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Meaning of Problem and problem- Solvings . Solving mathematics problems are activities involving problems in the form of mathematics language, including mechanical problems, puzzles, quiz and the use of mathematics skills in actual situations. According to Lester, a prominent mathematician in the 1970’s, defined problem-solving as : ― Problem involving a situation whereby an individual or a group is required to carry out the working solution. In doing so, they have to determine the strategy and method of problem-solving first, before implementing the working solution. The strategy of problem –solving needs a set of activities which will lead to the problem-solving process.‖ Problem posing and problem solving involve examining situations that arise in mathematics and other disciplines and in common experiences, describing these situations mathematically, formulating appropriate mathematical questions, and using a variety of strategies to find solutions. By developing their problem-solving skills, students will come to realize the potential usefulness of mathematics in their lives. Problem solving is a term that often means different things to different people. Sometimes it even means different things at different times for the same people! It may mean solving simple word problems that appear in standard textbooks, applying mathematics to real-world situations, solving non routine problems or puzzles, or creating and testing mathematical conjectures that may lead to the study of new concepts. In every case, however, problem solving involves an individual confronting a situation which she has no guaranteed way to resolve. Some tasks are problems for everyone (like finding the volume of a puddle), some are problems for virtually no one (like counting how many eggs are in a dozen), and some are problems for some people but

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not for others (like finding out how many balloons 4 children have if each has 3 balloons, or finding the area of a circle). Problem solving involves far more than solving the word problems included in the students' textbooks; it is an approach to learning and doing mathematics that emphasizes questioning and figuring things out. The Curriculum and Evaluation Standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics considers problem solving as the central focus of the mathematics curriculum. "As such, it is a primary goal of all mathematics instruction and an integral part of all mathematics activity. Problem solving is not a distinct topic but a process that should permeate the entire program and provide the context in which concepts and skills can be learned." (p. 23) Thus, problem solving involves all students a large part of the time; it is not an incidental topic stuck on at the end of the lesson or chapter, nor is it just for those who are interested in or have already mastered the day's lesson. Students should have opportunities to pose as well as to solve problems; not all problems considered should be taken from the text or created by the teacher. However, the situations explored must be interesting,engaging, and intellectually stimulating. Worthwhile mathematical tasks are not only interesting

to the students, they also develop the students' mathematical understandings and skills, stimulate them to make connections and develop a coherent framework for mathematical ideas, promote communication about mathematics, represent mathematics as an ongoing human activity, draw on their diverse background experiences and inclinations, and promote the development of all students' dispositions to do mathematics (Professional Standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics). As a result of such activities, students come to understand mathematics and use it effectively in a variety of situations.

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Characteristics of mathematics problem Contains elements which can be found in the environment Its solution needs proper strategy in planning, including selection of suitable methods for problem-solving. Proper strategy in planning and selection of suitable method depend on the pupils’ acquired knowledge and experience as well as understanding of the relevant problem. The ability of problem-solving is closely related to the pupils’ level of cognitive development, at least at its application level. The way used for problem-solving cannot be memorized as In the case of reciting mathematics formula or solving mechanical question by means of memorization. Every mathematics problem ought to have its own specific solution. The method of problem-solving may consist of more than one approach. The process of problem-solving needs to implement by means of a set of systematic activities. The process of problem-solving needs to apply mathematics skills, concepts or principles which have been learned and mastered. George Polya- 1887 – 1985

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George Polya was a Hungarian who immigrated to the United States in 1940. His major contribution is for his work in problem solving. Growing up he was very frustrated with the practice of having to regularly memorize information. He was an excellent problem solver. Early on his uncle tried to convince him to go into the mathematics field but he wanted to study law like his late father had. After a time at law school he became bored with all the legal technicalities he had to memorize. He tired of that and switched to Biology and the again switched to Latin and Literature, finally graduating with a degree. Yet, he tired of that quickly and went back to school and took math and physics. He found he loved math. His first job was to tutor Gregor the young son of a baron. Gregor struggled due to his lack of problem solving skills. Polya (Reimer, 1995) spent hours and developed a method of problem solving that would work for Gregor as well as others in the same situation. Polya (Long, 1996) maintained that the skill of problem was not an inborn quality but, something that could be taught. He was invited to teach in Zurich, Switzerland. There he worked with a Dr. Weber. One day he met the doctor?s daughter Stella he began to court her and eventually married her. They spent 67 years together. While in Switzerland he loved to take

pupils would be guided to understand: (a)Variables involved in the problem. G. He quickly became well known for his research and teachings on problem solving. Polya describes four steps for solving problems and outlines them at the very beginning of the book for easy reference. students can eliminate mistakes they might make by rushing into the actual execution of the plan. He taught briefly at Brown University and then. He taught many classes to elementary and secondary 4 classroom teachers on how to motivate and teach skills to their students in the area of problem solving. He mentioned to his wife ?how could it be possible to meet them so many times when he randomly chose different paths through the garden? He later did experiments that he called the random walk problem. In this text he identifies four basic principles .afternoon walks in the local garden. • devising a plan. One day he met a young couple also walking and chose another path. and carrying out the plan. and • looking back. This may seem silly at first. Polya designed the questions to be general enough that students could apply them to almost any problem. In 1945 he published the book How to Solve It which quickly became his most prized publication. • carrying out the plan. the questions simply allow students to see the process on paper. 5 In theother words. What are the unknowns? 4. When they plan it out first and then do the math. This method is very similar to the method in Thinking Mathematically by John Mason. The four steps are: • understanding the problem. It sold over one million copies and has been translated into 17 languages. In 1940 he and his wife moved to the United States because of their concern for Nazism in Germany (Long. Several years later he published a paper proving that if the walk continued long enough that one was sure to return to the starting point. at Stanford University. Without the questions. What are you trying to find or do? 3. except Polya separates devising a plan. What information do you obtain from the problem? . common sense goes through the same process. He continued to do this yet he met the same couple six more times as he strolled in the garden. Understanding the Problem can be explain by this question : 1. Polya?s First Principle: Understand the Problem In the first principle. (b)Relationship between the variables which have been ascertained. 1996). but Polya argues that it does make a difference. In How To Solve It. By first devising a plan. The steps outline a series of general questions that the problem solving student can use to successfully write resolutions. and (c)Variable which needs to be thoroughly searched or answered. Can you state the problem in your own words? 2. it is possible to check their work as they go along. for the remainder of his life.

is missing or not needed? For the students. the data the question gives them to work with. or limiting circumstances they must work around. or other part of the plan used. or introduce some kind of notation to visualize the question. What information. This seems so obvious that it is often not even mentioned. Find the connection between the data and the unknown. it could also be helpful. without referring to the written text. You should obtain eventually a plan of the solution. Students can also try to restate the problem in an easier or different way. The skill at choosing an appropriate strategy is best learned by solving many problems. Polya suggests that students draw a picture if possible. Some teachers have students work in pairs on problems. and have made sure that all data and conditions were used. By looking at these related problems. or even in part. A partial list of strategies is included: We also can use these instructions to understand more details. Have you seen it before? Or have you seen the same problem in a slightly different form? Do you know a related problem? Do you know a . 6 Polya?s Second Principle: Devise a plan Polya mentions (1957) that it are many reasonable ways to solve problems. After students have decided which calculations. or the thing they want to find to answer the question. Polya taught teachers to ask students questions such as: Do you understand all the words used in stating the problem? What are you asked to find or show? Can you restate the problem in your own words? Can you think of a picture or a diagram that might help you understand the problem? Is there enough information to enable you to find a solution? Some techniques that may help students with this important aspect of problem solving . and try to solve that. and explain the question to other people. or acting out the problem situation. You may be obliged to consider auxiliary problems if an immediate connection cannot be found. We will find choosing a strategy increasingly easy. If the student can think of a problem they have solved before that had a similar unknown.5. computations. explaining what the problem is about to their partner. students can start by trying to think of a related problem we have solved before to help them. and the condition. with one student reading the problem and then. To devise a plan.understanding the problem . If they can identify all of these. yet students are often stymied in their efforts to solve problems simply because they don?t understand it fully. then they have a good understanding of what the problem is asking. they should be able to state the unknown. drawing a picture. if any.include restating the problem in their own words. or constructions that they need. they can try out their plan. students may be able to use the same method.

Is the problem hard? How can you get started? What . the student writes about what is going on in his/her mind concerning the problem. how can it vary? Could you derive something useful from the data? Could you think of other data appropriate to determine the unknown? Could you change the unknown or data. the student solves the problem. Others carry out inappropriate plans. so that the new unknown and the new data are nearer to each other? Did you use all the data? Did you use the whole condition? Have you taken into account all essential notions involved in the problem? Polya?s third Principle: Carry out the plan Carrying out the plan is sometimes the easiest part of solving a problem. On the left side of the page. However. drop the other part. or give up too soon and stop halfway through solving the problem. Here is a problem related to yours and solved before. many students jump to this step too soon. On the right side of the page. how far is the unknown then determined. Could you use it? Could you use its result? Could you use its method? Should you introduce some auxiliary element in order to make its use possible? 7 Guess and check Make an orderly list Eliminate possibilities Use symmetry Consider special cases Use direct reasoning Solve an equation Also suggested: Look for a pattern Draw a picture Solve a simpler problem Use a model Work backward Use a formula Be creative Use your head/noggin Could you restate the problem? Could you restate it still differently? Go back to definitions. Could you imagine a more accessible related problem? A more general problem? A more special problem? An analogous problem? Could you solve a part of the problem? Keep only a part of the condition. To reinforce the process of making a plan and carrying it out.theorem that could be useful? Look at the unknown! And try to think of a familiar problem having the same or a similar unknown. teachers might use the following technique: Divide a sheet of notebook paper into two columns. or both if necessary. If you cannot solve the proposed problem try to solve first some related problem.

These texts form the basis for the current thinking in mathematics education and are as timely and important today as when they were written. 8 Here are some tips to use: ○ Implement the strategy in Step 2 and perform any necessary actions or computations. Don’t be misled. Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning (1954) and Mathematical Discovery (1962). all you need is care and patience. Polya has become known as the father of problem solving. When students look back on the problem and the plan they carried out. Persistent with the plan that you have chosen. So it is important to monitor our own performance review the whole exercise in order that we can do even better in the future. Check the results in the original problem.strategy might work? How did you feel about the problem? This step is usually easier than devising the plan.. and to make sure that it is possible to check them. Interpret the solution in terms of the original problem. If possible. In general (1957). A partial list of strategies is included: 1. Then students should ask. Determine whether there is another method of finding the solution. Polya mentions (1957) that much can be gained by taking the time to reflect and look back at what you have done. what worked and what didnt. this will require a proof. ○ Check each step of the plan as you proceed. 9 2. Many successful problem solvers begin by understanding the problem and making a plan. given that you have the necessary skills. in which case . It is always good to recheck the result and argument used. they may find that they have not completely understood the problem. ○ Keep an accurate record of your work. One way for us to improve is to review past experiences and understand why we succeed or fail. George Polya went on to publish a two-volume set. In some cases. determine other related or more general problems for which the techniques will work. Does your answer make sense? Is it reasonable? 3. even by professionals. Doing this will enable you to predict what strategy to use to solve future problems. 4. If it continues not to work discard it and choose another. Can you see clearly that the step is correct? Can you prove that it is correct? Polya’s Fourth Principle: Look back This is the part of problem-solving that most people tend to ignore. they can increase their understanding of the solution. But then as they start carrying out their plan. While it might seem most logical to begin problem solving with Polya's first activity and proceed through each activity until the end. This may be intuitive checking or a formal proof of each step. this is how mathematics is done. not all successful problem solvers do so. "Can I get the result in a different way?"and "Can I use this for another problem?" The last chapter of the book is a very helpful encyclopedia of the terms used in the explanation of the first chapter.

Students move through a continuum of stages in their development as problem solvers (Kantowski. students are able to follow someone else's solution and may suggest strategies for similar problems. 11 Problem solving can be divided into two categories. At the third level. the teacher must model the problem solving process for these students. Finally.they go back to step one. Such students usually do not know where to begin to solve a problem. as applications of content already studied.e. students begin to be comfortable with solving problems. the ability to solve problems which are undergoing change during the process of resolution. They should focus on understanding a problem. so they go back to step two and select another approach. routine and non routine which is Routine problem solving and Non routine problem solving. They understand and appreciate that problems may have multiple solutions or perhaps even no solution at all. In a routine problem. requiring the teacher's continued support. students are not only adept at solving problems. Since today’s .. of what a strategy is. suggesting strategies different from those they have seen used before. and then looking back at what they have done . By using these four activities as a general guide. Students should experience problems as introductions to learning about new topics. or of the mathematical structure of a problem. making a plan for solving it. They should not only solve problems but also pose them. They may participate actively in group problem solving situations but feel insecure about independent activities. Initially. it is important to address the needs of students at each of these levels within the classroom. the problem solver knows a solution method and only needs to carry it out. at the last level. In teaching problem 10 solving. In summary. 20 Explain routine and Non routine Problems Futurists continue to stress that our future is going to undergo change at a rate even greater than present generations have experienced. they are also interested in finding elegant and efficient solutions and in exploring alternate solutions to the same problem. however. Or they may find that their original plan is extremely difficult to pursue. Such problems change or evolve as they are being studied. This implies that today’s and future problems will have a dynamic component. 1980). At the second level. and as situations that have no one best answer. students can become more adept at monitoring their own thinking. they have little or no understanding of what problem solving is. i. The strength of this approach is that it is easily accessed by paper-pencil tests. It is evident then that a fundamental skill for dealing with the future is active problem solving. the real test of whether a student knows mathematics is whether she can use it in a problem situation. carrying out their plan. This "thinking about their thinking" can help them to improve their problem solving skills. ROUTINE PROBLEM Routine problem solving is stresses the use of sets of known or prescribed procedures (algorithms) to solve problems. as puzzles or non-routine problems that have many solutions.

There are two types of non routine problem solving situations which is static and Active.computers and calculators can quickly and accurately perform the most complex arrangements of algorithms for multi-step routine problems. Solving a jigsaw puzzle is an example of a static non routine problem. learners are challenged to arrange the pieces to complete the picture. Non-routine problem is a unique problem-solving which requires the application of skills. subtraction. Routine problems are sometimes called exercises. Routine problem is actually is a type of mechanical mathematic problem. especially the arithmetic skills which involving the four operations. Most of the non-routine problems required a heuristic approach such as the application of experiences and practical effort. are typical ways in which people attempt to resolve such problems.. Unlike algorithms. to attain its goal expression. Other heuristics include describing the problem situation. However. Generally speaking. It needs systematic activities with logical planning. When the goal of an educational activity is to promote all the aspects of problem solving (including devising a solution plan). known elements that are used to resolve the problem. concepts or principles which have been learned and mastered. today’s workplace does require many employees to be proficient in Non routine problem solving. Given all pieces to a puzzle and a picture of the goal. or planned strategy. including proper strategy and selection of suitable method for implementation. routine problems are the most basic simple type of problem-solving in mathematics. -. Various heuristics such as classifying the pieces by color. 12 NON ROUTINE PROBLEM Non routine problem solving is stresses the use of heuristics and often requires little to no use of algorithms. then non routine problems (or exercises) are appropriate. making the problem simpler. ×. as its goal expression can be achieved by means of certain algorithm. such as a flag pole. finding irrelevant information. multiplication and division (+. laws. heuristics are procedures or strategies that do not guarantee a solution to a problem but provide a more highly probable method for discovering the solution. Building a model and drawing a picture of a problem are two basic problem-solving heuristics. It aimed at training the students for able to master basic skills. 13 Active non routine problem solving may have a fixed goal with changing elements. or changing or . Actually. The problem solver does not initially know a method for solving the problem. and technically do not fit the definition of problem stated above. addition. theorems or equations. or connecting the pieces which form a salient feature to the puzzle. the typical workplace does not require a high level of proficiency in routine problem solving. or directs applications of using mathematics formulae. Method for solving non-routine problem in mathematics is different from answering mechanical question. a changing goal or alternative goals with fixed elements. ÷). working backwards. Static non routine problems have a fixed known goal and fixed. and classifying information. connecting the pieces which form the border.

Finally an evaluation is made on the techniques used during the process of solving the problem with decision on final conclusion and records. You also need to know that Amy sold 2 more tickets than Judy. PROCESS OF PROBLEM-SOLVING The process of identifying the problem involves activities to understand and ascertain important aspects contained in the problem. Select one strategy that is deemed to be most efficient and justify selection. try two different numbers.alternative goals with changing elements. If your first guess does not work. Question: Amy and Judy sold 12 show tickets altogether. The heuristics used in this form of problem solving are known as strategies. 2) PLAN: How can you solve the problem? 15 a) Guess and Check You can guess and check to find two numbers with a sum of 12 and a difference of 2. People who study such problems must learn to change or adapt their strategies as the problem unfolds.4 = 4 ( Amy sold 4 more tickets) These numbers do not work! Second Guess: Amy = 7 tickets Judy = 5 tickets Check 7 + 5 = 12 7. According to John Dewey.5 = 2 ( Amy sold 2 more tickets) These numbers do work! . Elaborate on the different strategies. 3) SOLVE: First Guess: Amy = 8 tickets Judy = 4 tickets Check 8 + 4 = 12 8 . They are briefly shown in the following figure. 14 30 Gather information and select three non routine problems and solve each of these problems using two or more types of problem solving strategies. The next stage is testing the hypothesis whereby the suggested strategies and methods are implemented in the process. The stage of looking for information involves activities to collect materials or facts related to the problem. Amy sold 2 more tickets than Judy. learning through problem-solving includes five stages. How many tickets did each girl sell? Strategy: 1) UNDERSTAND: What do you need to find? You need to know that 12 tickets were sold in all. The stage that follows is the setting up of a hypothesis to suggest strategies and methods to solve the problem identified.

. 3) SOLVE: Draw 8 chips. Besides. this strategy is easy to carry out. On the sport they can get the true answer. Students can directly see that there are how to arrange the strategy. 4 blue chips and 1 red chip in her bag. Question: Judy is taking pictures of Jim. " How . 3/8 of the chips are green. Decrease 1 tickets from Judy Now. Amy sold 7 tickets and Judy(5) Judy sold 5 tickets. I think strategy draw a diagram is more suitable. Sometimes. Then you can use the picture to find the answer. Therefore. What fractional part of the bag of chips is green? Strategy: 1) UNDERSTAND: What do you need to find? You need to find how many chips are in all. we got the answer. Then. 2) PLAN: How can you solve the problem? a) Draw a Picture You can draw a picture to show the information. b) Draw a Picture 12 tickets were sold Lets we divide half Each others Amy(6) Judy(6) 16 * Amy sold 2 more tickets than Judy. So. It only needs to draw it on a paper. 17 Question: Laura has 3 green chips. Karen and Mike. I prefer the strategy of draw a picture more because it is save and easier to be carry out. which is 7 show tickets is sold by Amy and only 5 show tickets is sold by Judy. we still need to aware on the relationship on the diagram. Justify Selection: In this question. they will see how to find the answer. Amy(7) Justify Selection: In this question. Besides. Even though we are able to get the idea. students can go through to the answer. This is because it is easier to understand and carry out. She asks them. 18 b) Make a diagram 3/8 of the chips are green.Amy sold 7 tickets and Judy sold 5 tickets. in my opinion strategy 2 is more suitable for me because it is easier to understand and carry out. Then you need to find how many of the chips are green. we are lack of ideas how can the question act. I think that draw a picture strategy is more suitable.

) . and a striped shirt. save time and easier to carry out. students will waste their time to guess until get the right answer Therefore. Choose one student to be first. second or third. * That’s mean there are 6 ways that the children could stand in line. in my opinion strategy 1 which is make a list is more suitable for me because it is easier to understand . He has 4 shirts: a white shirt. First Second Third Jim Karen Mike Jim Mike Karen Karen Jim Mike Karen Mike Jim Mike Karen Jim Mike Jim Karen So. The last one will be third. a grey shirt. there are 6 ways that the children could stand in line. 2 ways for Karen to be first and 2 ways for Mike to be first. This is because it is easier to understand and carry out. follow by Karen and lastly is Mike Karen. you will notice that there are 2 ways for Jim to be first. 40 Create three new but similar problems and solve it using the suggested strategies. like unable to determine the answer accurately. follow by Mike and lastly is Jim Mike. b) Guess and Check Firstly. a red shirt. Jim. follow by Mike and lastly is Karen Karen. there have another ways that the children could stand in line. 2) PLAN: How can you solve the problem? a) Make a List You can make a list to help you find all the different ways. a)Make a list 1. I think strategy 1 – make a list is more suitable. and another to be second. 20 Justify Selection: In this question. Then. follow by Jim and lastly is Mike Mike. Doug has 2 pairs of pants: a black pair and a green pair. follow by Jim and lastly is Karen. let say start with: Jim.many different ways could you three children stand in a line?" Strategy: 1) UNDERSTAND: What do you need to know? 19 You need to know that any of the students can be first. 3) SOLVE: When you make your list. we might face on problems when use guess and check. Sometimes. How many different outfits can he put together? (Hint: Cornplete the organised list. follow by Karen and lastly is Jim But.

3) SOLVE: When you make your list. The last one will be third. What color shirt can he wear? (white. 2) PLAN: How can you solve the problem? You can make a list to help you find all the times they can borrow the bicycle. and another to be second. or striped) · If Doug wears his striped shirt. red. There’s only one bicycle at the IPGM Campus Tuanku Bainun that Sara. How many times could each of them borrow the bicycle? Strategy: 1) UNDERSTAND: What do you need to know? You need to know that any of the students can be first. Choose one student to be first. grey. Tirah and Ezzaty can borrow. how many different outfits can he wear? (2: striped—black and striped—green) · If Doug wears the green pants. you will notice that there are 2 times for Sara to be .Make a list Pants Shirts 21 Black—White Black—Red Black— Black— Pants Shirts Green— Green— Green— Green— Understanding the Problem · How many pairs of pants does Doug have? (2) · How many shirts does Doug have? (4) Planning a Solution · Suppose Doug wears his black pants. can he wear all 4 shirts? (yes) Finding the Answer Make an Organized List Black—White Black—Red Black—Gray Black—Striped Green—White Green—Red Green—Gray Green—Striped Doug can make 8 different outfits. 22 2. second or third.

How many different combinations of the letters ABCD can you make? i. 23 3.The letters ABCD. and another to be second. Strategy: a) UNDERSTAND: What do you need to know? You need to know that any of the combination letters ABCD can can be first. For example: ABCD ABDC ACBD ACDB ADBC ADCB BACD BADC BCAD BCDA BDAC BDCA CABD CADB CBAD CBDA CDAB CDBA DABC DACB DBAC DBCA . The last one will be third. c) SOLVE: To answer this question.first. b) PLAN: How can you solve the problem? You can make a list to help you find all the different combination letters ABCD. Choose one combination letterst to be first. can be put into a different order: DCBA or BADC. there are 6 times that the students could borrow the bicycle. Teach your students to make a SYSTEMATIC list. you have to make a list. obviously. First Second Third Sara Tirah Ezzaty Sara Ezzaty Tirah Tirah Sara Ezzaty Tirah Ezzaty Sara Ezzaty Tirah Sara Ezzaty Sara Tirah So. second or third. 2 times for Tirah to be first and 2 times for Ezzaty to be first.

How many shopping bags did Johnny saw? First. draw a picture so that we can count. 24 (Later. Johnny walks into the school hall. 2. How many table legs did Kelly see in the restaurant? First. 3. Kelly saw 6 rectangle tables and 3 triangle tables.DCAB DCBA By making a SYSTEMATIC list. 8 + 6 = 14 Jenny saw 14 windows on the houses by the lake. Rectangle tables have 24 legs. In a sunny day. The two boys have 4 bags. In a restaurant. 24 + 9 = 33 Kelly saw 33 table legs in the restaurant. Jenny saw 2 big houses and 3 small houses are build besides the lake. The four girls have 12 bags. Small houses have six windows. Each of the big houses had 4 windows and each small houses had 2 windows. c)Make a Diagram 26 A coin has two face. draw a picture so that we can count. How many windows did Jenny saw? 25 First. Count the legs of the tables. he saw 4 girls and 3 boys standing in front the gate. b)Draw a picture 1. draw a picture so that we can count. 12 + 4 = 16 Johnny saw 16 school bags in front the gate. If you toss 3 coins together. Triangle tables have 9 legs. Count the windows. perhaps. 27 . head and tail. determine that how many different combinations of heads and tails you would get. Each of the rectangle tables had 4 legs and the triangle tables had 3 legs each. Count the school bags. students will see every possible combination. Big houses have eight windows. they will learn that the number of permutations of size 4 taken from a set of 4 can be represented by the formula 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 = 24). Each girl carrying 3 school bags and each boy carrying 2. There are 6 combinations of heads and tails.

We have been given a task from our lecture that is. he became bored with all the study about law. He was an excellent problem solver. Task 1 Write a simple article with your own word about 1.. How many pairs will there be in 10 months? b) Johana has RM 90. There he worked with a Dr. write an essay about George Polya and The solving strategy. Then he getting bored again and switched to Latin and Literature.00. Yet. .thank a lot to him because he already give us many information and advice that is very useful. They each bought a toy at the same price. Hungary. Mr.T because give us an effort to do and finish our assignment on our Mathematic. All we have to do is searching the information and using the information that is given by my lecture. Ahmad Rizal Bin Che Rahim . Select one strategy that is deemed to be the most efficient and justify their selection. USA. Thank to their information and advice in order to help out to make my assignment better. he tired of that quickly and went back to school and took math and physics.Yg ke dua Acknowledgement Alhamdulillah… Thank to Allah S. Multiples strategies used for solving various types of problems and give an example for each strategies. How much does the toy cost? History of Polya Model He was born as Pólya György in Budapest. He found that he loved math. He was invited to teach in Zurich. Routine and Non-Routine Problem 3. finally graduating with a degree. a) Suppose a pair rabbits will produce a new pair of rabbits in their second month. Early on his uncle tried to suggest him to go into the mathematics field but he wanted to study law like his late father had. 1 You are advice to include in your articles at least 3 varieties of references. and thereafter will produce a new pair every month. Start with one pair.W. We also want to thank to our entire friend who help us in the process of making and finishing our assignment. However. and died in Palo Alto. He tired of that and switched to Biology. Johana subsequently has 7 times as much as Mariam. Switzerland. By doing this assignment we have learned many thing about the George Polya and Problem Solving Strategy. Including. Any kind of question can be solved and resolve by applying the concept and method that is suitable. The new rabbits will do exactly the same. California. The concept of POLYA’S MODEL 2. Task 2 Elaborate the questions given using two types of problems solving strategies. the step and the skill that need to be apply. He help us a lot in order to finish the assignment.00 and Mariam has RM 36.

In 1940 he and his wife migrate to the United States because of their concern for Nazism in Germany. He taught briefly at Brown University and then. He taught many classes to elementary and secondary classroom teachers on how to motivate and teach skills to their students in the area of problem solving. Polya’s Four Principles First principle: Understand the problem This seems so obvious that it is often not even mentioned. at Stanford University. In 1945 he published the book how to Solve It which quickly became his most prized publication. He later did experiment according to the situation in the garden that he called the random walk problem. He mentioned to his wife ―how could it be possible to meet them so many times when he randomly chose different paths through the garden‖. One day he met a young couple also walking and chose another path. It sold over one million copies and has been translated into 17 languages. Pólya taught teachers to ask students questions such as: Can you state the problem in your own words? What are you trying to find or do? What information do you obtain from the problem What are the unknown? What information . if any is missing or not needed? 3 Do you need to ask a question to get the answer? Second principle: Devise a plan Pólya mentions (1957) that there are many reasonable ways to solve problems. One day he met the doctor’s daughter Stella he began to court her and eventually married her. A partial list of strategies is included: Guess and check Make an orderly list Eliminate possibilities Use symmetry Consider special cases Use direct reasoning Solve an equation Also suggested: Look for a pattern .Weber. You will find choosing a strategy increasingly easy. They spent 67 years together. In this text he identifies four basic principles. yet students are often stymied in their efforts to solve problems simply because they don't understand it fully. Several years later he published a paper proving that if the walk continued long enough that one was sure to return to the starting point. He quickly became well known for his research and teachings on problem solving. or even in part. He continued to do this yet he met the same couple six more times as he strolled in the garden. While in Switzerland he loved 2 to take afternoon walks in the local garden. The skill at choosing an appropriate strategy is best learned by solving many problems. for the remainder of his life.

Doing this will enable you to predict what strategy to use to solve future problems. it occurs when an individual is confronted with an unusual problem situation. Actually doing the arithmetic is secondary to the matter. Reread the question Did you answer the question asked? Is your answer correct? Does your answer seems reasonable 5 Routine and Non-Routine Problem Routine and non-routine are one type of problems that we learn in this semester in Basic Mathematics. The critical matter knows what arithmetic to do in the first place. The individual has to create a procedure. From our discussion and previous lesson that we already learn in classroom. we must become familiar with the . Routine problem solving concerns to a large degree the kind of problem solving that serves a socially useful function that has immediate and future payoff. As we all know. In other word. 4 Use the strategy you selected and work the problem Check each step of the plan as you proceed Ensure that the steps are correct Fourth principle: Review/extend Pólya mentions (1957) that much can be gained by taking the time to reflect and look back at what you have done. gives the facts or numbers to use and presents a question to be answered. all you need is care and patience. In general (1957).Draw a picture Solve a simpler problem Use a model Work backward Use a formula Be creative Use your head/noggen Third principle: Carry out the plan This step is usually easier than devising the plan. a problem is a task for which the person confronting it want or need to find a solution and must make an attempt to find a solution. this is how mathematics is done. Don't be misled. routine problem solving involves using at least one of four arithmetic operations and/or ratio to solve problems that are practical in nature. we conclude that routine problem problems are those that merely involved an arithmetic operation with the characteristics can be solved by direct application of previously learned algorithms and the basic task is to identify the operation appropriate for solving problem. if these relate to the original problem. and is not aware of a standard procedure for solving it. For non-routine problem. given that you have the necessary skills. If it continues not to work discard it and choose another. what worked and what didn't. To do so. Persist with the plan that you have chosen. even by professionals.

when looking for a pattern or rule in a problem. List the basic and personal things. 7 Ali and his entire friend are will be going to the school camping in Hutan Simpan. Making a list First. List out possible things that Ali and his friend need to bring during the camping. All students can benefit from the kinds of thinking that is involved in non-routine problem solving. List the things according to the type . Example of question.His teacher ask Ali to list out the thing that are need to bring when they go to the camping. 3. Their teacher asks Ali to list out things to bring. the goal is for students to search for and apply useful strategies. It is important that we share how to solve problems so that our friends are exposed to a variety of strategies as well as the idea that there may be more than one way to reach a solution. Making a list is a systematic method of organizing information in rows or columns. the data can be easily generated and organized the information. you can clearly analyze this information and then solve the problem by completing the list. 2. Non-routine problem are also those that call for the use of processes far more than those of routine problems with the characteristics use of strategies involving some non-algorithmic approaches and can be solved in many distinct in many ways requiring different thinking process. when we listing the problem. Ali and his want to go to the camping. non-routine problem solving should not be reserved for special students such as those who finish the regular work early. and use the strategy to solve the problem. While routine problem solving concerns solving problems that are useful for daily living (in the present or in the future). Finally. 3. non-routine problem solving concerns that only indirectly. Example. often more than one strategy can be applied to solving a problem. By putting given information in an ordered list. Multiply strategy used for solving various types of problem and give an example for each strategy. in order to solve the problem by using a method that is making a list. It is unwise to force other people to use one particular strategy for two important reasons. From the point of view of students. identify an efficient strategy. Second. Find out the things that is need for camping 2. Step 1 Understanding the problem. Step 2 Plan the answer 1. First. 1. not to train students to make use of a particular strategy. We can also do a listing result from a guess and test method. collect appropriate information. This problem solving also serves a different purpose than routine problem solving.problem situation. non-routine problem solving can be challenging and interesting. All of us should participate in and be encouraged to succeed at non-routine problem solving. Non-routine problem solving is mostly concerned with developing students’ mathematical reasoning power and fostering the understanding that mathematics is 6 a creative Endeavour.

The things is suitable for the purpose Using Diagram The other method that may be using to solve a problem.To find many different outfit from 4 different shirt and 2 trousers 1 skirt Step 2 Devising the Plan 1. How many different outfits do I have? Step 1 Understanding the problem 1.Using a diagram in order to solve the problem. Example. I have 2 pairs of pants that are black and khaki and one skirt that is dark blue. we draw the situation of an event. making a drawing is an excellent strategy by which you can visualize the problem you are asked to solve by making a drawing of the given information. we can see the situation clearly. so to solve it we need to draw the route to see it crearly. Step 3 Acting out 9 .Step 3 Acting out List the things that is need for camping No Personal things Basic things 1 Shirt /Trousers /Track suit Food 2 Bags Water 3 Water Bottle Fuel 4 Medicine Matches 5 Shoes Cooking Utensil 6 Gloves Wood/Gas stove 7 Knife Plate 8 Watch Glass 9 Compass 10 Tent 11 Cap 12 Matches 13 Map 14 Torchlight 15 Candle 16 Rope 17 Mat 18 8 19 20 Step 4 Look Back 1. and one blue. 2. such a mapped problem we need to show the route to go to a placed. Determine whether the list is relevant. one white. one yellow. Example of question: I have 4 shirts one is red. This strategy is especially exceptional if you are unable to visualize the problem in your mind. I can wear all these with all 4 shirts.

By using this method also.Results • 3 outfits with the red shirt • 3 outfits with the yellow shirt • 3 outfits with the blue shirt • 3 outfits with the white shirt • I have 12 outfits with the clothes that I have in my closet. we can estimate the answer and using it as information so solve the problem. 1. 10 BlackpantsBlueskirtKahkipants BlueShirt BlackpantsBlueskirtKahkipants R e d S h ir t BlackpantsBlueskirtKahkipants WhiteShirt BlackpantsBlueskirtKahkipants YellowShirt Step 4 Look back 1. numbers. 3.therefore the pattern and the common different is 2. 7. By observing each given element. … 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 Answer:11. 5. 13 .To find next three terms using constant different Step 2 Devising the Plan 1. one at a time in consecutive sequence. 15 -13 = 2 2.Determine the constant different 2. A. letters. 12 Using Table In the other hand. … Step 1 Understanding the problem 1. 13 – 9 = 2 All of the remaining is 2. 1. 5. or sounds. 9. Example: • Find the next three terms of each sequence by using constant differences.Determine the pattern of the common different Step 3 Acting out A. colours. 7. 9.The 12 outfit can be calculated Finding A Pattern 11 Finding a pattern is a strategy whereby you can observe given information such as pictures. making a chart or table is a very good strategy whereby .15 The common different is +2 Step 4 Look Back 1. 3. words.11= 2 3.13. you can solve the problem by deciding what the next element and elements will be in the pattern.

Example: In the farm of Pak Hassan. Using the table to solve the problem 2. 13 2. Step 2 Devising the plan 1.To calculate the number of cow and duck. readable format. after placing given information in a chart or table. you can interpret information and see what the problem is and how it can be solved. Applying multiply and addition.How many animal are Pak Hassan have if at least the number of both animal is 2. a guide can be detected this makes the problem easy to solve. Step 1 Understanding the problem 1. we can see the result clearly and see it more reliable.For example rather than you listing a very long information that is same and keep repeating is better to using a table or chart to make it easier to interpret.At least 2 number each of the animal. it consist of buffalo and duck. By analyzing information in a clear. there are about 32 legs of animal.information is organized in a clear. Step 3 acting out. concise chart. Buffalo (4 legs) Buffalo Legs Duck (2 legs) Duck Legs Buffalo +Duck Legs 5 20 6 12 32 2 8 12 24 32 3 12 10 20 32 6 24 4 8 32 7 28 2 4 32 8 32 0 0 32 0 0 16 32 32 The possibly number for Pak Hassan animal in his farm is. Buffalo (4 legs) Duck (2 legs) 56 2 12 3 10 64 14 72 Step 4 Look Back Buffalo (4 legs) Buffalo . Oftentimes.

(6×2) = 20 20 ÷4 = 5 2. 1. 32 . 5. 32 – (12 × 2) = 8 8÷4=2 3. How many pairs will there be in 10 months? Method 1 Step 1 Understanding the problem. Each pair of rabbit has to wait for second month to give born. 32 –(10×2) = 12 12 ÷ 4 = 3 4. The new rabbits will do exactly the same. c) Suppose a pair rabbits will produce a new pair of rabbits in their second month. 32 –(4 × 2) = 24 24 ÷ 4 = 6 5. To find the total number of rabbit Step 2 Plan the answer 4. Select one strategy that is deemed to be the most efficient and justify their selection. 32 – ( 2 × 2) = 28 28 ÷ 4 = 7 15 Task 2 Elaborate the questions given using two types of problems solving strategies. Step 3 Acting out 1 (xy) 16 2 (xy+xy) 3 (xy+xy)(xy) 4 (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy) 5 (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy)(xy) 6 (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy)(xy)(xy) 7 (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy) (xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy) 8 (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy) (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy) .Legs Duck (2 legs) Duck Legs Buffalo +Duck Legs 5 20 6 12 32 2 8 12 24 32 3 12 10 20 32 6 24 4 8 32 7 28 2 4 32 1. and thereafter will produce a new pair every month. Calculate the rabbit according to the condition that is given. Start with one pair. To find the number of rabbit between 10 month 2.

Johana subsequently has 7 times as much as Mariam.00. Determine whether the total number of pair rabbit is recalculated. Step 4 Look back 1. They each bought a toy at the same price. 17 Method 2 Step 1 Understanding the problem 1. Every purpose is applied in order to find number of rabbit. To find the number of rabbit between 10 month 2. 2. Each pair of rabbit has to wait for second month to give born. Determine whether the total number of pair rabbit is recalculated. How . 2. Step 4 Look Back 1.(xy)(xy)(xy) 9 (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy) (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy) (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy) (xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy) 10 (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy) (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy) (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy) (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy+xy) (xy+xy)(xy+xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy) (xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy)(xy) xy= pair of rabbit Total number of pair rabbit is 89 pair. Every purpose is apply in order to find number of rabbit. 2. To find the total number of rabbit Step 2 Devising the Plan 1.00 and Mariam has RM 36. Calculate the rabbit according to the condition that is given 18 Step 3 Acting out 1st month 2nd month 19 Results • 1st month: 1 pair of rabbit • 2nd month: 1 pair of rabbit • 3rd month: 1 pair of rabbit • 4th month: 2 pair of rabbit • 5th month: 3 pair of rabbit • 6th month: 5 pair of rabbit • 7th month: 8 pair of rabbit • 8th month: 13 pair of rabbit • 9th month:21 pair of rabbit • 10th month:34 pair of rabbit Total pair of rabbit in all 10th month is 89 . 20 a) Johana has RM 90.

00. 2. To find the cost of the toy 2.To find the cost of the toy.The data given Johana has RM90.00 = x) MARIAM (RM 36. Cost of the toy are obtain 2. 2.7 *she spent 7 times than mariam SUBSEQUENT PRICE y-1 * SUBSEQUENT 83 7 35 1 21 76 14 34 2 69 21 33 3 62 28 32 4 55 35 31 5 48 42 30 6 41 49 29 7 34 56 28 8 27 53 27 9 20 70 26 10 13 77 11 25 6 84 12 24 Step 4 Look back 1. Both Johana and Mariam have RM90 and RM36 each. The balance for Johana is 7 times more than Mariam 3. 3.List the balance both of them. Step 2 Devising the Plan 1. begin from the lowest number ofsubsequence which is the ratio from Joanna to Step 3 Acting out JOHANA (RM 90.00 = y) PRICE x.The balance of Johana money is 7 times as much as Mariam.Use strategy of guess and check by applying in form of table.00.much does the toy cost? Method 1 Step 1 Understanding the problem 1. Use Simultaneous equation strategy Step 3 Acting Out Making equation 90 – 7y = x -------------1 .Mariam has RM36. Step 2 Devising Plan 1. The answer are acceptable and rasional Method 2 Step 1 Understanding the problem 1. Johana and Mariam use their money to buy the toy at the same price 2.

36 – y = x --------------2 22 From equation 2 36 – y = x 36 – x = y --------------3 Substitute equation 3 to equation 1 90 – 7( 36 – x ) = x 90 – 252 + 7x = x -162 = -6x 6x = 162 sub x = 27 into equation 3 36 – 27 = y x = 27 so y = 9 Balance for Juana Balance for Mariam =9x7=9 = 63 x = 27 price of the toys Step 4 Looking back 4. we got many pages that related to this topic but. First. I do not know what to do and write. all of that not break up our spirit to finish the assignment.org/wiki/George_P%C3%B3lya .html http://www. we wish we can read the notes once and immediately understand and grabbed the point easily. we had got articles from internet but we also use books to gain more knowledge. The balance for Johana is 7 times more than Mariam 6. Find the information using internet also give us obstacle. We also feel very relief and happy when finish this assignment and hope this assignment will satisfied our lecturer and get better result in coming exam. 24 Bibilografi Web http://pred.boun. Not only that. The obstacles that we must face is we found that when using this way. Besides that. But. Although we face many obstacles in completing this task.tr/ps/ps3. We always make group discussion in order to complete our task.com/polyapower/ http://en. when we found the information.wikipedia. Cost of the toy are obtain 5. this assignment gives us a lot of knowledge and grows the positive attitude in our heart such as working as a group.edu. We also read more books to find research about the topic. it give problem in downloading them. We have face many problems when do this assignment. for find the accurate and suitable page. we must read all pages. The answer are acceptable and rasional 23 Reflection First and foremost. We also hope that we could express better in understanding problem solving.geocities. praise to The Almighty God for giving us good health and safety while finishing this math assignment for this semester. Not only that. Although. we felt very satisfied and really thankful.

ppt www.31k – www.www. 25 .instruction.html Book Geoge Polya.oglethorpe.p pt www.lexington1.net/technology/instruct/ppts/mathppts/Numeracy%20&%20Concepts/Pr oble m%20Solving%20II.math.ppt www.How To Solve It.greenriver.lessonplanet.edu/faculty/~k_sorenson/documents/EDPThinkingandproblemsolving.edu/reising/Problem%20Solving%20Strategies.twsu.com/search?keywords=problem+solving+-math&rating=3 .edu/history/Men/polya.

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