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FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS
FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS
Marg uerite Hartill
Copyright © 2003 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Hartill, Marguerite. Vocabulary for civil service tests / Marguerite Hartill.—1st ed. p. cm. ISBN 1-57685-474-4 (pbk.) 1. Civil service—United States—Examinations—Study guides. 2. Vocabulary tests—study guides. I. Title. JK716.H3532 2003 351.73'076—dc21 2003013197 Printed in the United States of America 987654321 First Edition ISBN 1-57685-474-4 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 55 Broadway 8th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
AND WORD ROOTS FOR SUCCESSFUL STUDYING VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS READING COMPREHENSION GRAMMAR SPELLING PRACTICE TEST 1 PRACTICE TEST 2 vii 1 23 67 83 103 123 157 177 191 205 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 APPENDIX: GLOSSARY OF VOCABULARY TERMS v . SUFFIXES.Contents = INTRODUCTION 1 2 THE LEARNINGEXPRESS TEST PREPARATION SYSTEM RESOURCES—COMMONLY TESTED WORDS. PREFIXES.
and vocabulary. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK Whether your exam is months away or coming up in a few weeks. the better your basic vocabulary skills are. Remember to stick as closely as you can to your plan. You can decide which of these plans is right for you. Always keep your end goal in mind. you will find that you must take a Civil Service exam. chances are you will not have to take this exam again—ever! INTRODUCTION VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS vii . number and letter recall. this book will help you prepare. reading tables and graphs. In general. and spelling. You should carefully read this introduction and Chapter 1—the LearningExpress Test Preparation System— so you can grasp effective strategies and learn to budget your preparation time wisely. a Civil Service exam will be comprised of many different sections. judgment. the better you will do on the entire test.= Introduction Choosing a career as a government employee can be very rewarding. map reading. Chapter 1 presents a 30-Day Study Plan and a 14-Day Study Plan. But before you begin your job. so use the exercises and practice tests in this book to get a feel for the vocabulary topics you will face on the real exam. the type of test you will take may include any or all of the following topics: math. Civil Service exams require that candidates score well on all parts of the exam. Vocabulary is a broad topic. grammar. Depending on your job field. If you study hard the ﬁrst time. Generally. or you can create a more personalized plan. and it forms the foundation for reading comprehension.
there are two practice tests at the end of the book. 2nd edition 501 Word Analogy Questions Goof-Proof Grammar Goof-Proof Spelling Vocabulary and Spelling Success in 20 Minutes a Day. or you may decide to study the sections that give you the most difﬁculty early on in your test preparation. Reading Comprehension. Grammar. A helpful 500-word vocabulary list of commonly tested words can be found in Chapter 2. This can help expand your bank of vocabulary words. Understanding the parts that make up a word can give you a clue about a word’s deﬁnition. you will want to check your answers against the answer explanation section at the end of each chapter. you may want to have a dictionary or thesaurus handy as you work through the questions in each section. Repetition is often the key to success. If at some point you feel you need further practice or more explanation about vocabulary. Studies show that most repetitive tasks become part of a person’s inventory of skills over time. Synonyms and Antonyms. and Word Roots—is also included in Chapter 2. and Spelling.viii VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS INTRODUCTION Once you have set a study plan for yourself. The structure divides common language arts strands into compact parts so that you can work on each concept and gain mastery. You may want to answer the questions in sequence. ﬁnally. The book is organized in six sections: Commonly Tested Words. Sufﬁxes. As you answer the hundreds of practice questions in this book. Vocabulary in Context. These exams will give you the chance to measure what you have learned and review any problem areas that you ﬁnd. 3rd edition . If. And. you can ﬁnd it in these LearningExpress publications: 501 Grammar and Writing Questions 501 Synonym and Antonym Questions 501 Reading Comprehension Questions. you feel you need more practice. look at the table of contents to see the types of verbal topics covered in this book. after answering all the questions in a section. reread the questions and try your hand at responding one more time. and this can help you make educated guesses when taking your exam. In addition. Another helpful list—entitled Preﬁxes.
have great holiday and vacation schedules. Speciﬁc beneﬁts may include: 10 paid holidays a year. Depending on your prior education. The higher the step. whereas junior college graduates may enter at GS-4. 13 to 26 paid vacation days a year. including: Accounting Administration Agriculture Air Trafﬁc Control Biology Budgetary Work Cartography Chemistry Claims Work Clerical Work Conservation Court Work Custodial Work Defense-Related Work Drafting Educational Service Electrical Work Engineering Finance Fireﬁghting Health Services Human Services Information Technology Law Enforcement Legal Machinist Work Nursing Painting Postal Work Service Work Social Work Treasury Work Visa Examination EARNINGS AND ADVANCEMENT The government is the largest employer in the United States. The level of their relative positions (based on difﬁculty) is called the grade. group life insurance. . Government jobs are secure. from painting to nursing. you may enter the government pay scale at different grades. the more money you make. Each grade progresses upward through steps. offer health insurance. and provide paid training for employees. high school graduates may enter at GS-2 (“GS” means “General Schedule”). This is called the series. and a government pension plan.INTRODUCTION VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS ix KINDS OF CIVIL SERVICE JOBS Civil Service jobs range from clerical work to forestry. from social work to cartography. 13 sick days a year. For example. Civilian government employees are grouped by the type of work they do. The government workforce is diverse with career possibilities in a wide array of specialties and ﬁelds. medical and dental beneﬁts.
(Lincolnwood.519 39. ed. Claudia.opm. Exact pay information can be found on position vacancy announcements.214 17. 1997). Building a Better Vocabulary. (New York: Random House. certain hard-to-ﬁll jobs. CA: Crisp Publications. Contemporary’s Word Power. Word Parts Dictionary. (Lanham. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES If you feel you need even more verbal skills practice you might want to purchase or borrow the following books: Agnes. technical. et al. (Springﬁeld. Joseph.158 35. Michael. MA: Merriam-Webster.664 20.251 72. (New York: RHR Press.gov.976 51. www. O’Connor.130 29. Sheehan.115 GS-11 GS-12 GS-13 GS-14 GS-15 42. 1996).442 GS-6 GS-7 GS-8 GS-9 GS-10 26. Martin’s. 1997). 2002). Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. Pay rates outside the continental United States are 10% to 25% higher. Vocabulary Improvement: Words Made Easy. 2003 For 2003. IL: Contemporary Books.) Sorsby.106 18. 2001). Bonet. (New York: St. so the majority of jobs pay more than the base salary listed above. MD: University Press of America. Also.508 61. (Menlo Park. or GS.140 Please note that GS pay is adjusted according to your geographic location. NC: McFarland. and medical ﬁelds.x VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS INTRODUCTION BASIC PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE PAY PLAN.04% above base pay. Krevisky. 1998). ( Jefferson.952 23. Roget’s Desk Thesaurus. Webster’s New World Compact School and Ofﬁce Dictionary.037 32. Source: United States Ofﬁce of Personnel Management’s USAJOBS website. pay plan is as follows: GS-1 GS-2 GS-3 GS-4 GS-5 $15. ed. (New York: Random House. usually in the scientiﬁc. Locality payments in the continental United States range from 8.64% to 19. Michael. 2000. 2003). Nadeau. Spelling 101. . Random House Webster’s Pocket Bad Speller’s Dictionary. basic pay under the General Schedule. Ray.usajobs. et al.381 85. Diana. Joyce. may have higher starting salaries. 1992).
cfm?page=jobView&jobID=1305 www. When you have an extensive vocabulary.gov/jobs/beneﬁts.gov www. and you can read more sophisticated texts. you can write clear descriptions. 2000). .com/index.fedjobs. you can speak more ﬂuently and with more conﬁdence. Take the time now and make the commitment to improve your vocabulary skills for your Civil Service exam.opm.htm www.black-collegian.htm MAKE THE COMMITMENT A rich vocabulary gives you a strong advantage in the workplace.com/governmentjobcenter www.va.federaljobs.usajobs.com/howto.INTRODUCTION VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS xi For more information on starting your career in civil service.net www. Achieving a good vocabulary does not come without hard work. The following is a list of government websites to check for job information and opportunities: www.com/career/career-reports/federal2002-1st. check out LearningExpress’s Civil Service Career Starter (New York: LearningExpress.shtml www.careersingovernment. you can understand more of what you read.capitolpublications.
Vocabulary FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS .
you can achieve a top score. you will take your ﬁrst step toward achieving the career of your dreams. However. gives you the discipline and confidence you need to do your best on the exam. The LearningExpress Test Preparation System. there are all sorts of pitfalls that can prevent you from doing your best on an exam. irst. Here are some obstacles that can stand in the way of your success: being unfamiliar with the format of the exam being paralyzed by test anxiety leaving your preparation to the last minute not preparing at all not knowing vital test-taking skills.= 1 CHAPTER The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Taking any test can be tough. the bad news: Getting ready for any test takes work! If you plan to obtain any Civil Service position. By honing in on these skills. such as: ■ how to pace yourself through the exam ■ how to use the process of elimination ■ when to guess F The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 1 . But don’t let the written test scare you! If you prepare ahead of time. developed exclusively for LearningExpress by leading test experts. you will have to score high on your Civil Service exam. This book focuses speciﬁcally on the language skills that are tested on the exam.
It is important that you follow the advice and do the activities. Who’s in control. Otherwise. but not you. In just nine easy-to-follow steps. It’s up to you—remember. . Each step gives you an approximate time estimate. Other test-takers may let the test get the better of them. If you can take a whole afternoon or evening. you can work through the entire LearningExpress Test Preparation System in one sitting. the good news: The LearningExpress Test Preparation System puts you in control. other test-takers may be unprepared or out of test-taking shape. For each of the steps listed below you will ﬁnd tips and activities to help you prepare for any exam. you or the exam? Now. Here’s how the LearningExpress Test Preparation System works: Nine easy steps lead you through everything you need to know and do to get ready to succeed on your exam.2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System not being in tip-top mental and physical shape forgetting to eat breakfast and having to take the test on an empty stomach forgetting a sweater or jacket and shivering through the exam What’s the common denominator in all these test-taking pitfalls? One word: control. You will have taken all the steps you need to take to earn a top score. you will learn everything you need to know to make sure that you are in charge of your preparation and your performance on the exam. or you won’t be getting the full beneﬁt of the system. Step 1: Get Information Step 2: Conquer Test Anxiety Step 3: Make a Plan Step 4: Learn to Manage Your Time Step 5: Learn to Use the Process of Elimination Step 6: Know When to Guess Step 7: Reach Your Peak Performance Zone Step 8: Get Your Act Together Step 9: Do It! Total 30 minutes 20 minutes 50 minutes 10 minutes 20 minutes 20 minutes 10 minutes 10 minutes 10 minutes 3 hours We estimate that working through the entire system will take you approximately three hours. you are in control. though it is perfectly okay if you work faster or slower than the time estimates allow. you can break it up and do just one or two steps a day for the next several days.
You can see how well your training paid off in Chapters 8 and 9. but it can even keep you from preparing. review general reading comprehension. STEP 2: CONQUER TEST ANXIETY Time to complete: 20 minutes Activity: Take the Test Stress Test Having complete information about the exam is the ﬁrst step in getting control of the exam. The ﬁrst step in the LearningExpress Test Preparation System is ﬁnding out everything you can about the types of questions that will be asked on the verbal section of a Civil Service examination. Learn these strategies now and practice them as you work through the exams in this book.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 3 STEP 1: GET INFORMATION Time to complete: 30 minutes Activity: Read the Introduction Knowledge is power. stop here and read the Introduction of this book. Next. vocabulary. grammar. you have to overcome one of the biggest obstacles to test success: test anxiety. you will learn how to use this book. There. In Step 2. you will learn stress management techniques that will help you succeed on your exam. and be presented with a discussion regarding earnings and advancement for civil servants. Practicing and studying the exercises in this book will help prepare you for the verbal section of the Civil Service test. you will then begin to apply the test-taking strategies you learn as you work through practice exercises in the above topic areas (Chapters 3 through 7). Test anxiety not only impairs your performance on the exam itself. so they’ll be second nature to you by exam day. Topics that are tested include: Vocabulary in Context Reading Comprehension Synonyms and Antonyms Grammar Spelling After completing the LearningExpress Test Preparation System. see an overview of the kinds of Civil Service jobs available. where you will take two practice Civil Service verbal examinations. If you haven’t already done so. . and spelling strategies.
walking through the park. start telling them your self-conﬁdence messages above. Turn on your tape recorder and listen to your self-conﬁdence messages. Hold it for a count of one.” Say it into a tape recorder and play it back once a day. don’t listen. in fact. telling yourself that you don’t do well on exams or you just cannot do this. Visualize again. Shake your hands from the wrist. I’m full of self-conﬁdence. A positive attitude is a great way to combat test anxiety. practice these strategies in the weeks before the test. Use it faithfully. Stop here and answer the questions on that page to ﬁnd out whether your level of test anxiety is something you should worry about. one of the foremost British actors of this century. Take a deep breath while you count to ﬁve. the interior of your new ofﬁce. That’s why you are reading this book. “I’m prepared. and use the ones that work best for you. and remind yourself that you are better prepared than most of the people taking the test. or wherever. Everyone gets nervous before a big exam—and if that nervousness motivates you to prepare thoroughly. vomited before every performance. Move your body. Exercise. If you hear it often enough. Imagine yourself reporting for your ﬁrst day on the job. Try rolling your head in a circle. Now close your eyes and imagine you are . His stage fright didn’t impair his performance. Being prepared will put you in control of test anxiety. it probably gave him a little extra edge—just the kind of edge you need to do well. It’s said that Sir Laurence Olivier. Go for a run. Stand in front of the mirror and say to your reﬂection. whether on a stage or in an exam room. lift weights. so much the better. go swimming—and do it regularly. however. Fight negative messages. To ﬁnd a comfort level. I know I can do it. Repeat several times. Physical activity helps calm your body and focus your mind. Visualizing success can help make it happen—and it reminds you why you are preparing for the exam so diligently. This is no time to be humble or shy. Stress Management Before the Test If you feel your level of anxiety is getting the best of you in the weeks before the test. Rotate your shoulders.4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Controlling Test Anxiety The ﬁrst thing you need to know is that a little test anxiety is a good thing. Think of the place where you are most relaxed: lying on the beach in the sun. There’s nothing like knowing what to expect. If the someone with the negative messages is you. and you greeting your new colleagues. you will believe it. here is what you need to do to bring the level down: Get prepared. Practice self-conﬁdence. Stress Management on Test Day There are several ways you can bring down your level of test anxiety on test day. being in good physical shape can actually help you do well on the exam. I’m going to ace this test. On the next page is the LearningExpress Test Stress Test. Picture the clothes you will wear. Visualize. then let it out on a count of ﬁve. Besides. Deep breathing. Every time someone starts telling you how hard the exam is or how it is almost impossible to get a high score. Many people ﬁnd these movements very relaxing.
you will ﬁnd that you need only a few seconds of this exercise to increase your sense of well-being. 1 = Once or twice 2 = Sometimes 3 = Often ______ I have gotten so nervous before an exam that I simply put down the books and didn’t study . It is normal. In the blank before each statement. visualize yourself moving smoothly and quickly through the test. Try these techniques ahead of time. Instead. Visualize one more time. ______ Total: Add up the numbers in the blanks above. Take a mental break. Everyone loses concentration once in a while during a long test. and answer it. and do some deep breathing for a few seconds. Getting even one circle ﬁlled in gets you into the test-taking groove. When anxiety threatens to overwhelm you right there during the exam. Find an easy question. ______ I have had trouble ﬁlling in the little circles because my hands were shaking too hard. Say to yourself. My brain is taking a break. “Hey. there are still things you can do to manage your stress level: Repeat your self-conﬁdence messages. ______ I have failed an exam because I was too nervous to complete it.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 5 actually there. and see how well they work for you. Like most visualization techniques. Say them silently to yourself. Skim over the test until you ﬁnd an easy question. this one works best if you have practiced it ahead of time. close your eyes. If you practice in advance. so you shouldn’t worry about it.” Put down your pencil. accept what has happened. Then you are ready to go back to work. ______ I have simply not showed up for an exam because I was scared to take it. answering every question correctly and ﬁnishing just before time is up. write the number that most accurately describes your experience. You should have them memorized by now. ______ I have experienced dizziness and disorientation while taking an exam. The following questionnaire will provide a diagnosis of your level of test anxiety. I lost it there for a minute. ______ I have experienced disabling physical symptoms such as vomiting and severe headaches because I was nervous about an exam. 0 = Never for it. and believe them. This time. TEST STRESS TEST You need to worry about test anxiety only if it is extreme enough to impair your performance.
you are very lucky. In addition to practicing the stress management techniques listed in this section. If you scored: ■ 0–2: your level of test anxiety is nothing to worry about. here they are. it is probably just enough to give you the motivation to excel.6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Your Test Stress Score Here are the steps you should take. can make a big difference in your score—and in your chances of getting the job you want. Take control of your preparation time by mapping out a study schedule. Twenty minutes daily will do you much more good than one two-hour session each week. you can use the suggested schedules here to construct your own. If you are the kind of person who doesn’t like to follow other people’s plans. . STEP 3: MAKE A PLAN Time to complete: 50 minutes Activity: Construct a study plan Maybe the most important thing you can do to get control of yourself and your exam is to make a study plan. Even ten minutes a day. 3–6: your test anxiety may be enough to impair your performance. ■ ■ 7+: your level of test anxiety is a serious concern. Too many people fail to prepare simply because they fail to plan. Tell the counselor that you have a level of test anxiety that sometimes keeps you from being able to take an exam. You cannot review everything you need to know for a Civil Service test in one night. You have to set aside some time every day for study and practice. Even more important than making a plan is making a commitment. depending on your score. The counselor may be willing to help you or may suggest someone else you should talk to. But don’t let that long time span keep you from studying. Spending hours on the day before the exam poring over sample test questions not only raises your level of test anxiety. you may want to seek additional professional help. Call your local high school or community college and ask for the academic counselor. Try for at least 20 minutes a day. If you are the kind of person who needs deadlines and assignments to motivate you for a project. with half an hour or more on weekends. and you should practice the stress management techniques listed in this section to try to bring your test anxiety down to manageable levels. Don’t fall into the cram trap. it also is simply no substitute for careful preparation and practice. If you have months before the exam. Start now.
Day 16 Day 17 Read Chapter 7. Answer Questions 13–25 and score yourself. Day 12 Answer Questions 31–50 in Chapter 5. Score yourself by referring to the answer explanations at the end of the chapter. Day 9 Answer Questions 26–50 in Chapter 4. you have plenty of time to prepare— as long as you don’t waste it! If you have less than a month. answer Questions 1–10. Score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. Grammar. turn to Schedule B. Spelling. skim over the written materials from any courses or training programs you may have taken. Day 5 Review any concepts in Chapter 3 that you feel are necessary for you to reevaluate. Score yourself by referring to the answer explanations at the end of the chapter. Day 13 Day 14 Read Chapter 6. answer Questions 1–10. particularly noting areas you expect to be emphasized on the exam and areas you don’t remember well. Score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. Vocabulary in Context. Day 4 Continue Chapter 3 by answering Questions 16–30. Answer Questions 11–30 and score yourself. Also. and score yourself. Day 7 Day 8 Read Chapter 4. Day 6 Answer Questions 41–50 in Chapter 3. Score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. Answer Questions 11–30 and score yourself. and answer Questions 1-12. Day 10 Day 11 Read Chapter 5. Check your answers at the end of the chapter. Day 3 Read Chapter 3. Review any Chapter 4 concepts that you feel you may need more time to absorb. Answer Questions 31–40 and score yourself. and answer Questions 1–10 and score yourself. Score yourself. Day 15 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 6. . Review any Chapter 6 concepts that you feel you may need more time to absorb. Review any Chapter 7 concepts that you feel you may need more time to absorb.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 7 Schedule A: The 30-Day Plan If you have at least a month before you take your test. Answer Questions 11–30 and score yourself. and practice these basic skills by answering Questions 1–15. Reading Comprehension. Review any Chapter 5 concepts that you feel you may need more time to absorb. TIME PREPARATION Day 1–2 Read the Introduction of this book. and score yourself. Score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. Synonyms and Antonyms.
Review the Word Roots and highlight any that you think are hard for you to remember. Day 19 Begin to review the Commonly Tested Words in Chapter 2. See if you can use those words in sentences. Day 20 Turn to the Preﬁxes. and Word Roots to the Commonly Tested Words to see if you notice the ways these word elements are used in words. Work through similar questions in the appropriate chapters. Choose ten more words from your highlighted vocabulary list and quiz yourself to see if you can remember the deﬁnitions. Sufﬁxes. Day before the exam Relax. Day 29 Identify your weaknesses in the Practice Tests and review the coordinating chapters to review those skills. Sufﬁxes. Work through similar questions in the appropriate chapters. Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to re-evaluate. Do something unrelated to the exam and go to bed at a reasonable hour. Choose ten words and quiz yourself to see if you can remember the deﬁnitions. take Practice Test 1. Compare your knowledge of Preﬁxes. . Day 21 Day 22 Day 23 Complete your review of the Commonly Tested Words and highlight unfamiliar words. Review any concepts that you feel you may need more time to absorb.8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Day 18 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 7. take Practice Test 2. Day 24 Return to your highlighted words and review them. Score yourself and review any incorrect questions. Score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. Day 25 Day 26 In Chapter 8. Score yourself and review any incorrect questions. Day 27 Day 28 In Chapter 9. Review the Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes and highlight any that you think are hard for you to remember. and Word Roots on page 56. Highlight any words that you think may give you difﬁculty. See if you can use those words in sentences.
Vocabulary in Context—including the Practice Questions. . Do something unrelated to the exam and go to bed at a reasonable hour. Review the words you highlighted in the Commonly Tested Words. Day before the exam Relax.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 9 Schedule B: The 14-Day Plan If you have two weeks or less before you take your exam. and Word Roots list and highlight any troublesome areas. Review any incorrect answers. and score yourself. Review the Preﬁxes. Sufﬁxes. Make sure you understand them before you ﬁnish. Day 4 Complete Chapter 5. Review any incorrect answers. Complete Chapter 3. Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10 Review the Commonly Tested Words in Chapter 2 and highlight all unfamiliar words. Day 5 Complete Chapter 6. Review any incorrect answers. Day 3 Complete Chapter 4. Spelling—including the Practice Questions. Practice Test 1. Grammar—including the Practice Questions. Review any incorrect answers. Complete Chapter 8. Day 13 Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to reassess. and score yourself. Day 12 Complete Chapter 9. Day 6 Complete Chapter 7. Work through similar questions in appropriate chapters. Day 11 Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to reassess. Reading Comprehension—including the Practice Questions. Review all of the questions that you missed. you have your work cut out for you. Use this 14-day schedule to help you make the most of your time. TIME PREPARATION Day 1 Day 2 Read the Introduction and Chapter 1. Practice Test 2. Review any incorrect answers. Review all of the questions that you missed. Work through similar questions in appropriate chapters. Synonyms and Antonyms—including the Practice Questions.
and 6 of the LearningExpress Test Preparation System put you in charge of your exam by showing you test-taking strategies that work. This helps you ﬁnd the right answer by eliminating wrong answer choices. read them carefully. 5. Here are some tips to keep that from happening to you. Glance at your watch every few minutes and compare the time to the amount you have completed on the test. . Don’t rush. It is a terrible feeling to hear the examiner say. skip the question and move on. If you are falling behind. make sure you skip it on the answer sheet too. Keep moving. If you don’t know the answer. pick up the pace a bit. Keep track of your place on the answer sheet. If you are allowed to write in your exam booklet. Circle the number of the question in your test booklet in case you have time to come back to it later. If you skip a question. your next most important tool for taking control of your exam is using the process of elimination wisely. many hours of practice! Activities: Practice these strategies as you take the sample tests in this book Steps 4. When one quarter of the time has elapsed. listen closely. rushing will not help. which may give you more than enough time to complete all the questions—or may not. Practice these strategies as you take the sample tests in this book. Do not waste time on one question. “Five minutes left. you should be a quarter of the way through the section.10 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System STEP 4: LEARN TO MANAGE YOUR TIME Time to complete: 10 minutes to read. and then you can use them on test day. Though you should keep moving. If the directions are given orally. Follow directions.” when you are only three-quarters of the way through the test. write down the beginning time and the ending time of the exam. If they are written on the exam booklet. Civil Service exams have a time limit. Pace yourself. It is standard test-taking wisdom that you should always read all the answer choices before choosing your answer. Try to keep calm and work methodically and quickly. First. Ask questions before the exam begins if there is anything you don’t understand. and so on. STEP 5: LEARN TO USE THE PROCESS OF ELIMINATION Time to complete: 20 minutes Activity: Complete worksheet on Using the Process of Elimination After time management. Check yourself every 5–10 questions to make sure the question number and the answer sheet number are still the same. take control of your time on the exam.
if you can eliminate . pick an answer and move on. of the answer choices. If you have not eliminated any answers at all. and if it is the wrong answer. you may ﬁnd it helpful to underline important information or take notes about what you are reading. Try to eliminate those choices that do not seem as strong to you. you will never know whether you have chosen the right answer. If it is a vocabulary question. check it against the circled question to be sure you have answered it. do not waste time with any one answer choice. mark the question as one to return to later. What you do next depends on the type of question you are answering. just reread the circled part of the question to make sure you are answering exactly what is asked. If you can’t ﬁgure out what an answer choice means. and these can really add up against you! Whatever the penalty. you have improved your odds of getting the question right. If you have eliminated some. don’t worry about it. If you have narrowed it down to a single answer. marking your test book accordingly: ■ The answer seems reasonable. Whatever you do. Some standardized tests are scored in such a way that every wrong answer reduces your score by a fraction of a point. skip the question temporarily. but not all. follow this simple process of elimination plan to manage your testing time as efﬁciently as possible: Read each answer choice and make a quick decision about what to do with it. circle it and make sure you understand what it is asking. Mark your answer sheet and move on to the next question. you will probably be able to eliminate all the others. Sometimes this helps to put the question in a new perspective and makes it easier to answer. reasoning your way through these choices. ask the proctor before the test begins. If you have eliminated all but one answer. If You Are Penalized for Wrong Answers You must know whether you will be penalized for wrong answers before you begin the test. or you do not understand it. If it is the right answer. Make an educated guess and move on. Then mark your answer sheet and move on. compare the remaining answers as you look for similarities and differences. Put a smiley face next to the answer. another answer will stand out as the obvious right answer. if you think you can do better with more time.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 11 Choosing the Right Answer by Process of Elimination As you read a question. and you are certain that you could never answer this question in a million years. Whether you make a guess or not depends upon the penalty. Put an X next to the answer. ■ The answer is awful. When you get to the heart of the question. Put a ? next to it. If the test has no penalty for wrong answers. Then make a plan of attack to determine the answer. Keep it for now. This book will help you come up with strategies to answer difﬁcult questions. but don’t forget to mark the question so you can come back to it later if you have time. Otherwise. If you do not know. If you are not sure of what is being asked. Get rid of it. But do not eliminate an answer just because you don’t understand it. take a quick look at the answer choices for some clues. keep it. If you are down to only two or three answer choices. ■ You can’t make up your mind about the answer. However.
few tests are scored using such elaborate means. know the penalties and calculate your odds before you take a guess on a question. Whatever you do. because the odds of guessing correctly are one in ﬁve. You have a one in three chance of answering the question correctly. 2. Make sure that you have put the answers in the right places and that you have marked only one answer for each question. the odds are now in your favor. Fortunately. Let’s imagine you are taking a test in which each answer has ﬁve choices and you are penalized 1 4 of a point for each wrong answer. USING THE PROCESS OF ELIMINATION Use the process of elimination to answer the following questions. Review your answer sheet.12 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System enough choices to make the odds of answering the question better than the penalty for getting it wrong. if you can eliminate two of the choices as deﬁnitely wrong. use the time you have left to do the following: Go back to questions you could not answer and try them again. make a guess. Make every second count by checking your work over and over again until time is called.) If you have erased an answer. If you cannot eliminate any of the answer choices. If You Finish Early If you ﬁnish before the time is up for any section of the exam. However. The process of elimination—knowing when to guess—is your tool for the next step. Check for stray marks on your answer sheet that could distort your score. (Most tests are scored in such a way that questions with more than one answer are marked wrong. Now try using your powers of elimination as you complete the exercise called “Using the Process of Elimination.” The answer explanations that follow show one possible way you might use this process to arrive at the right answer. This is called educated guessing. change it. If you have a good reason for thinking a response is wrong. make sure you have done a good job of it. but if your test is one of them. a a a a b b b b c c c c d d d d . 4. 3. Check your work on all the other questions. do not waste time when you have ﬁnished a test section. you are better off leaving the answer blank. 1.
the question doesn’t say the operator has to be on the street. 5. b. 4. domestickated d.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 13 1. Is the truck driver in choice a “operating a commercial vehicle”? Yes. which of the following people need NOT carry a commercial driver’s license? a. Smoking tobacco has been linked to a. 29. a bus operator backing her bus out of the way of another bus in the bus lot c. Likewise. The . c. if Ilsa is 10. idling counts as “operating. outragous c. an increased risk of stroke and heart attack. 2. 24 2. Which of the following words is spelled correctly? a. juvenile delinquency. The best way to eliminate other answer choices is to try plugging them in to the information given in the problem. incorrigible b. a taxi driver driving his personal car to the grocery store d. 1. 19 d.” so he needs to have a commercial driver’s license. Then choice b is wrong. The difference in their ages is 5. d. is 24. 10 c. You should have eliminated choice a immediately. for choice b. all forms of respiratory disease. Ilsa can’t be four years old if Meghan is going to be Ilsa’s age in ﬁve years. How old is Ilsa? a. a truck driver idling his engine while waiting to be directed to a loading dock b. “All drivers of commercial vehicles must carry a valid commercial driver’s license whenever operating a commercial vehicle. as well as some suggestions as to how you might have used the process of elimination to ﬁnd them. then Meghan must be 5. You could eliminate choice c in the same way and be left with choice d. Ed is 29. a limousine driver taking the limousine to her home after dropping off her last passenger of the evening 3. increasing mortality rates over the past ten years. Note the word not in the question. Ilsa is as old as Meghan will be in ﬁve years. The difference between Ed’s age and Meghan’s age is twice the difference between Ilsa’s age and Meghan’s age. and Meghan’s age. Is 24 equal to 2 times 5? No. and go through the answers one by one.” According to this sentence. 4 b. The difference between Ed’s age. the bus operator in choice b is operating a commercial vehicle. For instance. c. understandible Answers Here are the answers. d.
14 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System limo driver in choice d is operating a commercial vehicle. but you would still be able to eliminate two answers and have only two to choose from. If you knew that the correct spellings were outrageous. how could smoking be responsible for a higher mortality rate? (If you didn’t know that “mortality rate” means the rate at which people die. but his own private car. The best thing would be if you could overcome your anxieties and go ahead and mark an answer. 3. guessing is sometimes a good strategy. But you may want to have a sense of how good your intuition is before you go into the exam. domesticated. So you have nothing to lose and everything to gain by guessing if you know how to make an educated guess. “Should I guess?” depends on you. In many instances.You could eliminate choice b simply because of the presence of the word all. too. 4. The more complicated answer to the question. Such absolutes hardly ever appear in correct answer choices. Even if you are a play-it-safe person with terrible intuition. a. the number of questions you answer correctly yields your raw score. How you used the process of elimination here depends on which words you recognized as being spelled incorrectly. . However. complete the following worksheet called Your Guessing Ability. your personality. Some exams have a guessing penalty. you are ready to take control of one of the big questions in testtaking: Should I guess? The ﬁrst and main answer is yes. even if it doesn’t have a passenger in it. and your “guessing intutition. and understandable. rather than more? So. STEP 6: KNOW WHEN TO GUESS Time to complete: 20 minutes Activity: Complete worksheet on Your Guessing Ability Armed with the process of elimination. Now you are left with the correct choice. a. Choice c looks attractive until you think a little about what you know—aren’t fewer people smoking these days. check with the administrators of your particular exam to see if this is the case. the cabbie in choice c is not operating a commercial vehicle.) Choice d can’t be proven.” There are two things you need to know about yourself before you go into the exam: Are you a risk-taker? Are you a good guesser? You will have to decide about your risk-taking quotient on your own. a. To ﬁnd out if you are a good guesser. then you were home free. so you could eliminate that one. you might keep this choice as a possibility.
Hubble ﬂow. 9. 1830.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 15 YOUR GUESSING ABILITY The following are ten really hard questions. 5. Australia. 10. a a a a a b b b b b c c c c c d d d d d 6. 7. b. Use this answer grid to ﬁll in your answers to the questions. c. Because of the expansion of the universe. d. just as if you did expect to answer it. India. 4. c. Read each question carefully. September 7 is Independence Day in a. 4. 1713. Rather. 1. 8. American author Gertrude Stein was born in a. this is an assessment of your ability to guess when you do not have a clue. 2. b. the big bang. a a a a a b b b b b c c c c c d d d d d 1. b. 3. c. d. the stars and other celestial bodies are all moving away from each other. gravitational collapse. Which of the following is the formula for determining the momentum of an object? a. 1874. P = IV d. 2. Brazil. Newton’s ﬁrst law. 1901. This phenomenon is known as a. If you have any knowledge at all of the subject of the question. p = mv b. E = mc2 3. d. use that knowledge to help you eliminate wrong answer choices. F = ma c. . Costa Rica. You are not supposed to know the answers.
The religious and philosophical doctrine stating that the universe is constantly in a struggle between good and evil is known as a. b. Arnold Palmer.16 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System 5. c. Connecticut. Ben Hogan. 7. Which of the following is NOT one of the Five Classics attributed to Confucius? a. the bulb b. The winner of the Masters golf tournament in 1953 was a. 10. Cary Middlecoff. d. d. Supreme Court was a. Which of the following is the poisonous portion of a daffodil? a. Texas. the ﬂowers 9. Epicureanism. the leaves c. the Book of Holiness c. John Jay. John Blair. 8. c. the Book of History 6. The third Chief Justice of the U.S. the stem d. the I Ching b. b. c. Manichaeanism. c. d. William Cushing. the Spring and Autumn Annals d. The state with the highest per capita personal income in 1980 was a. d. neo-Hegelianism. Pelagianism. Alaska. b. James Wilson. New York. Sam Snead. b. .
You may feel more comfortable. you should get 2 1 answers correct. c. though. your chances of getting a right answer is one in four. In that case. a. On how many questions did you guess? How many of those did you get right? If the number you got right is at least one-fourth of the number of questions you guessed. but you knew that John Jay was the ﬁrst.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 17 Answers Check your answers against the correct answers below. you are at least an average guesser. though. If the number you got right is signiﬁcantly lower than one-fourth of the number you guessed. a. you should not guess on exams where there is a guessing penalty—unless you can eliminate a wrong answer. If you got one or none right. b. if you do not have time during the practice tests. b. you may be a really terriﬁc guesser. you may want to decide not to guess. Maybe you did not know who the third Chief Justice was (question 7). c. If you got four or more right. so getting either two or three right 2 would be average. on a test with four answer choices. If there is no guessing penalty. How Did You Do? You may have simply been lucky and actually known the answers to one or two questions. you would be safe in guessing. a. Circle the numbers of questions you guess. d. In addition. According to probability. b. go back afterward and try to remember which questions you guessed. You should continue to keep track of your guessing ability as you work through the sample questions in this book. 10. that this is only a small sample. or. 1. . if you guess only selectively— when you can eliminate a wrong answer or at least when you have a good feeling about one of the answer choices. Remember. you would have eliminated choice d and therefore improved your odds of guessing right from one in four to one in three. Keep in mind. 5. 3. maybe better—and you should always go ahead and guess on the real exam. d. 6. 7. 2. 9. So keep a separate “guessing” score for each exam. 8. 4. your guessing was more successful if you were able to use the process of elimination on any of the questions.
your mind on test day. every other day is okay. rather than against. for at least a week before the exam. What your body needs for peak performance is simply a balanced diet.” Rest You probably know how much sleep you need every night to be at your best. it’s important to give your body the fuel it needs to stay healthy. Exercise If you do not already have a regular exercise program going. do not overdo it. You don’t want to exhaust yourself. cut out the junk. you will just toss and turn if you go to bed early without getting up early. along with protein and carbohydrates. Exercise. and eliminate any alcohol for at least two weeks before the exam. as well as during your preparation time. get up another half hour earlier. the time during which you are preparing for an exam is actually an excellent time to start one. you have to take control of your physical as well as your mental state. though. But remember. and so on. Make sure you do get that much sleep. Jogging with a friend. If you are really pressed for time. Moderation is the key.18 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System STEP 7: REACH YOUR PEAK PERFORMANCE ZONE Time to complete: 10 minutes to read. proper diet. Foods that are high in lecithin (an amino acid). Go easy on caffeine and nicotine. Extra sleep will just make you groggy. First of all. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. Use the Physical Preparation Checklist on the next page to make sure you are in tip-top form. If you are already keeping ﬁt—or trying to get that way—don’t let the pressure of preparing for an exam fool you into quitting now. Do not try it the other way around.M. are especially good “brain foods. A half hour of vigorous activity—enough to raise a sweat—every day should be your aim. Diet In order to succeed mentally. It also increases the oxygen supply throughout your body and your brain. you should reset your internal clock so that your body does not think you are taking an exam at 3 A. might make the time go faster. The way it works is to get up half an hour earlier each morning. You have to start this process well before the exam. and then go to bed half an hour earlier that night. Exercise helps reduce stress by pumping wonderful good-feeling hormones called endorphins into your system. so might listening to music. even if you do not always get it. Choose an activity you like and get out there and do it. Moderation is important here. such as ﬁsh and beans. and rest will ensure that your body works with. If you are not a morning person and your exam will be given in the morning. weeks to complete Activity: Complete the Physical Preparation Checklist To get ready for the challenge of a big exam. too. for example. The next morning. . How long you will have to do this depends on how late you are used to getting up. so you will be at peak performance on test day.
will do your body a world of good. Don’t Skip Breakfast Even if you do not usually eat breakfast.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 19 STEP 8: GET YOUR ACT TOGETHER Time to complete: 10 minutes to read. Do not eat doughnuts or other sweet foods. you are trying for at least half an hour of exercise every other day (preferably every day) and a balanced diet that’s light on junk food. Gather Your Materials The night before the exam. A cup of coffee does not count. or eggs with toast. Plan on dressing in layers. Exam minus 7 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 6 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: ______ for minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ . Have a sweater or jacket you can take off if it is warm. and test-taking strategies. lay out the clothes you will wear and the materials you have to bring with you to the exam. you are ready to take charge of test anxiety. Remember. either. Now it is time to make charts and gather the materials you need to take to the exam. A sugar high will leave you with a sugar low in the middle of the exam. do so on exam morning. test preparation. Then write down what you ate for each meal. time to complete will vary Activity: Complete Final Preparations worksheet When you feel healthy and conﬁdent. because you will not have any control over the temperature of the exam room. write down what physical exercise you engaged in and for how long. Use the checklist on the worksheet entitled Final Preparations on page 21 to help you pull together what you will need. PHYSICAL PREPARATION CHECKLIST For the week before the test. A mix of protein and carbohydrates is best: cereal with milk.
you are better prepared than most of the other people taking the test with you. plus test-taking time Activity: Ace Your Test Fast forward to exam day. and emotional state. You practiced your test-taking strategies while working through this book. You know when and where to show up and what to bring with you. In other words. You made a study plan and followed through.20 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Exam minus 5 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 4 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 3 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 2 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 1 day Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: ___________ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ___________ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ___________ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ___________ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ___________ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ STEP 9: DO IT! Time to complete: 10 minutes. You are in control of your physical. You are ready. mental. .
2 pencils ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ _________________________ _________________________ . or have a nice dinner for two—whatever your heart desires. Time it will take to get to the exam site: ___________ Things to Lay Out the Night Before Clothes I will wear Sweater/jacket Watch Photo ID Admission card Four No. And then do it. Go in there and ace the exam. make a trial run. Go into the exam. So do it. Call your friends and get together for a party. Plan a celebration. When you complete the exam. your environment. You are ready to succeed. you will have earned a reward. FINAL PREPARATIONS Getting to the Exam Site Location of exam: Date of exam: Time of exam: ___________ ___________ ___________ Do I know how to get to the exam site? Yes ______ No ______ If no. And then look forward to your new career. full of conﬁdence.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 21 Just one more thing. You are in control of yourself. Give yourself something to look forward to. and your performance on exam day. armed with the test-taking strategies you have practiced until they are second nature.
he had to abjure his allegiance to his country of origin. When words are familiar. Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 23 . abeyance (a· bay·ans) n. the easier it will be for you to answer any vocabulary question that comes your way. target ten words that you feel you do not know. Preﬁxes. suspension. Rather than having you read the dictionary. Try to use the words in conversation. The greater your base of word knowledge. deviation from what is normal. to regard with horror. COMMONLY TESTED VOCABULARY WORDS aberration (ab·e· ray·shon) n. you can count on them to help you with all forms of communication—or to pass any kind of test. distortion. it is a good idea to build your bank of words. in your reports or memos. Construction of the high˘ ˘ way is in abeyance until we get agency approval. and Word Roots for Successful Studying Before embarking on any vocabulary study. His new scientiﬁc theory was ˘ ˘ ˘ deemed an aberration by his very conservative colleagues. this chapter narrows down your study list by giving you 500 words that are commonly found on vocabulary tests. When Joseph became a citizen. the more familiar it will become to you. detest.= 2 CHAPTER Resources— Commonly Tested Words. Sufﬁxes. abhor (ab· hohr) v. Read the definitions and the way each word is used in a sentence. to give up or reject. I abhor such hypocrisy. being temporarily suspended or set aside. The more you use a word. abjure (ab· joor) v. to repudiate. Each night. or even in an e-mail. renounce under oath 2. 1.
The jury found the defendant ˘ addled at the end of the prosecuting attorney’s questions. abscond (ab· skond) v. as in an egg. to muddle or confuse 2. The alacrity she brought ˘ to her job helped her move up the corporate ladder quickly. adamant ( ad·a·mant) adj. 1. 1. abstruse (ab· stroos) adj. limitless 2. accolade ( ak·o·layd) n. The accretion of sediment in the harbor channel caused boats to run aground. to calm. abysmal (a· biz·mal) adj. absolution (ab·so· loo·shon) n. having an unpleasantly bitter. 1. often temporary. to abolish. sharp taste or smell 2. for a speciﬁc. fuss. very profound. 1. purpose. 1. redemption. a ceremonial embrace in greeting 3. Albert Einstein’s abstruse calculations can be understood by only a few people. bother. unyielding to requests. put to rest. (in ˘ ˘ biology) the growing together of parts that are normally separate. alacrity (a· lak·ri·tee) n. Tom’s last-place ﬁnish in ˘ ˘ the race was an abysmal turn of events for the team. praise or approval 2. alleviate 2. inﬂexible. ado (a· doo) n. I have decided to abstain on this issue. appeals. The jury granted Alan the absolution he deserved. for this case only. addle ( ad·el) v. Davis—the ofﬁcial leader—was ill. especially to refrain from voting. to become rotten. being happily ready and eager. 1. The remarks by the CEO did ˘ not allay the concerns of the employees. a ceremonious ˘ tap on the shoulder with a sword to mark the conferring of knighthood. to run away secretly and hide. often in order to avoid arrest or prosecution. He received accolades from his superiors for ﬁnding ways to cut costs and increase productivity. Criminals will often head south and abscond with stolen goods to Mexico. trouble. 1. ad hoc (ad hok) adj.24 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources abrogate ( ab·ro· ayt) v. ˘ aﬁcionado (a·fish·yo· nah·doh) n. ﬁrm. allay (a· lay) v. building up 2. growth or increase by gradual. to choose to refrain from something. The burning tires in the junkyard gave off an acrid odor. acrid ( ak·rid) adj. Without much ado. or reason 2. accretion (a· kree·shon) n. She acted as the ad hoc scout leader while Mr. successive addition. do away with. abstain (ab· stayn) v. difﬁcult to comprehend. 1. obscure. The senator ˘ ˘ was adamant that no changes would be made to the defense budget. The Jeffersons’ atten˘ ˘ dance at every game proved that they were true aﬁcionados of baseball. bitter or caustic in language or manner. an absolving or clearing from blame or guilt 2. especially of a sport or pastime. to reduce the intensity of. or annul by authority. extremely bad. . a fan or devotee. a formal declaration ˘ ˘ of forgiveness. extreme. a cheerful willingness. she completed her book report. It was unclear if the judge would ˘ abrogate the lower court’s ruling.
The authenticity and credibility of the 1920s movie was damaged by the many anachronisms that appeared throughout the scenes. a strong aversion or dislike 2. anomaly (a· nom·a·lee) n. one should avoid discussing politics and religion. to make or become better. having no deﬁnite shape or form. an opening or gap. one who abandons long-held religious or political convictions. the complete absence of government or control. Ms. The amorphous cloud of steam ˘ ˘ drifted over her head. 1. a ˘ ˘ ˘ person. aperture ( ap·er·chur) n. The days immediately following the revolution were marked by anarchy. The diplomat was able to ame˘ ˘ liorate the tense situation between the two nations. opposition or contrast. the direct or exact opposite. the climbers placed their ﬂag in the snow. antithesis (an· tith·e·sis) n. Reverend Gift lost his faith and left the ministry. ameliorate (a· meel·yo·rayt) v. the highest point 2. antipathy (an· tip·a·thee) n. one that is irreg˘ ˘ ular. to improve. anarchy ( an·ar·kee) n. concern. a heated dispute or quarrel.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 25 altercation (awl·ter· kay·shon) n. or emotion. To prevent an altercation at social func˘ ˘ tions. having mixed or conﬂicting feelings about a person. She was ambivalent about the proposal for the shopping center because she understood the arguments both for and against its construction. ambivalent (am· biv·a·lent) adj. amorphous (a· mor·fus) adj. not caring if he’d be seen as an apostate by colleagues who chose to remain. thing. The aperture setting on a ˘ ˘ camera has to be set perfectly to ensure that pictures will have enough light. apathetic (ap·a· thet·ik) adj. something worn around the neck as a charm against evil. 1. Disillusioned ˘ with the religious life. apocalypse (a· pok·a·lips) n. Winning millions of dollars from a slot machine would be considered an anomaly. uncertain. amulet ( am·yu·lit) n. 1. indifferent. especially one that lets in light. apex ( ay·peks) n. resulting in lawlessness 2. Martin’s parenting style ˘ is the antithesis of mine. tip. something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. pointed end. ˘ political disorder and confusion. . an object of aversion. The princess wore an ˘ amulet after being cursed by a wizard. Many people feared an apocalypse would immediately follow the development of nuclear weapons. a cataclysmic event bringing about total devastation or the end of the ˘ ˘ world. ˘ unresponsive. Brownstone was distressed by how apathetic her eighth grade students were. peculiar or abnormal. or idea that is out of date. 1. something that is placed into an incorrect historical period 2. shapeless. or situa˘ ˘ tion. apostate (a· pos·tayt) n. Upon reaching the apex of the mountain. custom. It is a moment I ˘ recall with great antipathy. feeling or showing a lack of interest. anachronism (a· nak·ro·niz·em) n.
an original model from which others are copied. approbation (ap·ro· bay·shon) n. not straight or level. beyond comprehension. evaluate after an analysis. & adv. appropriate to the situation. approval. deiﬁcation. to still or pacify. apprise (a· pr¯z) v. to try. assay (a· say) v. Even the pictures on the wall stood ˘ askew after my ﬁve-year-old son’s birthday party. . ardor ( ahr·dor) n. appropriate (a· proh·pree·ayt) v. The ardor Larry brought to the ˘ campaign made him a natural campaign spokesperson. to make calm or quiet. original pattern or prototype. to set aside for ˘ a special purpose. to examine 3.” archaic (ahr· kay·ik) adj. to one side. mysterious. Lancelot was the apotheosis of ˘ chivalry until he met Guinevere. The asper˘ ity that Marvin. The local authorities issued an approbation to close the street for ˘ ˘ a festival on St. Commander Shackleton’s arduous journey through the Arctic has become the subject of many books and movies. characteristic of the past. zeal. harshness.26 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources apotheosis (a·poth·i· oh·sis) n. to take for one’s own use. irritability. crooked. Elvis Presley served as the archetype for rock and roll performers in the 1950s. passionate enthusiasm. Some ˘ religions require their leaders to lead an ascetic lifestyle as an example to their followers. give notice to. soothe. not allowing oneself pleasures or luxuries. ascetic (a· set·ik) adj. requiring great effort 2. A number of college students in the 1980s became involved in the arcane game known as “Dungeons and Dragons. to judge critically. practicing self-denial. arcane (ahr· kayn) adj. an exalted or gloriﬁed ideal. the grumpy accountant. 1. Part of Susan’s job as a public defender was to apprise people of ˘ their legal rights. Patrick’s Day. ﬁery intensity of feeling. asperity (a· sper·i·tee) n. often without permission. put to a test 2. to inform. The state legislature will appropriate two million dollars from the annual budget to build a new bridge on the interstate highway. severity. The chair˘ man’s remarks about the founding fathers were apropos since it was the fourth of July. austere. The ˘ chief engineer wanted a laboratory to assay the steel before using it in the construction project. Samantha laughed at her grandfather’s archaic views of dating and relationships. very difﬁcult. apropos (ap·ro· poh) adj. archetype ( ahr·ki·t¯p) n. secret. roughness of manner. ill temper. arduous ( ahr·joo·us) adj. 1. appease (a· peez) v. laborious. belonging to former or ancient times. difﬁcult to traverse or ˘ surmount. His ability to appease his constituents ˘ helped him win reelection. askew (a· skyoo) adj. suitable to what is being said or done. brought to the meetings usually resulted in an early adjournment.
majestic. the object of this feeling. menacing. The military maintains an authoritarian environment for its ofﬁcers and enlisted men alike. constant in application or attention. to make thin or slender 2. very plain. The small ˘ cups of water offered to the marathon runners helped to assuage their thirst. avant-garde (a·vahnt· ahrd) adj. severe or stern in attitude or appearance 2. or ani˘ mal. harmful. a forecast or omen. Though Tom and Susan had hoped for ˘ an adventure. commonplace. misery. . car. to make something less severe. authoritarian (a·thor·i· tair·i·an) adj. you can be certain to ﬁnd at least one baleful character in a Stephen King horror novel. using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. propitious. The bane of the oak tree is the Asian beetle. With its simple but functional furniture and its obvious lack of decorative elements. in the 1950’s. reduce in force. unrestrained by convention or ˘ propriety. a strong. sinister. favoring complete. Detective Malloy’s methods were considered bold and audacious by his superiors. and attractions. intense dislike. aversion (a· vur·zhon) n. to satisfy (as hunger or thirst). Whether it’s a man. assuage (a· swayj) v. value. 1. especially in the arts or literature. persevering. august (aw· ust) adj. unadorned. Valerie ˘ believed it an auspicious beginning when it rained on the day that she opened her umbrella store. or harm 2. diligent. austere (aw· steer) adj. inspiring admiration or reverence. to soothe. baleful ( bayl·ful) adj. 1. Andy Warhol’s art was viewed as avant-garde. woman. 1. protection or support. ˘ The Russian army was able to attenuate the strength and number of the German forces by leading them inland during winter. obvious and uninteresting. the interior of the Shaker meeting hall was considered austere by many people. venerable. cause of trouble. fearlessly or recklessly daring or bold. trite. or degree. auspicious (aw· spish·us) adj. Though it seems very conventional now. banal (ba· nal) adj. favorable. The children’s art museum was able to continue operating through the auspices of an anonymous wealthy benefactor. Jackie Kennedy’s august dignity in the days following her husband’s assassination set a tone for the rest of the nation as it mourned. poison.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 27 assiduous (a· sij·oo·us) adj. ˘ ˘ The nurses in the intensive care unit are known for providing assiduous care to their patients. innovative. repugnance 2. they found that driving cross-country on the interstate offered mostly banal sites. destructive. unremitting. simple. distress. showing signs that promise success. bane ( bayn) n. and they often achieved results. patronage 2. to weaken. restaurants. audacious (aw· day·sh us) adj. auspice ( aw·spis) n. Todd has ˘ ˘ an aversion to arugula and picks it out of his salads. unquestioning obedience to authority as ˘ ˘ opposed to individual freedom. attenuate (a· ten·yoo·ayt) v. cutting-edge. 1. 1.
a large group or assemblage 2. a plant disease that causes the affected parts to wilt and die 2. By wearing an expensive suit and watch. two children. Alan hoped to belie his lack of success to everyone at the reunion. Rachel’s blithe attitude toward spending money left her broke and in debt. ˘ ˘ The boisterous crowd began throwing cups onto the ﬁeld during the football game. Violet was able to beguile the spy. loud. stormy and rough. two cars. to pass time in a pleasant manner. to show to be false. and three TVs are key indicators of a bourgeois lifestyle. speaking pompously. 1. boor (boor) n. disrespect of something sacrosanct. There was a lively bevy of eager bingo fans waiting outside the bingo hall for the game to begin. belie (bi· l¯) v. There was little hope for peace following the election of a candidate known for his bellicose nature. Maribel realized she was attending her senior prom with a classic boor. to deceive or cheat through cunning. and carefree. such as air pollution 3. Samuel’s blatant disregard of the rules earned him a two-week suspension. something that causes this condition. attitudes or writings against ˘ God or other things considered sacred. bolster ( bohl·ster) v. bourgeois (boor· zhwah) adj. noisy. light-hearted. accused of trying to bilk senior citizens out of their investment dollars. contemptuous or irreverent acts. . a crude. The stockbroker was led away in handcuffs. belligerent. utterances. offensive. A house in the suburbs. 1. casual. Coach Edmond’s speech bolstered ˘ the team’s conﬁdence. as his belligerent attitude often caused problems with other children. belligerent (bi· lij·er·ent) adj. with inﬂated self-importance.28 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources beguile (bi· ¯l) v. to buoy or hearten. showing an eagerness to ﬁght. to deceive or defraud. 1. They still do not know what caused the blight that destroyed half of the trees in the orchard. Ms. bevy ( bev·ee) n. blight (bl¯t) n. especially to evade paying one’s debts. Seeing Chuck wipe his mouth with his sleeve. and lacking restraint or discipline 2. Ahmed was shocked that a renowned and admired humanitarian could give such a bombastic keynote address. ill-mannered person. 1. not attempting to conceal in any way. eager to make war. you would be tortured and killed. to distract the attention of. If you committed blasphemy during the Inquisition. bellicose ( bel·˘·kohs) adj. a ﬂock of animals or birds. blithe (bl¯th) adj. bilk (bilk) v. 1. Rivera always ˘ ˘ kept an eye on Daniel during recess. to amuse or charm. quarrelsome. typical of the middle class. divert. conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class. to contradict. cheat. blatant ( blay·tant) adj. to give a false impression. something that impairs or destroys 4. blasphemy ( blas·fe·mee) n. to support or prop up 2. hostile and aggressive. misrepresent 2. boisterous ( boi·ste·rus) adj. completely obvious. bombastic (bom· bas·tik) adj. to swindle. an unsightly object or area. causing him to miss his secret meeting.
a rebuke or condemnation. able to ﬂoat 2. Congress unanimously agreed to censure him. The ˘ tulip bulbs beneath the soil would burgeon in early spring. to inﬂict a severe punishment on. to rush carelessly or headlong. to chastise severely. to criticize harshly. blossom. to begin to grow and ﬂourish. to obtain by begging. expression of strong criticism or disapproval. which depicts the bombing of a town during the Spanish civil war. cabal (ka· bal) n. censure ( sen·shur) n. burgeon ( bur·jon) v. the members of the unit readied themselves to begin the coup. While visiting India. arrogant. especially through art. caste (kast) n. 1. the act of ridding or cleansing.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 29 bravado (bra· vah·doh) n. as in to draw off liquid. castigate ( kas·t˘· ayt) v. introduce. Maya knew her mother would castigate her. bumptious ( bump·shus) adj. 1. . Kyle’s bravado often got him in ˘ trouble with other kids in the neighborhood. in order to begin a discussion of 2. Michael was fascinated to learn the particulars of each caste and the way they related to each other. cadge (kaj) v. Robin Williams. It was hard for Sarah to broach the subject of her mother’s weight gain. light-hearted. to bring up. to beg. When Kathryn began to burnish the old metal teapot. After ˘ the senator was found guilty of taking bribes. Charles knew that his wife would chastise him after he inadvertently told the room full of guests that she had just had a facelift. In science class. to tap or pierce. to polish. buoyant ( boi·ant) adj. When she was caught stealing for the second time. false courage. careen (ka· reen) v. 1. demon˘ ˘ strates a most capricious nature even when he is not performing. she realized that it was. solid silver. conceited. The bumptious man couldn’t stop talking about himself ˘ or looking in the mirror. Their dog Cleo would cadge at my feet. in fact. capricious (ka· prish·us) adj. a show of pretended bravery. With Antonio as ˘ their leader. as with a beating. burnish ( bur·nish) v. relieving emotions via the experiences of ˘ others. to begin to sprout. broach (brohch) v. 1. a distinct social class or system. grow new buds. the children tried to iden˘ tify which objects on the table would be buoyant. rub to a shine. chastise (chas· t¯z) v. ˘ Watching the car in front of us careen down the road was very frightening. cheerful. the comedian. impulsive. hoping I would throw him some table scraps. whimsical and unpredictable. catharsis (ka· thahr·sis) n. to punish severely. rebuke. a scheme or conspiracy 2. providing there was no late frost. Survivors of war often experience a catharsis when viewing Picasso’s painting Guernica. to lurch from side to side while in motion 2. a small group joined in a secret plot.
cogent ( koh·jent) adj. the appearance of a person’s face. Angelo’s churlish remarks made everyone at the table uncomfortable and ill at ease. competitive. contentious (kon· ten·shus) adj. The captain was circumspect as she guided the ˘ boat through the fog. ill-mannered. To ˘ ˘ preserve family peace and harmony. quick to ﬁght 2. incapacitating horror or dismay. The look of ˘ ˘ consternation on the faces of the students taking the history exam alarmed the teacher. male chauvinists are pretty rare today. a secret agreement between two or more people for a deceitful or fraud˘ ˘ ulent purpose. The ﬁrst-graders made cornucopias for ˘ ˘ Thanksgiving by placing papier-mache vegetables into a hollowed-out horn. who thought he had prepared his students for the test. cornucopia (kor·nyu· koh·pi·a) n. a puzzling question or problem. obliging. appeasing. With two contentious candidates on hand. Lenny became very complaisant when his in-laws came to visit. complaisant (kom· play·sant) adj. The double agent had a conclave with the spy he was supposed to be observing. Abraham Lincoln made conciliatory gestures toward the South at the end of the Civil War. or ˘ ˘ comfort. 1. facial features and expression. making or willing to make concessions to reconcile. a hard riddle. convincing. consternation (kon·ster· nay·shon) n. an extreme nationalist. The discovery of the e-mail proved that collusion existed between the CEO and CFO to defraud the shareholders. a horn of plenty. Alex’s logic pro˘ ˘ fessor gave the class a conundrum to work on over the weekend. conundrum (ko· nun·drum) n. boorish. wary. “This craven act of violence will not go unpunished. causing ˘ ˘ contention. compelling belief.30 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources chauvinist ( shoh·v˘n·ist) n. mollifying. craven ( kray·ven) adj. persuasive. abundance. Ella’s cogent arguments helped the debate ˘ team win the state championship. As ˘ ˘ she walked down the aisle. a feeling of deep. watchful. enigma. of the same time period.” remarked the police ˘ chief. soothe. countenance ( kown·te·nans) n. collusion (ko· loo·zhon) n. The growth of personal computers and ˘ CD players were coeval during the twentieth century. quarrelsome. a person who believes in the superiority of his or her own kind. conspiracy. willing to do what pleases others. contemporary. . coeval (koh· ee·val) adj. circumspect ( sur·kum·spekt) adj. a private or secret meeting. Though common in the early days of the women’s movement. it was sure to be a lively debate. tending to comply. conciliatory (kon· sil·i·a·tohr·ee) adj. rude. Julia’s countenance was absolutely radiant. controversial. cautious. churlish ( chur·l˘sh) adj. cowardly. conclave ( kon·klav) n.
decimate ( des·˘·mayt) v. The movie script reportedly contained scenes that would denigrate the Queen. Putting the bridge’s supporting beams in loose sand caused a total debacle when the sand shifted and the bridge fell apart. depreciate. The students sat at the edge of their seats as they listened to the denouement of the story. demure (di· myoor) adj. disparage. hesitate. de facto (dee fak·toh) adj. denouement (day·noo· mahn) n. describe. to draw or outline. Polly hated to demur.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 31 credulous ( krej·u·lus) adj. too willing to believe things. Members of the opposing team were trying to daunt the home team by yelling loudly and beating their chests. to make afraid or discouraged. violent ﬂood waters. Though there was a ceremonial head of government. to condescend. In order to promote freedom of expression. so those scenes were removed. defame. expressing ridicule. depict. in reality or fact. to be kind or gracious enough to do something thought to be beneath one’s dignity. Neglect and time would eventually decimate much of the housing in the inner cities. but otherwise she was quite outgoing. and charts made ˘ ˘ the company’s assets look too good to the credulous potential investors at the meeting. demur (di· mur) v. jeering. the outcome or solution of an often complex series of events. to belittle. deprecate ( dep·re·kayt) v. propriety. a sudden breaking ˘ up or breaking loose. mocking. The survey will clearly delineate where their property ends. scornful. denigrate ( den·i· rayt) v. daunt (dawnt) v. sketch. debacle (di· bah·kel) n. to destroy a large portion of. actual. appropriateness of behavior. to blacken the reputation of. 1. to express disapproval of. the resolution or clearing up of the plot at the end of a narrative. General Ashtononi was the de facto leader of the country. decorum (di· kohr·um) n. to raise objections. Grandpa’s tendency to dep˘ recate the children’s friends was a frequent source of family strife. gullible. to intimidate. modest and shy. Hilter was the most infamous demagogue of the twentieth century. decency in manners and conduct. I always refer to Emily Post. a total defeat or failure 2. ˘ When questions concerning decorum arise. Sharon could be very demure. deign (dayn) v. All the tables. a leader who obtains power by appealing to people’s feelings and prej˘ udices rather than by reasoning. When it was to her advantage. to portray. Would you deign to spare a dime for a poor old beggar like me? delineate (di· lin·i·ayt) v. derisive (di· r¯·siv) adj. derisive comments were forbidden in the classroom. or pretending to be so. demagogue ( dem·a· aw ) n. often caused by the breaking up of ice in a river. . a sudden disaster or collapse. but she didn’t think adding ten cloves of garlic to the recipe would make it taste good. graphs.
especially to gain time. lacking self-conﬁdence. rufﬂe 2. dejected. to frustrate plans by throwing into ˘ disorder.” desecrate ( des·e·krayt) v. to disguise or conceal one’s true feelings or motives behind a false appear˘ ance. correct a false impression or erroneous belief. belittle. desultory ( des·ul·tohr·ee) adj. to shake or quiver. to deprive of the rights of citizenship. disenfranchise (dis·en· fran·ch¯z) v. disconcert (dis·kon· surt) v. to undeceive. disparage (di· spar·ij) v. inconsolable. disconsolate (dis· kon·so·lit) adj. to violate the sacredness of. During a crisis. Carl’s disingenuous comments were not taken seriously by anyone in the room. sad. The family became concerned listening to Steven’s desultory ramblings. Comedians often disparage politicians as part of their comedic routines. calculating. I tried to dissuade them from painting their house purple. derived from another source. disabuse (dis·a· byooz) v. dilatory ( dil·a·tohr·ee) adj. slow or late in doing something. dissemble (di· sem·bel) v. 1. Alan’s difﬁdent nature is often misin˘ terpreted as arrogance. aimless. division into two usually contradictory parts or kinds. unoriginal. especially the right to vote. dissuade (di· swayd) v. difﬁdent ( dif·i·dent) adj. Someone desecrated the local cemetery ˘ by spray-painting grafﬁti on tombstones. The independent monitors were at polling locations to ensure neither party tried to disenfranchise incoming voters. dichotomy (d¯· kot·o·mee) n. insincere. to discourage from or persuade against a course of action. The word “atomic” is a derivative ˘ of the word “atom. ˘ Resentful for having to work the holiday. it is ˘ important to have a leader who will not dither.32 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources derivative (di· riv·a·tiv) adj. moving from one subject to another without log˘ ical connection. there was a predictable dichotomy among the students. to speak of in a slighting or derogatory way. hopelessly unhappy. disingenuous (dis·in· jen·yoo·us) adj. intended to delay. dither ( dith·er) v. When the teacher ˘ broached the subject of the election. to profane. be indecisive and uncertain 2. disappointed 2. not straightforward or frank 2. . The arrival of Miriam’s ex-husband and his new wife managed to disconcert the typically unﬂappable Miriam. Tom needed to dissemble his desire for his boss’s job by acting supportive of her planned job change. falsely ˘ pretending to be unaware. ˘ The disconsolate look on Peter’s face revealed that the letter contained bad news. 1. Natalie needed ˘ to disabuse Chin of his belief that she was in love with him. haphazard. Miguel’s dilatory approach to getting himself up and dressed was his own small act of passive resistance. shy and timid. to hesitate. to upset the composure of. but they didn’t listen. 1. 1.
The new designer’s élan and originality was sure to help him succeed in the highly competitive fashion industry. The chamber orchestra’s dulcet tunes were a perfect ending to a great evening. Some ﬁnd the dogma inher˘ ent in religion a comfort. expressing emotions in an unrestrained or excessive way. His dogmatic style of conversation was not very popular with his young students. brazen boldness. Margaret’s efﬁ˘ cacious approach to her job in the collections department made her a favorite with the CFO. and per˘ ˘ suasive manner. conspicuous success. elite (i· leet) n. 1. . something worthless. or trivial. enthusiasm. enlightening or uplifting with the aim of improving intellectual or moral development. ˘ civil. eloquent ( el·o·kwent) adj. arrogant way 2. distinctive style or ﬂair. The ebullient children were wait˘ ing to stick their hands into the grab bag and pull out a toy. Anne’s unexpectedly effusive greeting made Tammy uncomfortable. ﬂuent.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 33 dogma ( daw ·ma) n. melodious. and economic rights for all persons. 1. gushy. to get or supplement with great effort or strain. egalitarian (i· al·i· tair·i·an) adj. The customs ofﬁcials were infuri˘ ated by the effrontery of the man who nonchalantly carried drugs into the country in his shirt pocket. edifying ( ed·˘·f¯·in ) adj. Within the student orchestra. exuberant. bubbling over with enthusiasm. overﬂowing. Even the ruinous deceit of the envious Salieri could not impede the dazzling éclat of the young and gifted Mozart. effusive (i· fyoo·siv) adj. His edifying sermon challenged the congregation to devote more time to charitable causes. acting effectively. 1. efﬁcacious (ef·˘· kay·shus) adj. sweet-sounding. vigor 2. sludge 2. a system of principles or beliefs. whereas others ﬁnd it too restrictive. dogmatic (daw · mat·ik) adj. 1. asserting something in a positive. expressing strong emotions or arguments in a powerful. the best or most skilled members of a social group or class 2. to earn or accomplish laboriously. producing the desired effect or result. Working two jobs enabled Quincy to eke out a living wage for his family. ebullient (i· bul·yent) adj. harmonious. vivacity. president. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most eloquent speeches ever given by a U. Work crews immediately began the task of cleaning the dross at the abandoned plastics factory. waste product. éclat (ay· klah) n. profuse. great acclaim or applause. absolute. dulcet ( dul·sit) adj. instructing. there existed a small group of musical elite who performed around the country. a person or group regarded as superior. social.S. eke (eek) v. characterized by or afﬁrming the principle of equal political. effrontery (i· frun·te·ree) n. of or relating to dogma. improving. commonplace. a prescribed doctrine. insolence. impudence. élan (ay· lahn) n. Hannah was moved by the candidate’s egalitarian speech. dross (draws) n. brilliant performance or achievement.
western shirt. a bafﬂing problem or difﬁcult riddle. something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand. engender (en· jen·der) v. enclave ( en·klayv) n. calmness of temperament. The chairperson proudly announced that the keynote speaker at the animal rights convention would be the eminent primatologist Jane Goodall. a perplexing or inex˘ ˘ plicable thing that cannot be explained 2. 1. prevalent in or characteristic of a speciﬁc area or group of people 2. lofty. patience and com˘ posure. Professor Sorenson’s support worked ˘ to engender Samantha’s desire to pursue a Ph. based on observation or experience rather than theory. equanimity (ee·kwa· nim·i·tee) n. enigma (e· ni ·ma) n. to weaken. bring into existence. lasting only a very short time. Raj tried to equivocate when explaining why he came home after his curfew. and rugged jeans. Kudzu. Alex was the epitome of the American cowboy. give rise to. transitory. standing above oth˘ ers in quality. 1. ephemeral (i· fem·e·ral) adj. especially the ˘ enjoyment of good food and comfort. atrocity.) The enormity of Jeffery Dahmer’s crimes will never be forgotten. 1. epicurean (ep·i· kyoor·i·an) n. empirical (em· pir·i·kal) adj. a brief summary or abstract. epitome (i· pit·o·mee) n. enormity (i· nor·mi·tee) n. The hostage negotiator’s equanimity during the standoff was remarkable. excessive wickedness 2. something or someone that embodies a particular quality or characteris˘ tic. towering above or more prominent than others.34 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources eminent ( em·˘·nent) adj. Numerous ephemeral ponds and ˘ ˘ pools can be found in the desert during the rainy season. With his ten-gallon hat. the enormity of the task). The country of Lesotho is an enclave of South Africa.D. While on vacation at a posh resort hotel. etc. was actually imported from Japan. purple-ﬂowered vine thought to be endemic to the southeastern United States. a distinct territory lying wholly within the boundaries of another. deprive of strength or vitality. to make feeble or impotent. How Winston came to be the president of this organization is a true enigma.. endemic (en· dem·ik) adj. even-temperedness. a representative example or a typical model 2. native to a particular region. larger territory. a monstrous offense or evil act. character. a person devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and luxury.. but this is considered an incorrect use of the word. . equivocate (i· kwiv·o·kayt) v. Joan became a true epicurean. Stephanie’s ˘ cutting remarks managed to enervate Hasaan. (Note: Enormity is often used to indicate something of great size (e. to produce. reputation.g. Frank’s empirical data suggested that mice would climb over the walls of the maze to get to the cheese rather than navigate the maze itself. enervate ( en·er·vayt) v. especially under stressful circumstances. to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal ˘ the truth. distinguished. 1. a hairy.
facetious (fa· see·shus) adj. Weston’s face˘ ˘ tious remarks always made people laugh. Richard ˘ was asked to give a eulogy for his fallen comrade. humorous and witty. juveniles can petition the courts to expunge their criminal records. to make evident. exorbitant (i · zor·bi·tant) adj. attitude. sportive. moving or behaving in an irregular. to reduce the strength or lessen the seriousness of.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 35 eradicate (i· rad·˘·kayt) v. exigent ( ek·si·jent) adj. a seismograph’s needle moves in an erratic manner. After ﬁnishing probation. uneven. urgent. disposition or beliefs characteristic of a community. requiring immediate action or attention. The exterminator said he would eradicate the vermin from the house. to try to partially excuse. The safety ofﬁcer tried to evince the dangers of driving under the inﬂuence by showing pictures of alcohol-related automobile accidents. a suitable means to an end 2. requiring much ˘ effort or precision. 1. . When falling in love. to free from blame. appropriate for a purpose. profoundly educated. 1. We ˘ should have known that splashing salt water on Dan’s wound would exacerbate his pain. Ms. The late-night call on Paul’s cell phone concerned matters of an exigent nature. euphoria (yoo· fohr·i·a) n. or inconsistent manner 2. ethos ( ee·thos) n. critical 2. etc. opinion. When Anthony admitted to the crime. etc. greatly exceeding the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. a feeling of well-being or high spirits. to make worse. to increase the severity. to root out and utterly destroy. Fred claimed that extenuating circumstances forced him to commit forgery. erratic (i· rat·ik) adj. to show or demonstrate clearly. 1. annihilate. violence. having or showing great learning. to eliminate completely. exterminate. inor˘ dinate and excessive. region. jocular. evince (i· vins) v. During an earthquake. The ethos of their group included a commitment to paciﬁsm. the spirit. exculpate (eks· kul·payt) v. The schol˘ arly work of nonﬁction was obviously written by an erudite young author. scholarly. it served to exculpate Marcus. expunge (ik· spunj) v. a formal speech or piece of writing in praise of someone or something. delete. extenuate (ik· sten·yoo·ayt) v. to wipe or rub out. or bitterness of. erudite ( er·yu·d¯t) adj. to annihilate. expedient (ik· spee·di·ent) adj. A quick divorce was an expedient end to the couple’s twomonth marriage. serving to ˘ promote one’s own interests rather than principle. exacerbate (i · zas·er·bayt) v. demanding. eulogy ( yoo·lo· ee) n. epoch. it is not uncom˘ mon to experience feelings of euphoria. deviating from the normal or typical course of action. Three thousand dollars is an exorbitant amount to pay for a scarf. to clear from a charge of guilt. cleverly amusing.
1. forbearance (for· bair·ans) n. to give the false appearance of. to reject. elaborate. (of complexion) ruddy. having or showing great emotion. ˘ feign (fayn) v. felicitous (fi· lis·i·tus) adj. Flappers in the early 20th century would ﬂout convention by bobbing their hair and wearing very short skirts. 1. not ﬁrm. forswear (for· swair) v. tolerance. feeble. renounce 2. Since Sam was such an intellec˘ tually accomplished student. I prefer buildings without so much ornamentation. thrifty 2. to give up. willingness to wait. suitably expressed. apropos 2. to deny under oath. ﬂaccid ( flak·sid) adj. but he faced it with great forbearance because he knew it was for his own safety. Jake’s feckless performance led to his termination from the team. 1. ornate 2. 1. Britt was surprised to discover that Sam’s well-meaning but fatuous parents were not at all like him. lacking purpose or vitality. to disobey openly and scornfully. fetter ( fet·er) v. sparing. The ﬂorid architecture in Venice did not appeal to me. patience. costing little. ﬂippant ( flip·ant) adj. not showing proper seriousness. fervent ( fur·vent) adj. forestall (fohr· stawl) v. . The diplomat was able to forestall a conﬂict by holding secret meetings with both parties. extremely hot. ardent. intense emotion. hanging loose or wrinkled. careful and economical. fervor ( fur·vor) n. to shackle. Gustaf dreaded the security check ˘ in the airport. to impede or restrict. The presence of two security guards ˘ fettered their plans to get backstage. 1. feeble-minded and silly. 1. fertile. saucy. ˘ Norman had a fervent belief that aliens had already landed on earth. apt. feckless ( fek·lis) adj. ﬂabby. go against (as in a tradition or convention). fecund ( fek·und) adj. incompetent and ineffective. burning. The skin of cadavers becomes ﬂaccid in a matter of hours. Natasha had to forswear her allegiance to her homeland in order to become a citizen of the new country. to prevent by taking action ﬁrst. ﬂout (flowt) v. My grandparents sur˘ vived the Great Depression by being very frugal. ﬂorid ( flor·id) adj. Ursula’s ﬂippant remarks ˘ in front of her ﬁancé’s parents were an embarrassment to us all. put in chains 2. weak. mock. The fecund soil in the valley was able to sustain the growing community. 1. rosy. ardor. disrespectful.36 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources fatuous ( fach·oo·us) adj. Mr. frugal ( froo· al) adj. zeal. marked by good fortune. The felicitous ˘ turn of events during her promotional tour propelled Susan’s book to the bestseller list. preempt. weak 2. complacently stupid. Walter feigned illness to avoid attending the meeting. The fervor of the fans in the stands helped propel the team ˘ to victory. careless. to pretend. zealous 2.
The genteel host made sure that each entrée was cooked to each guest’s speciﬁcations. hallow ( hal·oh) v. contradict. treacherous cunning. thing. ˘ a forerunner or precursor. offensive due to excessiveness. missed connections. a tirade. The turbulent ﬂight proved to be a harrowing experience for Jane. Andrew had the unfortunate luck of being seated next to a garrulous ˘ ˘ young woman for his 12-hour ﬂight. haughty ( haw·tee) adj. guile ( ¯l) n. huge. and a very late arrival. gaudy. often scolding or bombastic speech. 1. Emily thought it was perfectly beautiful. reﬁned. Members of the audience ˘ began to get restless during the senator’s political harangue. garrulous ( ar·u·lus) adj. Michael let out quite a guffaw when Jamal told him the outlandish joke. gainsay ( ayn·say) v. garish ( air·ish) adj. acting as though one is superior and others unworthy. guffaw ( u· faw) n. excessively bright or overdecorated. . harbinger ( hahr·bin·jer) n. disdainful. coarse burst of laughter. to oppose.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 37 fulminate ( ful·m˘·nayt) v. shrewd. fulsome ( fuul·som) adj. to deny. John was a gregarious fellow who always had fun at social events. Her new ˘ coworker’s fulsome attention bothered Malinda. unfortunate. to explode or detonate. 1. Though Susan thought Las Vegas was garish. gregarious ( re· air·i·us) adj. berate 2. a noisy. talkative. a long. creating great stress or torment. unlucky. The most infamous pirates displayed tremendous guile. scornfully arrogant and condescending. The religious leader proclaimed the new worship hall a hallowed space. well-bred. crafty deceit. hapless ( hap·lis) adj. to issue a thunderous verbal attack. Stanley is so often haughty that he has very few friends. sociable 2. or event that foreshadows or indicates what is to come. The senator was prone to fulminating when other legislators questioned her ideology. gargantuan ( ahr· an·choo·an) adj. to make holy. or declare false. seeking and enjoying the company of others. especially excess ﬂattery or praise. Petra would gainsay all accusations made against her. harangue (ha· ran ) n. tending to ˘ ˘ form a group with others of the same kind. consecrate. gigantic. distressing. a person. It was a gargantuan supermarket for such a small ˘ town. tastelessly showy. The hapless circumstances of her journey resulted in lost luggage. The arrival of the robins is a harbinger of spring. harrowing ( har·oh·in ) adj. genteel (jen· teel) adj. elegantly polite.
poor. especially of one government over ˘ others. iconoclast (¯· kon·oh·klast) n. ˘ ˘ despicable. predominant inﬂuence or leadership. and a strike seemed imminent. It was hard to know what she was feeling by looking at the impassive expression on her face. Using words as weapons. Mark was an ignoble successor to such a well-respected leader. acquiring so many territories that the sun never set on the British Empire. deserving disgrace or shame. having an airtight closure. he decided to immolate himself in public. someone who opposes and destroys idols used in worship. a difﬁculty without a solution. marked by shame or disgrace 2. A military takeover in the impoverished country secured the hegemony of the Centrist Party in its bid for power. and many members of the organization resigned. imbroglio (im· brohl·yoh) n. impetuous (im· pech·oo·us) adj. Great Britain embraced imperialism. to kill. It was a tragic end to the protester’s life when. immolate ( im·o·layt) v. It was an impetuous decision to run off to Las Vegas and get married after a one-week courtship. protected from outside inﬂuences. a person who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional ideas. hermetic (hur· met·ik) adj. impulsive. to destroy (one thing for ˘ another). ˘ common.38 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources hegemony (hi· jem·o·nee) n. 1. dishonorable 2. Stella was relieved with her new job trans˘ fer because she would no longer be under the control of such an imperious boss. domineering. lacking nobility in character or purpose. ignominious (i ·no· min·i·us) adj. Astronauts go for space walks only when wearing hermetic space suits. imperious (im· peer·i·us) adj. as a sacriﬁce 2. beliefs. The evidence of plagiarism brought an ignominious end to what had been a notable career for the talented young author. not of the nobility. a confused or difﬁcult situation. stalemate. imperialism (im· peer·i·a·liz·em) n. impasse ( im·pas) n. An imbroglio developed when the bus drivers went on strike. characterized by sudden. ignoble (i · noh·bel) adj. out of desperation. penniless. or institutions 2. forceful energy or emotion. the policy of extending the rule or authority of a nation or empire ˘ ˘ by acquiring other territories or dependencies. leaving thousands of commuters stranded at the bus station with no way to get home. usually involving disagreement. to kill (oneself) by ﬁre 3. having little or no money. 1. impassive (im· pas·iv) adj. marked by violent force. impecunious (im·pe· kyoo·ni· us) adj. The labor negotiations with management reached an impasse. 1. ˘ unduly hasty and without thought 2. the well-spoken iconoclast challenged religious hypocrisy and fanaticism wherever she found it. 1. Many impecunious ˘ ˘ immigrants to the United States eventually were able to make comfortable lives for themselves. overbearing. a deadlock. 1. . bossy. not showing or feeling emotion or pain.
certain. a raid or temporary invasion of someone else’s territory. There was an incursion on the western border of their country. not yet fully formed. The indomitable spirit of the Olympic athletes was inspirational. the developing embryos take on the characteristics of their own particular species. imprecation (im·pre· kay·shon) n. 1. not easily ˘ ˘ discouraged or subdued. During the inchoate stage of fetal growth. the act of enter˘ ing or running into a territory or domain. importune (im·por· toon) v. incursion (in· kur·zhon) n. 1. In the book I’m reading. not easily exhausted or fatigued. 1. The indefatigability of ˘ ˘ the suffragette movement led to the passage of the 20th Amendment. credit. and a human. tending to incite or inﬂame. a frog. impute (im· pyoot) v. (Note: Do not confuse with incredible. incapable of being placated or appeased. unconquerable. unwilling to believe. to beg persistently and urgently. skeptical. indefatigable (in·di· fat·˘· a·bel) adj. . an invocation of evil. insolent 2. causing little or no pain. inﬂammatory. it is difﬁcult to distinguish between a cow. Fire marshals checked for incendiary devices in the theater after they received an anonymous warning.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 39 implacable (im· plak·a·bel) adj. to attribute to a cause or source. ˘ ˘ meaning “implausible or beyond belief. Children can’t help but importune during the holidays. Iris’s indolent attitude did not bode well for her professional future. inexorable.”) The members of the jury were incredulous when they heard the defendant’s farfetched explanation of the crime. to ask incessantly. Some of the peo˘ ˘ ple who call the customer service desk for assistance are implacable. incredulous (in· krej·u·lus) adj. make incessant requests 2. inchoate (in· koh·it) adj. The ineluctable out˘ ˘ come of the two-person race was that there would be one winner and one loser. guaranteeing women the right to vote. ascribe. as they mature. Thumbing his nose at the principal was an impudent act. tireless. undeveloped. indolent ( in·do·lent) adj. of or involving arson 3. Doctors impute the reduction in cancer deaths to the nationwide decrease in cigarette smoking. constantly nagging for the irresistible toys they see advertised on television. causing or capable of causing ﬁre. not to be avoided or overcome. but most are relatively easy to serve. shamelessly forward. slow to ˘ ˘ grow or heal. just begun. boldly showing a lack of respect. a curse. in an initial or early stage of development. 1. inclined to avoid labor 2. the gypsy queen ˘ ˘ levies an imprecation on the lead character. lazy. indomitable (in· dom·i·ta·bel) adj. not able to be vanquished or overcome. lethargic. 1. incendiary (in· sen·di·er·ee) adj. impudent ( im·pyu·dent) adj. inevitable. incomplete. incipient 2. immod˘ ˘ est. burning readily 2. ineluctable (in·i· luk·ta·bel) adj.
The intrepid nature and fortitude of the U. unruly. The tax reform committee faces an extremely involute prob˘ lem if it wants to distribute the tax burden equally. inveterate (in· vet·e·rit) adj. or system of beliefs. Carlos argued that the agriculture department should inter˘ dict plans to produce genetically modiﬁed foods. and it no longer bothered her. brazen. Vanessa ˘ inveigled her way into a promotion that should have gone to Marie. Young children can be intransi˘ gent when it comes to what foods they will eat. iota (¯· oh·ta) n. meaning “remarkably clever. Trisha had become inured to her boss’s criticism. involute ( in·vo·loot) adj. incapable of being understood. defying imitation.”) Don’s expression of regret was ingenuous. Parents of ˘ ˘ teenagers often observe the insolent behavior that typically accompanies adolescence. 1. The young colt was intractable. haughty and contemptuous. unable to mask feelings. impertinent. bafﬂing. frank. unmatchable. inimitable (i· nim·i·ta·bel) adj. accustomed to. unwilling to compromise. stubborn. inured (in· yoord) adj. unmanageable. brave. unconcerned. . I am an inveterate paciﬁst and am ˘ unlikely to change my mind. and train˘ ˘ ing had to be cancelled temporarily. insouciant (in· soo·si·ant) adj. inveigle (in· vay· el) v. it was no surprise that he was viewed as a heathen and an inﬁdel by his family when he refused to be married in the church. a nonbeliever. forbid. one who does not accept a ˘ particular religion. adapted. His performance on the tennis court was ˘ ˘ inimitable. ingenuous (in· jen·yoo·us) adj. who expected her to go to college. not cunning or deceitful. interdict (in·ter· dikt) v. deep rooted. doctrine. Because Tom had been raised with strict religious beliefs. insolent ( in·so·lent) adj. indifferent. It was com˘ ˘ pletely inscrutable how the escape artist got out of the trunk. habitual. Professor Carlton is so unpopular ˘ because he doesn’t have one iota of respect for his students. he felt a deep sadness when Mary died. complex. 1. Marines is legendary. a person with no religious beliefs 2. for even though he didn’t know her well. a very small amount. artless. to inﬂuence or persuade through gentle coaxing or ﬂattery. intricate. undaunted. intrepid (in· trep·id) adj. inscrutable (in· scroo·ta·bel) adj.S. lacking sophistication or worldliness. (Note: Do not confuse with ingenious. stubborn. disrespectful. carefree. sin˘ cere 2. to entice. to prohibit.40 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources inﬁdel ( in·fi·del) n. 1. unfathomable. and he won three championships. the smallest possible quantity. ﬁrmly established. intransigent (in· tran·si·jent) adj. Wendy’s insouciant attitude toward her ˘ future concerned her father. fearless. insisting on familiar favorites and rejecting anything new. intractable (in· trak·ta·bel) adj.
a feeling of illness or unease. ire (¯r) n. 1. loquacious (loh· kway·shus) adj. garrulous. 1. and I am thankful that I do not have such major issues in my life. you might help her make up her mind. hands-off policy. lilliputian (lil·i· pyoo·shan) adj. irresolute (i· rez·o·loot) adj. Nicholas ˘ went to see a doctor. . brief. especially those that are similar in sound. lucid ( loo·sid) adj. easily aroused to anger. but they won’t win our vote. they’re just a bunch of libertines. irritable. anger. laconic (la· kon·ik) adj. malapropism ( mal·a·prop·iz·em) n. sane or rational. often exaggeratedly or ridiculously ˘ so. trivial or petty. Andrea presented a very lucid argument that proved her point beyond a shadow of a doubt. The maladroit waiter broke a dozen plates and spilled ˘ coffee on two customers. Her irascible temperament caused ˘ many problems with the staff at the ofﬁce. I believe a more laissez-faire approach by management would make everyone more cooperative and productive. merry. ˘ ˘ His malapropisms may make us laugh. hot tempered. lugubrious (luu· oo·bri·us) adj. cheerful. terse. libertine ( lib·er·teen) n. tiny 2. powerful. very clear. irritate. I was ﬁlled with ire when Vladimir tried to take credit for my work. Billy looks like a fool. They claim to be avant-garde. talkative. inept. lucrative ( loo·kra·tiv) adj. and inspirational. very small. maladroit (mal·a· droit) adj.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 41 irascible (i· ras·˘·bel) adj. one who lives or acts in an immoral or irresponsible way. one who acts accord˘ ing to his or her own impulses and desires and is unrestrained by conventions or morals. irk (urk) v. hesitant. Being a teenager means being continually irked by your parents—and vice versa. wrath. to the point. proﬁtable. After his malaise persisted for more than a week. Morrison’s ten-minute commencement address was every˘ thing we could have asked for: laconic. clumsy. to annoy. vex. acting so lugubrious over losing a silly bet. easy to understand. excessively dismal or mournful. The loquacious woman sitting next to me on the six˘ hour bus ride talked the entire time. indecisive. feeling or showing uncertainty. jocund ( jok·und) adj. Alexi’s jocund nature makes it a pleasure ˘ to be near her. sprightly and lighthearted. laissez-faire (les·ay fair) adj. so if you talk to her. Teaching is a very rewarding career. My troubles are lilliputian compared ˘ to hers. Sandra is still irres˘ olute. bungling. malaise (ma· layz) n. intelligible 2. noninterference by the government in business and economic affairs. but in my opinion. comical misuse of words. producing much money. but ˘ unfortunately it is not very lucrative.
apportion. mercurial (mer· kyoor·i·al) adj. mean˘ ˘ ing “inclined to interfere. You should be able to convince Xiu quickly. mete (meet) v. the tendency to be dishonest or untruthful 2. The city comptroller was found guilty of malfeasance and removed from ofﬁce. as with studied reﬁnement 3. melliﬂuous (me· lif·loo·us) adj. 1. nonconformist. showily attractive but false or insincere. courageous. malleable ( mal·i·a·bel) adj. pl. misconduct or wrongdoing. to pretend to be injured or ill in order to avoid work. especially by a public ofﬁcial. lively. to walk or speak affectedly. a mixture or assortment. Stop malingering and ˘ ˘ give me a hand with this job. Madonna has always been ˘ a maverick in the music industry. improper ˘ ˘ professional conduct. minutiae (mi· noo·shi·ee) n. 1. one who acts independently. mendacity (men· das·i·tee) n. easily controlled or inﬂuenced ˘ ˘ 3. maverick ( mav·er·ik) n. malinger (ma· lin · er) v. some people consider Las Vegas the most meretricious city in the country. honeyed. to distribute. misanthrope (mis· an·throhp) n. and no one can do anything right in his eyes. meretricious (mer·e· trish·us) adj. one who hates or distrusts humankind. great merriment. liable to change moods suddenly 2. With its casi˘ ˘ nos and attractions.”) Alice’s mettlesome attitude was infectious and inspired us all to press on. very small details. mélange (may· lahnzh) n. Pay no mind to his criticism. a falsehood or lie. easily molded or pressed into shape 2. she’s quite a malleable person.42 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources malfeasance (mal· fee·zans) n. joyous laughter. (Note: Do not confuse with meddlesome. tawdry. His attention to the minutiae of the process enabled him to make his great discovery. trivial or triﬂing matters. 1. mettlesome ( met·el·som) adj. to cut into very small pieces 2. volatile. The punishments were meted out fairly to everyone involved in the plot. who don’t feel they can trust him. Please don’t mince your words—just tell me what you want to say. easily adapting to changing circumstances. The joyous wedding celebration ﬁlled the reception hall with mirth throughout the evening. Carlos’s mendacity has made him very unpopular with his classmates. to say something more delicately or indirectly for the sake of politeness or decorum. high-spirited. Fiona ˘ ˘ is so mercurial that you never know what kind of reaction to expect. allot.. gaudy. mirth (murth) n. Her melliﬂuous voice ﬂoated in ˘ through the windows and made everyone smile. mince (mins) v. . rebel. There was a very interesting mélange of people at the party. he’s a real misanthrope. 1. changeable. sounding sweet and ﬂowing.
the core or center. mollify ( mol·˘·f¯) v. greatly diversiﬁed. 1. undecided. having many aspects. the cause of one’s misery or downfall. but I could tell she was nervous. The nascent movement gathered strength quickly ˘ and soon became a nationwide call to action. morose (mo· rohs) adj. a conclusion that does not logically follow from the evidence. putrid 2. a connected ˘ series or group 3. nonchalant (non·sha· lahnt) adj. In “Frankenstein. narcissism ( narh·si·siz·em) n. not showing anxiety or excitement. criminal. a means of connection. unwholesome. 1. diminish. nexus ( nek·sus) n. Robert began to practice mediation to elevate his spirits. source of harm or ruin. noisome ( noi·som) adj. 1. The crying child was quickly molliﬁed by her mother. What a noi˘ some odor is coming from that garbage can! non sequitur (non sek·wi·tur) n. Although this is a moot issue. excessive interest in one’s own per˘ sonal features. mundane (mun· dayn) adj. Mar˘ cus’s argument started off strong. worldly as opposed to spiritual. admiration or worship of oneself. The job ˘ requires the ability to handle multifarious tasks. unpleasant and harmful. indifferent or cool. agent ˘ of retribution or vengeance. Some critics say that movie stars are guilty of narcissism. especially in odor.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 43 miscreant ( mis·kree·ant) n. sullen. My job may be mundane. alleviate. dull. nadir ( nay·d˘r) n. melancholy. but it degenerated into a series of non sequiturs. to make less intense or severe 2. it is one that is often debated among certain circles. The unusual extenuating circumstances mitigated her punishment. The noxious smell drove everyone from ˘ the room. The miscreant had eluded the police for months. My daughter has been morose ever since our dog ran ˘ away. but it is secure and it pays well. soften. 1. ordinary 2. noxious. harmful. coming into existence. very varied. gloomy. evil person. a link or tie between a series of things 2. Victoria tried ˘ to be nonchalant. a villain. to soften. nascent ( nas·ent) adj. the lowest point. 1. . ˘ but today he was ﬁnally captured. 1. the very bottom. to moderate the force or intensity of. make less rigid. offensive. to lessen in intensity 3. emerging. debatable. calm 2. routine. bane 2. foul. to soothe the anger of. multifarious (mul·ti· fair·i·us) adj. moot (moot) adj. mitigate ( mit·˘· ayt) v. When he felt he was at the nadir of his life. The nexus between the lobbyists and the recent policy changes is clear. commonplace. noxious ( nok·shus) adj.” the monster Victor creates becomes his nemesis. nemesis ( nem·e·sis) n.
I doubt he will ˘ change his mind. 1. scornful. 1. eagerly offering unnecessary or unwanted advice. obfuscate (ob· fus·kayt) v. task. Instead of clarifying the matter. so be prepared for lots of questions and advice. detestable. hidden. thrusting out 3. It was inappropriate to make such opprobrious remarks in front of everybody. omniscient (om· nish·ent) adj. knowing all things. The ˘ ˘ obstreperous child refused to go to bed. Thankfully. The rights and beliefs of the occult organization were ﬁnally made a matter of public record after a long investigation. ofﬁcious (o· fish·us) adj. obviate ( ob·vi·ayt) v. opprobrious (o· proh·bri·us) adj. stubborn and inﬂexible. My ofﬁ˘ ˘ cious Aunt Midge is coming to the party. form of government in which the power is in the hands of a select few. projecting. incomprehensible. obtrusive (ob· troo·siv) adj. beyond ˘ ordinary understanding. omnipotent (om· nip·o·tent) adj. onus ( oh·nus) n. 1. to muddle or make difﬁcult to understand 2. expressing contempt or reproach. Hiring Magdalena would obviate the need to hire a music tutor. get rid of.44 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources nullify ( nul·˘·f¯) v. but it is clearly an oligarchy. having unlimited or universal power or force. bossy. stupid and slow to understand 2. blunt. bringing ˘ ˘ shame or disgrace. Walter only obfuscated it further. prominent. This is an odious policy that will only damage the ˘ environment more. not sharp or pointed. 1. 1. forward. hardhearted. but he was not omnipotent. involving the realm of the supernatural 3. having inﬁnite knowledge. for she is also a classical pianist. burden. It was Clark’s idea. intrusive. he is the most obdurate person I know. In a story with an omni˘ scient narrator. noisily and stubbornly deﬁant. odious ( oh·di·us) adj. to make obscure or unclear. Please don’t be so ˘ obtuse. In Greek mythology. invalidate 2. abusive 2. undesirably noticeable 2. obtuse (ob· toos) adj. not easily moved to pity. to make null (without legal force). obdurate ( ob·du·rit) adj. secret. to dim or darken. 1. contemptible. but she was left with several obtrusive scars. tend˘ ing to push one’s self or one’s ideas upon others. duty or responsibility of doing something. aggressively boisterous. we can hear the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters. The opponents wanted to nullify the bill before it became a law. ˘ ˘ Zeus was the most powerful god. occult (o· kult) adj. Minsun survived the accident. since even his rule was often held in check by the unchangeable laws of the Three Fates. oligarchy ( ol·˘· ahr·kee) n. . The small governing body calls itself a democracy. obstreperous (ob· strep·e·rus) adj. you know what I mean. meddlesome. unruly. so the onus ˘ is on him to show us that it will work. hateful. to make unnecessary. to counteract or neutralize the effect of. concealed 2.
a rejected and despised person.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 45 opulent ( op·yu·lent) adj. something that serves as a model or example 2.. partisan ( pahr·ti·zan) n. Senator Waterson’s pellucid argument made me change my vote. appearing as such. smallness of supply or quantity.g. unremarkable. paucity ( paw·si·tee) n. Don’t make such a big deal out of a lit˘ tle peccadillo. Lee is very wealthy. pedantic (pi· dan·tik) adj. such as friendly ﬁre. . to gloss over. Her lessons were so pedantic that I found I was easily bored. The partisan lobby could not see the logic of the opposing senator’s argument and did not understand how the proposed legislation would infringe upon basic constitutional rights. presumptuously arrogant. to make something less intense or severe. immod˘ erate. ˘ paradigm ( par·a·d¯m) n. a ˘ guerilla. dull. possessing great wealth. 1. cast out from a group or from society. pallor ( pal·or) n. to reject. The ostensible reason for the meeting is to discuss the candidates. relieve the symptoms of a disease or disorder. its pedestrian plot has been overused by screenwriters for decades. pretended. After he told a sexist joke. The term “non-working mother” is a contemptible oxymoron. to provide relief from pain. seeming. ostensible (o· sten·s˘·bel) adj. commonplace. able to be seen through with clarity 2. abundant. beliefs. set of assumptions. pariah (pa· r¯·a) n. alleviate. Elected “Employee of the Month. ostracize ( os·tra·s¯z) v. mitigate. trite. an outcast. The paucity of food in the area drove the herd farther and farther to the south. 1. marked by a narrow. oxymoron (oks·i· moh·ron) n. overweening ( oh·ver· wee·nin ) adj. a ﬁgure of speech containing a seemingly contradictory combination ˘ of expressions. Kendall was ostracized after he ˘ repeatedly stole from his friends. 1. Jason was treated ˘ ˘ like a pariah by all of the women in the ofﬁce. a small sin or fault. I quit because I couldn’t stand to work for such an overweening boss. put forward (as of a reason) but not nec˘ essarily so. palliate ( pal·i·ayt) v. unimaginative. ˘ ˘ but he does not live an opulent lifestyle. 1. 1. afﬂuent 2. pedestrian (pe· des·tri· an) adj. but it soon became clear that he would not be able to prevent a scandal. scarcity. overbearing 2. translucent. luxurious.” Winona is a paradigm of efﬁciency. 1. a member of an organized body of ﬁghters who attack or harass an enemy. (e. The governor tried to palliate his malfeasance. a trivial offense. but I believe they have already made their decision. put a positive spin on 2. peccadillo (pek·a· dil·oh) n. Although the ˘ ˘ ﬁlm received critical acclaim. pellucid (pe· loo·sid) adj. paleness. especially of ˘ rules or trivial matters. but her pallor remained for several weeks. excessive. lack of color. ¯ ˘ values or practices that constitutes a way of understanding or doing things. easy to understand. tiresome focus on or display of learning. The fever subsided. of writing) very ˘ clear. a person fervently and often uncritically supporting a group or cause 2.
. 1. perfunctory (per· fun k·to·ree) adj. or incomplete testimony while ˘ under oath. peremptory (pe· remp·to·ree) adj. attractive. but he’s really just a philistine. The pouting and sulk˘ ˘ ing child could only be described as petulant! philistine ( fil·i·steen) n. I was petriﬁed when I heard the door open in the middle of the night. perjury ( pur·ju·ree) n. penultimate (pi· nul·t˘·mit) adj. Nancy’s opponent started a pernicious rumor ˘ ˘ that destroyed her chances of winning. a person or thing of unmatched beauty or excellence 2. dishonest. a strong inclination or liking. unreasonably or easily irritated or annoyed. pertinacious (pur·t˘· nay·shus) adj. to plunder. superﬁcial. ignorant person. petulant ( pech·u·lant) adj. holding ﬁrmly to a belief. the deliberate willful giving of false. personable ( pur·so·na·bel) adj. Richards thinks he is cosmopolitan. offensively self-assured. commanding. penury ( pen·yu·ree) n. someone who is uncultured and commonplace. The phoenix is often used to symbolize something that is indomitable or immortal. very destructive. William was convicted of perjury for lying about his whereabouts on the night of the crime. a smug. The father’s peremptory tone ended the children’s bickering. destitution. misleading. pernicious (per· nish·us) adj. 1. phoenix ( fee·niks) n. There’s a real surprise for the audience in the penultimate scene. dictatorial 2. done out of a sense of duty or routine but without much care or ˘ ˘ interest. extremely stubborn or persistent. violating good faith. We were not satisﬁed with his perfunctory work.46 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources penchant ( pen·chant) n. perﬁdious (per· fid·i·us) adj. deadly. I have a real penchant for science ﬁction and spend ˘ hours reading my favorite authors every night. Sandra is personable and ˘ ˘ ˘ well-liked by her peers. harmful. The perﬁdious ˘ ˘ knight betrayed his king. it’s good to be ﬁnancially ˘ secure again. After ten years of penury. we felt a more thorough job could have been done. or dread. peevish. ˘ ˘ not allowing contradiction or refusal 3. to stun or paralyze with fear. especially in time of war. next to last. to make hard or stiff like a stone 2. to forcibly rob of goods. pillage ( pil·ij) v. petrify ( pet·r˘·f¯) v. treacherous. The barbarians pillaged the village before destroying it with ﬁre. astonishment. The pertinacious journalist ﬁnally uncovered the truth about the factory’s illegal disposal of toxins. 1. not thorough. pur˘ pose. extreme poverty. imperative. or course of action. putting an end to debate or action. a person or thing that has become renewed or restored after suffering calamity or apparent annihilation (after the mythological bird that periodically immolated itself and rose from the ashes as a new phoenix). pleasing in appearance or manner. disloyal.
mournful. dropping sharply 2. I just had a hunch that he wasn’t what he seemed to be. the essential or central part. 1. extremely steep. pompous. controversial. The headmaster reviewed the precepts of the school with the students. keenly distressing. sponge-like central cylinder of the stems of most ﬂowering plants. Janice’s plaintive voice made me decide to stay and comfort her longer. putting on airs. polemical (po· lem·ik·al) adj. experience. pierc˘ ing or incisive. pragmatic (pra · mat·ik) adj. 1. fraught with danger 2. etc. platitude ( plat·i·tood) n. placid ( plas·id) adj. There was a plethora of food at the reception. a trite or banal statement. Matthew offered me several platitudes but no real advice. free from disturbance or tumult. to offend. a phony. idea. The article really piqued my interest in wildlife preservation. but concise. pith (pith) n. favoring utility. the ˘ “Crocodile Hunter. Since we don’t have money or time to waste. (in biology) the soft. Lake Placid is as calm and peaceful as its name suggests. melancholy. statement went right to the pith of the argument and covered the most important issues. The spicy shrimp salad is wonderfully piquant. expressing sorrow. to tell lies. pretentious (pri· ten·shus) adj. an overabundance. practical. precipitous (pri· sip·i·t us) adj. a rule establishing standards of conduct. someone who takes on airs to impress others. I think we should take the most pragmatic approach. Steve. deeply moving. 1. They captured the poignant reunion on ﬁlm.) 2. agreeably pungent. Hannah thinks that being pretentious ˘ will make people like her. Her brief. dangerously unsteady or insecure. 1. extreme excess.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 47 piquant ( pee·kant) adj. prevaricate (pri· var·˘·kayt) v.” is constantly placing himself in very precarious positions. rash. ˘ ˘ poignant ( poin·yant) adj. argumentative. we spotted a grizzly bear on a precipitous cliff and wondered if he would fall. plethora ( pleth·o·ra) n. precarious (pri· kair·i·us) adj. Driving ˘ through the state park. 1. foolhardy. to wound (someone’s) pride. precept ( pree·sept) n. plaintive ( playn·tiv) adj. . the heart or essence (of the matter. sharp or tart in taste 2. especially one uttered as if it were new. matter-of-fact. calm and peaceful. hasty. but she is sorely mistaken. Quit prevaricating and tell me what really happened. arousing emotion. The analyst presented a highly polemical view ˘ ˘ of the economic situation. My ﬁrst impression of the arrogant newcomer told me that he was a poseur. pleasantly stimulating or provoca˘ tive. to arouse or provoke. to stray from or evade the truth. showy. pique (peek) v. poseur (poh· zur) n. touching 2.
The primeval art found in ˘ the caves was discovered by accident. provident ( prov·i·dent) adj. similarity in nature. proscribe (proh· skr¯b) v. proﬂigate ( prof·l˘· it) adj. wisely providing for future needs. lacking moral restraint. lavish or profuse. prosaic (proh· zay·ik) adj. Kira is as punctilious in her personal affairs as she is in the workplace. belligerent. afﬁnity. changeable. The king proscribed the worship of idols in his kingdom. original. unadulterated 2. pugnacious (pu · nay·shus) adj. propinquity (proh· pin ·kwi·tee) n. The prosaic novel was rejected by the publisher. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. eager to ﬁght. prodigal 2. forbid. a document authorizing this substitution. These are propitious omens ˘ indeed and foretell a good journey. 1. presenting favorable circumstances. a person or agent authorized to represent or act for another 2. pundit ( pun·dit) n. dull. The two scientiﬁc elements demonstrate a remarkable propinquity. taking many forms. 1. one who is an authority on a subject. Jackson was ﬁred for repeatedly refusing to follow protocol. very conscientious and precise. given in great ˘ abundance. Because my parents ˘ were so provident. free from contamination. Don’t be so ˘ pugnacious—I don’t want to ﬁght. The ˘ ˘ proletariats demanded fewer hours and better wages. auspicious. versatile. or procedure with regard to people’s rank or sta˘ tus 2. paying great attention to details or ˘ trivialities. 1. puerile ( pyoo·e·r˘l) adj. The journalist consulted several legal pundits before drafting the article. 1. 1. I didn’t have to struggle to pay for college. propitious (proh· pish·us) adj. . ceremony. contentious. The proﬂigate man quickly depleted his fortune. pure. quarrelsome. to banish or outlaw 2. The president appointed a proxy to handle business matters during his absence. clean. Andrew is a remarkably successful businessman for someone so puerile. especially with money 2. In Native American mythol˘ ogy. a learned person or scholar. proxy ( prok·see) n. those who do manual labor to earn a living. punctilious (pun k· til·i·us) adj. the working class. belonging to the earliest ages.48 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources primeval (pr¯· mee·val) adj. ancient. childish. protocol ( proh·to·kawl) n. We were awed by the beauty of the pristine forest in northern Canada. proximity. 1. dissolute. variable. to denounce or condemn. nearness 2. 1. belonging to or of child˘ hood. prodigal ( prod·˘· al) adj. 1. suitable only for children. a ﬁrst copy of a treaty or document. proletariat (proh·le· tair·i·at) n. especially in regard to etiquette. economical. unimaginative. frugal. The parable of the prodigal son shows what can happen when money is wasted. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. ordinary. to prohibit. the coyote is often called the “shape shifter” because he is such a protean character. protean ( proh·tee·an) adj. etiquette. in its original and unspoiled condition. pristine ( pris·teen) adj. immature 2.
Maura is the quintessence of kindness. purloin (pur· loin) v. propose or intend. disturbing the peace. jaunty in appearance or manner 2. ˘ but who knows when it will erupt again. voracious. The volcano is quiescent at the moment. ﬂinch. ˘ purport ( pur·pohrt) v. inactive. but I love him. The rakish young woman charmed everyone at the table. dissolute or debauched. long-lasting resentment. daily 2. The thief purloined a sculpture worth thousands of dollars. quid pro quo (kwid proh kwoh) n. 1. to draw back in fear. complaining. rapacious (ra· pay·shus) adj. ˘ The raucous music kept us awake all night. quintessence (kwin· tes·ens) n. Let’s come up with a quid pro quo arrangement that will create a winning situation for both sides. caustic. pedestrian. I love ˘ the pungent taste of a good. He quickly quaffed three glasses of water. unpleasantly loud and harsh 2. a thing given in return for something. a pigtail. Mona quailed as soon as Otto entered the room. excessively greedy and grasping (especially for money). boisterous. rancor ( ran ·kor) n. dormant. strong curry. having a strong. discontented. to be intended to seem. rakish ( ray·kish) adj. quiescent (kwi· es·ent) adj. the essence of a substance 2. The rapacious general ordered his soldiers to pillage the town. He’s a cantankerous and querulous old ˘ ˘ man. extravagantly chivalrous and unselﬁsh. to steal. 1. to have the appearance of being 2. quotidian (kwoh· tid·i·an) adj. commonplace. quixotic (kwik· sot·ik) adj.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 49 pungent ( pun·jent) adj. penetrating. to drink hurriedly or heartily. cower. quaff (kwahf) v. raucous ( raw·kus) adj. and this causes tension at family gatherings. to swallow in large draughts. Look how long the queue is! We’ll be waiting for hours. at rest. sharp taste or smell 2. querulous ( kwer·u·lus) adj. romantically idealistic. latent. stinging. the perfect example or embodiment ˘ of something. peevish. smartly dressed or mannered. 1. Greg is full of rancor toward his ˘ brother. an equal exchange or substitution. His quixotic ways charmed all the women at the dance. disorderly. quiet. quail (kwayl) v. queue (kyoo) n. 1. 1. plun˘ ˘ dering. a line of people or vehicles waiting their turn 2. unconventional and disreputable. debonair. 1. 1. a bitter feeling of ill will. . Prudence took her quotidian dose of ˘ medicine. The letter purports to express your opinion on the matter. impractical.
dealing with abstruse or ˘ profound matters. widely known and esteemed. tranquility. the practice of using political or military force without actually resorting to war. to delight or entertain with a splendid feast or pleasant amusement. The recalcitrant child ˘ was sent to the principal’s ofﬁce for the third time in a week. or opposition 2. recondite ( rek·on·d¯t) adj. repartee (rep·ar· tee) n. group. well-stocked or abundantly supplied 2. one who is opposed ˘ to progress or liberalism. 1. He loves the challenge of grasping a recondite subject. The president promised a swift reprisal for the attack. one who rejects a cause. famous. renowned (ri· nownd) adj. stubborn. recalcitrant (ri· kal·si·trant) adj. recidivism (ri· sid·˘·vizm) n. The king regaled his guests until the early morning hours. The children remonstrated loudly when their babysitter told them they couldn’t watch that movie.50 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources reactionary (ree· ak·sho·ner·ee) n. an act of retaliation for an injury with the intent of inﬂicting at least as much ˘ harm in return 2. The reprehensible behavior of the neigh˘ borhood bully angered everyone on the block. especially into antisocial or criminal behavior after conviction and punishment. etc. peace of mind. calmness. The court granted him a reprieve at the last moment because of DNA evidence that absolved him. obscure. repose (ri· pohz) n. reprieve (ri· preev) n. disobedient. deserving rebuke or censure. The renegade soldier decided to join the guerilla ﬁghters. 1. Allowing prisoners to earn their GEDs or college degrees has been shown to greatly reduce recidivism. a deserter. 1. 1. The renowned historian Stephen Ambrose wrote many books that were popular with both scholars and the general public. to say or plead in protest. a person who rebels and ˘ becomes an outlaw. 1. full. to scold or reprove. The house was replete with expensive antiques. Elena is a coun˘ selor for refractory children in an alternative school setting. temporary relief from danger or discomfort. a person who favors political conservativism. reprehensible (rep·ri· hen·s˘·bel) adj. resisting control or discipline. the ability to make witty replies. resting or being at rest 2. . 1. 2. witty reply 2. He wasn’t expecting ˘ such a sharp repartee from someone who was normally so quiet. 1. especially of the death sentence 2. postponement or cancellation of punishment. unruly. The wail of a police siren disturbed my repose. reprisal (ri· pr¯·zal) n. and abstruse 2. objection. 1. refusing to obey authority. gorged. a relapse or backslide. renegade ( ren·e· ayd) n. It should be an interesting marriage: he’s a reactionary and she’s as liberal as they come. regale (ri· ayl) v. unmanageable. remonstrate (ri· mon·strayt) v. not easily understood. replete (ri· pleet) adj. refractory (ri· frak·to·ree) adj. a quick.
The new announcer at the stadium has a wonderfully res˘ ˘ onant voice. a pleasantly mischievous person 3. sound advice. rescind (ri· sind) v. disrespectful or irreverent toward something regarded as sacred. to anger or annoy. Tallon has repeatedly repudiated your accusations. a dishonest. Jill’s most salient feature is her stunning auburn hair. today he’s switched everything around in the cupboards! roil (roil) v. Yesterday. or note of explanation or direction. ˘ petty procedure. to make a liquid cloudy or muddy 2. highly noticeable. Annette is very reticent. rogue (roh ) n. rubric ( roo·brik) n. confusing. a heading. I’ve decided to move to a more salutary climate. unprincipled person 2. incoherent talk 2. 1. I would put this under the rubric of “quackery. spring up or jutting out. to repeal or cancel. Edgar deemed ˘ himself a reprobate. 1. That you could even think such a thing really roils me. My sagacious uncle ˘ ˘ always gives me good. resonant ( rez·o·nant) adj. remedial. sanctimonious (san k·t˘· moh·nee·us) adj. hypocritically pious or devout. a complicated. producing a beneﬁcial or wholesome effect. untalkative. a criminal. having or showing sound judgment. a class or category 2. I wish I had Jane’s sangfroid when I ﬁnd myself in a confrontational situation. rigmarole ( ri ·ma·rohl) (also rigamarole) n. rambling. to void or annul.” sacrilegious (sak·r˘· leej·us) adj. sangfroid (sahn· frwah) n. resounding. ˘ silent. so don’t expect her to tell you much about herself. reject completely. so we must ﬁnd another buyer. that rogue hid all of my cooking utensils. perceptive.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 51 reprobate ( rep·ro·bayt) n. and a traitor in his written confession. reticent ( ret·i·sent) adj.” not “alternative medicine. Ms. 1. tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. 1. repudiate (ri· pyoo·di·ayt) v. Her ˘ book was criticized by the church for being sacrilegious. conspicuous. a vicious and solitary animal living apart from the herd. ˘ The thief’s sanctimonious remark that “a fool and his money are soon parted” only made the jury more eager to convict him. drawing attention through a strik˘ ing quality 2. They have rescinded their offer. 1. echoing. . prominent. reserved. disavow. excessively self-righteous. We had to go through a great deal of rigmarole to get this approved. To promote better ˘ health. an immoral or unprincipled person. salutary ( sal·yu·ter·ee) adj. one without scruples. composure. salient ( say·li·ent) adj. sagacious (sa· ay·shus) adj. title. to stir up or agitate 3. wise. to disown. especially in dangerous or difﬁcult circumstances.
sinuous ( sin·yoo·us) adj. mocking scornfully. of the color of blood. to reduce the intensity of. iota. That scurvy knave has ruined my plans again. pithy 2. sodden ( sod·en) adj. or other forms 3. mean. a trace or particle. My shiftless roommate has failed all of his classes. or interpretation of words. graceful tact. the study of relationships between signs or symbols and their meanings. semantics (si· man·tiks) n. sedulous ( sej·u·lus) adj. but the matter is not open to interpretation. I was looking for your honest opinion. lazy and inefﬁcient. lacking ambition. clever but faulty reasoning. sullen. 1. expressing oneself tersely. of or like an ape or monkey. She has not one scintilla of doubt about his ˘ guilt. persevering. People are drawn to her because of her sanguine and pleasant nature. solecism ( sol·e·siz·em) n. It is dangerous to drive fast on such a sinuous ˘ road. initiative. sarcastic. conﬁdently cheerful. dark. quench 2. serpentine. He claims it’s a matter of semantics. a separation or division into factions because of a difference in belief or opinion. hard working. I was amused by his sophistry but knew he had a little more research to do before he presented his argument to the distinguished scholars in his ﬁeld. contemptible. winding. gloomy. not a sententious reply. ˘ The schism between the two parties was forgotten as they united around a common cause.52 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources sanguine ( san · win) adj. thoroughly saturated. The deer slaked its thirst at the river. symbols. . knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. moderate. the study of meaning in language 2. connotation. Creationists do not believe that humans have simian ˘ ancestors. ˘ ˘ impropriety. After years of sedulous research. the ˘ ˘ researchers discovered a cure. Caught ˘ in an unexpected rainstorm. schism ( siz·em) n. soaked 2. unimaginative. a plausible but invalid argument intended to deceive by appearing sound. 1. a mistake in the use of language 2. sardonic (sahr· don·ik) adj. Frank’s solecism caused his debate team much embarrassment. 1. minute amount. full of maxims and proverbs offered ˘ in a self-righteous manner. violation of good manners or etiquette. 1. scintilla (sin· til·a) n. saturnine ( sat·ur·n¯n) adj. to satisfy. undulating. sophistry ( sof·i·stree) n. 1. allay. 1. scurvy ( skur·vee) adj. the meaning. I was hurt by his sardonic reply. expressionless or dull. diligent. optimistic 2. or purpose. I was sodden by the time I reached the bus stop. shiftless ( shift·lis) adj. red. simian ( sim·i·an) adj. The saturnine child sulked for hours. Savoir faire is essential if you want to be a successful diplomat. ˘ savoir faire ( sav·wahr fair) n. sententious (sen· ten·shus) adj. slake (slayk) v.
stultify ( stul·t˘·f¯) v. to hinder. counterfeit. specious ( spee·shus) adj. one who beseeches or entreats. a person who asks humbly for something. surly ( sur·lee) adj. Beethoven’s music is simply sublime. supplicant ( sup·l˘·kant) n. subvert (sub· vurt) v. to ruin. . to make (someone) look foolish or incompetent. or reverence. impassive. spurious ( spyoor·i·us) adj. not easily aroused or excited. Maxine is a very stolid person. destroy completely 3. to overthrow 2. 1. The sundry items in her backpack reveal a great deal about her personality. to undermine. below the threshold of consciousness. 1. lofty. stringent ( strin·jent) adj. scornful. gruff. supercilious (soo·per· sil·i·us) adj. inspiring awe. This sordid establishment should be shut down immediately. not feeling or showing emotion. bad-tempered. deceptively pleasing in appearance. indifferent. ﬁlthy and wretched 2. 1. ˘ supreme. thwart. stolid ( stol·id) adj. The expert conﬁrmed that the ˘ Willie Mays autograph was spurious. adoration. Of course I’m angry! You stultiﬁed me at that meeting! stymie ( st¯·mee) v. The negotiations were stymied by yet another attack. disdainful. according to very rigorous rules. 1. so it will be difﬁcult to tell how she feels. Emily received a surly greeting from the normally cheerful receptionist. sordid. requirements or standards. subliminal (sub· lim·˘·nal) adj. 1. The housing inspectors noted such deplorable and squalid living conditions in the building on Water Street that they were forced to evacuate the tenants. The ˘ stringent eligibility requirements greatly limited the number of candidates for the scholarship. haughty. She quietly subverted his authority by sharing internal information with outside agents. to impair or make ineffective. Vin˘ nie did not fool me with his specious argument. seemingly plausible but false 2. to prevent the accomplishment of something.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 53 sordid ( sor·did) adj. various. obstruct. not genuine or authentic. morally repulsive. dirty. having noble or majestic qualities. squalid 2. ˘ The supplicants begged for forgiveness. miscellaneous. wretched. seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain. Sunil’s supercilious attitude and sarcas˘ ˘ tic remarks annoy me greatly. very strict. stoical ( stoh·i·kal) adj. or unfriendly in a way that suggests menace. He remained ˘ stoical while his wife told him she was leaving. squalid ( skwol·id) adj. Subliminal advertising is devious ˘ but effective. sundry ( sun·dree) adj. sublime (su· bl¯m) adj. false. cripple 2. morally degraded. impassive.
it’s all hearsay. but yesterday he regaled me with tales of his hiking adventures. and it took a great deal of coax˘ ˘ ing to get him to come near the car. temerity (te· mer·i·tee) n. ﬂimsy 2. svelte (svelt) adj. ˘ ˘ stubbornly unyielding 2. The tendentious proposal caused an uproar on the Senate ﬂoor. holding ﬁrmly to something. tawdry ( taw·dree) adj. labor strenuously. timorous ( tim·o·rus) adj. so how will he really know if his ideas have merit? taciturn ( tas·i·turn) adj. The totalitarian regime fell quickly when the people revolted. a substitute. or organization. foolish disregard of danger. This pamphlet describes the tenets of Amnesty International. supporting a particular cause or posi˘ tion. biased. real or concrete. tenet ( ten·it) n. not impartial. to be present in large numbers. she is the most tenacious person I know. 1. suave. Martha agreed to be a surro˘ gate mother for her sister. There is no tangible ˘ evidence of misconduct. ﬂashy and tasteless. totalitarian (toh·tal·i· tair·i·an) adj. a person who tries to win the favor of inﬂuential or powerful people through ˘ ˘ ﬂattery. such as a right or principle. toil (toil) n. afraid. . partisan. a fawning parasite. a thorough investigation showed they were committed by the same person. (of memory) retentive. tangible ( tan·j˘·bel) adj. v. I’ve never seen such a tawdry outﬁt as the three-tiered taffeta prom gown that the singer wore to the awards ceremony! teem (teem) v. a belief. group. exhausting labor or effort. This city is teeming with tourists during the summer months. Though the con˘ nection between the two crimes seemed tenuous at ﬁrst. sycophant ( sik·o·fant) n. opinion. I’ve always known him to be taciturn. The president is surrounded by sycophants. tendentious (ten· den·shus) adj. reserved. having little substance or validity. audacity. a form of government in which those in control neither recog˘ nize nor tolerate rival parties or loyalties. tenuous ( ten·yoo·us) adj. cohesive 3. sticking ﬁrmly. This is no time for temerity. doctrine or principle held to be true by a person. ˘ we must move cautiously to avoid any further damage. able to be perceived by touch. brashness. timid. slender and graceful. fearful. 1. The stray dog was timorous. tenacious (te· nay·shus) adj. to work laboriously. The svelte actress offered a toast to her guests. When it comes to ﬁghting for equality. persistent. difﬁcult or laborious work.54 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources surrogate ( sur·o· it) n. habitually untalkative. unsubstantial. holding ﬁrmly. demanding total submission of the individual to the needs of the state. one who takes the place of another. palpable. Evan toiled for hours before solving the problem. adhesive 4. to be full of. gaudy or showy but without any real value.
truncate ( trun ·kayt) v. Christopher thinks he’s so urbane. Their relationship ˘ was transient but profound. urbane (ur· bayn) adj. 1. creating an uproar. transitory. or agitation. long-winded. improper. a corrupt or depraved act. extremely tactful and polite. unseemly. ˘ ˘ The outspoken council president gave a truculent speech arguing against the proposal. disorderly. tribunal (tr¯· byoo·nal) n. highly reﬁned in manners. Her verbose letter ram˘ bled so much that it didn’t seem to have a point. but he’s really quite pedestrian. character or posi˘ ˘ ˘ tion. The glitch in the software program truncated the lines of a very important document I was typing. deﬁantly aggressive 2. untoward (un· tohrd) adj. a court of justice. empty. noisy 2. umbrage ( um·brij) n. inconvenient. lasting only a very short time. undulate ( un·ju·layt) v. to move in waves or in a wavelike fashion. easily bribed or corrupted. dignity. condemn. In the novel Brave New World. stupid. brief. to shorten or terminate by (or as if by) cutting the top or end off. purposeless. obedient. easily managed or controlled. truculent ( truk·yu·lent) adj. contrary to one’s best interest or welfare. ˘ turbulence. 1. The venerable Jimmy Carter has just won the Nobel Peace Prize. effective 2. Jackson’s untoward remarks made Amelia very uncomfortable. 1. venal ( vee·nal) adj. ﬂuctuate. clear˘ cut. worthy of reverence or respect because of age. to reprove. I took great umbrage at your suggestion that I twisted the truth. ﬁerce. incisive 3. and it forced me to change my mind about the issue. wickedness 2. wordy. ﬂeeting. It was a trenchant argument. This TV show is yet another vac˘ uous sitcom. admonish. docile. Such turpitude deserves the most severe punishment. turpitude ( tur·pi·tood) n. ˘ ˘ the World Controllers use hypnosis and a “happiness drug” to make everyone tractable. The venal judge was removed and disbarred. . 1. a state of confusion. tumult. using more words than necessary. upbraid (up· brayd) v. offense. transient ( tran·zhent) adj.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 55 tractable ( trak·ta·bel) adj. tumultuous (too· mul·choo· us) adj. vacuous ( vak·yoo·us) adj. bitterly expressing opposition. trenchant ( tren·chant) adj. The curtains undulated in ˘ the breeze. 1. unprincipled. and ﬂuctuating prices wreaked havoc for investors. inane. ˘ venerable ( ven·e·ra·bel) adj. He will be sentenced for his war crimes by an international ˘ tribunal. sharply deﬁned. extremely perceptive. penetrating. violent 3. perverse. The child was upbraided for misbehaving during the ceremony. elegant. It was another tumultuous day for the stock market. reproach sharply. resentment. verbose (ver· bohs) adj. forceful. senseless. troublesome. adverse 2.
the appearance of being true or real. to annoy. 1. . sufﬁxes. nimble speech 2. real. The tables below list common preﬁxes. sufﬁxes. genuine. xenophobia (zen·o· foh·bi·a) n. vitriolic (vit·ri· ol·ik) adj. true. unstable. to cause worry to. zenith ( zee·nith) n. 1. veritable ( ver·i·ta·bel) adj. SUFFIXES. Hyde. I was completely vexed by his puerile behavior. ˘ devouring greedily.56 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources verisimilitude (ver·i·si· mil·i·tood) n. turning or rotating easily on an axis. a strong dislike. their meanings. AND WORD ROOTS A familiarity with common preﬁxes. Your new spokesperson is very voluble and clearly comfortable speaking in front of large audiences. likely to ˘ change suddenly or violently 3. excessively greedy. an example of a word with that preﬁx. The movie aims for complete verisimilitude and has painstakingly recreated the details of everyday life in the 1920s. Einstein was a veritable genius. the highest point. peak 2. or word root. She is at the zenith of her career and has won every case this year. the point in the sky directly above the observer. Jekyll and Mr. the meaning of that word. I have always been a voracious reader and go through dozens of books every month. and word roots can dramatically improve your ability to determine the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary words. 1. voracious (voh· ray·shus) adj. top. explosive. PREFIXES. or fear of foreigners. volatile ( vol·a·til) adj. Dan’s volatile personality has been compared to that of Dr. and word roots. (in chemistry) evaporating readily. ﬁckle 2. and a sentence that demonstrates the meaning of that word. rapacious. Many atrocities have been ˘ ˘ committed because of xenophobia. inconstant. changeable. caustic. having a great appetite for something. language marked by great ﬂuency. 1. Refer to this list often to refresh your memory and improve your vocabulary. irritate 2. voluble ( vol·yu·bel) adj. ˘ ˘ rapid. ˘ ˘ vex (veks) v. varying widely. Her vitriolic attack on her opponent was so hostile that it may cost her the election. sufﬁx. savagely hostile or bitter. distrust. talking a great deal and with great ease.
They are grouped together by similar meanings. operas. This table lists some of the most common preﬁxes in the English language. Preﬁx uni- Meaning Example one unify v. and we must examine each side carefully. an animal with four feet series of four related artistic works. duality n. the Brooklyn district across the river from the Wall Street area. you will get two rectangles of equal size. knowing all micro- small microcosm n.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 57 PREFIXES Preﬁxes are syllables added to the beginnings of words to change or add to their meaning. bisect v. In an isosceles triangle. she knows what all of us are thinking in class. a long speech by one person or performer to divide into two equal parts having two sides or parts a ﬁgure having three angles I was very moved by the monologue in Scene III. Most of Shakespeare’s sonnets are written in iambic pentameter. he’s lived in eight different countries. quintpent- ﬁve ﬁve quintuplets n. monobiduotri- one two two three monologue n. quadritetra- four four quadruped n. one who speaks or understands several languages It’s no wonder he’s a polyglot. ﬁve offspring born at one time a line of verse (poetry) with ﬁve metrical feet multi- many multifaceted adj. If you bisect a square. etc. novels. pentameter n. two of the three angles are the same size. The novel explores the duality of good and evil in humans. is a microcosm of Manhattan. triangle n. something representing something else on a very small scale Some people say that Brooklyn Heights. . Each quintuplet weighed less than four pounds at birth. This is a multifaceted issue. Dr. “Time Zone” was the fourth and ﬁnal work in Classman’s tetralogy. having many sides poly- many polyglot n. such as plays. Deﬁnition to form into a single unit. Perez seems omniscient. Some quadrupeds evolved into bipeds. little or miniature world. tetralogy n. to unite Sentence The new leader was able to unify the three factions into one strong political party. omni- all omniscient adj.
intervene v. expel v. the large scale world or universe. any great whole Any change to the microcosm will eventually affect the macrocosm. intervened in the ﬁght between Tybalt and Mercutio. to act upon or inﬂuence each other The psychologist took notes as she watched the children interact. supervisor n. within introvert n. within or into a vein She could not eat and had to be fed intravenously for three days. His attempt to subvert my authority will cost him his job. Deﬁnition small group within a larger group Sentence John voted for Bridget. toward himself or herself. to give advance thought to. to bring about the destruction of. macro- large macrocosm n. a person whose attention is largely directed inward. The appetizers preceded the main course. overthrow. a shy or withdrawn person Unlike his ﬂamboyant sister.58 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources Preﬁx mini- Meaning Example small minority n. to bring in (to a group) to drive out or away to draw a line around. Let’s expel the invaders! She carefully circumscribed the space that would become her ofﬁce. from around induct v. to come before in time or order message added after the close of a letter to come between inter- together interact v. intro- into. inexcircum- in. Alex accepted the promotion to supervisor and was comfortable with the duties and responsibilities of the ofﬁce. intra- within intravenous adj. over subvert v. His decades of experience enabled him to anticipate the problem. ante- before anticipate v. postscript n. into out. quiet Zeke was a real introvert. general agreement After hours of debate. to mark the limits of subsuper- under above. She was inducted into the honor society. together consensus n. most people voted for Elaine. circumscribe v. the group ﬁnally reached a consensus and selected a candidate. . to undermine one who watches over con- with. trying to make peace. expect prepostinter- before after between precede v. His postscript was almost as long as his letter! Romeo. but he was in the minority. foresee.
” pseudoautoco- false. Complaining is counterproductive. I know we don’t have to agree on everything. untidy. mal- ill malaise n. Though they came from different backgrounds. by oneself or automaton n. mis- wrong. contradict v. exact or direct opposite working against production to drive away dis- not. opposite against. wrong maltreat v. a person who seems to act mechanically and without thinking having a tendency to bond or stick together. uncontrolled or unruly Two people were hurt when the crowd became disorderly during the protest. unmindful adj. forgetful to state that (what is said) is untrue. North is the antipode of south. counterproductive adj. they have formed a remarkably cohesive team. to state the opposite of Sentence The farmer explained that the seedling was nonviable. not having order. invariable adj. united Mark Twain is a pseudonym for Samuel Clemens.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 59 Preﬁx noninuncontra- Meaning Example not not not. by itself together with. The workers on the assembly line looked like automatons. She misused her authority when she reassigned Charlie to a new team. he is unmindful of ofﬁce politics. For better or worse. he swore he would never maltreat another animal. opposing away antipode n. messy. dispel v. feeling of discomfort or illness The malaise many women feel during the ﬁrst few months of pregnancy is called “morning sickness. false or fake name a robot. I scheduled a series of meetings for the next three months. ill misuse v. but she contradicts everything I say. Deﬁnition not able to live or survive not changing not conscious or aware of. to treat badly or wrongly After the dog saved his life. opposite of disorderly adj. anticounterdis- against. fake pseudonym n. to use wrongly mal- bad. To dispel rumors that I was quit ting. The weather here is invariable— always sunny and warm. jointly . against against nonviable adj. cohesive adj.
Commercial vehicles must have special license plates. gently. Though he was never rich or powerful. full of meaning -ous/-ose full of -ive having the quality of -less -ish lacking. Deﬁnition to make more broad. in a bold manner signiﬁcant. They are grouped together by similar meanings. to charge with electricity to put in alphabetical order suitable for use. unsuitable for a grown person The doctor assured me that it is a painless procedure. to give capable of. without pain. he stepped boldly onto the stage. -ly resembling. widen Sentence Traveling around the world will broaden your understanding of other cultures. on-the-job experience. funny giving a description His humorous speech made the evening go by quickly. Despite his fear. not causing pain like a child. painless adj. meaningful adj. lovingly He held the newborn baby tenderly in his arms. This table lists some of the most common sufﬁxes in the English language. He has years of practical. involving activity. aristocratic adj. -ify/-fy -ize -al -ial -ic to make or cause to be to make. -ly -ful in the manner of full of boldly adv. He didn’t get the job because of his childish behavior during the interview. delicately.60 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources SUFFIXES Sufﬁxes are syllables added to the ends of words to change or add to their meaning. . to revive Thanks to a generous gift from an alumnus. When Robert walked into the room with Annette. alphabetize v. to bring or come back to life or consciousness. practical adj. full of humor. Sufﬁx -en Meaning Example to cause to become broaden v. commercial adj. having the qualities of tenderly adv. she cast me a meaningful glance. we were able to resuscitate the study-abroad program. descriptive adj. done with tenderness. -ate to cause to be resuscitate v. The letter was so descriptive that I could picture every place he had been. childish adj. suitable for pertaining to pertaining to electrify v. Please alphabetize these ﬁles for me. as distinct from study or theory of or engaged in commerce of or pertaining to the aristocracy The singer electriﬁed the audience with her performance. he has very aristocratic manners. free of having the quality of humorous adj.
state or condition of. They built a deck with an arboretum for their bonsai tree collection. the scientiﬁc study of animal life . or performs the action of -atrium/ -orium -ary place for place for. The second siren signaled the completion of the ﬁre drill. The indeterminacy of his statement made it impossible to tell which side he favored. a garden devoted primarily to trees and shrubs -tion -or/-er act. A ﬁrst-person narrator is usually not objective. Her optimism makes people want to be around her. He exercised good judgment by keeping his mouth shut during the meeting. indeterminacy n. substance for killing insects belief that things will turn out for the best. a sacred place.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 61 Sufﬁx -ance/ -ence -acy Meaning Example quality or state of quality or state of tolerance n. gives an account of arboretum n. With three noisy roommates. act of judging -ology the study of zoology n. optimism n. state or quality of being moral -itis inﬂammation tonsillitis n. the state of being completed or ﬁnished one who tells the story. ability to judge or make decisions wisely. Ellen frequently sought the quiet sanctuary of the library. of inﬂammation and infection of the tonsils Her tonsillitis was so severe that doctors had to remove her tonsils immediately. the act of completing. Deﬁnition willingness or ability to tolerate a person or thing Sentence He has a high level of tolerance for rudeness. She took a summer job at the zoo because of her strong interest in zoology. pertaining to sanctuary n. state or quality of being undetermined (without deﬁned limits) or vague completion n. tendency to take a hopeful view of things This pesticide is also dangerous for humans. -ment act or condition of judgment n. doctrine of pesticide n. a refuge -cide -ism kill quality. He argued that the basic morality of civilized societies hasn’t changed much over the centuries. -ity quality or state of morality n. state or condition of one who does narrator n.
The citizens feared that their belligerent leader would start an unjust war. to state or order. The Latin words serve as roots.62 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources COMMON LATIN WORD ROOTS Many words in the English language have their origins in Latin. to send across .000. hostile. assembled group of listeners or spectators. and other alterations give each word its distinct meaning. mittere to send transmit v. lucid adj. dicere duco equus to say. I have ﬁnally achieved an equilibrium between work and leisure. aggressive capere to take captivate v. conduct v. audire to hear audience n. people within hearing The audience was stunned when the game show host slapped the contestant. to make or produce very clear The clothes are manufactured here in this factory. medius middle median n. equilibrium n. to say what needs to be written down to lead or guide (thorough) a state of balance She began to dictate her notes into the microphone. preﬁxes. she gets a manicure every week. middle in a set of numbers The median household income in this wealthy neighborhood is $89. facere lucere to make or do to light manufacture v. adj. middle point. bellum war belligerent adj. He conducted a detailed tour of the building. providing the core meaning of the words. The word roots are listed in alphabetical order. to capture the fancy of The story captivated me from the beginning. I couldn’t put the book down. manus hand manicure n. sufﬁxes. speak to lead equal dictate v. Root amare Meaning Example to love amorous adj. The message was transmitted over the intercom. No one could possibly have misunderstood such a lucid explanation. cosmetic treatment of the ﬁngernails To maintain her long ﬁngernails. inclined to ﬁght. The table below shows the original Latin words that we have used to create various English words.. Deﬁnition readily showing or feeling love Sentence She told him to stop his amorous advances as she was already engaged.
. making a formal request His loan application was denied because of his poor credit history. The debate was quite a spectacle. The inquiry lasted several months but yielded no new information. The scribe had developed thick calluses on his ﬁngers from years of writing. Although he is only 22. question transport v. person who makes copies of writings sentire specere to feel to look at sentient adj. adv. extend v. he holds a very powerful position in the company. plicare to fold application n. No sentient beings should be used for medical research. to carry across act of inquiry. investigation. putting one thing on another. capable of feeling striking or impressive sight spirare tendere to breathe to stretch respiration n. you should have seen the candidates attack one another. but he remained unconscious. inquiry n. or questioning The goods will be transported by boat. verbum word verbatim adj. scribere to write scribe n. spectacle n. ponere/ positum protare quarere to place position n. everywhere I go. Please extend the deadline by two weeks so we can complete the project properly. word for word The student failed because she had copied an article verbatim instead of writing her own essay. stretch out His respiration was steady. the act of breathing to make longer. the place a person or thing occupies to carry to ask.. every omnipresent adj. Deﬁnition present everywhere Sentence That top-40 song is omnipresent. I hear it playing.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 63 Root omnis Meaning Example all.
the surface or topographical features of a place graphein to write calligraphy n. certain cultures have practiced polygamy. kryptos hidden. union polygamy n.64 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources COMMON GREEK WORD ROOTS Many other English words have their origins in the ancient Greek language. genos race. The word roots are listed in alphabetical order. She used calligraphy when she addressed the wedding invitations. the study of the Earth’s surface. but it is uncommon today. secret cryptic adj. and other alterations give each word its distinct meaning. kind genocide n. The Greek words serve as roots. The table below shows the Greek words that we have used to create various English words. The story is confusing because she did not put the events in chronological order. the deliberate extermination of one race of people geo earth geography n. sex. one who believes in or advocates democracy as a principle of government I have always been a democrat. Root bios chronos Meaning Example life time biology n. preﬁxes. puzzling metron to measure metronome n. gamos marriage. chronological adj. providing the core meaning of the words. the practice or custom of having more than one spouse or mate at a time Throughout history. . beautiful or elegant handwriting krates member of a group democrat n. concealing meaning. sufﬁxes. She has decided to study dermatology because she has always been plagued by rashes. Deﬁnition the science of living organisms arranged in the order in which things occurred branch of medical science dealing with the skin and its diseases Sentence He is majoring in biology and plans to go to medical school. He left such a cryptic message on my answering machine that I don’t know what he wanted. The geography of this region made it difﬁcult for the different tribes to interact. The recent genocide in Bosnia has created a crisis in orphaned children. but I refuse to join the Democratic Party. device with a pendulum that beats at a determined rate to measure time/rhythm She used a metronome to help her keep the proper pace as she played the song. derma skin dermatology n.
he was the ﬁrst to use it to study the planets and stars. philos loving xenophile n. photobiotic adj. pathos suffering. false name one who has a compulsion to set things on ﬁre soma body psychosomatic adj. cultures. a person who is attracted to foreign peoples. The thermos kept my coffee hot all afternoon. In a psychosomatic illness.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 65 Root morphe Meaning Example form polymorphous adj. pyromaniac n. arousing feelings of pity or sadness Willy Loman is a complex character who is both pathetic and heroic. feeling pathetic adj. The warehouse ﬁre was not an accident. it was set by a pyromaniac. Deﬁnition having many forms Sentence Most mythologies have a polymorphous ﬁgure. insulated jug or bottle that keeps liquids hot or cold . George Eliot is a pseudonym for Mary Ann Evans. or customs Alex is a xenophile. phobos photos podos fear light foot xenophobe n. of or involving both the mind and body tele distant telescope n. ingrown toenail had become infected. I doubt he will ever come back to the States. person who fears or hates foreigners Don’t expect Len to go on the or strange cultures or customs living or thriving only in the presence of light of ailments of the human foot trip. Plants are photobiotic and will die without light. physical symptoms are caused by emotional distress. therme heat thermos n. an expert in diagnosis and treatment The podiatrist saw that the pseudein pyr to deceive ﬁre pseudonym n. he’s a xenophobe. a “shape shifter” who can be both animal and human. podiatrist n. optical instrument for making distant While Galileo did not invent the objects appear larger and nearer when viewed through the lens telescope.
Vocabulary in Context
The vocabulary section of a Civil Service test often includes a section of vocabulary in context questions. For this part of the test, you will be asked to identify the meaning of vocabulary words used in sentences. Since you will not be able to use a dictionary during the test, it is important to develop vocabulary strategies that will boost your score and give you the advantage you need.
s you might expect, vocabulary in context questions ask you to determine the meanings of particular words. To prepare for this section of the test, recall the skills you developed at an early age. First, it is a good idea to be an active reader. This is a skill you can practice every day. As you read the daily newspaper, your favorite magazine, or a good book, have a dictionary handy. Look up as many unfamiliar words as you can so that your bank of vocabulary words becomes as large as possible. Second, be aware that you can use the context of a sentence to help you detect the meaning of a word. Simply put, this means that you can look for clues in and around the vocabulary word. For practice, try the following exercise to see how this can be done.
FINDING MEANING FROM CONTEXT
As a result of many meetings held by the Human Resources Department, a memo was written to help hiring supervisors present information about new procedures that beneﬁt company, staff, and new employees during a new employee orientation seminar. The new procedures create a win-win situation for all
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concerned, and the Human Resources Department wants to make sure that those people who are instrumental in making the program work have all the information they need. Imagine that your title is Hiring Supervisor, and you receive the following memorandum from the Human Resources department. Read it carefully. Circle any words that are unfamiliar to you, but do not use a dictionary to look them up just yet.
TO: Hiring Supervisors FROM: Human Resources RE: New Employees In order to acquaint new employees with ofﬁce practices and procedures, the New
Employee’s Introduction Manual has been compiled. This manual should be distributed to
all new hires during an orientation seminar that you will conduct one week before a new employee begins work. During orientation, be sure to point out that not only does the information in the manual inform new employees about ofﬁce protocol and employee beneﬁts, but it gives them a sense of the new family they are about to join. As you leaf through the manual with new hires, note that the manual begins with basic ofﬁce etiquette, procedures, and dress codes and then there is a segue to important information about pay schedules and beneﬁts. Explain to your orientation group that with this manual in hand, new employees will have a more global view of the company. They will know what to expect and can ask questions that will make their new position a little more comfortable on the ﬁrst day. The beneﬁts of the orientation seminar, in addition to the manual, will make our workplace a more cohesive and productive environment for all employees.
As you read, you may have circled protocol or segue. By looking for context clues—the way the words are used in the paragraph—you can ﬁgure out what these words mean. What does protocol mean? Reread the sentence with the word protocol.
During orientation, be sure to point out that not only does the information in the manual inform new employees about ofﬁce protocol and employee beneﬁts, but it gives them a sense of the new family they are about to join.
Even if you have no idea what protocol means, you can still tell something about the word by how it is used—by examining the words and ideas surrounding it. This is called determining word meaning through context. Like detectives looking for clues at a crime scene, you must look at the passage for clues that will uncover the deﬁnition of the word. Given the sentence you have here, you can begin to consider the deﬁnition of protocol. Since the manual informs new employees about ofﬁce protocol and employee beneﬁts, this tells you that protocol must be a procedure or system designed to make things run smoothly in the ofﬁce. As you read the next sentence in the memo, you see that the sections of the manual cover many aspects: etiquette,
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procedures, dress codes, salaries, and employee beneﬁts. At this point, you should be able to take a pretty good guess at the deﬁnition of the word protocol.
1. The best deﬁnition of the word protocol is a. a meeting’s agenda. b. a code of correct procedure. c. a salary schedule. Choice a cannot be correct, because nowhere in the passage does it state that protocol is a list of items covered in a meeting. While a salary schedule, choice c, is determined by a certain procedure, it is only part of the scope of an ofﬁce system. The correct answer is choice b, a code of correct procedure. What does segue mean? Look again at the sentence in which segue is used.
As you leaf through the manual with new hires, note that the manual begins with basic ofﬁce etiquette, procedures, and dress codes and then there is a segue to important information about pay schedules and beneﬁts.
Again, even if you have no idea what segue means, you can still tell what kind of word it is by the way it is used in the sentence. 2. Since the word segue falls between a list of basic ofﬁce etiquette, procedure, and dress code and important information about pay schedules and beneﬁts, you know this word is a word of a. interference in the sentence. b. transition in the sentence. Choice b is correct; segue signiﬁes a transition. There is one context clue. As the hiring supervisor leafs through the manual, he or she pages through all sections of the text, highlighting the basic elements contained in the opening chapters and then notes that the chapters switch or move to important facts about salaries and beneﬁts. 3. Segue, in this case, can be deﬁned as information that is a. a disorganized ﬂow of ideas. b. merely sketchy details and descriptions. c. uninterrupted movement from one stage to the next. d. wordy and verbose language. The correct answer is choice c, uninterrupted movement from one state to the next. It cannot be choice b or d because there is no indication that anything in the manual is omitted or for that matter, wordy or verbose. Choice a is not a suitable answer because the manual, as it is outlined, appears to be well-ordered.
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How Much Context Do You Need? In the previous example, you would still be able to understand the main message of the memorandum even if you did not know—or could not ﬁgure out—the meanings of protocol and segue. In some cases, though, your understanding of a sentence depends on your understanding of a particular word or phrase. For example, can you understand the following sentence without knowing what adversely means? The new policy will adversely affect all employees. You might not understand it in this short sentence, and if you are an employee, you certainly would want to know how you are going to be affected. More deﬁning clues for the word adversely will help you know whether it is something good or bad. The new policy will adversely affect all employees; it will freeze their pay, limit their vacation time, and reduce their health beneﬁts. 4. In the sentence, adversely most nearly means a. mildly or slightly. b. regularly or steadily. c. negatively or unfavorably. d. immediately or swiftly. The correct answer is choice c, negatively or unfavorably. The addition of the second part of the sentence now tells you exactly how the new policy will affect the employees: “It will freeze their pay, limit their vacations, and reduce their beneﬁts.” It certainly is not choice a, a slight or mild change, nor is it choice b, a regular or steady change. You do not know if it is an immediate or swift change, choice d, because the sentence says nothing about the time frame in which this change will take place. Remember, good detectives do not make assumptions they are not able to support with facts, and there are no facts in this sentence to support the assumption that the changes will take place immediately. Thus, choice c is the best answer. You may also have noticed that adversely is very similar to the word adversary. If you know that an adversary is a hostile opponent or enemy, then you know that adversely is not likely to be something positive. Or, if you know the word adversity—hardship or misfortune—then you know that adversely must mean something negative or difﬁcult. All of these words share the same root: advers-. The only change is in the endings. Being able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from their context is an essential vocabulary skill. Sometimes you will encounter unfamiliar words whose meaning is indecipherable without a dictionary. More often than not, though, a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to interpret the deﬁnitions.
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . Use this answer grid to ﬁll in your answers to the questions. 15. 30. 45. 11. 44. 10. 28. 9. 39. 32. 23. 20. 13. 29. 12. 7. 31. 41. 5. 34. 1. 22. 43. 16. 25. 17. 18. 47. 48. 38. 24. 40. 46. 3. 33. 36. 37. 27. 35. 21. 42. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 19. 49. 50. 6. 8.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 71 PRACTICE QUESTIONS Choose the best vocabulary word to ﬁll the blank. 4. 14. 2.
demographic c. association c. summit c. Since his workplace was so busy and noisy. assessment 4. a. fulcrum d. a. solitude b. nadir 6. irrelevancy . The suit had a/an ________ odor. decrepit 7. talkative b.72 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Vocabulary in Context 1. but the spectacular view of the valley below was worth the hike. he longed most of all for ________. musty d. a. dedicated b. incumbent 2. nominal b. The ________ collected from real estate taxes helped to balance the town budget. revenue d. She pretended to be ________ about the new job opportunity. loneliness d. a. artiﬁcial d. domain b. receptive c. circumference b. candid d. but secretly she was very excited. blasé 5. The ________ union president differs from the past union president on employee reform issues. a. a. We were tired when we reached the ________. practical d. scented c. remainder c. nocturnal 3. a. accomplished c. aged b. as if it had been stored in a trunk for a long time. The ________ data supports the belief that there has been an increase in population in the county.
he is a ________ and obedient pet. expressive b. surge b. adversely b. Visiting all the coffee shops in the city. meddlesome d. quest c. a. discovery d. favorably 14. I have always liked your positive attitude. We knew everything about the newest member of our group. she was very ________. receptive c. outmoded 10. a. My computer was state-of-the-art when I bought it three years ago. reserved d. a. a. eloquent d. irrational c. ambiguous 9. docile . candidly d. shamelessly c.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 73 8. a. aloof d. The teacher put the crayons on the bottom shelf to make them ________ to the young children. cadence 11. current b. accessible b. a. delectable b. secretive c. a. artistic 13. they were on a ________ to ﬁnd the perfect cup of coffee. George developed an ________ plan to earn the extra money he needed to start his own business. Dog-sitting for Buddy is easy to do. ingenious 12. but now it is ________. it has ________ affected our working relationship. unnecessary d. elitist b. commonplace c. dedicated c.
redundancy c. valid b. prestige b. a. encompassed b. priceless b. a. embodied 16. perplexity d. he made studying a ________ over watching his favorite television show. a. it could cause serious health problems. condoned 19. explicit d. concept . quenchable c. a. and I had no trouble ﬁnding it in time for work. quandary d. Rachel ________ a plan to become a millionaire by age thirty. priority b. arduous c. a. potable 17. The new board member said she would vote in favor of the proposed city ordinance because it ________ many of the points discussed earlier this year. released c. reminisced d. devised c. conformed b. conformity c. Wanting to make a good impression. he found himself in a ________ about the right tie to wear to the business meeting. deﬁcit 20. a. dispersed 18. Since Mark needed to pass the exam.74 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Vocabulary in Context 15. decreased d. If your drinking water is not ________. impure d. The directions to the new ofﬁce were ________.
Hoping to win a prize for the best costume. approvingly b. To get the promotion she wanted. The ﬁre alarm ________ beckoned the volunteer ﬁreﬁghters of the small community to come to action. portrayal b. signiﬁcantly c. dissented b. monotonous b.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 75 21. The narrator’s description was an accurate ________ of a true southern family. surmised c. a. resolved 24. disguise d. a. winding highway. reunion 25. eminently b. agitated 26. a. symbolically d. ventilated c. the car ________ down the steep mountainous road. Mark dressed ________ in bright red suspenders and a purple tie. supposed b. a. Due to slippery road conditions and the slope of the narrow. obscurely 22. Brad fell asleep during the movie because it had a very ________ plot. audibly . a. virtuously c. vital 23. she ________ that it was best to go back to school to get her master’s degree as soon as she could. a. careened d. torrid c. ample d. presumed d. conspicuously d. council c.
reﬂex d. pacify c. rendezvous b. legitimate 32. luxuriously c. a. scatter c. commended 33. vicious c. rebuked d. a. narrowly 31. facilitate . a. confound b. optional b. Simone ________ devoured a hearty breakfast. After running an early 5K race. duplicate 29. The hail ________ the cornﬁeld until the entire crop was lost. a. mishap b. Being a direct relative of the deceased. attraction c. disperse 30. belittled b. measurably d. generously d.76 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Vocabulary in Context 27. a. The participants in the road rally agreed to ________ near the village commons at ﬁve o’clock. a. The Earth Day committee leader placed large garbage bins in the park to ________ Saturday’s cleanup. voraciously c. Understanding the world economic conditions. warily b. a. beneﬁcially 28. The car rental company considered the scratches on the driver’s door to be caused by a minor ________. prominent d. pummeled c. dynamically b. ﬁlibuster d. the recent graduates spoke ________ about job prospects for the future. integrate d. her claim to the estate was ________.
requisite 39. The intricate and ________ language of the contract needed to be interpreted by an attorney. grandiose c. Her rapport with everyone in the ofﬁce ________ the kind of interpersonal skills that all of the employees appreciated. you must pass the last exam of the semester to graduate. Do you have the ________ paperwork you need to register for the class? a. conﬂuence c. punitive b. prohibit 40. a. fundamental c. a. essential b. be sure to give a ________ description of the new ofﬁce procedures. a. determined c. depreciate c. The abundant mutual fund research information on the website was ________ with tips for new investors. Do not ________ yourself. restorative d. varied 35. comprehensive d. seclusion d. replete c. delude b. straightforward 38. a. massive . treatise 36. When you address the members of the committee. principled b. exempliﬁed d.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 77 34. relinquish d. prevailed b. assumption b. embellished 37. a. a. The ________ of the two rivers provided the perfect place to build a new state park. inﬂated b. constricted d. convoluted d. diverged c.
diligently d. constricted d. acute b. a. the thunderstorm ________. Florin became a ________ veterinarian who could treat and operate on many different kinds of animals. Martin Kemp ________ told the press that he had accepted the nomination as board chairperson. After an hour of heavy rain. evoked 45. voluntary 42.78 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Vocabulary in Context 41. terminally b. principally 44. ________ watered his neighbor’s plants once a week while they were on vacation. germinated c. consummate d. reputedly c. a. customary b. superﬁcial c. a. a. reticent c. repulsively b. and we were able to continue our golf game. he soon began to talk more than anyone. tedium b. precursor c. a. After years of experience. abated b. momentum 43. Although Hunter was ________ to reveal information to us when we ﬁrst met him. preference d. Anthony. a meticulous young man. haphazardly . animated d. a. The darkening skies in the west were a ________ to the dangerous thunderstorm that summer afternoon. The news was no longer secret. ample 46. perpetually d. perpendicularly c.
a. a. My cousin claimed to be ________. Poaching c. Irritating b. separated b. evidently she was right. submerge d. On each slick curve in the road. divided c. a. operate b. Provoking d. The two cats could be ________ only by the number of rings on their tails. I was afraid we would ________ and have an accident. they were exactly alike. otherwise. a. hydroplane c. ________ elephants from the wild not only endangers the species but upsets the balance of nature. criminal d. disconnected d. reconnoiter 50. differentiated 49. because she always seemed to know what would happen in the future.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 79 47. clairvoyant . comical c. dreamlike b. Smuggling 48.
c. a. a. A quest is a search or pursuit of something. 11. to lurch or swerve while in motion. d. c.80 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 Chapter Title ANSWERS 1. 3. c. a. 7. 33. Conspicuously means obvious to the eye or mind. Favorably means gracious. Legitimate means in a manner conforming to recognized principles or accepted rules or standards. 20. An expressive person would be one who is open or emphatic when revealing opinions or feelings. 27. Pummeled means to pound or beat. Resolved means having reached a ﬁrm decision about something. 15. Facilitate means to make easier or help to bring about. 21. 6. b. Accessible means capable of being reached or being within easy reach. b. Devised means to form—in the mind—new combinations or applications of ideas or principles. d. 26. 19. 31. 10. d. and it would be something a person who worked in a busy ofﬁce would crave. or obliging. a. 34. Quandary means a state of perplexity or doubt. Exemplify means to be an instance of or serve as an example. The summit means the highest point. Audibly means heard or the manner of being heard. b. resourcefulness. 24. a. 8. and cleverness in conception. 12. Potable means ﬁt for drinking. kindly. Demographic data is the branch of research that deals with human populations. 4. Warily is a manner marked by keen caution. b. Voraciously means having a huge appetite. a. c. 18. a. d. a. can be a desirable thing. attracting attention. 30. Blasé means to be bored or unimpressed by things after having seen or experienced them too often. Monotonous means having a tedious sameness. 9. 5. Incumbent means the holder of any post or position. 14. Ingenious means marked by originality. c. b. Solitude. d. ravenously. Priority means the right to receive attention before others. 32. 16. Careen means to rush headlong or carelessly. a. Explicit means clearly deﬁned. cunning. Revenue is the income of a government. 23. 25. A musty odor is one that is stale or moldy. Outmoded means no longer in style or no longer usable. d. to plan to obtain or bring about. d. c. b. d. 29. c. d. A mishap is an unfortunate accident. Docile means easily led or managed. d. 2. 22. in this case for the perfect cup of coffee. . A rendezvous is a meeting or assembly that is by appointment or arrangement. Portrayal means a representation or portrait. 17. Encompassed in this context means included. 13. unlike loneliness. a. where the hikers would have a good view. 28. and watchful prudence. d.
48. c. To poach is to trespass on another’s property in order to steal ﬁsh or game. 39. d. Delude means to mislead the mind. Comprehensive means covering completely or broadly. 41. Diligently means to do something with careful attention and great effort. d. it is called hydroplaning. a meeting. 46. . 40. b. 35. 44. or a gathering at one point. 38. 37. Consummate means extremely skilled and experienced. b. b. 42. 47. c. 49. Precursor means something that comes before. To differentiate between two things is to establish the distinction between them. 36. a. 43. c. b. 45. d. When a car goes out of control and skims along the surface of a wet road. Abated means to decrease in force or intensity. reserved. A clairvoyant is someone who can perceive matters beyond the range of ordinary perception. a. Conﬂuence means a coming or ﬂowing together. Reputedly means according to general belief. Requisite means essential or necessary. 50. b. b. Replete means to be ﬁlled or abundantly supplied. c. Convoluted means presented in a complex and complicated form. to deceive.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 81 b. Reticent means inclined to be silent or uncommunicative.
your grasp of the English language will be measured with many different types of vocabulary questions. If you are lucky. See if a part of the word—the root—looks familiar.= 4 CHAPTER Synonyms and Antonyms On a Civil Service test. Frequently. Often you will be able to determine the meaning of a word within the root. common measure of verbal skills on standardized tests like a Civil Service exam is the ability to recognize synonyms and antonyms. Antonyms are words with opposite meanings. (See Chapter 2 for a list of word roots.) For instance. In addition. it provides useful tips and practice exercises that will help you increase your chance of success on this part of the exam. but the test question could list just a synonym or antonym and four answer choices. but you may be faced with four choices that are unfamiliar to you. Synonyms are words that share the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as other words. which means to trust or believe. Looking for related words that have the same root as the word in question can help you choose the correct answer—even if it is by process of elimination. you have to ﬁgure out what the word means without any help from context clues. In this case. This chapter covers both of these types of questions. synonym and antonym questions are used to assess your vocabulary aptitude. Knowing this. sacred. you will be able to understand the meanings of incredible. too. Usually the best strategy is to look at the structure of the word. the root of credible is cred. Questions that ask for synonyms and antonyms can be difﬁcult because they require you to have a relatively large vocabulary. and credit. Not only do you need to know the word in question. Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS A 83 . the word will be surrounded by a sentence that helps you guess what the word means (this is vocabulary in context—see Chapter 3). Test questions often ask you to ﬁnd the synonym or antonym of a word.
state of b. over c. apart d. and sufﬁxes are found at the end of a word.84 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms Another way to dissect meaning is to look for preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. sufﬁx. A sufﬁx like less can change the meaning of a word: pain to painless. 2. or sufﬁx—the best strategy is to think of words you already know that carry the same root. forward c. Practice Choose the word or phrase below that best describes the section of the word in bold type. time 4. proactive a. preﬁx. For instance. Either of these elements can carry meaning or change the use of a word in a sentence. 5. 1. Let what you know about those words help you ﬁnd the meaning of words that are less familiar. etymology a. quality of . after b. see c. 3. write 3. inscribe a. toward d. behind 2. 4. conﬁne b. prior to c. To identify most word parts— word root. congregation a. study of d. with b. Preﬁxes come before the word root. unnecessary. perform d. or preﬁx. a a a a a b b b b b c c c c c d d d d d 1. the preﬁx can change the meaning of a root word to its opposite: necessary.
a. a property d. and that admission is received sympathetically and somewhat approvingly by others because everyone has procrastinated at one time or another. it is the feeling or emotion you get when you hear a word. some words do not arouse any emotion at all and have a neutral connotation. Sometimes. For instance. a relationship c. To admit to this trait is considered acceptable. procrastination—favorable. The word root scribe means to write. which is similar in deﬁnition to procrastination. to engrave on a surface. a.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 85 5. an action Answers 1. they are forward thinking and take action or initiative to make things happen. You may have heard people say that they succumbed to procrastination. The connotation or tone of this word brings up feelings that are definitely unappealing. 3. Laziness. 5. 4. unfavorable. If someone is proactive. wisdom a. a state of being b. or neutral designation.means to be together with. d. true. the connotation can be favorable or positive. The sufﬁx -ology means the study of. slow-moving or sluggish inactive: not active or tending to be active. DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION The denotation of a word is simply the dictionary deﬁnition. Other times the connotation can be unfavorable or negative. Then again.means for. b. not functioning or operating The connotation of a word is its tone. c. look at the dictionary deﬁnitions for the following words. The sufﬁx -dom is a state of being. Someone who has wisdom is someone who is wise enough to discern or judge what is right. Etymology is the study of word origins. A congregation would gather together with each other. lazy—unfavorable. The preﬁx con. or lasting. The preﬁx pro. Their connotations are listed below with an explanation for a favorable. . Look again at the three words listed above. In other words. is most assuredly unﬂattering. procrastination: to postpone or delay needlessly lazy: to be resistant to work or exertion. 2.
Practice Read the following sentences three different times using each of the words listed below the sentence.” Taking this comment into consideration. or neutral based on their connotative meanings. 3. favorable. yet its meaning is similar to the others. favorable. unfavorable. To be infamous is to be famous. ample. For instance. 1. 6. important ________ The senator ________ the efﬁciency of the new commerce system in her reelection speech. To criticize a system suggests that the senator is ﬁnding fault. evaluated ________ 5. they are rarely identical. unfavorable. To be eminent is considered a good thing. and glut suggest abundance. verbal assault. It is considered a neutral word in this group of three. An eminent person is distinguished. The keynote speaker for today’s meeting plays an ________ role in the political arena. neutral. “The difference between lightning and the lightning bug is the difference between the right word and the almost right word. To be important is to have a high position. infamous ________ 3. plentiful. one of these words suggests an overabundance. It is essential to be as clear as possible when choosing synonyms. The word does not conjure up negative or positive emotions. 4. While some synonyms can be similar. eminent ________ 2. This word does not elicit any favorable or unfavorable emotions. To blast a system means the senator has unleashed a violent. criticized ________ 6. 5.86 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms inactive—neutral. yet in the context of this sentence. it is done favorably as part of a bid for reelection. it is important to know that there are often many synonyms for one word. yet its connotation does not yield either of the strong feelings of the ﬁrst two words in this group. Label the words favorable. ample. unfavorable. or plentiful supply of food on the table for . blasted ________ Answers 1. To evaluate a system suggests a rational and calm exercise. However. CLARITY Mark Twain said. and this can be viewed unfavorably. or renowned in a ﬁeld. but it is fame associated with something dishonorable. wellknown. You will note that the sentences take on a new tone and meaning based on each of the words used. the words bountiful. While you can have a bountiful. 2. 4. neutral.
identiﬁable b. antics b. foster c. Practice Choose the clearest synonym for each of the following questions. Their conversation was considered playful ________ between two old friends. b. or deﬁnitions. 1. 1. Choice a is incorrect because antics are unpredictable behavior or actions. He tried to ________ the morale of his friend in the hospital. sustain b. Banter is deﬁned as remarks or talk that are playful and teasing. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. enhanced . Choices b and d are incorrect because they do not mean to boost or raise. c. activities 2. incomplete c. Synonym Practice In the following questions. 2. Note the similarities in the questions below to see the importance of using just the right word. Look for answers and explanations at the end of the practice. banter c.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 87 Thanksgiving dinner. Choices c and d are incorrect because their deﬁnitions are too broad and do not focus on conversation. but the ﬁne difference between the two is in the fact that bolster means to boost. nourish Answers 1. a partial report a. a glut of food is an excessive amount of food that suggests there will be waste involved. Bolster (choice c) and sustain (choice a) can both be deﬁned as supporting. a. visible d. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. a. bolster d. It is important to choose your words carefully. preﬁxes. whereas sustain means to keep something at an existing level. sufﬁxes. behavior d.
protective material 7. conﬁrm b. carefully 8. challenging 6. corroborate the statement a. inadvertently left a. covered with debris a. regressed d. a substantial report a. reverted b. competitive c. gifted b. an incoherent answer a. proven d. alleged 3. harmonious d. transgressed c. compatible workers a. good excuses b. mistakenly b. undeniable d. experienced . cautiously d. inconclusive b. transparent material c. challenge 4. not understandable b. processed 5. manufactured goods a. purposely c. negate c. deny d. not likely c. scattered rubble d.88 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 2. weighty c.
6. A substantial report is extensive. 2. synonyms will be included as answer choices for antonym questions. 7. Notice the preﬁx co-. desist . Try to determine the meaning of part of the word. b. prompt payment a. a. c. Choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word in the questions below. 4. The trick is to keep your mind on the fact that you are looking for the opposite of the word given in the question. coworker. regular 10. Facer—the word root—means to make or do. A coherent answer connects or makes sense. Debris is scattered fragments or trash. 3. Otherwise. Partial means incomplete. A partial report is only part of the whole. Compatible means capable of existing or performing in harmony. 5. Look for answers and explanations at the end of the practice. the same tactics that work for synonym questions work for antonyms as well. Very often. To cohere means to connect. tardy d. 8. c. Manufactured goods are those that are made or processed from raw material into a ﬁnished product. If you are allowed to mark in your test booklet or on the test paper. which means with or together. The key element in this word is the preﬁx in. hasten c. or try to remember a context where you have seen the word before. a. slow b. pause d. To corroborate is to conﬁrm. a. d. circle the word antonym or opposite in the directions to help you remember. The root of the word here is part. 9. Incoherent means not understandable. Antonym Practice Antonym questions can be problematic because you can easily forget that you are looking for opposites and mistakenly choose the synonym. Some related words are cooperate. punctual b. slack c. and collide. Inadvertently means by mistake. Corroboration means that one statement ﬁts with another. The preﬁx in means not. The key part of the word substantial is substance. delay the decision a. which means not.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 89 Answers 1. b. Substance means something that has signiﬁcance.
tardy means late. .90 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 11. apt d. crisis c. envious b. reasonable d. exorbitant prices a. instinctive d. capable employee a. comical 15. ﬁnal d. eager c. it will happen more slowly. ﬁnal d. original b. To delay is to slow. Context clues are important as well. ﬁrst b. c. You may have seen this sentence on one of your bills: Prompt payment is appreciated. appeasing c. expensive b. idle d. belligerent attitude a. unexpected c. hostile b. b. 10. ungracious Answers 9. unskilled b. The key here is to remember not to choose the synonym. able 14. average c. zealous pursuit a. To delay is to postpone. absurd c. If a decision is delayed. to hasten is to hurry. excessive 12. Prompt means punctual. outrageous 16. initial impression a. moderate work ﬂow a. right 13.
The best clue in this word is the preﬁx ex. The key element in this word is the root belli-. 12. The synonym choices—hostile and ungracious—are incorrect. which means out of or away from. 13. Moderate means average. c. b. Something that is moderate is not subject to extremes. The antonym would be appeasing. You may have heard the word zeal before. 14. very high. One other precaution is to be careful and not be misled by the similar sounds of zealous and jealous. unskilled means unable. . so idle is most nearly the opposite. Zealous means eager. c. 15. d. The other trick is not to choose the synonym. excessive means extreme. a. c. The sufﬁx -able tells you that a capable employee is one who has ability. eager. which means warlike. An initial impression is one that comes ﬁrst. Initial means ﬁrst. choice b. which might give you a clue about the meaning of the word. 16.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 91 11. ﬁnal means last. The opposite of an exorbitant or outrageous price would be a reasonable one. Exorbitant literally means exceeding the bounds of what is fair or normal. Capable means able.
3. 23. 44. 45. 16. 29. 49. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . 1. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 50. 27. 10. 30. 4. 46.92 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms PRACTICE QUESTIONS The 50 questions in this exercise are a mix of synonyms and antonyms. 22. 14. 25. 2. 5. 11. 12. 31. 40. 20. 19. 9. 36. 42. 13. 17. 35. 21. 47. 37. 48. 34. Select the synonym or antonym for the word in italics according to the directions in each question. 41. 32. 28. 33. 24. 7. Use this answer grid to ﬁll in your answers to the questions. 43. 38. 8. 15. 6. 18. 39.
7. c. 6. . steady. d. c. attentive. A synonym for adequate is a. d. proﬁcient. dissembling. b. A synonym for enthusiastic is a. cheerful. inﬂuence. d. c. wild.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 93 1. entertain. obey. average. b. sufﬁcient. b. immense. 4. diverse. slovenly. 2. b. b. An antonym for uniform is a. cause. adamant. inconsistent. c. c. 5. A synonym for affect is a. d. c. b. d. A synonym for vast is a. d. ﬂatter. mediocre. eager. b. available. c. bizarre. sicken. A synonym for ecstatic is a. accomplish. 3. slight. subdue. thrilled. A synonym for comply is a. positive. d.
worried. 11. congruity. An antonym for fallacy is a. b. b. b. A synonym for courtesy is a. mediocre. An antonym for wary is a. c. civility. c. leery. victorious. d. c. adjacent. suitable. 9. rudeness. c. d. c. 13. weakness. robust. b. An antonym for optimum is a. uninterrupted. truth. dangerous. 14. intermittent. An antonym for novel is a. vivid. d. contiguous. worst. careless. blessing. d. d.94 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 8. unsettled. 12. delicate. d. alert. d. b. . c. old. fable. A synonym for continuous is a. 10. A synonym for frail is a. rational. b. conviviality. c. b. adaptable.
poise. d. embellish. depart. liveliness. satisfy. . 19. An antonym for disperse is a. confuse. c. A synonym for recuperate is a. An antonym for subsequent is a. b. comply. c. A synonym for verify is a. insigniﬁcant. d. b. 21. agitation. c. endorse. worsen. 18. A synonym for composure is a. 20. c. 16. refute. d. d. b. praise. agree. c. stimulation. b. primary. please. c. persist. necessary. b. disclose.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 95 15. c. b. A synonym for garnish is a. conﬁrm. unite. gather. b. relocate. d. teach. previous. 17. mend. d. A synonym for enlighten is a. d. tarnish.
irresponsible. 24. d. 27. d. peculiar. complicate. height. excite. 28. woeful. restrain. c. dismiss. 25. solemnity. frugal. An antonym for liberate is a. c. A synonym for domain is a. b. An antonym for mirth is a. An antonym for pacify is a. 26. A synonym for passive is a. emotional. entrance. expense. 23. preparation. d. d. attack. b. c. b. ruin. accountable. b. rebellion. atomize. b. c. b. conserve. territory. d. admirable. b. normal. selective. lively. inactive. formation. A synonym for eccentric is a. c. . c. d. c. d. A synonym for commendable is a.96 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 22. noticeable.
popular. enduring. concerned. tranquil. 33. attentive. verbose. reluctant. respect. b. c. adoring. A synonym for rigorous is a. c. An antonym for tedious is a. c. d. An antonym for faltering is a. hidden. internal. 30. laconic. d. reckless. 35. c. intelligent. c. stimulating. d. d. c. 31. alarming. irritate. 32. b. tolerable. steady. An antonym for succinct is a. An antonym for nonchalant is a. b. c. An antonym for exonerate is a. 34. blame. demanding. explanatory. lenient. d. b. intemperate. . feeble. d.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 97 29. d. b. b. temporary. b. minimize. disorderly. An antonym for ephemeral is a.
39. insufﬁcient. b. b. simplify. c. conscious. unaware. 40.98 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 36. b. An antonym for orient is a. d. sink. whisper. d. unbelievable. confuse. staple. 41. d. b. apologetic. b. b. sleep. retain. c. arouse. undulate. visible. serenity. An antonym for plausible is a. credible. d. c. deter. courtesy. An antonym for excise is a. 37. sinister. d. A synonym for oblivious is a. 38. c. c. . An antonym for prevarication is a. plod. d. organize. veracity. ignorance. c. An antonym for levitate is a.
conquer. c. sound. c. deliberate. A synonym for rational is a. polite. c. . penalty. respect. b. c. A synonym for idle is a. 46. 43. d. immobile. speech. equal. b. prompt. An antonym for meek is a. invalid. b. partial. complain. quality. d. 45. d. b. An antonym for avid is a. working. 47. unenthusiastic. A synonym for attribute is a. d. A synonym for subdue is a. b. b. functional. d.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 99 42. 44. d. deny. effective. c. admission. painful. forceful. mild. unkind. c.
c. certain. pleasant. happy. consult. b. 49. . conﬁde. convinced. An antonym for ambiguous is a. b. promise. d. concerned. refuse. b. d. 50. equivocal. c.100 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 48. indeﬁnite. An antonym for complacent is a. c. apathetic. d. A synonym for confer is a.
b. to excite means to stir up. 10. b. 16. 27. immense. To be wary is to be on guard or watchful. c. 21. Continuous means marked by uninterrupted extension in space and time. 7. to be verbose is to be wordy. Ephemeral means short-lived. 28. d. A courtesy is a courteous or mannerly act. d. 3. a. To be tedious is to be tiresome. 19. If you have composure and are self-assured. 34. steady means unfaltering. 15. To affect means to inﬂuence. Optimum means the most desirable. the opposite is old. 20. previous means coming before. 24. to be diverse is to have variety. To garnish means to adorn. Recuperate means to heal or mend. If you enlighten someone. to be stimulating is to be exciting. a. Comply is synonymous with obey. Faltering means stumbling. enduring means without end. To verify means to establish the truth or accuracy. Subsequent means coming after or following. to blame is to accuse or hold responsible. A fallacy is a false or mistaken idea.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 101 ANSWERS 1. d. 26. b. a. 6. calm. a. or teach to make them free of ignorance. To be nonchalant means to have an air of easy indifference. inform. 31. c. 13. d. d. you instruct. 4. Mirth means merriment. worst means the least desirable or good. or to be inactive. b. b. To be passive is to accept or submit without rejection or resistance. To be uniform is be consistent or the same as others. you have poise. Disperse means to scatter. d. 18. it is characterized by civility. to conﬁrm. 11. To pacify means to calm. it is sufﬁcient. trickery. prejudice or superstition. 23. 12. d. c. b. d. a. A person who is ecstatic is thrilled. c. Vast means very great in size. 9. 22. Enthusiastic means eager. d. Commendable is the same as admirable. A frail person is weak and delicate. To liberate means to release. careless is the opposite of watchful. 30. 32. 25. unsteady. 29. a. c. 33. 8. If something is adequate. 5. or tranquil. d. 2. a territory is an area for which someone is responsible. . A domain is an area governed by a ruler. a. a. 17. a truth is something which conforms to the facts. b. To exonerate means to clear from accusation or guilt. c. to gather means to collect in one place. a. 14. To be novel is to be new. to be concerned means to be interested and involved. An eccentric person is considered to be odd or peculiar. b. solemnity means seriousness. to restrain means to deprive of liberty. To be succinct is to be concise. decorate or embellish. ﬁxed or secure. d.
Complacent means self-satisﬁed. 48. the opposite would be unenthusiastic. 44. a. 39. to be certain is to be deﬁnite or ﬁxed. or unworried. consult. 40. to confuse means to bewilder. you are unaware of them. Plausible means likely. To subdue means to bring under control. c.102 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 35. a. become familiar. 41. to sink means to submerge or descend to the bottom. If you are oblivious to your surroundings. to retain means to keep. 47. d. A rational decision is a sound or reasonable decision. a. 45. a. . smug. b. conquer. veracity is truthfulness. b. 36. c. To levitate means to rise and ﬂoat. 38. 50. c. b. a. d. To excise means to remove. b. Meek means not violent or not strong. forceful means powerful. b. Idle is synonymous with immobile. still. 42. An attribute is a characteristic or quality belonging to a person or thing. unbelievable is unlikely. Confer means to compare views or to take counsel. d. 37. 43. Rigorous is synonymous with demanding. To orient means to adjust. 49. 46. the opposite is concerned. meaning not moving. Avid means characterized by enthusiasm and vigorous pursuit. To be ambiguous is to be equivocal or obscure. A prevarication is an evasion of the truth.
Sometimes. especially since the choices are deliberately designed to mislead you. locate basic support material or details. This somewhat stressful combination makes it easy to choose one of the wrong answer choices. The disadvantage is that you have to know where and how to ﬁnd the information you need under certain time constraints and in an unfamiliar text. If you are in a hurry. discern fact from opinion. To read effectively. Reading comprehension questions offer you two advantages as a test taker. First. just one difﬁcult word can skew your understanding of a sentence. or even impossible. it is easy to make a mistake. Second. As you study this reading comprehension section. to interpret. much like the standardized tests you probably took in school. It is important to understand that the study of vocabulary in combination with reading comprehension go hand in hand as you continue your test preparation.= 5 CHAPTER Reading Comprehension Because understanding what you read is such a vital skill. T he reading comprehension portion of the written test is usually presented as a multiple-choice test and will ask questions based on brief passages. understand that your vocabulary skills play a vital role when you have to decipher any written text. select the topic sentence. you will be tested only on the information presented in the passage. and make inferences. Two or three unknown words can make a passage difﬁcult. you should be able to find the main idea of a passage. Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 103 . most Civil Service exams include a reading comprehension section that tests your ability to understand what you read. This chapter reviews each of these skills. you do not need any prior knowledge about the topic of the passage.
Questions most frequently ask you to: determine the main idea of the passage. make an inference based on the passage. fact/opinion. identify a speciﬁc fact or detail in the passage. or italicized. and signiﬁcantly are clues to watch out for. Postal Service offers Priority Mail and Express Mail services. Watch for visual clues. Certain words and phrases indicate that key information will follow. the U. you must be able to determine which facts and ideas are most important. For practice. By highlighting or underlining key words and phrases. (Refer to Chapter 3 to practice this skill.104 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension The best way to do well on a reading comprehension test is to be very familiar with the kinds of questions that are typically asked. The key is to identify what is most important in the paragraph. They may be boxed or repeated in a sidebar as well. This helps you quickly ﬁnd the information later when you need to answer a question or write a summary. 1. Words and phrases such as most important. First class mail usually moves from New York City to Los Angeles in three days or less. Today’s postal service is more efﬁcient and reliable than ever before. you must be a discriminating reader and know where to look for the information. identify the topic sentence. Ask yourself two questions: What is the main point the author is trying to make—what is the main idea of the paragraph? What information is emphasized or seems to stand out as especially important? 2. To highlight key words and ideas. you can develop some strategies to help you choose correct answers. deﬁne a vocabulary word from the passage. and inference—will point out reading comprehension strategies that help you choose the correct answer. Be selective.S. or your money . Express Mail will get your package there overnight. and details you need to help you choose correctly. and then to know how to respond to these questions. read the following paragraph and answer the questions that follow. Priority Mail is guaranteed to go anywhere in the United States in two days or less. If you highlight four sentences in a ﬁve-sentence paragraph. Key words and ideas are often boldfaced. Here are three guidelines for highlighting or underlining your text. train. The answer explanation following each type of question—main idea. and plane. Watch for word clues. this will not help you. 3.) Once you know the kinds of questions that will be asked. underlined. facts. Mail that used to take months to move by horse and by foot now moves around the country in days or hours by truck. topic sentence. the key is. you can make important details stand out. One strategy used by many readers is highlighting and underlining. discern fact from opinion. To do this. detail/support material. If your letter or package is urgent.
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will be refunded. Additionally, the U.S. Postal Service offers lower rates for the same services offered by many competitors. Main Idea Question 1. What is the main idea of this paragraph? a. The post ofﬁce offers many services. b. Express Mail is a good way to send urgent mail. c. First class mail usually takes three days or less. d. Mail service today is more effective and dependable. If you selected choice a, you would be choosing the subject of the paragraph, not the main idea. The main idea must say something about the subject. To accurately ﬁnd the main idea of a text, remember that it is usually an assertion about the subject. An assertion is a statement that requires evidence or proof to be accepted as true. While the main idea of a passage is an assertion about its subject, it is something more. It is the idea that holds together or controls the passage. The other sentences and ideas in the passage will all relate to that main idea and serve as evidence that the assertion is true. You might think of the main idea as an umbrella that is held over the other sentences. It must be general enough or big enough to cover all of these ideas underneath it (in the paragraph or passage). Choice b is too speciﬁc to be the main idea; it tells you only about Express Mail. It does not include any information about Priority Mail or ﬁrst class mail, so it cannot be the main idea of the paragraph. Choice c is also too speciﬁc. It tells you about ﬁrst class mail only, so this choice can be excluded. Choice d is general enough to encompass the entire passage. The rest of the sentences in the paragraph support the idea that this sentence asserts. Each sentence offers proof that the postal expresses the writer’s purpose—to show the efﬁciency and reliability of today’s postal service. Fact/Detail Question 2. Today’s mail is transported by a. foot. b. horse. c. trucks, trains, and planes. d. overnight services. Choices a and b are mentioned in the paragraph, and you may mistakenly choose one of these if you only scan the paragraph quickly. However, if you read more closely, you will see that in the past, “Mail used to take months to move by horse and by foot,” but it “now moves around the country in days or hours by truck, train, and plane,” choice c. Choice d is a misleading answer. Overnight mail services are transported by truck, train, and plane as well.
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CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension
Topic Sentence Question 3. Of the following sentences, which one is the topic sentence? a. Mail that used to take months to move by horse and by foot now moves around the country in days or hours by truck, train, and plane. b. Today’s postal service is more efﬁcient and reliable than ever before. c. If your letter or package is urgent, the U.S. Postal Service offers Priority Mail and Express Mail services. d. Express Mail will get your package there overnight. You will notice that in the paragraph, the main idea is expressed clearly in the ﬁrst sentence, choice b. A sentence such as this one that clearly expresses the main idea of a paragraph or passage is called the topic sentence. In many cases, you will ﬁnd the topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph, but this is not a hard and fast rule. The topic sentence can be found in the middle or at the end of a paragraph. However, for the sentence to be labeled a topic sentence, it must be an assertion, and it needs proof. The proof is found in the facts and ideas that make up the rest of the paragraph. Choices a, c, and d are sentences that offer speciﬁc facts and ideas that support choice b. Fact/Opinion Question 4. “Express Mail will get your package there overnight, or your money will be refunded.” This statement is a/an a. fact. b. opinion. Facts are things known for certain to have happened, to be true, or to exist. Opinions are things believed to have happened, believed to be true, or believed to exist. As you can see, the key difference between fact and opinion lies in the distinction between believing and knowing. Opinions may be based on facts, but they are still what we think, not what we know. Opinions are debatable; facts are not. The statement in the question, “Express Mail will get your package there overnight or your money will be refunded,” is a fact, choice a. Inference Question 5. Based on the information in the paragraph, it is safe to say that a. it is economical for businesses to take advantage of Express Mail services. b. the old fashioned pony express system of mail delivery did not work. c. ﬁrst class mail service is unreliable. d. there is no way to deliver urgent mail. An inference is a conclusion that can be drawn based on fact or evidence. You can infer that businesses could take advantage of Express Mail service to speed up deliveries, choice a, based on the evidence
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in the paragraph. “Express Mail will get your package there overnight,” justiﬁably supports this inference. Choices b, c, and d cannot be inferred based on any concrete evidence from the paragraph. Knowing that reading comprehension questions can include main idea, topic sentence, detail, fact/opinion, or inference questions is a practical beginning for reading comprehension skills. Add a few test strategies—knowing where and how to look for the information, facts, and details—and you will feel comfortable and conﬁdent when it comes time to take the test.
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Read the following paragraphs and answer the reading comprehension questions based on your knowledge of the main idea of each paragraph Use this answer grid to ﬁll in your answers to the questions.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a
b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b
c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d
26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.
a a a F F F F F F F F F F a a a a a a a a a a a a
b b b O O O O O O O O O O b b b b b b b b b b b b
c c c
d d d
c c c c c c c c c c c c
d d d d d d d d d d d d
2. but essential process. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. What accounts for this renewed interest in Shakespeare? As scholars point out. One New York publisher has estimated that 50. Your neighborhood can be your health club. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. perform speciﬁc operations on the text. You do not need a lot of fancy equipment to get a good workout. . This paragraph best supports the statement that a. studies show that many countries have ignored their own anti-pollution laws. critical reading requires thoughtful and careful attention. d. 3. there is no need for a commute to a health club. 1. New Yorkers have a renewed interest in the work of Shakespeare. either. There are no effective boundaries when it comes to pollutants. Shakespeare’s characters are more interesting than ﬁctional characters today.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 109 If you are a ﬁtness walker. All you need is a well-designed pair of athletic shoes. people today are interested in Shakespeare’s work because of the characters. walking outdoors provides a better workout than walking indoors. Critical reading is a demanding process. dull. 4. Compounds such as DDT and toxaphene have been found in remote places like the Yukon and other Arctic regions. b. c. even today.000 to 60.000 people in the United States want an anthology that includes the complete works of William Shakespeare. d. a membership in a health club is a poor investment. conclusions. DDT and toxaphene are the two most toxic insecticides in the world. Studies have shown that toxic insecticides—already banned in many countries—are riding the wind from countries where they remain legal. d. ﬁtness walking is a better form of exercise than weight lifting. c. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. c. bans on toxins have done little to stop the spread of pollutants. with pencil in hand. b. you must slow down your reading and. d. ﬁtness walking is a convenient and valuable form of exercise. more pollutants ﬁnd their way into polar climates than they do into warmer areas. critical reading is a slow. and questions. To read critically. when you read. become an active participant. c. academic scholars are putting together an anthology of Shakespeare’s work. Mark up the text with your reactions. readers should get in the habit of questioning the truth of what they read. In other words. the best critical reading happens at critical times in a person’s life. b. b. his psychological insights into both male and female characters are amazing.
cooked slowly over low heat. and this can be extended with a little tomato paste. legal authorization. b. Mathematics allows us to expand our consciousness. c. tomato. and hundreds of thousands of years passed without many technological changes. c. Mix the vegetables together. b. direct evidence of a crime. and stir or mix together. d. . Today. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. Figures have the power to mislead people. 6. b. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. mix them together. new technologies are constantly being developed. Add tomato paste to extend the broth and cook slowly over low heat. a reasonable belief that a crime has occurred. add tomato paste. and add tomato paste. Cook the vegetables slowly. sauté them. the study of mathematics can be both beneﬁcial and confusing. 5. and the growth of populations. It features eggplant. No search of a person’s home or personal effects may be conducted without a written search warrant issued on probable cause. the study of mathematics is more important than other disciplines. c. Human technology began with the development of the ﬁrst stone tools about two and a half million years ago. the study of mathematics is dangerous. Which of the following is the correct order of steps for making ratatouille? a. d. 8. patterns of disease. Chop vegetables. and garlic chopped. the rate of development was slow. new technologies are reported daily on television and in newspapers. and add tomato paste. This means that a neutral judge must approve the factual basis justifying a search before it can be conducted. d. zucchini. meaning to mix or stir together. 7. they make their own broth. Ratatouille is a dish that has grown in popularity over the last few years. b. but it can also perpetuate misunderstandings and untruths. c. mixed. The name ratatouille comes from the French word touiller. the power of numbers is that they cannot lie. read the person his or her constitutional rights. d. sautéed. and ﬁnally. Mathematics tells us about economic trends. This paragraph best supports the statement that police ofﬁcers cannot search a person’s home or private papers unless they have a. Read the following paragraphs and choose the correct fact or detail to answer the questions. As the vegetables cook slowly. stone tools were in use for two and a half million years.110 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution protects citizens against unreasonable searches and seizures. In the beginning. stone tools were not really technology. in today’s world. there is no way to know when stone tools ﬁrst came into use. peppers. Math is good at exposing the truth.
the salt is combined with calcium chloride. d. which of the following is not a consideration? a. may use only one recycling container. In deciding whether to use ordinary rock salt or the salt and calcium chloride mixture on a particular street. Major roads are always salted ﬁrst. 12. the plants and trees along the street c. If the temperature is below zero.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 111 9. b. should use the new recycling container. The new containers are far better than other containers in every way. After a snow or ice fall. whether there is ice on the street d. whether the street is a main or secondary road 11. Many cities have distributed standardized recycling containers to all households. If the snowfall is light. c. the city road crews will not salt the streets because this would be a waste of the salt supply. 10. d. which of the following is true? a. The new containers will help increase the efﬁciency of the recycling program. as this will expedite pickup of recyclables. According to the directions. which of the following is true about the new containers? a. c. which is more effective in below-zero temperatures and which melts ice better. b. Additional recycling containers may be purchased as needed from the Sanitation Department. d. pasta dish extended with tomato paste. b. According to the snow treatment information in the paragraph above. must use the new recycling container. d. sauce to put over vegetables. 13. the temperature at the time of treatment b. c. each household a. French pastry. In some areas. the city streets are treated with ordinary rock salt. a salt and calcium chloride mixture is effective in treating snow and ice-covered streets. must buy a new recycling container. vegetable stew. Crews must wait until the snow or ice stops falling before salting streets. . Ratatouille can best be described as a a. This combination of salt and calcium chloride is also less damaging to foliage along the roadways. The new containers hold more than the old containers did. One city attached the following directions: We prefer that you use this new container as your primary recycling container. The new containers are less expensive than the old. c. According to the directions in the paragraph above. b.
and he loves the power his wealth has given him. Indeed. Spices is a pleasant word. b. have changed the course of history. d. Gary’s gray hair is his worst characteristic. individuals traveled the world seeking exotic spices for proﬁt and. It thinks and dreams. He can buy whatever he desires. a. Gary is a very distinguished looking man with a touch of gray at the temples. However. conceit of person and situation. he considers his good looks to be his second-most important asset in the world. is another matter altogether. is money. it is one way to travel around the globe. and it can be ﬁlled with danger and intrigue. whether it connotes ﬁne French cuisine or down-home cinnamon-ﬂavored apple pie. b. d. 15. The science of neurology has found a way to map the most important areas of the human brain. however. The history of spices. a. It has created poetry and music. ________. to gain control of lands harboring new spices. ________. Conceit is the beginning and the end of Gary’s character. nations have actually gone to war. Gary feels blessed to be wealthy and the joy consumes his every thought. He was fortunate enough to be born into a wealthy family. The taste and aroma of spices are the main elements that make food such a source or fascination and pleasure. c. the human brain is the most mysterious and complex object on earth. c. in searching. scientists say that each person uses only 10% of brainpower over the course of a lifetime. however. In the past. a. He enjoys spending most of his time admiring his proﬁle in the mirror. . d. The only objects of Gary’s respect are others who hold positions in society above him. Even in his early ﬁfties. The term might equally bring to mind Indian curry made thousands of miles away or those delicious barbecued ribs sold down at Harry’s. 16. 14. b. and easily holds more information than all the libraries on earth. planned and executed wars. Nevertheless. The ﬁrst. devised intricate scientiﬁc theories. he is still the one to turn heads. plots and schemes. In fact. It is exciting to ﬁnd a good cookbook and experiment with spices from other lands— indeed. It weighs less than three pounds and is hardly more interesting to look at than an overly ripe cauliﬂower. Gary checks the mirror often and feels great delight with what he sees. ________. c. The human brain is made of gelatinous matter and contains no nerve endings.112 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension Read the following paragraphs and choose the topic sentence that best ﬁts the paragraph.
the mammal—and the most complex mammal is humankind. As the speaker identiﬁed various plants found in the fall garden. unimaginably complex. She became a star in the 1950s and died in 1962. Many scientists believe that. a. The guest speaker developed a rapport with her audience. The popular notion is that the big bang was a huge explosion in space. texture. c.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 113 Read the following topic sentences and choose the sentence that best develops or supports the topic sentence. The big-bang theory. d. and color of each variety. Physicists now believe they can construct what happened in the universe during the ﬁrst three minutes of its beginning. b. The continuing fascination of the public with movie star Marilyn Monroe is puzzling. c. b. she selected samples from her display to show her audience the size. a. 20. The ﬁlm that most clearly demonstrates her talent is The Misﬁts. d. A list of fall annuals. but she changed it to Marilyn. convinces us that the universe was not always as it is now. shape. if accepted. we can actually “hear” echoes of the big bang. From the most common mums and Montauk daisies to the more exotic euphoria and helenium. of course. d. she described how gardeners can keep color in their gardens well into November—in sun or in shade. but this is far too simple a description. perennials. and bulbs was available for all participants at the conclusion of the presentation. 19. Darwin’s theory of evolution was one attempt to explain what essentially remains a great mystery. Scientists place its beginnings at some three billion years ago. Her name was originally Norma Jean. One scientiﬁc theory of the origin of the universe is the much misunderstood big-bang theory. . a. a. c. even after many decades. One reason might simply be her life’s sad and premature end. c. 18. and at its ﬁrst appearance. when the ﬁrst molecule ﬂoated up out of the ooze with the unique ability to replicate itself. 17. Life on earth is ancient. It will produce red ﬂowers in February—just when gardeners need to see something blooming. It is unknown exactly where life started—where the ﬁrst molecule was “born” that had the ability to replicate itself. b. b. d. The most complex life form is. and it was evident that she had a great deal of experience and knowledge. yet it is still strong. during microwave experiments.
d. a girl is forbidden to take a bite from her date’s hamburger. d. There are active efforts to reintroduce wolves to national parks in the United States. c. 23. b. Today. The Puritans established a wide variety of punishments to enforce their strict laws. in China. Six counties in the north—where Protestants outnumber Catholics two to one—remained a part of Great Britain and became known as Northern Ireland.114 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension 21. On Sunday.D. 24. It was known in 181 A. Tennessee. they aid the cat’s ability to move in the dark. It is illegal to parade an elephant down Main Street in Austin. Ranchers and some biologists are protesting the reintroduction of the wolves. For centuries. . The hairs themselves are very sensitive. c. It is illegal for teenagers to take a bath during the winter in Clinton. In Oklahoma. The gray wolf will be taken off the list of endangered species in the northern Rocky Mountains when ten breeding pairs reside in a region for three years. b. 25. Texas. c. Disobedient children would feel the sting of the whip. Irish Catholics continued to ﬁght against British rule. it was introduced to the rest of the world. d. The Eighth Amendment of the Bill of Rights prohibits cruel and unusual punishment. c. Also. The reintroduced wolves are producing more offspring than expected. d. 22. a. This is most important for a cat that does its prowling at night. all of Ireland was ruled by Great Britain. it was played during the 1700s in Italy. c. c. d. The struggle today is over the control of these six counties. French explorers probably taught the Inuit Eskimos how to play dominoes. Indiana. b. Serving as feelers. 26. children may not spin yo-yos in Memphis. but these strange laws are still on the books! d. b. a. From Italy. The success of an attempt to reintroduce red wolves to parts of North Carolina is not yet clear. The Puritans believed that some lawbreakers should be shamed in public by the use of stocks and the pillory. The game of dominoes has been popular for centuries. Political violence has claimed many lives in Northern Ireland. A cat’s whiskers are among the most perfect organs of touch. b. many of the punishments used by the Puritans in Massachusetts Bay seem cruel and excessive. b. The roots are provided with highly sensitive nerve endings. a. a. It may be hard to believe. a. a.
Mark F on your answer sheet if the statement is a fact and O if it is an opinion. 30. a. He left a trail of train and bank robberies. Read the following questions that ask you to differentiate fact from opinion. Mr. 38. 36. Stocks and bonds are often risky investments. Many people invest in stocks and bonds. Wednesday is the fourth day of the week. It is a fact that people are now living longer than ever before for many reasons. Dress-down days improve employee morale. Jesse Woodson James was the most legendary of all American outlaws. 32. d. Advances in medical science have done wonders for longevity.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 115 27. secure interest on your money. b. 31. 37. No one seems to understand this phenomenon. The people in this region do not seem to gain anything from medical science. . Many companies have dress-down days on Fridays. Wednesday is the longest day of the week. 33. His crimes were committed during the late 1860s. Savings accounts and CDs are fully insured and provide steady. Some people in the Russia’s Caucasus Mountains live to be over one hundred years of age. 28. a. he spread violence and death throughout the west. Jesse was gunned down on April 3. There are many different ways to invest your money to provide for a ﬁnancially secure future. 1882. d. c. 29. For sixteen years. 35. c. Orenstein is a terriﬁc boss. Savings accounts and CDs (certiﬁcates of deposit) are the best way to invest your hard-earned money. 34. b.
computer software is continually being reﬁned to produce more high quality printing. If not disposed of in puncture-resistant containers.116 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension Read the following paragraphs and respond to the questions that ask you to make inferences. come in contact with sharp objects that have not been placed in secure containers. known as the QWERTY keyboard. has more keys right under the typists’ ﬁngers than the QWERTY. needles. d. the planning stage of any DTP project should include talking with the intended audience. 40. are careless with sharp objects such as lancets. b. do not place sharp objects in puncture-resistant containers. d. letterhead. The containers should be clearly marked and should be puncture resistant. or DTP. is—on average— 70% faster than the QWERTY. Studies have shown that people using the Dvorak keyboard can type 20–30% faster and are able to cut their error rate in half. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. c. This paragraph best supports the statement that the Dvorak keyboard a. is favored by more typists than the QWERTY. needles. and what form your message will take. 41. b. they can injure sanitation workers. Many ofﬁce professionals have expressed an interest in replacing the currently used keyboard. Every year Americans use over one billion sharp objects to administer health care in their homes. c. The most important part of any DTP project is planning. 39. you should know your intended audience. DTP is one way to become acquainted with a new business audience. . Before you begin. b. c. This paragraph best supports the idea that sanitation workers can be injured if they a. and syringes. do not mark the containers they pick up with a warning that those containers contain sharp objects. the message you want to communicate. the ﬁrst stage of any proposed DTP project should be organization and design. The best choice is the Dvorak keyboard. with a keyboard that can keep up with technological changes and make ofﬁces more efﬁcient. is more efﬁcient than the QWERTY. d. The use of desktop computer equipment and software to create high quality printing for newsletters. and brochures is called Desktop Publishing. business cards. Sharp objects should be disposed of in hard plastic or metal containers with secure lids. and syringes in their homes. Dvorak puts vowels and other frequently used letters right under the ﬁngers—on the home row—where typists make 70% of their keystrokes. These sharp objects include lancets.
In addition. More and more ofﬁce workers telecommute from ofﬁces in their own homes. This paragraph best supports the statement that Peace Corps employees a. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. Mars is closer to the sun than Earth is.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 117 One of the missions of the Peace Corps is to bring trained men and women to work in countries who need trained professionals in certain ﬁelds. trained criminal investigators are often underpaid in rural areas. These images also implied that Mars once had an atmosphere that was thick enough to trap the sun’s heat. However. Mars once had a thicker atmosphere than Earth does. c. in order to keep the Peace Corps dynamic and vital. c. are more ﬂexible in their ideas than workers who travel to the ofﬁce. Close-up images of Mars by the Mariner 9 probe indicated networks of valleys that looked like the stream beds on Earth. there is a shortage of skilled workers in a variety of ﬁelds. would do 20% more work if they were to work in an ofﬁce. produce a better quality work product than workers who travel to the ofﬁce. b. If this is true. This paragraph best supports the statement that telecommuters a. b. b. including police work. get more work done in a given time period than workers who travel to the ofﬁce. there is a lack of skilled labor in many other ﬁelds. but they are not essentially computer jobs. It is a myth that labor shortages today center mostly on computer jobs. something must have happened to Mars billions of years ago that stripped away the planet’s atmosphere. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. have both academic and work experience. d. are hired for a limited term of employment. d. unemployment in computer-related ﬁelds is not as widespread as some people think. people with computer skills are in demand in police and criminal investigator jobs. c. 43. c. no staff member can work for the agency for more than ﬁve years. . Telecommuters produce an average of 20% more than if they were to work in an ofﬁce. These jobs may utilize computer skills. their ﬂexible schedule allows them to balance their families with their work responsibilities. d. d. There is a shortage of uniformed police ofﬁcers in many cities and a shortage of trained criminal investigators in some rural areas. must train for about ﬁve years. Mars now has little or no atmosphere. The beneﬁts of telecommuting allow for greater productivity and greater ﬂexibility. Although it is true that the lack of computer-related skills accounts for many of the problems in today’s job market. the Mariner 9 probe took the ﬁrst pictures of Mars. 42. are highly intelligent people. People who work for the Peace Corps are volunteers. b. 45. 44.
46. medical resources in emerging nations have diminished in the past few years. the majority of the people in the world have no medical care. federal hiring practices are simpler than those employed by the private sector. d. and abilities—sometimes abbreviated as ksa—and not on external factors such as race. the best approach to a demanding job is to delegate responsibility. b. In the past. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. Whether you can accomplish a speciﬁc goal or meet a speciﬁc deadline depends ﬁrst on how much time you need to get the job done. state legislators no longer fear increasing gas taxes. but adequate distribution of medicine is just as urgent. many people who live in emerging nations are not receiving proper medical care. d. suggesting a gas tax has usually been considered a political blunder. Whereas employers in the private sector can hire employees for more subjective reasons. Different goals will have to be divided in different ways. c. hiring in the private sector is inherently unfair. . skills. c. federal employers must be able to justify their decision with objective evidence of candidate qualiﬁcation. but one seemingly unrealistic goal can often be accomplished by working on several smaller. religion. c. b. b. not enough doctors give time and money to those in need of medical care.118 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension The competitive civil service system is designed to give candidates fair and equal treatment and to ensure that federal applicants are hired based on objective criteria. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. d. c. b. ksa is not as important as test scores to federal employers. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. Medical expertise and medical supplies need to be redistributed throughout the world so that people in emerging nations will have proper medical care. Hiring has to be based solely on a candidate’s knowledge. 47. 48. the civil service strives to hire on the basis of a candidate’s abilities. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. 49. but that does not seem to be the case today. jobs often remain only partially completed because of lack of time. gas taxes produce more revenue than income taxes. more reasonable goals. d. or sex. What should you do when the demands of the job exceed the time you have available? The best approach is to divide the project into smaller pieces. states with low income tax rates are increasing their gas taxes. It is well known that the world urgently needs adequate distribution of food. the best way to complete projects is to make sure your goals are achievable. Several states are promoting bills in their state legislatures that would cut income or property taxes and make up the revenue with taxes on fossil fuel. taxes on fossil fuels are more popular than property taxes. the best way to tackle large projects is to problem-solve ﬁrst.
d. c. .Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 119 Before you begin to compose a business letter. while some people plan ahead when they are writing a business letter. sit down and think about your purpose for writing the letter. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. planning is an important ﬁrst step. others do not. or apply for something? Do some brainstorming and gather information before you begin writing. brainstorming and writing take approximately equal amounts of time. business letters are frequently complaint letters. order a product. b. register a complaint. for many different kinds of writing tasks. Always keep your objective in mind. 50. Do you want to request information.
legal authorization) before a search can be conducted. Choice d is wrong because there is no support to show that most New Yorkers are interested in this work. There is no support for choice a. Choice b is incorrect because even though polar regions are mentioned in the paragraph. b. There is no support for choice c. See the second and third sentences for the steps in making ratatouille. The paragraph also states that ﬁtness walking will result in a good workout. The author stresses the need to read critically by performing thoughtful and careful operations on the text. Choice a is incorrect because no comparison to weight lifting is made. The other choices are not reﬂected in the passage. d. 9. Choice a is incorrect because the writer never makes this type of comparison. 4. This answer is implied by the whole paragraph. Choice a can be ruled out because there is no support to show that studying math is dangerous. The main part of the passage describes how to cook vegetables. b. Choice c is not mentioned in the passage. 6. 8. d. . Choice a is incorrect because the author never says that reading is dull. a health club might be a good investment. 7. Choice c is clearly wrong because the paragraph states when stone tools ﬁrst came into use. so for others. stone tools were ﬁrst used two and a half million years ago. the author stresses the convenience of this form of exercise. d. There is no support for choice c. With regard to choice b. Choices b and c are not supported by the paragraph. b. a. but the paragraph refers only to people who are ﬁtness walkers. Only choice b reﬂects the correct order. Choice d can be ruled out because there is nothing to indicate that DDT and toxaphene are the most toxic. By stating that ﬁtness walking does not require a commute to a health club. Choice c is not supported by the passage. a. but they were not necessarily in use all that time. The support for this choice is in the second sentence. Only choice d indicates that vegetables are included in the dish. Choice d is a contradiction to the information in the passage. This answer is clearly stated in the last sentence of the paragraph. 2. there is no support for the idea that warmer regions are not just as affected. d. Choice c is wrong because even though scholars are mentioned in the paragraph.e. and this implies that new technologies are being constantly developed. The last sentence in the paragraph clearly gives support for the idea that the interest in Shakespeare is due to the development of his characters. Choices b and d are incorrect because it is not enough for the police to have direct evidence or a reasonable belief—a judge must authorize the search for it to be legal. 3. Choice b may seem like a logical answer. The statement stresses that there must be a judge’s approval (i.120 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension ANSWERS 1. 5.. The second and third sentence combine to give support to choice a. The last sentence states that new technologies are reported daily. which states that in some countries toxic insecticides are still legal. there is no indication that the scholars are compiling the anthology.
This indicates that the new containers will make the recycling program more efﬁcient. d. c. 11. Choice d explains how its popularity spread. Choice d is not supported in the passage. Choice d reveals the fascination fans had with Marilyn. e. choices b and c refer only to complexity. The topic sentence states that violence has claimed many lives in Northern Ireland. The directions state use of the new containers will expedite pick-up of recyclables. chances are they will be taken off the endangered species list. but does not require. Also. choices a. Choice b addresses both of Gary’s vanities: his person and his situation. and d are examples of strange laws. The topic sentence refers to punishment used in early America. 19. 25. The other choices may be true but are not mentioned in the passage. Choices a. b. The passage mentions nothing about main or secondary roads. This choice refers both to age and complexity. This choice introduces the idea that some laws are strange. c. 18. and c only show what led to the situation. Choices a and b state the game’s origin. Choices b and d give details about the speaker and available hand-outs. There are words in this sentence that can be linked to the topic sentence. customers may use more than one container if they purchase an additional one. Choices b. This topic sentence states the importance of a cat’s whiskers. Choice d is less relevant to the topic sentence than the other choices. c. 26. a. and c are merely facts about Marilyn and are not about people’s fascination with her. Choices a. and c. . a. d. not cooking. 23. Because the wolves have produced more offspring than expected. 13. Choices a. but not the topic sentence. c. 14. c. b. The topic sentence speaks of the big-bang theory being much misunderstood. and d do not reinforce the context of the topic sentence. Choices a. not fall. b. d. fall gardens and the garden in November. and d are about longevity but do not give any reason. Choices a. 21. b. a. 27. and d give other details that do not directly support the topic sentence. b.g. 12. c. b. The use of the word war involves danger and intrigue 15.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 121 10. but are unrelated to the content of the topic sentence. b. 22. 16. Choice a deals only with Gary’s vanity of person. The directions indicate that the city prefers. Choices b and c state why we do not have such punishment today and compares historical punishment with today’s sensibility. Choice c deals only with his vanity of position. and d are less relevant and speciﬁc. The mention that searching for spices has changed the course of history and that nations have gone to war over this condiment implies that the subject of the paragraph is history. In addition. the use of the new containers. d. choice c lists the different types of ﬂowers the speaker identiﬁes in the topic sentence. d. This choice states the popularity of the game. c. and choice c addresses this. 20. 17. b. 24. The mention of the amazing things the brain is capable of doing is directly relevant to its mysterious and complex nature. Choice a speaks of a red ﬂower—unknown to the reader at this point—that blooms in winter. This sentence gives a reason for longevity that was introduced in the topic sentence. Choices a. b. c. Choice a gives a reason for the use of punishment in early America. The other choices are off topic. c.
Savings accounts and CDs do not always earn the highest interest rates. 43. Choices a. a. Choices b. Choices a. There is no support for choice d. Choice d is implied by the statement that redistribution is needed so that people in emerging nations can have proper medical care. O. There is no indication that choice a is true. While it could be a good idea. c. F. which is the topic of the paragraph. c. Choice b is the only choice that tells how people should dispose of sharp objects in order to avoid placing sanitation workers in danger. 42. O. This sentence is a fact. Someone could just as easily take the opposite position. Choices b. Choice c expresses the overall theme of the paragraph—a shortage of skilled workers in many ﬁelds. there are no statistics to prove this. 40. Choice a reﬂects the idea that the Dvorak keyboard is more efﬁcient than the QWERTY. 45. Wednesday is the fourth day of the week. Choice a pronounces an end to 16 years of violence. Choice c projects a way to accomplish tasks—by problem-solving. b. but are incorrect. but now many of them are promoting bills in favor of these taxes. 37. 33. even if true. a. Choices a. This sentence is a fact. F. c. This sentence indicates the importance of organization and design. secure interest can be earned using these methods of investing. This sentence is a fact. 34. and c are not mentioned in the paragraph. 38. Choice a is the best overall statement to summarize the message given by the content in the paragraph. Choice c is supported as the best answer because the paragraph indicates that legislators once feared suggesting gas taxes. and d are not in the passage. and d contain words and phrases from the paragraph. This sentence is an opinion. There are many opportunities for investment. Choice d is the best comprehensive statement about the paragraph. Choices b. This sentence is an opinion. F. and d discuss how sanitation workers should deal with sharp objects. Many companies offer this option. This sentence is an opinion. and d. O. b. Choice a details the greater productivity of telecommuters. and d are not in the passage. Choices b. 47. a. 50. c. c. People do invest in stocks and bonds. Choices a. 44. 35. and d are facts about James’ life. c. c. 41. 36. d. c. 39. Choice b is incorrect because the paragraph does not say why more gas taxes are being proposed. c. 46. are not in the passage. d. F. 32. 30.122 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension 28. and d do not support the main idea of the paragraph. While Wednesday may seem longer to some people. F. Choice c indicates that the atmosphere of Mars has been stripped away. The stock market can be uncertain. it is the same length as any other day of the week. a. 48. This sentence is a fact. c. This sentence is a fact. O. This sentence is a fact. b. 29. c. 49. This sentence is an opinion because it can be debated. Steady. . b. 31. F. The last sentence of the passage supports choice c.
As you apply the vocabulary you have learned in this book. This chapter reviews such grammar essentials as sentence boundaries. When English is used according to the conventions that have been established. e-mails. The tips and exercises in this chapter will help you ensure that you are ready to excel on this portion of the exam. and commonly confused words. memos. Poor usage can get in the way of what you want to say. and reports have to be written during the course of every workday. verb tenses. your words allow the reader—and your employer or supervisor—to understand exactly what you intend to say. punctuation. Forms. and the grammar section of the written exam helps the government determine whether an applicant has the competence it takes to complete such tasks. pronouns. Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 123 . capitalization. Studying the proper ways to use the vocabulary of the English language can give you a good score on the grammar section of the exam and will show that you are indeed capable and proﬁcient as a writer. Correct usage of standard English shows that you have made the effort to understand the conventions of the English language. T here is plenty of writing involved in most Civil Service jobs. letters.= 6 CHAPTER Grammar The ability to write correctly is fundamental for any Civil Service position. subject-verb agreement. it is important to use these words correctly in sentences.
b. It needs the helping verb was before ﬁling to make a complete thought. We saw the tornado approaching. These sentence fragments can easily be corrected: .124 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar COMPLETE SENTENCES AND SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Sentences are the basic units of written language. A sentence expresses a complete thought. a. The new house was built in 1972. Leaving messages for me. When a group of words that would normally be a complete sentence is preceded by a subordinating conjunction. Look at the following examples. Practice Choose the complete sentence from each pair in the list below. but the fragments have an extra word at the beginning. or what action the subject is taking. 3. FRAGMENT COMPLETE SENTENCE The assistant ﬁling folders. it is important to distinguish between complete sentences and sentence fragments. 2. When you are writing in the workplace. Complete sentences express a whole thought. b. These words are called subordinating conjunctions. b. a. Before the new house was built in 1972. They do not leave you guessing about what the subject is. a. The assistant was ﬁling folders. For that reason. 3. The ﬁrst fragment in this pair of sentences is an example of a sentence that is missing part of its verb. You may have noticed that the choices in each of the questions above are almost the same. b. Janet was always leaving messages for me. a. When we saw the tornado approaching. but the sentence does not express a complete thought. while a fragment is missing something—it could be a verb or it could be a subject. b. We are leaving in the morning. complete sentences are the correct and accepted format for most pieces of information. 1. The second fragment has neither a subject nor a verb. 2. Only when a subject and verb are added is this sentence complete. something more is needed to complete the thought. Since we are leaving in the morning. Answers 1.
So. and it was due on Friday. The sentence would be correct if you separated the two independent clauses to make two complete sentences. Knowing that a subordinating conjunction can signal a sentence fragment. but. but it is so closely related to the ﬁrst that there is no reason to make it into a sentence of its own. Since we were leaving in the morning. exclamation points. or. A semicolon indicates that the next part of the sentence is a complete sentence. End marks like periods. Look at the example below. Then you can double-check your work for errors. we headed for cover. One way is to add a conjunction after the comma and in-between the two independent clauses. Before the new house was built in 1972. 3. it is a good idea to be familiar with some of the most frequently used subordinating conjunctions. A complete report had to be submitted every week. This run-on sentence could be corrected in ﬁve ways. 2. 1. and question marks can solve the run-on sentence problem. . You could rewrite it as follows: A complete report had to be submitted every week. after although as because before if once since than that though unless until when whenever where wherever while Run-On Sentences Run-on sentences are two or more independent clauses (complete sentences) written as though they were one sentence. It would also be correct to delete the comma and separate the two sentences with a semicolon. Use this list as a handy reminder. it was due on Friday. it would be considered correct if you wrote: A complete report had to be submitted every week. it was due on Friday. we went to bed early.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 125 When we saw the tornado approaching. it would be correct to say: A complete report had to be submitted every week. or because are conjunctions that join sentences. The main cause of run-on sentences is often faulty punctuation. as. It was due on Friday. Words such as and. such as a comma instead of a period between two independent clauses (complete thoughts). the old house was demolished. Using the same sentence as a model.
and they returned at 1:00. 5. Last. Correction: ___________________________________________________________________ 2. OR We attended the meeting. We attended the meeting. Adding the subordinating conjunction because can ﬁx this sentence as well. The defense needed time to examine the new evidence. and we formed some committees. all of the employees went to lunch at 12:00 they returned at 1:00. Correction: ___________________________________________________________________ 3. It would be correct to say: A complete report had to be submitted every week because it was due on Friday. OR The defense needed time to examine the new evidence. they returned at 1:00. all of the employees went to lunch at 12:00. the lawyer asked for an extension. we formed some committees. and run-on sentences are often grouped together in the grammar section of a test. you may be asked questions like the following on your exam. the lawyer asked for an extension. we formed some committees. and the lawyer asked for an extension. The defense needed time to examine the new evidence. the sentence would be correct if written with a dash: A complete report had to be submitted every week—it was due on Friday.126 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar 4. Since complete sentences. We attended the meeting. . Practice Each of the sentences below is a run-on. all of the employees went to lunch at 12:00. 2. 1. 3. Correction: ___________________________________________________________________ Answers 1. sentence fragments. Without exception. Without exception. Correct them on the lines provided using one of the methods listed above. OR Without exception.
They are different from common nouns like president. CAPITALIZATION You may encounter questions on your exam that test your ability to use capital letters correctly. We can ﬁx the printer. If you know the most common capitalization rules. In addition to the methods the doctor used to diagnose the problem. d. Texas. a. c. Before the door opened. d. Capitalize the ﬁrst word of a sentence. c. Do not capitalize the ﬁrst word of a partial quotation: He called me “the best employee” and nominated me for an award. state. Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives. or we can buy a new one. Proper adjectives are adjectives formed from proper nouns. city. the proper adjective would be . We looking. The clues discovered by the archeologists gave us the indication that the historical account of the incident was correct. or river. Answers 1. Friday was the best day. a. 2. d. Johnson. 3. 2. Proper nouns are names of people. The special services unit completed its work and made its report to the chief. or Mississippi River. The books stacked on the ﬂoor beside the desk. Choose the complete sentence. we will not act on the new proposal. We slept soundly we never heard the alarm. If we ever see you again. b. a. b. 3.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 127 Practice 1. Capitalize the pronoun I. c. b. Choose the run-on sentence. Capitalize the ﬁrst word of a quotation: “What is the address?” she asked. d. places. After we spent considerable time examining all of the possibilities before making a decision. you will be better prepared to correct these errors. if the proper noun is Japan. like Lyndon B. a. Unless we hear from the directors of the board before the next meeting. For instance. Austin. or things. d. write it as a word. If the ﬁrst word is a number. Choose the complete sentence.
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Japanese language. If the proper noun is South America, the proper adjective would be South American climate. See the table that follows for examples of proper nouns and adjectives.
Category Days of the week Months of the year Holidays Special events Names of individuals Names of structures Buildings Names of trains Ships Aircraft Product names Geographic locations (cities, states, counties, countries, and geographic regions) Example of Proper Nouns Friday, Saturday January, February Christmas, Halloween Two Rivers Festival, Writers’ Conference John Henry, George Washington Lincoln Memorial Empire State Building Orient Express Queen Elizabeth II Cessna Honda Accord Des Moines, Iowa Canada Middle East Streets Highways Roads Landmarks Public areas Bodies of water Ethnic groups Languages Nationalities Grand Avenue Interstate 29 Dogwood Road Continental Divide Grand Canyon, Glacier National Park Atlantic Ocean, Mississippi River Asian-American English Irish
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Ofﬁcial titles (capitalized only when they appear before a person’s name—Marie Hanson, president of the City Council, vs. City Council President Marie Hanson) Institutions Organizations Businesses Proper adjectives (a proper adjective is an adjective formed from a proper noun)
Mayor Bloomberg President Johnson
Dartmouth College Girl Scouts Chrysler Corporation English mufﬁns, French cuisine
Practice The following excerpt contains no capitalized words. Choose those letters that should be capitalized. i had just spent a chilly new year’s day in sioux falls, south dakota and was driving west toward my home in denver, colorado. it was january 2, 1995. as i traveled along interstate 90, i could see the black hills rising slightly in the distance, and i was shocked by their beauty. president calvin coolidge had called them “a wondrous sight to behold.” i now understood why. mount rushmore dominated the landscape. spearﬁsh canyon, a geologic wonder, was full of ponderosa pines and added some greenery to the countryside. nearby, in custer state park, the largest buffalo herd in north america roamed the badlands. fortunately, my jeep cherokee had no trouble with the ice and snow that cold winter day. Answer Check your answers against the corrected version: I had just spent a chilly New Year’s Day in Sioux Falls, South Dakota and was driving west toward my home in Denver, Colorado. It was January 2, 1995. As I traveled along Interstate 90, I could see the Black Hills rising slightly in the distance, and I was shocked by their beauty. President Calvin Coolidge had called them “a wondrous sight to behold.” I now understood why. Mount Rushmore dominated the landscape. Spearﬁsh Canyon, a geologic wonder, was full of Ponderosa pines and added some greenery to the countryside. Nearby, in Custer State Park, the largest buffalo herd in North America roamed the Badlands. Fortunately, my Jeep Cherokee had no trouble with the ice and snow that cold winter day.
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More Capitalization Practice Choose the sentence that is capitalized correctly. 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. This year we will celebrate christmas on Tuesday, December 25 in Manchester, Ohio. This year we will celebrate Christmas on Tuesday, December 25 in manchester, Ohio. This year we will celebrate Christmas on Tuesday, December 25 in Manchester, Ohio. This year we will celebrate christmas on Tuesday, December 25 in manchester, Ohio. Abraham Adams made an appointment with Mayor Burns to discuss the building plans. Abraham Adams made an appointment with Mayor Burns to discuss the Building Plans. Abraham Adams made an appointment with mayor Burns to discuss the Building plans. Abraham Adams made an appointment with mayor Burns to discuss the Building Plans.
3. a. Ms. Abigail Dornburg, M.D., was named head of the review board for Physicians Mutual. b. Ms. Abigail Dornburg, M.D., was named Head of the Review Board for Physicians Mutual. c. Ms. Abigail Dornburg, m.d. Was named head of the review board for Physicians mutual. d. Ms. Abigail dornburg, M.D., was named head of the review board for Physicians Mutual. Answers 1. c. 2. a. 3. a. Note: The words “review board” are common nouns and not the speciﬁc title of a particular committee or panel. There is no need to capitalize them in this sentence.
A section on the written exam may test your punctuation skills. Knowing how to use periods, commas, and apostrophes correctly will effectively boost your score on the exam. Periods If you know the most common rules for using periods, you will have a much easier time spotting and correcting sentence errors. Use a period at the end of a sentence that is not a question or an exclamation. Use a period after an initial in a name. Example: John F. Kennedy Use a period after an abbreviation, unless the abbreviation is an acronym. Abbreviations: Mr., Ms., Dr., A.M., General Motors Corp., Allied, Inc. Acronyms: NASA, SCUBA, RADAR If a sentence ends with an abbreviation, use only one period. Example: We brought pens, paper, pencils, etc.
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Commas Commas are more important than many people realize. The correct use of commas helps present ideas and information clearly to readers. Missing or misplaced commas, on the other hand, can confuse readers and convey a message quite different from what was intended. This chart demonstrates just how much impact commas can have on meaning.
There is an indeterminate number of people in this sentence. There are four people in this sentence. There are ﬁve people in this sentence. There are six people in this sentence. My sister Diane John Carey Melissa and I went to dinner. My sister Diane, John Carey, Melissa, and I went to dinner. My sister, Diane, John Carey, Melissa, and I went to dinner. My sister, Diane, John, Carey, Melissa, and I went to dinner.
If you know the most common rules for using commas, you will have a much easier time identifying sentence errors and correcting them. Use a comma before and, but, so, or, for, nor, and yet when they separate two groups of words that could be complete sentences. Example: The manual listed the steps in sequence, and that made it easy for any reader to follow. Use a comma to separate items in a series. Example: The student driver stopped, looked, and listened when she approached the railroad tracks. You may wonder if the comma after the last item in a series is really necessary. This is called a serial comma, and is used to ensure clarity. Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives modifying the same noun. Example: The hot, black, rich coffee was just what I needed on Monday morning. (Notice that there is no comma between rich—an adjective—and coffee—the noun it describes.) Use a comma after introductory words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence. Example of an introductory word: Usually, the secretary reads the minutes of the meeting. Example of an introductory phrase: During her lunch break, she went shopping. Example of an introductory clause: After we found the source of the problem, it was easily rectiﬁed. Use a comma after a name followed by Jr., Sr., M.D., Ph.D., or any other abbreviation. Example: The ceremony commemorated Martin Luther King, Jr. Remember that commas should be on both sides of an abbreviation—The life of Martin Luther King, Jr., was the subject of the documentary. Use a comma to separate items in an address. Example: The package was addressed to 1433 West G Avenue, Orlando, Florida, 36890. Use a comma to separate a day and a year, as well as after the year when it is in a sentence. Example: I was born on July 21, 1954, during a thunderstorm.
Example: Your speech needs strong arguments.. on July 6. J. Example: My dog. Reynolds Co. Phillips Petroleum Inc. His thorough. Practice The following paragraph contains no commas or periods. Dr. he retired after a brief but serious illness. Unfortunately. has held research positions for OPEC. Florida. Sarasota Springs. exhaustive research is recognized in academic circles. Add commas and periods as needed. She chose four a’s on the multiple choice exam. Apostrophes Apostrophes are used to show ownership or relationships. Examples: do not = don’t I will = I’ll it is = it’s Use an apostrophe to form the plural of numbers and letters. a dachshund. Use commas to set off appositives—words or phrases that explain or identify the noun in a sentence. Dr Newton Brown Jr a renowned chemist has held research positions for OPEC Phillips Petroleum Inc Edward L Smith Chemical Designs and R J Reynolds Co His thorough exhaustive research is recognized in academic circles as well as in the business community as the most well-designed reliable data available Unfortunately on July 6 1988 he retired after a brief but serious illness He lives in a secluded retirement community at 2401 Beach Drive Sarasota Springs Florida Answer Check your version against the following corrected paragraph.132 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar Use a comma after the greeting of a friendly letter and after the closing of a letter. Use an apostrophe in contractions. . Example of a closing: Sincerely yours. not strong opinions. to convince me. Examples: There are two o’s and two m’s in the word roommate. He lives in a secluded retirement community at 2401 Beach Drive. and R. Newton Brown. Example of a greeting: Dear Uncle John. This tells the reader that a letter has been omitted. you will have a much easier time spotting and correcting punctuation errors. 1988. as well as in the business community. to show where letters have been omitted in a contraction. Edward L. If you know the most common rules for using apostrophes. Jr. and to form the plurals of numbers and letters. Use a comma to separate contrasting elements in a sentence.. is named Penny. a renowned chemist. Smith Chemical Designs. as the most well-designed. Use an apostrophe to show possession. reliable data available.
d. b. and distribute ﬂyers for the opening of the town beach on May 31 2003. and periods are often grouped together in the grammar section of a test. set up picnic tables. Sanders Jr. The reviewers purpose for interviewing Dr. E. S. commas. 2003. c. a. Jr. E. S. 2003. was to gather more information. S. Jr. Practice Choose the sentence that is punctuated correctly. and distribute ﬂyers for the opening of the town beach on May 31. c. 2. E.. and distribute ﬂyers for the opening of the town beach on May 31. Mr. to include in the newspaper article. Sanders. b. sanders. Peterson volunteered to make a detailed list of community members who would help pick up litter.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 133 USING APOSTROPHES TO SHOW POSSESSION Singular Nouns Rule: add ’s boy’s child’s lady’s Plural Nouns ending in s Rule: add ’ boys’ kids’ ladies’ Plural nouns not ending in s Rule: add ’s men’s children’s women’s Since apostrophes. d. S. Peterson volunteered to make a detailed list of community members who would help pick up litter set up picnic tables and distribute ﬂyers for the opening of the town beach on May 31 2003. 1. Sanders. Jr. E. a. Peterson volunteered to make a detailed list of community members who would help pick up litter. . was to gather more information to include in the newspaper article. The reviewer’s purpose for interviewing Dr. was to gather more information to include in the newspaper article. During the town board meeting. The reviewer’s purpose for interviewing Dr. set up picnic tables. The reviewer’s purpose for interviewing Dr. Mr. Mr. Peterson volunteered to make a detailed list of community members who would help pick up litter set up picnic tables. During the town board meeting. During the town board meeting Mr. you may be asked questions like the following on your exam. was to gather more information to include in the newspaper article. During the town board meeting.
think. written correctly. Examples: The gymnast is performing. the verb must be plural. a. d. d. Notice that a verb ending with s is usually a sign of the singular form of the verb.) Try this simple test with other verbs such as sing. If you are unsure whether a verb is singular or plural. b. b. this means that if a subject is singular. 3. a subject ending with s is the sign of a plural subject. would be: They speak. the helping verb (a verb that helps the main verb express action or make a statement) has to agree with the subject. Answers 1. written correctly. The gymnasts are performing. VERBS The subject of a sentence—who or what the sentence is about.134 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar 3. it was determined that four people would be chosen to ﬁll the openings left by this year’s retirements. Fill in the blanks below using the verb speak. write. He ________.) They ________. Similarly. the person or thing performing the action— should agree with its verb in number. it was determined that four people would be chosen to ﬁll the openings left by this years retirements. use this simple test. When all of the candidates were interviewed. The new schedule has interfered with our plans. and there would be a singular subject in the sentence. it was determined that four people would be chosen to ﬁll the openings left by this years retirements. If a sentence includes a verb phrase (a main verb and one or more helping verbs). . c. 2. When all of the candidate’s were interviewed. the verb must be singular. d. and the verb in the sentence would be plural. The sentence. or plan if you are confused about subject/verb agreement. (The correct form of the verb in this sentence would be singular because the subject—he—is singular. if the subject is plural. would be: He speaks. (The correct form of the verb in this sentence would be plural because the subject—they—is plural. When all of the candidate’s were interviewed it was determined that four people would be chosen to ﬁll the openings left by this year’s retirements. Be sure that it agrees with the subject. The sentence. When all of the candidates were interviewed. The new schedules have interfered with our plans. Simply put.
strikes birds ﬂy wind howls members meet Jack knows motor runs . P 2. 1. S 3.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 135 Practice The subjects and verbs in this list are in agreement. ________ 5. Remember that the verbs have to be in agreement with their subjects. Answers 1. S Practice Choose the correct verb for each of the following sentences. The meeting (starts/start) promptly at 10:00. Lightning (strikes/strike) indiscriminately. 5. were 2. 3. P 4. ________ 4. starts 3. 4. S 5. ________ 2. Answers 1. That decision (changes/change) everything. The ﬂowers (were/was) arranged carefully. save 5. ________ 3. 2. ________ 1. Identify the singular subject-verb pairs with an S and the plural with a P. Computers (saves/save) time. changes 4.
These pronouns are always singular: each either neither anybody anyone everybody everyone no one one nobody someone somebody For example. Each one of the men wants his own car. but pronouns are sometimes difﬁcult for even the most sophisticated writers. When you have identiﬁed these phrases. you will have a much easier time ﬁnding the subject of the sentence. Using the two sentences above as models. The indeﬁnite pronouns each. Some pronouns are always singular. note the prepositional phrases in bold. so the verb must be singular. Each of the men wants his own car. others are always plural.136 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar Agreement When Using Pronoun Subjects Few people have trouble matching noun subjects and verbs. and this word can never be the subject of the sentence. To be sure that you are using them correctly. Look at the following examples. and neither are most often misused. you would say “Neither of them has been to Chicago”—not “Neither of them have been to Chicago. You can avoid a mismatch by mentally adding the word one after the pronoun and removing the other words between the pronoun and the verb. . Either of the sales clerks knows where the sale merchandise is located.” Neither is the subject. Any noun or pronoun found in a prepositional phrase is the object of the preposition. and you may be used to hearing them used incorrectly. Either of the sales clerks knows where the sale merchandise is located. the substitution trick—inserting one for the words following the pronoun—will help you avoid making an error. depending on the usage. Each of the men wants his own car. either. It is important to note that a subject is never found in a prepositional phrase. These kinds of sentences may sound awkward because many speakers misuse these pronouns. Still others can be either singular or plural. Either one of the sales clerks knows where the sale merchandise is located. Try to ﬁlter out prepositional phrases when looking for the subject of a sentence.
If two nouns or pronouns are joined by or or nor. All of the jobs are ﬁnished. He wants to buy a new house. She wants to buy a new house. If what follows the pronoun is plural. . the verb must be plural. Think of them as two separate sentences.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 137 Some pronouns are always plural and require a plural verb. they require a singular verb. All of the work is ﬁnished. Dutch is not widely spoken today. they require a plural verb. Bill and Verna want to buy a new house. He or she wants to buy a new house. Portuguese is not widely spoken today. If what follows is singular. If two nouns or pronouns are joined by and. and you will never make a mistake in agreement. Is any of the pizza left? Are any of the pieces of pizza left? None of the time was wasted. They are: both few many several Other pronouns can be either singular or plural: all any most none some The words or prepositional phrases following these pronouns determine whether they are singular or plural. the verb must be singular. He and she want to buy a new house. None of the minutes were wasted. Neither Portuguese nor Dutch is widely spoken today.
Street names will be labeled. describe. occurred. they are highlighted so that you can easily see them. The subject is knowledge and takes the singular verb helps. works. The ﬁrst is written in the present tense. The subject is woman and takes the singular verb works. The subject is each and takes the singular verb has. helps. 1. 4. VERB TENSE The tense of a verb tells the reader when the action occurs. Each of the squares on the map represents one city block. Do all of the chapters (describes/describe) a different character? Answers 1. a city planner is hired to speak to the town council. The city planner presents a map of the city where some public buildings are located. either Gayle or Diane (takes/take) out the trash. Each of these prescriptions (has/have) side effects. A woman from my neighborhood (works/work) at the Community Theater box ofﬁce. takes. The city planner will present a map of the city where some public buildings will be located. and the third in the future tense. 5. The subject is all and takes the plural verb describe. To plan for growth in the small city. Two-way trafﬁc was allowed on streets with no arrows. To plan for growth in the small city. Each of the squares on the map represented one city block. 4. Read the three paragraphs that follow. 2. The subject is either [Gayle or Diane] and uses the singular verb takes. Each of the squares on the map will represent one city block. This plan alleviates trafﬁc in the downtown area. The city planner presented a map of the city where some public buildings were located. Street names are labeled. the second in the past tense. 2. a city planner will be hired. This plan alleviated trafﬁc in the downtown area. Future tense verbs tell the reader what will happen. Arrows on streets indicated that the street was one way only in the direction of the arrow. Notice the difference in the verbs. Two-way trafﬁc is allowed on streets with no arrows. 3. Arrows on streets will indicate . To plan for growth in the small city.138 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar Practice Choose the correct verb in each of the following sentences. Past tense verbs tell the reader what has already happened. Street names were labeled. 3. Every other day. 2. 5. 3. Remember that the subject and verb have to agree in number. has. A good knowledge of the rules (helps/help) you understand the game. Present tense verbs let the reader imagine the action as it is being read. Arrows on streets indicate that the street is one way only in the direction of the arrow. 1. or will occur. a city planner was hired.
(The verb sees is in the present tense and indicates that the action is occurring in the present. This plan will alleviate trafﬁc in the downtown area.) . Read the following sentences and their explanations. Incorrect The doorman opens the door and saw the crowd of people.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 139 that the street will be one way only in the direction of the arrow. if a passage begins in the future tense. Past Tense: The doorman opened the door and saw the crowd of people. past. Verb tense should never be mixed as it is in the following sample. If a passage begins in the present tense. 1. I ________ drove thought rose caught Future Tense Tomorrow. The game warden sees the ﬁsh that you caught. Correct Present Tense: The doorman opens the door and sees the crowd of people. it should remain in the future tense. and future tense by trying the word in a sentence beginning with today (present tense). I ________ drive think rise catch Past Tense Yesterday. If a passage begins in the past tense. keep it in the present tense unless there is a speciﬁc reason to change—to indicate that some action occurred in the past. VERB TENSE Present Tense Today. Two-way trafﬁc will be allowed on streets with no arrows.) 2. it should remain in the past tense. The house that was built over a century ago sits on top of the hill. The verb sits is in the present tense and indicates that the action is still occurring. for instance. It is easy to distinguish present. yesterday (past tense). I ________ will drive will think will rise will catch The important thing to remember about verb tense is to be consistent. Sometimes it is necessary to use a different verb tense in order to clarify when an action took place. Similarly. (The verb was built is in the past tense and indicates that the house was built in the past. The verb caught is in the past tense and indicates that the ﬁsh were caught at some earlier time. Future Tense: The doorman will open the door and will see the crowd of people. or tomorrow (future tense).
b. a. It begin to snow. When I ran. d. The director rode with Jerry and I. and the bank closed early. and she had trouble reading the manual. Her glasses were broken. Then the error becomes more clear. The errors in these sentences are not as easy to spot as those in the sentences using a single pronoun. In order to remedy this problem. Her glasses is broken. and the bank is closed early. Her glasses was broke. I always ran fast. I always run fast. b. Her glasses were broke.140 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar Practice Choose the sentence that uses the verb tense correctly. a. and the bank closed early. In fact. b. most people would readily be able to identify the mistakes in the following sentences. 3. When I run. See if you can spot the errors in the following sentences. The problem occurs when a pronoun is used with a noun or another pronoun. c. d. 3. I always run fast. she should be her. Pronouns Using a single pronoun in a sentence is usually easy to do. It began to snow. It beginning to snow. Most people know that Me in the ﬁrst sentence should be I and that he should be him. Belle and him are going to the company picnic. you can turn the sentence with two pronouns into two separate sentences. d. and the bank closed early. a. 2. and she has trouble reading the manual. My instructor gave she a ride to the class. and she have trouble reading the manual. When I ran. I always have ran fast. 1. and she had trouble reading the manual. 2. b. When I run. c. Such errors are easy to spot when the pronouns are used alone in a sentence. c. . d. Answers 1. a. Me went to the movie with he. It was begin to snow. In the second sentence.
the pronoun must be singular. us. (singular) Doctors must take breaks when they are tired. and they. If so. her. Objective pronouns—those that are the object of a preposition or the direct/indirect object of the sentence—are in the objective case. The doctor must take a break when she is tired. the subject it is the same as the pronoun I. In this sentence. A simple way to ﬁnd the correct pronoun is to test each one separately. For example: She went with me. Belle is going to the company picnic. Like subjects and verbs. either both pronouns must be singular or both pronouns must be plural. It tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done. pronouns must match the number of the nouns they represent. she. It answers the question who or whom. If the noun that a pronoun represents is singular.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 141 The director rode with Jerry. him.) Subjective pronouns are I. the pronoun must be plural. (plural) . (singular) All of the girls misplaced their purses. Knowing when to use objective pronouns can become problematic when they are used in compounds such as: She directed her comments to Margaret and me. She directed her comments to Margaret. he. Pronoun Agreement Using singular and plural pronouns can be a problem at times. For example: It was I. so there is no need to memorize case for those words. you should know that subject pronouns—those that are the subject in a sentence or the predicate nominative—are in the nominative case. (A direct object is the word that receives the action of the verb or shows the result of the action. The director rode with me (not I). Sometimes a pronoun represents another pronoun. She directed her comments to me. To help you move through this grammar problem with ease. You and it do not change their forms. An indirect object is the word that comes before the direct object. For example: She gave me some ﬂowers on my birthday. He (not him) is going to the company picnic. (A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that is the same as the subject.) Objective pronouns are: me. Consult the list of singular and plural pronouns you saw earlier in this chapter. we. (plural) One of the girls misplaced her purse. On the other hand. and them. if the noun a pronoun represents is plural.
One of the ﬁle folders is not in (its/their) drawer. Neither the sergeant nor the soldiers was sure of their location. Mark and Jennifer planned a meeting to discuss their ideas. 5. his. me 5. By reading the explanations below and looking at the examples. he WORDS COMMONLY CONFUSED The following word pairs are often misused in written language. Neither my cousins nor my uncle knows what (he/they) will do tomorrow. Neither the soldiers nor the sergeant was sure of his location. you can learn to use these words correctly every time. The bank or the credit union can lend money to its patrons. Carolyn and (he/him) went to the movies with Lisa and (I/me). 4. 2. use a singular pronoun. its 3. . he 2. It’s is a contraction for it is or it has. The treasurer or the assistant will loan you his calculator. Answers 1. If he and she want to join us. 1. If two or more singular nouns or pronouns are joined by or. Andrew or Alex will bring (his/their) camera so (he/they) can take pictures of the party. The auto parts store sent Bob and Neil the parts (he/they) ordered. the pronoun should agree with the closest noun or pronoun it represents.142 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar If two or more singular nouns or pronouns are joined by and. they are welcome to do so. Practice Choose the correct pronoun in the following sentences. use a plural pronoun to represent them. they 4. The only time you should ever use it’s is when you can also substitute the words it is or it has. Its/It’s Its is a possessive pronoun and shows that something belongs to it. If a singular and a plural noun or pronoun are joined by nor. 3. he.
in an open room. to my church. The meaning of the sentence would be different if another preposition such as on. Yes. you can see that it contains the word here. You’re is a contraction for the words you are. This clue will help you remember that their means that it belongs to them. they’re coming to dinner with us next Saturday night. Of the three words. Their coats should be hanging on racks by the door. over the top. That/Who That refers to things. They’re is a contraction for the words they are. beside the table. at his restaurant. The ofﬁce worker who invented Wite-Out® was very creative. you should be able to substitute here. The book that I need is no longer in print. To/Too/Two To can be used as a preposition or an inﬁnitive. Use they’re in a sentence only when you can substitute they are. their can be most easily transformed into the word them. Your/You’re Your is a possessive pronoun that means something belongs to you. and the sentence should still make sense. Whenever you use there. Your name will be the next one called. Extend the r on the right side and connect the i and the r to turn their into them. This is the house that my sister bought. She told me to wait over there for the next available salesperson. You’re the next person to be called. Their means belonging to them. Imagine that the apostrophe in they’re is actually a very small letter a. to our disadvantage.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 143 The dog knows its way home. The only time you should use you’re is when you can substitute the words you are. A preposition shows relationships between other words in a sentence. There/Their/They’re Their is a possessive pronoun that shows ownership. There is the man who helped me ﬁnd my wallet. over. There is an adverb that tells where an action or item is located. Example: My car is in the employee parking lot. Who refers to people. It is easy to remember the differences if you remember these tips. in the red. or beside were used. by the door . The word in shows the relation of my car to the parking lot. It’s only fair that I should do the dishes for you tonight. Other examples: to the ofﬁce. If you examine the word there.
It’s. 1. Too means also. to read. to see. Answers 1. For example: to talk. too. 5. its . (Its/it’s) (to/too/two) late (to/too/two) remedy the situation now. to 4. I did not know that you wanted to go too. to deny. They’re. substitute the word also. two. you will never misuse this form. to advance. 6.144 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar An inﬁnitive is to followed by a verb. (There/Their/They’re) going (to/too/two) begin construction as soon as the plans are ﬁnished. 2. Where is the librarian (who/that) helped me with the research material? 3. to peruse To ﬁnd the correct answer. to misinterpret. To see if you are using the correct spelling of the word too. Too can also mean excessively: It was too hot inside the car. The sentence should still make sense. as in one. I did some very careful thinking. Practice Choose the correct form of these words commonly confused. you’re. We left (there/their/they’re) house after the storm subsided. who 3. There are only two people in our party. to ﬁnd. The corporation moved (its/it’s) home ofﬁce. If you memorize this. their 5. two 6. to want. to 2. to. Two is a number. I think (your/you’re) going (to/too/two) win at least (to/too/two) more times. to build. 4.
do not waste time going back to review answer choices you have already eliminated as being wrong. ✓ look for subject-verb agreement and consistency of verb tense. ✓ check for correct punctuation.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 145 GRAMMAR CHECKLIST To answer grammar questions on the Civil Service exam. you should be able to ✓ identify complete sentences and sentence fragments. ✓ check pronouns to make sure the correct form is used and that the number (singular or plural) is correct. if you have time. ✓ when selecting an answer. read them carefully. ✓ read all of the answer choices before selecting the correct answer. As you answer grammar questions in multiple-choice format. commas. ✓ skip over questions you do not know and come back to them later. and make a choice. ✓ recognize words commonly confused. and apostrophes. ✓ leave spaces for those questions you skipped. at the end of the test. such as periods. . ✓ return to any questions you skipped. ✓ check all of your answers.
and words commonly confused. 16. 23. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 18. 33. 14. subject-verb agreement. 25. 1. 12. 47. 38. 10. 19. 28. verb tense. 20. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . 41.146 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar PRACTICE QUESTIONS The 50 questions in this exercise test your knowledge of complete sentences/sentence fragments. 32. 11. 43. 50. 29. pronouns. 22. 42. 13. 35. 8. 44. 9. 45. 21. 3. 6. 27. 15. 48. 5. 37. 31. 39. 2. punctuation. 34. 24. 36. 17. 7. 4. 49. 40. 46. 30.
Ernest Hemingway won the Nobel Prize for Literature. 5. If there are no mistakes. 4. d. c. b. d. including all of the girls on the swings. The national park system in the United States preserves land for all to enjoy. d. d.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 147 For questions 1–8. b. b. no mistakes If you see a grizzly bear. no mistakes . b. John is an avid stamp collector. 3. a. Christina is an excellent elementary school teacher. d. The train leaving the station. Tennessee. a. Turn off the television it’s time for dinner! no mistakes Baseball is the national pastime of the United States. Das was on vacation. The county executive a person who works very hard. a. When will you teach me how to cook like you do? I can’t wait Janet can’t either. d. We visited the presidential library of Lyndon B. Manuel wanted to complete all of his courses so he could get his degree. 8. c. b. no mistakes The sky was a brilliant blue this morning. look for run-on sentences or sentence fragments. I saw Dr. 2. Johnson. b. Choose the answer choice that does NOT express a correct. b. The rest of the story coming to you later. no mistakes At the end of the day. c. complete sentence. select choice d. Elvis Presley’s home is in Memphis. The children in the park. 1. She couldn’t believe the premise of the story. a. Supreme Court. a. c. a.S. no mistakes The medieval literature class was very interesting. 6. Sultana because Dr. 7. b. a. c. c. no mistakes Sandra Day O’Connor was the ﬁrst woman to serve on the U. c. c. a. they hoped to be ﬁnished with all tasks. no mistakes What is the best route to Philadelphia? The artichokes cost more than the asparagus does. d. do not make any sudden movements. d.
violets were scattered everywhere in the woodland garden. After checking our equipment we began our hiking trip. d. b. Concerned about her health. c. b. For questions 14–19. Shortly she will answer all messages. We visited England. When you come to the end of Newton Road. c. b. no mistakes He shouted from the window. Timothy however will attend a community college in the fall. 9. b. 13. c. The boys’ wore identical sweaters. Jessica made an appointment to see a doctor. Ecstatic the winner hugged her coach. Bonnie was outgoing friendly and sociable. 12. my cousin is going to Hawaii in August. blue. Lauren’s father is an auto mechanic. choose the sentence or phrase that has a mistake in capitalization or punctuation. b. O’Connor.148 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar For questions 9–13. d. c. We elected Ben as treasurer of the freshman class. Those sneakers are available in black tan red. d. is always on time. c. and blues music. told me I was very healthy. My favorite season is Spring. a. NASA was launching its ﬁrst space shuttle of the year. If you ﬁnd no mistakes. choose the sentence that uses commas correctly. Max was the most physically ﬁt and he won the 5K race. a. Exhausted I climbed into bed. c. Last Monday. and white. 14. a. France Spain. a. d. 11. You can have chocolate ice cream or you can have a dish of vanilla pudding. turn left onto Wilson Street. 10. c. a. James. no mistakes Occasionally someone will stop and ask for directions. but we couldn’t hear him. After his vacation to the Caribbean Art decided to learn scuba diving. I called Dan. Maureen. b. Dr. My best friend. b. no mistakes . classical. select choice d. d. d. and Italy. 16. d. My physician. a. Melanie sent me a picture of her new puppy. I like jazz. b. c. Hoping for the best. a. d. The abundant. 15. Aunt Ruth took me shopping. a. As far as I know that room is empty. My good friend.
rescue d. has fallen . and orange juice for breakfast. rescuing 22. In Tuesday’s paper. She served eggs. a. This is someone elses coat. have rescued c. b. would fall c. a. b.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 149 17. c. Sincerely. b. he fell and hurt himself. c. Don B. falls b. had fallen d. d. have responded 23. d. c. yours Yours truly. He wanted turkey. no mistakes For questions 20–25. no mistakes The US ﬂag should be ﬂown proudly. arrived. will respond b. 19. a. will have arrived. While trying to ________ his cat from a tree. 21. d. The volunteers from the ﬁre department ________ quickly and extinguished a ﬁre on North Country Road. the owner of the supermarket was recognized for helping a customer who ________ on the icy sidewalk. be rescuing b. Norman was one of the founders of the community. arrives. 20. d. 18. That book must be yours. and mayonnaise on his sandwich. will arrive. a. responded c. a. toast. a. will have responded d. no mistakes Dear Anne. choose the correct verb form. b. I am trying to become more skilled at weaving before winter ________ a. c. lettuce.
That snappy looking sports car belongs to my sister and ________. Her and me c. a. I ________ her speak on Friday night about the advantages of organic gardening. their c. a. myself 27. that b. a. which c. We arranged the ﬂowers and placed ________ in the center of the table. this b. them b. a. its 29. would have heard d. a. has been 25. Her and I b. would hear c. me c. a. ________ met more than ten years ago at a mutual friend’s birthday party. The person ________ made this delicious cheesecake has my vote. there d. was b. George and Michael left ________ backpacks in the car. his b. whose 28. who d. that 30. mine d. choose the correct pronoun form. She and me d. it b. a. 26.150 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar 24. I b. will hear For questions 26–30. were c. The people who bought this old lamp at the antique auction ________ very smart. is d. will have heard b. She and I .
b. 34. If you’re not sure. b. 35. d. c. a. no mistakes Alberto laughed loudly when he saw us. no mistakes. a. 37. We waited until he stopped to make a phone call. Anne will leave ﬁrst and Nick will follow her. no mistakes Three’s a crowd. c. ﬁnd the sentence that has a mistake in grammar or usage. b. d. 38. no mistakes I love the ﬁreworks on the Fourth of July. The clerk asked for my address and phone number. a. After we sat down to eat dinner. Texas. Sign all three copies of the form. 36. no mistakes . a. b. 31. a. b. c. The ﬁrst house on the street is there’s. The sun rose from behind the mountains. d.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 151 For questions 31–40. They weren’t the only ones that didn’t like the movie. c. My grandparents live in Dallas. 33. c. Don’t spend too much time on that project. a. d. d. Maya Angelou. recently spoke at our school. b. b. and listen. look. a. Don’t spend too much money. If there are no mistakes. a. no mistakes Ursula has broke one of your plates. c. no mistakes That parrot doesnt talk. no mistakes She believed in keeping a positive attitude. d. select choice d. c. They’re looking for another apartment. Have you ever read the book called The Firm? She urged me not to go. a famous poet. the phone rung. d. Stop. The dog’s barking woke us from a sound sleep. c. 32. d. look in the dictionary. b.
d. no mistakes For questions 46–50. c. b. The trip was scheduled for Friday the family was excited. and the family was excited. If it’s nice weather tomorrow. a. 45. b. choose the sentence that does NOT use the correct form of the commonly confused word. Marie sent a gift to her grandmother. She missed the bus and arrives late. c. c. a. The trip was scheduled for Friday. a. If you’re planning to attend. d. If there are no mistakes. b. b. 43. no mistakes Only their supervisor can answer those questions. c. d. choose the sentence that is correct in both grammar and punctuation. select choice d. Can you attend this morning’s meeting too? Save all of your ﬁles in to or three folders. There is a phone call for you. 40. d. b. a. who is in the hospital. c. The trip was scheduled for. Some analysts think the stock market has seen it’s best days. d. c. Friday the family was excited. no mistakes She spoke too quickly to the group in the lobby. .152 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar 39. b. c. d. President Carter returned control of the Panama Canal to Panama. c. a. This is the house that I told you about. a. d. It’s usually a good idea to purchase life insurance. I plan to go for a hike. no mistakes When will you bring you’re pictures to work? It is your responsibility to arrange the details. and the family was excited. was scheduled for Friday. What’s the weather forecast for today? no mistakes For questions 41–45. 41. a. There is not enough paper in the printer for the entire document. They’re only two ways to handle that situation. a. b. The Adirondack Mountains are in New York State. 46. d. The trip. please let me know in advance. 42. b. 44. no mistakes The childrens books are over there. no mistakes They are the ones who deserve all the credit.
were proud of their school district. and returned at 1:30. a. And returned at 1:30. a. b. The long-time residents in the community were proud of there school district. d. a. 50. They ﬁnished their lunch. a. 49. The long-time residents in the community. and returning at 1:30. Dara. Searching for her keys. c. Kira knew she would be late. They ﬁnished their lunch. . Searching. d. Lisa Dara and Amy wants to work together on the committee. Left the building. Lisa. Searching for her keys Kira knew she would be late. c.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 153 47. for her keys and Kira knew she would be late. d. They ﬁnished their lunch. and Amy wanted to work together on the committee. c. The long-time residents in the community were proud of their school district. c. left the building. b. Searching for her keys. left the building. left the building. Kira. Dara. Dara. and returns at 1:30. The long-time residents in the community was proud of their school district. knew she would be late. d. They ﬁnished their lunch. Lisa. and Amy have wants to work together on the committee. Lisa. 48. b. and Amy wanting to work together on the committee. b.
c. d. This sentence is in the present tense. This is a run-on sentence. d. c. This is a sentence fragment. The comma sets off an introductory phrase. 24. c. a. George and Michael. The comma should be placed after the word yours. Spring is not a proper noun. b. This sentence is in the past tense. Were is in agreement with the plural subject people. d. 33. d. 34. 5. There are no mistakes. 11. There should be periods after the abbreviation U. 23. 4. a. c. The correct verb form is has broken. The commas set off the appositive in the sentence. c. 17. a. This sentence needs a verb that is in the past tense. There are no errors. a. a. 36. c. c. The word boys’ should not show possession.S. . b. 29. 13. c. so it should not be capitalized. The pronoun them agrees with the plural noun ﬂowers. There are no mistakes. The correct pronoun is who because it refers to a person. The comma sets off the appositive in the sentence. 35. b. b. 26. a. a. 3. c. b. 19. 8. 7. This is a sentence fragment. The contraction doesn’t has an apostrophe. The inﬁnitive form of the verb is used in this sentence. d. This sentence is in the future tense. 20. d. no apostrophe is needed. This is a sentence fragment. She and I is the subject of the sentence. b. 37. b. b. a. An apostrophe is needed before the last s in the word elses to show possession. 14. occasionally. so the subjective case is needed.154 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar ANSWERS 1. d. A comma is needed to set off the introductory word. The pronoun their agrees with the plural subject. 21. 28. 9. not there’s. The word that should be who because it refers to people. There are no errors. c. c. 22. The correct possessive pronoun is theirs. 31. b. The commas separate items in a series. The comma sets off an introductory clause. 27. The correct form of the pronoun is me (objective case). 30. 16. 10. 6. 18. 32. This is a run-on sentence. 15. 2. This is a sentence fragment. 25. a. b. 12. There should be a comma before the conjunction and in this sentence to separate two complete thoughts.
its. Choices b. as are ﬁnished and left. b. 49. 48. . b. a. the correct verb. 50. Choice d misuses commas. 44. This choice uses the comma and the conjunction correctly. 42. Choices a and c misuse commas. c. 41. This sentence uses the correct punctuation in a series and the correct verb form. The comma in this sentence correctly separates the introductory phrase. and d misuse commas and verb tense. 46. missed and arrives should be in the past tense. An apostrophe should be added before the s in children’s to make it possessive. b. 45. Choice c uses verb tense incorrectly. d. This sentence uses the correct form of their. c. a. a. Both verbs. b. Choice c contains sentence fragments. 47. Choice d is an example of comma misuse. 43. This sentence uses the possessive form (with no apostrophe). The word returned is in the past tense. The correct verb form is rang. 40. This sentence should use the adverb there. Choice a is a run-on sentence. d. c. Choice b lacks punctuation. and the correct punctuation. Choices b and d misuse verb tense. c. The form of this word is the number two. 39.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 155 38. There are no errors. The word there is used incorrectly in choice a. This sentence should use the possessive form of the word your. c. Choice a contains sentence fragments.
Spelling tests are usually given in multiple-choice format. have a good grasp of spelling rules. you will not only excel on this section of the test. you will be given several possible spellings for a word and asked to identify the one that is correctly spelled. If you take the time to commit the words you encounter every day to memory. because you must be able to see very subtle differences between word spellings. and know the exceptions to those rules. This can be a difﬁcult task. it is always tested on Civil Service exams. but your correspondence and written work will be more clear and effective and look more professional. test tips. and practice exercises that will make the spelling section of the exam easier for you. In this chapter. The secret to correct spelling is memorization. T here is no “quick ﬁx” for spelling.= 7 CHAPTER Spelling Since accurate spelling is such an essential and important communication skill. The fundamental rules and their exceptions are outlined here. Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 157 . The best way to prepare for a spelling test is to put your memorization skills into high gear. even for the best speller. you will find spelling rules. Typically.
Drop the ﬁnal e before adding a sufﬁx that begins with a vowel—as in caring or usable. or acknowledgment are exceptions. Words like truly. ■ If the noun ends in a y. double the ﬁnal consonant before the sufﬁx if the word has only one syllable—as in planning or if the word ends with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel— as in forgetting. add an es—as in boxes or lunches. When words end in y and a consonant precedes the y. When spelling the plural form of a noun. bushes. The Exception Use i before e except after c—as in receive or conceive—or when ei sounds like a—as in neighbor or weigh. When adding preﬁxes. Nouns are normally made plural by adding an s. add an s—as in books or letters. One-syllable words ending in y generally remain the same—as in dryness or shyly. change the y to i before adding ness or ly—as in readily or heaviness. ■ ■ none Keep the ﬁnal e to retain the soft sound of c or g preceding the e—as in noticeable or courageous. Keep the ﬁnal e before a sufﬁx beginning with a consonant—as in careful or careless. none If the accent is not on the last syllable. change the y to i before adding a sufﬁx with i—as in hurried or funnier. ■ Some nouns that end in o preceded by a consonant are formed by adding es—as in potatoes or tomatoes. argument. When a sufﬁx begins with a vowel. do not add a double consonant—as in canceled or preferable. ■ ■ ■ If a noun ends in o and is preceded by a vowel. An es is added when there is an extra sound heard in words that end in s. Some nouns that end in f or fe are formed by changing the f to v and adding s or es—as in knives or leaves. or boxes. or x—as in dresses. birches. just add s—as in attorneys or monkeys. change the y to an i and add es—as in salaries or ladies.158 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling SPELLING RULES AND EXCEPTIONS The Rule Use i before e—as in piece. ■ If the noun ends in y and is preceded by a vowel. If a noun ends in f or fe. add an s—as in pianos or radios. ch. add an s—as in chiefs or roofs. do not change the spelling of the word—as in ﬁnally or usually. sh. do not change the spelling of the word—as in unnecessary or misspell When adding sufﬁxes. judgment. When a word ends in y. .
species. ■ ■ ■ Some foreign words are formed according to the ending of the word: * singular ending in -is. ■ ■ . letters. Some foreign words are formed as they were in their original languages—as alumni or data. for example. proceed. There are only three words ending in -ceed: exceed. plural ending in -a —as in curriculum/curricula * singular ending in -on. -ceed. plural ending in -a —as in criterion/criteria * singular ending in -eau. the noun is made plural—as in sisters-in-law or passers-by. Some foreign words may be spelled as they were in their original languages or by adding s or es—as appendices/appendixes or indexes/indices. ■ Some plural nouns are irregular nouns and have to be memorized—as children. plural ending in -eaux —as in beau/beaux * singular ending in -a. plural ending in -ae —as in formula/formulae * singular ending in -us. Other words that have the same sound end in -cede: secede. There are two o’s and two m’s in roommate. A few compound nouns are irregular—as six year olds or drive-ins. plural ending in -es —as in analysis/analyses crisis/crises * singular ending in -um. signs.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 159 ■ Plural or compound nouns can be spelled with an s or an es—as in bookmarks or mailboxes. or women. Some nouns take the same form in the singular and the plural—as deer. precede. or -sede. and concede. and succeed. ■ ■ ■ ■ Numbers. plural ending in -i —as in stimulus/stimuli When using -cede. memorize the following: ■ There is only one English word ending in -sede: supersede. When a noun and a modiﬁer make a compound noun. or sheep. men. and words that take the shape of words are spelled with an apostrophe and an s—She received all A’s on her report card.
Accurit . Remember that long vowels inside words usually are followed by single consonants—as in sofa. alot c. See if there is a root. Practice Choose the word that is spelled correctly in the following sentences. a lot d. We took ________ of pictures on our vacation.160 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling HOW TO ANSWER SPELLING QUESTIONS ■ Sound out the word in your mind. 1. a. alott 4. probly b. un. a. excibition d. ________ answers on your test mean a better score for you. Accurate b. For example. allot b. Acurate c. in. scissors. probbaly c. preﬁx. exebition 2. Accuret d. total. or crime. ■ Give yourself auditory (listening) clues when you learn words. in the word uninhabitable. or toddler. a. and know the exceptions to each rule. or sufﬁx that will always be spelled the same way. and able are always spelled the same. exibition b. ■ Memorize as many spelling rules as you can. Short vowels inside words usually are followed by double consonants—as in dribble. probely d. exhibition c. a. We will ________ go to the movies tonight. ■ Look at each part of the word. We went to an ________ of early Egyptian art. Habit is a self-contained root word that is easy to spell. probably 3. Say Wed-nes-day or lis-ten or bus-i-ness to yourself so that you remember to add the silent letters when you write the word.
Quiz yourself and then check your spelling. 3. or ration out. The groups can be bunched as three. is always two words. achievement allege anxiety appreciate asthma arraignment autonomous auxiliary doubtful eligible enough enthusiasm equipped exception fascinate fatigue ninety noticeable occasionally occurred offense ofﬁcial pamphlet parallel . or seven words. excesive c. here are some suggestions to make your studying a little easier and quicker. a. Say the words as you read them. If so. These words are typical of the words that appear on spelling exams. c. Consider making ﬂash cards for the words that you ﬁnd the most difﬁcult. Cross out or discard any words that you already know for certain. 5. exessive b. If you do not receive a list of spelling words to study. b. portion. ﬁve. USING SPELLING LISTS When you apply to take your Civil Service test. you may be given a list of spelling words to study.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 161 5. c. excessive d. 4. Divide the list into groups to study. the following list is a good one to use. d. Spell them out in your mind so you can “hear” the spelling. a. Highlight or circle the tricky elements in each word. meaning a great deal. It should not be confused with allot. which means to assign. 2. A lot. Do not let them get in the way of the words you need to study. excesive Answers 1. The meteorologist predicted an ________ amount of wind today.
162 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling brief ballistics barricade beauty beige business bureau calm cashier capacity cancel circuit colonel comparatively courteous criticism custody cyclical debt deﬁnitely descent forfeit gauge grieve guilt guarantee harass hazard height incident indict initial innocent irreverent jeopardy knowledge leisure license lieutenant maintenance mathematics mortgage personnel physician politics possess privilege psychology recommend referral rehearsal salary schedule seize separate speciﬁc statistics surveillance suspicious tentative thorough transferred withhold .
having a pleasing appearance. moderately good fare: transportation charge. a piece of wood bored: to be tired of something brake: to slow or stop something break: to split or crack build: to construct billed: presented a statement of costs cite: to quote as an authority or example sight: ability to see. ad: a shortened form of advertisement add: to combine to form a sum affect: to inﬂuence effect: outcome or result allowed: permitted aloud: using a speaking voice bare: without covering bear: a large furry animal. The following lists some of the most common homophones for you to study. It is best to study the spellings and the deﬁnitions until you have each word memorized. food and drink. to advise dew: moisture do: to make or carry out due: owed fair: consistent with the rules. to get along for: because of or directed to fore: located at or toward the front four: the number between three and ﬁve . a scene site: place or setting of something council: a group that advises counsel: advice.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 163 HOMOPHONES Words that sound alike but have different meanings are called homophones. to tolerate board: a group of people in charge.
beforehand peace: free from war piece: a part of something plain: level area. undecorated. a shortened form of airplane rain: water falling in drops reign: period during which a monarch rules .164 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling grate: reduce to fragments. to bring or guide led: past tense of lead leased: rented for a speciﬁc time period least: lowest in importance or rank lessen: made fewer in amount or quantity lesson: exercise in which something is learned made: past tense of make maid: a female servant meat: the edible part of an animal meet: come together passed: approved past: previous. information pointing toward a clue. make a harsh. irritate or annoy great: very large in size hear: to listen to here: a speciﬁc place heard: the past tense of hear herd: a large group of animals hole: an opening whole: entire or complete hour: sixty minutes our: a pronoun showing possession knew: past tense of know new: recent know: to understand no: not permitted lead: ﬁrst or foremost position. clearly seen plane: ﬂat and even. a tool used to smooth wood. grinding sound. a margin.
e. hardware.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 165 right: correct or proper rite: a ritual or ceremony write: to record in print role: function or position.g. among or between tide: variation of the level of bodies of water caused by gravitational forces tied: fastened or secured to: indicates direction too: also two: the number after one vary: to change very: complete. extremely ware: articles of the same general kind. character or part played by a performer roll: to move forward by turning over scene: the place something happens seen: part of the verb see soar: to ﬂy or rise high into the air sore: painful stair: part of a ﬂight of steps stare: to look directly and ﬁxedly sweet: having a sugary taste suite: series of connected rooms their: ownership of something there: a place they’re: a contraction of they are threw: the past tense of throw.. software wear: to have or carry on the body where: location or place weather: condition of the atmosphere whether: a possibility wood: material that trees are made of would: part of the verb will . an act of motion through: by means of.
3. Facts are knowledge or information based on truth. 2. lesson. Fax—short for facsimile—is a document sent or received from a fax machine. facts. Answers 1. Higher means to be in an elevated position. No one (new/knew) exactly what had happened. A council is a group of people who meet for a purpose. The speaker wanted to have all his (facts/fax) correct before he spoke to the audience. brake. 5. Knew means having known something. 5. or status. A brake is a device used for stopping. 4. Break means to damage or destroy something. 2. Counsel is advice. 6. A lesson is an experience or example from which knowledge or wisdom is gained. hire.166 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling Practice Choose the word that is spelled correctly. knew. 6. To lessen means to make less. To hire means to engage and pay someone for services rendered. He stepped on the (break/brake) just before the stop sign. Financial (council/counsel) is available for anyone who wants to invest money. The manager decided to (higher/hire) a few more employees. 4. 3. 1. . She considered it a (lessen/lesson) learned. counsel. rank. New is the opposite of old.
17. 47. 45. 23. 24. 27. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . 8. 36. 50. 1. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 11. 39. 30. 12. 10. 15. 25. 43. 48. 37. 6. 42. 18. 49. 7. 34.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 167 PRACTICE QUESTIONS In each of the following questions. 22. 40. 31. 41. 20. 13. 21. 9. 28. 46. 5. 14. 32. 33. 4. choose the correctly spelled word. 16. 29. 35. 44. 2. 38. 19. 3.
elicitt b. illicet d. sittuation b. ellicit c. The agents were searching for ________ cargo on the airplane. supperb c. sheriff 6. sepurb 5.168 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling 1. sherrif b. a. a. prosecuted b. supurb d. prosecutted d. a. mechenical d. he needed to have ________ ability. a. situachun d. prosecuited 3. belief d. situation c. sherif d. a. machanical 7. sherriff c. candidates must have a solid background in law enforcement. Every ________ has to be handled differently. illicit . mechanical c. To be elected ________. It was a ________day for the department’s annual picnic. mechinical b. The accounting ﬁrm was ________ for fraudulent practices. prossecuted c. It is my ________ that municipal employees handle their jobs with great professionalism. bilief c. beleif b. beleaf 2. To be hired for the job. a. a. superb b. sitiation 4.
enquery 9. stabilize b. lisence c. The paramedics attempted to ________ the victim. encouraging c. a. paralel b. terrminated d. parallel 12. license 11. The attorney asked a question that was ________ to the case. A ________ can be obtained at the town hall. a. terminated b. irrelevant d. paralell c. a. enquirry d. a. termenated c. stableise 13. stablize c. In many states. a. inquirry c. lycence d. irelevent b. inquiry b. lisense b. stableize d. a. parallal d. irelevant c. a. irrelevent 14. incurraging d. There will be an immediate ________ into the cause of the accident. The mayor highlighted the ________ statistics during her campaign speech. passing a road test requires drivers to ________ park. The union workers’ contract could not be ________before the calendar year ended.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 169 8. incouraging . termanated 10. the judge overruled it. encouredging b.
b. d. b. a. b. a. 19. c.170 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling For each of the following questions. a. d. a. d. 15. 22. d. 21. If there are no mistakes. 18. c. b. b. c. 17. d. radios leaves alumni no mistakes anouncement advisement description no mistakes omission aisle litrature no mistakes informal servent comfortable no mistakes vegetable width variation no mistakes twentieth fortieth ninetieth no mistakes association unecessary illegal no mistakes villin volunteer voracious no mistakes . c. c. 20. c. b. d. a. a. b. d. 16. b. c. choose the misspelled word. a. select choice d. d. a. c.
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23. a. b. c. d. 24. a. b. c. d. 25. a. b. c. d. 26. a. b. c. d. 27. a. b. c. d. 28. a. b. c. d. 29. a. b. c. d. 30. a. b. c. d. 31. a. b. c. d.
hindrence equipped possessive no mistakes procedure judgment testamony no mistakes explicit abduct rotate no mistakes through threw thorough no mistakes quantaty quality quaint no mistakes requirement reverence resistent no mistakes incorporate contridict exhale no mistakes pertain reversel memorization no mistakes marshal martial tyrenny no mistakes
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32. a. b. c. d. 33. a. b. c. d. 34. a. b. c. d. 35. a. b. c. d. 36. a. b. c. d.
optimum palpable plunder no mistakes ravinous miraculous wondrous no mistakes phenomonal emulate misconception no mistakes mischief temperture lovable no mistakes stadium competitor atheletic no mistakes
For the questions 37–50, choose the correct homophone. 37. My favorite ________ is peach pie with vanilla ice cream. a. desert b. dessert 38. While nuclear energy is efﬁcient, storing nuclear ________ is always a problem. a. waste b. waist 39. The price for the carpet was ________. a. fair b. fare 40. This is the ________ of the new art museum. a. sight b. cite c. site
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41. Come ________ the park later this evening to see the sunset. a. buy b. bye c. by 42. This is the ________ book George has read. a. fourth b. forth 43. The acoustics in the auditorium made it easy for the audience to ________ the melodic sounds of the soloist. a. here b. hear 44. Our choice to stay in the comfortable, cozy ________ house was a good decision. a. guessed b. guest 45. Have dinner with us at the restaurant; we’ll meet you ________. a. they’re b. their c. there 46. May I have a ________ of cheese? a. piece b. peace 47. All children have the ________ to an education. a. write b. rite c. right 48. It is a good idea to exercise on a ________ bicycle during inclement weather. a. stationery b. stationary 49. At the beach, we went digging for clams and ________. a. mussels b. muscles 50. We ________ the exit and had to turn around. a. past b. passed
VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS
CHAPTER 7 Spelling
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. c. a. b. a. d. b. d. a. a. d. d. a. c. b. d. a. c. b. d. d. b. a. a. c. d. d. a. c. b. b. c. d. a. a. b. c. b. a. belief prosecuted situation superb sheriff mechanical illicit. This word should not be confused with elicit, which means to draw out or extract. inquiry terminated license parallel stabilize irrelevant encouraging no mistakes announcement literature servant no mistakes no mistakes unnecessary villain hindrance testimony no mistakes no mistakes quantity resistant contradict reversal tyranny no mistakes ravenous phenomenal temperature athletic Dessert is an after-dinner treat; a desert is an arid land. Waste means material that is rejected during a process; the waist is the middle of the body.
48. c. 45. peace means calm or quiet. c. Hear means to perceive sound with the ear. 44. Passed is the past tense of pass. b. a. There refers to a place. . a. buy means to purchase. stationery is writing paper. a. past means a time gone by. 50. b. here is a location. 42. 43. Mussels are marine animals. their is a possessive pronoun. 41. bye is used to express farewell. b. a fare is a transportation fee.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 175 39. By means near. to write is to put words on paper. a. 49. A piece is a portion. they’re is a contraction for they are. muscles are body tissues. cite means to refer to. place. 47. c. or position. Guessed is to predict without signiﬁcant information. Stationary means standing still. b. forth means forward. a rite is a ceremonial ritual. sight is the ability to see. 46. A right is a privilege. A guest is one who is a recipient of hospitality. 40. Site refers to a place. Fourth refers to the number four. Fair means equitable. c.
Take Practice Test 1. take Practice Test 2 in the last chapter of this book. This chapter contains your first practice test. Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 177 . Next. Then try it again.= 8 CHAPTER Practice Test 1 Now that you have studied all of the chapters in this book. you should be able to use what you have learned to answer the questions on these sample examinations. Each test should take about 30–45 minutes to complete. Be sure to review the questions you answered incorrectly by going back and studying the corresponding material from earlier chapters. Good luck! U se the answer grid on the following page to ﬁll in your answers to the questions.
19. 15. 20. 33. 10. 42. 12. 46. 8. 49. 2. 3. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 23. 35. 14. 36. 45. 39. 7. 34. 43. 40. 44. 50. 27. 24. 32.178 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 1. 21. 48. 11. 41. 25. 47. 4. 37. 28. 30. 29. 22. 16. 31. 6. 13. 38. 17. 9. 18. 5. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d .
scientiﬁc d. annulled 2. prospectus b. a. invalidated c. Typically. technological c. and the committee was asked to vote on the issue.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 179 Choose the correct vocabulary word to complete each of the following sentences. computer designs reach ________ within six months. visionary 6. Connor decided to ________ from the vote. The newspaper ________ the statement made in the article because it was incorrectly stated. a. agrarian . For information about making a sound investment. a. The new congressman was considered a ________ because he refused to follow his party’s platform on nearly every issue. division b. The proposition was read. abstain d. abolished b. business b. a. maverick c. retracted d. obsolescence d. secrecy 4. where all family members needed to be available to help in the ﬁelds. teller d. discord c. protagonist d. tackle b. destabilize 3. you should get advice from a/an ________. undermine c. mentor b. cashier 5. 1. a. entrepreneur c. School calendars were originally based on a/an ________ lifestyle. a.
a. The ________ young woman gave generously to many worthy causes. diligently replaced all of the research ﬁles at the end of every day. The project seemed both ________ and beneﬁcial. implacable b. gregarious d. sagacious 9. Carelessly b. conﬁscate b. Ethan. a. meticulous d. extract . Precariously c. feasible c. eliminate c. she was able to help those who could not read. and the ofﬁce staff supported it enthusiastically. puerile 10. a ________ young worker. erudite b. insightful c. rubble 13. censure d. forlorn d. His ________ behavior made him seem childish and immature. The furniture in the attic turned out to be a veritable ________ of valuable antiques. ________. a. a. personable 11. a. a. irreparable 8. benevolent c. Gingerly d. a. Wantonly 12. incisive b. reproof b.180 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 7. receding c. bonanza c. Choosing to ________her estate to the literacy foundation. savory d. bequeath d. the pediatric nurse fed the premature baby. beguiling b.
poignant b. the velocipede was a hit and the Michaux family made hundreds of the machines annually. Riders moved it by pushing their feet against the ground. H. Despite the unﬂattering nickname. Although Macmillan’s bicycle could be ridden easily. Parsimonious c. called a draisienne. a diamond-shaped frame. In 1861. Lawson. Kirkpatrick Macmillan. bicycles are elegantly simple machines that are common all over the globe. Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride. Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 181 14. Ten years later. He made the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel. Frenchman Pierre Michaux and his brother Ernest invented a bicycle with an improved crank mechanism. Invented by another Englishman. the draisienne was not very durable nor did it have pedals. Magnanimous b. It was not until 1874 that the ﬁrst truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. Prudent d. It did not look much like the modern bicycle because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. put a gear on the pedals to make the bicycle more efﬁcient. the safety bicycle had been further improved with air-ﬁlled rubber tires. made several innovations that revolutionized bicycle design. supercilious 15. was invented in Germany in 1818 by Baron Karl de Draid de Sauerbrun. Because it was made of wood. By 1893. Diplomatic Read the following passage and respond to the questions that follow. Her haughty and ________manner was not appealing to her constituents. which made it much less prone to toppling over. and easy . The safety bicycle had equalized wheels. He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. In 1839. they were never produced in large numbers. ________donations from a generous but anonymous benefactor were received every year at the children’s hospital. J. a. James Starley. Most of them were for fun-seeking young people. Many people ride bicycles for recreation while others use them as a means of transportation. it was still clumsy. nocturnal c. The ﬁrst bicycle. Today. and ridden mostly for entertainment. They called their bicycle. this safety bicycle would look familiar to today’s cyclists. amicable d. extremely top-heavy. a. a velocipede. but most people called it a bone shaker because of the jarring effect of the wood and iron frame. an English inventor. and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. invented a much better bicycle. a Scottish blacksmith.
18. c. bicycles did not even exist. b. Today they are built. James Starley. d. 21. c. With the improvements provided by Lawson. maintained. The Michaux brothers called their bicycle a velocipede. b. Two hundred years ago. made the ride less tiring. H. Which of the following statements from the passage represents the writer’s opinion? a. d. The ﬁrst person to use a gear system on bicycles was a. 19. c. As it is used in the sentence. Lawson. 16. persuade readers to use bicycles for transportation. bicycles with wheels of different sizes cannot be ridden easily. c. There is enough information in this passage to show that a. c. d. and enjoyed all over the world. b. few people rode bicycles just for fun. 20. used. d. only a few velocipedes built by the Michaus family are still in existence. tell readers a little about the history of the bicycle. an English inventor. compare bicycles used for fun with bicycles used for transportation. several people contributed to the development of the modern bicycle. James Starley. Read the following sentence from the fourth paragraph: Ten years later. canceled. d. make the tires last longer. preserved. Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims. d. make the ride less bumpy. Macmillan added iron rims to the tires of his bicycle to a. bicycles became extremely popular and useful for transportation. for most of the nineteenth century. made several innovations that revolutionized bicycle design. Pierre Michaux. b. Kirkpatrick Macmillan. describe the problems that bicycle manufacturers encounter. 17. c. J. This passage was most likely written in order to a. transformed.182 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 braking. add weight to the bicycle. b. the word revolutionized most nearly means a. The safety bicycle would look familiar to today’s cyclists. b. .
artistic. relentless. An antonym for impertinent is a. charitable. b. c. b. obstacle. suspicious. 27. d. c. indifferent. criticize. secretive. . b. increase. 26. d. c. b. somber. 23. b. repeal. c. d. reasonable. d. emotional. reverential. evasive. d. c. civil. c. lively. polite. abbreviated. pitiable. b. A synonym for animated is a. b. expressive.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 183 Read the directions for each of the following questions carefully and select the word that is the synonym or antonym for the word provided. An antonym for deterrent is a. A synonym for augment is a. evaluate. absurd. A synonym for apathetic is a. encouragement. discomfort. 22. d. proponent. A synonym for surreptitious is a. rude. 28. 25. d. 24. c. An antonym for ludicrous is a. secret.
c. Do you think you will work with Jason or she on this project? d. d. Do you think you will work with Jason or I on this project? b. which was held at Morgan’s beach. will compete in this year’s New York Marathon. which was held at Morgan’s Beach. will compete in this year’s New York Marathon. which was held at morgan’s beach. b. will compete in this years New York Marathon. Do you think you will work with Jason or he on this project? 32. last year. Charlotte who ran in the Boston Marathon last year.184 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 29. The Governor gave a speech at the Fourth of July picnic. which was held at Morgan’s Beach. haunted. The governor gave a speech at the fourth of july picnic. spiteful. d. Charlotte. ancient. outrageous. Which of the following sentences is capitalized correctly? a. 30. d. A synonym for vindictive is a. c. An antonym for archaic is a. Do you think you will work with Jason or me on this project? c. Which of the following sentences is correctly punctuated? a. d. b. who ran in the Boston Marathon last year. 33. Answer each of the following grammar and usage questions. The Governor gave a speech at the fourth of July picnic. The governor gave a speech at the Fourth of July picnic. c. . insulting. 31. b. Charlotte. Charlotte who ran in the Boston Marathon. modern. Which of the following sentences uses the correct pronoun form? a. tangible. c. offensive. b. who ran in the Boston Marathon last year will compete in this years New York Marathon.
Brown. will speak to the scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on Wed. Only one of the many problems were solved. have planned to attend the gallery opening tomorrow evening. Francine can run much faster than me. Where are the forms you want me to ﬁll out? b. The art professor. Brown. Only one of the many problems are solved.E. my sister takes me to the public library. CEO of the company. 35. C. Dr Richard K Brown.O. Before learning to read. Which of the following sentences uses punctuation correctly? a. c. at 9:00 A. my sister will take me to the public library. 36. c. In which of the following sentences is the pronoun incorrect? a. of the company. c. along with several of her students. d. d.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 185 34. Dr. 39.M. Richard K. will speak to the scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Wed at 9:00 AM. 37. Before learning to read. my sister has took me to the pubic library. C. Before learning to read. There are two people who still need to complete the form.M. Which of the following sentences uses the correct verb form? a. c. are planning to attend the gallery opening tomorrow evening. b. plan to attend the gallery opening tomorrow evening. Which of the following sentences shows subject/verb agreement? a. The art professor. 38. C. d. b. Before learning to read. b. Erin and Bob are painting the house by themselves. my sister took me to the public library. d. along with several of her students.O. of the company.E. Dr.O. b. Dr. Richard K. . b. c. at 9:00 A. Only one of the many problems was solved. d. is planning to attend the gallery opening tomorrow evening. along with several of her students. of the company. along with several of her students. Five members of the team and I will represent our school. will speak to the scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on Wed at 9:00 AM. Only one of the many problems been solved. d. Which of the following sentences uses the correct verb form? a. Our neighbors gave us some tomatoes from their garden. The art professor. The art professor. In which of the following sentences is the verb NOT in agreement with the subject? a.E. Richard K Brown. Which is the correct form? c. Here is the forms you need to complete. will speak to the scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on Wed.
a. 41. a. Each of the new employees has similar ________. asparations c. loquecious 44. The president and the vice president were a ________ pair. supervizer 45. loquacius d. neumonia b. compatible b. a. asspirations b. loquacious c. aspirations 42. d. but he moved to a very large city. pnemonia d. Choose the correctly spelled word to complete each of the following sentences. loquatious b. c. He was from a small town. He was from a small town but he moved to a very large city. superviser d. supervisor b. There are two types of ________: viral and bacterial. supervizor c. he moved to a very large city. He was from a small town. pneumonia . I was skeptical of the claims made by the ________ salesman. aspirrations d. Which of the following sentences is NOT a run-on sentence? a. Who is your immediate ________? a. pnumonia c. a.186 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 40. commpatible d. He was from a small town he moved to a very large city. compatibel 43. b. compatable c.
Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 187 Choose the misspelled word in the questions below. 48. b. d. 47. 46. a. 49. c. d. b. If there are no mistakes. d. 50. b. a. illuminate enlighten clarify no mistakes abolish forﬁt negate no mistakes zoology meterology anthropology no mistakes ajournment tournament conﬁnement no mistakes vague trepidation vengence no mistakes . c. d. a. b. d. b. c. a. select choice d. c. a. c.
To be feasible is to be practical. 5. the other choices are incorrect. this is the only possible choice. 8. The other choices are presented as facts. 23. b. There is no support for choices b and c. b. Choice a is incorrect because although the iron rims probably did make the machine heavier. 3. 15. A benevolent person is one who is charitable. c. d. A deterrent prevents or discourages. To retract something is to take it back or disavow it. a. To abstain means to refrain from something by one’s own choice. The passage gives the history of the bicycle. 6. 21. Agrarian means having to do with agriculture or farming. To handle a baby gingerly would be to handle it delicately and with great caution. d. Starley revolutionized the bicycle. and the tires lasted longer. Choice c is incorrect because no information is given about whether iron-rimmed or wooden tires moved more smoothly. b. a. b. 13. b. Meticulous means extremely and excessively concerned with details. according to the passage. or silly. The fourth paragraph states that James Starley added a gear to the pedals. This information is clearly stated in the second paragraph. 2. Each paragraph of the passage describes an inventor whose inventions became more and more advanced. 4. 22. Based on the context. Puerile means to be of or like a child. The iron rims kept the tires from wearing down. 18. b. This is the term usually applied to disavowing something erroneous or libelous printed in a newspaper. 19. a. it is his or her opinion that this is so. To be supercilious means to show arrogant superiority and disdain for those one views as unworthy. Obsolescence is the state of being outdated. 11. c. 17. 16. b. thereby transforming the form and shape of the bicycle. 20. 14. nonconformist. c. A bonanza is a source of great wealth or prosperity. to be boyish. The writer cannot be certain that the safety bicycle would look familiar to today’s cyclists. Magnanimous donations are noble in mind or heart. or free spirit. c. d. manageable. 7. d. c. . A prospectus is a published report of a business and its plans for a program or offering. 12. a. 9. triﬂing. Based on the paragraph. Choice a is incorrect because few opinions are included in the passage. to be indifferent is to have no particular interest or concern. To bequeath something is to pass it to another when you die. Surreptitious is acting in a stealthy or secretive manner. encouragement inspires or heartens. giving. There is no support for choice d.188 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 ANSWERS 1. or serviceable. Choices c and d are incorrect because they both make statements that. that was not Macmillan’s goal. a. 24. d. A maverick is a political independent. To be apathetic is to show little emotion or interest. c. are untrue. 10. This is the only choice that states an opinion. convenient. b. There is no evidence to support choice b. he made many innovative changes.
To be vindictive is to be vengeful. c. To augment means to increase or expand in size or extent. 27. therefore the subjective pronoun I is used. 37. 33. The correct spelling is forfeit. The subject of the sentence art professor is singular and takes the singular verb is planning. c. b. c. 41.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 189 25. b. 34. 32. 42. The correct spelling is compatible. To be animated is to be ﬁlled with activity or vigor. The correct spelling is adjournment. 38. to be spiteful means to be malicious. In this sentence. Someone who is impertinent is rude. b. 30. a. a. 39. The correct spelling is vengeance. c. 35. the objective pronoun me is used. 40. The correct spelling is supervisor. This sentence is in the past tense and uses the verb took. c. d. a. 49. Archaic means ancient or outdated. d. not the singular is. All proper nouns—Fourth of July and Morgan’s Beach—are capitalized correctly in this sentence. the appositive—who ran in the Boston Marathon last year—describes Charlotte and is separated from the rest of the sentence with commas. To be ludicrous is to be absurd. The word year’s is possessive and has an apostrophe. The correct spelling is meteorology. d. Periods are correctly placed after all abbreviations in this sentence. d. 26. 29. lively is to be ﬁlled with energy. The correct spelling is pneumonia. c. 45. 44. 50. to be reasonable is to be rational. The subject of the sentence one takes the singular verb was solved. c. 43. d. a. d. The subject forms should take the plural verb are. 36. 31. b. If completed. b. This sentence has a comma before the conjunction but which correctly connects the two complete thoughts in the sentence. 28. modern is current or contemporary. no mistakes b. Francine can run much faster than I can run. 47. c. a. the sentence would read. The correct spelling is aspirations. 48. c. . someone who is polite is courteous. Jason or me is the object of the sentence. 46. The correct spelling is loquacious.
By the time you have finished all of the chapters in this book and completed the two practice tests. Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 191 . and spelling skills. This test should take about 30–45 minutes to complete. U se the answer grid on the following page to ﬁll in your answers to the questions. reading comprehension.= 9 CHAPTER Practice Test 2 This second practice test will give you another chance to measure your skills. you should see real progress in your vocabulary.
43. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . 2. 23. 44. 32. 18. 13. 37. 9. 20. 10. 36. 19. 4. 35. 5. 28. 22. 15. 40. 30. 39. 21. 29. 27. 49.192 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2 1. 8. 34. 46. 3. 14. 31. 25. 6. 50. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 47. 16. 24. 48. 42. 41. 45. 38. 11. 12. 17. 7. 33.
a. improvement . nonchalant d. even when he was warned of rising ﬂoodwaters. 1. conniving 5. She shed ________ tears when she heard the tragic news. recalcitrant 2. Portland’s oldest citizen was ________. redundant c. repatriated d.Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 193 Choose the correct vocabulary word for each of the following sentences. The politician’s ________ voice detailed the many projects he planned to tackle once he was in ofﬁce. altercation b. genteel 6. scant c. After graduation. what the other felt. rapport d. deferment c. copious b. equilibrium c. a. affable d. cryptic c. a. The audience puzzled over the ________ remark made by the mayoral candidate. they always seemed to know. without being told. symmetry 3. a. fervent 4. a. a. recitative b. Michael and Brendan had such terriﬁc ________ . he refused to leave his home. clamorous b. Charles requested a/an ________ so that he did not have to pay his school loans immediately. obvious b. ﬂocculent c. surrogate b. tincture d. shrewd d.
The National Parks Service. a. liability b. succulents c. burnished 9. she was sure her party would be a success. The exhibit at the botanical gardens is an unusual collection of cacti and other ________ from around the world. a. a. With this group of ________ personalities. porous b. subsequent b. tubers . a. perennials b. personable c. amnesty c. accountability 8. accordance 12. in ________ with its mission. rote d. durable 10. obsessive c. mundane c. frivolous d. annuals d. The non-proﬁt agency bought ofﬁce supplies using a tax ________ number. scintillating b. A key reference book detailing eyewitness accounts had to have ________ updates when new information surfaced. a. a. Her ________ remarks were not taken seriously by anyone on the nominating committee. steadfast 11. exempt c. contention b. preserves the great outdoors for all to enjoy. conﬂict d. information d. irradiated d.194 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2 7.
a. most companies reimburse employees only for classes that are relevant to their position. the employee will stay with the company. This is a very limiting policy. A company that releases funds to pay for the education of its employees will get its money back by having employees stay with the company longer. ﬁnesse d.Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 195 13. insensitive b. toil b. tedium 15. Employee turnover will be reduced because even the employees who do not take advantage of the tuition reimbursement program will be more loyal to their company—just knowing that their company cares enough to pay for their education invokes loyalty. this dedication to the betterment of company employees will create greater employee loyalty. Most importantly. a. In turn. it is important for a company to demonstrate to its employees that it cares. Although the freeway system continues to grow. Although these companies do indeed run the risk of losing money on employees who go on to another job in a different company as soon as they get their degree. a. The ________ advice offered by his friend saved him from making a grave mistake. it generally takes several years to complete any degree . With admirable ________. the company that has an unrestricted tuition reimbursement program will have higher quality employees. beckoning c. it often cannot keep pace with a ________ population. The best way to do this is with concrete investments in the employees and their futures. Although many companies offer tuition reimbursement. metaphorical d. A company that reimburses employees for all college credit courses—whether job-related or not—offers a service not only to the employees but to the entire company and greater community. judicious c. the renowned orator spoke to the crowd gathered in the lecture hall. where job security is a thing of the past and employees feel more and more expendable. capitulating d. And even if employees do leave after graduation. ado c. exasperating 14. One good reason for giving employees unconditional tuition reimbursement is that it shows the company’s dedication to its employees. more often than not. unorthodox Read the following passage and respond to the questions that follow. In today’s economy. burgeoning b.
explain tuition reimbursement. deceitful c. Which of the following words best describes the tone of this passage? a. The author’s reason for writing this passage was to a. The best way to do this is with concrete investments in them. d. that education will doubly beneﬁt the company. most companies reimburse employees only for classes that are relevant to their position. cynical . optimistic d. c. Not only is the employee more educated. b. practical. c. the word beneﬁcial is too abstract for readers to comprehend. d. According to the passage. 19. Employees get a cheaper education. Although many companies offer tuition reimbursement. narrate a story. because a. 16. it is perhaps one of the wisest investments a company can make. b. and therefore more valuable and productive employee during that employee’s tenure with the company. from the passage. wisdom is associated with education. and the company does not have to ﬁll a high-level vacancy from the outside. 20. If the employee leaves upon graduation. If the employee stays. is NOT an opinion? a. but now that employee can be promoted. A company that puts out funds to pay for the education of its employees will get its money back by having employees stay with the company longer. persuade the reader. entertain the reader. the employer will have had a more sophisticated. the subject of the passage. b. education could not be considered practical. c. or beneﬁcial. b. Employers lose a great deal of money. d. insincere b. 17. more intelligent. Most importantly. Which of the following statements. The writer most likely uses the word wisest in the last sentence. unconditional tuition reimbursement is good for which of the following reasons? a.196 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2 program. Vacancies can be ﬁlled by people who already know the company well. 18. c. d. the writer is trying to appeal to people who are already highly educated. Employees can ﬁnd better jobs. rather than words such as proﬁtable. Though unconditional tuition reimbursement requires a signiﬁcant investment on the employer’s part. Employees become more valuable. the company that has an unrestricted tuition reimbursement program will have higher quality employees.
by insisting on a college degree. b. gather. companies will be better able to ﬁll vacancies from within. b. more likely to stay with the company. 24. admirable. b. expensive. 23. praise. not as smart. Read each question carefully and select the word that is the synonym or antonym for the word provided. satisfy. d. agree. extraneous. . companies should require their employees to take college courses. c. The main idea of the passage is that a. irresponsible. 22. compared to employees of companies that offer unconditional tuition reimbursement. noticeable. frugal. c. c. d. replaceable. d. selective. A synonym for eccentric is a. b. d.Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 197 21. c. c. less loyal. The passage suggests that. normal. b. 26. companies should reimburse employees for work-related courses. d. c. both companies and employees would beneﬁt from unconditional tuition reimbursement. A synonym for commendable is a. An antonym for disperse is a. peculiar. accountable. the word expendable most nearly means a. d. b. 25. ﬂexible. employees of companies that do not offer this beneﬁt are a. more likely to be promoted. In paragraph two.
deprecation. pallor. Which of the following sentences uses periods correctly? a. d. and I went to the museum to see an exhibit of African Art. An antonym for orient is a. my aunt Barbara. penury. Last Thursday. c. on thurs at 3:00 P. d. b. c. Ill. entrance.. my mother. and I went to the Museum to see an exhibit of African art. d. and I went to the museum to see an exhibit of African art. deter. Ill. simplify. b. b. my aunt Barbara. Harrison will speak at the hotel in Chicago. 32. solemnity. b.M. 29. rebellion. my Aunt Barbara. c.M. at 3:00 P. c. b. mendacity. confuse. Which of the following sentences uses capitalization correctly? a. . Dr Harrison will speak at the hotel in Chicago. 28. at 3:00 P. my aunt Barbara. Dr. c. and I went to the museum to see an exhibit of African art.198 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2 27. Last Thursday. on Thurs at 3:00 PM. Dr Harrison will speak at the hotel in Chicago. territory. my Mother. An antonym for mirth is a. 30. accolade. veracity. Ill. Answer each of the following grammar and usage questions. lethargy. Last Thursday. my mother. on Thurs. Ill.M. arouse. d. Dr. d. Harrison will speak at the hotel in Chicago. b. 31. d. An antonym for prevarication is a. on Thurs. c. formation. A synonym for domain is a. my mother. Last Thursday.
c. d. Turn off the lights. b. the lifeguard ordered us out of the water. 35. I was surprised to see that my neighbor had written a letter to the editor. d. c. b. Which of the following sentences is NOT a complete sentence? a. Which of the following sentences uses the correct verb form? a. d. c. c. I called the delivery service this morning. b. 34. She and I will work together on the project. Each of the customers have complained about poor service. 38. Alicia and me want to spend Saturday at Six Flags Amusement Park. d. b. but I am usually ﬁnished before 6:45. Neither of the customers have complained about poor service. Some of the customers have complained about poor service. 37. c. Which of the following sentences uses the italicized pronoun incorrectly? a. Sunday afternoon spent reading and playing computer games. Which of the following sentences shows subject/verb agreement? a. Look in the closet you should ﬁnd it there. Neither of the dogs have been to obedience training. 36. Hearing the thunder. I was the ﬁrst to sign the petition Harry was the second. b. Either Sam or William will bring his CD player to the party.Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 199 33. Margaret brought a cake so that everyone in the ofﬁce could help celebrate her birthday. b. Which of the following sentences shows subject/verb agreement? a. Why won’t you let her come with us? . Margaret bring a cake so that everyone in the ofﬁce could help celebrate her birthday. Neither of the dogs were to obedience training. c. Margaret had brung a cake so that everyone in the ofﬁce could help celebrate her birthday. d. One of the customers have complained about poor service. d. they told me the shipment would arrive on time. Neither of the dogs is been to obedience training. The newspapers are supposed to be delivered by 7:00. Which of the following sentences is a complete sentence? a. Margaret brang a cake so that everyone in the ofﬁce could help celebrate her birthday. Neither of the dogs has been to obedience training.
c.200 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2 39. select choice d. 41. one of us will do the driving. a. 40. a. c. b. a. d. phenomonal emulate misconception no mistakes mischief temperture loveable no mistakes stadium competitor atheletic no mistakes dictionary auditorium biology no mistakes geometry perimeter circumferance no mistakes general corporal lieutenant no mistakes . c. d. one of we will do the driving. d. a. Choose the misspelled word in the questions below. 43. Which of the following sentences uses pronouns correctly? a. d. c. b. c. Four band members and I were chosen to attend the state competition. d. If there are no mistakes. Four band members and me were chosen to attend the state competition. 45. a. 44. d. d. b. Four band members and me were chosen to attend the state competition. one of we will do the driving. b. b. b. c. b. c. a. 42. Four band members and I were chosen to attend the state competition. one of us will do the driving.
fair b. It’s b. a. Its . two b. counsel b. Do you think I should run for a seat on the city ________? a. This problem is ________ complex. a. council 47. 46. to c. fare 48. eminent 50.Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 201 Choose the correctly spelled word for the following sentences. a. ________ only four o’clock in the afternoon. immanent c. imminent b. My grandmother is an ________ historian. a. The amount for the carpet was a ________ price. too 49.
This clue tells you that workers do not feel they are important or valuable to a company that can ﬁre them on a moment’s notice. d. b. more intelligent. . 6. a. a. c. 2. 24. to be wise or sensible. 23. 4. as fact. To be recalcitrant is to be stubbornly resistant. 19. 9. b. To have rapport is to have mutual trust and emotional afﬁnity.” c. 5. The passage is optimistic and describes only positive effects of unconditional reimbursement. and cleverness. The writer of this passage states an opinion: “A company that reimburses employees for all college credit courses—whether job related or not—offers a service not only to the employees but to the entire company. d. The idea that employees will become more valuable if they take courses is stated in the fourth paragraph: “the employer will have had a more sophisticated. 16. of little importance. A fervent voice is one that has great emotion or zest. 8. it follows that other employees will be less loyal because their company is not showing enough dedication to their betterment. 3. A deferment is a delay. Frivolous means not worthy of serious attention. c. Copious means plentiful or abundant. Finesse is skill. c. d. Accordance means in agreement or harmony. Burgeoning means emerging or new growth. c. b. the writer is able to reinforce the importance of education and tuition reimbursement. 22. c. a. 17. Disperse means to scatter. hidden. b. 10.202 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2 ANSWERS 1. That which is scintillating is brilliant or sparkling. By using a word associated with education. by surveying companies to ﬁnd out their tuition reimbursement policies. b. This main idea is explicitly stated in the last sentence of the ﬁrst paragraph and again at the end of the passage. 18. This statement could be veriﬁed. Succulents are plants that have leaves speciﬁcally for storing water. Judicious means to use or show good judgment. 14. Exempt means to be excused from a rule or obligation. 7. The writer uses the word immediately after saying that job security is a thing of the past. d. If employees of companies that offer unconditional tuition reimbursement are more loyal to their companies (see the second and third paragraphs). a. b. This statement describes the many positions that companies can take when considering reimbursement for educational classes. 13. there are virtually no negative words. 15. or enigmatic. 20. to gather means to collect in one place. a. Expendable means replaceable. 11.” The writer then proceeds to give reasons to persuade the reader of the validity of this statement. a. 21. 12. a. tact. and therefore more valuable and productive employee. b. Subsequent means following a speciﬁed thing in order or succession. Cryptic means mysterious.
40. 42.M. b. 47. Some is plural as is have complained.Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 203 25. 45.. c. 29. The correct spelling is athletic. qualiﬁed. Choices b. Prevarication is an evasion of the truth. 38. The correct spelling is eminent. d. 48. 28. 37. Periods are placed after Dr. The correct spelling is fair. 26. Mirth means merriment. and d are run-on sentences. The correct spelling is phenomenal. Choice a is the only complete sentence. This is a sentence fragment and is missing the helping verb was that would make it a complete sentence. a. To orient means to adjust. 30. no mistakes c. 49. c. c. b. 32. 27. veracity means truthfulness. d. Us is the object of the preposition. The correct spelling is It’s.. the objective pronoun us is correct. . b. The correct spelling is council. 33. or desirable. An eccentric person is considered to be odd. 36. d. 46. a. a. Neither is singular as is has been. 41. 35. d. This sentence is in the past tense and uses the verb brought. eccentric. 39. Every proper noun and adjective in this sentence is correctly capitalized. 44. Ill. d. The correct spelling is too. a. to confuse means to bewilder. c. b. Alicia and I is the subject of the sentence. A domain is an area governed by a ruler. 34. or peculiar. d. and P. 43. b. d. no mistakes b. therefore the subjective pronoun I has to be used to make the sentence correct. a. a. Thurs. The correct spelling is circumference. 50. unusual. solemnity means seriousness. a. The correct spelling is temperature. the subjective pronoun I is correct. become familiar. c. Four band members and I is the subject of the sentence. c. a territory is an area for which someone is responsible. Both commendable and admirable mean worthy.. 31.
formed by adding –er (e.g.g.. likewise) contraction: a word that uses an apostrophe to show that a letter or letters have been omitted (e. plural antecedents and plural pronouns) antecedent: the noun that is replaced by a pronoun cause: a person or thing that makes something happen clause: a group of words containing a subject and predicate comparative: the adjective form showing the greater degree in quality or quantity. singular subjects and singular verbs.g..g.. however.= APPENDIX Glossary of Vocabulary Terms active voice: when the subject is performing the action (as opposed to passive voice) agreement: the state of being balanced in number (e.. can’t) Glossary of Vocabulary Terms APPENDIX VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 205 . therefore. happier) comparison: showing how two ideas or items are similar complex sentence: a sentence with at least one dependent and one independent clause compound sentence: a sentence with at least two independent clauses conjunctive adverb: a word or phrase that often works with a semi-colon to connect two independent clauses and show the relationship to one another (e.
level of formality. is taking place. phrases.g. thing. yet—that serve to connect two independent clauses dependent clause: a clause that has a subordinating conjunction and expresses an incomplete thought direct object: the person or thing that receives the action of the sentence fragment: an incomplete sentence (may or may not have a subject and predicate) gerund: the noun form of a verb. the combination of a writer’s word choice. tone. so. place. place. formed by a present tense helping verb and –ing proper noun: a noun that identiﬁes a speciﬁc person. but.. or thing. sentence structure. or.206 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS APPENDIX Glossary of Vocabulary Terms contrast: showing how two ideas or items are different coordinating: conjunction one of seven words—and. created by adding –ing to the verb base passive voice: when the subject of the sentence is being acted upon (passively “receives” the action) past participle: the verb form expressing what happened in the past. subordinating conjunction) between them style: the manner in which something is done. or clauses that all follow the same grammatical pattern participial phrase: the adjective form of a verb. might take place.. etc. place. and spelling modiﬁer: a word or phrase that describes or qualiﬁes a person. capitalization.. bear) independent clause: a clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand on its own indirect object: the person or thing that receives the direct object inﬁnitive: the base form of a verb plus the word to (e. homophone: a word that sounds exactly like another word but has a different spelling and meaning (e. nor.g. and level of detail subject: the person. created by adding –ing to the verb base helping verb: (auxiliary verb) verbs that help indicate exactly when an action will take place. to go) intransitive verb: a verb that does not take an object (the subject performs the action on him/her/itself) mechanics: the rules governing punctuation. in writing. or action parallel structure: a series of words.g. should take place. for. formed by a past tense helping verb + the simple past tense form of the verb phrase: a group of words that do not contain both a subject and a predicate predicate: the part of the sentence that tells us what the subject is or does present participle: the verb form expressing what is happening now. such as Elm Street redundancy: the unnecessary repetition of words or ideas run-on: a sentence that has two or more independent clauses without the proper punctuation or connecting words (e. or thing that performs the action of the sentence subjunctive: the verb form that indicates something that is wished for or contrary to fact . bare. did take place.
g..Glossary of Vocabulary Terms APPENDIX VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 207 subordinating conjunction: a word or phrase that introduces an adverb clause. formed by adding –est (e. in contrast) transitive verb: a verb that takes an object (someone or something “receives” the action of the verb) usage: the rules that govern the form of the words we use and how we string words together in sentences . while) superlative: the adjective form showing the greatest degree in quality or quantity. next.g. however. since.g. because. making the clause dependent and showing its relationship to another (usually independent) clause (e. happiest) transition: a word or phrase used to move from one idea to the next and show the relationship between those ideas (e..
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