Marine diesel engine

A.WORKING PRINCIPLE A diesel engine is a machine which produces power by burning oil in a body of air which has been compressed to a high pressure by a moving piston. For evolving out power continuously, a full series of the separate steps or events are followed and same series of the steps are repeated. This one set of events is called a Cycle. BASIC IDEAL CYCLES Internal combustion engines work on the basis of three fundamental thermodynamic ideal cycles. These are Otto, Diesel and Dual Combustion cycles. The cycles are conceived with air as the working substance. The mass of air which is assumed to remain constant is taken though a succession of non-flow processes. The theoretical cycles consider no induction and exhaust processes, only heat being added at one part of the cycle and rejected at another.

Otto cycle

Constant volume cycle 1-2 isentropic compression 2-3 heat addition at constant volume 3-4 isentropic expansion 4-1 heat rejection at constant volume Air standard thermal efficiency = 1-(1/r) 1−ϒ , r = comp. Ratio. The working with reference to the P-V diagram and the T-S diagram is as follows; At the beginning of the cycle at the point 1 the cylinder is assumed to be full with a charge of fresh air. The point 1 is called the state point defining pressure and temperature of a certain volume of air. γ From 1 to 2 the air is compressed isentropically following the law PV =C. From 2 to 3 heat is added to the same mass of air at constant volume. Point 3 represents maximum pressure and temperature in the cycle. From 3 to 4 air is expanded isentropically. From 4 to 1 heat is rejected at constant volume. No rejection of the working substance is considered to have taken place. Finally the same mass of air is brought back to it’s initial state at 1 and is ready to repeat the cycle. For this cycle per unit mass of air the quantity of heat added Q a= C v ( T3 – T 2 ) C v is the specific heat of air at constant volume. Thermal efficiency η th = Heat converted to work/ heat added. =( Q a – Q r ) / Q a = 1 – {(T 4– T 1)/ (T 3 – T2)} Using the relationship for perfect gas laws : T 2 / T 1= (V 1 / V 2) ϒ -1 = (r) ϒ -1. Since V 1 / V 2 = r, the compression ratio. T 2 = T 1 x (r) ϒ -1 Again, T 3/ T 4 = ( V 4/ V 3 ) 1−ϒ = ( r ) 1−γ , since V 4 = V 1 and V 3 = V 2 Substituting these values η th = 1 - T3 / (r) 1−γ - T2 / (r) 1−ϒ T3 – T2 = 1 – {( 1/r ) 1−ϒ x (T3-T2)/ (T3-T2) η = 1 – ( 1/r ) 1−ϒ ……………..(1) This equation is known as the air standard thermal efficiency of Otto cycle in terms of compression ratio and the properties of working substance (γ ). The equation shows that the thermal efficiency depends on compression ratio for a given working fluid.

Diesel cycle

T = temperature S = Entropy 1-2 isentropic compression through comp ratio r = V1/V2 2-3 heat addition at constant pressure 3-4 isentropic expansion 4-1 heat rejection at constant volume air standard efficiency = 1 – ( 1/r ) 1−γ { rcϒ - 1 } { ϒ ( rc – 1} where rc = V3/V2 , termed fuel cut-off ratio. This is presented on P-V and T-S planes. Starting with the assumption as before, it consists of an isentropic compression process from 1 to 2 through the compression ratio r = V1/V2. Addition of heat to the mass of air at constant pressure as the cycle passes from 2 to 3. At 3 heat supply is cut off and air is expanded isentropically. Rejection of heat at constant volume from 4 to 1 ; at 1 the substance regains its original state, i.e. pressure, volume and temperature. Heat transferred to unit mass of air Qa = Cp ( T3 – T2 ). Cp is the specific heat at constant pressure And Heat rejected Qr = Cv ( T4 – T1 ) The thermal efficiency η th = 1 – {(Cv X T4 – T1)/ (Cp / T3 – T2) = 1 – 1/γ X ( T4 – T1) / (T3 – T2) Using the fundamental gas equation T2 = T1 ( r) γ -1 For the constant pressure process from 2-3,

V3 / V2 = T3 / T2 = rc, another volume ratio is introduced termed as the fuel cut-off ratio. T3 = rc . T2, also T4 / T3 = ( V3 / V4 ) 1−γ = ({V3 / V2} X {V2 / V4}) 1−γ = ( rc / r ) 1−γ Substituting the values η th = 1 – 1/ϒ {T2 rc. (rc/ r ) 1−γ } – {T2 / (r ) 1−γ } T2.( rc – 1 ) = 1 – ( 1/r ) 1−γ { rcϒ - 1 } ……….2. { ϒ ( rc – 1} This expression represents the efficiency of a diesel cycle in terms or r, rc and ϒ . It differs from that of Otto cycle by the term within brackets which is always greater than 1. Hence the thermal efficiency of Diesel cycle is always less than Otto cycle for the same compression ratio. The practical engines based upon the Diesel cycle can employ higher compression ratios. Therefore a diesel engine using a compression ratio 14 is more efficient than an Otto engine with r = 7. It is also seen that as rc increases, the bracketed term increases and efficiency decreases. Therefore a low cut-off ratio is desirable for best thermal efficiency. In a diesel engine operating at slow speed, there is time enough for the combustion to take place at more or less constant speed. The behavior of many slow speed engines is more correctly represented by a mixed cycle in which part of the heat is added at constant volume and partly at constant pressure. The constant volume cycle has a higher thermal efficiency and specific output but is impractical at high compression ratios because of very high peak pressure. The Diesel cycle on the other hand has less thermal efficiency, less specific output but is practicable at higher compression ratios. Accordingly, the advantages of both the cycles are combined in what is called a mixed cycle.

Dual combustion

Mixed cycle of otto and diesel cycle Heat added partly at constant volume and partly at constant pressure. hence having advantages of both cycles.

Equation (3) represents an expression for thermal efficiency of Dual cycle in terms of r, rc and rp In this equation, if rp is substituted as 1, i.e. all the heat is supplied at constant pressure, then we have the efficiency equation for the Diesel cycle. When rc = I i.e. all the heat is supplied at constant volume then we have the thermal efficiency of constant volume cycle.

The cycles are plotted on P-V and T-S planes. the compression line 1 to 2 is common to all. 2. 3”. 1. 4 represents the Otto cycle. Since all the cycles have the same compression ratio. 2. 3. 1. 3’. It will be seen that the Dual cycle falls in between the two cycles and is represented by 1. Diesel and Dual Cycles compared The three air standard thermodynamic cycles can be compared for the same compression ratio and heat input. . 2’. The cycles then depart according to the mode of heat addition. 2.Otto. 4’’. 1. 4’ represents the Diesel cycle.

Diesel and Dual cycles are represented by areas under the curves 14. The general expression for efficiency is given by: To satisfy the condition of equal heat input the areas under the T-S diagram for each cycle must be the same. The Diesel cycle gives much less maximum pressure but least economy in fuel consumption. that cycle which rejects the maximum heat is the least efficient. The quantity of heat rejected Qr for Otto. but it gives a high maximum pressure as well. The general expression for efficiency is given by: ‫ח‬th= 1 – (Qr/Qa) Qa being the same for each cycle. This analysis reveals that the Otto cycle or the constant volume combustion gives the highest economy as regards fuel consumption as it rejects minimum heat. The importance of the mixed cycle can now be realised in the light of the above statement.To satisfy the condition of equal heat input the areas under the T-S diagram for each cycle must be the same. the maximum pressure would limit the extent to which the gain can be utilised in practice. While the thermal efficiency is of utmost importance. . 14’ and 14” respectively. The Dual cycle falls intermediate between the two.

4 fuel injection. and γ the thermal efficiencies of Diesel and Dual cycles will approach but never reach that for the Otto cycle.e. Hence too high a compression pressure would involve higher weight and cost of the engine. the bearings and other parts whose stresses are determined by peak mechanical and thermal loading. The upper limit of compression ratio is therefore fixed by the strength of the cylinder. The large slow speed marine Diesel engines employ a value of.5 combustion) 5 – 6 expansion 6 – 1 exhaust. 1. Besides. Real cycle Cont. A Diesel lifeboat engine may have a value of r as 20 for good startability from cold. Rounded corners due to non-instantaneous valve operation. The equation (1) shows that if ‘r’ can be increased indefinitely the efficiency will approach 1. An internal combustion engine is an air engine.4 compression. hence y is constant. A high compression ratio gives a very high peak pressure and temperature. medium speed engines can employ slightly higher value of r. (3 . But a very high compression ratio cannot be used from practical considerations. about 16. Thus considering all aspects an optimum value of r is chosen. 100%. But in the higher range the gain becomes progressively less. . increase in ‘r’ in the lower range gives a proportionate gain in thermal efficiency. i. y = combustion loss.r in the neighbourhood of 12-14. rp. 3 . But the pressure rise associated with the increase is undesirable. rp. The mechanical load on bearing would be more and the engine components comprising of the walls of the combustion chamber would have to bear a higher level of thermal stresses.2 suction 2 . The thermal efficiency of Dual cycle is increased if r p is increased. and γ. The crankshaft and other members of the reciprocating engine mechanism are designed to withstand the peak load.The thermal efficiency of Diesel cycle decreases if r c is increased. It follows therefore that there is not much scope to manouvre for an increase of efficiency by manipulating any of the quantities rc. By suitably adjusting values of rc. line = actual curve Dotted line = ideal curve x = compression loss.

The Otto cycle is taken for the comparison with the I. the actual compression curve gives a lower terminal pressure and temperature than the ideal curve ( shown dotted ). Resulting compression is not adiabatic and the difference in vertical height is shown as x. The actual expansion line is shown as a full line. cycle as the principles are generally the same for most IC engine cycles. a reduction in ϒ due to gas-air mixing. This is caused by heat transfer taking place. variable specific heats.The I. The expansion is also not adiabatic.C. The actual combustion gives a lower temperature and pressure than the ideal due to dissociation of molecules caused by high temperatures. The loss can be regarded as clearly as shown between the ideal adiabatic curve from maximum height (shown chain dotted ) and the curve with initial point x + y lower (shown dotted ). etc.C. The expansion is also much removed from adiabatic because of heat transfer taking place and variation of specific heats for the hot gas products of combustion. With reference to figure. . These twofold effects can be regarded as a loss of peak height of (x+y) and a lowered expansion line below the ideal adiabatic expansion line. There is some heat recovery as molecule recombination occurs but this is much less than the dissociation combustion heat loss in practical effect. engine cycle and the equivalent air standard cycle are somewhat similar.

INDUCTION The crankshaft is rotating clockwise and the piston is moving down the cylinder.The assumptions made at the beginning on ideal cycles plus what has been described above are considered. The inlet valve is open and a fresh charge of air is being drawn or pushed into the cylinder by the turbocharger . along with practical details such as rounding of corners due to noninstantaneous valve operation. = 35 bar. mean that the actual diagram appears as shown in the sketch. = 540 º C Power stroke – temp = 1650º C Exhaust stroke 1. Working Principle 4 stroke engine Induction stroke Compression stroke – at the end pr. etc. temp.

By the time the piston is approaching the top of the cylinder (known as Top Dead Centre or TDC) the pressure is over 100 bar and the temperature over 500°C . COMPRESSION The inlet valve has closed and the charge of air is being compressed by the piston as it moves up the cylinder. Because energy is being transferred into the air.2. its pressure and temperature increase.

Because they are very small these droplets heat up very quickly and start to burn as the piston passes over TDC. POWER: Just before TDC fuel is injected into the cylinder by the fuel injector. the engine is having to do the work . It is during this stroke that work energy is being put into the engine. turning the crankshaft. The fuel is "atomised" into tiny droplets. The expanding gas from the fuel burning in the oxygen forces the piston down the cylinder.3. during the other 3 strokes of the piston.

As the piston now moves up the cylinder. carbon dioxide. the hot gases (consisting mostly of nitrogen. EXHAUST As the piston approaches the bottom of the cylinder (known as Bottom Dead Centre or BDC) the exhaust valve starts to open. water vapour and unused oxygen) are expelled from the cylinder. As the Piston approaches TDC again the inlet valve starts to open and the cycle repeats itself .4.

Four stroke timing diagram .

exhaust and induction. The working cycle of a four stroke engine is described with respect to indicator and valve timing diagrams. The injection of fuel begins at a few degrees before the T. 1-2 induction Stroke: Air is drawn into the cylinder at the pressure existing in the intake manifold. C. D.The working cycles The actual engine requires four strokes or two strokes of the piston to complete processes such as compression. The exhaust is blown down in exhaust pipe and the pressure in the cylinder drops. Accordingly the engines are distinguished as four-stroke and two-stroke engines. The fuel is ignited by the high temperature produced at the end of compression and most of the heat is released at constant volume. expansion. The inlet valve closes after the end of the stroke. the air is compressed by the piston in the clearance space. 2-3 Compression Stroke : With both inlet and exhaust valves closed. 3-4 Expansion or working stroke: The gases expand until at the end of stroke when the exhaust valve opens. 4-1 .

Exhaust Stroke : The remaining gases in the cylinder are forced out by the displacement of piston extending over a fill stroke.Ported type 1) Compression 2) Fuel injection 3) Power and exhaust 4) cross scavenging . Two stroke engine Working Principle of 2 stroke engine .

2 stroke Timing diagram (ported .

fuel injection c) combustion. exh v/v about to close b) exh v/v closed compression on.2 stroke Timing diagram ( v/v engine) Working Principle 2 stroke engine( valve) a) scavenge port covered. . expansion d) exh v/v about to open. e) exhausting and scavenging.

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The expanding gas from the fuel burning in the oxygen forces the piston down the cylinder. compressing the charge of air.The crankshaft is revolving clockwise and the piston is moving up the cylinder. The fuel is "atomised" into tiny droplets. Because energy is being transferred into the air. Just before TDC fuel is injected into the cylinder by the fuel injector. Because they are very small these droplets heat up very quickly and start to burn as the piston passes over TDC. By the time the piston is approaching the top of the cylinder (known as Top Dead Center or TDC) the pressure is over 100 bar and the temperature over 500°C • 2. during the upward stroke of the piston. It is during this stroke that work energy is being put into the engine. turning the crankshaft. its pressure and temperature increase. the engine is having to do the work .

closing off the scavenge ports. approx 110º ATDC 5 .3 Fuel Injection2. At about 110° after TDC the exhaust valve opens and the hot exhaust gas (consisting mostly of nitrogen. 1 -2 Compression 1.5 Exhaust Blowdown4.1 Post Scavenging 6. The piston now goes past Bottom Dead Centre and starts moving up the cylinder. At about 140º after TDC the piston uncovers a set of ports known as scavenge ports.4 Power3. approx 140º BTDC . Pressurised air enters the cylinder via these ports and pushes the remaining exhaust gas from the cylinder in a process known as "scavenging". approx 140º ATDC 6 .6 Scavenging5. approx 110º BTDC 2 .3. As the piston moves down the cylinder. approx 10º BTDC 3 . the useful energy from the burning fuel is expended. water vapour and unused oxygen) begin to leave the cylinder 4. carbon dioxide. The exhaust valve then closes and compression begins The two stroke cycle can also be illustrated on a timing diagram. approx 12º ATDC 4 .

Compression ratio = Total volume / clearance volume Horse power – power is amount of work done per unit time or the rate of doing work.the ratio of engine BHP and its indicated HP. Mechanical efficiency . . Toque – measure of engine ability to apply generated power – Nm. Degree of crankshaft rotation – because the piston is connected to the crankshaft. For diesel engine power is rated in units of HP.Diesel engine terminology Bore – refers to diameter of engine cylinder Stroke – refers to distance piston travel from TDC to BDC Engine displacement –refers to the total volume displaced by the pistons during one stroke. Firing order – refers to in order in which each of the cylinder in a multicylinder engine fires. Brake horse power refers to the amount of usable power delivered by the engine to the crankshaft. any location of the piston corresponds directly to a specific number of degrees of crankshaft rotation. IHP is the power transmitted to the piston by the gas in the cylinder and is mathematically calculated. Clearance volume – volume remaining in the cylinder when piston is at TDC.

Unbalanced inertia forces in the running gear. Collect crankcase lubricating oil and return to drain tank for further use.More popular with most engine manufacturers since the engine can directly be bolted to tank. and either side of the thrust collar. in alignment. The two types of bedplate in general use is: The Trestle Type. Torque reaction from propeller. It is the main platform for accurately mounting other parts such as columns. In large engines. Built into the transverse girders are the main bearing pockets for the crankshaft to run in. Side thrust from guide faces. . which secure the engine into the ship would be likely to break. It must be rigid enough to support the weight of the rest of the engine. Connecting these longitudinal girders are the transverse girders which are positioned between each crankshaft throw. Forces applied to the bedplates: Firing load from cylinders. sagging. If the bedplate was too rigid. the holding down bolts. frames and guides which support engine cylinders.top. then as the hull flexed. and there would be a danger of the bedplate cracking. Hull deflections due to hogging. The main functions of the engine bedplate are as follows: The bedplate must be strong enough for providing rigid support for the main bearings and crankshaft. At the same time it must be flexible enough to hog and sag with the foundation plate to which it is attached and which forms part of the ships structure.Require elevated seating. which sits in the bearing housings in the transverse girders. The Box Form or Flat Bottom Type. Weight of engine structure & running gear. entablature and all working parts.ENGINE CONSTRUCTION BED PLATE Operational Information The Two Stroke Crosshead Engine The Bedplate The Bedplate is the foundation on which the 2 stroke engine is built. Basically the bedplate consists of two longitudinal girders which run the length of the engine. racking. must withstand heavy fluctuating stresses from operation of the engine and also transmit the load over an area to the ships hull. and maintain the crankshaft.

An oil tight chamber to contain the oil splash & spray of the forced lubricating oil system. Thermal stresses due to atmospheric and lubricating oil temperature changes.Vibration due to torque variations.. In addition to withstanding forces due to the above causes. the bedplate should provide. shock loading. A housing for the thrust bearing. Basic Structure: The bedplate consists of longitudinal and transverse girders as shown below Longitudinal Girders may be single or double plate construction . Inertia & gyroscopic forces due to ship's movement in heavy seas. A drainage grid to filter out large particles before they enter the oil sump or drain tank. Having provided for all the above the bedplate should also be small & light to keep the overall size and mass of the engine to a minimum.

Box girders-A box girder is stronger and more rigid then I or H section girder of the same c. .a.s.

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Problems were encountered with cracking of the transverse girders. The steel is to Classification Society specifications and is a low carbon steel with a maximum carbon content of 0. This means it is welded together from steel sections. Earlier fabricated bedplates had box section longitudinal girders and box section fabricated transverse girders.23%. steel castings and plate.On the small bore engines. which increased as engine powers and crankshaft throws got larger . Larger engines have a fabricated bedplate. the bedplate can be made from cast iron as a single casting.

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The Engine must also be lined up with the propeller shaft. The thrust bearing which is situated at the aft end of the engine transmits this thrust from the crankshaft to the bedplate. causing unacceptable stresses to be set up when the engine was running. which in turn would distort the crankshaft. the propeller tries to push or thrust the propeller shaft and engine crankshaft forward into the ship. then when the bolts were tightened the bedplate would be distorted. then it is easy to visualise that trying to connect them would cause bending stresses to be set up. The engine must also be bolted to a flat surface. . cast iron chocks are hand fitted between the machined underside of the bedplate and machined spots on the foundation plate. The engine must be securely fixed into the ship. The bedplate is mounted on chocks and is securely bolted to the engine foundation plate on which it sits and which forms part of the structure of the hull. When the bedplate is in perfect alignment. Before the engine is bolted down it is supported on jacks whilst it is aligned with the tailshaft bearing. If the surface was uneven. As the engine turns the propeller. This is a skilled task and 80% contact is the aim. or to port or stbd of the propeller shaft. Modern methods use a laser. If the engine output driving flange was higher or lower.Operational Information Holding Down and Chocking The engine is mounted on resin or cast iron chocks and bolted to the hull using holding down bolts. and measuring the distance from the wire to the crankshaft bearing centres. This can be done by stretching a wire above the tailshaft and crankshsft.

. the bedplate (and main bearings) will be pulled out of alignment. If this continues and the bolts are subsequently tightened down. then the mating surfaces will rub against each other and wear away in a process known as fretting. Holding down bolts should be checked regularly for tightness.Once the engine is supported by the chocks the jacks are removed and the holding down bolts are tightened using a hydraulic jack to stretch the bolts. If they are allowed to come loose.

Conventional Holdingdown bolt

a liner is hand fitted on a 100:1 taper and then driven home. . The chock is welded to the foundation plate as shown.Side Chocking Side chocks are fitted to prevent the engine from moving sideways due to the movement of the vessel or because of the sideways component of thrust from the reciprocating and rotating parts.

locking screws are hardened down as shown. where after driving the liner home.This is a side chocking arrangement. .

and after fitting are susceptible to fretting and wear. .End Chock (aft end of the engine only) Resin Chocking Steel chocking has the disadvantages that each block must be individually fitted. They form into the shape of the clearance and key into surface imperfections. a time consuming process. Resin chocks are poured and therefore are much quicker to apply. This much reduces damage due to fretting and removes bending momemts on the holding down bolts.

. – Water absorption. A sample cured in the correct way is tested for the following. – Flammability. – Heat deflection temperature. – The impact resistance – Hardness. – Compressive creep – Curing linear shrinkage. – Oil absorption.The disadvantage is that the resin creation must be precise and that it is less straight forward to replace in the event of damage of misaligenement. – Compressive strength (stress at maximum load) and modulus of elasticity. • • • Properties The material used for the rsin chocking is Class tested to ensure minimum standards.

Guides (cast iron ) were bolted on the frames. Heavy covers or longitudinal stiffness are to be used to make side covers oil-tight. The frames were later fabricated from mild steel tube and plate. Longitudinal girder construction is the latest development for this part of the structure. which left them in compression. These carry the crosshead guides and support the engine entablature (the cylinder block). with most engines. The spaces between the frames along the length of the engine are fitted with plates bolted to the frames. This would be a weak structure to withstand a crankcase explosion. This arrangement used individual frames at each cross girder (of the bedplate) position. These. Alignment of cylinder block to bedplate would vary under ship movement. they carry guide surfaces and are usually bolted to bedplate and cylinder blocks or entablature.ENGINE CONSTRUCTION A FRAME Frames were earlier made of cast iron and made hollow to reduce the weight. On older engines. are prefabricated steel. the A frames were individually . This type of structure is strong transversely. Operational Information The Two Stroke Crosshead Engine The A Frames Otherwise known as the A Frames. the latter being used for air supply purposes. but comparatively little flexible longitudinally. They were sandwiched between bedplate and cylinder block by tie bolts. jacket and cylinder support.

The trend nowadays is to build the frame box as a separate fabricated construction and then. to mount it on the bedplate.erected on the bedplate directly above the transverse girders. after stress relieving and machining the mating surfaces. This has the advantage of saving weight. . When boxed in with plating they formed the crankcase.

Lowering the A frame onto the bedplate. A small amount of jointing compound is used to ensure an oil tight joint.

When the frames are aligned on the bed plate they are secured together by drilling and reaming and using fitted bolts.

Cracking in A frames can occur leading to misalignment and excessive wear of the running gear. Cracks can start from welds, sharp changes in section and where strengthening stringers are terminated sharply. Repairs can involve cutting the crack out, grinding and rewelding. The danger is that after repair there may still be misalignment.

They are subjected to fluctuating load from the transverse components of the connecting rod reaction. There are two major forms of guide / guide way : the 2-faced guides and the four faced guides are there – as shown. .Frame with Guides GUIDES IN THE CROSSHEAD TYPE ENGINE These guides are fitted to crosshead engines and are vertical sliding bearings which locate and maintain alignment of the crosshead over the whole length of engine stroke. uneven loads and fatigue. Guide slippers (or shoes) are attached to the ends of the crossheads and may be free to articulate: they are white metal lined with oil grooves lubricated from the crosshead. Guide bars or surfaces are secured to the frame adjacent to the unit and have either cast iron or steel bearing surfaces. wear on bearings and glands. Guide clearances must be checked periodically and should not exceed0.7 mm for a large engine. Excess clearance will cause noise.

A. Subjected to fluctuating loads from conn.N ENGINE) 4 faced guide (B&W. Vertical sliding bearings – locates and maintain alignment of the cross head during entire stroke. material – CI or steel there are 2 forms of guides:2 faced guide ( M. rod reaction Guide bars are secured to the frame adjacent to the units. Sulzer) .Cross head guides Cross head guides Fi tted to cross head engines only.

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it is necessary to appreciate what is happening inside the cylinder of the engine. To prevent excessive bending moments in the transverse girders. frames and entablature firmly together in compression. To hold the bedplate . maintaining the engine structures in compression. trying to lift the cylinder cover. The beam transfers the load through the tie-bolt nuts and the tie-bolts to the bedplate cross girders. . Bracing screws are located at the length of the bolts to reduce the vibrations. the tie bolts are positioned as close to the centre of the crankshaft as possible. The cylinder head studs screwed into the entablature prevent this happening and so this upward acting force tries to lift the entablature from the frames and the frames from the bedplate. Because the tie bolts are so close to the crankshaft. and then rises again as the piston changes direction and moves upwards on the compression stroke. some engines employ jack bolts to hold the crankshaft main bearing cap in position instead of conventional studs and nuts.TIE-BOLTS The entablature. Because they are not designed to withstand such stresses they would soon fail with disastrous consequences. the pressure acts upwards. When the piston is just after top dead centre the pressure inside the cylinder can rise as high as 140 bar (14000kN/m2). The tie-bolts are hydraulically tightened to pre-stress the structure. The firing load from the cylinder covers is transferred through the bottom studs to the cylinder beams. At the same time. This means that the fitted bolts are under are cyclic stress. and to transmit the firing forces back to the bedplate. Operational Information The Two Stroke Crosshead Engine The Tie Bolts or Tie Rods To understand the importance of the role played by the tie bolts or tie rods. A-frames and bedplate are held together by long tie-bolts that transmit the combustion gases from the tops of the cylinder down to the bedplate cross-members. putting the fitted location bolts into tension. long tie bolts are fitted through these three components and then tightened hydraulically. pushing the crankshaft down into the bearing pockets. As the piston moves down the cylinder the pressure in the cylinder falls. This acts downwards through the piston rod and con-rod.

If a breakage does occur. frame and entablature in alignment to stretch and break. Tie bolts can break in service. and the stuffing box will no longer be in line and excessive wear will occur. The machined mating surfaces will rub together. then the only solution is to remove the entablature or/and frame and machine the fretted mating surfaces (a very costly exercise). Loose tie bolts will also cause the transverse girders to bend which could lead to cracking. Once fretting between the mating surfaces has occurred. not overtightened. as the engine can be operated with care for a limited period (the load on the engine may have to be reduced). Because the tie bolts will no longer be pulled down squarely they will be subject to forces which may lead to them breaking. this is not disastrous. and the engine not overloaded.Operating the engine with loose tiebolts will cause the fitted bolts holding the bedplate. then tightening of the tie bolts will pull the engine out of alignment. and main bearing misalignment. To reduce the risk of this happening they must be checked for tightness. the cylinder liner. corrode and wear away (this is known as fretting). The crosshead guides. Once this has happened the alignment of the engine running gear will be destroyed. If fretting has occurred. .

Tie-bolt should be checked for tightness and flaws.The position of the fracture will dictate how the broken pieces are removed. Landing faces of the tie-bolt upper and lower nuts. Tie-bolt centers should be as close to the crankshaft as possible to reduce bending stresses on the girdles and to prevent unbalanced loads being transmitted into the welds. the cylinder beam would flex and lift at the location. landing faces of the cylinder beam on the frame would fret and machined faces would eventually be destroyed. The bracing bolts would also be slackened. Sulzer . If any of the bolts were slack.Jackbolts .

Jackbolts are used for tigtening the main bearing.In Sulzer Engines. . By this arrangement. which helps to reduce the bending stress in the cross girders of the bedplate. instead of bolts and nuts. the tie rods are brought as close as possible to the crankshaft centreline.

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reduces the distortion of the bedplate during engine operation. The normal order is to start at the centre and work outwards checking the bolts in pairs . This. When checking the tightness of tie bolts.On the MAN B&W MC-C engine the tie bolts do not pass through the bedplate transverse girder in the traditional way. refer to manufacturers instructions for tightening pressures for the jacks and the order in which to carry out the check. Instead there are two pairs of tie bolts fitted either side of the single plate A frame and screwed into the bedplate transverse girder. it is claimed.

If the engine is fitted with bearing jacking bolts. then these must be slackened before tightening the tie bolts. starting at the fwd end and working aft.The MC -C engine with its twin tie bolts is an exception. Any pinch bolts fitted must also be slackened off .

.cylinder units. The underside of the cylinder beam is machined and then it is aligned on the A frames and fastened in position using fitted bolts It is important to remember that the fitted bolts used to bolt the entablature. it is generally of box form. castings are either for individual cylinders which after machining on the mating surfaces are bolted together to form the cylinder beam. This is the job of the tie bolts. or they may be cast in multi . It forms the housing to take the cylinder liner and is made of cast iron. They are not designed to resist the firing forces which will tend to separate the three components. A frames and Bedplate together are for alignment and location purposes only. In 2-stroke engines. The entablature is the name given to the cylinder block which incorporates the scavenge air space and the cooling water spaces. which are then bolted together.CYLINDER Liner and Jacket (Entablature) The structure above the bedplate and the frame to which the cylinders are attached is known as the entablature.

Note also the diaphragm plate and the stuffing box housing Entablature Mounted On A Frame With Liners In Place . the liners can be seen in place in the entablature.In the photograph opposite.

With this design. . The photograph shows the frame of an engine with the liners and crankshaft in place. frame and entablature as with a 2 stroke slow speed engine.The engine frame of a modern 4 stroke medium speed diesel can be produced as a single casting or fabricated from cast steel sections and steel plates welded together. there is no separate bedplate.

Cast iron is generally regarded as a suitable material for construction of diesel engine cylinder liner. Ultimate bending strength: 520 Mn/mm2. copper etc. Has good wear resistance: Due to large surface of irregular shaped graphite flakes. Refines grain structure Titanium: 0. The total percentages of alloying inclusions should not exceed beyond 5%. Silicon: 1 to 2. Ultimate compressive strength: 900 Mn/mm2. Its graphite flakes assist lubrication. The str cyl. chromium. Improves fluidity and graphite formation. Improves strength Specification Ultimate tensile strength: 200 Mn/mm2. Reduces porosity Vanadium: 0.220 HB.0. Manganese: 0. Brinell Hardness: 180 .15%. vanadium.4%. cast iron is alloyed with the inclusion of small quantities of nickel.8% Phosphorous: 0.6 . molybdenum.05%.5% maximum. Block .C Material. Ductility: 1 to 5% Elongation. Such inclusions refine the grain structure of the material. Reasons for using Cast Iron: Can be cast in to intricate shapes. Good quality ‘Pearlitic Grey Cast Iron’ consist of the following alloying material: Carbon: 3 to 3. In order to improve strength and induce specific desirable properties such as strength and surface properties.0%. Due to semi-porous surface holding oil pockets.

the more difficult to produce a homogenous casting with low residual stresses The Liner will get tend to get very hot during engine operation as the heat energy from the burning fuel is transferred to the cylinder wall. The reasons for manufacturing the liner separately from the cylinder block (jacket) in which it is located are as follows. then unacceptable thermal stresses would be set up. So that the temperature can be kept within acceptable limits the liner is cooled. vanadium and molybdenum. the liner is a lot hotter than the jacket. The liner can be manufactured using a superior material to the cylinder block.Possesses good thermal conductivity. The liner must be gauged regularly to establish the wear rate and check that it is within manufacturers tolerances. The more complex the casting.) . causing fracture of the material. (cast iron contains graphite. and therefore may have to be replaced. The liner will expand more and is free to expand diametrically and lengthwise. If they were cast as one piece. At working temperature. Less risk of defects. a lubricant. The cylinder liner will wear with use. Cheap material. While the cylinder block is made from a grey cast iron. The cylinder liner forms the cylindrical space in which the piston reciprocates. Damps out vibrations due to rapid combustion. The alloying elements help resist corrosion and improve the wear resistance at high temperatures. the liner is manufactured from a cast iron alloyed with chromium. The wear rate for a medium speed liner should be below . The cylinder jacket lasts the life of the engine.

0. impurities in fuel air or Lubricating oil. bad combustion and acid attack.015mm/1000hrs. . Excessive wear is caused by lack of lubrication.

before being transferred to the cylinder head by the guide jacket Problems were experienced.The diagram shows a cylinder liner from an older Sulzer RTA engine. Bore cooling brings the cooling water close to the liner surface. especially on the long stroke engines with cold corrosion due to overcooling towards the lower end of the liner. The liner is cooled for most of its length using a water guide ring inserted into the entablature. If th th .

To counteract this. and inserts placed in the cooling bores to reduce the flow rate. . the outside of the liner was coated in an insulating material called "Haramaki".

the bores are not tangential. but are blind holes drilled close to the liner surface as shown Steel tubes are inserted into these bores. thus giving a cooling flow The water then passes through transition pipes to the cylinder head The smaller MAN B&W engines use a cooling water jacket external to the engine entablature to contain the cooling water On some versions there is a small amount of cooling in the entablature. on others.The MAN B&W 2 stroke engine also utilises bore cooling on the large engines In these engines. the cooling is completely external . almost to the end of the blind holes and the cooling water passes up the tubes and overflows down the bores.

long stroke engines it was found that the undercooling further down the liner was taking place. but if it is cooled it will condense on the liner surface and wash away the lube oil film. Normally this is in the form of steam. .On some large bore. the hydrogen in the fuel combines with the oxygen and burns to form water. Why is this a problem? Well.

This burns in the oxygen and the products combine with the water to form sulphuric acid.Fuels also contain sulphur. If this condenses on the liner surface (below 140º) then corrosion can take place. On The latest engines the liner is only cooled at the very top. Once the oil film has been destroyed then wear will take place at an alarming rate. . One solution is to insulate the outside of the liner so that there was a reduction in the cooling effect.

just as the piston ring pack is passing the injection point.Cylinder lubrication: Because the cylinder is separate from the crankcase there is no splash lubrication as on a trunk piston engine. engine load and engine speed. The latest engines time the injection of oil using a computer which has inputs from the crankshaft position. . Oil is supplied through drillings in the liner. The correct quantity of oil can be injected by opening valves from a pressurized system. Grooves machined in the liner from the injection points spread the oil circumferentially around the liner and the piston rings assist in spreading the oil up and down the length of the liner. The oil is of a high alkalinity which combats the acid attack from the sulphur in the fuel.

the liner is gauged during the routine unit overhaul (15000 hrs). and to predict if and when the liner will require changing. Although on a 2 stroke engine the condition of the liner can be established by inspection through the scavenge ports (evidence of blowby. or if the unit has to be opened up for any reason . scuffing etc.).• • Gauging a liner is carried out for two reasons: To establish the wear rate of the liner.

a flat bar is hung down the side of the liner with holes drilled through where the measurements are to be taken. Then as the piston slows down and the rings pass over the port bars. so that accurate comparisons may be made. A liner is gauged by measuring the diameter of the liner at fixed points down its length. a reduction in surface area. It is measured from port to stbd (athwartships) and fwd to aft. To ensure that the liner is always measured in the same place. and so the lubrication is only boundary.The relative speed of the piston is low. Because of these factors wear at the top of a liner increases to a maximum a few centimetres below the position of the top ring at TDC. and then decreases as the ring pressure and liner wall temperature decreases and the piston speed increases building up a hydrodynamic film between liner and ring surfaces. the wear will increase due to boundary lubrication. and oil being blown out into the scavenge space. An internal micrometer is used because of its accuracy (within 0. • B p p .01mm).

On a medium speed trunk piston engine where the procedure for gauging is similar.05mm/1000 hours. but on a large 2 stroke crosshead engine ideally should be about 0.015mm/1000 hours. Wear rate varies. the micrometer gauge is checked against a standard. . the wear rate is around 0. If the temperature is higher then a correction factor can be applied.Measurements are taken at more frequent intervals at the top of the liner where wear rate is expected to be highest. The readings can be recorded in tabular form. To ensure micrometer and liner are at the same temperature. To ensure accuracy. and the liner and micrometer should be at ambient temperature. lay the micrometer on the entablature for a few minutes before starting. and from the data obtained the wear rate/1000 hours can be calculated.

While the cylinder block is made from a grey cast iron. At working temperature. then unacceptable thermal stresses would be set up. (cast iron contains graphite. and therefore may have to be replaced. the liner is manufactured from a nodular cast iron alloyed with chromium. The alloying elements help resist corrosion and improve the wear resistance at high temperatures. Insid tempe piston . vanadium and molybdenum. the more difficult to produce a homogenous casting with low residual stresses. a lubricant.The cylinder liner is cast separately from the main cylinder frame for the same reasons as given for the 2 stroke engine which are: The liner can be manufactured using a superior material to the cylinder block. Less risk of defects. The liner will expand more and is free to expand diametrically and lengthwise. causing fracture of the material. If they were cast as one piece. The more complex the casting. The cylinder jacket lasts the life of the engine.) The cylinder liner will wear with use. the liner is a lot hotter than the jacket.

This brings the cooling water close to the liner surface to keep the liner wall temperature within acceptable limits so that there is not a breakdown in lubrication or excessive thermal stressing. cylinder lubricators may be provided on the larger engines. Another set of holes are drilled to meet up with these vertically bored holes at the point where the oil is required at the liner surface. the lubricator drillings are bored from the bottom of the liner circumferentially around the liner wall. Although the liner is splash lubricated from the revolving crankshaft. . Other engines may utilise axial drillings as in a two stroke engine.Modern liners employ bore cooling at the top of the liner where the pressure stress is high and therefore the liner wall thickness has to be increased. On the example shown opposite.

This is sometimes known as an antipolishing ring.Note that the liner opposite is fitted with a fireband. If this carbon is allowed to build up it will eventually rub against the liner wall. polishing it and destroying its oil retention properties . and its purpose is to remove the carbon which builds up on the piston above the top ring. It is slightly smaller in diameter than the liner.

• Cyl comb . Loop and cross scavenging two-stroke engines need not accommodate any exhaust valves as they are not required.Cylinder cover The cylinder head forms the third and last component of the combustion chamber. There are no inlet valves. Its main function is to close the end of the cylinder and seal in the gases as they undergo a cycle involving extreme pressure and temperature. Cylinder heads in four-stoke engines have to accommodate valves and passages for the introduction of air and the exit of exhaust gases. Stresses from these extreme gas pressure and temperature may lead to cracks. Valves found in four stroke engines would be: Intake Exhaust Fuel injector Relief valve Indicator cock Air starting valve Those found in two stroke engines are: Large exhaust valve Fuel injector Relief valve Indicator cock Air starting valve.

the air start valve. the fuel injector. The passages for the inlet air and exhaust gas are incorporated.Cylinder heads for 4 stroke engines are of a complex design. They have to house the inlet and exhaust valves. relief valve and indicator cock. as are the cooling water passages and spaces. .

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Cast iron is not good at with standing bending stresses. Hence steel is used with bore cooling. .Earlier engines were often fitted with two part cylinder cover. CAST IRON IS NOT SUITABLE FOR MODERN TWO STROKE VENGINES The cylinder cover must be able to with stand gas loads with tends to deform its shape.

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discharge of exhaust Gas and in many 2 stroke engines discharge of exh. C.VALVE AND VALVE GEARS Valve Gear: It designates the combination of all parts. the discharge of exhaust gases in some two stroke engines (uniflow scavenging type). These parts include cams.Valves are used to cover / uncover the passage of flow. and size of the engines.c/shaft drives cam shaft by gears or chain.injection and some mechanical-injection engines. The valve gears of diesel engines vary considerably in their construction. and the admission of compressed air for starting most of the larger engines. and hold them open during the required time. In all 4 stroke engines admission of air charge. camshaft and camshaft drive. open and close them at the proper moment in respect to the position of the piston and crankpin. speed.13. including the various valves. – for hydraulic drive the cam drives a hyd. Actuator. transmits the action to rocker arm to operate the valves for mechanical drive. the admission of fuel in air. Valve Timing Gear: It designates the combination of those parts only which affect and control the moment of opening and closing of the valves with respect to crank and piston position. Valve Gears – to produce action on valves . depending on type. As soon as the closing side of the cam moves under the transmitting mechanism the valve spring starts to return the valve to its seat( closed) . the oil in turn moves the valve by a piston. Valve Actuating Gear: It designates the combination of those parts only which operate or actuate the various intake. exhaust. which control the admission of air charge and the discharge of exhaust gases in four stroke engines.combination of parts. fuel and air-starter valves.VALVES AND VALVE GEARS. including valves which controls the operation of above. Basic drive . Gas. Valves . Cams on the camshaft lifts push rod.

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Valve operating gear .

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valve and seat as one unit and fitted on cyl head.shaped poppet type. The clearance between valve and guide – due to excess wear – overheating of valve. Some 4 st engines have 2 inlet and 2 exh v/vs. for space arrangement. chromium) v/v moves in a removable guide fitted in cylinder head. valve construction Head of the valve is cooled -conducts heat to seat in cyl. carbon forms and sticky. The seat is a removable seat fitted in cyl head with cooling arrangement. valve and seat faces are hardened with cobalt-chromium-tungsten (stelite). cage may be separately cooled. in some cases valve cages – to make valve seat removal easier. excess oil consumption. cooler valves. Timing gear Responsible for actuating the valves at right time with respect to c/shaft (Piston position) In 4 st engine the camshaft speed is half the c/shaft speed.head (water clg). engines – to reduce pumping loss and also increase volumetric efficiency.Valve Requirement to get fresh air into engine and exhaust gas out Exh v/v opening (size) is as big as possible for 2 stroke engine – exh open for short duration. To make valve and seat faces wear resistance. so to reduce back pressure Inlet v/v opening (size) more important in 4 st. valve construction . Head and stem as one piece seating edge beveled at a 45* / 30* angle Inlet v/v – cooler . Chain drive and gear drive. Mushroom.Seat rings of wear resistant material are also used. .carbon or low alloy steel Exh v/v – hotter – silicon-chromium steel ( nickal. less v/v opening. Some exh v/vs rotated a slight amount each revolution to keep the valve clean (carbon deposits) and ensure even wear between v/v and seat. Springs holds the valves firmly against the seat.

(resonance is where two items vibrate at the same frequency thus the amplitude of the vibration is amplified.Two different sized springs are fitted to aid positive closing of the valves.) Caged Exhaust valve . The two springs have different vibration characteristics. The reason for fitting two springs are that if one fails. so the incidence of resonance is reduced. the other will prevent the valve dropping down into the cylinder.

The velocity of the burning gas will erode the surface. . which will rapidly increase together with a loss of power from the unit. leading to further burning and greater distortion. weakening the material and distorting the surfaces. allowing more gas to leak by. The first indication of a valve burning out will be a rise in the exhaust temperature. The temperature of the valve in this area will rise further. This will cause the temperature of the valve and seat to rise in this area. the high pressure burning gas will pass across the faces of the valve and seat during the power stroke.Burning Out of Exhaust Valves Once an exhaust valve does not seat correctly.

with cams either integral or keyed / keyless fitting. . Pushrods • Generally tubes to reduce weight. exh valve & fuel pump.Valve cage Camshafts • in 4 st engines carries the cams for inlet valve. Operations. • camshaft is supported by bearings – plain bush or split sleeve. • construction – forged as one piece including the cams or separate cams keyed on a shaft. • in 2 st exh v/v type engines carries the exh cams & fuel pump cams. In large engines camshaft in sections. • Additionally may carry cams for air starting operation and other aux.

on a six cylinder engine. the flanges must have 6 equi spaced holes or a multiple thereof. the number of holes for fitted bolts in the flanges must be sufficient to allow the cam to be timed for any unit on the engine. Camshaft There are several different methods of manufacturing camshafts for medium speed 4 stroke marine diesel engines. inlet. the camshaft may be a single forging complete with cams.end rounded shape)) fits into the cup. On the smaller engines. The cams must be hard enough to resist the wear and abrasion due to .• • The lower end contacts the follower which carries a roller( tappet roller) running on the cam. Alternatively the camshaft can be built up in single cylinder elements. and exhaust cam on a section of the camshaft with a flange on each end. each element made up of the fuel.The end of the rocker arm (fitted with a tappet bolt. The upper end is fitted with a cup. So that the element can be used on any unit in the engine. For example.

pressure oil is led to one side of a hydraulic piston which is coupled to the camshaft. if the bores in the cams were all the same diameter. Care must be exercised not to damage the camshaft or adjacent cams during the operation . Most medium speed engines are unidirectional (i. or because if they are used as direct main propulsion they tend to be driving a controllable pitch propeller. To reverse the direction of the engine. To overcome this problem the camshaft is stepped. The larger bored cams fit easily over the small diameter steps till they reach the correct position on the camshaft. Because the engine is a four stroke. The cams are therefore surface hardened using the nitriding process. then the camshaft has two sets of cams. the camshaft will rotate at half the speed of the crankshaft. This is because they either are driving an alternator. In the case where the engine is reversing. if not impossible. and one for astern. The nitrided alloy steel cams are then shrunk on to the steel shaft using heat or hydraulic means.e they only rotate one way). On the larger engines it is usual to manufacture the camshaft and cams separately. (the valves and fuel pump will only operate once for every two revolutions of the crankshaft). In a case where the cams are shrunk on the camshaft. to fit the first cams all the way along the length of the shaft to the correct position. if a cam becomes damaged and has to be replaced. it would be very difficult. then it can be cut off using a cutter grinder.impurities in the lub. yet they must be tough enough to resist shattering due to shock loading. one for ahead operation. The camshaft is either chain or gear driven from the crankshaft. The whole camshaft is moved axially and the cam followers slide up or down ramps which connect the ahead and astern cams. Keys are not generally used to locate the cams as they would act as stress raisers. Because the cams are fitted progressively onto the shaft. oil. with the largest diameters at the end which has the cams fitted first.

• The replacement cam is fitted in two halves which is then bolted on the camshaft in the correct position and the timing rechecked CUT SECTION OF CAM .

Springs serves to close valves. lubrication of fulcrum and contact points done.It may prevent the valve from closing completely as it expands . If more v/v will open late and close early . when follower is on base of the cam (v/v closed). increases the lift of the valve.(Tappet) Tappet clearance provided on the valve side – to take care of wear and expansion – to ensure v/v closes firmly. Attachment to head by stanchion bolted. Clearance is required between valve stem and RA. reduces the lift (stroke). If not the v/v will remain partly open.Rocker Arms To actuate the valves in the cyl head via cam. Valve Clearances To allow thermal expansion. Contact to v/v stem by roller / screw. to prevent bouncing the spring is maintained in compression all time. made of highly tempered steel wire wound in a spiral coil. causes wear on guide. If less open early and close late. and causes noise.cam follower and pushrod tappets. To be adjusted regularly due to wear. RA moves at an angle to vertical also some horizontal thrust-on valve stem. Swings on steel fulcrum pin or pivot / needle bearing.

and with the push rod follower on the base circle of the cam. .To set valve clearance a feeler gauge is used in conjunction with tappet adjustment to manufacturer specification. It is to ensure that the valve closes properly when it expands as it gets to operating temperature. Clearances are set according to manufacturers instructions. Rocker or Tappet Clearances Rocker or Tappet clearances refer to the clearance between the top of the valve spindle and the rocker arm.) Hydraulically actuated Exhaust valve No need for RA Valve opens by hyd oil pressure the actuating gear is equipped with a locking device to retain the roller guide in its top position – so that exh valve can be kept out of operation. but usually done with the engine cold. (one way of ensuring this is to turn the unit being adjusted to TDC on the power stroke.

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Crankshaft Function – to convert reciprocating motion of piston to that of rotary motion at the output shaft. Each web is like a cantilever beam subjected to bending & twisting.large). Consists of journals. crank webs and crankpin (conn rod journal) Two types – single piece (4 stroke)and shrunk fit type (2 stroke. Semibuilt – webs and crankpin as one unit shrunk on to journal – large and medium speed marine diesel engine Solid forged – one piece. improves the balancing of engine and relieves the load on main bearing. . Journals would be principally subjected to twisting.Duto shrinkage of the web onto the journals. 3. 2.Bending causes tensile & compressive stresses. either cast or forged – high speed diesel engine Stresses in Crankshaft The crankpin is like a builtin beam with a distributed load along its length that varies with crank position.Twisting causes shear stress. compressive stresses are set up in journals & tensile hoop stresses in the webs. crank throw – distance from c/l of main journal to c/l of crank pin – equel to half of engine stroke. Tyes of Crankshaft Fully built – webs are shrunk on to the main journal and crankpin – large marine diesel engine.to crankpins. 1. Counter weights – added to webs opp.

. ii) Alternating forces produced by varying gas pressure. iii) Inertia forces of the moving parts.The force that occur in a vertical diesel engine crankshaft are as follows: i) Static weight of engine components (moving). compressive and shear stresses. iv) Centrifugal force at crank. Shear in way of journal. v) The crank-web is subjected to tensile.

015 iron.2 0.01 0.32. Carbon Silicon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Remainder Percentage. 0. . a typical analysis.MATERIALS. method of construction and testing would be as follows: Material analysis: Cast steel Element. 0.7 0. In the case of large marine diesel engine the type of shaft generally favored is the cast or forged steel semi-built.

In doing so. so the diameter of the bored holes would try and shrink back to their original size.The Two Stroke Crosshead Engine The Crankshaft The crankshafts on the large modern 2 stroke crosshead engines can weigh over 300 tonnes. The webs were heated up and the crankpins and journals fitted into the holes (which due to the heat had expanded in size).4% carbon steel. On older engines the so called fully built method was used. The advantages of this method of construction is that by making the two webs and crankpin from a single forging the grain flow in the steel follows the web round into the crankpin and back down the other web. The crankpins and journals were machined and matching holes bored in the webs. the crankpins and journals would be gripped tightly enough to stop them being able to slip when the engine was being operated normally. The shrink fit allowance is between 1/570 and 1/660 of the diameter. In this method of construction the crankshaft "throws" consisting of two webs and the crankpin are made from a single forging of a 0. crankpins and main journals. The webs are bored to take the separately forged and machined main journals which are fitted into the webs using the shrink fitting method described above. As the webs cooled down. They are too big to make as a single unit and so are constructed by joining together individual forgings. Today. . which were slightly smaller in diameter. This consisted of forging separate webs. crankshafts for large 2 stroke crosshead engines are of the semi built type.

the webs can be reduced in thickness and a hole is sometimes bored through the crankpin as shown. Built up Crankshaft Manufacture . reducing the weight without compromising strength.Because the crankpin and webs are a single forging.

Crankshaft views .

leading to a lighter shorter crankshaft. As well as having the advantage of continuous grain flow. web. and half a main journal. All Welded C/shaft .THE WELDED CRANKSHAFT The welded crankshaft was developed in the 1980s. second web. Why aren't all crankshafts produced by this method? Cost! It was very expensive and only about twenty crankshafts were produced by this method. crankpin. the webs could be made thinner (no shrink fit to accommodate). After welding the journals were stress relieved and machined. These forgings were then welded together using a submerged arc welding process to form the crankshaft. It was made up of a series of forgings each comprising of half a main journal. They have performed very well in service however.

Crankshaft and bearings .

The Medium Speed 4 Stroke Trunk Piston Engine The Crankshaft The Crankshaft for a medium speed 4 stroke diesel engine is made from a one piece forging.4% carbon steel is heated in a furnace It is then moved to the forging presses . First the billet of 0.

In the hydraulic forging press the crankshaft throws and flanges are formed. The crankshaft is locally heated to a white heat where the webs are desired to be formed. The crankshaft is then compressed axially to form the start of the webs .

The nitrogen dissociates from the ammonia gas and combines with the chromium and aluminium to form hard nitrates at the surface. Re-entrant fillet radii . and the radii at the change of section cold rolled. Re-entrant fillets are sometimes employed. This allows for a shorter crankshaft without compromising on bearing length. again to increase fatigue resistance. These radii are cold rolled to remove machining marks.2% Mo) The crankshaft is heated to 500ºC in ammonia gas for up to 4 days. fillet radii are machined so there is not a sharp corner to act as a stress raiser. If the crankshafts are to be surface hardened they are made of a steel alloy known as nitralloy (a steel containing 1. stress relieved.The forgings are then machined.5%Cr. The molybdenum refines the grain structure at the still tough core. 1% Al and 0. harden the surface and to induce a residual compressive stress. Fillet Radii At the change of section between journal and web and web and crankpin.

• Unlike the crankshafts for slow speed 2 stroke crosshead engines.Oil Holes in Crankshafts. the holes must be smoothly radiused. • Crankweb Formation from Round Rod Web Formation . the crankshaft for the medium speed trunk piston engine must have holes drilled in it so that oil can travel from the main bearing journals to the crankpin and then UP the con rod to lubricate the piston pin and cool the piston. If the surface finish of the holes is not good. At the exit points on the crankpin. which lubricate the bottom ends by sending the oil DOWN the con rod from the crosshead. So that the crankshaft strength is not compromised the holes should be positioned horizontally when the crank is at TDC. then cracks can start from the flaws.

Crank Formation .

Eliminate bending moments on the bolts (caused by uneven tightening.Connecting Rod: This is a highly stressed component resulting from: 1. Reduce the risk of fretting between palm and housing. and maximum tensile at T. having generous fillets. which is a major factor in fatigue failure (the maximum stress way be increased but.30 — 0. bottom end bearings .D.D. For calculation purposes the component is considered as a strut subject to buckling and transverse loading. Stress and load concentration is reduced at the ends of the rod by increasing the area through a tapered section. 4. . resulting in stress concentration in the root of the thread. usually circular for slow speed engines and ‘H’ for medium and high speed.D.D. Materials for Connecting Rod: Forged steel: Carbon: 0. In ‘V’ engines there may be additional transverse loading from the connecting rod. Around the edges of the boltholes. 2. Reduce the range of stress fluctuation.C. the fluctuation range is reduced). producing a bending moment).C) 2. Provide the correct ‘nip’ to the thin shell bearings (to prevent fretting on the blocking piece and fatigue-crazy cracking on the bearing surface). Cracks may develop: 1. Misalignment between top-end pins and bearings resulting in edge loading (due to load acting between the forks. 2. where the transverse loading is greatest.C. The connecting rod may be required to transport oil between the top &. Cracking at root of the fork due to repeated flexing resulting in fatigue. This essentially used for thin shell bearings. Transverse inertia loads: Known as “ whip” resulting from the mass of the connecting rod and its oscillating motion.T. and is greatest in high-speed engines. The bottom end bearing is located on the palm by a spigot through which the oil passes.D. to prevent fretting between the back of the shell and it’s housing.50% (Normalised).C. This is maximum at about 80* past T.circular sections are most suitable for this purpose. On the underside of the foot running across the line of fillet run out (particularly if compression plates are fitted). With increased power the greater flexibility of this design resulted in: 1. This helps to relieve the bolts of shear forces imposed by the transverse loads. For lower power engines a ‘forked’ top end arrangement has been used which allows top end bearing to be integral with the connecting rod and provide access to the piston rod nut. (15% of maximum at 90* A. Solid ends provide a rigid platform for the top end-bearings and gives good support to the bottom end bearing. 3. May be circular or ‘H’ section. 3. Gas force loads: Which is a maximum compressive load at T.C. Accurate and uniform pre-tensioning of the bottom end bolts is necessary to: 1. Inertia loads: Resulting from the reciprocating running gear is maximum compressive at B. 2. Failures: Usually due to abrupt stopping the engine or breakage of bottom end bolts. (particularly in 4 stroke engines).

Tightening of Bolts: Tightening of important bolts such as these should not be left to chance.T.S: 500 — 700 N/mm2. surface finish etc. ? It would be beneficial to reduce the diameter of bolt shank less than the core diameter at the bottom of the thread (about 10% less). ? It would be ideal to make the bolt of uniform cross-sectional area but it is necessary to have certain parts of shank enlarged in diameter for the fitting portions. and then turning up the nut through a predetermined and calculated angle with respect to the bolt. care has to be taken as regards Lubrication. Over stretching of bolt. Method (3) is good if bolt stiffness is known and calculation is accurate. Uneven tightening. 3. 6. Applying the desired preload by means of hydraulic cylinder and following up nut. Torque spanners (method 4) are useful for small medium sized bolts.g.T. Following methods are in use: 1. ? Surface of the bolt should be given a high degree of finish. Stress concentrations at bolt heads. 2. There should be a proper chamfer at the mouth hole. 3. Corrosive attack in the form of bending. Hand tightening lightly. Inadequate pretension.U. ? There should be smooth radii wherever there is a change in diameter. ? Bolt material should have adequate strength and high resilience. a spanner which reads the torque or set to give way at a predetermined torque. 4. Connecting Rod Bolts: Important Designing Considerations: ? Well-formed fillet between bolt head and shank. Using ‘torque spanner’. change of section. e. Factors contributing to failures are as follows: 1. 4. Methods (1) & (2) as mentioned above are most accurate. U. Forgings should have a fine grain structure. Improper seating of nut or bolt head causing bending stresses. Bolt Material: Low alloy steel (alloy content < 5%). 2. Measuring the extension of the bolt with a micrometer device whilst the bolt is tightened. 5. . Failure in Bolts: Failure is essentially due to fatigue. It should be free from coarse non-metalic inclusions and segregations especially in highly stressed areas.S: 750 to 1100 N/mm2.

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Made from drop forged steel. It transmits the firing force.Con. which is bolted to the split bottom end (Crankpin) bearing. and together with the crankshaft converts the reciprocating motion to a rotary motion. . whilst at the top another flange is formed on which is bolted the two crosshead bearings. On the older engines the bottom of the con rod terminates in a flange known as a Marine Palm.rod Details (2 St) • • The Connecting Rod is fitted between the crosshead and the crankshaft.

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a failure in the hydrodynamic lubrication can occur.• • • Connecting Rods on the later engines are produced as a single drop forging incorporating the top half of the crankpin bearing housing and the bottom half of the solid crosshead pin bearing housing. On older engines the bearings were white metal thick wall bearings. When the clearance reaches a maximum the bearing is changed. When inspecting the crankpin bearing and journal it is good practise to check the journal for ovality because if this is excessive. where a thin layer of white metal or a tin aluminium alloy is bonded to a steel shell backing. scraped to fit. Modern bearings are of the "thinwall" type. The clearance on these bearings is non adjustable. Clearances were adjusted by inserting or removing shims between the bearing halves. Oil to lubricate the crankpin bearing is supplied down a drilling in the con rod from the crosshead. .

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Connectin The need the crankp crankpin e .

Gudgeo • Link b piston. .

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