixture side of the trap through which pipe vapors or foul air can be removed from a room fixture. PIPE. WATER DISTRIBUTION—Pipes that convey water from the service pipe to its points of usage. NO-HUB—Classification of cast iron soil pipe joined using no-hub couplings. its slope established when the sewer or drain is installed. MASTER PLUMBER—A plumber licensed to install and assume responsibility for contractual agreements pertaining to plumbing and to secure any required permits. DEFINITIONS. LEACHING WELL OR CESSPOOL—Any pit or receptacle with porous walls that permits the contents to seep into the ground LEADER—The piping from the roof that carries rainwater. PIPE. INDIRECT WASTE—Pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system but conveys liquid wastes into a plumbing fixture or receptacle that is directly connected to the drainage system. with or without the discharge from other fixtures. usually the largest sewer of a system. the special waste pipe terminates at the treatment device on the premises. PIPE. INVERT—A line that runs lengthwise along the base of the channel at the lowest point on its wetted perimeter. MAIN SEWER—The main stem or principal artery of the sewage system to which branches may be connected (also called the trunk sewer).

That part of the horizontal piping of a drainage system extending from the building drain. also the practice and materials used in the installation. materials. under the supervision of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. DEFINITIONS. liquid waste. PRIVATE USE— A term which applies to a toilet room or bathroom intended specifically for the use of an individual or family and such visitors as they may permit to use such toilet or bathroom. BUILDING STORM—The extension from the building storm drain to the point of dispos- . SEPTIC SEWAGE—Sanitary sewage undergoing putrefaction. visitors. underneath or behind the fixture. maintenance. expressed in inches or vertically projected drop per foot of horizontal pipe. or County. and infiltration of ground water. water supply. rain. Includes drainage. and alteration of all piping.ABBREVIATIONS. or alteration of water-supply systems and/or the storm water. SEPTIC TANK—A receptacle that receives the discharge of a drainage system or part thereof. It is usually expressed in inches per day. PUTREFACTION—Biological decomposition of organic matter resulting in foul-smelling products. and is designed and so constructed as to separate solids from liquids to discharge into the soil through a system of open-joint or perforated piping. maintenance. and fixtures used in the installation. to the first stop cock or valve inside the premises. SYMBOLS 161 PIPES. PLUMBING INSPECTOR—Any person who. REVENT (individual vent)—Part of a vent pipe line that connects directly with any individual waste pipe or group of wastes. is authorized to inspect plumbing and drainage as defined in the code for the municipality. vent piping. venting system and public or private water-supply systems. SEWER. SANITARY SEWER—The conduit of pipe carrying sanitary sewage. and/or subsoil drain to its connection into the point of disposal and carrying the drainage of a building or part thereof. or into a disposal pit. ROUGHING IN—A term referring to the installation of all parts of the plumbing system that should be completed before the installation of plumbing fixtures. or year. appliances. PITCH—The amount of slope given to horizontal piping. PLUMBING—The practice. and necessary fixture connections. occupants. or sewage system of any premises to their connection with any point of public disposal or other acceptable termina. and appurtenances in connection with any of the following: Sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities. SEWAGE—Any liquid waste containing animal. hail. PRECIPITATION—The total measurable supply of water received directly from clouds as snow. storm drain. and complying with the laws of licensing and/or registration of the State. PUBLIC USE—A term that applies to toilet rooms and bathrooms used by employees. fixtures. or patrons in or about any premises. extension. WATER SERVICE—That portion of the water piping which supplies one or more structures or premises and that extends from the main to the meter or. and sleet. month. BUILDING—Also called house sewer. or chemical wastes in suspension or solution. extension. if no meter is provided. storm water. It usually takes place where there is a deficiency of oxygen. City. SEWER. and extends to the main or branch vent pipe. vegetable.

Branch vents. or vent piping. Pipe in a tunnel or in a watertight trench is not included within the scope of this term. STACK—The vertical main of a system of soil. beds. VENT. which must be emptied by mechanical means. waste. 45° continuous waste-and-vent. CIRCUIT—A branch vent that serves two or more traps and extends from in front of the last fixture connection of a horizontal branch to the vent stack. VACUUM—Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmosphere (also called negative pressure). SUBSOIL DRAIN—A drain that receives the discharge from drains or other wastes located below the normal grade of the gravity system.162 al (also called house storm sewer). revents. or basins mixed with sufficient water to form a semiliquid mass. STORM—A sewer used to convey rainwater. or individual vents may be led to and connected with a vent stack. which must be emptied by mechanical means. SLUDGE—The accumulated suspended solids of sewage deposited in tanks. UNDERGROUND PIPING—Piping in contact with the earth below grade. or similar water wastes. VENT. VENT STACK—A vertical vent pipe installed primarily to provide circulation of air to that part of a venting system to which circuit vents are connected. condensate. STRESS—External forces resisted by reactions within. surface water. and flat (small angle) continuous waste-and-vent. for example. cooling water. SUMP—A tank or pit that receives the discharge from drains or other wastes. TRAP SEAL—The vertical distance between the crown weir and the top of the dip of the trap. SEWER. vent connecting at the junction of two fixture drains and serving as a vent for both fixtures. A continuous vent is further defined by the angle which the drain and vent make with the horizontal at the point of connection. SEWER. exclusive of sewage and industrial wastes. The foot of the vent stack may be con- . SUB-MAIN SEWER—A sewer into which the sewage from two or more lateral sewers is discharged (also called branch sewer). VENT. located below the normal grade of the gravity system. oily film that gives the characteristic appearance to the surface of water into which sewage or oily water is discharged. VELOCITY—Time rate of motion in a given direction. a liquid seal that will prevent the back passage of air or sewer gas without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater through it. SLICK—The thin. TRAP—A fitting or device so designed and constructed as to provide. STALE SEWAGE—Sewage that contains little or no oxygen but is free from putrefaction. PRIVATE—A sewer located on private property that conveys the drainage of one or more buildings to a public sewer or to a privately owned sewage disposal system. TURBULENCE—Any deviation from parallel flow. STRAIN—Change of shape or size produced by stress. TENSION—That stress that resists the tendency of two forces acting opposite from each other to pull apart two adjoining planes of a body. STACK VENT—The extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack. CONTINUOUS—A vent that is a continuation of the drain to which it connects. vertical continuous waste-and-vent. COMMON—Also called dual vent. when properly vented.

INDIVIDUAL—Separate vents for each fixture. VENT SYSTEM—Pipes installed to provide airflow to or from a drainage system or to provide air circulation within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and back pressure. WET—A vent that receives the discharge of wastes other than from water closets. a sink. STACK—A method of venting a fixture through the soil and waste stack. WASTE—The discharge from any fixture. appliance. VENTS.ABBREVIATIONS. SYMBOLS 163 nected either into a horizontal drainage branch or into a soil or waste stack. a tub. For example. or a drinking fountain. VENTING. or appurtenance in connection with the plumbing system that does not contain fecal matter. VENT. DEFINITIONS. . the liquid from a lavatory.

164 ABBREVIATIONS. SYMBOLS RECOMMENDED SYMBOLS FOR PLUMBING Symbols for Fixtures1 1 Symbols adopted by the American National Standards Association (ANSI) . DEFINITIONS.

SYMBOLS 165 . DEFINITIONS.ABBREVIATIONS.

DEFINITIONS.166 ABBREVIATIONS. SYMBOLS Symbols for Pipe Fittings and Values .

SYMBOLS 167 .ABBREVIATIONS. DEFINITIONS.

DEFINITIONS.168 ABBREVIATIONS. SYMBOLS .

49 8.388 2.11 6.780 0.66 0. Its expansion is so close to that of steel and masonry that there is no need for costly expansion joints and special off-sets.3 Inches per 100′ of pipe per 100°F.40 Here is the actual increase in length for 50 feet of pipe and 70° temperature rise. That is not always the case with other DWV materials.5 83.73 . Material selection can create or prevent problems.75 11.4 10. Thermal expansion of various materials.231 Building Materials Other Materials Plastics 2.338 2.745 0.500 .26 1. 0.00 1.APPENDIX E STATISTICAL TABLES AND CALCULATIONS TABLE 1 Expansion of Pipe Expansion: Allowances for expansion and contraction of building materials are important design considerations.2 5.940 1.362 3. Cast iron is in tune with building reactions to temperature.0 Ratio-assuming cast iron equals 1. Material Cast iron Concrete Steel (mild) Steel (stainless) Copper PVC (high impact) ABS (type 1A) Polyethylene (type 1) Polyethylene (type 2) Inches per inch 10-6 X per °F 6.261 .05 1.05 15.89 1.6 56.68 6.5 7.30 13.2 94.2 55.5 6.8 9.00 . Cast Iron Concrete Mild Steel Copper PVC (high Impact) ABS (type 1A) Polyethylene (type 1) Polyethylene (type 2) 169 .95 9.990 3.

CALCULATIONS TABLE 2 Thrust or Displacement Forces Encountered in Hydrostatic Testing of Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe 12″ Thrust lb.34 3″ Thrust lb.84 2″ Thrust lb. 12 25 37 49 62 74 86 99 111 123 135 147 2. in.17 8″ Thrust lb.81 4″ Thrust lb.3 8. OD. 538 1088 1626 2164 2714 3252 3790 4340 4878 5429 5967 6505 125.0 11⁄2″ Thrust lb.58 Area.7 52.4 47.3 34.07 5″ Thrust lb. 134 271 405 539 676 810 944 1082 1216 1353 1487 1621 31. 65 131 196 261 327 392 457 523 588 654 719 784 15.0 17. 38 77 115 152 191 229 267 306 344 382 420 458 8.7 39.7 26.2 Thrust = Pressure x Area .15 10″ Thrust lb.7 13. 237 480 717 954 1197 1434 1671 1914 2151 2394 2631 2868 55. 19 38 56 75 94 113 132 151 169 188 208 226 4.170 STATISTICS.09 15″ Thrust lb. 847 1714 2562 3409 4276 5124 5971 6838 7685 8552 9400 10247 197. Feet of Water 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Pressure psi 4.06 6″ Thrust lb.0 30.0 43. 377 762 1139 1515 1900 2277 2654 3039 3416 3801 4178 4554 87.3 21.06 Pipe Size Head. 95 192 287 382 479 574 668 765 860 957 1052 1147 22.

STATISTICS. (6 . Answer: At a temperature difference of 90°F read from the chart. CALCULATIONS 171 Figure 1—Expansion in Plumbing Systems.3 inches 100 100 Source: The Canadian Foundry Association. ABS expands 6″ and concrete expands 3⁄4″.3⁄4) x 120 = 5 1⁄4 x 120 = 6. Soil Pipe Division . run of ABS pipe in a concrete & masonry building and for a temperature difference of 90°F. Example: Find the expansion allowance required for a 120 ft.

(See Table 2. CALCULATIONS Figure 2Hydrostatic Conversion Graph. Feet of Head Into Pounds Per Sq. Page __) . In.172 STATISTICS.

S.0 Ans. inches 1 cu. the length are in inches . r equal 1 ft. ft. contains 7. r and L are measured in feet. the diameter and L.48 Note: 1 gallon contains 231 cu. Volume in Gallons = π x r2 x L x 7.7854 x D x L = A x L 231 231 Where D. L equal 4 ft.1416 x 12 x 12 x 48 231 = 93.006 gallons. or 94.006 gallons. or 94. Find volume in gallons Volume = π x r2 x 4 x 7. SAMPLE PROBLEM Let D equal 2 ft. The formula for the volume is: 2 U. CALCULATIONS 173 CYLINDRICAL TANK CAPACITIES (By Calculation) Where D is the diameter in inches r is the radius. or half the diameter in inches r is half the diameter in inches L is the length or height in inches Volume in Gallons = π x r2 x L 231 If D.0 Ans.48 gallons SAMPLE PROBLEM Let D equal 24″ r equal 12″ L equal 48″ Volume = πr2 x 48 231 = 3. Gallons = .48 = 93.STATISTICS.

S. When more than half full. inches L is the length of the tank in inches D is the diameter of the tank in inches R is the radius of the tank in inches or half the diameter h is the depth of the liquid. CALCULATIONS The equation for computation of volume when the tank is less than half full is shown below. compute the full capacity of the tank as noted above. in inches d is R minus h. Calculate the value of θ where Cos θ = d = R – h R R Then Area = A = πR2 θ – R sin θ (R – h) 180 Volume = V = L [πR 2 θ – R sin θ (R – h) gallons 180 231 ] Where A is the cross section area of the filled portion of the tank measured in square inches V is the volume of the filled portion of the tank. then deduct the volume determined for the unfilled portion from the total volume of the tank to arrive at the volume of the filled portion. consider the shaded portion to represent the unfilled portion at the top of the tank and compute the volume as indicated below. gallons of 231 cu. in inches .174 STATISTICS. measured in U.

20 .40 18.55 53.00 24.86 60.19 32.64 8.69 75.27 80.00 .34 1.98 6.50 99.61 % Depth Filled 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 % of Capacity 20.20 94.68 84.14 37.07 3.97 71.08 56. CALCULATIONS 175 TABLE 3 Capacity of Cylindrical Tanks in Horizontal Position % Depth Filled 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 % of Capacity .81 69.50 19.23 14.45 48.14 79.66 34.77 86.STATISTICS.11 61.66 28.80 100.50 9.60 91.34 57.36 62.74 85.76 88.86 65.07 25.14 42.77 87.16 72.31 26.73 50.44 33.45 3.60 83.50 96.60 58.89 41.73 89.13 98.74 4.19 47.84 30.23 15.45 5.93 77.40 10.93 97.10 66.10 99.61 63.32 11.36 93.50 .02 94.39 % Depth Filled 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 % of Capacity 81.34 73.48 27.32 17.73 21.00 % Depth Filled 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 % of Capacity 51.26 16.03 31.50 92.55 98.27 12.34 67.20 5.90 1.86 23.26 96.40 43.24 13.64 39.80 95.80 7.66 99.87 2.50 82.56 68.52 74.66 44.36 38.00 78.90 36.92 46.27 52.81 55.68 90.

32 17.98 52.8 161.86 58.06 65.13 94.997 9.28 68.5 449.6 777.2 558.43 47.96 102.1 846.1 .33 90.7 679.9 376.6 918.895 7.0 146.7 287.75 21.99 82.21 41.78 44. S.6 137.31 36.72 39.7 183.73 16.3 647.7 530.50 27.9 151.5 587.79 13.3 114.58 Diameter in Feet Inches 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 U.2 267.1 110.5 220.58 23.44 11.44 78.99 34.3 142.0 811.176 STATISTICS.97 75.22 14.4 127. CALCULATIONS TABLE 4 Volume of Cylindrical Tanks in Gallons per Foot of Depth in a Vertical Position Diameter in Feet Inches 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 1 2 3 4 5 U.9 167.9 205.0 955.7 Diameter in Feet Inches 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 0 3 6 9 0 3 6 9 0 3 6 9 0 3 6 9 0 3 6 9 0 3 6 9 0 3 6 9 U.180 10.00 97.9 424.92 62.9 502.0 123.62 86.0 399. Gallons 5.875 6.16 49.7 194. Gallons 211.9 132.0 710.5 352.99 19.1 172.5 617.9 308.2 188.88 55.0 881.4 177. S.74 31.6 119.8 156.8 330.58 29. S.0 106.50 25.9 743.2 199. Gallons 71.8 475.5 248.

280 7418 Gallons 231 (Ans. CALCULATIONS 177 RECTANGULAR TANK CAPACITIES (By Calculation) Where L is the length w is the width h is the height If L.STATISTICS.48 gallons SAMPLE PROBLEM Let L equal 60″ w equal 12″ h equal 24″ Find volume in gallons Volume = 60 x 12 x 12 231 = 17.) SAMPLE PROBLEM Let L equal 5 ft. and h are measured in inches. w. w equal 1 ft.48 Gallons Note: one cubic foot contains 7.48 = 74.) . Volume = L x w x h x 7. h equal 2 ft. w.8 Gallons (Ans. and h are measured in feet. Volume = L x w x h Gallons 231 Note: there are 231 cubic inches in one gallon If L. Find volume in gallons Volume = 5 x 1 x 2 x 7.

2 688.6 274.8 222.84 74.1 301.0 .92 — — — — — — 5 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 6 6 1/2 7 7 1/2 8 8 1/2 82.9 314.9 269.8 478.6 179.6 205.4 235.0 164.6 706.8 — 11 1/2 172.7 316.6 471.6 145.9 448.5 413.1 183.3 299.9 288.3 — 5 74.4 224.3 699.5 308.7 420.1 205.3 303.7 226.45 78.0 411.6 151.8 288. CALCULATIONS TABLE 5 Volume — Rectangular Tanks Capacity in U.5 533.6 781.3 989.1 317.3 196.6 261.1 179.6 269.6 493.9 170.7 213.3 903.1 258.64 — — — 7 104.4 667.77 112.32 84.7 149.1 403.1 344.9 852.7 534.1 215.7 538.8 897.2 248.4 461.81 89.0 329.3 209.1 — — — — 10 149.5 235.1 473.1 639.8 589.2 602.2 860.81 93.5 202.8 673.5 — 8 119.7 432.0 905.2 140.2 359.6 370.1 628.4 1032.29 102.4 673.9 746.1 430.3 — — — — — — 9 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 6 6 1/2 7 7 1/2 8 8 1/2 9 9 1/2 10 10 1/2 11 11 1/2 12 134.178 STATISTICS.7 130.3 187.9 538.8 299.36 65.9 123.4 269.6 675.4 448.0 190.4 291.2 159.4 269.1 658.2 194.1 516.3 411.S.7 392.40 46.6 572.1 — — 41/2 67.6 364.2 785.7 119.0 598.2 523.3 510.2 645.25 121.0 471.3 390.0 1077.5 — — — 10 1/2 157.7 381.0 117.1 196.2 336.3 202.9 508.4 252.2 774.3 168.0 235.3 286.55 91.9 864.6 168.5 604.6 583.3 319.7 284.1 359.5 987.1 — — — — — 1 3 44.2 817.1 763.6 157.88 56.32 — — — — 6 1/2 97.5 209.3 403.0 224.0 617.9 576.5 254.5 280.4 452.77 104.3 314.1 476.7 540.2 130.4 261.4 246.7 — — 7 1/2 112.0 224.5 392.3 — — — — — 9 1/2 142.4 144.0 314.9 149.2 718.1 370.9 437.1 — — — — 31/2 52.8 355.0 807.2 710.1 387.9 426.0 418.6 168.9 — — — — — — 2 /2 37.5 218.5 549.4 635.7 246. Gallons Per Foot of Depth Width Feet 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 4 1/2 5 LENGTH OF TANK — IN FEET 2 29.3 605.7 942.5 12 179.2 731.4 366.3 946.6 336.3 504.8 493.2 559.6 187.7 — — — 4 59.10 67.3 445.6 748.9 157.1 267.8 134.4 740.0 568.9 349.5 239.9 448.16 101.2 353.8 486.6 561.1 389.0 336.6 185.2 340.9 497.1 177.2 329.8 — — 11 164.7 822.5 224.8 243.51 112.5 628.0 8 1/2 127.2 134.6 374.5 824.75 — — — — — 6 89.

. CALCULATIONS 179 RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE TAPERED TANK CAPACITIES (Frustrum of Pyramid) (By Calculation) Volume in Gallons = h [(AreaBase + AreaTop) + √(AreaBase + AreaTop] x 7. the following solution is in order 1 1 Volume = 2 [(1 + 2 /4) + √ 1 x 2 /4] x 7.48 3 Providing h and Areas are in Sq.7 gal. Feet 3 Volume = h [(AreaTop + AreaBase) + √(AreaTop + AreaBase] 3 231 Providing the dimensions are in inches SAMPLE PROBLEM Let x be 12″ y be 12″ w be 18″ L be 18″ h 24″ Volume = 24 [(12 x 12) + (18 x 18) + √ 144 x 324] 3 231 = 23.7 gal. If feet are used.STATISTICS.48 3 = 23.

Volume = h [(AreaBase + AreaTop) + √(AreaBase + AreaTop] x 7. CALCULATIONS ROUND TAPERED TANK CAPACITIES (Frustrum of Cone) (By Calculation) 3 Volume = h [(AreaTop + AreaBase) + √(AreaTop + AreaBase] 3 231 If inches are used.48 3 If feet are used. Find volume in gallons.180 STATISTICS. or 3 ft. D be 36″. or 2 ft. SAMPLE PROBLEM Let d be 12″. or 4 ft. h be 48″. 2 2 2 2 Volume = 48 [(π x 12 ) + (π x 18 ) + √ π 12 x 18 ] 3 231 Where dimensions are in inches Volume = 4 [(π x 122) + (π x 11/22) + √ (π x 12) x (π x 1/22 )] x 7.48 3 Where dimensions are in feet .

5773 1.732 1.36″ When Angle a = 45° and Side A = 12″ Side C = 1. CALCULATIONS 181 TABLE 6 Finding the Length of Pipe Needed to Connect Two Ends.97″ . Offset.6131 x 12″ C = 31.0000 2. and in the Same Plane (Figure 3) Degree of Offset “a” 72° (1/5 bd) 60° (1/6 bd) 45° (1/8 bd) 22 1/2° (1/16 bd) When A = 1 B is .414 When B = 1 A is 3.1547 1.50° and Side A = 12″ Side C = 2.3249 .000 .6131 Figure 3—SIMPLE OFFSET EXAMPLE: When Angle a = 22.077 1.4142 When A = 1 C is 1.STATISTICS.0515 1.4142 2.4142 x 12″ C = 16.

17 295.65 3631.5664 15.19635 .0625 .17257 .0 5281.80 5944.09818 .01917 .4375 .540 81.4248 12.832 65.0686 12.99 3318.73635 .5 1. 1 Of Inches or Feet Area Dia.49 213.1875 .56 615.94 176.13979 .39270 .1416 7.09281 .01227 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3.19 229.47 257.850 21.91 6939.76 241. Area Dia.04909 9 10 11 12 13 4 15 16 28. CALCULATIONS TABLE 7 Circumferences and Areas of Circles Of One Inch Fract.39 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 251.3254 1.00939 .77 804.14726 .2273 1.68 9 /32 /64 10 5 /16 /64 /32 /64 /8 21 11 23 3 25 /64 /32 /64 .140625 .88 289.48 452.5664 19.19635 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 78.14 6361.00019 .19 3525.03757 .05 3216.03125 .617 78.416 34.12962 .71 6503.63817 .171875 . Circ.34363 .1 132.83453 .398 226.02320 .265625 .182 STATISTICS.266 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 201.1781 .49087 .32 5026.540 95. /64 /32 /64 /16 /64 /32 /64 /8 .991 25.15033 .13 415.89 267.257 75.078125 .549 59.375 .68722 .84 4417.15625 .10144 .28 3848.125 .28125 .274 31.50 4185.07670 .60 282.90 245.328125 .73 153.274 38.2832 9.7854 3.485 50.1416 6.21875 .106 94.01553 .390625 .63 216.46 4656. Area Decimal Circ.55 5153.04909 .3125 .0799 1.93271 .18427 .78 7088.109375 .265 63.5708 .08456 .63 4778.53 314.00479 .44181 .25 .04314 .50 4300.75 263.124 50.5218 1.06213 .00307 .296875 .203125 .87 530.40625 .35975 .841 43.98 254.00173 .88 6647.16 346.635 28.25 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 276.06922 .88357 .20 207.45 3959.015625 .36 4901.45 6082.74 258.00690 .06 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 226.34 210.50 5808.48 235.61 6792.75 660.11984 .61 5541.973 69.823 87.484375 .09375 .965 91.11045 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 53.71 201.03241 .1291 1.86 754.31 298.3744 1.19 4071.19 1 3 1 5 3 7 1 9 /64 /32 /64 .389 100.02761 .67 5 11 3 /16 /64 13 7 /32 /64 /4 15 1 17 /64 . Circ.421875 .98175 1.93 572.62 238.68 3739.02 5410.04 248.58905 .86 4536.04 270.53 490.52 706.0309 1.77 5674.61 260.407 56.34 232.00077 .7080 18.91 223.78540 .03 292.681 84.47 283.29452 .53999 .36 380.4726 1.699 40.115 72.77 219.06 204.690 63.982 47.133 .558 37.046875 .16126 .033 113.22 13 27 7 /16 /64 /32 /64 /2 29 15 31 1 (Continued Next page) .24545 .248 97.46875 .31 3421.18 273.34375 .05542 .46 279.2763 1.453125 .4236 1.234375 .12 6221.33 254.

64504 .73 307.18 2290.94 157.29 342.27 386. Circ.30 320.0127 2.01 336.58 348.29 12076.30 907.27688 .92 962.703125 .37122 .4050 2.51849 .26248 .8653 1.58003 .55914 .5036 2.76097 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 179.25 1385.5525 2.1598 2.53 1590.94 1809.5625 .53125 .9945 3.43 345.01 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 351.97 2827.7489 .515625 .37 144.32 9676.6875 .20880 .67 106.73708 .92 2551.85 8171.44 323.32232 33824 .02 9160.42 389.60123 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 153.3562 .84 11309.88 9331.546875 . 33 Of Inches or Feet Area Dia.859375 .87 333.89 10568.93 1885.44179 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 128.85 12468.50 191.75 10207.71349 .90 1734.83 2463.69 7853.25 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 376.7981 2.73 327.80 1320.2580 2.79 175.81 7542.62298 .81 131.78125 .72 8494. /64 /32 /64 .11 1194.78 197.8125 .49872 .59 1256.59 304.57 370.6507 2.1108 2.43 1661.07 182.32 10935.52 125.6017 2.890625 .22 163.23 141.59375 .90625 .74 1963.21 185.29164 .07 11882.13 383.0434 3.50 169.7181 1.81 109.38828 .88 1075.44 1452. Area Decimal Circ.0928 .21 1134.76 2642.47937 .625 1.51 147.14 361.65625 .28 12271.07 3117.75 2.875 2.24850 .35 188.70 395.99 380.47 3019.8963 2.01 11689.85 9853.08 160.03 10386.08 2733.09 138.22 2375.02 314.671875 .2090 2.20 1520.6199 1.3072 2.96875 .56 392.43 2922.0617 2.98 29 59 15 61 31 63 .32 10751.36 166.87 8659. Circ.32 9503.765625 .984375 2.02 23 51 13 53 27 55 7 57 /64 /32 /64 /16 /64 /32 /64 .8471 2.30680 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 103.953125 .7671 1.88 11122.89 21 43 11 45 23 47 3 49 /64 /32 /64 /16 /64 /32 /64 /8 .29 17 35 9 /16 /64 /32 /64 /8 37 19 30 5 41 /64 /32 /64 /16 /64 /32 /64 /4 .921875 .38 122.65 172.45253 .24 119.73 1992.53862 .9145 1.56 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 326.28 364.6999 2.4544 2.640625 .86 355.9635 .23 7339.609375 .88 311.96 113.01 8824.50 2042.98 8011.66 855.11 1017.42 367.STATISTICS.6690 1.22166 .40574 .578125 .72 2206.64 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 301.28 8332.71 373.84375 .73 11499.734375 .69029 .42356 . Area Dia.82 2123. CALCULATIONS 183 TABLE 7 (Continued) Circumferences and Areas of Circles Of One Inch Fract.65 150.64 194.9375 .66746 .8163 1.796875 .58 7238.71875 .15 339.10 116.16 317.9452 2.35453 .96 7697.23489 .0 358.03 10028.828125 .95 135.

6 2.1 2.8 1 4 3 4 7.6 1 2.184 TABLE 8 Cast Iron Soil Pipe Equivalents 11⁄2 11⁄2 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 1 2 1.4 1 8 28.9 2.1 4 1.4 35.8 7 3.4 25 11.4 3.2 1. 15.8 6.3 25 14.2 6.8 1 5 10.3 1.1 2. .6 1.4 1 15 100 56.3 1 EXAMPLE: A 4″ cast iron soil pipe is equivalent to how many 2″ cast iron soil pipe? In the vertical column under 4″. and opposite 2″.3 1. read the equivalent which is 4: This means that four 2″ cast iron soil pipe are the equivalent of one 4″ cast iron soil pipe in inside cross-sectional area.6 1 12 63.8 1 10 44.9 5.9 2.7 8.6 15.3 4.1 9.5 1 6 15.1 6.7 1.8 4 2.8 1.8 3.8 8.

71875 .3125 .890625 .8125 .625 .84375 .484375 .140625 .421875 .65625 .1719 .515625 .53125 .984375 1.28125 .34375 .859375 .46875 .796875 .2188 .953125 .921875 .375 .398625 .015625 .000000 .765625 .328125 .640625 .70312 .828125 .234375 .50 Fractions 33/64 17/32 35/64 9/16 37/64 19/32 38/64 5/8 41/64 21/32 43/64 11/16 45/64 23/32 47/64 3/4 49/64 25/32 51/64 13/10 53/64 27/32 55/64 7/8 57/64 29/32 60/64 15/16 61/64 31/32 63/64 1 Decimal .59375 .5625 .1875 .09375 .359375 .609375 .96875 .25 .9375 .6875 .40625 .2031 .75 .4375 .90625 .734375 .67187 . CALCULATIONS 185 TABLE 9 The Conversion of Fractions to Decimals Fractions 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 5/64 3/32 7/64 1/8 9/64 5/32 11/64 3/16 13/64 7/32 15/64 1/4 17/64 9/32 19/64 5/16 21/64 11/32 23/64 3/8 25/64 13/32 27/64 7/16 20/64 15/32 31/64 1/2 Decimal .109375 .453125 .546875 .STATISTICS.78125 .15625 .078125 .296875 .0625 .265625 .03125 .125 .578125 .046875 .875 .

2222 .000 1.0556 .38 For 72 Ells-By 1.6131 .000 Yards .95 .00 .0278 .4142 .5833 .324 3.0833 .1667 .2500 .92 .31 For 60 Ells-By 1.5000 .1667 .3826 2.4142 .07 3.0833 .1547 .24 .5773 1.1732 .2500 .0824 .707 1.4142 .186 TABLE 10 Decimal Equivalents of Inches in Feet and Yards Inches 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Feet .61 .6667 .4142 1.866 .7500 .5773 1.414 2.732 2.1547 .866 .8333 .7071 For 22 1/2 Ells-By 2.50 For 80 Ells-By 2.50 .2778 .9239 For 67 1/2 Ells-By 1.4166 .1389 .05 .3333 TABLE 11 Solution of the Right Triangle To find side L S R S L R When you know side S L S R R L Multiply side S L S R R L For 45 Ells-By 1.1111 .3056 .00 .08 .1944 .000 1.333 .9166 1.41 2.

) Long tons (2.) Sq.03531 0.8684 1.3468 0.2010 0.1550 10.) Miles (land: 5.3637 0. miles { { { 643. inches Pints (Imp.) Metric tons 2.4336 0.) 28.) (US) Bulk barrels } } } Litres Hectolitres Gallons (US) Gallons (Imp.2642 . . Miles.7639 1.) Bushels (US) Bushels (Imp.6214 0.) Fathoms Miles (land) Miles (sea1) MULTIPLY NUMBER OF Inches Feet Yards Fathoms (6 ft.) Litres (lit. inches Cu.8361 4. feet Gallons (US) Gallons (Imp. hour Horsepower Fahrenheit 59˚ F 32˚ F 3 { 9/5.340 30. centimetres Cu. 0˚ C.) 0.62 1.4516 929.) (112 lb.8288 182. kilimetres { { 0.8378 2.8327 36.1104 Cu.1035 0.9115 453.racting 32˚ t .) Kilometres BY TO OBTAIN EQUIVALENT NUMBER OF Inches (in.6775 0. yards Acres Acres Sq.) Inches Feet (ft. Avoirdupois. and.304.) Yards (yd.5396 { { 23.7853 28. { { { { { Weights Grams (gm.) Metres (m.03215 Kilograms (kg.080 ft. metres Grams Ounces (troy2) Grams Kilgrams Long tons Metric quintals Short tons Metric tons Long tons Metric tons Kilometres/ hour Knots Cheval vapour Centigrade 15˚ C.) Pints (Imp. metres Sq.3268 0.2808 1.030 0. metres Hectares (hs. centimetres (c.03937 0. inches Cu.) Ounces (troy2) (os.equals United Kingdom measure.3937 3.3396 0.) (US) Gallons (Imp. millimetres Sq. CALCULATIONS 187 TABLE 12 Conversion Factors MULTIPLY NUMBER OF Linear measures Millimetres (mm.c.240 lb.0161 0.9976 2.02200 26. metres (cu.2) (os.6093 1.076. yards Acres Sq.3900 16.) Centimetres (cm. kilometres Cu.09290 0.3524 1.392 0.) (1.) Sq.6214 0.2343 0.3147 264.9842 } Ounces (av.) Cu.3495 31. miles BY TO OBTAIN EQUIVALENT NUMBER OF Millimetres Centimetres Centimetres Metres { { 0.3861 Sq.2046 220.) Cables (200 yd.1960 2.4178 31.48 0.976 6. inches Sq.1200 1.105 0.) Short tons (2. centimetres Sq.equals .add 32˚ equals equals 5/9. feet Sq.8332 } Metres } Kilometres Square measures Sq. inches Sq.) Hectolitres (hl.9072 1.) { { { { Cu.004047 2.STATISTICS. m.046.160 6. 123˚ F. 2 Miles/hour Knots (sea miles/hour) Horsepower Fahrenheit 212˚ F. metres Sq.86 0. centimetres Sq.880 ft.) Bulk Barrels Ounces (av.6˚ F. tr.3871 34.03527 0.5460 3. inches Sq.0500 0. inches Cubic measures and Capacities Cu.001550 0.) Metric quintals (q. feet Bushels (Imp.40 2.4047 0.0000 43.2) Ounces (troy2) Ounces (av.462 3.000 lb.c.4711 247. feet Gallons (US) Gallons (Imp. An international nautical mile = 6.9144 1. milimetres Sq.06102 61.000 c.8929 0.) { 0.) Miles (sea: 6.7497 35.115 feet. 4 Or foe.0139 Speed and Energy Kilometres/hour { 0.178 219. metres Hectares Sq.) Gallons (Imp.3882 4. after sub. 30˚ C.1637 Sq.3048 0.)2 Pounds3 Short tons Long tons Cu.) Gallons (Imp.880 1.) Pounds (lb.) Gallons (US) Cu.0936 0. 37˚ C.9863 Cheval vapeur Temperature Centigrade 100˚ C. feet Sq.3080 1.) Gallons (US) Gallons (Imp. kilometres Sq.1023 0.) Gallons (US) Cu.2) Pounds2 Hundred weights (cuf. milimetres Sq.6093 0. 98.0238 0.

Measures and Other Information Square Measure 144 inches ...........1 gross or long ton 20 hundredweight ............... ................. ...... ...... .... ......1 square foot 9 square feet ............ ................. ... .... ..... ................ ..........5 grains ....................1 hand 7.... 1 gallon 311⁄2 gallons.................. ......................... ............................ .... ......... 1 barrel 2 barrels ............. ........... .................1 square mile Cubic Measure 1728 cubic inches .... . ............ ........ .............4805 gallons 27 cubic feet .......... ..................7..... .1 square yard 301⁄4 sq............ ...... .. ........ ..... .......1 statute mile 320 rods ..... ... . ... .. ................... ...................... ........... .............................................1 hundredweight 2000 pounds. . .. ....................1 mile 4 inches ... ............... ft............. .......... . ...... .................................1 mile 5280 feet ..... ..... 1 hogshead Linear Measure 12 inches .............. .... ........... .. ....1 pound 112 pounds .1 bushel 1 bushel . .. ........................ .. . .. .....1.......1 yard 161⁄2 feet . yds................... ...... ..............1 knot or 1 nautical mile Weight – Avoirdupois or Commercial 437... 1 quart 4 quarts.................. ... . .......1 foot 3 feet .. ......... . .......................... 2721⁄4 sq...2150..... ............................ ..................... .....92 inches..... ...... ...... . ......1 peck 4 pecks. 1 pint 2 pints ......... .................... ... ..24 cu. .. .. .........1 quart 8 quarts ...... .. ..1 furlong 8 furlongs ..................... ........... . ............ .... .. .......1 cord Dry Measure 2 pints ..1 rod or pole 51⁄2 yards..............6 pounds............... ....................1 link 18 inches...... ... .... feet 1 bushel.........15156 miles.. . ...... ...1 cubit 1...1 rod or pole 40 rods or poles ............. .......... ...2240 pounds 2204.. .............1 metric ton ......188 TABLE 13 Miscellaneous Tables of Weights.. .......1 square rod 160 square rods ....... ..............................1 cubic foot 1 cubic foot. ... .. ..1 ounce 16 ounces....... ... ......... .. ....... .......42 cu inches Liquid Measure 4 gills ... .............. ...............................1 acre 640 acres ..... .1 cubic yard 128 cubic feet ...... ............... ............1 net ton or 1 short ton 20 hundredweight......

.25 . 2. 2. TABLE 14 Compound Offsets 60˚ (1 bd)V 45˚ (1 bd)V 72˚ (1 bd)V 60˚ (1 bd)V 45˚ (1 bd)V 72˚ (1 bd)V 60˚ (1 bd)V 6 8 5 6 8 5 6 45˚ (1 bd)H 72˚ (1 bd)H 60˚ (1 bd)H 60˚ (1 bd)H 60˚ (1 bd)H 45˚ (1 bd)H 45˚ (1 bd)H 5 5 6 6 6 8 8 Spread Rise Setback Hyp Rise Setback Hyp Spread Setback Hyp Spread Rise X X X X X X X X X X X X 1.5 1.23 3.307 .62 1.3697 .66 1.615 1.41 3.71 1. .71 .62 .48 .61 2.24 2.305 .584 .5 1.25 .5 .71 1.437 1.684 . 2.71 1.634 2.323 1.41 .41 1.70 1.57 3.71 1.71 1. .71 . .807 1.41 .60 .41 . .71 1.90 .5 .437 .96 .114 2.70 1.57 1. .5 .41 1.90 2.29 .41 = Hyp = Hyp = Hyp = Spread = Spread = Spread = Rise = Rise = Rise = Setback = Setback = Setback .587 . CALCULATIONS 189 Figure 5—Explanation of the Compound Offset Table.469 .625 1.STATISTICS. 1.71 1.358 1.377 2.62 . .81 2. . .41 1.41 2. 1.41 .5 .707 1.307 .5 1.41 2.38 . 3.307 .11 2.

Crane Company. Baumann. Chicago. Crocker.: Piping Handbook. Government Printing Office. Cast Iron Pipe Research Association: Handbook of Cast Iron Pipe.” Technical Bulletin. Washington. 313. F. 1929. 1960. Hubless Cast Iron Sanitary System with Pipe and Fittings. 2nd ed. pp. Wilmington. Bureau of Standards.E.C.. John L. 1939. French. 323.” in U. . 1945.. and Kalinske. Bulletin No.N. Fittings and Pipe.: Plumbing. S.R. Chicago. January to June.I.C. 1942 and 1957. Eaton and Wyly: “Wet Venting of Plumbing Fixtures. Inc. and Caldwell. Bulletin No. Clark. 1983.A.C. 1929. Philadelphia. 534. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Inc. Heating and Piping Estimators Guide. SCI. Flow of Fluids.. D. American Public Works Association.. 1901. and Hayward.. “Specifying Soil Pipe Systems for a Quieter Installation. Specifications for Rubber Gaskets for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings.” Construction Specifier. 1956. ASTM Designation: A 438. Standard No. 157. Sr. Philadelphia Babitt. 127-128. Inc. National Association of Master Plumbers of the United States. 443. American Society for Testing and Materials: Standard Method for Transverse Testing of Gray Cast Iron. D. 1951. Brown. Bureau of Standards.M. editions 1916-1942. The Engineer. Paul G.H. 419.. 301. 533.S. 389. 232. New York..” in U. McGraw-Hill Book Company. T. D.Stack Installations.. 1958. New York. 1950. E. P. Second Edition. Philadelphia. February..S. Davis. A. 1981 edition. Babbitt. Fairbanks Morse and Company: Hydraulic Handbook. The Language of Rubber. Volume III 1893-1928. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Chicago. ASTM Designation: C 564. The Construction of Sanitary Sewers.: “Stack Venting of Plumbing Fixtures. 1963. 2. pp. ——History of Manufacturers in the United States. New York. E. Vol. 587. Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute (CISPI): Recommendations for Deep Burial of Cast Iron Soil Pipe. University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station. Delaware.: History of Manufacturers in the United States. London. Flanges and Pipe Fittings. U. D. French..: Turbulent Flow of Sludges in Pipes. 258. Washington. H. 268.: “Hydraulics and Pneumatics of the Plumbing Drainage System. H.190 BIBLIOGRAPHY American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Pamphlet T-99. Specifications for Gray Iron Castings for Valves.E. Volume III 1893-1928.E. Building Material and Structure Report BMS 118. McGraw.: The Corrosion of Copper Tube Used in Soil. University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station. Washington.C. pp.S.C. Chicago. ASTM Designations: A126. Government Printing Office. Dawson. Engineering and Research Division.S. 4th ed. New York. D. Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute. D. U.Hill Book Company. Specification Data. Building Material and Structure Report BMS 119.. No. 15-20. American Iron and Steel Institute: Annual Statistical Report. du Pont de Nemours and Company.C. 1952. 1981. through Valves. Elastometer Chemicals Department. Victor S. Washington. Washington. H.

McGraw-Hill Book Company.W. 6-1.” Publication 836. 175. Portland... 1958. 20. Horace W. Jane A. 5th edition. Government Printing Office. 1948.: Plumbing. Civil Engrs. ed. October 24. David X. 1964.C. Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute. Federal Specification QQ-I-652b. John Wiley and Sons. 1974. ——“Criteria for the Acceptance of Cast Iron Soil Pipe. January 1941.. Frederick J. Drake and Company.. 1964. Washington. Connecticut. Housing and Home Finance Agency.S. Merritt. U. 1960. Performance of Plumbing Fixtures and Drainage Stacks. Tennessee Valley Authority Publication. 1963.E. New York. Malleable Founders’ Society..” Iowa State University Engineering Experiment Station. D. Federal Specification WW-P-401E. Plum. New York. I. Frank T. Soil. ed.BIBLIOGRAPHY 191 General Services Administration: Federal Specifications. M. Cleveland. D. Frederick. Gordon M. Washington. 40. G. 1962. Washington. D. 1945.C.: Plumbing Guide. Inc. John Wiley and Sons. Greenwich. 2nd ed.C. New York: John Wiley and Sons. D. National Research Council Publication No. 1917. 1943. Gray Iron Founders’ Society: Casting Design. Bulletin 31.. Ireland. Svend. James G. Henderson. 1972. American Malleable Iron Handbook. February 17. New York. King. Inc. Chicago. Horace W.S.. Chest O. Kellogg (M. Bulletin 47. Matthias. 32. 1944. Marston.: Sewage Treatment. Imhoff. Iron Castings. 1960. 31. Illinois. Inc. U. 1962. Manners.” Iowa State University Engineering Experiment Station. Sloss-Sheffield Steel and Iron Company.: Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Engineering Manual. Henry Jeffers: “Development of Cast Iron Soil Pipe in Alabama.: Pumps and Plumbing for the Farmstead. National Academy of Sciences: “Cathodic Protection. Plumbing Practice and Design.) Company: Design of Piping Systems. Gray. Fawcett Books. Government Printing Office.. 1948. 1890.. Ernest F.C. Division of Housing Research.. Jr. D. John Wiley and Sons. 1913. National Tank and Pipe Company: Wood Pipe Handbook.. 5th edition. Federal Specification. Cast-Iron.: “The Theory of Loads on Pipes in Ditches and Tests of Cement and Clay Drain Tile and Sewer Pipe.. Inc. Trans. Cleveland. Inc.: Building Construction Handbook. Birmingham. Wilmette. Volume II: Taking Advantage of the Experience of Patternmaker and Foundryman to Simplify the Designing of Castings. and Brater. Government Printing Office. ——“Supporting Strength of Sewer Pipe in Ditches and Methods of Testing Sewer Pipe in Laboratories to Determine Their Ordinary Supporting Strength. 1958.” Supplement to Pig Iron Rough Notes. Karl and Fair. Washington.. Manly. U.J. A.P. Research Paper No. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. and Woodburn. Cleveland.. American Technical Society. P. King. and Roberts. August.. Robert: Flow of Water in Open Channels and Pipes. 1956. . Inst. 1954. S. A. 741.” Federal Construction Council Technical Report No. Manning. Wisler. Washington.C. 1954. Straight Line to Production: The Eight Casting Processes Used to Produce Gray Iron Castings.” Public Works.: Handbook of Hydraulics for the Solution of Hydrostatic and Fluid-Flow Problems.: Hydraulics. 1948. Koeble. Federal Construction Council Technical Report No. p.S. Vol.C. Washington. Pipe and Pipe Fittings. Noble. “Infiltration into Sewers Can Cost Lots of Money.: Plumbing and Heating Handbook. D. Vol. New York..

D. D. 1960.S.: A Review of the Hydraulics of Circular Sewers in Accordance With the Manning Formula. 1945. 1958.S. 1952.S..: Methods of Joining Pipe. U.: Principles of Structural Performance of Buried Pipes.K.. paper presented at 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Sanitary Engineering. Washington. Washington. J.S. TM 5-619. New York. U. Department of Commerce. D. Washington. Zozzora. Bureau of Standards.C. R.E. 1977. Government Printing Office. Utah State University Printing Services.1.C. Water Resources Division. Geological Survey. 1960. Lawrence: Clean and Decent. Wright. Washington. 2nd Ed. D.” in U.: U. Noise and Vibration Characteristics of Soil Pipe Systems (Job No. National Bureau of Standards. Frank: Engineering Drawing.. New York. Wyly..S.192 Polysonics Acoustical Engineers. Building Material and Structure Report BMS 132. 1960. Wyly and Eaton: “Capacities of Plumbing Stacks in Buildings. War Department: Plumbing Repairs and Utilities. The Industrial Press. 1578 for the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute). Washington.: Polysonics Acoustical Engineers. Government Printing Office.C. Oct. York. Watkins. Report No. U. A Study of Detergent Pollution in Ground Water. New York. D. 1409.C. June 1970. 1959. p. The Viking Press. . McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1949. Robert S.C. 9–14.

158 Backflow preventer: definition of. 158 Backwater. 7 Absorption: definition of. use in. 1 American Iron and Steel Institute. 1 Building codes (see Plumbing codes) Building drain. cast iron: connection to septic tank. 154 American National Standards Institute: abbreviation for. 127 neoprene. 154 American Society of Sanitary Engineers. 1920’s. 154 American Society for Testing and Materials. 4-5 prominence in soil pipe. 154 American Standards Association (See American National Standards Institute. 57-58 Alabama: foundry construction at Anniston. of. 154 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 71-87 Bell and spigot joint (see Hub and Spigot joint) Bituminous coal: coke production. 32 Backwater valve. plumbing-system: definition of. 125 hubless coupling. 4-5 American Gas Association. waste. 130-131 test for. 182 AB & I. Refrigeration. 164 American Petroleum Institute. of. 123 galvanized steel pipe. 154 American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 158 Beam stresses. of. piping. 32 Base. 158 Back-siphonage definition of.193 INDEX A Anaerobic: definition of.). and Air Conditioning Engineers. 158 Acoustical characteristics: cast iron. of. 154 American Society of Civil Engineering. 154 American Water Works Association. 158 placing of. of. 11 Abbreviations: plumbing trades. 9. connection to. and. used in. 97 Bedding conditions: earth loads. 5 connection to sewer. use in. 128-129 plastic pipe. 123-131 Air pressure test. 70 . in. 154 American Society of Heating. 2 Areas of circles. 2 Weymouth. piping systems. 4 pig iron production in. use in. New Jersey. 154 American Iron and Steel Association. 154 plumbing symbols adopted by. 154 B Backfill: definition of. 60 Building sewer. 5 definition of. and vent systems. cast iron: city sewer. 61. of. of. 9 compression joint. 64 Backflow: definition of. 158 Bronze pipe. 2 Bog ore: pipe production. 127-128 lead and oakum joint. of. at 2 Branch plumbing-system: definition of. 154 Abrasion: high velocity. 158 Anchor: definition of. 159 sizing of. of. 125 drainage. 7 resistance to. of. 123-131 copper pipe. cast iron soil pipe. 158 Anthracite coal: iron ore reduction.

71-87 pipe. 29-31 Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute: abbreviation for. raw materials contained in. and. 142 pipe. soil pipe. 4 foundry locations. 17 introduction of. 29 Cesspool: see Leaching Well Charcoal: furnace plants. 4 strategic location of. xiv Circles: areas of. 17 permanent mold. 7-8. 132 pipe. 1 Cleanouts: cast iron soil pipe. and. 17-18 technological advance. 123-131 member companies of. 23-24 soil pipe and fittings of. New Jersey. 1 Trademark. 2 iron ore reduction. 64 testing and inspection of. 81-87 properties of. 4 number of foundries. 30 pipe. for. 44 pipe. 1 Clay pipe. 61 Butt joints. availability and delivery time required. use in. 61 installation of. 1898. pipe) Clark. 2-4 melting capacity. 4 molds for. fittings for. 18 technological advances in. use in. 29-31 Caulking: definition of. from. consensus standards for. 11-12 companies in. 11 “Cast-on-end-in-pit” principle. 1 early history of. compared to plastic installed underground. methods of cutting to length. 6-8 Cast Iron Pressure Pipe: centrifugal casting of. and alignment of. 11 emergence in the 1890’s. connection to. 13. 158 Centrifugal casting: description of. 9. 29 difference. 137 condensate drain lines. 2 Charlotte Pipe and Foundry Company. of. 12 technological advances by. 64 definition of. 1890. cast iron soil pipe and fittings: 24 Coke: . 11 Chelsea Water Company. 1 C Carbon steel pipe: comparative cost. Victor S. 182 Clamps. pipe (see Hangers. for. 137 Cast iron: inherent noise control qualities of. 10 pipe. 158 acoustical study. 53-54 Coating. 64 Closet bends: above ground.194 INDEX cleanouts for. 36. grade. 18-23 static. 65 septic tank. 182 circumferences of. available sizes and types. 49 line. 7-8 pipe.. 11 geographic distribution of. 64 velocity in. 40 Circumferences of circles. 61. 2 Casting: centrifugal. 61 excavation for. 64 maintenance of. condensate drain lines. handling and method of shipment. 1894 and 1898. 17 illustration of. 123-131 pipe. trenching recommendations. 182 Circuit vents: illustrations of. 1 Cast Iron Soil Pipe Industry: capacity of.

in: definition of. 158 Decimal equivalents. 9. 158 Cupola-furnace process advances in. 7 Cross connection: definition of. 6-7 factors controlling the rate of. 23 preparation of. 21. 15 Coliform bacteria: definition of. 2 fittings production. 23-24 technological change in preparation of. 13. 66-69 stress-accelerated. 137-140 lead and oakum joint. 138 materials for. plumbing system. 162 Compound offsets: data for. use prior to 1850. and. 21 green sand: mechanization. 6-7 common forms of. 115 Design Soil Pressure. 15 description of. for. 13. use in. 1 manufacture of cast iron soil pipe. in. 158 Commercial construction: cast iron soil pipe. 158 Compression joint: deflection of. 8-9 Condensate drain lines: carbon steel pipe. 13. 29 Corrosion: caused by soils. 19 Copper pipe: tests on. tested for. 125 Coremaking: core room of foundry. 6 resistance to. use for. and 2 production. 158 Continuous vent: definition of. 15 raw materials used in. and. used in. 15 limestone use in. 140 testing procedures for. 185 Definitions: plumbing trades. 13. 17 dry sand. 57-59 tests on. 137 temperatures in. 139-140 Conductor. use in. 137-138 neoprene joint seals. in. acoustical characteristics. 15. 29 D Dead end. 29 illustration of. fittings for. and. 140 Du Pont Company. controls in. 5 Common vent: definition of. furnace of. 21 illustration of. 21 machinery for. 2 hand-ramming of. used in. 45-46 soundproofing qualities of. 189 Compression: definition of. 29 automatic. plumbing system: definition of. acoustical characteristics. 158 Design of Sewers and Drains. 8-9 installation instructions for. comparative cost of. 14 iron use in. for. 123 testing of systems installed with. 21 technological advances in. cast iron soil pipe of. 14. 137-140 installation of test materials for. and. 6-7 protection from 6. 137 cast iron soil pipe. 162 Cope. 123-131 watermains. 21 description of. 15 water-cooling in.INDEX 195 iron ore reduction. 29 permanent mold casting. 140 stainless steel pipe. 9 description of. 137-140 results of tests on. 30 Cores: centrifugal casting. 29 coke use in. 140 plastic pipe. 147 . and. use in. and. 29 temperatures in. 185 Decimals to fractions: conversion of. 15 exterior. in.

Waste. 137-140 Durability. 166-167 technological advances in production of. and. 10 low-cost installation. 70 Existing work. 159 building sub-drains. traps and vents for.196 Design Summary. 24 coating of. 61 mechanical equipment. 21 definition of. 159 Dumping and Shoving. for. condensate drain lines tested by. in terms of. pipe: cast iron soil pipe. 10 . 159 Elastic limit: definition of. 18-21 molds for. in terms of. invert of. 5 definition of. 9. 18 cleaning of. 24 mold used in production of. 24 coremaking for. 61 safety precautions. 19 Drainage: battery of fixtures. 5-10 DWV Systems (see Drainage. 60-62 E Earth loads: determination of. 70 problem of. 11 pouring of. 159 plumbing fixtures. 18-21 molding techniques for. in terms of. Venting) Effluent: definition of. 151 Du Pont Company. of: definition of. 159 house drain. 61 unstable soil. 61 Exfiltration: cast iron soil pipe. 9 product availability. in. 22 shaking out of. 97 Economic advantages: cast iron soil pipe. 32-35 roof drains: layouts for. of. pipe. 32 sub-soil drains. 24 plumbing codes. and. 158 Drag. for. plumbing in: definition of. illustration of. 137 drain. 134-136. 61 principles of. 29. and. 32 terminals. definition of. for. 32 sanitary sewers. 32 roof. 159 condensate drain lines. 159 Erosion: definition of. of. 33-35 sewer gas. 61 deep-trench. 11 inspection and testing of. Deep Burial 95 Developed length. 70 definition of. 159 storm drains. and. 143-145 Fittings: cast iron soil pipe. 159 Expansion: pipe in. 20 permanent mold casting of. definition of. and. 159 Excavation: building sewer. 32 storm: cast iron used in. 10 performance. 32 combined drains. 159 Ductility: definition of. definition of. 32 Drains (see Drainage) Dry weather flow. in terms of. 22-23 symbols for. and. 23. for. 169 F Firestopping. 10 versatility. 36 building or house. 71. alternative means of. and. 30 Fixture unit basis: definition of. 17 casting of.

plumbing: battery of. 19. 9 . 51 horizontal piping. and. 51-54 Horizontal Soil Support. 20 mold preparation. 12 cleaning department of. fittings. for. 13 shaking out operations. use in. 25 Green sand. 102 Foundry. 16 resistance to corrosion of. 51 vertical piping. 50-54 spacing of. fittings. 25 core room of. 18 H Hangers. 102 Flushing. 100. 12 Grinding equipment: foundry use. 12 molding operations. suspended. 12 cleaning operations of. for. 18-24 storage area of. 51. cast iron soil pipe: casting area of. 159 combination. 60 Horizontal piping: hangers for. 45 invention of. pipe: beam clamps. for. 19. 50-52 installation instructions for. 19. 19. 100. 125 Gray iron: chemical composition of. 1 lead and oakum. use with. 104 Flow capacity of cast iron soil pipe sewers and drains. 24-28 Fractions to decimals: conversion of. 13 finishing operations of. and. in. 159 Foran. 52 installation of. 20 drag of. fittings. 102 Flow in sewers and drains. 20 patternmaking shop in. 60-62 Flaskless compress molding. 12. 24. for. 60-61 Fixtures. 50-54 supports for. xiv Formulas for flow determination. 50 illustrations of. 159 Footing: definition of. invention by. modern. and. 159 definition of. 29-31 testing laboratory in. 22 raw materials storage yard of. 151 Flushometer valve: definition of. 24 molding area of. 4 Fordham University: Industrial Economics Research Institute. 8 installation instructions for. for. 20 Flood level rim: definition of. 20 machine molding in. 55 Heads of water: pressure. 13-15 description of. 159 fixture units. use with. 9 installation instructions for. 13 cupola furnace of. 185 G Galvanized steel pipe: tests on. 12 technological change in. John: coremaking making. 18. in. 6. 22 static casting. 29 pouring operations. 146 House sewer (see Building sewer and Sewage systems) Hub and spigot joint: compression gaskets. 9 Hubless coupling: description of. 47 neoprene gaskets of. 16 metallurgical structure of. corresponding to. 66 soil pipe manufacture. 19.INDEX 197 use in sizing pipe. 6. 20 Flasks: cope of. acoustical characteristics. 159 Flush valve: definition of. and. 159 Flow and velocity: cast iron soil pipe.

58. 160 Limestone: cupola-furnace process. use in. 160 Lead: quantity required. 10 I Individual vents: definition of. 1 Leader. 69 problem of. and. 70 definition of. 44-70 lead and oakum joint. . 61 compression joint. 1 Layouts: cast iron soil pipe. 123-131 performance of plumbing system. 47-49 tests on. of. 155 Island Vent: illustration. 10 installation instructions for. use in. in. 64 Installation. inside building. 60 supports for. for. 64 pipe systems. 10 tests of. 9 installation instructions for. 55 L Laminar flow and turbulent flow. 69. acoustical characteristics. 45-49 lead and oakum joint. 61 hubless joint. 8 installation costs. 47 Hydrostatic test (see Water test) International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials. plumbing: definition of. 163 illustration. 128 torque recommended for. use in. 51 testing and inspection in. 14 manufacture of cast iron soil. 52 horizontal piping: suspended. 41 Industrial construction: cast iron soil pipe. lead and oakum joint. of. 13. and.198 soundproofing qualities of. for. 9 stainless steel clamp of. cast iron soil pipe: characteristics of. 161 test of plumbing system. 48 use of. 45 hub and spigot. 49 condensate drains. 57 soil pipe and fittings. 47-49 lead. 5 sizing of pipe in. 138 description of. 59. 24 test plugs. and. 41 J Joints. 47-49 lead and oakum required for. 48 Lead pipe. 8. 101 Langensalza. 47 compression joint. of. 10 hangers for. 8. Definition. 48 noise control. 47-49 pipe length. and. 137-140 cost of. acoustical characteristics. 47-49 oakum fiber. and. general. 8 hubless coupling. and. German. 70 Inspection: house (building) sewer. use in. 4 Infiltration: cast iron soil pipe. 51. 45 condensate drain lines. cast iron soil pipe for. 51 underground. 123-128 Lead Industries Association. 32-43 Leaching Well. 47 inside the building. 48 specifications for. 69. and. for. 57-59 vertical piping. pipe. 50 instructions for. cast iron soil pipe and fittings. 57. of: building (house) sewer. 59 Inspector. 47-49 Lead and oakum joint: caulking of. 57-59 versatility of. 8 test on. illustration of. of. pipe: definition of.

29 Molds: centrifugal casting. 17 cope used in. 2 M Main vent (see Vent stack) Manholes: building (house) sewer. 30 Mechanical Contractors Association of America. in. 24 sand used in. for. used in. 124 Noise. 156 Mechanical impact compactors. 156 National Fire Protective Association. 137-140 soundproofing qualities of. foundry. 17 dry sand. 160 Materials handling equipment: foundry use. 30 origins of. 126-131 copper pipe. and. 20 mechanization of. 2. 13. see hublss coupling Noble. and. 12 centrifugal casting. 12 iron. 19 drag used in. and. and. and. and.INDEX 199 used in. 11 early. 20. for. 19. for. function of. 2 lubrication of. 19 core prints. 18 fittings. 8 joint seals. 156 National Board of Fire Underwriters. New Jersey: first cast iron pipe foundry at. 1890. fittings production. 19 flaskless compression techniques. 12 materials handling equipment for. 3 companies engaged in. 151 Melting section. in United States. 132 techniques. new. 1 Master plumber: definition of. for. 18 use prior to 1850. 126-129 control of. 18-19 technological change in preparation of. type of. 123 galvanized steel pipe. 19 machines for. 1 Noise criteria curves: design tool. 156 Neoprene control of vibration. 1 raw materials used in. 156 National Bureau of Standards: abbreviation for. 2 Molding: area in foundry. 128-130 hubless coupling. condensate drains. Henry Jeffers. 123. and. 20 technological advances in. and. 123-131 compression joint. 57 Marly-on-Seine. plumbing: cast iron. 23. 12. 19-21 green sand: definition of. 14 Loam cores: use prior to 1850. use in. of (see Cupola-furnace process) Metals molds (see Molds) Metric conversion factors. water-cooled. 125 definition of. 29-31 Marking. as. 12. preparation of. 125 hubless coupling. 18 metal. 29-31 technology. 2 gray iron. for. and. 18 permanent. 126-131 No-Hub Coupling. 124. 18 modern use. 124. use in. 187 Millville. 29-31 N National Association of Plumbing Heating and Cooling Contractors. for. preparation of. for. 64 Manufacture. cast iron soil pipe and fittings: capital invested in. 20 flasks. 23 sand-lined. used in. 124-129 . in.

81. 29 Pine-log pipe. 123-129 serious nature of. definition of. 4 P Painting. 60 stack supports. definition of. and. 123 specifications to control. definition of. 23. 161 Plumbing codes: cast iron soil pipe fittings. definition of. 29. and. and. 140 compared to cast iron installed underground. 48 use of. 124. 123-131 steam condensate drains. 160 Offsets: data for. for. 2 Pipe or pipes: flexible. 81-87 tests on: acoustical characteristics. 18 illustration of. 9. 127 mass. 3 horizontal pipe supports. 32 test of plumbing system. 160 vertical. 19 technological advances in. and. definition of. 20 Patternmaking: description of. 128 lead and oakum joint. 85 comparative cost. cast iron soil pipe: procedures for. 123-131 piping wall. 47-49 waterproofing characteristics of. 160 local ventilating. for. and. plumbing system: definition of. 57-59 Plumbing Drainage Institute. 53. and. 160 waste. and. George. 18. role in. 123 neoprene. 147 Pitch. relation to. 125 measure of. 82 horizontal. 160 rigid. 81. for. 23 fittings production. 158 early municipal codes. 160 special waste. for. 156 Plumbing inspector: . 24 illustration of. and. 184 Pipe stiffness. and. 160 water riser. 9 quantity required. 160 water service. 59 Permanent mold casting: description of. definition of. and. 125 plastic pipe. 189 On-side principle: centrifugal casting. 19. condensate drains. 3 combination sewers. 128-131 piping materials. and. 137-140 Plumbing: definition of. mass of. 70 sizing of pipes. definition of. 50-52 sewer connection. cast iron soil pipe. 33 definition of. 2 Peppermint test. 138. for. and. of. 60 Pattern plates: flaskless compression molding. 55 storm drains. definition of. 124. and. replacement by. and. 181.200 isolation breaks. 160 Plastic pipe: allowable deflection of. 4 soil pipe production. and. 160 indirect waste. and. 123-131 O Oakum fiber: lead and oakum joint. 20 foundry shop for. definition of. 123-129 reduction of. 82 soil. 30 Peacock. and. 160 Pipe equivalents. 1880’s. 160 water distribution. 9. and. 131 vibration. details on. piping systems for: descriptions of. definition of. 9 Offset: definition of. 124-131 polysonics Acoustical Engineers. 24 technological advance.

use in. 32. 122. 12. 38. 161 illustrations of. report of. 161 Roof drains: cast iron soil pipe. 5 Scrap iron and steel: cupola-furnace process. 12 storage yard for. 161 Public Works Magazine. 101. 161 domestic. 36 Roof leaders: cast iron boots. or. and. 161 S Safety factor. 159 fresh. and. and. 30 Precipitation: definition of. 122 Revent: definition of. 66-69 Polysonics Acoustical Engineers: plumbing noise studied by. definition of. 12 selection of. 162 Sewage systems: R Raw materials: manufacture of cast iron soil pipe. definition of. 121 expansion and contraction. 33 layouts for. foundry. used in. use in. and. 123-129 Pouring: description of. 102 Pressure concentration factor. used for. 13 early use in pipe production. 33 sizing of. 147 Sand slinger: mold preparation. 13 Septic tanks: building drain connected to. 12. 160 septic. 61 definition of. moving. statistical information for. 38 Sewage: clarified. definition of. definition of. 20 Sand-lined molds (see Molds) School construction: cast iron soil pipe. horizontal and vertical. 12. and. 161 Premises governing flow determination. 161 stale. 161 Polyethylene Encasement. 121 noise. 161 Production. 32. 161 Right triangle: solution of.INDEX 201 definition of. 6 building (house) sewer. 158 definition of. 132 materials handling equipment. 160 oxidized. definition of. proper. 33 illustration of. 32. 13. 132 selection of. 3 manufacture of cast iron soil pipe. 158 crude or raw. 91 . 33 sewer gas. description of. 26 materials handling equipment for. 5. 32 traps. 132 Residential construction: availability. 186 Ring design. 38 layouts for. 33 cast iron soil pipe. 120 specifying. 33 illustration of. 33 flashing. 3. 122 cost. 22 fittings production in. 33 Roughing in: definition of. use in. 30 radiation Detection for. at. used in. 96 Private use: definition of. 35 leaders for. 121 value. soil pressure. cast iron soil pipe and fittings (see Manufacture) Public use: definition of. 32. 70 Putrefaction: definition of. definition of. and. 141 strength and durability.

32. 57-59. and storm sewers. 1 Sizing. 161 sub-main sewer. 64 combination sewers. and. 39 Stainless steel pipe: comparative cost. 19. definition of. 60 Slick: definition of. 137 Standardization. 36 Sewage treatment plants: digester in. in.. 1 lateral sewer. 1881. pipe) Symbols. plumbing code. 20 Steam condensate drain lines (see Condensate drain lines) Storm drainage (see Drainage) Strain: definition of. 22 Simpson. for. 3 Static sand casting: modern methods of. 5 Soundproofing: neoprene.202 building (house) sewer: definition of. 179-180 Technological improvements: foundry practice. cast iron: definition of. Deep Burial. and. and. condensate drain lines. D. 164-168 T Tank capacities: cylindrical. 32 Sewer (see Sewage systems) Sewer gas: control of. 32 Supports. in. 7 storm drainage. definition of. 88 Sump: definition of. 3 Sprues: pouring operations. pipe (see Hangers. definition of. 160 private sewer. 32. and. 64 maintenance of. definition of. cast iron soil pipe: early standard sizes. 61. and. 20 Stack vent: illustration of. definition of. 9. 65 building storm sewer. definition of. 161 sanitary sewers. 22 Squeeze plate: flaskless compression molding. and. 123-131 plumbing systems. 3 specifications covering. 162 sub-soil drains. 32 roof drains. 123-131 Southern Building Code Congress International. 64 testing of. 29-30 results of. 162 Smoke test. 162 traps. 177-178 tapered. 35 house sewers. septic tanks. 57-59.61 installation of in 1890’s. 18. plumbing. 160 main or trunk sewer. 37 Shaking-out: description of. 31 . 69. 70 signs of abrasion in piping. and. 161 city sewer. 60-63 procedures used for. and. 159 problems at. 161 inspection of. 138 condensate lines. in. 59 Soil stack. 173-176 rectangular. 65 fixture unit basis. use in. and. Sir Thomas. 64 cleanouts. 157 Specifications. 88 Summary and conclusions. 1 Sludge: definition of. pipe of: clogging. 32. definition of. 162 Structural design of buried cast iron soil pipe. cast iron soil pipe: Washington. and. 1880’s. 9. and. 161 storm sewers. 162 Sloss-Sheffield Steel and Iron Company. piping systems for: description of. 160 outfall sewers. 38.C.

inside. 163 Venting systems (see Venting) Vents (see Venting) Versailles. 58. definition of. of. 84 . for. 26-28 metallurgy. 18 peppermint test. 11 determination of expected loads and crush values. definition of. definition of. 91 Trap seal: definition of. definition of. 5 plastic pipe adhesive. and. definition of. definition of. 100.I. 32. and. 162 individual vents. 59 water test. 32 combination sewers. pipe systems. and. symbols for. 192 United States Department of the Interior. 138 test. 163 vent lines. 137 cupola-furnace. 60 Three-edge bearing formula. 50. 162 Velocity and flow: cast iron soil pipe in. 55 supports for. definition of. 7 definition of. 5 versatility of. 57-58 house (building) sewer. 1. 3 Uses. 36 definition of. pipe systems. 36 circuit vent. and. 1 Vertical piping: instructions for. 36 Trench Preparation: plastic pipe compared to C. 24 test plugs.INDEX 203 Temperatures: condensate. pipe systems. 55 Vertical soil pressure. 39 Venting: battery of fixtures. in. 59 Test tees: illustration of. 15 extremes and piping materials. for. condensate drain lines. 162 storm drains. 97 Vibrating for soil compaction. 163 illustration of. cast iron soil pipe: general applications. for. 64 illustration of. 162 Test plugs: illustrations of. 166-167 Velocity: abrasion. 163 vent system. 71-80 Turbulence: definition of. 162 Valves. of. 81-86 deflection. for. 36 Traps: cast iron for. 96. 60 vent stack. 162 roof drainage. of. illustration of. 59 soil pipe and fittings. 139 Tension: definition of. 81-84 Trenching Recommendations. 162 common vent. and. 57-60 smoke test. 123-131 U Underground Installations: compaction. 39 Vent terminal: illustration of. 162 wet vent. of. 59 Testing: air pressure test. 84 comparison of flexible vs rigid piping. 162 continuous vent. pipe. cast iron. 50. 85 Underground piping: definition of. 59 pipe systems. 84 Uniform Plumbing Code. 162 Tyler Pipe Company. 10 V Vacuum: definition of. building. of. 100-118 Vent stack: definition of. 32. sizing of. for. France. pipe systems. 151 Vibration: plumbing noise. 157 United States Department of Commerce. for. 11.

40 Weymouth. 163 Water test. 163 . 2 Wooden pipe. New York: early foundry at.204 W Waste: definition of. and. 58. 60 house (building) sewer. 64 Water works: installations of in 1890’s. 2 first pipe manufacturer at. 1 Wet vent: definition of. 163 illustration of. 2 Y Yoke vent: definition of. New Jersey: blast furnace at. 4 Weights and measures. 188 West Point. piping systems for: description of.

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