# Exploration Geophysics

Anna University

Seismic Methods Types
Refraction Method Reflection Method

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Exploration Geophysics

Anna University

Direct and refracted ray paths First arrival is direct ray at R1 As refracted ray travel d h interface f down the i it will NOT return to the surface up to certain distance – Critical distance Direct ray overtaken by refracted ray at Crossover distance Velocity of Reflected and Refracted ray same at Crit. Dt.

Seismograms

Reflected

Direct

Refracted

Seismic Refraction Method
Seismic energy that returns to the surface after traveling through the formation along refracted ray path

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Exploration Geophysics

Anna University

Two layer case with Horizontal interface A plot of the time-distance curve obtained from the seismic record. Referred by some as the ‘Hodograph’. The subsurface discontinuity is indicated by the break in the time-distance curve; and the two segments of this straight line curve have slopes 1/V1 and 1/V2 corresponding to velocities in the 1st and 2nd layer. The time ( ti ) is usually known as ‘ intercept time’. From consideration of the geometry of the wave paths in relation to that of the two layers, it is possible to determine the depth z to the second layer. By using the either the critical distance or the intercept time from the time-distance curve.

Using crossover distance ( Newton, 1940 ):

Using the intercept time (ti)( Newton, 1940):

Simple two-layer case with plane, parallel boundaries, and corresponding timedistance curve (Redpath 1973)

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Exploration Geophysics

Anna University

Reverse shooting
Two Layer Case

Three layer case with horizontal interface The seismic velocities of the three layers are v1,v2 (>v1) and v3 (>v2). The total depth that is depth, depth from the surface to the third layer with velocity v3 is obtained by adding z1 and z2. We can also use
Z2 = V 3 2 − V 12 1 (ti − 2Z 1 ) V 3V 2 2 V 3V 1 V 32 − V 22

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Exploration Geophysics

Anna University

Multilayer case
For multiple layered models we can apply the same process to determine layer thickness and velocity sequentially from the top y q y p layer to the bottom.
Head wave from top of layer 2: h – layer thickness

Head wave from top of layer 3:

Multilayer Case
Head wave from top of layer n:

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Exploration Geophysics

Anna University

Dipping Layers
In cases where the surface is horizontal and the layers are dipping at an angle θ it is employed to shoot in two direction One forward and the other reverse, so that one shot is ‘up dip’ and the down dip. The velocity V1 in the first layer is readily obtained from the travel-time plot The velocity in the lower bed indicated from the two segments of the up dip and down dip sides will be only apparent velocities.

Dipping Layer Case

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Exploration Geophysics

Anna University

Dipping layers
Dipping layers still produce h d waves b d head but the travel-times are affected by the dip. Shooting up-dip: the velocity appears greater. Shooting down-dip: the velocity is reduced.

Dipping layers
The true velocity V2 in the sloping bed may be determined, approximately, as the reciprocal of the average slopes of the two segments for the up dip and the down dip directions.

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Exploration Geophysics

Anna University

Reversing lines

…shooting to a line of geophones from both ends For dipping layers layer velocities appear different for each end – the dip and true velocity can be determined from the updip and down-dip velocities

For horizontal layers the travel-time curves are symmetrical

Dipping layer traveltime

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Exploration Geophysics

Anna University

Methods of refraction shooting There are three methods of refraction shooting: Fan shooting Arc shooting and Profile shooting The Fan and Arc shooting are generally employed f reconnaissance i l d for i investigations. ti ti The profile shooting is the most commonly used method for reconnaissance as well as detailed investigations of both shallow and deep beds.

Applications of Seismic refraction surveying

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Exploration Geophysics

Anna University

Application
The primary applications of seismic refraction are for determining depth to bedrock and bedrock structure. Due to the dependence of seismic velocity on the elasticity and density of the material through which the energy is passing, seismic refraction surveys provide a measure of material strengths and can consequently be used as an aid in assessing rock quality. The technique has been successfully applied to mapping depth to base of backfilled quarries, depth of landfills, quarries landfills thickness of overburden and groundwater table Refraction surveys are widely used in foundation studies on construction sites to derive estimates of depth to rock head beneath a cover of superficial material.

Foundation studies for dams and major buildings Hydrogeological investigations to determine saturated aquifer thickness, weathered and fault zones.

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Exploration Geophysics

Anna University

Borehole Seismics
Cross hole seismics Soundness of foundation rocks Effect of ground improvement techniques

Bore Hole Seismic Tomography
To characterize fractured bedrock

http://minerals.usgs.gov/news/v1n2/4borehole.html

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