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Edc Lab Manual

Edc Lab Manual

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Published by Ashish Agarwal
1 1.1 P-N JUNCTION DIODE CHARACTERISTICS Objective: 1. To plot Volt-Ampere Characteristics of Silicon P-N Junction Diode. 2. To find cut-in Voltage for Silicon P-N Junction diode. 3. To find static and dynamic resistances in both forward and reverse biased conditions for P-N Junction diode. Hardware Required: S. No 01 02 03 04 05 06 Apparatus PN Junction Diode Resistance Regulated power supply Ammeter Voltmeter Bread board and connecting wires mC mC Type IN4001 1k ohm (0 – 30V) (0-30)mA, (0-500)
1 1.1 P-N JUNCTION DIODE CHARACTERISTICS Objective: 1. To plot Volt-Ampere Characteristics of Silicon P-N Junction Diode. 2. To find cut-in Voltage for Silicon P-N Junction diode. 3. To find static and dynamic resistances in both forward and reverse biased conditions for P-N Junction diode. Hardware Required: S. No 01 02 03 04 05 06 Apparatus PN Junction Diode Resistance Regulated power supply Ammeter Voltmeter Bread board and connecting wires mC mC Type IN4001 1k ohm (0 – 30V) (0-30)mA, (0-500)

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  • 1.1 P-N JUNCTION DIODE CHARACTERISTICS
  • Objective:
  • Hardware Required:
  • S. No Apparatus Type Range Quantity
  • Prelab Questions:
  • Circuit diagram:
  • Forward Bias
  • Reverse Bias
  • Precautions:
  • Experiment:
  • Forward Biased Condition:
  • Reverse biased condition:
  • Tabular column: Forward Bias:
  • S. No Vf (volts) If (mA)
  • Reverse Bias:
  • S. No Vr (volts) Ir (µA)
  • Graph ( instructions)
  • Graph:
  • Calculations from Graph:
  • Post lab Questions:
  • Conclusion
  • Particulars Max. Marks Marks Obtained
  • 1.2 ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS
  • Pre lab Questions:
  • Reverse Biased condition:
  • Tabular column:
  • Forward Bias:
  • S. No Vf (volts) If (mA)
  • S. No Vr (volts) Ir (mA)
  • Model Graph
  • Result:
  • 2. COMMON EMITTER CONFIGURATIONS
  • Pin Assignment:
  • Pre lab Questions
  • Input Characteristics
  • Output Characteristics
  • Tabular Column:
  • Input characteristics:
  • Output characterstics:
  • IB = 30 µA IB = 60 µA VCE (volts) Ic (mA) VCE (volts) Ic (mA)
  • Input characteristics Output characteristics
  • Calculations from graph:
  • 1. Input resistance:
  • 2. Output resistance:
  • Inference:
  • Post lab Questions
  • 3. COMMON COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION
  • Experiment: Input Characteristics:
  • 4. FET CHARACTERISTICS
  • S. No Apparatus Type Range Quantiy
  • Pin assignment of FET:
  • DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS
  • TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS:
  • Graph (Instructions):
  • Drain Resistance (rd) :
  • Trans-Conductance (gm) :
  • Amplification Factor (µ) :
  • 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF LDR,PHOTODIODE,PHOTOTRANSISTOR
  • LDR
  • Photodiode
  • LDR:
  • Phototransistor:
  • Procedure:
  • Photodiode:
  • 6.1 HALF WAVE RECTIFIER
  • OBJECTIVE:
  • HARDWARE REQUIRED:
  • INTRODUCTION:
  • AVERAGE OR DC VALUE OF CURRENT
  • The RMS VALUE OF CURRENT Vrms = Vm/2
  • RECTIFICATION FACTOR:
  • PERCENTAGE OF REGULATION:
  • Peak – inverse – voltage PIV:
  • PRELAB QUESTIONS:
  • MODEL GRAPH:
  • PRECAUTIONS:
  • EXPERIMENT:
  • GRAPH ( instructions):
  • FORMULAE:
  • OBSERVATIONS:
  • Input Waveform Output Waveform Ripple Voltage
  • RESULT:
  • 6.2 FULL WAVE RECTIFIER
  • MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS (Neglecting Rf and Rs)
  • AVERAGE OR DC VALUE OF CURRENT Idc
  • The RMS VALUE OF CURRENT
  • RECTIFICATION FACTOR
  • PERCENTAGE OF REGULATION
  • Advantages of Full wave Rectifier
  • Disadvantages of Full wave Rectifier
  • Formulae:
  • Observations:
  • Amplitude
  • Time Period
  • Frequency
  • 6.3 FULL WAVE BRIDGE RECTIFIER
  • S. No Apparatus Range Type
  • Line Regulation:
  • Where:
  • Prelab Question:
  • SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR – CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
  • Tabulation
  • Post Lab Question:
  • S.No Apparatus Range Type
  • Load Regulation
  • SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR – CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
  • DESIGN
  • PROCEDURE
  • Line regulation
  • Load regulation
  • TABULATION
  • 9. V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF LED
  • Objective :
  • S. No Apparatus Range Quantity
  • Introduction:
  • Function
  • Connecting and soldering
  • Testing an LED
  • Colours of LEDs
  • Calculating an LED resistor value
  • R = (VS - VL) / I
  • For example
  • Connecting LEDs in series
  • Example calculations:
  • Advantages of LED:
  • Desired characteristics:
  • Basic LED configuration:
  • Pre Lab questions :
  • Reverse bias:
  • Experimental procedure:
  • Post Lab questions:
  • 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF THERMISTOR
  • Applications:
  • Pre Lab questions:
  • Post Lab Questions:
  • EXP. NO TITLE OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO

1 1.1 P-N JUNCTION DIODE CHARACTERISTICS Objective: 1. To plot Volt-Ampere Characteristics of Silicon P-N Junction Diode. 2.

To find cut-in Voltage for Silicon P-N Junction diode. 3. To find static and dynamic resistances in both forward and reverse biased conditions for P-N Junction diode. Hardware Required: S. No 01 02 03 04 05 06 Apparatus PN Junction Diode Resistance Regulated power supply Ammeter Voltmeter Bread board and connecting wires mC mC Type IN4001 1k ohm (0 – 30V) (0-30)mA, (0-500)µA (0 – 1)V, (0 – 30)V Range Quantity 1 1 1 1 1

Introduction: Donor impurities (pentavalent) are introduced into one-side and acceptor impurities into the other side of a single crystal of an intrinsic semiconductor to form a p-n diode with a junction called depletion region (this region is depleted off the charge carriers). This region gives rise to a potential barrier Vγ called Cut- in Voltage. This is the voltage across the diode at which it starts conducting. The P-N junction can conduct beyond this Potential. The P-N junction supports uni-directional current flow. If +ve terminal of the input supply is connected to anode (P-side) and –ve terminal of the input supply is connected to cathode (N- side), then diode is said to be forward biased. In this condition the height of the potential barrier at the junction is lowered by an amount equal to given forward biasing voltage. Both the holes from p-side and electrons from n-side cross the junction simultaneously and constitute a forward current ( injected minority current – due to holes crossing the junction and entering N-side of the diode, due to electrons crossing the junction and entering P-side of the diode). Assuming current flowing through the diode to be very large, the diode can be approximated as short-circuited switch. If –ve terminal of the input supply is

2 connected to anode (p-side) and +ve terminal of the input supply is connected to cathode (n-side) then the diode is said to be reverse biased. In this condition an amount equal to reverse biasing voltage increases the height of the potential barrier at the junction. Both the holes on p-side and electrons on n-side tend to move away from the junction thereby increasing the depleted region. However the process cannot continue indefinitely, thus a small current called reverse saturation current continues to flow in the diode. This small current is due to thermally generated carriers. Assuming current flowing through the diode to be negligible, the diode can be approximated as an open circuited switch. The volt-ampere characteristics of a diode explained by following equation: I = Io(Exp(V/ ηVT)-1) I=current flowing in the diode Io=reverse saturation current V=voltage applied to the diode VT=volt-equivalent of temperature=kT/q=T/11,600=26mV(@ room temp). η=1 (for Ge) and 2 (for Si) It is observed that Ge diode has smaller cut-in-voltage when compared to Si diode. The reverse saturation current in Ge diode is larger in magnitude when compared to silicon diode. Prelab Questions: 1. What is the need for doping? 2. How depletion region is formed in the PN junction? 3. What is leakage current? 4. What is break down voltage? 5. What is an ideal diode? How does it differ from a real diode? 6. What is the effect of temperature in the diode reverse characteristics? 7. What is cut-in or knee voltage? Specify its value in case of Ge or Si? 8. What are the difference between Ge and Si diode. 9. What is the capacitance formed at forward biasing? 10. What is the relationship between depletion width and the concentration of impurities?

3 Circuit diagram: Forward Bias

Reverse Bias

Precautions: 1. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the diode. This may lead to damage of the diode. 2. Connect voltmeter and Ammeter in correct polarities as shown in the circuit diagram. 3. Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the circuit connections as per the circuit diagram. Experiment: Forward Biased Condition: 1. Connect the PN Junction diode in forward bias i.eAnode is connected to positive of the power supply and cathode is connected to negative of the power supply .

3. Reverse biased condition: 1. anode is connected to negative of the power supply and cathode is connected to positive of the power supply. Tabular column: Forward Bias: S. 2. Mark origin at the center of the graph sheet. For various values of reverse voltage (Vr ) note down the corresponding values of reverse current ( Ir ). No Vr (volts) Ir (µA) Graph ( instructions) 1. Now mark +ve x-axis as Vf -ve x-axis as Vr +ve y-axis as If -ve y-axis as Ir.e. Connect the PN Junction diode in Reverse bias i. Use a Regulated power supply of range (0-30)V and a series resistance of 1kΏ. . For various values of forward voltage (Vf) note down the corresponding values of forward current(If) . 2. Take a graph sheet and divide it into 4 equal parts.4 2. No Vf (volts) If (mA) Reverse Bias: S.

Mark the readings tabulated for diode forward biased condition in first Quadrant and diode reverse biased condition in third Quadrant. Marks 20 40 40 100 Marks Obtained . How does PN-junction diode acts as a switch? 3. 1. What is the need for connecting Resistance Rs in series with PN diode. Comment on diode operation under zero biasing condition 2. Ω 3. Cut in voltage = ……… V 2. Static forward resistance = ………. Ω Post lab Questions: 1.5 3. Dynamic forward resistance = ………. Graph: Calculations from Graph: Static forward Resistance Rdc = Vf/If Ω Dynamic forward Resistance rac = ∆Vf/∆If Ω Static Reverse Resistance Rdc =Vr/Ir Ω Dynamic Reverse Resistance rac = ∆Vr/∆Ir Ω Result: Thus the VI characteristics of PN junction diode is verified. What are the applications of PN junction diode? Conclusion Particulars Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total Max. What is peak inverse voltage? 4. 5.

2 ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS Objective: 1. depletion region at the junction widens.2 1k ohm (0 – 30V) (0-30)mA. Avalanche break down:-If both p-side and n-side of the diode are lightly doped. To plot Volt-Ampere characteristics of Zener diode. A zener diode when reverse biased can either undergo avalanche break down or zener break down. These diodes operate at a precise value of voltage called break down voltage. . (0-500)µA (0 – 1)V. 2. Application of a very large electric field at the junction may rupture covalent bonding between electrons. Such sudden increase in the number of charge carriers results in zener mechanism.6 1. A zener diode conducts excellently even in reverse biased condition. (0 – 30)V Range Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 Introduction: An ideal P-N Junction diode does not conduct in reverse biased condition. A zener diode when forward biased behaves like an ordinary P-N junction diode. Such rupture leads to the generation of a large number of charge carriers resulting in avalanche multiplication. Hardware Required: S. To find Zener break down voltage in reverse biased condition. No 01 02 03 04 05 06 Apparatus Zener Diode Resistance Regulated power supply Ammeter Voltmeter Bread board and connecting wires mC mC Type IZ 6. depletion region at the junction reduces. Application of even a small voltage at the junction ruptures covalent bonding and generates large number of charge carriers. Zener break down:-If both p-side and n-side of the diode are heavily doped.

Explain the concept of zener breakdown? 2. Circuit diagram: Forward Bias Reverse Bias . How depletion region gets thin by increasing doping level in zener diode? 3. Give the reasons why zener diode acts as a reference element in the voltage regulator circuits.7 Pre lab Questions: 1. State the reason why an ordinary diode suffers avalanche breakdown rather than zener breakdown? 4.

Connect voltmeter and Ammeter in correct polarities as shown in the circuit diagram. Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the circuit connections as per the circuit diagram. 2. Reverse Biased condition: 1. For various values of forward voltage (Vf) note down the corresponding values of forward current(If) . Experiment: Forward Biased Condition: 1. Use a Regulated power supply of range (0-30)V and a series resistance of 1kΏ. No Vf (volts) If (mA) Reverse Bias: S. anode is connected to negative of the power supply and cathode is connected to positive of the power supply as in circuit. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the diode.e.e. 3. 2. anode is connected to positive of the power supply and cathode is connected to negative of the power supply as in circuit 2. Connect the Zener diode in Reverse bias i. Tabular column: Forward Bias: S. 3. Connect the Zener diode in forward bias i. For various values of reverse voltage(Vr ) note down the corresponding values of reverse current ( Ir ).8 Precautions: 1. This may lead to damage of the diode. No Vr (volts) Ir (mA) .

Can we use Zener diode for rectification purpose? 2. by what factor the voltage of Zener diode increases. What happens when the Zener diodes are connected in series? 3. 1. How will you differentiate the diodes whether it is Zener or avalanche when you are given two diodes of rating 6.2 v and 24V? 6.9 Model Graph Calculations from Graph: Cut in voltage = ---------. What type of biasing must be used when a Zener diode is used as a regulator? 4. Cut in voltage = ……… V 2 Break down voltage = ------------(v) Post lab Questions: 1. Current in a 1W – 10V Zener diode must be limited to a maximum of what value? 5. Conclusion Particulars Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total Max. When current through a Zener diode increases by a factor of 2.(v) Break down voltage = ------------(v) Result: The zener diode characteristics have been plotted. Marks 20 40 40 100 Marks Obtained .

. There are two types of transistors namely NPN and PNP. Output characteristics are obtained between the output voltage and output current taking input current as parameter. Input characteristics are obtained between the input current and input voltage taking output voltage as parameter. (0-500)µA (0 – 1)V. No 01 02 03 04 05 06 Apparatus Transistor Resistance Regulated power supply Ammeter Voltmeter Bread board and connecting wires Type BC147 Range Quantity 1 1k ohm (0 – 30V) mC mC (1-10)mA. It is plotted between VBE and IB at constant VCE in CE configuration. It consists of two P-N junctions namely emitter junction and collector junction. COMMON EMITTER CONFIGURATIONS Objective: To study the input and output characteristics of a bipolar junction transistor in common emitter configuration. Here emitter is common to both input and output and hence the name common emitter configuration. It is plotted between VCE and IC at constant IB in CE configuration. collector) semiconductor device. (0 – 30)V 2 2 1 1 Introduction: Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a 3 terminal (emitter. In Common Emitter configuration the input is applied between base and emitter and the output is taken from collector and emitter.10 2. base. Hardware Required: S.

What is the function of a transistor? 4. 6.11 Pin Assignment: Pre lab Questions 1. With the rise in temperature. why? 8. 5. What is the significance of arrow in the transistor symbol? 2. why? 7. Define current amplification factor? 3. Can a transistor base emitter junction be used as zener diode? Circuit Diagram: . CE configuration is preferred. To operate a transistor as amplifier. Two discrete diodes connected back-to-back can work as a transistor? Give comments. why? 9. the leakage collector current increases. Give the doping levels and the width of the layers of BJT. For amplification. the emitter junction is forward biased and the collector junction is reversed biased.

4.emitter voltage (VBE). Varying VBB gradually. Varying VCC gradually. Experiment: Input Characteristics 1. Make the connections as per circuit diagram. base and collector terminals of transistor. note down the readings of collector-current (IC) and collector. 4. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the transistor. By varying VBB keep the base current I B = 20µA.emitter voltage (VCE). 3. Make sure while selecting the emitter. 2. note down both base current IB and base . Keep output voltage VCE = 0V by varying VCC.12 Precautions: 1. This may lead to damage the transistor. Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the connections as per the circuit diagram. Connect voltmeter and Ammeter in correct polarities as shown in the circuit diagram. 3. 2. 3. circuit the Repeat above procedure (step 3) for various values of VCE Output Characteristics 1. 4. Connect the transistor in CE configuration as per circuit diagram 2. Repeat above procedure (step 3) for different values of IE Tabular Column: Input characteristics: VBE (volts) VCE = 0 V IB (mA) VCE = 4V VBE (volts) IB (mA) .

2. Calculations from graph: 1.13 Output characterstics: IB = 30 µA VCE (volts) Ic (mA) IB = 60 µA VCE (volts) Ic (mA) Graph: Input characteristics Output characteristics 1. Plot the input characteristics by taking VBE on Y-axis and IB on X-axis at constant VCE. Plot the output characteristics by taking VCE on x-axis and IC on y-axis by taking IB as a constant parameter. Then Ri = ∆VBE / ∆IB (VCE constant) . Input resistance: To obtain input resistance find ∆VBE and ∆IB at constant VCE on one of the input characteristics.

Ro = ∆VCE / ∆IC (IB constant) Calculations from graph: a) Input impedance(hic)= = ∆VBE / ∆IB . Why the output is phase shifted by 180 ◦ only in CE configuration. a transistor can act as an amplifier? 4. At what region of the output characteristics. VCE constant c) Output admittance(hoe)= = ∆Ic / ∆ VEC . . IB constant Inference: 1. What happens when we change the biasing condition of the transistors. NPN transitors are more preferable for amplification purpose than PNP transistors. 3. 1. Input Resistance (Ri) = ……………Ω 2. Medium Input and Output resistances. Why? 2. Explain the switching action of a transistor? 3. Increase in the value of IB causes saturation of the transistor at an earlier voltage. Output Resistance (Ro) = ……………Ω Post lab Questions 1. b) Forward current gain(hfc)= = ∆Ic / ∆IB . Smaller value of VCE becomes earlier cut-in-voltage. 2.14 2. find ∆IC and ∆VCE at constant IB. Output resistance: To obtain output resistance. Result: Thus the input and output characteristics of CE configuration is plotted. IB constant d) Reverse voltage gain(hrc)= ∆VBE/∆ VEC . 5. VCE constant.

Marks 20 40 40 100 Marks Obtained .15 Conclusion Particulars Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total Max.

16 3. (0-500)µA (0 – 1)V. Input characteristics are obtained between the input current and input voltage taking output voltage as parameter. (0 – 30)V 1 2 1 1 Introduction: Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a 3 terminal (emitter. collector . Hardware Required: S. It is plotted between VBC and IB at constant VCE in CCconfiguration. No 01 02 03 04 05 06 Apparatus Transistor Resistance Regulated power supply Ammeter Voltmeter Bread board and connecting wires Type BC147 Range Quantity 1 68 k. base. Here collector is common to both input and output and hence the name common configuration. It consists of two P-N junctions namely emitter junction and collector junction. COMMON COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION Objective: To study the input and output characteristics of a transistor in common collector configuration and to determine its h parameters. In Common collector configuration the input is applied between base and collector terminals and the output is taken from collector and emitter. There are two types of transistors namely NPN and PNP. 1k ohm (0 – 30V) mC mC (1-10)mA. collector) semiconductor device.

Is there any phase shift between input and output in CC configuration. It is plotted between VCE and IE at constant IB in CC configuration. 2. Circuit diagram: Precautions: 1. Why CC Configuration is called emitter follower? 2. What is the significance of hybrid model of a transistor? 5. This may lead to damage the transistor. Can we use CC configuration as an amplifier? 3. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the transistor.17 Output characteristics are obtained between the output voltage and output current taking input current as parameter. What is the need for analyzing the transistor circuits using different parameters? 4. Pin Assignment: Pre lab Questions 1. . Connect voltmeter and Ammeter in correct polarities as shown in the circuit diagram.

Emitter voltage (VCE). 4. Varying VCC gradually. Experiment: Input Characteristics: 1.collector voltage (VBC).18 3. Repeat above procedure (step 3) for different values of IE Graph: . 4. Varying VBB gradually. note down both base current IB and base . Make the connections as per circuit diagram . By varying VBB keep the base current I B = 20µA. Keep output voltage VCE = 0V by varying VEE. 3. 3. 2. 4. Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the circuit connections as per the circuit diagram. note down the readings of emitter-current (IE) and collector. Repeat above procedure (step 3) for various values of VCE Output Characteristics 1.Make sure while selecting the emitter. Connect the transistor in CC configuration as per circuit diagram 2. 4. base and collector terminals of the transistor.

19 Calculations from graph: e) Input impedance(hic)= = ∆VBC / ∆IB f) Forward current gain(hfc)= = ∆IE / ∆IB g) Output admittance(hoc)= = ∆IE / ∆ VEC h) Reverse voltage gain(hrc)= ∆VBC/∆ VEC Result: Thus the input and output characteristics of CC configuration are plotted and h parameters are found. Justify. What are the applications of CC configuration? 2. a) Input impedance(hic)= b) Forward current gain(hfc)= c) Output admittance(hoc)= d) Reverse voltage gain(hrc)= Post lab Questions: 1. BJT is a current controlled device. Marks 20 40 40 100 Marks Obtained . Conclusion Particulars Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total Max. 3. Compare the voltage gain and input and output impedances of CE and CC configurations.

an electrostatic field is created. (0 – 30)V Range Quantiy 1 1 1 1 1 Introduction: The field effect transistor (FET) is made of a bar of N type material called the SUBSTRATE with a P type junction (the gate) diffused into it. If the gate voltage is high enough the channel will be "pinched off" and the current will be zero. (0500)MA (0 – 1)V. with respect to the source.20 4. electron current flows from source to drain through the CHANNEL. FET CHARACTERISTICS Objective: a) To study Drain Characteristics of a FET. b) To study Transfer Characteristics of a FET. With a positive voltage on the drain. Hardware Required: S. f the gate is made negative with respect to the source. The FET . which squeezes the channel and reduces the current. No 01 02 03 04 05 06 JFET Resistance Regulated power supply Ammeter Voltmeter Bread board and connecting wires mC mC Apparatus Type BFW11 1k ohm (0 – 30V) (0-30)mA.

What are the advantages of FET over BJT? 3. What is the difference between MOSFET and FET? Circuit diagram: . Why FET is called as a unipolar transistor? 2. This device is sometimes called the junction FET or IGFET or JFET. If the FET is accidentally forward biased. Transfer characteristics are obtained between the gate to source voltage (VGS) and Drain current (ID) taking drain to source voltage (VDS) as parameter Prelab Questions: 1. Why thermal runaway does not occur in FET? 5. unlike the transistor which is current controlled. The device is then known as an insulated gate FET. State why FET is voltage controlled device? 4. or IGFET or metal oxide semiconductor FET(MOSTFET) Drain characteristics are obtained between the drain to source voltage (VDS) and drain current (ID) taking gate to source voltage (VGS) as the parameter. To avoid this. an extremely thin insulating layer of silicon oxide is placed between the gate and the channel.21 is voltage controlled. gate current will flow and the FET will be destroyed.

22 Pin assignment of FET: Precautions: 1. Connect voltmeter and Ammeter in correct polarities as shown in the Circuit diagram. This may lead to damage the FET. 2. 3. Plot its characteristics with respect to VGS versus ID Graph (Instructions): 1. Experiment: DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS Determine the drain characteristics of FET by keeping VGS = 0v. Plot the Transfer characteristics by taking VGS on X-axis and ID on Y-axis at constant VDS. Drain and Gate terminals of the FET. Plot the drain characteristics by taking VDS on X-axis and ID on Y-axis at constant VGS. 4. Plot its characteristics with respect to VDS versus ID TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS: Determine the transfer characteristics of FET for constant value of VDS. Make sure while selecting the Source. . Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the Circuit connections as per the circuit diagram. 2. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the FET.

23

Calculations from Graph: Drain Resistance (rd) : It is given by the ration of small change in drain to source voltage (∆VDS) to the corresponding change in Drain current (∆ID) for a constant gate to source voltage (VGS), when the JFET is operating in pinch-off or saturation region. Trans-Conductance (gm) : Ratio of small change in drain current (∆ID) to the corresponding change in gate to source voltage (∆VGS) for a constant VDS. gm = ∆ID / ∆VGS at constant VDS . (from transfer characteristics) The value of gm is expressed in mho’s or siemens (s). Amplification Factor (µ) : It is given by the ratio of small change in drain to source voltage (∆VDS) to the corresponding change in gate to source voltage (∆VGS) for a constant drain current. µ = ∆VDS / ∆VGS. µ = (∆VDS / ∆ID) X (∆ID / ∆VGS) µ = rd X gm. Inference: 1. As the gate to source voltage (VGS) is increased above zero, pinch off voltage is increased at a smaller value of drain current as compared to that when VGS =0 V 2. The value of drain to source voltage (VDS) is decreased as compared to that when VGS =0V

24 Result: 1. Drain Resistance (rd) = …………. 2. Transconductance (gm) = …………. 3. Amplification factor (µ) = …………… Post lab Questions: 1. What is trans conductance? 2. Why current gain is important parameter in BJT where as conductance is important parameter in FET? 3. What is pinch off voltage 4. How can avalanche breakdown be avoided in FET 5. Why does FET produce less electrical noise than BJT. Conclusion Particulars Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total Max. Marks 20 40 40 100 Marks Obtained

25 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF LDR,PHOTODIODE,PHOTOTRANSISTOR. Objective: 1. To plot distance Vs Photocurrent Characteristics of LDR, Photodiode and Phototransistor. . Hardware Required: S. No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Apparatus Photodiode Phototransistor Regulated power supply Ammeter Voltmeter Bread board and connecting wires LDR mC mC (0-30)mA;(030)microA (0-10)V 1k ohm Type Range Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Introduction: LDR A photoresistor or light dependent resistor or cadmium sulfide (CdS) cell is a resistor hose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. It can also be referred to as a photoconductor. A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound lectrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance Photodiode A silicon photodiode is a solid state light detector that consists of a shallow diffused P-N junction with connections provided to the out side world. When the top surface is illuminated, photons of light penetrate into the silicon to a depth determined

What is the principle of operation of LDR? 2. It is formed by the voltage potential that exists at the P-N junction. What is the principle of operation of Photodiodes? 3. Prelab Questions: 1. Those light generated carriers that wander into contact with this field are swept across the junction. At the P-N junction is a region of strong electric field called the depletion region. In addition to the photocurrent. In effect. Phototransistor: Photo-Transistor. What is the difference between Photodiode and phototransistor?. is a bit like a Photo-Diode in the fact that it detects light waves. a voltage is produced across the diode. 5. however photo-transistors. The electron-hole pairs are free to diffuse (or wander) throughout the bulk of the photodiode until they recombine. Give the applications of Photodiodes? 7. like transistor are designed to be like a fast switch and is used for light wave communications and as light or infrared sensors . Give the applications of LDR? 6. Light or photons entering the base (which is the inside of the phototransistor) replace the base . The average time before recombination is the “minority carrier lifetime”. What is the principle of operation of Phototransistors? 4.26 by the photon energy and are absorbed by the silicon generating electron-hole pairs. the photodiode functions exactly like a solar cell by generating a current and voltage when exposed to light. If an external connection is made to both sides of the junction a photo induced current will flow as long as light falls upon the photodiode. The most common form of photo-transistor is the NPN collector and emitter transistor with no base lead.emitter current of normal transistors. Give the applications of Phototransistors? .

27 Circuit diagram: LDR: Photodiode: .

Experiment: Procedure: LDR: Connect circuit as shown in figure Keep light source at a distance and switch it ON.28 Phototransistor: Precautions: 1. Connect voltmeter and Ammeter in correct polarities as shown in the circuit diagram. Sketch graph between R as calculated from observed V and I and distance of light source.so that it falls on the LDR Note down current and voltage in ammeter and voltmeter. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the diode. Vary the distance of the light source and note the V & I. This may lead to damage the diode. 2. 3. . Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the circuit connections as per the circuit diagram.

6V. Mark the readings tabulated. Now mark photocurrent in Y axis and distance in cm along X axis 3. Graph ( instructions) 1.etc. Graph: . Take a graph sheet. Plot the graph :Vd Vs Ir for constant VL Phototransistor: Connect circuit as shown in figure Repeat the procedure as that of the photodiode. 2. Mark origin at the left bottom of the graph sheet.29 Photodiode: Connect circuit as shown in figure Maintain a known distance between the bulb and photodiode say 5cm Set the voltage of the bulb.vary the voltage of the diode in steps of 1 volt and note down the diode current Ir. Repeat above procedure for VL=4V.

30 Calculations from Graph: Resistance R = V/I Ω .

Define dark current in photodiode? 3.Photodiode.Phototransistor is to be tabulated 2. Graph is to be drawn Post lab Questions: 1. Why we are making light to fall on collector base junction in case of phototransistor? Conclusion Particulars Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total Max. Marks 20 40 40 100 Marks Obtained . Photodiode and phototransistor? 2. What happens when distance is increased in case of LDR.31 Result: 1.The characteristics of LDR. Can we operate photodiode in forward bias condition? Justify the answer? 4.

32 6. During the positive half cycle of the iniput the diode conducts and all the input voltage is dropped across RL. Ripple factor is an indication of the effectiveness of the filter and is defined as R=Vr(pp)/V DC Where Vr(pp) = Ripple voltage Vdc= Peak rectified voltage. During the negative half cycle the diode is reverse biased and is in FF state and so the output voltage is zero. thus the smaller the ripple. Vp(rect). No 01 02 03 04 05 Apparatus Transformer Resistance Capacitor Diode Bread board and connecting wires IN4001 Type Range 6-0-6 V 470 ohm 470µF Quantity 1 1 1 1 INTRODUCTION: A device is capable of converting a sinusoidal input waveform into a nidirectional waveform with non zero average component is called a rectifier.1 HALF WAVE RECTIFIER OBJECTIVE: 1. Generally. To plot Output waveform of the Half Wave Rectifier. The variation in the capacitor voltage due to charging and discharging is called ripple voltage. ripple is undesirable. 3. HARDWARE REQUIRED: S. . A practical half wave rectifier with a resistive load is shown in the circuit iagram. To find the efficiency. Vdc for Half Wave Rectifier. The capacitor quickily charges at the beginning of a cycle and slowly discharges through RL after the positive peak of the input voltge. The filter is simply a capacitor connected from the rectifier output to ground. the better the filtering action. 2. To find ripple factor for Half Wave Rectifier using the formulae.

the percentage regulation is 0 percent. the current Iac flows only for one half cycle i. When maximum current flows through. For a practical half wave . MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS (Neglecting Rf and Rs) Let Vac = Vm sinωt is the input AC signal. For an ideal half-wave rectifier. Iac = = Im sinωt 0 ≤ ωt ≤ π = 0 π ≤ ωt ≤ 2π Where Im = maximum value of current Vm = maximum value of voltage AVERAGE OR DC VALUE OF CURRENT Vdc = Vm /π The RMS VALUE OF CURRENT Vrms = Vm/2 RECTIFICATION FACTOR: The ratio of output DC power to the input AC power is defined as efficiency Output power = I2dcR Input power = I2rms(R+Rf) Where Rf – forward resistance of the diode η = Pdc/Pac = I2dcR/ I2rms (R+Rf) PERCENTAGE OF REGULATION: It is a measure of the variation of AC output voltage as a function of DC output Voltage Percentage of regulation VNL = Voltage across load resistance.33 The ripple factor can be lowered by increasing the value of the filter capacitor or increasing the load capacitance. VFL = Voltage across load resistance. When minimum current flows though it. where as it is zero for the duration π ≤ ωt ≤ 2π Therefore.e from ωt = 0 to ωt = π .

What is the regulation for a (i) Half . What is the need for rectification ? . What does no load condition refer to? 5. What are the applications of rectifiers? 8. What are the advantages of bridge rectifier? 6. What is the ideal value of regulation? 4.34 Peak – inverse – voltage PIV: It is the maximum voltage that has to be with stood by a diode when it is reverse biased PIV = Vm PRELAB QUESTIONS: 1. What is the voltage regulation of the rectifier? 3.wave circuit (ii) Full-wave circuit 9. What are the advantages and disadvantages of capacitor filter? 7. What is PIV? State it value in case of (i) Half wave (ii) Full wave (iii) Bridge rectifier. Why are rectifiers used with a filter at their output? 2. 10.

Calculate the ripple factor. Apply AC main voltage to the primary of the transformer. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the diode. 2. . Plot the input. 5. Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the circuit connections as per the circuit diagram. 6. This may lead to damage the diode. output without filter and with filter waveform on a graph sheet. Connect CRO using probes properly as shown in the circuit diagram. 3. Now connect the capacitor in parallel with load resistor and note down the amplitude and timeperiod of the waveform. 2. 4. Measure the amplitude and timeperiod of the transformer secondary(input waveform) by connecting CRO. EXPERIMENT: 1.35 MODEL GRAPH: PRECAUTIONS: 1. 3. Feed the rectified output voltage to the CRO and measure the time period and amplitude of the waveform. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram without capacitor.

Take a graph sheet and divide it into 2 equal parts. Mark origin at the center of the graph sheet. Marks 20 40 40 100 Marks Obtained . FORMULAE: Peak to Peak Ripple Voltage.36 GRAPH ( instructions): 1. Mark the readings tabulated for Amplitude as Voltage and Time in graph sheet. Now mark x-axis as Time y-axis as Voltage 3. Vr(pp)=(1/fRLC)Vp(rect) Vp(rect) = Unfiltered Peak Rectified Voltage Vdc=(1-1/(2fRLC))Vp(rect) Ripple Factor = Vr(pp)/Vdc OBSERVATIONS: Input Waveform Amplitude Time Period Frequency Output Waveform Ripple Voltage RESULT: The Rectified output Voltage of Half Wave Rectifier Circuit is observed and the calculated value of ripple factor is _______________ Conclusion Particulars Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total Max. 2.

ripple is undesirable. 3. diode D1 is ON and diode D2 is OFF. The transformer supplies the two diodes (D1 and D2) with sinusoidal input voltages that are equal in magnitude but opposite in phase. 2. It consists of two half wave rectifiers connected to a common load. thus the smaller the ripple.37 6. One rectifies during positive half cycle of the input and the other rectifying the negative half cycle. To find ripple factor for Full Wave Rectifier using the formulae.2 FULL WAVE RECTIFIER OBJECTIVE: 1. During negative half cycle D1 is OFF and diode D2 is ON. To plot Output waveform of the Full Wave Rectifier. Ripple factor is an indication of the effectiveness of the filter and is defined as R=Vr(pp)/Vdc Where Vr(pp) = Ripple voltage Vdc= Peak rectified voltage. Vp(rect). Vdc for Full Wave Rectifier. . A practical half wave rectifier with a resistive load is shown in the circuit diagram. To find the efficiency. No 01 02 03 04 05 Apparatus Transformer Resistance Capacitor Diode Bread board and connecting wires IN4001 Type Range 6-0-6 V 470 ohm 470µF Quantity 1 1 1 2 INTRODUCTION: A device is capable of converting a sinusoidal input waveform into a unidirectional waveform with non zero average component is called a rectifier. Generally. HARDWARE REQUIRED: S. During input positive half cycle. the better the filtering action.

38 The ripple factor can be lowered by increasing the value of the filter capacitor or increasing the load capacitance. I = Id1 + Id2 The individual currents and voltages are combined in the load and there fore their average values are double that obtained in a half – wave rectifier circuit. then Rf can be neglected) . MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS (Neglecting Rf and Rs) The current through the load during both half cycles is in the same direction and hence it is the sum of the individual currents and is unidirectional Therefore. AVERAGE OR DC VALUE OF CURRENT Idc The RMS VALUE OF CURRENT RECTIFICATION FACTOR The ratio of output DC power to the input AC power is defined as efficiency η = 81% (if R >> Rf .

η is improved Disadvantages of Full wave Rectifier 1. γ is reduced 2. V NL − V FL × 100% VFL For an ideal Full-wave rectifier.39 PERCENTAGE OF REGULATION It is a measure of the variation of AC output voltage as a function of DC output voltage. Output voltage is half the secondary voltage 2. Peak – Inverse – Voltage (PIV) It is the maximum voltage that has to be with stood by a diode when it is reverse biased PIV = 2Vm Advantages of Full wave Rectifier 1. The percentage regulation is 0 percent. Diodes with high PIV rating are used Manufacturing of center-taped transformer is quite expensive and so Full wave rectifier with .

6. Plot the input. 5. EXPERIMENT: 1. 4. Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the circuit connections as per the circuit diagram. 2. 2.40 MODEL GRAPH: PRECAUTIONS: 1. 3. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the diode. Now connect the capacitor in parallel with load resistor and note down the amplitude and time period of the waveform. Measure the amplitude and time period of the transformer secondary(input waveform) by connecting CRO. This may lead to damage the diode. Connect CRO using probes properly as shown in the circuit diagram. Apply AC main voltage to the primary of the transformer. Calculate the ripple factor. 3. Feed the rectified output voltage to the CRO and measure the time period and amplitude of the waveform. . output without filter and with filter waveform on a graph sheet. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram without capacitor.

Formulae: Peak to Peak Ripple Voltage. 2.41 Graph ( instructions) 1. Now mark x-axis as Time y-axis as Voltage 3. Vr(pp)=(1/2fRLC)Vp(rect) Vp(rect) = Unfiltered Peak Rectified Voltage Vdc=(1-1/(4fRLC))Vp(rect) Ripple Factor = Vr(pp)/Vdc Observations: Input Waveform Amplitude Time Period Frequency Result: The Rectified output Voltage of Full Wave Rectifier Circuit is observed and the calculated value of ripple factor is _______________ Conclusion Particulars Max. Mark the readings tabulated for Amplitude as Voltage and Time in graph sheet. Marks Marks Obtained Output Waveform Ripple Voltage Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total 20 40 40 100 . Mark origin at the center of the graph sheet. Take a graph sheet and divide it into 2 equal parts.

3.42 6.3 FULL WAVE BRIDGE RECTIFIER Objective: 1. For the negative half cycle of the input ac voltage. Hardware Required: S. To find the efficiency. The Bridege rectifier has four diodes connected to form a Bridge. which converts an ac voltage to dc voltage using both half cycles of the input ac voltage. For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage. The load resistance is connected between the other two ends of the bridge. To find ripple factor for Full Wave Bridge Rectifier using the formulae. . Vdc for Full Wave Bridge Rectifier. The conducting diodes will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the load current flows through RL . The Bridege rectifier is a circuit. Thus a bidirectional wave is converted into a unidirectional wave. The conducting diodes will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the load current flows through RL in the same direction as in the previous half cycle. To plot Output waveform of the Full Wave Bridge Rectifier. Vp(rect). 2. diode D1 and D3 conducts whereas diodes D2 and D4 remain in the OFF state. diode D2 and D4 conducts whereas diodes D1 and D3 remain in the OFF state. No Apparatus Type Range Quantity 01 02 03 04 05 Transformer Resistance Capacitor Diode Bread board and connecting wires IN4001 6-0-6 V 470 ohm 470µF 1 1 1 4 Introduction: A device is capable of converting a sinusoidal input waveform into a unidirectional waveform with non zero average component is called a rectifier.

43 Ripple factor is an indication of the effectiveness of the filter and is defined as R=Vr(pp)/Vdc Where Vr(pp) = Ripple voltage Vdc= Peak rectified voltage. MODEL GRAPH: . The ripple factor can be lowered by increasing the value of the filter capacitor or increasing the load capacitance. Can we use zener diode in case pn junction diode? Justify your answer. What are the advantages of bridge rectifier over center tapped full wave rectifier? 2. What is the PIV rating of diode in bridge rectifier? 3. Prelab Questions: 1.

Mark origin at the center of the graph sheet. 2. Formulae: Peak to Peak Ripple Voltage.44 Precautions: 1. 6. Calculate the ripple factor. output without filter and with filter waveform on a graph sheet. Apply AC main voltage to the primary of the transformer. Feed the rectified output voltage to the CRO and measure the time period and amplitude of the waveform. 4. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the diode. 3. Connect CRO using probes properly as shown in the circuit diagram. Take a graph sheet and divide it into 2 equal parts. Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the circuit connections as per the circuit diagram. 3. Experiment: 1. Mark the readings tabulated for Amplitude as Voltage and Time in graph sheet. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram without capacitor. This may lead to damage the diode. Plot the input. Now mark x-axis as Time y-axis as Voltage . 5. Measure the amplitude and time period of the transformer secondary(input waveform) by connecting CRO. 2. 2. Now connect the capacitor in parallel with load resistor and note down the amplitude and time period of the waveform. Vr(pp)=(1/2fRLC)Vp(rect) Vp(rect) = Unfiltered Peak Rectified Voltage Vdc=(1-1/(4fRLC))Vp(rect) Ripple Factor = Vr(pp)/Vdc . Graph ( instructions) 1. 3.

If a transformer is removed from the rectifier circuit. why? 3. why? 2. The rectifier diodes are never operated in the breakdown region. why? 4. How big should be the value of capacitor to reduce the ripple to 0. What happens when we remove capacitor in the rectifier circuit? 6. A diode should not be employed in the circuits where it is to carry more than its maximum forward current.45 Observations: Input Waveform Amplitude Time Period Frequency Result: Output Waveform Ripple Voltage The Rectified output Voltage of Full Wave Rectifier Circuit is observed and the calculated value of ripple factor is _______________ Post lab Questions: 1. what happens to the circuit? Conclusion Particulars Max. Marks Marks Obtained Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total 20 40 40 100 .1? 5. the most important consideration is its PIV. While selecting a diode.

To design a series voltage regulator 2.2 INTRODUCTION: The term regulation is the ability of the power supply source to maintain a constant output voltage in spite of line voltage fluctuations and changes in load current The factors of poor regulation are 1.48KΩ.75KΩ. The line voltage changes which causes a dc output change and the ripple content of the dc input due to inadequate filtering. The temperature coefficient of the device parameters which results in a change of the output voltage. No Apparatus Range Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 Power transistor Transistor Zener diode Resistors Multimeter Bread board & wires 947Ω.6Ω 2N3055 1Z6. 2. 2.46 7. . To find load regulation 3. Standard regulator contains three basic elements namely a precision voltage reference. To find line regulation HARDWARE REQUIRED: S. The load current changes which causes a variable internal drop due to the internal resistance of the regulator and the consequent change in the output voltage and 3. an error amplifier and a power control element. 49.2kΩ. 2. They are also classified by the way they are connected to the load as series regulators and shunt regulators. SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR OBJECTIVE: 1. 2. Voltage regulators can be classified by the method of achieving regulation as linear regulators and switching regulators.

variations in the load result in changes in the output current. Hence the collector emitter voltage of Q1 has to increase in order to maintain the same emitter current.the series resistance of an ideal voltage source. with respect to ground decreases thereby decreasing the forward bias of the emitter junction of Q2. Line Regulation: Line regulation is a measure of the ability of the power supply to maintain its output voltage given changes in the input line voltage. . the load regulation specification defines how close the series resistance of the output is to 0 ohms .47 In a series regulator. Due to this the total current following through R3 increases. Hence the collector current IC2 increase.low line input voltage) Load Regulation Load regulation is a measure of the ability of an output channel to remain constant given changes in the load. If the change in VCE. Any increase in the output voltage Vo either due to the input-voltage variation or change of load results in increase of VBE of the transistor Q2. Line regulation = (output voltage at High line input voltage output voltage at low line input voltage) x100 (High line input voltage . The series regulator is desirable when the load current varies from zero to fixed maximum. the load regulation specification can be expressed in one of two ways In constant voltage mode. Depending on the control mode enabled on the output channel. of Q1 can be made equal to Vi then the output voltage will remain constant. A shunt regulator is suitable when the load current varies from a finite minimum value to a finite maximum value. In this circuit the transistor Q2 Functions both as a voltage comparator and dc amplifier. This variation is expressed as a percentage of range per amp of output load and is synonymous with a series resistance. the switching control element is connected between the load and the unregulated supply. In constant voltage mode. We can assume that if Vi dropped across R3. the base voltage of Q1. Hence the collector voltage of Q2 decreases. Since VCBI =VCEI. then the output voltage will remain constant. Since the base of Q1 is tied to the collector of T2. Line regulation is expressed as percent of change in the output voltage relative to the change in the input line voltage.

the load regulation specification defines how close the output shunt resistance is to infinity— the parallel resistance of an ideal current. What is line regulation 6. when load regulation is specified in constant current mode.possibly open circuit for some types of linear supplies. usually limited by pass transistor minimum bias levels) • • NominalLoad (EfL) is the typical specified operating load Prelab Question: 1. What are the performance measures of the regulator? 5. Compare series regulator with shunt regulator by principle.48 In constant current mode. What device is used as a control element? Why? 4. In constant current mode. What are the three basic elements inside a standard voltage regulator? 2.never short circuit) MinimumLoad (EnL) is the load that draws the least current (is the highest specified load resistance . In fact. Load Regulation can be defined as a percentage by the equation: Where: • FullLoad (EfL) is the load that draws the greatest current (is the lowest specified load resistance . what is load regulation 7. This variation is expressed as a percentage of range change in current per volt of change in the output voltage and is synonymous with a resistance in parallel with the output channel terminals. 3. parallel resistance is expressed as 1/load regulation. variations in the load result in changes to the current through the load. what is the efficiency of series voltage regulator .

4 / 2 = 6.49 SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR – CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS Series pass Transistor 2N3055: hfe Iemax Vce BC Ie hfe VI =20-70 =15 amperes =70V 170 =2 mA =125-500 =12.4 – 6.4 / 250 mA VL – VZ / ID = 12.01 * IL = 12.6Ω ASSUMPTIONS = = R1 2.2 / 2.2KΩ = 0.2) 2.4 / 250*10-3 = 49.5 mA =10mA β1 =28 β2 =188 DESIGN = VL/2 = 12.2 V = VL/IL = 12.4 V =250 mA =2.5 * 103 = VR2 = VBE2 + VZ * (R2 / R1+R2) .5* 10-3 = 2.4-(0.48 KΩ VL – (VBE2+VZ) I1 = (12.5 / 2.7 + 6.5*10-3 =5.

2) = 947Ω 19. For line regulation characteristics.5 + 2. No 1. keep the input voltage constant. RL(Ω) Vo(V) . Plot the graph by taking Vin in x axis and VL in the y axis Tabulation Line regulation RL = -----------.107*10-3 = IE1 / β1 =255 / 28 = 9.75 KΩ (V2+VBE2) / R2 = 6. For load regulation characteristics.2 R2 I2 IE1 IB1 I3 R3 Procedure: = = = = 12. 1.9 / 2. find VL for different values of RL.107 mA = + Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.No 1. 4.7*6. 2.5mA (ID+I1 + IL) = (2.75 *103 =2.50 0. 4.(V) S. 2. Vi (V) Vo (V) Load regulation Vi = -----------. 3. 5.107 mA = 19.107 mA [VINMX – (VBE1 + V2)] / I3 = 25-(0.4 * (R2/ (2.5 + 250) mA = 255mA IB1 + IC2 = 9. 2.7 + 6.2*10-3 +R2)) 2.(Ω) S. keep RL constant and for different values of input Vin find VL. Plot the graph by taking RL in the axis and VL in the Y axis. 5. 3.

Load regulation was found to be ----------------------. Post Lab Question: 1. what will happen if potential divider was open circuited 4. what is the role of resistor R1 in this circuit 5.51 MODEL GRAPH VL Vin = Constant VL LOAD REGULATION RL LINE REGULATION Vin Result: The series voltage regulator was designed and constructed and the characteristics were plotted. What will be the output voltage if reference voltage was short circuited 2. the regulated output voltage was found to be--------------V. 2. 1. Line regulation was found to be --------------------3. what is the role of resistor R2 in this circuit Conclusion Particulars Max. Marks Marks Obtained Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total 20 40 40 100 . What will be the output voltage if reference voltage was open circuited 3.

the input voltage is always maintained greater than zener voltage (Vz). Breadboard & wires (0-30 V) 31. To find load regulation 3. . Line regulation is expressed as percent of change in the output voltage relative to the change in the input line voltage. To design a shunt voltage regulator 2.66 Ω. Transistor shunt voltage regulator A zener diode is connected in parallel with the load. There are two types of shunt voltage regulator 1. Zener diode shunt voltage regulator 2.1 INTRODUCTION: The function of a voltage regulator is to provide a stable dc voltage to electronic circuits and capable of providing substantial output current.52 8. SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR OBJECTIVE: 1. Line Regulation: Line regulation is a measure of the ability of the power supply to maintain its output voltage given changes in the input line voltage. a resistance (R2) is connected in series with the zener to limit the current in the circuit. Hence the resistance is called as series current limiting resistor. Since the reverse bias characteristics of sener diode are used in voltage regulation.10 KΩ 1z 5. Since the lement or component used for voltage regulation is connected across the load. To find line regulation HARDWARE REQUIRED: S. The output voltage (Vo) is taken across the load resistance (R1).No Apparatus Range Type 1 2 3 4 5 Regulated power supply Resistors Zener diode Multimeter. it is called as shunt voltage regulator.

the load regulation specification defines how close the output shunt resistance is to infinity— the parallel resistance of an ideal current. variations in the load result in changes to the current through the load. In constant current mode. In constant current mode. This variation is expressed as a percentage of range change in current per volt of change in the output voltage and is synonymous with a resistance in parallel with the output channel terminals. Depending on the control mode enabled on the output channel. In fact. the load regulation specification defines how close the series resistance of the output is to 0 ohms .the series resistance of an ideal voltage source.possibly open circuit for some types of linear supplies. the load regulation specification can be expressed in one of two ways: In constant voltage mode. when load regulation is specified in constant current mode.never short circuit) MinimumLoad (EnL) is the load that draws the least current (is the highest specified load resistance . This variation is expressed as a percentage of range per amp of output load and is synonymous with a series resistance. usually limited by pass transistor minimum bias levels) • • NominalLoad (EfL) is the typical specified operating load . Load Regulation can be defined as a percentage by the equation: Where: • FullLoad (EfL) is the load that draws the greatest current (is the lowest specified load resistance . parallel resistance is expressed as 1/load regulation. In constant voltage mode. variations in the load result in changes in the output current.53 Load Regulation Load regulation is a measure of the ability of an output channel to remain constant given changes in the load.

Vz = VL = 5. What device is used as a control element? Why? 3. Therefore RL = VL= / lL = 5.54 Prelab Question: 1.1 V/ 50 * 10-3 A = 120 Ω RL = 102Ω RL should be greater than or equal to 102 Ω I1 = IZ + I L = 10mA + 50 mA I1 = 60 mA Rs = ( Vi-Vz) / I1 = (7-5. What are the performance measures of the regulator? 4.1 V Load current lL = 50 mA. what is load regulation 6. Compare series regulator with shunt regulator by principle. What is line regulation 5. what is the efficiency of shunt voltage regulator SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR – CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESIGN Let lz max = 10 mA.66Ω Rs = 31.66Ω . 2.1) / (60*10-3 = 31.

TABULATION Line regulation RL = 10 K (Ω) Vi = 7 (V) Load regulation S. the input voltage (Vi) is kept constant. Connections are made as per as the circuit diagram. 4. 3. 2. The load resistance RL is varied and the corresponding output voltage are noted. 2. 3.55 PROCEDURE Line regulation 1. 3. 2.28 6. 2. The same circuit is used for finding load regulation. 3.No 1.No 1. Vi (V) 2 9 Vo (V) 2. 4. RL ( Ω) 50 700 Vo(V) 4. The load resistance (RL) is kept constant and input voltage is varied and the corresponding output voltage (Vo) are noted. A graph is drawn by taking input voltage (Vi) in x axiz and output voltage (Vo) in y axis. A graph is plotted by having RL in x axis and Vo in y axis. Load regulation 1. In the case.8 S. 5.07 6. 5.51 .

What is the role of resistor R1 in this circuit 5. Line regulation was found to be --------------------3. Marks Marks Obtained Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total 20 40 40 100 . 2. What is the disadvantage of shunt regulator 4. What is the role of resistor R2 in this circuit Conclusion Particulars Max.56 Result: The shunt voltage regulator was designed and constructed and the characteristics were plotted. What will be the output voltage if reference voltage was open circuited 3. What will be the output voltage if Zener diode was short circuited 2. The regulated output voltage was found to be--------------V. Load regulation was found to be ---------------------Post Lab Question: 1. 1.

Thus LED emits light under forward biased condition. It is like a normal pn junction diode except the basic semiconductor material is GaAs or InP which is responsible for the color of the light. LED 4. If you can see inside the LED the cathode is the larger electrode (but this is not an official identification method). The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. Under forward bias condition the anode is connected to the positive terminal and the cathode is connected to the negative terminal of the battery. LED operates only in forward biased condition. the diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or . but the risk is small unless you are very slow. Regulated power supply 2. No Apparatus 1. Bread board and connecting wires Introduction: Function Range (0 -5 V) 330Ω Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 (0 – 30V) (0 – 100 mA) LEDs emit light when an electric current passes through them. for cathode!). LEDs can be damaged by heat when soldering. No special precautions are needed for soldering most LEDs. V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF LED Objective : To obtain the V-I Characteristics of LED Hardware Required: S. When it is forward biased the holes moves from p to n and electrons flow from n to p. it really is k.for cathode (yes. Ammeter 6. Resistors 3. not c. there is no recombination due to majority carriers. . In the junction the carriers recombine with each other and released the energy in the form of light. Connecting and soldering LEDs must be connected the correct way round. Voltmeter 5. so there is no emission of light. Under reverse biased condition. LED is connected in the circuit as shown in figure.57 9.

Calculating an LED resistor value An LED must have a resistor connected in series to limit the current through the LED. orange. not by the colouring of the 'package' (the plastic body). Standard LEDs have a viewing angle of 60° but others have a narrow beam of 30° or less. yellow. Blue and white LEDs are much more expensive than the other colours.58 Testing an LED Never connect an LED directly to a battery or power supply! It will be destroyed almost instantly because too much current will pass through and burn it out. LEDs also vary in their viewing angle.VL) / I VS = supply voltage VL = LED voltage (usually 2V. LEDs must have a resistor in series to limit the current to a safe value. The resistor value. this must be less than the maximum permitted . . but 4V for blue and white LEDs) I = LED current (e. for quick testing purposes a 1k resistor is suitable for most LEDs if your supply voltage is 12V or less. This tells you how much the beam of light spreads out. The coloured packages are also available as diffused (the standard type) or transparent. green.g. LEDs of all colours are available in uncoloured packages which may be diffused (milky) or clear (often described as 'water clear'). sizes and shapes. blue and white. otherwise it will burn out almost instantly. R is given by: R = (VS . amber. 20mA). The colour of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material. Remember to connect the LED the correct way round! Colours of LEDs LEDs are available in red. As well as a variety of colours.

R = (9V . This prolongs battery life by lighting several LEDs with the same current as just one LED. The power supply must have sufficient voltage to provide about 2V for . so that the current will be a little less than you chose. requiring a current I = 20mA = 0.2V) / 0.59 If the calculated value is not available choose the nearest standard resistor value which is greater. and you have a red LED (VL = 2V).020A.02A = 350 . All the LEDs connected in series pass the same current so it is best if they are all the same type. so choose 390 greater). For example If the supply voltage VS = 9V. (the nearest standard value which is Connecting LEDs in series If you wish to have several LEDs on at the same time it may be possible to connect them in series. In fact you may wish to choose a greater resistor value to reduce the current (to increase battery life for example) but this will make the LED less bright.

Connecting several LEDs in parallel with just one resistor shared between them is generally not a good idea. To work out a value for the resistor you must add up all the LED voltages and use this for VL. Example calculations: A red.015 = 3 / 0. Avoid connecting LEDs in parallel. Less complex circuitry 2.015A. so a 9V battery would be ideal.6) / 0. High quantum efficiency . so choose R = 220 (the nearest standard value which is greater). Hard radiation 2.015 = 200 . Resistor R = (VS . If the LEDs require slightly different voltages only the lowest voltage LED will light and it may be destroyed by the larger current flowing through it.VL) / I = (9 . Fast emission response time 3. a yellow and a green LED in series need a supply voltage of at least 3 × 2V + 2V = 8V. Advantages of LED: 1. VL = 2V + 2V + 2V = 6V (the three LED voltages added up). Can be fabricated less expensively with high yield Desired characteristics: 1. If the supply voltage VS is 9V and the current I must be 15mA = 0. Although identical LEDs can be successfully connected in parallel with one resistor this rarely offers any useful benefit because resistors are very cheap and the current used is the same as connecting the LEDs individually.60 each LED (4V for blue and white) plus at least another 2V for the resistor.

What are the advantages of LED over laser diode? 8. Define wavelength. 5.61 Basic LED configuration: 1. What happens when LEDs connected in series and parallel? 7. What are the desired characteristics of LED? 9. Circuit diagram: Forward bias: . What are the configurations of LED. What is a LED? 3. Edge emitter Pre Lab questions : 1. Differentiate LED from normal PN junction diode? 4. Surface emitter 2. What are light materials? 6. What are light sources? 2.

4. 2. 3. 2. No 1.62 Reverse bias: Experimental procedure: 1. Tabular column: S. Vary the input voltages at the RPS and note down the corresponding current for the voltages. 5. Plot the graph between voltage and current for forward bias and reverse bias. 4. Give the connection as per the circuit diagram. Repeat the procedure for reverse bias condition and tabulate the corresponding voltages and currents. 3. Voltages V Currents mA .

63 Model Graph: Result: Thus the VI characteristics of LED were studied. Post Lab questions: 1. Marks Marks Obtained Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total 20 40 40 100 . Explain the operation of LED under forward bias and reverse bias condition? 2. Why light is not emitted under reverse bias condition? 3. Give the applications of LED. What is meant by recombination rate? 4. Conclusion Particulars Max.

Thermistors are widely used as inrush current limiters.. ∆T = change in temperature. 5. 3. If k is negative. k = first-order temperature coefficient of resistance Thermistors can be classified into two types depending on the sign of k. No 1. Calculate the resistance of the thermistor and the temperature coefficient using the given formula for different temperatures Hardware Required: S. the resistance increases with increasing temperature.64 10. The word thermistor is a combination of words“thermal” and “resistor”. then: ∆R = k∆T Where ∆R = change in resistance. A thermistor is a temperature-sensing element composed of sintered semiconductor material which exhibits a large change in resistance proportional to a small change in temperature. as a first-order approximation. 4. temperature sensors. Apparatus Thermistor Thermometer Multimeter Heater Connecting wires Quantity 1 1 1 1 Type Digital Introduction: A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies with temperature. and self-regulating heating elements. Assuming. and the device is called a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor. If k is positive. self-resetting over current protectors. CHARACTERISTICS OF THERMISTOR Objective: • • To determine the physical characteristics of the given thermistor. or posistor. 2. the . that the relationship between resistance and temperature is linear.

Thermistors are also commonly used in modern digital thermostats and to monitor the temperature of battery packs while charging. while thermistors typically achieve a higher precision within a limited temperature range [usually -90C to 130C]. then compressed and subject to very high heat. nickel and copper. so that their resistance remains nearly constant over a wide temperature range. The temperature response is also different. They present a higher resistance initially which prevents large currents from flowing at turn-on. ground to a fine powder. Resistors that are not thermistors are designed to have a k as close to zero as possible. Some NTC thermistors are crystallized from semiconducting material such as silicon and germanium. and then heat up and become much lower resistance to allow higher current flow during normal operation. Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors (RTD) in that the material used in a thermistor is generally a ceramic or polymer. cobalt. The metals are oxidized through a chemical reaction.PTC thermistors can be used as heating elements in small temperature controlled ovens. RTDs are useful over larger temperature ranges. NTC thermistors are used as resistance thermometers in lowtemperature measurements of the order of 10 K. NTC thermistors can be used also as inrush-current limiting devices in power supply circuits. and the device is called a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor. and then heat up and become much lower resistance to allow higher current flow during normal operation.65 resistance decreases with increasing temperature. They present a higher resistance initially which prevents large currents from flowing at turn-on. These thermistors are usually much larger than measuring type thermistors. They are most commonly made from the oxides of metals such as manganese. Applications: • NTC thermistors are used as resistance thermometers in low-temperature measurements of the order of 10 K. and are purpose designed for this application. These thermistors are usually • . NTC thermistors can be used as inrush-current limiting devices in power supply circuits. while RTDs use pure metals.

to the dashboard. What is a thermistor? 6. How the thermistor is made up of? Experimental Set up: .efficient of resistance? 4. What are the types of temperature sensors? 3. For example. • Thermistors are also commonly used in modern digital thermostats and to monitor the temperature of battery packs while charging. they monitor things like coolant temperature and/or oil temperature inside the engine and provide data to the ECU and. • NTC thermistors are regularly used in automotive applications. What is meant by temperature sensor? 2. Give the differences between active and passive transducers? 5. and are purposely designed for this application.66 much larger than measuring type thermistors. Pre Lab questions: 1. indirectly. What is meant by positive and negative temperature co.

Temperature °C Resistance in ohms Model graph: . 4. The apparatus are placed as it is given in the experimental set up. 4. The thermistor is placed in a vessel containing water and using heater rise the temperature of the water. Repeat the experiment for different temperatures and calculate the temperature coefficient for various temperatures. Find the resistance of the given thermistor at room temperature using multimeter. 5.67 Experimental procedure: 1. Tabular column: S. 3. 3. A graph was plotted between temperature °C and resistance in ohms of the thermistor. 2.No 1. 2. 5.

68 Result: Thus the given thermistor characteristics were measured and verified. Thermistor is a passive transducer? Justify. What are the applications of thermistors? 2. Marks Marks Obtained Prelab Lab Check of and verification Report & post lab Total 20 40 40 100 . 3. Post Lab Questions: 1. Compare thermistor with RTD and thermocouple. Conclusion Particulars Max.

CONTENTS EXP.2 6.3 7 8 9 10 P-N JUNCTION DIODE CHARACTERISTICS ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS COMMON EMITTER CONFIGURATION COMMON COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION FET CHARACTERISTICS CHARACTERISTICS OF LDR.1 1.1 6. AND PHOTOTRANSISTOR HALF WAVE RECTIFIER FULL WAVE RECTIFIER FULL WAVE BRIDGE RECTIFIER SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR SHUNT VOLTAGE REGULATOR V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF LED CHARACTERISTICS OF THERMISTOR 1 5 10 15 19 24 31 36 41 45 51 56 63 . PHOTODIODE.2 2 3 4 5 6. NO TITLE OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO 1.

This should include circuit diagrams. 2. Be sure to reproduce any tables you completed for the lab. Objectives: Enumerate 3 or 4 of the topics that you think the lab will teach you. Neatness. 3. d. and Date. a. However. Experiment No. and completeness will be rewarded. Cover Page: Include your name. b. The prelab and postlab report format is as follows: 1.formulae. Questions: Specific questions(Prelab and Postlab) asked in the lab should be answered here. The reports are intended to be a complete documentation of the work done in preparation for and during the lab. A neat thorough prelab must be presented to your Staff Incharge at the beginning of your scheduled lab period. the lab reports will be written individually. This section should also include a clear written description of your design process. Remember. Design: This part contains all the steps required to arrive at your final circuit. Points will be deducted for any part that is not clear. Lab reports should be submitted on A4 paper. tabular columns. please do not hesitate to approach your staff incharge during office hours. Your report is a professional presentation of your work in the lab. However. c. Copying any prelab/postlab will . Please use the following format for your lab reports. Subject Code.70 EC0221 Laboratory Policies and Report Format Reports are due at the beginning of the lab period. The report should be complete so that someone else familiar with concepts of electron devices could use it to verify your work. In this laboratory students will work in teams of three.. Your work must be original and prepared independently. Section No. if you need any guidance or have any questions or problems. DO NOT REPEAT the wording in the lab manual procedures. you should write about what you will learn. Retype the questions presented in the lab and then formally answer them.graph etc. organization. Simply including a circuit schematic is not sufficient. not what you will do. There should be one or two sentences per objective.

00% 20. etc. completing lab. 7. Final grade in this course will be based on laboratory assignments.e.71 result in a grade of 0. Grading will be based on pre-lab work. you must make use of the open times for the lab room to complete your circuit.). 4. If for valid reason a student misses a lab.00% 20.The Staff Incharge will ask pertinent questions to individual members of a team at random. Attendance at your regularly scheduled lab period is required. Circuit works: If the circuit works during the lab period (3 hours). call your staff incharge. Each laboratory exercise (circuit) must be completed and demonstrated to your Staff Incharge in order to receive working circuit credit. All labs have an equal weight in the final grade. b.. When your circuit is ready. Habitually late students (i. and he/she will sign and date it. This is the end of this lab..e.. Labs will be graded as per the following grading policy: Pre-Lab Work In-Lab Performance Post Lab Work Laboratory Report 20. answering laboratory related questions.00% 40. contact your staff incharge to set up a time when the two of you can meet to check your circuit. it is permissible for the student to do the lab in a different section later in the week if approved by the staff incharge of both the sections. laboratory reports. Circuit does not work: If the circuit does not work. students late more than 15 minutes more than once) will receive 10 point reductions in their grades for each occurrence following the first. The incident will be formally reported to the University and the students should follow the dress code in the Lab session. 5. or makes a reasonable request in advance of the class meeting. and you will get a complete grade for this portion of the lab. This is the procedure to follow: a.. An unexpected absence will result in loss of credit for your lab.00% . post-lab and in-lab performance (i. 6.

Any modification in the circuit connection should be done only after switching off the power supply . The remaining 25% weightage will be given by conducting an end semester practical examination for every individual student if possible or by conducting a 1 to 1 ½ hours duration common written test for all students. Reports Due Dates: Reports are due one week after completion of the corresponding lab. Test all the components before giving connection to the circuit. Properly place the all the components of the circuit in the Bread board. b. . Systems of Tests: Regular laboratory class work over the full semester will carry a weightage of 75%. Each lab will equally contribute to the final grade. 9. 10. and give the Power supply connections as given . 8. based on all the experiment carried out in the semester. Check the connections before switch on the power supply. General Procedure: a.72 Each student will receive up to 10 points for each lab session. c. d. If a report is 2 days late. a grade of 0 will be assigned. A late lab report will have 20% of the points deducted for being one day late.

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