ISSN 1725-4566

Pocketbooks

Energy, transport and environment indicators

2010 edition

Pocketbooks

Energy, transport and environment indicators

2010 edition

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More information on the European Union is available on the Internet (http://europa.eu). Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011 ISBN 978-92-79-16303-6 ISSN 1725-4566 doi:10.2785/52270 Cat. No. KS-DK-10-001-EN-C Theme: Environment and energy Collection: Pocketbooks © European Union, 2011 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. © Cover photo: Peggy Bastin Printed in Belgium Printed on elemental chlorine-free bleached PaPer (ecf )

the media and citizens. Eurostat publications can be ordered via EU Bookshop: http://bookshop. with the members of the ‘European statistical system’ (ESS). regional. librarians.eu All publications are also downloadable free of charge in PDF format from the Eurostat website (http://ec. NGOs. (352) 43 01-1 website http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat).europa. agricultural or environmental topics.europa.eu/eurostat Eurostat is the Statistical Office of the European Communities. a network of user support centres which exist in nearly all Member States as well as in some EFTA countries.EUROSTAT L-2920 Luxembourg — Tel. Data in focus present the most recent statistics with methodological notes. Its mission is to provide the European Union with high-quality statistical information. Eurostat’s databases are freely available there. professional organisations. implementation and analysis of Community policies. Its statistical products and services are also of great value to Europe’s business community. Their mission is to provide help and guidance to Internet users of European statistical data. News releases provide recent information on the Euro-Indicators and on social. Eurostat's publications programme consists of several collections. Methodologies and working papers are technical publications for statistical experts working in a particular field. Furthermore. Eurostat has set up. Statistics in focus provides updated summaries of the main results of surveys. . academics. Contact details for this support network can be found on Eurostat’s website. economic. Statistical books are larger A4 publications with statistical data and analysis. For that purpose. Pocketbooks are free-of-charge publications aiming to give users a set of basic figures on a specific topic. studies and statistical analysis.and long-term indicators. as are tables with the most frequently used and demanded short. it gathers and analyses figures from the national statistical offices across Europe and provides comparable and harmonised data for the European Union to use in the definition.

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In the transport chapter. transport and environment indicators 5 . water and environmental accounts are collected by Eurostat. Energy indicators include supply. Energy. the main data sources are: reporting under Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Energy Statistics and Directive 2008/92/EC concerning transparency of gas and electricity prices. and energy prices. the EU-27 aggregate is also provided. for sound policy-making and for setting effective measures. energy dependency. while emissions data have been provided by the European Environment Agency. forestry. while the supply balances for carbon in wood products come from Eurostat. volume of passengers and freight transport. the three domains have become increasingly interconnected. transport and environment. the share of renewable sources. In view of the growing global political importance of issues such as climate change and energy security. When available. data on waste. necessary for a better understanding of the complexity of the issues. modes of transport and road safety. environmental protection expenditure. In the environment chapter. all in a single volume. the structure of the energy industry. material flows and environmental accounts. Transport indicators cover equipment. transport mainly between 2003 and 2008. the most important data sources are reporting under the EU legal acts on transport statistics and the Eurostat/UNECE/ITF Common Questionnaire. water use. the EFTA and candidate countries. The FAO's Forest Resources Assessment 2010 is the source of data on biomass and carbon in forests. energy efficiency. The Environment chapter includes indicators on climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. including environmentally related taxes. final consumption.Foreword Foreword The 2010 edition of this Pocketbook presents facts and figures from the domains of energy. the use of the transformation sector. In the energy chapter. Data are generally available for the period between 1998 and 2008. This creates the need for a comprehensive approach. waste. The indicators present national data for the 27 EU Member States. comprising reliable and comparable statistical data.

Dietmar Maass Material Flow Accounts — Cristina Popescu Publication management: Stavroula Papagianni and Philip Siakkis.Project management: Ruxandra Roman Enescu. Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving Original language: English Translations: European Commission Translation Service 6 Energy. transport and environment indicators . Eurostat For further information: Energy indicators: Ruxandra Roman Enescu Kalinka Petrova Transport indicators: Hans Strelow Jonas Noreland Environment indicators: Jean Klein: coordinator Waste — Christian Heidorn Forestry — Marilise Wolf-Crowther Water — Jürgen Förster Environmental accounts and climate change: Velina Pendolovska: coordinator Greenhouse gas emissions — Julie Hass. Annamaria Szirony Environmental accounts — Anda Georgescu.

3.1.5.4 1.1 1.6.6. by industrial sector Final energy consumption in industry. by fuel Final energy consumption in households.3 18 Energy indicators Energy dependency Energy dependency — all products Energy dependency — hard coal and derivatives Energy dependency — oil Energy dependency — natural gas Energy intensity Energy supply Primary energy production.2 1. transport and environment indicators 7 .7 Energy efficiency 1.5.1. by type Thermal efficiency of power stations Combined heat and power generation Market share of the largest generator in the electricity market 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 Renewable energy sources Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption Installed capacity for electricity generation from renewables Contribution of electricity from renewables to total electricity consumption 1.3.3 1.4 1.3 1.2 Natural gas prices in households and industry Energy. by fuel Energy industry Installed capacity of electricity generation plants.8 Energy prices 1.4 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.6.1 Gross inland consumption per capita 1.5 1.4.2 1.1.4.Table of contents Table of contents Introduction 1 1.3 1.3. by country of origin Net imports of solid fuels and oil Net imports of natural gas Net imports of electricity Final energy consumption Final energy consumption. by type Power station generation.2 Final electricity consumption per capita 1.6.3.8.2 1.6.6 1.4.6.1 1.5.1 1.6 1.1.3 1. by fuel Imports of energy products.4 1.2 1.1 Electricity prices in households and industry 1.3.2 1.4 1.3. by fuel Gross inland consumption.6 Share of biofuels in fuel consumption of transport 1.5 Primary production of biofuels 1.4.7. by sector Final energy consumption.1 1.5 1.6 1.4 Biofuels production capacity 1.5 1.2 1.8.1 1.7.4.4.3 1. by fuel Final energy consumption by mode of transport Final energy consumption in transport.

9 2.3.1 2.3 2. transport and environment indicators .4 2.2 EU-27 greenhouse gas emissions.1 2.2 Vehicle-kilometres 2.5 Freight transport Index of inland freight transport volume relative to GDP Index of inland freight transport growth Modal split of inland freight transport — shares of road.3. by fuel type Renewal rate of passenger cars Motorisation rate of lorries and road tractors Renewal rate of lorries and road tractors Airfleet by operator country 92 94 96 98 100 102 2.1.3.2.1.7 2.5.3 2.3.1.1 3. breakdown by sector 3.1.4 2.4 3.4.Table of contents 2 2.2 2.1 Greenhouse gas emissions 3.1.2.4.2.4.2.3.2.6 Transport indicators Transport equipment Motorisation rate of passenger cars Passenger cars.1.4 2.2.1 2.6 2.2 3. 2008 Municipal waste generated Energy production from municipal waste incineration 8 Energy.5 Transport safety 2.3 2.3. 2008 Waste management.1.3 3.2 3.4 2.4.5 2.3. non-hazardous) Waste generation by economic activity.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 Road traffic volumes on national territory by type of vehicle 2.1 Greenhouse gas emissions and agreed reduction targets 3.8 2.1 Persons killed in road accidents 3 Environment indicators 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 3.3 2. IWW and rail in total inland transport Goods freight transport by rail Goods freight transport by road Goods freight transport by inland waterways Goods freight transport by sea Goods freight transport by air Goods freight transport by oil pipelines Passenger transport Passenger transport by rail Passenger transport by passenger cars Passenger transport by buses and coaches Passenger transport by air Passenger transport by sea 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 2.3.3.5 Waste Total waste generated (hazardous.5 2.1.4.

Table of contents

3.2.6 Greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment, 2008 3.2.7 Recycling and recovery rate for packaging waste, 2007 3.2.8 Production of environmentally harmful chemicals 3.3 Forestry 3.3.1 Stock of wood and biomass on forest and other wooded land, 2010 3.3.2 Stock of carbon on forest and other wooded land, 2010 3.3.3 Supply balance for wood products 3.4 Water 3.4.1 Water resources: LTAA — split into external inflow and internal flow 3.4.2 Abstraction of fresh water 3.4.3 Abstraction of fresh water per capita 3.4.4 Use of water (public water supply) by the domestic sector (households and services) per capita 3.4.5 Water use for energy production (cooling water) 3.5 Environmental accounts 3.5.1 Manufacturing sector's environmental protection expenditure by environmental domain in EU-27 for 2006 3.5.2 Share of investments and current expenditure for air protection in total EPE for the manufacturing sector, last year available 3.5.3 Evolution of investments in "cleaner technologies" (pollution prevention investments) for air protection in the manufacturing sector 3.5.4 Implicit tax rate on energy 3.5.5 Energy taxes in the European countries by their payers, last year available 3.5.6 Transport taxes in the European countries by their payers, last year available 3.5.7 Pollution/resource taxes in the European countries by their payers, last year available 3.6 Material flow accounts 3.6.1 Domestic material consumption by material, 2007 3.6.2 Total imports and exports of materials in the EU-27, 2000-2007 3.6.3 Domestic material input and domestic material consumption per capita, 2007

152 154 156

158 160 162

164 166 168 170 172

174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192

Annex A: Glossary of terms used in the energy section Annex B: Terms and methodology used in the transport section Annex C: Glossary of terms used in the environment section Annex D: Calorific values and conversion factors

194 197 198 204

Energy, transport and environment indicators

9

Table des matières

Table des matières
Introduction 1
1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.6 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 18

Indicateurs de l'énergie
Dépendance énergétique Dépendance énergétique — tous produits Dépendance énergétique — houille et dérivés Dépendance énergétique — pétrole Dépendance énergétique — gaz naturel Intensité énergétique Approvisionnement énergétique Production d'énergie primaire, par combustible Consommation intérieure brute, par combustible Importations de produits énergétiques par pays d'origine Importations nettes de combustibles solides et de pétrole Importations nettes de gaz naturel Importations nettes d'électricité 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68

Consommation énergétique finale Consommation énergétique finale, par secteur Consommation énergétique finale, par secteur industriel Consommation énergétique finale dans l'industrie, par combustible 1.4.4 Consommation énergétique finale, par mode de transport 1.4.5 Consommation énergétique finale dans les transports, par combustible 1.4.6 Consommation énergétique finale des ménages, par combustible 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5 Industrie énergétique Capacité installée de production d'électricité, par type Production des centrales électriques, par type Rendement thermique des centrales électriques Production combinée de chaleur et d'électricité Part de marché du plus grand producteur d'électricité

1.6 Sources d’énergie renouvelables 1.6.1 Part de l’énergie produite à partir de sources renouvelables dans la consommation finale brute d’énergie 1.6.2 Capacité installée de production d'électricité à partir de sources d'énergie renouvelables 1.6.3 Part de l'électricité produite à partir de sources renouvelables dans la consommation totale d'électricité 1.6.4 Capacité de production de biocarburants 1.6.5 Production primaire de biocarburants 1.6.6 Part des biocarburants dans la consommation de carburant des transports 1.7 Efficacité énergétique 1.7.1 Consommation intérieure brute par habitant 1.7.2 Consommation finale d'électricité par habitant 1.8 Prix de l'énergie 1.8.1 Prix de l’électricité pour les ménages et l’industrie 1.8.2 Prix du gaz naturel pour les ménages et l’industrie
10 Energy, transport and environment indicators

70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88

Table des matières

2
2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6

Indicateurs des transports
Matériels de transport Taux de motorisation en véhicules particuliers Véhicules particuliers par type de carburant Taux de renouvellement des véhicules particuliers Taux de motorisation en camions et tracteurs routiers Taux de renouvellement des camions et tracteurs routiers Flotte aérienne par pays opérateur 92 94 96 98 100 102

2.2 Véhicules kilomètres 2.2.1 Volume de trafic routier sur le territoire national par type de véhicule 2.3 Transport de marchandises 2.3.1 Indice de volume du transport intérieur de marchandises par rapport au PIB 2.3.2 Indice de croissance du transport intérieur de marchandises 2.3.3 Répartition modale du transport intérieur de marchandises: parts du transport routier, du transport par voies navigables intérieures et du transport par rail dans le transport intérieur total 2.3.4 Transport de marchandises par rail 2.3.5 Transport de marchandises par route 2.3.6 Transport de marchandises par voies navigables intérieures 2.3.7 Transport de marchandises par voie maritime 2.3.8 Transport de marchandises par voie aérienne 2.3.9 Transport de marchandises par oléoducs 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 Transport de passagers Transport de passagers par rail Transport de passagers en véhicules particuliers Transport de passagers par autobus et autocars Transport aérien de passagers Transport maritime de passagers

104

106 108

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134

2.5 Sécurité des transports 2.5.1 Nombre de personnes tuées dans des accidents de la route

3

Indicateurs de l'environnement

3.1 Émissions de gaz à effet de serre 3.1.1 Émissions de gaz à effet de serre et objectifs de réduction adoptés 3.1.2 Émissions de gaz à effet de serre dans l'EU 27 ventilées par secteur 3.2 Déchets 3.2.1 Production totale de déchets (dangereux, non dangereux) 3.2.2 Production de déchets par activité économique, 2008 3.2.3 Gestion des déchets, 2008 3.2.4 Production de déchets municipaux 3.2.5 Production d'énergie à partir de l'incinération des déchets municipaux

138 140 142 144 146 148 150
11

Energy, transport and environment indicators

Table des matières

3.2.6 Émissions de gaz à effet de serre provenant du traitement des déchets, 2008 3.2.7 Taux de recyclage et de récupération de déchets d’emballage, 2007 3.2.8 Production de substances chimiques nocives pour l'environnement

152 154 156

3.3 Sylviculture 3.3.1 Volumes de bois et de biomasse en forêt et sur d'autres terres boisées, 2010 158 3.3.2 Stocks de carbone en forêt et sur d'autres terres boisées, 2010 160 3.3.3 Bilan d'approvisionnement pour les produits du bois 162 3.4 Eau 3.4.1 Ressources en eau: moyenne annuelle à long terme — répartition entre apport externe et flux interne 3.4.2 Prélèvements d’eau douce 3.4.3 Prélèvements d’eau douce par habitant 3.4.4 Utilisation d'eau (approvisionnement public en eau) par le secteur domestique (ménages et services), par habitant 3.4.5 Utilisation d'eau pour la production d'énergie (eau de refroidissement) 3.5 Comptes de l’environnement 3.5.1 Dépenses consacrées à la protection de l’environnement par le secteur manufacturier dans l'EU-27 en 2006, par domaine environnemental 3.5.2 Part des investissements et des dépenses courantes pour la protection de l'air dans le total des DPE du secteur manufacturier, dernière année disponible 3.5.3 Évolution des investissements du secteur manufacturier dans les «technologies plus propres» pour la protection de l'air (investissements pour la prévention de la pollution) 3.5.4 Taux d’imposition implicite de l’énergie 3.5.5 Taxes sur l'énergie dans les pays européens, par secteur payeur, dernière année disponible 3.5.6 Taxes sur les transports dans les pays européens, par secteur payeur, dernière année disponible 3.5.7 Taxes sur la pollution/les ressources dans les pays européens, par secteur payeur, dernière année disponible 3.6 Comptes des flux de matières 3.6.1 Consommation intérieure de matières ventilée par matière, 2007 3.6.2 Importations et exportations totales de matières dans l'EU 27, 2000-2007 3.6.3 Apport intérieur de matières et consommation intérieure de matières par habitant, 2007

164 166 168 170 172

174 176 178 180 182 184 186

188 190 192

Annexe A: Glossaire des termes utilisés dans la section énergie Annexe B: Section Transport - termes et méthodologie Annexe C: Glossaire des termes utilisés dans la section environnement Annexe D: Valeurs calorifiques et facteurs de conversion

194 197 198 204

12

Energy, transport and environment indicators

5.8.5.6 Erneuerbare Energiequellen 1.6.5 Anteil des größten Erzeugers am Strommarkt 1.3 1.2 Installierte Leistung für Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen 1.7.5.1 Strompreise für Haushalte und Industrie 1.5 1.1 Installierte Leistung von Stromerzeugungsanlagen nach Anlageart 1.1 Anteil erneuerbarer Energie am Bruttoendenergieverbrauch 1.8.3.3 Thermischer Wirkungsgrad von Kraftwerken 1.3.4 Kapazität der Biokraftstofferzeugung 1.7.2 Erdgaspreise für Haushalte und Industrie 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 Energy.2 1.1.Inhaltsverzeichnis Inhaltsverzeichnis Einführung 1 1.2 1.8 Energiepreise 1.6.5 Energieindustrie 1.3. transport and environment indicators 13 .4 1.6.5 1.6.3 Anteil des Stroms aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen am Stromverbrauch insgesamt 1.1.4 Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung 1.3.1.1 1.4.2 Erzeugung von Kraftwerken nach Anlageart 1.7 Energieeffizienz 1.4 1.3.4.4.6.5 Primärerzeugung von Biokraftstoffen 1.4.5.1 1.1 Bruttoinlandsverbrauch pro Kopf 1.6 1.2 Stromendverbrauch pro Kopf 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.6 Anteil von Biokraftstoffen am Kraftstoffbrauch des Verkehrswesens 1.4.4 1.3.3 1.3 1.4 1.6.6 18 Energieindikatoren Energieabhängigkeit Energieabhängigkeit — alle Erzeugnisse Energieabhängigkeit — Steinkohle und Nebenprodukte Energieabhängigkeit — Öl Energieabhängigkeit — Erdgas Energieintensität Energieversorgung Primärenergieerzeugung nach Brennstoff Bruttoinlandsverbrauch nach Brennstoff Einfuhren von Energieprodukten nach Ursprungsland Nettoeinfuhren von Festbrennstoffen und Öl Nettoeinfuhren von Erdgas Nettoeinfuhren von Elektrizität Endenergieverbrauch Endenergieverbrauch nach Sektor Endenergieverbrauch nach Industriesektor Endenergieverbrauch nach Brennstoff Endenergieverbrauch nach Verkehrszweig Endenergieverbrauch des Verkehrs nach Brennstoff Endenergieverbrauch von privaten Haushalten nach Brennstoff 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 26 28 30 32 1.4.3 1.1.2 1.5.

1.3 Güterverkehr 2.3.4 2.1.1.9 Güterverkehr mittels Erdölfernleitungen 2.2.2 2.3.3 2.5.4.5 Straßengüterverkehr 2.3.2.1 Index des innerstaatlichen Güterverkehrsvolumens im Verhältniszum BIP 2.3 Innerstaatlicher Güterverkehr nach Verkehrszweigen – Anteile des Straßenverkehrs.1.5 Abfall Abfallaufkommen insgesamt — gefährlich/nicht gefährlich Abfallaufkommen nach Wirtschaftszweig (2008) Abfallbewirtschaftung (2008) Kommunales Abfallaufkommen Energieerzeugung aus der Verbrennung von Siedlungsmüll 14 Energy.3 3.4 2.3.2 Treibhausgasemissionen für die EU-27 nach Sektor 3.4 Schienengüterverkehr 2.1 2.und Reisebussen Personenluftverkehr Personenseeverkehr 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 2.7 Seegüterverkehr 2.4.1.2 3.5 Erneuerungsrate bei Lastkraftwagen und Straßenzugmaschinen 2.3 2.3.3.2.6 Güterverkehr der Binnenschifffahrt 2.3.1 3.2.1 Treibhausgasemissionen 3.2.2 Index der Zunahme des innerstaatlichen Güterverkehrs 2.2 Fahrzeugkilometer 2.4 Verkehrsindikatoren 92 94 96 98 100 102 Transportmittel Motorisierungsgrad bei Personenkraftfahrzeugen Personenkraftfahrzeuge nach Kraftstoffart Erneuerungsrate bei Personenkraftfahrzeugen Motorisierungsgrad bei Lastkraftwagen und Straßenzugmaschinen 2.1 2.1.3.4.4. transport and environment indicators .1.1 Verkehrsaufkommen im Hoheitsgebiet eines Staates nach Fahrzeugart 2.Inhaltsverzeichnis 2 2.2 2.4 3.8 Güterluftverkehr 2.1.4.2 3.1 2.5 Verkehrssicherheit 2.5 Personenverkehr Schienenpersonenverkehr Personenverkehr mit Personenkraftfahrzeugen Personenverkehr mit Linien.3.2.6 Flugzeugflotte nach Betreiberland 2.1 Treibhausgasemissionen und vereinbarte Reduzierungsziele 3. der Binnenschifffahrt und des Schienenverkehrs am innerstaatlichen Verkehr insgesamt 2.1 Straßenverkehrstote 3 Umweltindikatoren 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 3.

4.3.5.2 Gesamtein.4.5.1 Umweltschutzausgaben des Verarbeitenden Gewerbes nach Umweltbereichen für die EU 27 im Jahr 2006 3.5.3 Entwicklung der Investitionen in „saubere Technologien“ (Investitionen zur Vermeidung von Umweltverschmutzung) zur Luftreinhaltung im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe 3.3 Süßwasserentnahme pro Kopf 3.3.8 Herstellung umweltschädlicher Chemikalien 3.2 Anteil der Investitionen und laufende Ausgaben im Bereich der Luftreinhaltung gemäß der Energiepolitik für Europa (EPE) für das Verarbeitende Gewerbe (Daten für das letztverfügbare Jahr) 3.2 Kohlenstoffvorräte in Wäldern und im sonstigen Baumbestand.2 Süßwasserentnahme 3.6 Treibhausgasemissionen aus der Abfallbehandlung (2008) 3.5.7 Recycling.6 Verkehrssteuern in den Ländern Europas nach zahlendem Sektor (Daten für das letztverfügbare Jahr) 3.1 Wasserressourcen: Langfristige jährliche Durchschnittswerte (LTAA) – aufgeteilt in Wasserströme innerhalb eines Gebiets und Zufluss von außen 3. transport and environment indicators 15 .6.4.4 Implizierter Energiesteuersatz 3.6.1 Inlandsmaterialverbrauch nach Material (2007) 3.Inhaltsverzeichnis 3.5 Energiesteuern in den Ländern Europas nach zahlendem Sektor (Daten für das letztverfügbare Jahr) 3.und Wiederverwertungsrate bei Verpackungsabfällen (2007) 3.3 Inlandsmaterialeinsatz und Inlandsmaterialverbrauch pro Kopf (2007) Anhang A: Glossar der in den Energiekapiteln verwendeten Begriffe Anhang B: Verkehr : Begriffe und Methodik Anhang C: Glossar der in den Umweltkapiteln verwendeten Begriffe Anhang D: Heizwerte und Umrechnungsfaktoren 152 154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 197 198 204 Energy.4.7 Steuern auf Umweltverschmutzung und Ressourcen in den Ländern Europas nach zahlendem Sektor (Daten für das letztverfügbare Jahr) 3.und ausfuhren von Kernmaterial in der EU-27 zwischen 2000 und 2007 3.3.5 Umweltgesamtrechnungen 3.3 Versorgungsbilanz für Holzerzeugnisse 3.5.und Biomassevorräte in Wäldern und im sonstigen Baumbestand.2.5. 2010 3. 2010 3.6.3 Forstwirtschaft 3.2.4 Wasser 3.4.5.4 Verwendung von Wasser (öffentliche Wasserversorgung) in privaten Haushalten (Haushalte und Dienstleistungsbetriebe) pro Kopf 3.6 Materialflussgesamtrechnungen 3.1 Holz.5 Verwendung von Wasser zur Energieerzeugung (Kühlwasser) 3.2.

1998 euro.1. data up to 31.1999 on giga Joule gigawatt hour kilogram kilograms of oil equivalent kilometre square kilometre thousand tonnes of oil equivalent cubic metre million (106) million tonnes of oil equivalent passenger-kilometre tonne-kilometre tonne tonne of oil equivalent terawatt hour vehicle-kilometre Carbon dioxide Domestic Extraction Used Domestic Material Consumption Domestic Material Inputs Greenhouse gases Global warming potential European Environment Agency United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Environmental protection expenditure Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Gross Domestic Product International Energy Agency Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change International Transport Forum Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe Statistical Classification of economic activities in the European Community Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Official Journal of the European Union Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Union International des Chemins de fer United Nations United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change forests available for wood supply forests and other wooded land other wooded land Chemical and related symbols Other abbreviations Others related to forestry 16 Energy. data from 1.Symbols and abbreviations Symbols and abbreviations : 0 % 1234 c no data available figure less than half of the unit used “Not applicable” or “real zero” or “zero by default” percentage Estimates are printed in italic confidential Units of measurement ECU EUR GJ GWh kg kgoe km km2 ktoe m3 mio Mtoe pkm tkm t toe TWh vkm CO2 DEU DMC DMI GHG GWP EEA ECE EPE FAO GDP IEA IPCC ITF MCPFE NACE OECD OJ OPEC UIC UN UNECE UNFCCC FAWS FOWL OWL European currency unit.12. transport and environment indicators .

AT. SE. DK. ES. HU. MT. RO. IT. LV. (2) Provisional code which does not prejudge in any way the definitive nomenclature for this country. EL. CZ. LT. EE. UK) European Free Trade Association Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey EU-15 EFTA BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS(1) LI NO CH HR MK(2) TR (1) Also a candidate country. DK. transport and environment indicators 17 . PL. NL. PT. UK) The 15 Member States of the European Union from 1 January 1995 to 30 April 2004 (BE. FR. Energy. DE. LU. SK. IE. FI. FR.Abbreviations of countries Abbreviations of countries EU-27 The 27 Member States of the European Union from 1 January 2007 (BE. CY. IT. AT. IE. DE. PT. FI. SE. ES. BG. which will be agreed following the conclusion of negotiations currently taking place on this subject at the United Nations. LU. EL. NL. SI.

transport and environment Various links can be made between the three domains of energy. including transport. the EU has introduced strict sustainability criteria. energy-efficient economy. This integrated climate change and energy policy aims to ensure that Europe has a sustainable future based on a low-carbon.Introduction Introduction EU Policy: Integrated climate change and energy policy The data presented in this Pocketbook are especially pertinent to the issue of climate change and the related policy areas. There is growing scientific evidence that the emissions of greenhouse gases produced by human activities influence the climate.2). including environmental and social conditions1. The interlinkages between energy. oil and gas (nearly 80 % of all emissions are from energy. 1 Ibid. and going up to 30 % if other industrialised countries commit to similar reductions. climate change has become a key challenge and top priority. reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 18 Energy. As a complex global issue. • meeting 20 % of Europe's energy needs from renewable energy sources. resource-efficient and climate resilient economy. The agreement sets ambitious targets that are to be achieved by 2020: • cutting EU greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % compared to 1990 levels. transport and environment indicators . the EU has set itself a 10 % target for the use of renewable energy in transport by 2020. The most prevalent source of emissions is the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal. Agreed on in 2008. see graph 3. transport and environment. and boost the EU's energy security and competitiveness. These EU targets go beyond existing international obligations under the UNFCCC's Kyoto Protocol — which has a commitment period running from 2008 to 2012 — and sets the EU on a path towards becoming a lowcarbon. but also from agriculture. To make sure that biofuels are produced in an environmentally sustainable way and that they would not have a negative impact on global food prices. the new EU climate and energy legislative package comprises comprehensive measures designed to: promote indigenous renewable energy sources. The examples presented below are just some instances of such analyses where Eurostat's data play a key role. In addition. using the data presented in this Pocketbook for the purposes of integrated analysis and better understanding of the cross-cutting nature of climate change. waste and other industrial processes. • reducing EU energy consumption by 20 % through increased energy efficiency.1.

80 . Over the period 1990-2008. Energy. low-carbon energy sources. the EU-27 gross inland consumption increased. This can be considered as a positive trend towards decoupling CO2 emissions from energy use.Introduction De-coupling of energy use from greenhouse gas emissions Figure 1: Change in CO2 emissions and gross inland energy consumption between 1990 and 2008 (%) EU-27 Cyprus Spain Ireland Malta Portugal Greece Slovenia Austria Netherlands Italy Luxembourg Finland France Belgium Denmark United Kingdom Sweden Poland Germany Hungary Czech Republic Bulgaria Romania Slovakia Estonia Latvia Lithuania . transport and environment indicators 19 . European Environment Agency A comparison between energy use and the emissions arising from it allows us to see whether Europe is shifting towards "cleaner". while CO2 emissions decreased.60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Gross inland energy consumption CO2 emissions from energy Source: Eurostat.

EU-27 (thousand toe. European Environment Agency . right hand scale) 1 000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Introduction 400 000 350 000 300 000 Modes of transport and emissions 250 000 200 000 150 000 100 000 50 000 Energy.20 Figure 2: Final energy consumption in transport by mode and total CO2 emissions from transport. left hand scale & Tg (million tonnes of CO2). transport and environment indicators Inland navigation Total CO2 from transport 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Road transport Air transport Rail transport Source: Eurostat.

As the graph shows. In Figure 3. DG for Mobility and Transport Pocketbook. followed by air. Common Questionnaire. rail and inland waterways. EU-27 (1999=100) 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Road freight transport Passenger car transport Final energy consumption in road transport Source: Eurostat. we compare the energy use in road transport to transport performance. expressed in road freight and passenger car transport. Over the decade 1999-2008 the volume of road transport has increased: for road freight transport by over 30 % and for passenger car transport by over 10 %. transport and environment indicators 21 . road transport dominates the picture with over 80 % of the total emissions from transport. Figure 3: Index of final energy consumption in road transport and volumes of road freight transport and passenger car transport. however. International Transport Forum. In terms of change over the last 18 years. The energy consumption has also increased but not as much — by less than 10 %. the total emissions from transport have increased by 25 %. Road transport and its use of energy Figure 2 clearly shows the predominance of road transport in terms of energy consumption. using the data from this Pocketbook. air transport has a sharp growth of 86 %.Introduction Another type of cross-cutting analysis. For the EU-27 passenger transport index. This could indicate a shift towards more efficient vehicles and/or a more efficient use of the vehicles. While the total final energy consumption in transport has risen by 33 %. estimates have been used for some countries and some years. national sources Note: The increase in the freight transport index in 2004 is mainly due to an improved methodology. Energy. involves looking at the different modes of transport and their fuel consumption to determine which type of transportation is responsible for the largest share of emissions — useful for policy makers when devising targeted measures.

4 % to 8. EU-27 (1995=100) 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 CO2 intensity Energy intenisty Contribution of RES to GIC Source: Eurostat. are useful when analysing the overall environmental trends of the economy. wind. 2008 (t CO2/toe) 3. i.0 2.0 1. International Energy Agency 22 Energy. from 4. whether we are really moving towards a low-carbon "green" economy.Introduction 'Greening' the economy – the contribution of renewable energy sources Figure 4: Index of CO2 intensity.4 %.5 2. solar.0 0. over the period 1990-2008. The EU as a global player – an international comparison Figure 5: Carbon intensity of energy use. This suggests that Europe has moved closer to using "cleaner" forms of energy. As the graph shows.e. transport and environment indicators . such as intensity (emissions per unit of GDP or energy use per unit of GDP). European Environment Agency Indicators that integrate economic variables. the EU's CO2 emissions and energy intensity have gradually decreased since 1990 and the emissions have decreased more than the energy use. the share of renewable energies in gross inland consumption has almost doubled. etc.5 0 EU-27 China USA Japan Russia Source: Eurostat. namely renewable energies (hydro. energy intensity and contribution of renewables to gross inland consumption. As also seen Figure 4.).5 1.5 3.

As Eurostat does not collect information on countries outside of the European Statistical System (EU-27 plus EFTA plus candidate countries). the more emissions from energy. e.europa.eu/energy/index_en.eu/dgs/environment/index_en. USA 2.13 tonnes of CΟ2 per toe of energy consumed (China 3. energy security of supply. Compared to other larger world economies. Eurostat's role in such analyses is to provide high-quality.europa.32). The data presented in this Pocketbook can serve other policy needs too. Conclusion The above examples highlight some synergies relevant to the issue of climate change in the statistical domains of energy.DG Mobility and Transport website at http://ec.htm .Free data available on the Eurostat website at http://ec.htm .45.htm .32 and Russia 2.Introduction Since climate change is a global phenomenon and greenhouse gases have the same impact on the atmosphere regardless of where they are released.DG Energy website at http://ec. compiled using similar methodology.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/climate_change/ overview .eu/environment/climat/home_en. etc. have been used. Japan 2.Climate change In the spotlight on the Eurostat website at http://epp.e.eu Energy.europa.ec. the higher the carbon intensity.08.eurostat.DG Climate Action website at http://ec. The indicator above aims to show how polluting the energy use is in different countries – i. environmentally-motivated economic measures (such as taxes).eu/transport/index_en. For more information and detailed data please check: .europa.europa.eu/eurostat . relevant statistics that underpin constructive policy-making.g. transport and environment.European Environment Agency (EEA) website at http://eea.DG Environment website at http://ec. intermodal transport. transport and environment indicators 23 . data from international sources. the EU-27 ranks lowest with 2.europa.htm . an international perspective is of great use when analysing data.

transport and environment indicators .24 Energy.

transport and environment indicators 25 .Energy indicators Energy.

9 49.5 52.6 81.9 61.5 69.8 60.0 61.4 83.2 60.6 99.5 97.0 64.3 51.0 27.5 2007 53.0 38.7 72.736.35.9 58.7 30.9 81.6 .9 71.7 13.3 58.7 68.3 30.24.0 .0 26.9 96.4 89.9 23.9 102.2 100.7 54.6 81.9 68.8 76.2 : .2 85.4 85.2 71.8 25.6 78.0 38.4 36.5 61.5 52.9 .6 25.6 69.3 83.15.4 28.5 57.6 : 71.5 37.0 54.9 2006 53.2 85.1 27.4 76.3 81.1 46.4 27.9 .5 51.7 6.5 50.4 .6 90.5 51.6 56.1 .9 52.4 71.9 59.7 100.3 27.5 56.9 81.0 54.0 62.8 59.0 56.676.16.5 : 60.4 51.5 52.9 60.1 55.4 97.8 59.9 61.1 60.3 : 72.2 99.7 34.4 38.6 25.9 72.9 88.1.4 53.680.1 58.1 .0 39.8 31.0 38.1 77.3 45.7 .1 65.4 100.9 .0 21.6 28.1 98.3 8.5 100.3 54.9 65.8 21.4 35.8 61.8 83.3 71. transport and environment indicators .1: Energy dependency — all products (%) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 46.0 98.0 37.7 37.4 69.7 63.9 47.4 95.4 51.0 31.6 23.4 87.1 79.5 100.0 34.7 51.3 37.2 47.3 25.3 82.2 70.0 65.34.7 84.8 89.8 19.683.2 69.9 25.7 57.8 79.8 64.7 55.721.5 74.9 46.6 63.5 98.5 74.4 2008 54.2 52.1 51.4 86.1 : .1 Energy Table 1.4 .3 20.4 100.1 79.9 62.3 28.8 77.5 88.4 2005 52.4 17.4 84.6 52.50.8 56.0 2000 46.1 100.1 58.5 49.5 54.22.5 62.3 60.6 98.622.7 52.7 32.2 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) 26 Energy.5 23.6 11.3 55.3 : 65.1 29.5 65.0 27.9 72.5 66.0 53.2 .

40 .1. a trend that began in 1999. Positive values over 100 % indicate stocks build-up during the reference year. a net exporter until 2003. Poland presented the highest increase with its dependency rising from 8. The United Kingdom. Estonia experienced the highest decrease with 23. became an importer in 2004.6 53.1 %.8 % dependency in 2008 compared to 35.1. Over the last decade (1998-2008). Negative dependency rate indicates a net exporter country. including warships.8 %.3 52. an increase of 9 percentage points from 1998.3 %). In 2008. EU-27 energy dependency was 54.22. In 2008. transport and environment indicators 27 .3 % in 1998 to 30.20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) Table 1. 2008 (%) EU-27 Malta Luxembourg Cyprus Ireland Italy Portugal Spain Belgium Greece Austria Slovakia Hungary Germany Lithuania Latvia Slovenia Finland Bulgaria France Sweden Netherlands Poland Romania Czech Republic United Kingdom Estonia Denmark 1 . Energy.8 2007 2008 53.1 45.8 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) Note: The quantities of fuels delivered to sea-going ships of all flags.Energy Figure 1. In contrast.6 % in 1998.1: Energy dependency — all products. EU-27 (%) EU-27 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 46.0 50.1a: Energy dependency — all products.8 47. are included.5 47.2 46. its energy dependency reached 26.6 49.4 % in 2008. Denmark was the only EU-27 Member State with a negative dependency rate in 2008 (.1 54.

6 .7 102.8 93.3 92.56.6 99.5 91.2 93.7 34.2 128.47.1 100.3 115.9 103.2 109.4 95.0 33.7 94.1 101.8 84.6 104.3 2000 42.4 100.3 102.5 91.0 .9 92.8 102.2 .2 106.6 98.1 94.4 100.4 102.2: Energy dependency — hard coal and derivatives (%) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 36.8.8 105.7 80.8 .1.1 : 87.0 105.6 97.5 105.5 : .8 94.0 91.6 105.4 105.1 94.6 91.2 75.9 91.2 102.0 94.42.3 108.8 94.6 93.0 82.7 1.4 67.9 : 83.0 2005 56.4 105.7 100.0 100.3 39.6 : 88.8 98.4 100.0 101.4 110.1 63.1 : .8 105.3 58.8 65.0 66.7 : 88.7 101.1 99.3 75.40.0 78.9 95.4 82.2 87.3 100.3 144.2 .5 100.5 2008 64.4 134.0 120.0 94.3 96.6 97.5 112.1 .3 116.4 109.8 .6 91.2 77.0 .2 105.1 98.2 96.5 98.8 113.2 102.0 103.3 106.6 82.8 75.2 93.5 100.8 2006 58.27.1 Energy Table 1.9 102.1 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_101a) 28 Energy.9 135.16.8 80.2 100.6 91.2 101.1 100.4 71.6 121.8 91.4 65.9 100.0 88.4 73.29.4 95.4 2007 58.386.4 88.8 102.6 69.5 100.7 56.0 99.5 99.2 102.4 100.21.8 87.2 96.5 115.1 .3 92.8 106.2 102.0 55.8 107.7 98.2 29.8 94.0 81.9 .2 123.9 99.3 100.5 63.2 105.1 100.8 97.8 71.4 84.8 100.7 98.9 113.4 .5 100.0 100.2 .6 108.2 90.9 126.7 100.45.272.9 91.4 .3 102.7 104.407.8 102. transport and environment indicators .8 99.2 99.2 105.4 112.125.5 101.6 80.2 100.7 100.7 123.2 115.8 39.45.0 97.9 99.4 69.5 96.

6 2007 2008 58. Germany recorded the highest increase.4 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_101a) Note: Negative dependency rate indicates a net exporter country. EU-27 (%) EU-27 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 36. Positive values over 100 % indicate stocks build-up during the reference year.4 58. Energy.3 49.4 % in 2008.1.6 %.2 38.Energy Figure 1.0 53.9 % in 2008.3 %).2 % in 1998 to 69. EU-27 dependency on imported hard coal and derivatives grew from 36. The United Kingdom followed with its dependency rising from 34.2 % in 1998 to 64.8 56.1.2 47.40. Poland. Between 1998 and 2008.6 64.1 %. However.2a: Energy dependency — hard coal and derivatives.4 42.4 % to 75. which was a net exporter until 2007.6 47. 2008 (%) EU-27 Slovenia Greece Bulgaria Lithuania Finland Ireland France Denmark Netherlands Austria Belgium Sweden Cyprus Hungary Latvia Italy Luxembourg Romania Slovakia Estonia Portugal Spain United Kingdom Germany Poland Czech Republic 1 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_101a) Table 1. The Czech Republic was the only Member State with a negative dependency rate in 2008 (.2: Energy dependency — hard coal and derivatives. became dependent on hard coal imports in 2008 with its dependency rate reaching 1. transport and environment indicators 29 . Its hard coal dependency grew from 29. the dependency rates of both countries remained among the lowest in the EU-27.

8 100.6 98.6 100.3 102.5 96.5 91.6 101.5 94.5 100.2 102.3 .1.7 100.0 98.2 101.4 81.7 100.8 81.2 88.80.8 102.1 056.8 103.8 99.6 The former Yugoslav 106.3 8.0 101.8 2006 83.3 96.5 101.9 : 97.8 98.5 94.9 100.5 92.1 006.7 101.5 2000 75.2 51.5 .4 76.60.3 100.66.0 92.5 100.8 100.4 100.6 100.0 100.5.5 .5 97.9 97.8 .7 101.839.0 99.9 93.1 98.104.54.6 98.3 101.4 102.7 94.3 94.5 97.6 102.4 2008 84.9 100.86.5 104.1 519.7 100.5 84.8 101.1 Energy Table 1.0 98.9 96.5 89.1 91.1 85.9 91.4 99.6 102.3 99.5 95.8 102.2 77.0 97.4 .8 98.2 .5 96.5 .4 100.9 .6 98.8 101.7 93.2 92.8 102.1 468.3 98.8 99.6 94.3 2005 82.6 96.5 101.2 93.3 72. transport and environment indicators .5 100.51.5 100.1 160.2 99.3 95.7 97.1 44.7 102.8 : .3 38.2 95.1 102.3 98.0 92.7 8.1 93.5 77.3: Energy dependency — oil (%) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia 77.0 101.7 96.0 99.9 101.2 100.9 100.1 99.0 92.0 78.5 74.3 100.0 97.2 57.8 99.7 89.4 90.7 91.1 34.5 91.6 102.7 81.3 61.4 99.4 97.0 2007 82.4 97.3 96.9 99.0 97.9 91.0 100.9 94.9 92.2 69.1 97.4 97.3 97.5 98.4 106.5 .8 96.9 .1 98.1 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_102a) 30 Energy.8 103.7 98.2.5 97.1 98.5 63.2 101.6 96.3 98.2 0.8 97.3 93.9 96.2 100.4 98.6 44.4 100.1 99.4 77.6 97.7 96.7 102.9 51.4 .8 98.6 104.0 Republic of Macedonia Turkey 90.6 .7 94.4 100.8 98.8 82.6 .0 95.0 97.4 100.8 .2 101.8 98.4 88.2 98.6 79.1 100.7 100.8 102.

which was the lowest dependency rate in the EU.3 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_102a) Note: Negative dependency rate indicates a net exporter country.1.3: Energy dependency — oil. experienced a tenfold increase in its exports over the last ten years (from .8 %.7 2007 2008 82. The United Kingdom exported oil until 2005. a trend that changed since 2006.5. presented the highest increase (from 44. EU-27 dependency on oil imports reached 84. which was the country with the second lowest rate.5 79.3a: Energy dependency — oil. 2008 (%) EU-27 Sweden Portugal Slovenia Greece Luxembourg Finland Spain Cyprus Malta Ireland Bulgaria Latvia Belgium Netherlands France Czech Republic Poland Germany Austria Lithuania Slovakia Italy Hungary Estonia Romania United Kingdom Denmark 1 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_102a) Table 1. Energy. Denmark.8 77.1 % in 1998 to 51.4 83.0 75.1. which was the sole net exporter among the EU-27 Member States in 2008.0 73. its dependency on imported oil reached 8. EU-27 (%) EU-27 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 77. Positive values over 100 % indicate stocks build-up during the reference year.9 82.3 % in 2008. In 2008.5 76.6 % in 2008).Energy Figure 1. while twenty two Member States presented dependency rates over 90 %. transport and environment indicators 31 .3 % in 2008).5 84.51.3 % in 1998 to .0 78. Romania.

6 87.3 82.3 100.3 83.1 99.9 104.0 100.0 75.4 99.8 100.0 91.0 20.1 99.7 99.49.0 23.0 26.3 100.8 99.6 97.4 2005 57.99.6 96.0 16.6 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_103a) 32 Energy.2 103.1 69.0 86.2 106.2 108.0 96.1 101.2 68.1 80.7 96.0 100.0 100.59.2 100.6 91.1.4 96.120.9 77.4: Energy dependency — natural gas (%) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia 45.6 99.72.64.9 99.63.6 100.1 .3 100.0 11.2 .6 100.9 90.7 97.5 100.4 100.1 96.8 .103.2.0 81.0 100.4 99.9 .7 103.1 100.0 81.6 33.1 907.4 96.2 96.7 67.7 97.4 .7 100.1 Energy Table 1.8 .1 100.9 100.2 .5 97.7 29.8 2008 62.0 49.2 The former Yugoslav 102.2 99.6 Republic of Macedonia Turkey 94.1 101.6 99.8 2000 48.1 101.3 100.0 72.5 100.0 100.1 2006 60.0 .0 100.3 19.3 100.1 84. transport and environment indicators .8 102.3 100.1 101.0 89.1 .0 82.7 .1 693.3 .0 .4 99.4 .8 78.0 100.860.4 .3 88.0 41.0 100.8 79.9 97.1 .0 79.10.0 100.63.0 100.1 100.8 90.7 87.2 .8 99.7 71.5 93.8 100.0 100.3 99.0 100.2 94.2 89.1 97.0 100.7 105.6 100.0 7.8 99.0 41.9 100.6 100.7 80.3 93.4 .5 87.2 72.8 95.9 84.7 98.7 99.2 100.0 25.2 98.1 28.0 9.8 91.8 100.6 87.7 100.8 100.6 66.3 98.1 873.0 99.1 .9 81.5 81.3 95.5 99.1 665.6 100.9 100.7 100.0 88.1 161.0 8.8 101.3 99.0 66.61.0 72.0 92.1 100.7 99.8 30.3 100.9 2007 60.6 99.58.113.5 .4 .6 100.6 99.0 100.9 100.

1 %.2 52.8 % to .Energy Figure 1. but since 2004 it has been an importer.8 2007 2008 60. a sixteen-fold increase from 2004.9 % to .63.7 %.1. Energy. transport and environment indicators 33 .120. Malta and Cyprus have not introduced natural gas into their energy system.4: Energy dependency — natural gas.1.8 % in 1998.4a: Energy dependency — natural gas.58. In 2008 its dependency rate reached 26.72. From 1998 to 2008 Denmark recorded a twofold increase in its natural gas exports (from .5 54.6 47.9 48.1 % in 2008 compared to 49. The United Kingdom exported natural gas up to 2003. Positive values over 100 % indicate stocks build-up during the reference year. EU-27 (%) EU-27 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 45.9 %).3 % in 2008. while the Netherlands increased its exports from .3 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_103a) Note: Negative dependency rate indicates a net exporter country. EU-27 natural gas dependency rate grew by about 17 percentage points between 1998 and 2008. Denmark and the Netherlands were the only exporting countries among the EU-27.3 62. reaching 62.7 60.9 47.3 51. In 2008. 2008 (%) EU-27 Spain Belgium Portugal Greece Sweden Finland Luxembourg Estonia Slovenia Czech Republic France Slovakia Lithuania Bulgaria Ireland Italy Hungary Austria Germany Latvia Poland Romania United Kingdom Netherlands Denmark 1 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_103a) Table 1.0 57. Ireland has also presented a significant increase over the last decade with a natural gas dependency rate of 92.

1 Energy Table 1.9 107.9 103.0 105.0 99.0 116.6 109.7 78.4 101.5 82.8 104.0 104.8 106.7 92.7 91.1 2008 89.2: Energy intensity (kgoe/1 000 EUR '00) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 200 256 1 587 704 127 177 956 150 211 197 190 150 243 563 770 175 545 : 199 151 565 197 : 330 805 277 206 155 310 147 101 353 : 258 2003 187 237 1 250 686 118 167 709 122 192 196 181 151 243 409 577 176 465 214 191 153 464 199 847 293 770 266 178 134 337 143 97 333 : 260 2008 167 200 944 525 103 151 571 107 170 176 167 143 213 309 418 155 401 195 172 138 384 182 615 258 520 218 152 114 : 137 89 279 : 245 Index (2000=100) 1998 107.4 112.6 117.8 : 107.6 109.0 100.1 97.0 94. reference year 2000 (at 2000 exchange rates).9 : 110.7 108.8 101.7 91.8 82.0 69.2 92.5 99.7 97.1 93.8 112.9 101.5 91.0 106.3 101.9 97.6 92.4 78.3 88.3 90.4 103.9 100.0 94.1 99.0 90.3 : 97.9 92.3 98.3 79.1 89.3 127.2 89.8 100.5 106. transport and environment indicators .3 103.9 93.1 111. Source: Eurostat (online data code: tsien020) 34 Energy.0 106.3 107.9 106.4 85.3 106.3 : 96.7 100.B: Gross Domestic Product: chain-linked volumes.1 65.2 82.3 100.3 86.1 102.9 67.4 : 91.3 115.0 104.7 87.8 98.6 N.8 95.1 102.9 96.0 70.0 73.6 : 95.1 103.0 112.6 134.7 83.4 2003 99.3 91.3 102.4 116.8 98.5 92.0 70.2 77.

8 93.9 98.0 100. in 2008 Bulgaria remained the most energy intensive economy (944).2a: Energy intensity.2 Source: Eurostat (online data code: tsien020) Energy intensity in the EU-27 decreased by 17 % over the last decade and reached 167 kgoe/1 000 EUR’00 in 2008. Lithuania and Latvia presented the most noteworthy decreases. Energy.2 98.2: Energy intensity. followed by Bulgaria (.0 103.40 %). except for Malta.Energy Figure 1.41 %) and Estonia (. Seven Member States recorded decreases over 30 %. All Member States.6 96. decreased their energy intensities between 1998 and 2008.8 99. In spite of this decrease. 2008 (kgoe/1 000 EUR '00) EU-27 Bulgaria Romania Estonia Czech Republic Slovakia Lithuania Hungary Poland Latvia Slovenia Finland Cyprus Belgium Malta Portugal Spain Netherlands Greece France Luxembourg Sweden Germany Italy Austria United Kingdom Ireland Denmark 1 0 200 400 600 800 1 000 Source: Eurostat (online data code: tsien020) Table 1. The lowest levels of energy intensity were observed in Denmark (103) and Ireland (107). as the amount of energy required to produce a unit of economic output dropped by 46 % and 45 % respectively.2b: Index of energy intensity.3 89.8 2007 2008 90. transport and environment indicators 35 . 54 % more intense than the second Romania (615) and about six times above the EU average. EU-27 (kgoe/1 000 EUR '00) EU-27 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 200 193 187 188 185 187 185 181 176 2007 2008 169 167 Table 1. EU-27 (2000=100) EU-27 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 107.1 100.

36 Energy. by fuel Total production (ktoe) 1998 EU-27 939 989 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS NO CH HR MK TR 12 072 10 179 30 542 20 339 131 672 3 246 2 389 10 039 32 028 123 984 30 134 43 1 771 4 407 50 11 946 63 603 8 699 86 776 3 734 29 159 3 036 4 707 13 148 33 000 269 286 1 814 206 573 10 632 3 987 : 29 130 2003 2008 Share of each fuel to total production. nrg_101a. nrg_104a and nrg_1072a) Note: Figures do not sum to 100 % due to rounding.1: Primary energy production.3. transport and environment indicators RES Gas Oil .1 Energy Table 1. nrg_102a. 2008 (%) Hard coal Nuclear 29 87 40 21 29 50 84 71 37 2 10 44 71 36 50 8 : 58 : 40 56 3 Lignite 925 266 842 712 13 213 10 098 34 073 28 403 3 914 1 866 9 888 32 782 27 274 48 1 730 5 105 60 10 684 58 718 9 335 78 703 4 336 28 278 3 245 6 281 15 606 30 390 2 457 11 409 3 732 : 23 873 13 561 10 060 32 496 26 527 4 217 1 520 10 022 30 266 26 447 74 1 784 3 584 84 10 410 66 319 10 610 70 445 4 441 29 059 3 641 6 097 16 251 32 781 : 12 335 3 929 1 633 29 051 10 0 26 9 14 0 68 0 6 : 1 5 11 48 44 28 82 42 83 0 1 16 0 18 24 33 10 7 1 : 84 52 13 0 1 54 2 1 0 1 20 4 12 3 9 1 16 0 44 : 53 22 7 20 2 0 34 9 23 0 0 1 29 19 90 12 5 31 0 1 38 18 13 10 8 12 22 18 34 16 35 15 51 100 100 25 100 16 5 78 8 100 19 23 17 56 49 3 : 6 42 22 16 32 133 840 132 488 134 225 135 027 243 171 164 499 236 016 219 332 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a. nrg_103a.

Over this period. followed by gas (20 %) and renewable energy sources (RES) (18 %). biomass. France increased its production by 9 %. nrg_103a.37 % . hydro and ocean resources. while Germany maintained its production levels. Oil constituted the remaining 13 % share of the total.3. nrg_102a.39 %). Compared to 1998.42 % 1% 57 % Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a.7 Mtoe in 2008. by fuel. by fuel. France and Germany each made up a share of 16 % of total EU-27 production in 2008. Solid fuels accounted for 21 % of the total.16 % 2% . The United Kingdom dominated the production of energy in the EU-27 with a 20 % share of the total in 2008 compared to a 29 % share in 1998. This continued the downward trend of EU-27 production. Energy. nrg_104a and nrg_1072a) Production of primary energy in the EU-27 totaled 842.Energy Figure 1.1a: Primary energy production. Primary energy production in the EU-27 expanded across a range of energy sources. nrg_102a. transport and environment indicators 37 . nrg_103a. geothermal. which recorded an overall 10 % reduction over the last decade. the United Kigdom experienced the most considerable reduction in its production (. nrg_101a. wind.10 % . nrg_104a and nrg_1072a) Table 1. The most significant was nuclear energy (29 % of the total).1: Primary energy production. nrg_101a. EU-27 (Mtoe) 300 1 250 200 150 100 50 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Oil Hard coal Gas Lignite Nuclear RES Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a. EU-27 (Mtoe) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total Oil Gas Nuclear Hard coal Lignite RES 940 172 200 237 144 93 94 942 178 203 243 133 90 95 932 170 208 244 119 93 98 932 159 208 253 114 96 101 931 162 204 255 111 99 100 925 152 200 257 109 100 108 921 141 203 260 104 98 116 888 128 189 257 98 96 120 870 117 179 255 94 97 127 849 115 167 241 88 96 140 843 107 168 242 83 94 148 Change 1998-08 .3. RES production includes energy generated from solar.

2008 (%) Hard coal Nuclear 13 20 20 15 11 11 41 28 14 1 7 21 23 16 33 6 : 26 Lignite EU-27 1 722 731 1 802 902 1 799 294 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS NO CH HR MK TR 60 098 20 170 41 196 20 760 346 727 5 371 12 970 26 987 112 642 255 162 169 875 2 221 4 331 9 329 3 282 25 579 828 76 600 29 167 96 216 23 171 41 519 6 435 17 483 33 423 50 631 230 557 2 690 25 543 26 128 8 048 : 72 543 61 577 19 567 45 613 20 791 348 322 5 450 15 025 30 307 135 308 271 000 184 186 2 651 4 289 8 984 4 208 27 054 911 81 910 32 693 91 840 25 665 40 234 6 906 19 233 37 333 50 657 231 187 3 379 27 279 26 571 8 845 : 79 402 58 275 20 034 45 080 19 861 343 675 5 851 15 786 31 894 141 879 273 747 181 373 2 860 4 595 9 155 4 563 26 781 948 83 668 33 895 98 755 24 919 40 616 7 736 18 528 36 319 49 996 218 506 : 29 834 27 972 9 104 3 010 100 318 12 7 14 14 20 13 1 9 1 10 5 9 1 2 2 2 5 10 11 43 10 6 4 16 9 4 16 : 3 0 8 4 14 5 0 24 30 0 11 58 6 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 13 17 16 5 5 1 : 0 0 45 15 36 41 25 22 41 35 18 53 56 48 33 43 96 34 33 64 27 100 42 39 26 52 26 39 21 30 29 36 : 40 45 49 31 31 24 25 15 16 21 22 13 28 11 25 15 38 29 28 24 39 42 22 13 17 31 11 28 11 2 39 : 16 10 28 3 30 18 9 11 4 5 8 7 8 3 30 9 3 6 4 25 6 18 14 11 5 25 32 3 : 45 19 9 9 9 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a.3. nrg_104a and nrg_1072a) 38 Energy. transport and environment indicators RES 8 4 5 5 Gas Oil .1 Energy Table 1. nrg_103a. by fuel Total consumption (ktoe) 1998 2003 2008 Share of each fuel to total consumption.2: Gross inland consumption. nrg_101a. nrg_102a.

12 % -2% 60 % Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a.Energy Figure 1. nrg_104a and nrg_1072a) Table 1. oil and solid fuels accounted for 53 % of total EU-27 gross inland consumption. nrg_101a. nrg_103a. In 2008. by fuel.3. Energy. Between 1998 and 2008. transport and environment indicators 39 . EU-27 (Mtoe) 700 1 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Oil Hard coal Gas Lignite Nuclear RES Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a. This change was reflected in the EU-27’s energy mix.3. the share of gas increased from 22 % of the total in 1998 to 24 % in 2008 and the share of RES grew from 5 % in 1998 to 8 % in 2008. by fuel. nrg_101a. when in 1998 their share was 59 %.2: Gross inland consumption.2a: Gross inland consumption. a 4 % increase from 1998. nrg_104a and nrg_1072a) Gross inland consumption (GIC) in the EU-27 reached 1 799 Mtoe in 2008. nrg_102a. nrg_103a. while the consumption of RES and gas grew by 60 % and 19 % respectively. However.9 %) and oil (. EU-27 (Mtoe) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total 1 723 1 711 1 724 1 763 1 759 1 803 1 825 1 825 1 826 1 808 1 799 Oil 679 672 661 675 670 675 678 678 674 659 656 Gas 371 383 394 404 406 426 436 446 438 433 441 Nuclear 237 243 244 253 255 257 260 257 255 241 242 Hard coal 241 223 226 225 222 231 231 222 229 232 212 Lignite 96 90 94 97 99 101 99 96 96 97 94 RES 94 95 98 101 100 108 116 121 129 143 151 Change 1998-08 4% -3% 19 % 2% . nrg_102a. On the contrary. EU-27 consumption has shown signs of stabilization compared to 2003 and it has gradually declined since 2006. there was a reduction in the consumption of solid fuels (.3 %).

3.3a: Imports of natural gas.1 Energy Tables 1. nrg_123a and nrg_124a) 40 Energy.3: Imports of energy products. by country of origin (Mt) 2000 Russia Norway Saudi Arabia Libya Iran Other countries Total 112 116 65 46 35 168 542 2001 137 108 57 44 31 164 542 2002 155 103 53 39 26 158 534 2003 171 106 62 46 35 135 554 2004 189 109 64 50 36 127 575 2005 2006 2007 2008 188 98 61 51 35 148 580 190 89 51 53 36 155 574 186 84 40 56 34 166 566 179 87 39 57 31 182 575 Table 1. by country of origin Table 1. by country of origin (PJ) 2000 Russia Norway Algeria Nigeria Libya Other countries Total 4 540 1 950 2 203 172 33 224 9 122 2001 4 422 2 132 1 957 216 33 303 9 063 2002 4 555 2 644 2 132 218 26 359 2003 4 895 2 758 2 159 336 30 494 2004 4 951 2 802 2 042 410 48 865 2005 2006 2007 2008 5 101 5 107 4 844 5 096 3 064 3 307 3 541 3 900 2 257 2 132 1 944 1 998 436 209 564 321 588 384 540 398 1 322 1 397 1 350 1 650 9 934 10 673 11 118 12 389 12 828 12 651 13 582 Table 1.3b: Imports of crude oil.3.3. transport and environment indicators . by country of origin (Mt) 2000 South Africa Russia Australia Colombia USA Indonesia Other countries Total 40 15 29 23 20 9 49 186 2001 49 21 29 23 20 10 55 208 2002 54 23 29 21 14 12 46 199 2003 57 27 31 23 13 13 45 208 2004 54 40 31 24 15 14 24 203 2005 2006 2007 2008 52 48 27 24 16 15 19 201 53 56 27 26 17 21 18 218 46 56 30 29 21 18 23 223 37 57 26 27 31 16 23 218 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_122a.3.3c: Imports of hard coal.

Russia also became the principal EU-27 supplier of hard coal. In 2008. Russia accounted for 26 % of total EU-27 hard coal imports compared to 8 % in 2000.3b: Imports of crude oil. In 2008. as the import volumes from other partner countries recorded considerable increases. Energy.3. Between 2000 and 2008 imports from Russia presented a slight increase (12 %). transport and environment indicators 41 . by country of origin (Mt) 250 200 150 100 50 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_122a.Energy Figure 1. by country of origin (PJ) 14 000 12 000 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Russia Nigeria Norway Libya Algeria Other countries 1 Figure 1. EU-27 crude oil imports from Russia grew by 59 % between 2000 and 2008. However. the diversification of supply led to a decline of its share compared to 2000 (50 %).3c: Imports of hard coal. by country of origin (Mt) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Russia Libya Norway Iran Saudi Arabia Other countries Figure 1. over one third (38 %) of EU-27 natural gas imports came from Russia. Imports from Libya also presented an increase over this time (26 %). 6 % and 17 % respectively. nrg_123a and nrg_124a) South Africa Colombia Russia USA Australia Indonesia Other countries From 2000 to 2008.3. the imports of natural gas. crude oil and hard coal in the EU-27 grew by 49 %.3a: Imports of natural gas.3.

412 137 527 1 139 7 401 19 475 67 376 92 451 90 392 2 273 1 741 3 443 2 000 6 045 888 36 273 12 157 18 418 15 734 5 488 2 409 3 572 10 998 17 407 .1 Energy Table 1.140 804 .22 876 5 357 4 299 615 5 962 10 625 3 969 32 140 138 .3.4 438 114 514 829 8 312 21 168 76 970 90 264 73 103 3 056 1 708 2 822 2 856 5 866 1 898 48 403 12 273 24 085 14 045 5 444 3 067 3 597 11 112 16 478 6 770 : 12 214 3 815 919 29 194 . transport and environment indicators .141 813 .4 442 3 793 4 212 943 5 809 6 390 3 497 43 804 : .8 953 123 057 785 8 578 20 020 75 184 93 476 85 549 2 670 1 456 2 187 2 625 4 659 1 865 40 836 13 073 19 717 16 203 3 601 2 424 3 141 11 148 17 914 .101 278 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_101a and nrg_102a) 42 Energy.49 614 878 13 108 2 645 996 26 681 Oil 2003 559 333 32 717 4 639 8 326 .1 645 114 1 145 : 16 675 2008 217 978 7 267 5 502 .27 164 5 034 3 977 485 6 072 5 010 3 715 20 769 100 1 252 97 350 : 10 984 2003 183 152 8 726 4 176 .4: Net imports of solid fuels and oil (thousand tonnes) Solid fuels 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 136 134 12 371 3 733 .5 618 9 396 39 282 965 2 637 615 21 020 17 898 21 980 63 131 302 114 1 655 14 492 5 227 .9 805 7 949 27 931 1 279 2 887 1 300 14 196 19 529 16 996 31 136 238 164 1 714 13 086 4 501 .5 394 7 453 48 096 8 2 482 676 18 718 21 596 25 092 42 165 392 105 2 300 13 752 5 720 .27 564 864 11 959 3 349 788 28 158 2008 591 967 33 300 4 935 9 530 .2 233 261 1 353 317 19 705 1998 548 499 30 901 4 781 8 236 .

40 . while Germany increased them by 72 %. which exported oil until 2005. Compared to solid fuels. Over the last decade. the exporting activity in both countries showed a declining trend with Poland experiencing a sixfold decrease. The Czech Republic and Poland were the only net exporters among the Member States in 2008. the United Kingdom doubled its solid fuels imports.Energy Figure 1. Germany and the United Kingdom (42 % share of total EU-27 imports).20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Solid fuels Oil Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_101a and nrg_102a) Table 1.4a: Net imports of solid fuels and oil. This increase could be largely attributed to the top main importers. The United Kingdom. In 2008 Denmark was the only net exporter of oil with a tenfold increase in its exports since 1998.3. transport and environment indicators 43 . the net imports of oil in the EU-27 showed a lower increase (8 %) between 1998 and 2008.3. 2008 (mio tonnes) Germany France Spain Italy Netherlands Belgium Poland Greece Sweden Portugal Austria Finland Czech Republic Ireland United Kingdom Hungary Romania Bulgaria Slovakia Slovenia Cyprus Luxembourg Lithuania Malta Latvia Estonia Denmark 1 . became an importer since. Energy. Over the past ten years.4: Net imports of solid fuels and oil. EU-27 (mio tonnes) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Solid fuels 136 135 155 172 167 183 198 197 212 Oil 548 514 528 551 538 559 574 593 602 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_101a and nrg_102a) 2007 2008 217 218 581 592 EU-27 net imports of solid fuels grew by 60 % between 1998 and 2008.

218 3 091 38 168 127 1 472 1 836 2 935 71 115 57 438 .433 .5: Net imports of natural gas (PJ) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 7 874 578 145 354 .3 382 126 9 3 1 171 2007 12 132 693 128 312 .117 2 607 28 65 32 561 1 402 1 623 51 82 29 329 .3 303 129 26 3 1 030 2006 12 395 699 121 368 .1 055 246 300 32 178 38 249 155 37 .1 723 110 42 1 394 2000 8 957 618 128 348 .3 427 123 12 4 1 385 2008 12 769 693 130 327 .1 Energy Table 1.986 263 384 175 180 42 232 173 42 774 . transport and environment indicators .1 962 113 42 2 561 2005 11 973 689 114 351 .974 335 397 181 195 43 268 167 39 278 .188 2 873 37 182 155 1 466 1 727 2 815 61 138 56 398 .233 3 058 37 140 108 1 407 1 894 2 784 67 116 55 456 .229 3 009 36 192 163 1 639 1 814 2 921 51 116 51 433 .3.76 .3 827 131 20 5 1 407 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_103a) 44 Energy.134 2 645 31 115 79 720 1 664 2 187 52 96 31 339 .1 176 303 424 193 164 41 231 179 38 1 024 .983 304 414 170 223 42 242 180 41 444 .800 244 307 95 126 38 265 159 36 .

Among EU-27 countries. Energy. also presented an almost threefold and twofold increase respectively and in 2008 their share of total EU-27 natural gas imports reached 36 %.5a: Net imports of natural gas. Portugal. but has become an importer since.Energy Figure 1. two of the top importers in the EU-27. The United Kingdom exported natural gas until 2003. 2008 (PJ) Germany Italy France Spain United Kingdom Belgium Hungary Poland Czech Republic Austria Slovakia Portugal Ireland Finland Romania Greece Bulgaria Lithuania Latvia Luxembourg Slovenia Sweden Estonia Denmark Netherlands 1 -1 500 -1 000 -500 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 000 3 500 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_103a) Table 1. From 1998 to 2008.5: Net imports of natural gas.3.3. mainly due to low penetration of natural gas back in 1998. fivefold and threefold increase in their net imports of natural gas. EU-27 (PJ) EU-27 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 7 874 8 521 8 957 8 895 9 661 10 398 10 946 11 973 12 395 12 132 12 769 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_103a) In 2008. EU-27 net imports of natural gas recorded a 62 % increase from 1998. the Netherlands and Denmark were the only net exporters with exports that amounted to 1 176 PJ and 229 PJ respectively in 2008. Spain and Italy. Greece and Ireland recorded a sixfold. transport and environment indicators 45 . Over the same period.

48 006 .941 450 5 613 .16 153 .5 348 7 488 .11 469 .3 265 17 015 .19 055 .11 186 .6 082 5 414 740 11 814 .4 566 .3.7 743 .6: Net imports of electricity (GWh) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey .1 162 2006 3 478 10 157 . transport and environment indicators .11 039 46 283 3 000 .10 017 .1 558 40 035 2 520 .324 .60 328 .4 620 665 3 057 .10 697 12 708 .7 070 4 000 112 3 354 2005 11 310 6 304 .428 3 557 7 207 21 459 6 850 5 441 .7 392 8 321 6 350 5 112 1 599 .16 555 .750 1 778 4 202 .950 .20 101 .2 903 .4 248 .929 98 .634 1 393 .1 135 6 577 2 733 .2 966 3 261 6 227 18 293 2 665 6 824 .3 647 .957 4 346 3 903 15 851 4 863 .5 954 3 354 -2 3 000 2000 19 614 4 326 .5 344 1 455 .1 372 3 960 3 986 17 574 6 619 .1 663 2007 10 489 6 779 .69 479 .6 373 .11 4 441 44 347 1 786 .16 977 .163 .333 .3 474 274 466 .696 .1 Energy Table 1.1 321 .638 .12 042 854 .1 336 5 722 3 440 18 915 .5 751 .7 581 1 369 .1 608 2 044 3 780 .1 961 11 022 .57 562 .63 341 .1 919 2 251 9 306 .1 602 521 12 772 .4 273 51 .56 813 .4 475 .10 986 3 634 .390 79 1 610 3 402 40 732 530 .4 320 .1 343 49 155 2 148 .2 696 11 880 4 678 14 174 .10 035 .2 062 6 361 2 491 .1 368 931 .2 090 229 1 725 12 557 1 316 5 215 .12 634 .13 863 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_105a) 46 Energy.2 420 1 330 4 355 2008 16 488 10 597 .2 461 .2 331 11 401 6 040 7 517 2 703 5 622 1 795 .1 223 9 431 .12 631 .6 935 .3 280 44 985 2 508 .

76. transport and environment indicators 47 .7 93. the Member States with the highest electricity imports were Italy and the Netherlands.6 .3.1 94.60.7 .7 .0 86. Top 5 exporting countries are France.5 16.3. 2008 (TWh) EU-27 Italy Netherlands Finland United Kingdom Belgium Portugal Greece Austria Luxembourg Hungary Latvia Denmark Slovakia Ireland 1 Estonia Lithuania Poland Slovenia Sweden Romania Bulgaria Spain Czech Republic Germany France -60 .0 Top-5 importers 76.77.6 .3 11. net electricity imports in the EU presented fluctuations.86. Germany.8 12.5 .1 95. Belgium and the United Kingdom.0.104.1. Top 5 importing countries are Italy.5 .4 .79.6: Net imports of electricity.5 Top-5 exporters .5 88.61.2 19.3 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_105a) Note: Top 5 EU-27 exporters and importers are drawn according to average activity levels of the last three years.Energy Figure 1.45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_105a) Table 1. Finland. Spain and Bulgaria.7 .88. In 2008.7.9 81.9 .0 .6a: Net imports of electricity .4 82.89.6 .6 4. Czech Republic.96.5 10.3 3. On the contrary. Both countries have traditionally been among the top net importers.6 95. Netherlands. EU-27 net imports of electricity amounted to 16 488 GWh in 2008. EU-27 & top-5 importers & exporters (TWh) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 EU-27 .99.4 90. Energy. Over the last decade. France was the largest net exporter of electricity among EU Member States.2 .0 99.6 11.

16 4.42 0.96 9.15 19.73 41.58 1.50 1.68 5.86 60.62 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) 48 Energy.02 13.49 18.79 0.30 : 2.04 0.60 1.52 1.83 8.51 24.45 3.95 1.76 71.71 2.86 42.31 30.82 18.04 2.93 4.08 9.43 15.88 1 169 37.21 7.32 19.15 26.69 0.49 61.62 4.85 1.92 3.10 2.52 0.04 38.00 2.53 3.12 1.84 0.54 : : 1.64 37.13 0.58 3.68 0.37 0.38 0.47 15.12 7.45 0.63 1.04 0.86 1.89 0.53 5.08 0.32 4.48 4.40 66.94 10.56 5.50 1.96 4.88 32.24 26.51 3.31 18.84 0.04 16.44 0.92 3.19 15.53 0.55 3.31 128.15 0.61 1.20 71.29 24.38 0.40 5.18 2.11 2.98 61.05 13.61 19.81 2.65 6.30 50.71 1.62 138 4.25 1.04 3.20 11.61 0.81 2.01 10.21 1.86 18.79 6.71 0.47 43.84 : 18.11 2.28 5.67 27.26 20.64 6.98 0.31 1.66 9.87 0.41 16.51 0.61 25.79 148.19 0.05 0.44 5.89 0.08 2.29 37.25 2.66 4.54 9.70 42.61 : 16.46 68.03 2.38 6.89 3.89 1.82 6.19 50.97 1.35 15.33 22.31 5.61 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 223.14 15.04 9.51 1.96 0.29 32.06 54.39 7.06 9.80 5.78 0.77 36.31 1.72 318 12.59 37.39 6.93 : 5.22 0.43 1.44 : 17.51 14.58 4.75 4.80 50.05 1.28 0.39 4.49 1.54 3.77 60.69 2.75 0.16 0.77 2.20 0.58 16.29 1.46 : 11.36 0.19 95.61 Services 121 3.19 21.78 0.78 0.59 1.55 0.89 21.80 0.23 10.80 4.65 7.23 2.16 5.69 0.04 7.57 21.59 9.03 16.02 1.42 Industry 329 14.33 36.53 0.43 0.56 9.57 0.51 22.12 2.00 4.26 120.80 2. by sector (Mtoe) Total EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS NO CH HR MK TR 1 116 39.77 2.95 3.38 1.67 9.57 49.48 4.45 3.43 22.57 297 8.81 0.45 12.01 151.19 5.99 0.86 2.55 0.00 57.69 11.34 3.76 4.50 3.70 0.86 150.75 9.16 374 11.22 9.25 Households 291 9.67 4.43 8.46 1.13 4.81 11.70 1.07 10.1 Energy Table 1.53 224.88 3.67 Transport 330 9.79 6.66 0.95 5.78 : 6.93 1.60 0.57 156.4.51 40.12 1.68 0.19 26.31 15.52 2.32 12.33 17.28 1.85 4.29 3.19 1.16 4.30 1.1: Final energy consumption.84 7.84 6.05 2.30 35.68 25.48 4.63 5.91 2.92 24.69 1.72 3.65 27.75 4.99 6.93 24.78 0.54 0.72 0.13 16.50 4.49 51.32 1.46 22.09 0.46 5. transport and environment indicators .64 42.16 5.89 5.36 7.16 4.69 65.20 : 49.08 8.83 16.12 8.13 5.56 3.31 7.20 1.27 10.94 25.04 14.07 : 3.16 3.24 2.14 13.56 6.

EU-27 (Mtoe) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 1 Industry Services Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) Transport Other Households Table 1.1: Final energy consumption. At sector level.4. the largest growths were observed in services (14 %) and transport (13 %). EU-27 (Mtoe) Change 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1998-08 Total 1 116 1 113 1 117 1 143 1 129 1 166 1 181 1 182 1 186 1 165 1 169 5 % Industry 329 322 332 333 328 337 337 332 328 331 318 .1a: Final energy consumption. In 2008. Energy. the share of the industrial sector decreased from 30 % in 1998 to 27 % in 2008.4 % Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) Final energy consumption in the EU-27 recorded a slight growth (5 %) between 1998 and 2008. whereas energy consumption by households showed a moderate increase (2 %) and energy consumption by the industrial sector declined by 3 %. In 2008. energy consumption by households and services accounted for 25 % and 12 % of the total respectively. the transport sector consumed almost a third (32 %) of EU-27 final energy.Energy Figure 1. transport and environment indicators 49 . an increase of 2 percentage points since 1998. by sector. by sector.4. In contrast.3 % Transport 330 339 341 344 348 352 362 365 372 377 374 13 % Households 291 288 285 299 292 303 305 307 304 285 297 2 % Services 121 122 117 124 121 128 131 132 136 131 138 14 % Other 44 42 42 42 41 45 46 47 46 42 42 .

55 0.00 0.47 0.02 5.61 17.81 0.36 : 0.24 0.91 0.23 0.00 0.29 12.10 0.22 0.21 6.36 36 0.96 0.46 0.03 0.42 1.07 0.51 32.27 0.64 0.35 0.81 3.48 2.67 1.91 1.54 0.23 3.42 2.90 0.22 0.71 2.38 0.00 1.45 4.44 0.39 13.11 2.07 : 0.00 1.35 : 0.73 0.80 0.21 0.00 0.62 3.64 36.13 0.70 0.03 0.42 0.03 0.40 3.00 4.00 0.48 4.81 2.17 0.56 0.96 2.91 0.70 3.03 0.17 0.19 2.99 0.24 Iron and steel 70 4.83 5.61 0.43 0.67 1.34 0.65 4.03 0.06 0.38 0.77 0.50 2.78 0.11 1.56 6.27 0.12 0.16 0.43 0.05 0.91 0.33 0.67 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) 50 Energy.56 11.22 5.28 0.35 0.68 7.09 0.06 : 3.51 12.36 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 58 4.28 5.18 1.05 0.12 : 0.01 0.59 1.49 0.59 1.49 1.46 0.05 0.15 3.71 4.80 10.50 0.52 14.51 1.77 5.04 0.67 0.06 0.42 0.56 0.01 0.20 1. by industrial sector (Mtoe) Total industry EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS NO CH HR MK TR 329 4.88 3.44 14.92 3.54 9.52 60.27 3.03 2.20 0.83 5.32 2.83 0.20 0.20 0.04 36.06 0.05 8.92 1.08 0.12 0.04 57.10 0.68 0.95 0.79 0.1 Energy Table 1.09 0. pottery 42 1.70 8.21 : 1.00 0.12 0.13 3.05 0.40 0.47 1.18 1.13 0.66 2.2: Final energy consumption.08 21.33 37.65 0.13 0.21 1.50 1.81 10.44 2.00 0.24 0.02 0.49 0.77 37.04 0.38 0.35 0.27 0.43 318 3.01 0.47 0.25 0.25 : 1.89 0.30 0.69 0.29 37.23 0.49 7.16 0.64 3.66 0.21 0.42 0.45 0.41 0.32 6.61 1.01 0.60 0.75 4.68 0.25 0.14 1.36 0.19 0.4.29 3.14 0.11 1.58 0.50 0.14 6.44 : : 6.00 0.02 0. transport and environment indicators .33 5.56 9.18 0.72 0.96 4.61 1.77 1.07 14.57 6.91 22.23 0.11 2.69 0.14 4.11 0.27 0.23 0.51 3.98 Chemical Glass.04 6.20 0.20 55 3.45 2.04 0.26 0.57 0.52 1.94 10.55 7.59 26.72 1.12 0.21 0.58 0.30 0.32 0.83 0.85 4.75 4.28 : 1.05 0.52 0.55 2.12 1.30 0.98 0.84 1.36 3.17 0.72 19.70 32 0.41 0.14 2.72 0.25 1.42 0.32 14.30 0.26 0.16 3.46 0.01 0.63 2.09 0.01 1.19 0.19 0.48 4.29 0.46 2.44 0.72 2.08 0.76 7.24 2.02 0.00 0.66 0.06 0.56 2.41 0.16 16.39 : 0.94 0.10 Food.07 0.82 0.84 6.01 0.04 6.95 0.21 0.71 1.79 6.78 0.01 0.05 0.53 0.15 0.62 4.15 1.12 6.71 1.00 0.27 0.33 5.00 0.75 12.15 1.45 14.69 11.16 0.89 3.57 5.77 1.51 3.73 0.80 7.41 0.42 3.80 4.46 0.12 0.01 0.26 4.59 0.64 2.13 29 0.33 0.52 0.33 0.19 2.39 4.26 4.99 43 1.77 2.71 1.02 0.25 0.22 0.70 0.76 0.54 1.32 0.14 7.49 : 0.20 60 3.08 0. drink Paper and and tobacco printing 30 0.00 0.35 1.39 1.17 0.29 5.13 0.15 3.

leather and clothing Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) Chemical Food.2: Final energy consumption. Over this period.25 % and – 22 % respectively). pottery (14 %). pottery 42 42 44 44 42 44 44 44 43 44 43 2% Food. Energy.2a: Final energy consumption.14 % Chemical 58 58 59 60 59 61 60 61 59 57 55 .Energy Figure 1. From 1998 to 2008. the Member States presented varying trends in their industrial energy consumption.1 % Textile. leather and clothing 10 10 11 11 11 10 10 8 8 7 6 .4 % Paper and printing 32 32 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 39 36 13 % Engineering and other metal 29 29 29 30 29 31 30 30 29 29 29 . pottery Paper and printing Textile. drink and tobacco 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 30 29 30 29 . The highest increases took place in Austria (35 %). the only sectors that showed increased consumptions were paper and printing (13 %) and glass and pottery (2 %). food. transport and environment indicators 51 . EU-27 (Mtoe) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 1 Iron and steel Glass.3 % Iron and steel 70 65 66 64 62 64 66 63 64 63 60 . Slovenia (27 %) and Ireland (24 %).4.4. EU-27 (Mtoe) Change 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1998-08 Total 329 322 332 333 328 337 337 332 328 331 318 .39 % Other 57 55 58 59 58 59 60 61 60 60 59 4% Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) Three sectors accounted for half of the final energy consumed by the EU-27 industry in 2008: The iron and steel sector with a 19 % share of the total. drink and tobacco Engineering and other metal Other Table 1. while Bulgaria and Poland experienced the largest decreases (. drink and tobacco (9 %) and the engineering and other metal industry (9 %).5 % Glass. by industrial sector. the chemical sector (17 %) and glass. Other sectors with noteworthy contribution to total industrial consumption were paper and printing (11 %). by industrial sector.

nrg_103a.38 0. nrg_102a.05 14.77 57.04 0.67 .100 100 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a.16 16.99 0.57 8.33 37.51 6.56 : 6.70 0.94 5. nrg_106a and nrg_1072a) 52 Energy.48 4. nrg_101a.00 2.51 12.59 4.4.43 4.51 32. by fuel All products (Mtoe) Share to total final energy consumption in industry (%) Solid fuels 17 21 14 26 11 18 12 4 21 7 16 10 5 1 2 12 10 10 17 44 7 14 4 34 11 7 18 12 16 2 5 : 43 14 16 14 28 6 15 20 5 9 5 13 9 7 7 13 8 13 11 14 29 1 14 5 30 7 10 18 : 10 4 9 23 36 Oil products 16 13 25 12 27 12 21 41 47 27 16 17 87 33 27 9 9 8 13 9 45 15 12 7 10 23 16 20 11 21 31 : 23 13 6 17 5 25 7 9 38 43 20 17 18 75 12 6 9 6 5 11 8 22 14 12 5 12 11 16 : 15 18 31 30 7 Gases Electricity Renewable energies 5 1 1 3 3 1 9 5 5 6 4 1 10 2 0 7 3 21 2 2 0 29 31 1 7 8 3 5 : 0 6 4 1 4 6 6 15 6 6 6 5 1 2 19 9 3 1 9 5 25 2 5 7 27 31 1 : 6 5 3 0 1 Derived heat 3 2 7 14 5 3 7 0 7 21 2 12 10 2 7 1 11 2 1 3 2 0 2 5 : 5 3 13 7 5 5 7 8 1 17 2 11 11 2 10 5 4 5 2 15 3 2 : 0 4 3 8 5 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS NO CH HR MK TR 329 318 32 29 33 31 26 36 27 20 3 32 34 43 30 25 42 50 48 35 17 4 40 43 37 16 3 40 0 26 36 : 11 31 42 26 32 28 33 23 24 11 36 30 31 38 30 39 41 44 33 23 19 45 36 31 9 5 33 : 4 22 34 5 20 26 22 20 14 28 31 23 31 25 27 30 29 9 18 23 34 19 24 25 18 21 18 37 21 30 33 25 61 65 40 18 : 21 31 28 26 23 30 34 26 28 31 33 33 33 15 21 25 42 25 28 27 23 27 21 37 25 30 40 30 : 64 40 20 34 32 14.00 2. nrg_105a.59 26.89 0.72 19.45 14.11 3.36 0.96 0.44 0.1 Energy Table 1.52 60.3: Final energy consumption in industry.75 3.69 : 0.48 3.29 12.04 4.64 36.21 1.66 3.44 1.78 0.71 0.12 1.81 4.42 0.16 1.29 37.29 9.55 0.77 2.68 0.83 21.88 3.56 5.75 12. transport and environment indicators .71 9.54 11.24 22.69 3.56 10.08 6.39 13.61 17.04 36.77 37.32 11.

Energy Figure 1.4. nrg_106a and nrg_1072a) Table 1.3a: Final energy consumption in industry. nrg_103a. EU-27 (Mtoe) 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 1 Solid fuels and derivatives Electricity Other Oil products Renewable energies Gases Derived heat Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a. nrg_105a. nrg_101a. nrg_106a and nrg_1072a) In 2008. Renewable energies and derived heat made smaller contributions of 6 % and 5 % correspondingly. Similarly. the share of electricity to total final energy consumption in industry was significant in all Member States and varied from 15 % in Cyprus to 100 % in Malta. followed by solid fuels (14 %) and oil products (13 %). the share of gases was over 20 % in twenty one Member States with the shares of Romania and the Netherlands being 45 % and 44 % respectively.21 % 54 51 49 52 49 51 50 48 48 46 42 .9 % 87 88 92 94 94 95 97 98 97 99 98 13 % 16 15 16 15 16 16 17 17 18 21 20 32 % 10 10 10 10 10 12 15 15 16 16 15 60 % 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 .3: Final energy consumption in industry.3 % 55 50 51 48 46 46 46 45 45 45 43 . transport and environment indicators 53 .51 % Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a. by fuel. electricity and gases covered 62 % (31 % each) of the energy requirements of EU-27 industry. In 2008. Energy.22 % 107 107 112 112 111 114 109 106 101 103 97 . by fuel. nrg_103a. EU-27 (Mtoe) Total Solid fuels and derivatives Oil products Gases Electricity Renewable energies Derived heat Other Change 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1998-08 329 322 332 333 328 337 337 332 328 331 318 . nrg_101a.4. nrg_105a. nrg_102a. nrg_102a. the highest among Member States.

4: Final energy consumption.1 Energy Table 1. by mode of transport (ktoe) Total transport 1998 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS NO CH HR MK TR 9 608 1 917 3 926 4 685 65 046 577 3 305 7 308 30 575 49 731 41 159 810 691 1 314 1 558 3 079 145 13 644 6 754 9 532 5 725 3 887 1 381 1 498 4 361 7 800 50 222 317 4 650 6 701 1 462 : 11 156 2008 11 227 2 841 6 463 5 490 61 434 796 5 433 8 510 40 194 50 470 43 867 973 1 280 1 797 2 615 4 803 307 15 827 8 426 15 841 7 280 5 238 2 052 2 159 4 957 9 055 54 934 : 5 119 7 518 2 131 407 16 254 Road 1998 7 538 1 679 3 409 3 677 502 2 715 5 177 2008 8 877 2 554 5 768 4 303 727 4 408 6 524 Air 1998 1 591 151 194 771 6 633 17 449 1 201 3 974 6 072 2 954 265 30 29 282 195 59 3 266 560 261 650 113 19 30 483 883 121 654 1 464 90 16 1 562 2008 2 044 225 400 940 9 181 29 951 1 335 5 795 7 315 4 074 294 98 78 445 276 128 3 769 749 536 1 026 244 36 63 730 992 : 726 1 456 117 6 2 088 Rail 1998 9 590 181 85 310 107 2 013 53 105 58 780 1 413 869 85 81 13 177 171 314 587 79 417 26 87 98 257 1 224 78 222 50 6 237 2008 9 330 185 62 292 109 1 874 33 47 57 968 1 343 961 90 79 10 165 167 314 408 67 291 29 47 100 208 1 423 : 78 282 54 7 217 Inland navigation 1998 7 318 299 3 12 129 371 6 36 872 1 683 887 708 4 1 661 6 13 47 216 132 130 1 099 7 767 6 28 223 2008 6 483 121 4 139 298 7 26 593 1 319 306 1 414 2 6 222 13 5 24 71 196 78 1 638 : 793 9 43 497 EU-27 330 237 374 269 272 673 304 202 40 657 54 254 56 029 50 081 24 137 32 112 41 359 41 506 36 629 37 417 545 576 1 200 1 263 2 706 86 5 874 4 949 3 140 1 336 1 381 3 647 6 530 189 3 150 5 009 1 293 : 680 1 091 1 634 2 161 4 362 178 7 350 6 162 4 633 1 987 2 049 3 930 7 777 : 3 522 5 770 1 917 394 9 546 11 669 8 671 14 891 38 373 39 371 9 526 12 502 9 133 13 451 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) 54 Energy.4. transport and environment indicators .

while rail and inland navigation consumed about 2 % of the total. by mode of transport.Energy Figure 1. Slovakia (95 %) and Poland (94 %). EU-27 (Mtoe) Change 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1998-08 330 339 341 344 348 352 362 365 372 377 374 13 % 273 279 279 284 288 292 298 299 304 308 304 12 % 41 43 46 44 44 45 48 50 52 53 54 33 % 10 9 10 9 9 9 10 9 9 9 9 -3% 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 7 7 6 6 . by mode of transport. such as Slovenia (97 %).4. Energy. All Member States increased their energy consumption by air transport. Road transport experienced a much lesser increase of 12 %. Air transport was the fastest growing sector between 1998 and 2008 with a 33 % overall increase for the EU-27. The situation was similar in Member States.4: Final energy consumption. road transport was the most energy consuming mode with an 81 % share of the total in 2008.11 % Total Road Air Rail Inland navigation Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) Within the transport sector of the EU-27. transport and environment indicators 55 . Malta and Cyprus had the lowest shares of consumption by road with 58 % and 70 % respectively.4. Road transport accounted for the largest share of their energy consumption and even exceeded 90 % of the total among new Member States. EU-27 (Mtoe) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 1 Road Air Rail Inland navigation Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) Table 1. Air transport was second with a 14 % share. while energy consumption by rail and navigation fell by 3 % and 11 % respectively. Regarding energy consumption by rail transport. These two countries due to their geography and the absence of other transport modes displayed the largest shares of energy consumption by air.4a: Final energy consumption. In contrast. new Member States recorded the highest shares with 7 % in Latvia and 6 % in Romania. while Greece displayed the highest share of energy consumption by inland navigation (7 %).

4. by fuel All products (ktoe) 1998 EU-27 330 237 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS NO CH HR MK TR 9 608 1 917 3 926 4 685 65 046 577 3 305 7 308 30 575 49 731 41 159 810 691 1 314 1 558 3 079 : 13 644 6 754 9 532 5 725 3 887 1 381 1 498 4 361 7 800 50 222 317 4 650 6 701 1 462 : 11 156 2008 374 269 11 227 2 841 6 463 5 490 61 434 796 5 433 8 510 40 194 50 470 43 867 973 1 280 1 797 2 615 4 803 307 15 827 8 426 15 841 7 280 5 238 2 052 2 159 4 957 9 055 54 934 : 5 119 7 518 2 131 407 16 254 Share to total final energy consumption in transport (%) Motor spirit 1998 41 27 44 49 44 49 53 42 45 31 31 46 25 53 49 37 47 : 32 34 55 37 39 61 42 46 54 46 48 38 60 52 : 43 Kerosenes Gas/diesel oil 43 51 43 40 38 39 43 44 31 54 54 40 42 41 45 45 44 : 38 53 35 51 50 37 50 41 31 34 14 47 15 40 : 36 52 65 55 56 49 43 53 48 30 67 61 56 28 59 57 65 55 34 44 62 54 62 61 64 58 49 43 41 : 53 30 56 53 56 Biofuels 2008 3 1 0 2 0 5 1 1 2 5 2 1 0 3 1 3 2 5 3 2 2 1 6 2 4 1 : 1 0 0 2 0 2008 1998 2008 27 14 22 32 33 34 42 33 50 16 17 26 40 30 24 16 33 24 28 21 26 22 30 33 30 33 39 32 : 27 47 33 30 15 12 17 8 5 16 10 2 14 16 13 12 7 33 4 2 18 6 : 24 8 3 11 3 1 2 11 11 19 38 14 22 6 : 14 14 18 8 6 17 15 3 17 16 14 14 9 30 8 4 17 6 42 24 9 3 14 4 2 3 15 11 23 : 14 19 5 2 13 1998 2008 1998 0 0 0 1 0 : : - Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a.1 Energy Table 1. transport and environment indicators . nrg_102a and nrg_1073a) 56 Energy.5: Final energy consumption in transport.

by fuel. motor spirit consumption decreased by 26 % between 1998 and 2008. EU-27 (Mtoe) Total Motor spirit Gas/diesel oil Kerosenes Biofuels Other Change 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1998-08 330 339 341 344 348 352 362 365 372 377 374 13 % 137 138 132 129 128 124 120 114 110 106 101 .5a: Final energy consumption in transport. Gas/diesel oil consumption recorded a 39% increase. nrg_102a and nrg_1073a) Over the last decade. In absolute terms.4. while they all presented increases in kerosenes consumption. the consumption of all other fuels increased.4. On the other hand. an increase of almost 10 percentage points from 1998. Energy. All Member States but Cyprus increased their gas/diesel oil consumption over the last ten years.Energy Figure 1. nrg_102a and nrg_1073a) Table 1. Over the same period. kerosenes consumption grew by 33 % and the consumption of biofuels grew 26 times. significant changes were observed in the fuel mix consumed by the EU-27 transport sector. by fuel.26 % 141 146 152 158 163 170 179 184 191 196 196 39 % 41 43 45 44 44 45 48 50 52 53 54 33 % 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 3 6 8 10 2601 % 12 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 17 % Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a. the share of motor spirits dropped from 41 % to 27 %. transport and environment indicators 57 . In 2008.5: Final energy consumption in transport. gas/diesel oil accounted for 52 % of the total. EU-27 (Mtoe) 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 1 Motor spirit Biofuels Gas/diesel oil Other Kerosenes Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a. Biofuels accounted for 3 % of total transport consumption in 2008.

4.86 6.49 19. nrg_105a.38 9.39 3.40 4.45 1.11 2.15 1.61 1.64 42.86 6.99 7.57 22.53 : 3. transport and environment indicators .14 11.79 5.46 66.67 27.40 2.81 18.67 5.03 1.37 0.79 6.39 4.51 16.44 2.65 42.04 15.63 0.6: Final energy consumption in households. nrg_106a and nrg_1071a) 58 Energy.52 8.38 0. by fuel All products (Mtoe) Share to total final energy consumption in households (%) Solid fuels 5 2 22 21 0 2 3 33 1 2 2 0 2 3 0 4 0 4 30 0 1 3 0 5 0 0 1 : 10 3 2 10 8 1 1 16 0 1 1 0 1 4 3 0 1 30 1 3 0 1 : 0 0 1 22 Oil products 22 42 1 1 22 35 5 32 54 35 28 24 39 2 5 53 6 35 1 27 3 26 5 46 1 26 16 8 3 8 56 18 : 20 16 38 1 0 11 24 1 39 50 22 19 14 32 2 3 34 2 30 1 22 4 18 4 28 1 11 1 7 : 4 45 13 9 7 Natural gas 35 34 37 15 35 4 14 13 23 54 5 9 34 55 78 20 17 0 23 5 59 0 1 64 14 26 : 13 39 38 2 35 14 43 5 21 4 23 33 59 8 11 49 59 73 18 17 7 27 9 55 1 1 67 : 0 17 31 29 Electrical Renewable energy energies 21 20 38 22 19 17 11 20 26 32 27 18 40 6 10 9 16 65 17 18 9 28 7 22 20 29 46 22 9 76 22 28 : 10 24 20 41 22 21 18 17 23 30 39 31 21 49 12 17 10 18 70 22 22 13 37 11 25 18 36 50 24 : 78 26 32 53 15 10 2 15 8 6 33 1 19 18 20 4 21 48 32 2 5 2 24 12 43 28 14 0 19 8 0 65 15 5 19 : 46 11 3 30 18 21 9 41 1 15 14 16 5 19 50 29 2 8 3 26 13 38 43 29 2 23 10 1 : 16 10 15 31 27 Derived heat 8 0 25 20 35 5 43 37 42 1 14 2 7 29 0 36 11 17 25 28 23 1 2 8 : 7 0 17 16 33 6 35 1 0 27 37 5 10 2 10 23 0 15 9 21 29 37 0 : 2 2 8 7 - 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS NO CH HR MK TR 291 297 9.77 2.50 2.91 8.50 1.28 5.12 9.05 1.08 10.95 2.75 42. nrg_102a.13 5.70 38.32 6.67 3.07 0.95 3.68 5.46 1.16 4.20 0.07 0.61 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a.78 : 0.57 0. nrg_101a.1 Energy Table 1.30 68.04 0.80 4.13 5.20 5.02 1. nrg_103a.89 27.29 1.

natural gas consumption covered 39 % of the total energy needs of households. EU-27 (Mtoe) Change 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1998-08 291 288 285 299 292 303 305 307 304 285 297 2% 14 13 10 10 10 9 8 9 10 9 10 . Energy. by fuel. only slight alterations were observed in the fuel blend used to cover the energy needs of households. electrical energy (17 %) and natural gas (15 %). In contrast there were increases in the consumption of renewable energies (19 %). nrg_105a. nrg_103a. Over this period. nrg_102a. in 2008. a decrease of 6 percentage points from 1998. The share of electrical energy also grew from 21 % in 1998 to 24 % in 2008. nrg_106a and nrg_1071a) Between 1998 and 2008. by fuel.26 %) and derived heat (.6a: Final energy consumption in households. nrg_101a. Decreases were recorded in the consumption of solid fuels (. nrg_103a. nrg_105a.26 % 102 104 108 113 112 119 123 123 120 113 117 15 % 60 61 61 63 64 67 68 69 70 69 70 17 % 28 27 28 28 28 30 30 31 32 32 34 19 % 23 22 20 22 21 21 21 21 20 20 19 . nrg_101a.6: Final energy consumption in households. oil products (.Energy Figure 1. As a result. an increase of 4 percentage points from 1998.15 %).15 % Total Solid fuels Oil products Natural gas Electrical energy Renewable energies Derived heat Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a. EU-27 final energy consumption in households presented a slight increase (2 %). nrg_106a and nrg_1071a) Table 1. transport and environment indicators 59 .32 %). EU-27 (Mtoe) 125 100 75 50 25 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 1 Solid fuels Electrical energy Oil products Renewable energies Natural gas Derived heat Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a. while the share of oil products was 16 % in 2008.4.32 % 64 60 58 62 58 57 55 55 53 42 47 . nrg_102a.4.

11 444 1 411 666 2 200 2 671 2 174 4 501 6 081 810 2 417 2 881 32 677 27 997 15 704 5 227 19 644 15 770 2 988 7 338 1 097 3 160 16 642 10 605 33 935 6 508 7 746 10 083 66 823 12 956 : 653 870 1 816 1 010 27 595 3 127 : - 8 938 16 260 10 979 : 4 263 956 85 581 55 830 : 30 745 19 355 3 908 1 585 148 263 761 : : .27 645 3 220 13 609 2 079 : 41 817 13 020 .10 307 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_113a) 60 Energy. by type (MW) Total Thermal Nuclear Hydro Other 2008 65 126 324 114 150 3 166 23 895 77 1 028 1 022 16 546 3 422 4 196 28 54 43 134 2 149 997 526 2 882 5 5 143 814 3 406 : 360 14 17 394 6 784 6 1 1 443 2 672 60 40 848 20 711 1 10 363 433 2 58 17 174 331 140 4 3 : : 27 1998 2008 1998 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS NO CH HR MK TR 15 395 11 678 14 892 12 210 16 697 9 637 8 272 5 873 2008 1998 9 130 4 647 11 583 9 320 5 713 3 446 1 760 - 2008 1998 5 825 1 892 3 760 20 486 1 404 2 359 2 033 11 8 854 6 525 2 856 2008 1998 1 418 2 984 2 192 9 10 001 4 531 3 176 18 451 25 288 21 275 1 536 875 1 134 51 37 12 504 2 335 5 055 6 362 1 027 2 548 3 102 16 437 4 373 : 29 732 15 251 2 075 575 13 828 EU-27 670 651 799 133 393 488 458 216 136 117 133 086 134 262 142 705 17 685 11 098 12 495 10 756 113 624 133 937 79 784 2 629 4 457 10 016 50 023 2 644 7 202 14 241 2 623 3 872 7 120 79 555 22 314 2 563 5 643 10 043 47 832 7 300 90 194 25 243 7 365 16 632 63 260 25 095 .5.1: Installed capacity of electricity generation plants.1 Energy Table 1. transport and environment indicators .20 058 1 183 1 940 510 1 522 858 1 133 48 37 112 348 117 618 25 558 72 352 699 2 104 5 686 1 202 7 850 460 20 160 17 859 30 173 9 786 22 558 2 571 7 777 16 143 33 025 73 380 1 244 27 912 17 500 : : 23 354 97 878 51 583 1 193 2 154 4 630 1 644 8 630 571 699 581 2 461 59 5 959 460 25 648 61 675 72 407 1 193 590 2 518 467 6 505 571 22 130 7 247 29 816 7 767 11 866 1 295 2 585 10 726 2 367 1 843 449 707 664 2 200 2 640 24 826 19 311 20 748 5 982 .

while nuclear and hydro plants made up 17 % and 18 % respectively. Austria and Sweden.9 % between 1998 and 2008.5. Energy.1: Breakdown of installed capacity of electricity generation plants. where hydro plants accounted for most of their capacity. As a result.5. At Member State level. where nuclear accounted for over half of the total. the share of RES capacity as part of the total grew from 1 % in 1998 to 8 % in 2008. 1998 & 2008 (%) 1 8% 1% 18% 20% 20% 59% 57% 17% Thermal Nuclear Hydro Other Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_113a) Table 1. and France. transport and environment indicators 61 . Luxembourg. Thermal plants accounted for 57 % of the total capacity in 2008. A breakdown by type shows that over this period the installed capacity of RES recorded the most striking increase (tenfold).1a: Installed capacity of electricity generation plants by type. EU-27.Energy Figure 1. by type. EU-27 (GW) Total Thermal Nuclear Hydro Other 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 671 683 694 703 715 728 738 749 764 393 400 407 410 412 424 428 434 442 136 138 137 137 138 137 136 135 134 134 136 136 137 141 137 138 139 140 7 10 13 18 24 29 35 41 48 2007 2008 782 799 451 458 133 133 142 143 57 65 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_113a) EU-27 total installed capacity of electricity generation plants grew continuously with an annual rate of about 1. The only exceptions were Latvia. most of the electric capacity came from thermal plants in twenty two countries.

5.1 Energy Table 1. by type (GWh) Total 1998 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS NO CH HR MK TR 82 133 41 483 64 624 41 110 Thermal 1998 35 039 21 485 49 463 36 793 364 067 8 504 19 723 42 393 97 413 53 938 210 930 2 954 1 479 3 182 195 22 979 1 721 83 829 16 984 137 866 24 817 29 299 5 237 9 505 26 545 7 322 252 681 660 421 1 801 5 427 5 965 68 539 Nuclear Hydro Other RES 2008 83 582 44 584 83 179 36 391 2008 1998 32 939 25 873 52 889 25 517 46 165 16 899 13 178 - 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 45 568 15 765 26 551 389 3 097 1 396 27 17 216 4 916 3 717 34 005 62 667 41 220 4 316 417 115 155 112 37 164 2 309 12 983 18 879 3 449 4 301 15 051 74 328 5 118 5 621 410 2 824 2 024 26 20 942 28 969 3 312 23 500 64 239 41 623 3 109 402 132 213 102 37 946 2 152 6 798 17 195 4 018 4 039 17 112 69 069 5 168 : 540 2 587 4 290 9 413 13 254 73 2 997 2 472 5 690 2 56 105 3 361 1 763 596 1 169 11 6 721 3 077 3 794 655 307 1 213 5 339 4 665 122 1 715 10 848 73 856 169 2 570 2 438 38 817 11 619 18 096 15 104 200 190 2 254 10 940 6 672 4 296 8 120 28 289 537 10 840 13 183 17 167 : 1 360 2 207 61 1 151 EU-27 2 889 531 3 351 364 1 566 343 1 847 026 932 851 937 236 343 351 327 352 46 986 239 750 552 340 635 631 8 521 20 893 46 183 10 581 29 354 62 912 392 338 161 644 148 495 10 384 25 815 57 162 189 860 58 993 58 973 193 408 311 150 507 067 570 268 257 840 319 045 2 954 5 797 17 153 366 37 188 1 721 5 079 5 274 13 326 2 724 40 027 2 276 54 942 387 990 439 468 259 326 5 064 2 061 2 830 2 402 22 742 2 276 92 432 19 753 149 134 30 745 36 506 5 820 7 481 26 526 3 753 310 456 : 787 1 176 6 939 5 471 164 159 13 554 13 949 3 814 5 307 5 042 11 394 21 853 73 583 99 486 25 830 9 894 14 818 4 169 11 226 6 273 16 703 22 958 63 889 52 486 : 91 116 107 643 55 911 64 371 140 771 155 582 38 969 53 496 13 728 25 200 70 170 45 663 64 955 16 400 28 760 77 436 158 310 149 894 361 079 385 277 6 936 : 116 122 141 701 62 315 10 890 7 048 67 119 12 216 6 311 . transport and environment indicators .115 394 139 554 27 700 33 471 5 458 1 083 42 229 36 036 5 216 840 33 270 111 107 198 580 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_105a) 62 Energy.2: Power station generation.

Electricity generation in the EU-27 grew by 16 % over the last decade. while nuclear and hydro power stations accounted for 28 % and 10 % respectively. while in Slovenia and Finland thermal and nuclear stations played an equal part in electricity production. while Cyprus (72 %) and Spain (61 %) followed.2a: Power station generation.11 %).22 %). In Sweden hydro and nuclear stations made the largest contribution to electricity production. Denmark (. Thermal power stations accounted for over half (55 %) of the total. Latvia (. 1998 & 2008 (%) 7% 10% 2% 12% 1 32% 28% 54% 55% Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_105a) Thermal Nuclear Hydro Other RES Table 1. Lithuania and Slovakia where nuclear stations accounted for the largest share. The most rapid growth in electricity generation took place in Luxembourg (sevenfold). a share that grew by 5 percentage points between 1998 and 2008.2: Breakdown of power station generation.9 %) and Sweden (. EU-27 (TWh) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Total 2 890 2 916 2 997 3 083 3 089 3 189 3 261 3 280 3 323 Thermal 1 566 1 576 1 631 1 657 1 693 1 779 1 795 1 817 1 844 Nuclear 933 943 945 979 990 996 1 008 998 990 Hydro 343 341 353 373 315 306 324 307 309 Other RES 47 55 68 75 91 108 134 158 181 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_105a) 2007 2008 3 342 3 351 1 882 1 847 935 937 310 327 215 240 Total gross electricity generation in the EU-27 was 3 351 TWh in 2008. In Latvia and Austria hydro stations generated 59 % of the total. Other RES provided 7 % of the total. The exceptions were Belgium. Energy.5.5 %). transport and environment indicators 63 . France.Energy Figure 1. The only Member States that generated less electricity in 2008 compared to 1998 were Lithuania (. by type. by type. EU-27. In eighteen Member States over half of their electricity production came from thermal stations in 2008.5.

8 72.8 45.8 72.7 46.0 46.5 46.0 43.1 49.0 86.7 22.2 50.6 64.9 53.4 35.6 83.9 46.3 55.2 47.4 42.9 57.8 2008 48.9 : 85.0 73.4 48.0 44.8 77.8 73.3 81.8 42.7 34.2 48.5 53.9 40.5 51.2 46.8 86.9 42.5 71.3 34.1 44.9 65.5 44.3 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) 64 Energy.2 41.6 44.1 64.9 84.8 40.8 51.2 2000 45.7 38.4 48.8 47.5 46.0 46.6 50.9 59.3 29.2 46.7 76.7 60.3 65.8 58.0 59.5 36.6 36.5 100.5 38.0 23.4 50.2 50.8 34.3 45.1 40.3 48.1 44.0 25.1 31.9 41.2 54.2 69.9 71.1 32.8 84.5 58.6 87.9 45.3 43.5 32.3 83.2 43.8 58.1 57.8 29.2 35.1 37.6 41.8 58.5.5 48.8 40.8 59.7 2007 48.4 40.8 55.7 46.2 48.3 48.8 68.1 49.2 51.4 34.7 : 35.2 76.7 68.0 38.4 74.3 33.8 36.1 Energy Table 1.4 41.2 46.2 86.3: Thermal efficiency of power stations (%) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 46.2 46.2 74.8 36.5 49.1 46.1 45.1 27.9 70.5 45.7 102.0 43.3 81.5 48.5 40.2 42.9 41.5 42.4 43.9 83.8 50.9 50.9 47.8 79.6 50.8 : 48. transport and environment indicators .5 58.1 32.8 44.5 38.6 57.8 38.5 43.9 43.3 57.4 33.2 75.3 82.7 : 94.9 58.4 21.8 58.9 : 42.3 47.5 49.0 83.9 25.1 48.8 47.8 45.5 47.1 34.5 42.3 51.0 71.4 85.9 51.2 49.2 54.1 88.3 37.7 46.2 : 47.2 2006 48.0 2005 48.2 47.8 45.2 47.4 50.4 43.4 58.8 44.3 43.2 87.3 42.2 68.9 41.3 61.

5.Energy Figure 1. transport and environment indicators 65 .9 45.6 46.3 47.5 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) Thermal efficiency of power stations is calculated as the ratio between the output of electricity and heat from electricity and combined heat and power (CHP) power plants and the input of fuels to these plants. This increase was mostly attributed to technological advances. experienced the highest increase in its thermal efficiency over the decade of 19 percentage points. Luxembourg. EU-27 (%) EU-27 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 46. Czech Republic.8 45.9 %).2 2007 2008 48. All but five countries (Romania. which was the country with the highest thermal efficiency in 2008 (88.9 45.5 percentage points and reached 48. Lithuania.3 48.2 48. EU-27 thermal efficiency of power stations grew by 2.7 48. more efficient. the increase in CHP plants and the replacement of old thermal power plants with new.0 45.3a: Thermal efficiency of power stations. From 1998 to 2008. Energy.5. France and the Netherlands) increased their thermal efficiency over the last decade. 2008 (%) EU-27 Lithuania Sweden Latvia Finland Denmark Luxembourg Austria Netherlands Slovakia Belgium Hungary Italy Spain Portugal Germany Poland Ireland Romania Bulgaria Czech Republic United Kingdom Slovenia Estonia Greece Cyprus France Malta 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_100a) Table 1.3: Thermal efficiency of power stations.5 % in 2008.

3 1.2 17.8 11.2 6.2 10.1 16.3 33.0 42.9 12.0 8.0 3.3 12.6 14.3 15.8 0.5 8.0 15.4 0.7 : : : : : 4.9 8.9 13.4 29.6 34.2 29.0 9.3 30.6 26.3 34.7 12.5 0.5 7.6 18.6 17.0 6.5.5 6.0 14.9 11.3 14.3 10.4 7.6 7.4 15.1 19.1 9.6 1.2 7.8 52.0 11.7 5.1 40.1 32.2 7.5 10.2 46.3 10.0 35.9 4.1 12.9 7.9 9.1 15.9 21.9 6.2 9.1 8.1 : : : 4.8 4.1 6.7 15.7 6.0 : 10.5 9.3 40.0 11.6 6.2 1.4 0.1 6.2 2.4 8.4 27.0 11.2 10.6 10.6 15.1 16. transport and environment indicators .6 18.3 42.8 : : : : : 4.5 15.1 8.9 16.4 16.7 7.2 25.1 3.4 15.3 0.6 6.8 12.3 38.2 3.6 6.1 : : : 4.7 11.3 9.4 13.4 30.1 : : : 4.5 10.0 7.0 0.7 7.6 34.6 10.1 Energy Table 1.9 21.4: Combined heat and power generation (% of gross electricity generation) 2004 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey Source: Eurostat 2005 11.6 9.4 50.6 1.4 1.0 66 Energy.4 : 0.0 26.6 2008 11.3 16.4 14.1 33.9 22.5 8.6 12.9 2.7 7.3 16.2 9.7 6.0 9.4 2007 10.1 29.4 2006 10.9 8.1 12.7 24.4 6.

This indicator is defined as the ratio between gross CHP electricity generation and total gross electricity generation. Energy. Source: Eurostat Note: Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is a technology used to improve energy efficiency through the generation of heat and power in the same plant.5.1 % in Denmark. It is a measure of the penetration of CHP in electricity markets.4: Combined heat and power generation. such as CO2 emissions.6 % in 2008. but it aims at promoting CHP generation. a moderate increase of 0. CHP thus reduces the need for additional fuel combustion for the generation of heat and avoids the associated environmental impacts. Large differences can be observed amongst Member States with variations of the shares between 0.7 percentage points and in 2008 its CHP share reached 24 %. The Directive does not include targets.4 % in 1998 to 9.5 percentage points from 2004. transport and environment indicators 67 .Energy Figure 1. The share of electricity produced by cogeneration processes in the EU-27 rose to 11 % in 2008. 2008 (% of gross electricity generation) EU-27 Denmark Finland Netherlands Latvia Slovakia Hungary Poland Austria Czech Republic Lithuania Germany Belgium (1) Portugal Luxembourg Bulgaria Sweden Romania Italy Estonia Spain Slovenia United Kingdom Ireland France Greece Cyprus 1 0 (1) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 2007 data instead of 2008. Slovakia reported an increase of 8. Heat delivered from CHP plants may be used for process or space-heating purposes in any sector of economic activity including the residential sector. The data collection for combined heat and power generation is based on Community Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal market. Romania recorded the highest decrease in its CHP share from 26. For the same period. generally using a gas turbine with heat recovery.3 % in Cyprus and 46. Between 2004 and 2008.

1 38.8 : 41.0 : 87.0 : 72.5 : 42.1 83.1 23.0 34.0 45.9 48.0 : : 18.2 36.5 54.9 24.4 : 85.9 36.0 86.0 22.0 30.6 100.4 70.0 31.0 48.6 19.0 97.5 31.8 72.5 : 84.0 94.1 Energy Table 1.0 2005 : 85.0 18.1 94.0 2006 : 82.0 70.0 69.6 23.7 : 41.0 : 38.3 31.0 : : 2007 : 83.6 : : : 75.0 45.6 22.0 91.5 : 32.0 31.5 : 40.0 : : 2008 : 80.0 20.3 53.3 : 73.5 58.7 34.0 45.2 46.2 47.5 82.5 45.2 : 30.5 28.6 27.1 51.0 87.0 35.0 : 72.6 91.5 55.7 99.6 31.2 87.6 31.9 100.0 71.0 : : 18.0 97.0 : : Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_ind_331a) 68 Energy.3 100.4 26.5: Market share of the largest generator in the electricity market (%) 2000 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 91.0 97.3 100.0 51.0 33.5 : 30.0 47.0 96.9 : 83.6 : 30.0 100.2 15.1 : 69.5 20.3 100.0 30. transport and environment indicators .0 42.6 95.6 100.4 50.7 100.0 95.0 91.0 71.5.4 90.0 : 92.3 49.0 26.0 : : 16.3 54.9 : 74.3 : 38.0 88.0 91.0 88.5 53.3 : 27.0 : 32.0 71.5 : : 85.7 70.0 : : 17.9 56.0 92.0 89.0 72.7 100.

transport and environment indicators 69 . Then.4 % in 1998. 2004 data instead of 2000. as 100 % of their electricity came from one generator. 2008 data not available. The market share of the largest electricity generator is a measure of the electricity market liberalization. In 2008. an increase of 20 percentage points from 1998. Estonia and Greece also reported shares for the largest generator that exceeded 90 % (96. where the share of the largest generator fell from 97 % in 1998 to 45. Spain followed with a 22. Over the last decade. Data are for 2004. In contrast.2 % share of the largest generator in 2008 compared to 42.Energy Figure 1. the Member States with the lowest shares were the United Kingdom (15. as in 2008 the largest electricity generator made up 56% of the market. 2008 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_ind_331a) Note: The indicator shows the market share of the largest electricity generator in each country. In contrast. Energy.5 % and 91.3 %) and Poland (18. It means that the electricity used by generators for their own consumption is not taken into account. the net production of each generator during the same year is considered in order to calculate the corresponding market shares. Only the largest market share is reported under this indicator. the total net electricity production during each reference year is taken into account. electricity generation in Cyprus and Malta was a complete monopoly.5. To calculate this indicator.6 % in 2008. the most considerable change took place in the electricity market of Ireland.5: Market share of the largest generator in the electricity market (%) Malta Cyprus Estonia Greece France Latvia Belgium Czech Republic Slovakia Lithuania Denmark Slovenia (1) Portugal Ireland Sweden Hungary Italy Germany Romania (2) Finland Spain Poland United Kingdom Austria (3) Luxembourg (4) 1 0 (1) (2) (3) (4) 20 40 60 80 100 2000 2002 data instead of 2000.9 %).6 % respectively). the most notable increase was observed in Denmark.

5 44.0 24.1 9.3 3.8 2.0 16.4 30. Guadeloupe.0 14.0 15.2 18.0 9. Source: Eurostat (Europe 2020 indicators — online data code: t2020_31) 70 Energy.9 23.1 7.7 1.5 7.4 16.0 6.2 : : : : : : 2020 target 20.0 11.0 49.1 6.4 28.1 3.0 23. transport and environment indicators .0 10.3 2.1 9.0 23.7 9.0 18.4 20.4 7.1: Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption (%) 2006 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France (1) Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 8.4 15.8 6.2 42.0 25.3 9.1 Energy Table 1.0 20.0 18. excluding the four overseas departments (French Guyana.8 8.0 17.2 20.2 3.6 7.0 13.0 17.0 31.5 24.0 - (1) "France métropolitaine".3 2.8 7.6 5. Martinique and Réunion).9 19.5 17.9 16.0 15.5 15.5 6.5 : : : : : : 2007 9.1 2.0 13.6 7.9 44.2 9.6 10.0 13.0 40.3 6.0 16.8 4.3 14.4 22.4 2.0 7.2 3.1 29.2 3.8 8.2 28.4 8.2 5.7 0.5 31.0 34.1 9.7 3.1 3.6 0.0 0.2 18.6.1 0.1 8.7 11.9 5.0 25.0 10.0 13.0 26.0 6.9 15.2 1.2 2.1 3.7 14.0 38.3 18.0 30.1 29.7 : : : : : : 2008 10.2 29.7 15.0 14.

2 %) and the lowest in Malta (0. From 2006 to 2008.3 % of EU-27 gross final energy consumption.Energy Figure 1. Luxembourg (2. Latvia (29.1 %) and the United Kingdom (2.8 % to 28. 2020 target Source: Eurostat (Europe 2020 indicators — online data code: t2020_31) This indicator can be considered as an estimate of the relevant indicator described in Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.6.9 %).4 %). The Directive set individual targets for all Member States with a view to reaching an overall EU target of a 20 % share of total energy consumption from renewables by 2020. The targets take into account the different starting points of the Member States. excluding the four overseas departments (French Guyana.5 %) and Portugal (23. Energy.2 %).5 %). transport and environment indicators 71 .2 %). The highest share of consumption from renewable sources was recorded in Sweden (44. Austria (28. Martinique and Réunion). Finland (30. Guadeloupe. the renewable energy potential and economic performance. energy from renewable sources contributed 10.5 %. Austria recorded the highest increase in its share from 24. In 2008.1: Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption and target for 2020 (%) EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France (1) Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom 1 0 (1) 10 20 30 40 50 2008 "France métropolitaine".

2: Installed capacity for electricity generation from renewables (MW) Total 1998 EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS NO CH HR MK TR 1 565 2 359 2 034 1 810 13 373 6 609 2 944 17 709 25 727 21 356 1 523 858 1 152 77 932 12 230 2 186 4 771 6 081 810 2 417 4 000 17 842 5 463 1 096 27 780 13 869 2 079 : 10 355 Hydro 1998 1 404 2 359 2 033 11 8 854 6 525 2 856 16 632 25 095 20 058 1 522 858 1 133 48 37 11 444 2 174 4 501 6 081 810 2 417 2 881 16 260 4 263 956 27 645 13 609 2 079 : 10 307 Wind 6 225 64 429 6 1 1 443 324 114 150 3 166 Wood 5 217 14 006 155 95 795 48 128 340 154 5 26 747 209 1 100 1 331 84 100 : 21 442 468 558 1 380 10 374 265 2 131 3 16 356 405 2 024 40 293 15 48 147 1 757 2 761 513 : 79 69 Other 4 130 24 253 261 423 199 468 2008 2 607 3 098 3 009 4 201 45 598 95 1 617 4 290 39 128 30 119 29 845 1 581 961 1 223 621 3 488 16 247 3 005 8 392 6 382 1 093 2 714 5 008 20 491 10 580 : 30 204 15 706 2 092 575 14 357 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1998 2008 1 418 2 984 2 192 9 10 001 4 531 3 176 18 451 25 288 21 275 1 536 875 1 134 51 37 12 504 2 335 5 055 6 362 1 027 2 548 3 102 16 437 4 373 : 29 732 15 251 2 075 575 13 828 149 834 245 393 134 262 142 705 2 672 23 895 60 38 77 1 028 1 022 1 052 10 322 24 2 4 58 92 848 16 546 20 164 1 10 363 27 2 48 17 174 331 4 3 : 9 3 422 3 525 28 54 43 134 2 149 996 526 2 857 5 5 143 814 3 406 : 360 14 17 364 101 3 757 272 1 144 980 2 914 9 24 506 12 10 13 2 77 14 16 46 80 897 723 104 187 18 14 6 479 785 2 288 140 31 257 : 18 : 33 441 96 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_113a) 72 Energy.1 Energy Table 1.6. transport and environment indicators .

Energy Figure 1.6.2: Installed capacity for electricity generation from renewables, EU-27 (GW)
250

1

200

150

100

50

0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008

Hydro

Wind

Wood

Other

Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_113a)

Table 1.6.2a: Installed capacity for electricity generation from renewables, EU-27 (GW)
Change 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1998-08 150 155 161 167 177 182 191 203 216 229 245 64 % 134 136 136 137 141 137 138 139 140 142 143 6% 6 9 13 17 23 29 34 41 48 56 64 935 % 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 10 12 13 14 168 % 4 5 6 6 7 9 10 13 16 19 24 487 %

Total Hydro Wind Wood Other

Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_113a)

The installed capacity for electricity generation from renewables in the EU-27 grew continually between 1998 and 2008 with an annual growth rate of 6.4 %. The most striking increase (tenfold) was recorded in wind capacity. As a result, its share of the total grew from 4 % in 1998 to 26 % in 2008. The capacity of other renewables, which include geothermal, photovoltaics, municipal solid waste and biogas, presented a sixfold increase from 1998 to 2008. Its share of the total grew from 3 % in 1998 to 10 % in 2008. In 2008, hydro capacity still made up the largest contribution to the total with a 58 % share in 2008 compared to 90 % in 1998. At country level, in 2008, Germany had the largest electricity generation capacity from renewables, which made up 19 % of total EU-27 capacity. Significant capacities were also available in Spain (16 %), France (12 %), Italy (12 %) and Sweden (8 %).

Energy, transport and environment indicators

73

1

Energy Table 1.6.3: Contribution of electricity from renewables to total electricity consumption
RES electricity (GWh) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 929 3 099 1 983 4 317 26 629 17 1 170 3 790 37 002 65 139 46 910 4 318 417 171 260 3 473 38 927 2 905 14 152 18 890 3 449 4 301 21 772 77 405 8 912 6 276 34 684 5 463 1 083 42 568 2003 1 674 3 029 1 884 8 746 48 600 46 1 122 5 892 57 435 64 970 47 211 1 2 338 332 169 369 5 319 35 183 2 249 18 089 13 262 3 079 3 594 19 386 59 228 11 207 8 494 36 509 4 876 1 374 35 560 2008 5 075 2 946 3 739 10 874 94 798 197 3 539 5 750 62 301 75 858 59 719 15 3 213 602 322 2 467 11 042 44 618 6 448 14 918 17 223 4 307 4 576 27 952 82 252 22 335 : 38 243 5 277 840 34 421 390 337 414 414 567 086 Share (% of total) 1998 13.4 1.1 8.1 3.2 11.7 4.8 0.2 5.5 7.9 18.6 14.4 15.6 68.2 3.6 2.5 0.7 3.4 67.9 2.1 36.0 35.0 29.2 15.5 27.4 52.4 2.4 99.9 95.9 60.3 38.3 15.4 37.3 2003 12.9 1.8 7.8 2.8 23.2 8.2 0.6 4.3 9.7 21.7 13.0 13.7 0.0 35.4 2.8 2.3 0.9 4.7 53.5 1.6 36.4 24.3 22.0 12.4 21.8 39.9 2.8 99.9 92.1 56.7 29.4 17.9 25.2 2008 16.7 5.3 7.4 5.2 28.7 15.4 2.0 11.7 8.3 20.6 14.4 16.6 0.3 41.2 4.6 4.1 5.6 8.9 62.0 4.2 26.9 28.4 29.1 15.5 31.0 55.5 5.6 : 109.4 56.4 27.9 9.3 17.4

115 701 106 228 140 914

Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_105a, nrg_1071a and nrg_1072a)

74

Energy, transport and environment indicators

Energy Figure 1.6.3: Contribution of electricity from renewables to total electricity consumption, EU-27
600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 10 12 14 16 18

1

RES electricity (TWh)

Share (% of total)

Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_105a, nrg_1071a and nrg_1072a)

Table 1.6.3a: Contribution of electricity from renewables to total electricity consumption, EU-27
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 RES electricity 390 396 421 447 406 414 458 465 489 525 567 (TWh) Share (% of total) 13.4 13.4 13.8 14.4 13.0 12.9 13.9 14.0 14.6 15.5 16.7
Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_105a, nrg_1071a and nrg_1072a)

Electricity generation from renewables in the EU-27 amounted to 567 TWh in 2008. Compared to 1998, RES electricity grew by 45 %. In terms of contribution of RES electricity to total electricity consumption the increase has been rather moderate, as the share grew from 13.4 % in 1998 to 16.7 % in 2008. In absolute terms, the Member States with the highest electricity generation from renewables were Germany (95 TWh), Sweden (82 TWh) and France (76 TWh). Sweden was also the country with the second highest share of renewables to total electricity consumption in 2008 (55.5 %). The highest share was observed in Austria (62 %).

Energy, transport and environment indicators

75

1

Energy Table 1.6.4: Biofuels production capacity (thousand tonnes per year)
Total EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey Biogasoline Biodiesel

2006 2007 2008 2006 2007 2008 2006 2007 2008 11 503 14 998 21 000 1 411 1 823 3 322 6 992 10 131 14 629 100 197 395 - 1 034 45 346 575 228 493 575 2 484 422 479 13 11 : : 576 422 785 13 17 10 : : 369 30 160 456 942 13 40 10 95 : : 195 395 402 677 14 14 70 28 120 77 : 166 346 575 665 198 333 575

6 984 7 966 8 955

875 3 500

4 390 5 080

824 1 367 2 182 1 156 2 132 3 429 1 500 1 917 2 589 27 14 81 28 120 77 : : 27 164 11 199 28 120 101 : : 14 158 190 200 530 28 120 275 : :

945 1 726 1 348 2 488 1 917 2 257 14 147 11 189 28 120 101 29 : 14 145 150 150 520 28 120 180 61 :

332 1 500

166 1 071 1 066

1 071 1 066

Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_114a)

Note: Except for biogasoline and biodiesel, other biofuels are also included in the total.

76

Energy, transport and environment indicators

France. the biofuel capacity in four Member States (Germany.6. Italy and Spain) made up 82 % of the EU-27 total.6.Energy Figure 1. EU-27 (thousand tonnes per year) Total Biogasoline Biodiesel 2005 4 480 882 3 598 2006 11 503 1 411 6 992 2007 14 998 1 823 10 131 2008 21 000 3 322 14 629 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_114a) From 2005 to 2008.4a: Biofuels production capacity. total EU-27 biofuels production capacity presented a fivefold increase. total biofuels capacity in the EU-27 was 21 000 thousand tonnes. In 2008. transport and environment indicators 77 . Energy. In 2008. EU-27 (thousand tonnes per year) 15 000 14 000 13 000 12 000 11 000 10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 1 Biogasoline Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_114a) Biodiesel Table 1. while biogasoline accounted for 16 %.4: Biofuels production capacity. Biodiesel accounted for 70 % of total capacity. Total capacity in Germany was 8 955 thousand tonnes (43 % of the EU-27 total).

2 5.5: Primary production of biofuels Share of biogasoline and biodiesel to total biofuels.6.1 Energy Table 1.4 37. 2008 (%) Biogasoline 18.7 16.0 100.0 100.3 87.0 100.0 79.8 59.0 86.0 58.4 85.0 44.2 25.5 100.6 100.0 72.0 70.0 25.0 55.7 78.4 10.7 Total (thousand tonnes) 2006 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 33 9 112 70 4 469 4 48 242 824 223 12 20 1 17 149 182 208 79 2 43 404 256 9 21 2007 183 4 109 70 7 187 18 92 522 1 390 202 21 40 1 23 139 326 141 184 22 5 70 543 441 14 4 14 2008 323 12 135 99 6 292 24 69 493 2 352 777 7 40 82 199 140 350 356 169 186 8 179 11 598 337 14 4 11 75 7 407 11 733 13 238 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_1073a) 78 Energy.0 100.7 31.0 62.0 5.3 Biodiesel 60.8 41.8 83.6 90.0 20.3 55.7 100.8 75.3 40.8 83.0 11.3 55.3 68.0 44.6 30.5 100.3 21.0 25.0 20.9 50. transport and environment indicators .

Biodiesel contributed about 60 % of the total production in 2008.6. EU-27 (thousand tonnes) 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 1 Biogasoline Other liquid biofuels Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_1073a) Biodiesel Table 1.5: Primary production of biofuels.6. 48 % of total EU-27 biofuel production came from Germany. In 2008. while biogasoline accounted for 18 %.Energy Figure 1. total primary production of biofuels in the EU-27 was 13 238 thousand tonnes. Energy. EU-27 (thousand tonnes) 2005 Total Biogasoline Biodiesel Other liquid biofuels 4 520 855 3 112 552 2006 7 407 1 302 5 347 758 2007 11 733 1 744 6 902 3 087 2008 13 238 2 377 7 992 2 869 Change 2005-08 193 % 178 % 157 % 419 % Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_1073a) In 2008.5a: Primary production of biofuels. transport and environment indicators 79 . a threefold increase since 2005. France was second with 18 % of the total.

14 0.05 0.83 : 0.07 0.43 : 0.47 1.83 4.12 : 2000 0.06 1.47 0.70 3.15 : 2005 1.68 0.16 : 0.77 4.13 0.84 0.00 0.69 0.6: Share of biofuels in fuel consumption of transport (%) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 0.91 0.56 0.03 0.38 0.37 0.52 1.04 0.54 0.20 0.58 0.15 0.72 4.13 0.24 1.21 0.72 : 0.19 1.24 0.16 1.39 : 0.09 2.17 2007 2.25 : 0.68 1.03 3.13 0.08 2.29 1.77 2.09 : 1.68 0.12 2.55 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a and nrg_1073a) 80 Energy.65 0.15 4.13 0.52 1.13 7.17 : 0.37 0.18 0.6.41 0.49 5.80 0. transport and environment indicators .50 1.34 0.80 5.13 0.49 0.09 6.12 2006 1.98 2.55 0.42 0.03 0.29 0.32 0.77 0.52 1.24 1.75 : 0.01 1.43 : 0.15 3.93 0.67 3.13 0.02 2.67 : 2.17 0.71 0.56 0.62 : 0.66 1.08 0.75 : 2.09 3.93 : 1.11 6.96 0.10 6.05 3.21 1.09 2008 3.83 0.36 3.80 0.1 Energy Table 1.13 : 0.04 0.61 0.20 1.53 : 0.82 1.52 0.20 1.36 2.78 0.

2008 (%) EU-27 Slovakia Germany Austria France Sweden Lithuania Hungary Poland Netherlands Romania Portugal Cyprus Italy United Kingdom Czech Republic Finland Spain Luxembourg Ireland Belgium Slovenia Greece Bulgaria Latvia Denmark 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a and nrg_1073a) Note: This indicator is defined as the percentage of biofuels. France and Austria. Austria (5. transport and environment indicators 81 .13 % and biofuels were used only in the Czech Republic. the use of biofuels in transport became gradually more widespread and its share has been growing at a faster pace. calculated on the basis of energy content. Energy. Germany.Energy Figure 1. the share was 0.8 percentage points each year. Germany (6. the highest shares of biofuel consumption in transport were observed in Slovakia (6. especially from 2005 to 2008 when the share has been growing by about 0. Among Member States. In the last decade.29 %.67 %) and France (5. Ten years ago. In 2008 the share of biofuels in fuel consumption of transport in the EU-27 was 3. in 2008. in the petrol and diesel consumption of transport.19 %).09 %).47 %).6: Share of biofuels in fuel consumption of transport.6.

9 102.4 114.36 3.59 9.68 2.3 98.5 99.29 5.44 4.02 3.5 100.6 94.87 5.43 6.4 113.2 99.75 3.1: Gross inland consumption per capita (toe per capita) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 3.58 5.9 103.3 110.8 97.89 3.79 2.58 7.86 3.1 117.67 2.0 101.06 4.0 102.49 4.49 2.7 101.63 1.23 3.6 135.9 109.1 2008 101.47 3.21 3.6 100.10 4.7 2003 103.3 110.04 3.66 2.7 107.4 107.62 7.79 2. transport and environment indicators .78 3.18 4.4 90.22 4.4 96.3 109.4 95.47 1.30 3.1 116.28 3.77 : 1.1 113.2 102.70 5.84 3.3 105.40 2.72 9.9 101.9 : 122.1 119.51 2.99 3.38 3.25 4.9 : 96.3 99.14 2008 3.63 4.85 5.57 : 6.2 106.4 105.49 5.7.5 100.62 5.89 3.42 Index (2000=100) 1998 100.7 92.0 93.95 2.62 2.4 101.7 : 108.44 3.47 1.8 107.4 100.00 3.1 109.89 11.4 105.29 1.2 91.4 108.99 : 1.7 128.0 100.5 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a and demo_pjan) 82 Energy.1 99.5 100.7 103.59 2.0 113.50 2.17 5.0 110.05 1.7 100.9 111.90 2.7 114.07 2.6 108.67 3.4 105.2 106.1 112.0 115.0 103.71 5.86 4.7 112.39 2.2 85.20 4.0 108.31 5.0 110.26 2.9 101.71 1.1 102.7 101.5 92.4 : 98.92 4.25 6.2 104.1 92.43 2.84 2.24 3.46 3.7 130.9 108.13 4.46 2.62 4.12 2003 3.85 3.78 2.5 98.8 104.04 2.7 99.9 128.99 3.02 2.3 119.2 111.0 102.9 110.8 101.1 Energy Table 1.7 104.67 2.68 1.59 2.35 1.7 106.49 2.85 3.29 1.2 99.5 100.95 9.1 99.6 106.84 4.72 3.0 101.34 3.3 111.3 95.9 105.84 3.

1a: Gross inland consumption per capita. EU-27 (toe per capita) EU-27 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 3.57 3. Apart from Luxembourg. 2008 (toe per capita) EU-27 Luxembourg Finland Belgium Sweden Netherlands Estonia Czech Republic France Germany Austria Slovenia Denmark Cyprus Ireland United Kingdom Slovakia Spain Italy Greece Lithuania Hungary Bulgaria Poland Portugal Malta Latvia Romania 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a and demo_pjan) Table 1. Finland.64 3. it grew by 1 % and reached 3.1: Gross inland consumption per capita. transport and environment indicators 83 . Sweden and Germany) experienced increases in GIC per capita in 2008.65 3.70 2007 2008 3.Energy Figure 1.4 toe per capita). Luxembourg. Between 1998 and 2008. all but five Member States (United Kingdom. Sweden and the Netherlands also recorded high levels of GIC per capita. Belgium. the differences among Member States have been significant. On the contrary.7.72 3.70 3. Denmark. which were above the EU-27 average by at least 40 % in 2008. GIC per capita in Romania was almost half the EU-27 average.62 toe per capita.63 3. Compared to 1998. Belgium. which presented the highest gross inland consumption (9. high increases were also observed in Slovenia (19 %) and Greece (14 %).62 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a and demo_pjan) Gross inland consumption (GIC) per capita in the EU-27 has only presented slight changes over the last ten years. However.73 3.58 3. Energy.7. In 2008.55 3. also experienced the highest increase since 1998 (21 %).

2 105.2 103.6 88.6 109.1 121.0 95. transport and environment indicators .9 107.9 107.3 95.8 106.3 127.3 97.0 118.6 112.6 : 96.7 96.8 95.1 102.7 107.5 120.4 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a and demo_pjan) 84 Energy.2 111.0 128.8 101.2 91.4 96.4 100.5 111.4 101.7.0 113.0 105.5 119.8 106.4 93.1 110.9 157.2 117.0 117.2 135.5 106.7 110.4 2008 110.6 92.5 89.4 96.0 112.0 100.0 98.9 95.9 114.8 96.9 92.4 99.6 105.5 108.6 2003 105.4 99.5 103.5 81.2 121.9 98.3 95.9 127.7 103.5 106.4 112.5 89.8 144.9 105.4 107.9 109.1 Energy Table 1.5 95.2 152.6 106.5 130.7 93.2 116.8 106.4 96.8 99.9 98.1 103.2 101.6 96.6 124.5 101.8 138.5 108.6 108.1 104.1 108.3 110.7 100.9 88.8 105.2 113.3 156.4 98.2: Final electricity consumption per capita (kWh per capita) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 4 992 7 256 3 122 4 742 6 052 5 684 3 675 4 792 3 637 4 167 6 126 4 477 3 873 1 843 1 889 12 539 2 818 3 724 5 913 6 129 2 508 3 348 1 623 5 083 3 902 14 144 14 291 5 406 20 196 24 774 6 994 2 439 2 727 1 327 2003 5 483 7 694 3 200 5 133 6 013 6 166 4 110 5 811 4 415 5 280 6 599 5 076 5 097 2 222 2 063 13 384 3 096 4 573 6 202 6 757 2 638 4 147 1 721 6 038 4 273 15 530 14 478 5 657 26 141 22 660 7 537 2 909 2 815 1 582 2008 5 738 7 747 3 748 5 587 6 095 6 392 5 214 6 061 5 051 5 860 6 772 5 180 5 871 2 910 2 679 13 547 3 417 4 509 6 653 7 141 3 082 4 554 1 940 6 370 4 585 15 586 14 010 5 583 : 23 531 7 734 3 632 3 372 2 256 Index (2000=100) 1998 95.9 111.9 90.3 98.

7. Estonia (42 %).8 %.4 times above the average. the average annual growth rate was 1. Cyprus (52 %). The highest final electricity consumptions per capita were recorded in Finland.7. From 1998 to 2006. However. In the last decade these three countries have maintained remarkably high levels of consumption. from 2006 EU-27 final energy consumption per capita remained relatively stable at 5 738 kWh per capita in 2008.2a: Final electricity consumption per capita. transport and environment indicators 85 . 2008 (kWh per capita) EU-27 Finland Sweden Luxembourg Belgium Austria France Netherlands Germany Slovenia Denmark Ireland Cyprus Spain Czech Republic United Kingdom Estonia Italy Greece Slovakia Portugal Malta Bulgaria Hungary Poland Latvia Lithuania Romania 1 0 4 000 8 000 12 000 16 000 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a and demo_pjan) Table 1. Lithuania (42 %) and Spain (41 %). All Member States but Sweden increased their consumption between 1998 and 2008.Energy Figure 1.2: Final electricity consumption per capita. In 2008. Energy. The most considerable increases were observed in Latvia (58 %). the consumption in Finland was 2. EU-27 (kWh per capita) EU-27 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 4 992 5 068 5 213 5 358 5 365 5 483 5 572 5 625 5 725 2007 2008 5 741 5 738 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a and demo_pjan) EU-27 final electricity consumption per capita grew by 15 % over the last ten years. Sweden and Luxembourg.7 times above the EU average. while the consumption in Sweden and Luxembourg was 2.

1 : 8.5 0.0 1.4 : 1.4 18.3 : 0.2 6.3 0.0 6.9 2.5 2.1 : 0.2 3.8 2.2 5.6 10.2 1.7 : 3.3 : 0.7 3.2 5.1 : 15.4 11.0 0.6 0.3 1.0 12.3 1.5 9.9 9.5 14.1 0.3 3.8 6.2 0.9 8.1 0.8 1.8 2.1 12.2 0.9 15.2 1.8 16.9 10.8 12.8 0.9 1.2 18.0 3.8 : 0.4 0.1 Energy Table 1.3 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_pc_204 and nrg_pc_205) 86 Energy.3 9.5 11.5 2.9 1.8 8.5 0.9 2.1 0.8 13.6 : 1.7 0.2 2.5 19.3 18.1 0.8.8 0.1 1.1 2.5 1.9 7.3 16.6 Electricity prices in industry (EUR/100 KWh) Price excluding Non recoverable all recoverable taxes taxes EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia FYR of Macedonia Turkey 10.3 0.6 12.0 15.4 10.4 8.6 1.2 : 1.3 6.9 16.1 9.1 : 9.4 0. 2nd semester 2009 Electricity prices in households (EUR/100 KWh) Real price Taxes All taxes included VAT Other taxes EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia FYR of Macedonia Turkey 16.0 : 7.5 22.2 9.2 2.0 16.1 0.1 1.9 9.0 0.6 14.6 2.1 0.1 18.4 0.4 11.7 0.3 11.1 3.7 1.8 2.3 1.2 13.1 6.1 : 2.6 : 11.9 25.1 0.9 11.3 20.3 0.7 1.7 1.7 0.5 0.6 13.6 13.3 : 0.0 : 9.6 : 11.9 0.1: Electricity prices in households and industry.7 14.3 9.4 15.2 0.7 0.8 9.1 : 0.2 11.6 : 0.6 2.9 11.3 2. transport and environment indicators .

The data presented here follow this new methodology.8. Energy. the Commission adopted a modernized methodology for these price data collections. Due to the liberalisation of the electricity market. Industry Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_pc_204 and nrg_pc_205) Note: Table and graph prices refer to the following consumer bands: Households: band Dc (annual consumption between 2 500 and 5 000 kWh) Industry: band Ic (annual consumption between 500 and 2 000 MWh). transport and environment indicators 87 . In June 2007. the methodology that defines the collection of the electricity prices became outdated.Energy Figure 1. 2nd semester 2009 (EUR/100 KWh) EU-27 Denmark Germany Italy Austria (1) Luxembourg Belgium Ireland Netherlands Spain Sweden Cyprus Hungary Portugal Slovakia Malta United Kingdom Czech Republic Slovenia Poland Finland France Latvia Greece Romania Lithuania Estonia Bulgaria 1 0 (1) 5 10 15 20 25 30 Households Industry data: 2nd semester 2008 instead of 2nd semester 2009.1: Electricity prices in households and industry. The legal basis for the collection of industrial gas and electricity prices is defined by Council Directive 90/377/EEC. The collection of prices for household consumers is done on a voluntary agreement with the Member States.

6 8.2 18.1 26.6 2.3 Natural gas prices in industry (EUR/GJ) Price excluding Non recoverable all recoverable taxes taxes EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Spain France Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia FYR of Macedonia Turkey 8.1 15.5 11.1 : : : : 0.8 0. 2nd semester 2009 Natural gas prices in households (EUR/GJ) Real price Taxes All taxes included VAT Other taxes EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Spain France Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia FYR of Macedonia Turkey 14.4 0.1 5.0 7.4 7.7 0.2 8.2 12.6 10.1 : 8.5 7.3 7.7 : 1.6 1.8 2.3 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_pc_202 and nrg_pc_203) 88 Energy.4 7.5 1.0 2.8 : : : 9.6 13.8 10.7 13.7 1.9 1.1 Energy Table 1.1 0.8 16.4 2.4 0.4 10.9 8.7 7.3 8.3 9.2 2.2 0.5 15.9 16.0 1.5 2.8 7.4 0.6 6.1 0.7 0.3 0.5 6.6 : 2.6 0.3 : : : : 0.0 2.8 7.4 : 6.4 : 8.0 12.1 2.3 1.6 9.9 11.6 3.3 0.2 0.8 10.3 12.0 13.4 2.2: Natural gas prices in households and industry.8. transport and environment indicators .8 1.5 8.1 2.2 5.2 0.1 1.3 1.8 13.6 1.5 1.1 0.4 8.6 : : : 1.5 2.1 : 5.0 1.8 : : : 7.3 2.2 14.8 : 6.8 16.3 14.7 17.3 0.9 2.0 7.7 0.6 5.2 : 26.8 5.9 9.7 14.7 0.1 1.9 2.

2nd semester 2009 (EUR/GJ) EU-27 Sweden Denmark Netherlands Austria (1) Portugal Germany France Ireland Slovenia Spain Italy Belgium Hungary Slovakia Czech Republic Luxembourg Poland United Kingdom Lithuania Latvia Estonia Bulgaria Romania Finland (2) 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Households (1) (2) Industry Natural gas prices in industry not available. Energy.Energy Figure 1.2: Natural gas prices in households and industry. Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_pc_202 and nrg_pc_203) Note: Table and graph prices refer to the following consumer bands: Households: band D2 (annual consumption between 20 and 200 GJ) Industry: band I3 (annual consumption between 10 000 and 100 000 GJ). In June 2007. the methodology that defines the collection of the electricity prices became outdated. The collection of prices for household consumers is done on a voluntary agreement with the Member States. the Commission adopted a modernized methodology for these price data collections. The legal basis for the collection of industrial gas and electricity prices is defined by Council Directive 90/377/EEC. Due to the liberalisation of the electricity market. Natural gas prices in households not available.8. transport and environment indicators 89 . The data presented here follow this new methodology.

.

Transport indicators .

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Source: Eurostat (online data codes: road_eqs_carmot and demo_pjan). transport and environment indicators .2 Transport Table 2.1: Motorisation rate of passenger cars (number of passenger cars/1 000 inhabitants) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia (1) Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 466 294 363 : 545 320 387 349 449 478 : 424 278 363 654 274 : 427 500 294 : : 446 252 437 456 453 579 695 : 513 289 : : 2004 : 469 313 374 : 550 349 393 : 461 480 587 459 296 382 657 280 : 430 505 314 : 149 456 222 450 458 465 602 698 432 518 299 : : 2005 : 471 327 387 : 559 366 404 : 471 480 593 474 322 425 666 286 : 435 507 323 : : : 242 464 461 471 637 : 440 521 309 124 : 2006 : 473 229 401 457 565 412 : : 481 481 601 487 358 468 672 319 : 443 509 351 : 149 489 247 477 464 461 : 696 449 : 321 : : 2007 : 477 271 416 : 500 390 437 : 489 483 603 528 397 469 676 324 : 452 513 383 : 164 504 266 487 467 464 : 693 460 : 340 122 : 2008 : 481 310 426 : 503 412 : : 489 : : 563 411 496 678 : : 460 515 422 : 187 520 286 509 466 464 : 720 464 : 350 : : (1) A cleaned up database has been use in 2007. national statistics 92 Energy.1.

(5) 2004 data instead of 2003. except for Belgium: 1 August. Austria. Switzerland: 30 September and Liechtenstein: 1 July. The highest increases were observed in Eastern Europe. five more Member States (Cyprus. In the case of Bulgaria. because vehicles had to get new number plates until end-2006.1: Motorisation rate of passenger cars (number of passenger cars/1 000 inhabitants) EU-27 N/A Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark (1) Germany Estonia Ireland (2) Greece (3) Spain France (2) Italy (4) Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary (2) Malta N/A Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal N/A Romania (5) Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom 2 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 2003 (1) 2006 data instead of 2008. Among the EU-27 countries. (2) 2007 data instead of 2008. a 48 % increase. with less than one car per five inhabitants. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.Transport Figure 2. From 2003 to 2008. The lowest rate was observed in Romania (187). new more reliable data from 2006. Poland followed with a 43 % increase and a motorisation rate of 422 in 2008 compared to 294 in 2003. (4) 2007 data instead of 2008 and 2004 data instead of 2003. Energy. Slovenia. national statistics Note: The numbers that have been used represent the stock at the end of the year. Those which hadn't done so have been removed from the database. 2008 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: road_eqs_carmot and demo_pjan). Finland and Germany) had rates over 500 — at least one car per two inhabitants. all Member States but Germany increased their motorisation rates. (3) 2008 data not available.1. the highest motorisation rates were observed in Luxembourg (678 passenger cars/1 000 inhabitants in 2008) and Italy (603 in 2007). transport and environment indicators 93 . 2003 data not available. In Latvia the number of passenger cars per 1 000 inhabitants grew from 278 to 411. In 2008.

(4) 2004 data instead of 2003. In total: Other fuels than petrol and diesel not included. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Common Questionnaire on inland transport 94 Energy.1. (6) Total: Including Åland. by fuel type (thousand passenger cars) Total 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland (1) Greece Spain France (2) Italy (3) Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary (1) Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania (4) Slovenia (5) Slovakia Finland (6) Sweden United Kingdom (7) Iceland (8) Liechtenstein Norway (4) Switzerland (8) Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1) Turkey : 4 821 2 309 3 706 : 45 023 434 1 532 3 840 18 688 29 560 33 973 303 649 1 257 293 2 777 : 6 909 4 054 11 244 : 3 225 980 1 356 2 275 4 075 26 953 167 24 1 978 3 754 1 282 : : 2008 : 5 131 2 366 4 423 : 41 321 552 1 883 : 22 145 30 700 35 680 444 933 1 671 328 3 262 : 7 542 4 285 16 080 : 4 027 1 045 1 545 2 700 4 279 28 390 187 25 2 197 3 864 1 551 249 : Petrol 2003 : 2 557 : 3 124 : 36 702 381 1 303 : 12 096 16 831 24 100 269 558 : 176 2 418 : 5 625 2 169 9 506 : : 741 : 1 995 3 878 21 805 148 21 1 721 3 491 947 : : 2008 Diesel 2003 : 2 903 : 1 008 : 10 290 128 338 : 10 797 15 924 12 065 40 227 : 196 550 : 1 277 2 323 2 906 : 1 125 313 : 447 417 7 227 24 5 598 380 525 47 : Other : : 90 67 : : 6 5 : : 27 : 25 3 : : 3 : : 1 301 1 435 1 0 0 : : 1 15 6 : : 262 253 4 730 2 639 : : : 1 2 2 : : 16 : 1 2 : 99 0 2 2 1 : 39 : : 11 : 2008 2003 2008 : : 2 161 2 174 : : 3 410 576 : : 30 639 8 294 424 54 1 542 204 : : 11 345 6 592 14 778 12 729 22 180 8 572 403 34 706 91 : : 131 117 2 706 344 : : 6 012 1 022 1 958 1 885 10 535 1 008 : : 2 901 : 730 237 : : 2 236 264 3 860 196 21 064 4 400 163 19 20 2 1 597 255 : 262 987 335 191 : : : (1) 2007 data instead of 2008. (7) 2008 data: Great Britain only. International Transport Forum. (8) 2005 data instead of 2008.2 Transport Table 2. transport and environment indicators . Source: Eurostat (online data code: road_eqs_carmot). (5) 2006 data instead of 2003.2: Passenger cars. Petrol and diesel: Excluding Åland. (3) 2007 data instead of 2008 and 2004 data instead of 2003. (2) 2007 data instead of 2008.

over half of the passenger cars were petrol-driven. Great Britain only. the share of petrol-driven cars ranged from 40 % in Luxembourg to 91 % and 90 % in Cyprus and Sweden respectively.Transport Figure 2. by fuel type. transport and environment indicators 95 . At country level. Austria (54 %) and France (52 % in 2007). last year available (%) EU-27 Belgium 2008 Bulgaria Czech Republic 2008 Denmark Germany 2008 Estonia 2008 Ireland 2007 Greece Spain 2008 France 2007 (1) Italy 2007 Cyprus 2008 Latvia 2008 Lithuania Luxembourg 2008 Hungary 2007 Malta Netherlands 2008 Austria 2008 Poland 2008 Portugal Romania 2008 Slovenia 2008 Slovakia Finland 2008 (2) Sweden 2008 United Kingdom 2008 (3) N/A N/A N/A 2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0% 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % Petrol (1) (2) (3) Diesel Other Other fuels than petrol and diesel not included.2: Share of passenger cars. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Common Questionnaire on inland transport In 16 out of the 20 Member States for which data were available. in 2008. Diesel-driven cars accounted for over half of the total in Luxembourg (60 %). Source: Eurostat (online data code: road_eqs_carmot). Excluding Åland. International Transport Forum.1. Energy. Belgium (57 %).

9 8.0 6.3 6.6 6.9 6.4 : 7.0 7.9 7.0 : 4.3 7.1 7.9 5.5 6.2 6.8 3.6 16.7 10.2 : 7.2 3.2 3.6 6.2 : 11.5 16.9 9. transport and environment indicators .6 8.6 : 10.8 : : 6.0 11.8 : 9.5 : : 7.7 : 12. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.9 : 3.0 : : 2007 : 10.3 2.4 : 6.2 6.3 : : : : : : 10.5 9.5 6.0 6.9 : : : 6.9 : 9.1.0 7.7 : 13.7 : 6.3 6.8 11.2 5.8 : 8.7 7.4 11.8 13.1 6.7 : 6.0 : 14.5 : : 6.1 4.6 9.9 7.8 : 7. Association des Constructeurs Européens d'Automobiles.2 : 7.4 11.8 5.3 7.2 : 7.2 10.5 4.4 : 7.9 9.1 : : 2004 : 10.5 : : 2005 : 9.6 8.6 : 7.6 : : 7.9 6.6 5.1 : 6.8 : 2008 : 10.2 : 7.4 10.2 7.9 11.8 9.8 7.2 : 6.9 4.2 3.2 4.8 7.8 6.7 : : : 2006 : 10.8 9.3 : 6.3: Renewal rate of passenger cars (passenger cars first registration/total passenger cars — %) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 9. national statistics 96 Energy.7 : 12.2 : 6.1 : 5.5 : : 5.4 4.5 7.4 : : 6.3 6.6 : 7.2 8.4 : : 11.2 Transport Table 2.1 8.9 7.2 : : Source: Eurostat (online data codes: road_eqr_carm and road_eqs_carmot).6 : 7.9 : : : : : 7.6 5.4 7.6 6.5 16.5 14.2 3.0 7.9 3.7 10.6 7.9 : 7.1 7.4 2.5 : 8.0 : 7.9 15.2 8.0 : : : 6.7 6.2 9.

Transport Figure 2.1.3: Renewal rate of passenger cars (passenger cars first registration/total passenger cars — %)
EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark (1) Germany Estonia Ireland (2) Greece (3) Spain (4) France (2) Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg (4) Hungary (2) Malta Netherlands (2) Austria Poland Portugal Romania (5) Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom N/A

2

N/A

N/A

N/A

0
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

2003
2006 data instead of 2008. 2003 data not available. 2007 data instead of 2008. 2008 data not available. 2006 data instead of 2003. 2004 data instead of 2003.

2008

Source: Eurostat (online data codes: road_eqr_carm and road_eqs_carmot), Association des Constructeurs Européens d'Automobiles, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, national statistics

In 2008, the renewal rate of passenger cars — the ratio of first registered to total passenger cars — varied between 3.2 % in the Czech Republic and 16.0 % in Luxembourg. Besides Luxembourg, there was at least one new car in every ten in Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus, Lithuania and Belgium. Similarly to the motorisation rate, high increases in the renewal rate were observed in Eastern European countries. In Poland the share of first registered passenger cars grew from 2.4 % in 2003 to 8.0 % in 2008. Romania's renewal rate was 14.6 % in 2008 compared to 4.6 % in 2004 and in Bulgaria it increased from 6.2 % (2003) to 14.9 % in 2008. Half of the Member States presented lower renewal rates in 2008 compared to 2003.

Energy, transport and environment indicators

97

2

Transport Table 2.1.4: Motorisation rate of lorries and road tractors (number of lorries and road tractors/1 000 inhabitants)
2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia (1) Ireland (2) Greece Spain (3) France Italy (2) Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom (4) Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 58 37 36 : 34 62 63 102 101 90 : 167 45 32 62 39 : 62 43 61 : : 27 34 64 47 52 74 76 : 40 33 : : 2004 : 60 41 39 : 33 63 67 : 104 90 69 161 46 34 62 39 : 64 43 63 : 22 28 32 69 49 61 79 76 98 40 35 : : 2005 : 62 43 43 : 34 64 : : 108 90 71 158 49 36 64 41 : 62 44 60 : : : : 73 51 62 87 : 101 41 36 9 : 2006 : 64 29 48 92 34 69 : : 117 90 74 151 53 40 66 46 : 61 44 63 : 21 35 39 73 53 59 : 72 105 : 37 : : 2007 : 65 34 54 : 30 60 80 : 120 92 75 151 57 44 68 47 : 62 45 66 : 23 39 44 76 55 61 : 73 110 : 37 8 : 2008 : 67 39 59 : 31 62 : : 119 : : 154 57 45 71 : : 63 46 71 : 30 42 50 82 56 61 : 76 110 : 38 : :

(1) Data from 2003 to 2007 only include lorries. (2) Data only include lorries. (3) Data from 2003 to 2005 only include lorries. (4) 2003 data only include lorries.

Source: Eurostat (online data codes: road_eqs_lormot, road_eqs_roaene and demo_pjan), United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, national statistics

98

Energy, transport and environment indicators

Transport Figure 2.1.4: Motorisation rate of lorries and road tractors (number of lorries and road tractors/1 000 inhabitants)
EU-27 N/A Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark (1) Germany Estonia (2) Ireland (3) Greece (4) Spain (2) France (5) Italy (6) Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary (5) Malta N/A Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal N/A Romania (7) Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom (2)

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

2003

2008

(1) 2006 data instead of 2008. 2003 data not available. (2) 2003 data only include lorries. (3) 2007 data instead of 2008; data only include lorries. (4) 2008 data not available. (5) 2007 data instead of 2008. (6) 2004 data instead of 2003 and 2007 data instead of 2008; data only include lorries. (7) 2004 data instead of 2003.

Source: Eurostat (online data codes: road_eqs_lormot, road_eqs_roaene and demo_pjan), United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, national statistics

Note: The stock at the end of the year has been used except for Belgium: 1 August, Switzerland: 30 September and Liechtenstein: 1 July. As a rule, data include heavy and light goods vehicles, lorries and road tractors. Due to varying concepts of such vehicles, data are not fully comparable between countries. In the case of Bulgaria, new more reliable data from 2006, because vehicles had to get new number plates until end-2006. Those which hadn't done so have been removed from the database.

Over the past six years, the motorisation rate of lorries and road tractors recorded an increase in most Member States. The only exceptions were Germany and Cyprus with an 8 % decrease. In spite of this decrease, Cyprus had the highest rate in 2008 (154 lorries and road tractors per 1 000 inhabitants), 29 % higher than the rate of Spain (119). In contrast, the motorisation rates in Romania, Germany and Bulgaria were the lowest (30, 31 and 39 respectively). From 2003 to 2008, the highest increases were recorded in the Czech Republic (63 %) and Slovenia (54 %).

Energy, transport and environment indicators

99

2

Transport Table 2.1.5: Renewal rate of lorries and road tractors (lorries and road tractors first registration/total lorries and road tractors — %)
2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia (1) Ireland (2) Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania (3) Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 10.1 5.3 6.3 : 8.2 3.4 12.2 4.3 : 7.6 : 4.2 5.6 8.5 : 6.7 : 8.9 9.7 8.2 : : 8.8 8.8 5.7 8.3 : 7.9 5.8 : 7.2 10.1 : : 2004 : 10.4 6.1 8.5 : 8.9 3.5 11.6 : : 8.1 : 4.1 6.7 10.9 : 6.1 : 9.7 10.9 6.2 : 5.3 9.6 9.4 6.2 8.6 11.1 10.6 8.1 8.7 7.5 8.5 : : 2005 : 11.0 6.7 10.2 : 9.2 4.4 : : : 8.4 : 4.0 7.9 13.0 : 4.8 : 7.9 10.3 6.1 : : : : 5.2 9.2 10.8 14.0 : 9.7 7.7 8.1 3.3 : 2006 : 10.2 10.9 11.1 10.6 9.7 5.6 : : 8.2 8.7 : 4.9 9.7 13.3 13.8 4.6 : 8.4 10.4 5.3 : 11.8 10.9 : 5.5 9.7 10.7 : 8.5 10.8 : 8.5 : : 2007 : 11.2 14.2 12.6 : 12.6 7.9 13.3 : 7.8 8.8 : 6.1 10.6 15.6 15.2 5.0 : 9.5 10.9 6.8 : 13.6 11.8 14.3 5.5 10.4 10.4 : 6.5 10.7 : 8.4 4.4 : 2008 : 10.8 14.5 9.7 : 12.4 5.1 : : 4.4 : : 7.1 5.5 10.7 16.2 : : : 10.8 6.6 : 10.7 11.3 12.9 5.0 9.2 9.2 : 9.9 8.4 : 7.8 : :

(1) Data from 2003 to 2007 only include lorries. (2) Data only include lorries. (3) 2008 data for first registration and data for the total only include lorries.

Source: Eurostat (online data codes: road_eqr_lorrin, road_eqr_tracm, road_eqs_lormot and road_eqs_roaene), DG for Mobility and Transport, Association des Constructeurs Européens d'Automobiles, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, national statistics

100

Energy, transport and environment indicators

Association des Constructeurs Européens d'Automobiles. Source: Eurostat (online data codes: road_eqr_lorrin. data only include lorries.5 % in 2008) and Ireland (13. Energy. On the other hand. followed by a twofold increase in Romania.3 % in 2007). Between 2003 and 2008.5: Renewal rate of lorries and road tractors (lorries and road tractors first registration/total lorries and road tractors — %) EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark (1) Germany Estonia (2) Ireland (3) Greece (4) Spain (5) France (6) Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg (5) Hungary (6) Malta Netherlands (5) Austria Poland Portugal Romania (7) Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom (8) N/A 2 N/A N/A N/A 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 2003 (1) 2006 data instead of 2008. (2) 2003 data only include lorries.4 %). United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. (8) 2004 data instead of 2003. the rate of Bulgaria showed an almost threefold increase. road_eqs_lormot and road_eqs_roaene).2 % in 2008). (4) 2008 data not available. the motorisation rate almost halved in Spain from 2006 to 2008. In contrast.1.Transport Figure 2. DG for Mobility and Transport. transport and environment indicators 101 . national statistics In the latest year available. (3) 2007 data instead of 2008. Spain had the lowest rate in 2008 (4. road_eqr_tracm. The highest rates were reported by Luxembourg (16. 2008 data for first registration and data for the total only include lorries. 11 Member States reported renewal rates of lorries and road tractors over 10 %. 2008 (7) 2004 data instead of 2003. 2003 data not avaialable. Bulgaria (14. (5) 2006 data instead of 2003. (6) 2007 data instead of 2008.

1.2 Transport Table 2.6: Airfleet by operator country (number of commercial aircrafts) 2004 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : : : 75 : : 25 146 : : : : 11 46 26 : 40 : : : : 90 : 11 36 49 : : : : : : : : : 2005 : : 97 67 : : 28 186 : : : : 18 31 28 : 57 : : : : 177 : 12 33 88 : : : : : : : : : 2006 : : 128 78 : : 26 223 : : : : 20 46 26 : 69 : : : : : : 19 22 : : : : : : : : : : 2007 6 374 183 102 87 152 1 061 20 267 95 618 583 492 16 51 41 91 67 21 230 306 98 240 58 28 25 106 160 1 176 137 : 115 288 : : 229 2008 : 187 : 95 133 1 114 23 286 : 571 607 507 17 54 36 : 73 28 245 367 94 280 67 33 37 116 167 1 202 140 : 120 316 24 : 273 Source: Airclaims. transport and environment indicators . also available at Eurostat (online data code: avia_eq_arc_typ) 102 Energy.

transport and environment indicators 103 . the airfleet of Portugal and Slovenia showed a threefold increase. while in Finland and Ireland the increase was about twofold. 367 Italy. the five largest Member States also reported the largest numbers of commercial aircraft.6: Airfleet by operator country. Energy. the United Kingdom accounted for 18 % and Germany for 17 %. 607 (1) Other countries exclude Bulgaria. The smallest airfleet were found in Cyprus (17) and Estonia (23). Over the last five years (2004-2008). Source: Airclaims. In 2008. 245 Portugal.Transport Figure 2. In terms of shares of the EU-27 total. In the United Kingdom the airfleet was 1 202.1. also available at Eurostat (online data code: avia_eq_arc_typ) Note: All military aircrafts excluded. EU-27 2008 top ten (number of commercial aircrafts) 2 Other countries (1). Germany followed with 1 114. in 2007. 187 Netherlands. 507 Spain. 286 Austria. 1 202 Belgium. 280 Germany. 571 France. 1 114 Ireland. Greece and Luxembourg for which 2008 data are not available. 973 United Kingdom.

by type of vehicle (million vehicle-kilometres) Passenger cars 2005 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark (1) Germany (2) Estonia Ireland (2) Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania (2) Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway (2) Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : : : : : : 6 373 : : : : : : 7 979 : : : : 96 930 : : : : : : : 63 188 397 191 : : : : 17 520 : : 2008 : : : : 34 704 584 600 7 681 32 741 : : 412 933 : 3 926 9 946 18 995 : 27 180 : 101 685 : 144 877 : 34 887 15 170 : 45 285 63 658 401 749 : : 32 714 : 19 456 : : Goods road vehicles 2005 : : : : : : 1 485 : : : : : : 1 937 : : : : 24 760 : : : : : : : : 91 600 : : : : 1 960 : : 2008 : : : : 10 235 82 900 1 486 7 745 : : 126 494 : 2 276 2 674 2 059 : 11 451 : 25 358 : 29 743 : 10 569 1 996 : 7 115 : 96 832 : : 9 626 : 1 946 : : Buses and coaches 2005 : : : : : : 203 : : : : : : 252 : : : : : : : : : : : : 876 5 174 : : : : 335 : : 2008 : : : : 629 3 295 184 276 : : 3 268 : 138 277 309 : 663 : : : 2 703 : 1 592 143 : 580 852 5 184 : : 694 : 306 : : (1) Data represent road traffic of national vehicles on national territory. (2) Data represent road traffic of national vehicles on all territories.1: Road traffic volumes on national territory.2 Transport Table 2. Source: Eurostat (online data code: road_tf_veh). United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Common Questionnaire and Pilot Questionnaire 104 Energy. transport and environment indicators .2. International Transport Forum.

Transport Figure 2.2.1: Share of road traffic volumes on national territory, by type of vehicle, 2008 (%)
EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark (1) Germany (2) Estonia Ireland (2) Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania (2) Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom : : : :

2

: : :

: : : :

:

0%

20 %

40 %

60 %

80 %

100 %

Passenger cars
(1) (2)

Goods road vehicles

Buses and coaches

Data represent road traffic of national vehicles on national territory. Data represent road traffic of national vehicles on all territories.

Source: Eurostat (online data code: road_tf_veh), International Transport Forum, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Common Questionnaire and Pilot Questionnaire

Road traffic volumes were dominated by passenger cars. In all countries over 60 % of the total road traffic was conducted by passenger cars in 2008. The volumes of traffic by goods road vehicles fluctuated between a 10 % share of the total in Lithuania and a 36 % share in Cyprus. The shares of buses and coaches were significantly lower; the highest was recorded in Romania (3 %). In absolute values, the highest volumes of road traffic were recorded in the largest countries. Transport by passenger cars was 585 billion vehicle-kilometres in Germany, 413 in France and 402 in the United Kingdom. Similarly, transport by goods vehicles equaled 126 billion vehicle-kilometres in France, 97 in the United Kingdom and 83 in Germany; while transport by buses and coaches amounted to 5 billion vehicle-kilometres in the United Kingdom, 3 in Germany and 3 in France.

Energy, transport and environment indicators

105

2

Transport Table 2.3.1: Index of inland freight transport volume relative to GDP (inland freight transport volume measured in tonne-km/GDP in chain-linked volumes at 2000 exchange rates, 2000=100)
2000 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 : 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 : 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 : 100.0 100.0 : 100.0 100.0 2005 105.4 84.9 128.0 88.5 91.1 106.1 87.0 109.3 : 130.1 87.2 108.2 96.6 105.0 116.8 92.2 105.1 : 98.7 98.5 108.9 148.6 174.2 128.7 93.7 86.7 95.3 91.3 113.1 : 105.9 97.2 110.9 141.5 82.2 2006 106.0 82.5 118.3 94.0 80.7 109.7 76.7 100.6 : 129.4 87.6 95.5 77.6 91.6 118.5 88.2 118.4 : 95.2 102.2 115.2 153.8 171.4 132.0 86.9 81.4 94.4 93.3 119.2 : 109.9 97.7 117.3 198.5 81.7 2007 106.5 80.0 116.6 86.2 77.9 111.7 66.5 102.9 : 133.1 88.7 91.2 76.1 95.2 120.5 87.7 132.4 : 91.4 97.7 121.6 155.9 165.6 138.4 92.0 76.7 94.4 90.2 : : 107.6 93.0 116.0 141.2 79.8 2008 104.0 72.8 120.7 86.6 73.8 110.0 61.8 97.0 : 123.9 83.4 92.0 80.0 101.0 119.0 96.1 131.1 : 89.1 91.4 122.5 133.0 148.5 152.5 90.9 76.4 97.1 87.0 : : 111.9 92.4 121.4 : :

EU-27 (1) Belgium Bulgaria (2) Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary (2) Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia (2) Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland (3) Croatia (4) The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey (5)
Greece and Malta.

(1) EU aggregates include estimates done for missing data on road freight transport of (2) Break in series in 2000. (3) Road transport data cover only the haulage by CH vehicles on CH territory; Data taken

from DG for Mobility and Transport.
(4) 2002=100. (5) In the case of road transport only national transport data have been used.

Source: Eurostat (online data code: tsien060), DG for Mobility and Transport, International Transport Forum, national statistics, estimates

106

Energy, transport and environment indicators

Transport Figure 2.3.1: Index of inland freight transport volume relative to GDP, 2008 (2000=100)
EU-27 Slovenia Romania Portugal Hungary Spain Poland Bulgaria Lithuania Germany Latvia Sweden Ireland Luxembourg Italy Austria Slovakia Netherlands United Kingdom Czech Republic France Cyprus Finland Denmark Belgium Estonia

2

0

40

80

120

160

Source: Eurostat (online data code: tsien060), DG for Mobility and Transport, International Transport Forum, national statistics, estimates

Note: This indicator includes transport by road, rail and inland waterways. Rail and inland waterways transport are based on movements on national territory, regardless of the nationality of the vehicle or vessel. Road transport is based on all movements of vehicles registered in the reporting country and covers only the haulage of heavy goods vehicles (usually>3.5 tonnes load capacity).

In 2008, the EU-27 index of inland freight transport relative to GDP was 104. The highest indices were observed in Slovenia and Romania, followed by Portugal and Hungary. On the contrary, the indices were low in Estonia, Belgium, Denmark, Finland and Cyprus. Between 2005 and 2008, 18 Member States reported a decrease in their index. The most considerable decreases were recorded in three of the countries with the lowest indices: Estonia (- 29 %), Denmark (- 19 %) and Cyprus (- 17 %).

Energy, transport and environment indicators

107

2

Transport Table 2.3.2: Index of inland freight transport growth (total transport of rail, road and inland waterways in tonne-km, 2000=100)
2000 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 : 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 : 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 : 100.0 100.0 : 100.0 100.0 2005 115.3 91.8 165.6 106.3 96.9 109.3 127.4 142.7 : 152.7 94.7 113.0 113.3 155.7 170.0 110.0 129.4 : 105.4 106.6 126.7 155.2 230.0 154.3 119.1 98.7 108.1 103.3 139.6 : 118.2 103.7 126.5 151.8 102.7 2006 119.7 91.8 162.8 120.6 88.8 116.6 123.5 138.3 : 158.1 97.3 101.8 94.7 152.4 185.9 111.1 151.5 : 105.1 114.5 142.4 162.9 244.1 167.3 119.8 96.8 111.6 108.6 153.4 : 125.4 108.0 140.0 221.3 109.1 2007 123.6 91.5 170.4 117.5 87.2 121.6 114.9 150.0 : 168.4 100.8 98.6 97.7 174.1 207.7 117.6 171.0 : 104.5 113.3 160.5 168.1 250.9 187.3 140.2 95.6 114.5 107.7 : : 126.2 106.6 146.1 166.8 111.5 2008 121.9 84.1 186.9 120.9 81.9 121.3 102.9 137.1 : 158.1 95.1 98.2 106.3 176.4 210.8 128.9 170.4 : 104.0 108.2 169.8 143.5 241.3 213.8 147.1 96.5 117.6 106.0 : : 133.6 108.0 156.5 117.2 :

EU-27 (1) (2) Belgium Bulgaria (2) Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary (2) Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia (2) Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland (3) Croatia (4) The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey (5)

(1) EU aggregates include estimates done for missing data on road freight transport of

Greece and Malta.
(2) Break in series in 2000. (3) Road transport data cover only the haulage by CH vehicles on CH territory; Data taken

from DG for Mobility and Transport.
(4) 2002=100. (5) In the case of road transport only national transport data have been used.

Source: Eurostat, DG for Mobility and Transport, International Transport Forum, national statistics, estimates

108

Energy, transport and environment indicators

2: Index of inland freight transport growth. France. Denmark.Transport Figure 2. recorded in tonnekilometres. regardless of the nationality of the vehicle or vessel.9. the decreases in Denmark and Italy ranked among the highest (. rail and inland waterways. Hungary (32 %). However. International Transport Forum. grew continuously between 2000 and 2007. In contrast. national statistics. Road transport is based on all movements of vehicles registered in the reporting country and covers only the haulage of heavy goods vehicles (usually>3.13 % respectively). Poland (34 %). 2008 (2000=100) EU-27 Romania Slovenia Lithuania Bulgaria Latvia Hungary Poland Spain Slovakia Portugal Ireland Luxembourg Germany Czech Republic Sweden Austria Cyprus United Kingdom Netherlands Estonia Italy Finland France Belgium Denmark 2 0 50 100 150 200 250 Source: Eurostat. Belgium. Lithuania (24 %) and Slovakia (24 %). estimates Note: This indicator includes transport by road. but also the most notable increases from 2005 to 2008. Member States from Eastern Europe recorded not only the highest indices of inland freight transport in 2008. Finland and Italy presented the lowest indices in 2008.16 % and . The index of inland freight transport in the EU-27. Rail and inland waterways transport are based on movements on national territory. Between 2005 and 2008.3. The most striking increases took place in Slovenia (39 %). in 2008 it marked a slight drop compared to 2007 and equaled 121. DG for Mobility and Transport. Energy.5 tonnes load capacity). transport and environment indicators 109 .

(3) Break in series in 2008. International Transport Forum. transport and environment indicators . Source: Eurostat (online data code: tsdtr220). (2) Road transport data cover only haulage by CH vehicles on CH territory. national statistics.3.2 Transport Table 2.3: Modal split of inland freight transport — shares of road. DG for Mobility and Transport. IWW and rail in total inland transport (% of total inland freight tonne-km) 2000 2007 2008 Road Railway IWW Road Railway IWW Road Railway IWW EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary (1) Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia (1) Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland (2) Croatia (3) The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey (4) 74 77 52 68 92 65 37 96 : 93 76 89 100 27 47 88 68 100 63 65 57 93 43 72 53 76 64 90 100 : 84 47 : 87 94 20 12 45 32 8 19 63 4 : 7 21 11 74 53 8 29 4 31 42 8 49 28 42 24 36 10 : 17 53 : 13 6 7 11 3 0 16 0 : 3 0 0 0 4 3 33 5 1 8 5 0 0 : 0 : 76 70 70 75 92 66 43 99 97 96 81 88 100 42 59 94 75 100 59 61 74 95 71 79 72 74 64 87 100 : 85 46 74 89 95 18 15 25 25 8 22 57 1 3 4 16 12 58 42 3 21 6 35 26 5 19 21 26 26 36 13 : 15 54 25 12 5 6 15 5 0 12 0 3 0 0 0 3 5 35 4 0 10 3 0 0 : 0 1 76 69 67 77 91 66 55 99 97 96 81 88 100 39 58 94 75 100 60 59 76 94 70 82 74 73 65 89 100 : 85 46 73 : : 18 15 21 23 9 22 45 1 3 4 16 12 61 42 3 21 5 37 24 6 19 18 23 27 35 12 : 15 54 22 : : 6 16 13 0 12 0 4 0 0 0 3 5 35 4 0 11 3 0 0 : 0 6 : - (1) Break in series in 2000. estimates Note: Due to rounding the sums (of the modal split percentages) do not always equal 100. 110 Energy. (4) In the case of road transport only national transport data have been used. Data taken from DG for Mobility and Transport.

national statistics. estimates Note: This indicator includes transport by road. Rail and inland waterways transport are based on movements on national territory. Between 2000 and 2008. DG for Mobility and Transport. Road transport is based on all movements of vehicles registered in the reporting country and covers only the haulage of heavy goods vehicles (usually>3.3: Modal split of inland freight transport. In contrast. Energy. International Transport Forum. Railway transport accounted for the largest share in Latvia with 61 %. 2008 (% of total inland freight tonne-km) EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom 2 0% 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % Road Railway IWW Source: Eurostat (online data code: tsdtr220). regardless of the nationality of the vehicle or vessel. rail and inland waterways. In 2008. At country level. the modal share of road transport accounted for 76 % of total EU-27 inland freight transport. transport and environment indicators 111 .5 tonnes load capacity). the share of railway transport fell from 20 % in 2000 to 18 % in 2008 and the share of inland waterways from 7 % to 6 %. The only country with a considerable share of inland waterways was the Netherlands (35 %).3.Transport Figure 2. road transport gained market share against railway and inland waterways. Back in 2000 its share was 74 %. where railway transport accounted for 61 %. road transport made up over half of their freight transport in all countries but Latvia.

transport and environment indicators .2 Transport Table 2.4: Goods freight transport by rail (million tonnes) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 56 : 93 8 297 66 c : 26 121 74 48 43 15 43 30 82 162 9 : 16 51 44 58 89 : : 21 : : : 16 2004 : c : 89 8 310 66 2 3 31 117 84 51 46 16 52 34 93 283 10 73 16 50 43 60 119 : 2 23 : 12 : 18 2005 : c : 86 8 317 68 2 3 30 108 90 55 49 11 51 35 102 270 10 69 16 49 41 63 121 : 2 25 : 14 : 19 2006 c c 22 97 7 346 61 1 4 30 109 102 49 50 12 55 37 111 291 10 68 17 52 44 65 127 : 2 25 : 15 : 20 2007 1 823 66 22 100 7 361 69 1 5 30 111 105 52 54 8 52 41 116 245 11 69 18 52 40 68 123 : 2 25 : 16 : 21 2008 1 798 61 20 95 7 371 53 1 4 27 110 96 56 55 9 52 41 122 249 10 67 17 48 42 67 119 : 2 25 70 15 : 23 Source: Eurostat (online data code: ttr00006) 112 Energy.3.

Source: Eurostat (online data code: ttr00006) In 2008. Poland (54 %) and Austria (48 %). which was the country with the lowest volume of freight transport by rail in 2008 (1 million tonnes).66 %). transport and environment indicators 113 . 2006 data instead of 2003. a 14 % share of the EU total. In nine countries the amount of goods transported by rail dropped. the volume of freight transport by rail in the EU-27 amounted to 1 798 million tonnes. From 2003 to 2008. two of the Member States with the highest volumes of freight by rail. Amounts of goods that exceeded 100 million tonnes were also dealt with in the railways of Austria (122). The highest decrease was observed in Ireland (. a 21 % share of the EU-27 total. 2003 data confidential.3. Railways in Poland carried 249 million tonnes of rail freight. also presented the most remarkable increases. About 371 million tonnes were carried through railways in Germany in 2008.Transport Figure 2.4: Goods freight transport by rail (million tonnes) Germany Poland Austria United Kingdom France Italy Czech Republic Sweden Romania (1) Belgium Latvia Lithuania Estonia Hungary Slovakia Finland Netherlands Spain Bulgaria (2) Slovenia Portugal Luxembourg Denmark Greece (1) Ireland (3) 2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 2003 (1) (2) (3) 2008 2004 data instead of 2003. the United Kingdom (119) and France (110). approximately 1 % lower than 2007. Energy.

5: Goods freight transport by road (million tonnes) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 293 : 411 190 2 619 25 237 222 1 801 1 913 1 207 55 41 46 26 208 : 443 256 : 254 : 61 161 393 304 1 703 : : 226 : : : : 2004 : 267 : 428 174 2 625 23 263 440 1 952 2 007 1 378 43 43 45 26 204 : 469 242 690 300 : 64 163 392 319 1 803 : : 240 : : : : 2005 : 265 : 424 190 2 613 26 285 430 2 148 1 997 1 460 54 47 46 23 216 : 472 248 811 306 : 70 175 392 349 1 805 : : 241 : : : : 2006 : 274 144 398 178 2 759 30 294 501 2 326 2 114 1 446 44 48 45 24 233 : 475 316 823 291 317 72 161 390 334 1 874 : : 245 : : : : 2007 : 279 128 408 184 2 848 35 298 480 2 345 2 191 1 461 40 54 49 27 218 : 499 314 895 290 339 72 152 414 353 1 893 : : 262 : : : : 2008 : 250 168 382 179 2 896 36 241 625 2 053 2 144 : 42 46 46 27 232 : 485 332 994 268 347 71 168 418 360 : : : 282 271 102 : : Source: Eurostat (online data code: road_go_ta_tott) 114 Energy.3. transport and environment indicators .2 Transport Table 2.

11 % higher than in 2003.3. 2 896 million tonnes of goods were transported on the roads of Germany in 2008. In Greece the increase was almost threefold. 2006 data instead of 2003. On the other hand. 2004 data instead of 2003. transport and environment indicators 115 . In Cyprus the decrease reached 25 %.5: Goods freight transport by road (million tonnes) Germany France Spain United Kingdom (1) Italy (1) Poland (2) Greece Netherlands Finland Czech Republic Sweden Romania (3) Austria Portugal Belgium Ireland Hungary Denmark Slovakia Bulgaria (3) Slovenia Lithuania Latvia Cyprus Estonia Luxembourg 2 0 (1) (2) (3) 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 000 2003 2007 data instead of 2008.Transport Figure 2. Belgium. Energy. in four countries (Cyprus. These volumes were 12 % and 14 % higher than the volumes in 2003. France and Spain followed with 2 144 and 2 053 million tonnes respectively. the Czech Republic and Denmark) the transport of goods by road was lower in 2008 compared to 2003. 2008 Source: Eurostat (online data code: road_go_ta_tott) During the period 2003-2008. the volume of goods (in tonnes) transported by road grew in most Member States. while in Poland and Estonia it was 44 % and 42 % respectively.

transport and environment indicators .6: Goods freight transport by inland waterways (million tonnes) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 137 7 1 220 64 : 10 : 293 : : : : : : : : 2004 : 147 4 1 236 67 : 11 7 319 : : : : : : : : 2005 : 160 5 2 237 68 : 10 8 318 9 7 33 2 : : : : 2006 : 166 6 1 243 71 : 11 7 318 9 7 29 2 : : : : 2007 : 135 7 1 249 76 : 10 8 353 12 6 29 8 : : : : 2008 : 130 11 1 246 73 : 11 9 345 11 6 30 8 : : : 6 - Source: Eurostat (online data code: ttr00007) 116 Energy.2 Transport Table 2.3.

transport and environment indicators 117 . 73 Netherlands.Transport Figure 2. an additional 18 % to the volume carried in 2003. 345 Belgium. 11 Romania. 30 Bulgaria. 8 Other countries. Energy. 246 Source: Eurostat (online data code: ttr00007) Note: Only the countries with international or transit transport exceeding 1 million tonnes report their data to Eurostat. 130 Germany. Both countries had considerable inland waterways lengths. 345 million tonnes of goods were carried through the inland waterways of the Netherlands. In 2008.3.11 Hungary.6: Goods freight transport by inland waterways. EU-27 2008 top ten (million tonnes) 2 Luxembourg. 7 France. 9 Slovakia. Germany followed with 246 million tonnes and a 12 % increase from 2003. 11 Austria.

2 Transport Table 2.7: Goods freight transport by sea (gross weight of seaborne goods handled in all ports in million tonnes) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 3 452 181 21 104 255 47 46 163 344 330 477 7 55 30 5 410 51 57 36 11 104 161 556 5 187 20 : 2004 3 570 188 23 100 272 45 48 158 373 334 485 7 55 26 5 441 52 59 41 12 107 167 573 5 198 25 : 2005 3 719 207 25 100 285 47 52 151 400 341 509 7 60 26 5 461 55 65 48 13 100 178 585 6 202 26 : 2006 3 836 219 28 108 303 50 53 159 414 350 520 8 57 27 5 477 53 67 47 15 111 180 584 6 197 26 : 2007 3 937 236 25 110 315 45 54 164 427 347 537 7 61 29 5 507 52 68 49 16 115 185 582 : 199 30 : 2008 3 919 244 27 106 321 36 51 152 416 352 526 8 61 36 6 530 49 65 50 17 115 188 562 : 193 29 : Source: Eurostat (online data code: mar_go_aa) 118 Energy. transport and environment indicators .3.

526 Source: Eurostat (online data code: mar_go_aa) The volume of freight transported by sea in the EU-27 grew by 14 % during the last six years. 562 Netherlands. The growth was continuous between 2003 and 2007.Transport Figure 2. a 14 % share of the EU total. Large volumes were also handled in the ports of the Netherlands (530 million tonnes) and Italy (526 million tonnes). 321 France.7: Goods freight transport by sea. Ports in the United Kingdom handled 562 million tonnes of goods in 2008. 152 Sweden. EU-27 2008 top ten (million tonnes of goods handled in all ports) 2 Other countries. 115 Greece. 352 Spain.3. Energy.5 %).0. 188 United Kingdom. 244 Germany. transport and environment indicators 119 . 530 Belgium. 416 Italy. but in 2008 there was a slight drop compared to 2007 (. 512 Finland.

8: Goods freight transport by air (thousand tonnes) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 606 : 53 9 2 556 5 42 137 440 1 416 672 31 14 : 603 51 16 1 389 137 : 124 : : 13 96 126 2 281 42 : 83 322 : : : 2004 : 660 : 57 8 2 889 5 59 112 519 1 485 811 36 8 : 617 60 16 1 512 180 30 127 19 5 8 116 153 2 468 56 : 84 319 : : : 2005 : 694 : 56 8 3 113 10 86 105 498 1 476 794 38 15 10 625 56 17 1 551 208 30 128 18 5 4 113 : 2 447 60 : 87 334 : : : 2006 : 1 125 : 59 8 3 387 10 128 107 485 1 592 837 44 12 13 634 65 18 1 621 229 39 132 21 9 5 124 : 2 384 62 : 86 335 : : : 2007 : 1 368 19 60 8 3 582 23 130 103 513 1 702 928 41 7 13 703 68 18 1 550 228 45 128 19 25 2 144 : 2 433 54 : 76 369 : : : 2008 : 1 250 20 56 : 3 814 42 122 112 540 1 668 826 42 7 9 777 63 18 1 658 227 58 134 24 10 7 148 206 2 405 55 : 71 363 8 : : Source: Eurostat (online data code: avia_gooc) 120 Energy.2 Transport Table 2.3. transport and environment indicators .

for which data are not available. 826 Germany. while airports in the United Kingdom dealt with 2 405 thousand tonnes. 540 Luxembourg. 1 250 Netherlands. 3 814 thousand tonnes of air freight were carried through German airports in 2008. 206 Austria. 871 Sweden. goods freight transport by air recorded growths in the majority of Member States. Source: Eurostat (online data code: avia_gooc) During the period 2003-2008. 2 405 (1) Other countries exclude Denmark. 777 Italy. transport and environment indicators 121 . Belgium (1 250) and Luxembourg (777). 3 814 2 Belgium. EU-27 2008 top ten (thousand tonnes) Other countries (1). most notably the Netherlands (1 658 thousand tonnes).Transport Figure 2. Smaller Member States also showed remarkable air freight. 1 658 France. 227 Spain.8: Goods freight transport by air.3. Energy. 1 668 United Kingdom.

2 Transport Table 2.9: Goods freight transport by oil pipelines (million tonnes) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : : 6 9 : : : 30 80 113 21 31 12 126 36 52 : : : 141 : 6 7 : : 2004 : : 6 9 : : 1 33 78 112 19 27 13 133 35 53 : 13 : 158 : 6 7 : : 2005 : : 8 11 : : 1 37 77 133 20 26 14 : 35 54 : 13 : 168 : : 7 1 : 2006 : : 9 11 15 : 2 36 81 134 15 20 14 : 35 56 : 13 : 159 34 : : : : 2007 : : 10 10 : : 2 32 140 132 6 16 14 : 32 53 : 12 : 146 : : 7 1 : 2008 : : 10 12 : : 2 32 : : 5 14 : : 34 49 : : c : : : 6 : : Source: Eurostat (online data code: pipe_go_ton) 122 Energy. transport and environment indicators .3.

76 %) and Lithuania (. Energy. Significant amounts of freight were also carried through oil pipelines in France (140 million tones in 2007).3. However.55 %). last year available (million tonnes) Belgium Bulgaria 2008 Czech Republic 2008 Denmark 2006 Germany Estonia Ireland Greece 2008 Spain 2008 France 2007 Italy 2007 Cyprus Latvia 2008 Lithuania 2008 Luxembourg Hungary 2007 Malta Netherlands 2004 Austria 2008 Poland 2008 Portugal Romania 2007 Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom 2007 : 2 : - - - : c - 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Source: Eurostat (online data code: pipe_go_ton) The greatest volume of freight transport by oil pipelines was reported by the United Kingdom (146 million tonnes in 2007). the volumes of freight transported by oil pipelines grew by 75 % in France. transport and environment indicators 123 .9: Goods freight transport by oil pipelines. gradual declines were observed in Latvia (.Transport Figure 2. In the last six years. the Netherlands (133 in 2004) and Italy (132 in 2007).

1: Passenger transport by rail (1 000 million passenger-km) 2004 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 9 : 7 6 76 0 2 2 20 74 49 1 : 0 10 15 8 18 4 9 1 2 3 9 43 : 0 : : 1 : 5 2005 : 9 : 7 6 75 0 2 2 21 77 50 1 0 0 10 : 9 18 4 8 1 2 3 9 44 : 0 3 : 1 : 5 2006 388 9 2 7 6 79 0 2 2 22 80 50 1 0 0 10 16 9 18 4 8 1 2 4 10 47 : 0 3 : 1 : 5 2007 399 9 2 7 6 83 0 2 2 21 82 50 1 0 0 9 16 9 20 4 7 1 2 4 10 50 : 0 3 : 2 : 6 2008 c 10 2 7 6 86 0 2 2 23 87 50 1 0 0 8 c 10 20 4 7 1 2 4 11 53 : 0 3 18 2 : 5 Source: Eurostat (online data code: ttr00015). DG for Mobility and Transport. transport and environment indicators .4. International Transport Forum. Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer.2 Transport Table 2. national statistics 124 Energy.

1: Passenger transport by rail (passenger-km per inhabitant) EU-27 (1) France Austria Sweden Denmark Germany Netherlands (2) Belgium United Kingdom Italy Hungary Finland Luxembourg Czech Republic Poland Spain Ireland Slovakia Latvia Portugal Slovenia Romania Bulgaria (3) Estonia Greece Lithuania (4) 2 0 200 400 600 800 1 000 1 200 1 400 2004 (1) (2) (3) (4) 2008 2007 data instead of 2008 and 2006 data instead of 2004. DG for Mobility and Transport. Denmark (1 144) and Germany (1 042). 2005 data instead of 2004. Romania. national statistics Passenger transport is measured by the number of passengerkilometres traveled. the total passenger-km traveled by rail in the EU-27 amounted to 399 billion. the largest numbers of passenger-km were reported by France (87 billion) and Germany (86 billion). most Member States showed increased use of rail transport per inhabitant. The highest average distances traveled by rail per inhabitant were recorded in France (1 352). The only exceptions were Hungary. Italy and Greece. Energy. Source: Eurostat (online data codes: ttr00015 and demo_pjan) . In 2008. Approximately 805 passenger-km were traveled per inhabitant in the EU-27 in 2007. International Transport Forum. In 2007. which represent the transport of one passenger over one kilometre. a 2 % increase from 2006. Bulgaria. transport and environment indicators 125 . 2007 data instead of 2008. 2006 data instead of 2004. In the years 2004-2008. Sweden (1 200).Transport Figure 2. Lithuania.4. Austria (1 246). Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer.

2: Passenger transport by passenger cars (1 000 million passenger-km) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : : : 67 : : : : : 346 739 : : : 19 : : : 146 69 : : : 21 : 60 96 677 5 : : 74 : : : 2004 : : : 68 : : : : : 330 737 : : 12 26 : : : 152 70 : : : : : 61 97 673 5 : 53 : : : : 2005 : : : 69 : : 11 : : 338 727 : : 12 35 : : : 149 71 : : : 23 : 62 97 678 5 : 53 : : : : 2006 : : : 70 62 : 10 : : 341 724 : : 14 39 : : : 148 71 : : : 23 : 62 97 : : : 52 : : : : 2007 : : : 72 : : : : : 343 728 : : 16 39 : : : : 72 : : : 24 : 64 99 : : : 53 : : : : 2008 : : : 72 : : : : : 339 : : : 14 38 : : : : : 274 : : 25 : 63 98 : : : : : : : : Source: Eurostat (online data code: road_pa_mov) 126 Energy. transport and environment indicators .2 Transport Table 2.4.

Transport Figure 2. In terms of passenger-km per inhabitant. Energy. last year available (passenger-km per inhabitant) EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic 2008 Denmark 2006 Germany Estonia 2006 Ireland Greece Spain 2008 France 2007 Italy Cyprus Latvia 2008 Lithuania 2008 Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands 2006 Austria 2007 Poland 2008 Portugal Romania Slovenia 2008 Slovakia Finland 2008 Sweden 2008 United Kingdom 2005 : : : 2 : : : : : : : : : : : 0 2 500 5 000 7 500 10 000 12 500 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: road_pa_mov and demo_pjan) Car transport accounted for a sizable proportion of passenger transport among all Member States for which data were available.4. followed by the United Kingdom (678 billion in 2005). as some of the smaller Member States presented notable car transport.2: Passenger transport by passenger cars. the United Kingdom (11 289 in 2005). Strong car reliance per inhabitant was also recorded in Finland (11 961 in 2008). France (11 439 in 2007). the situation was differentiated. transport and environment indicators 127 . The highest volume of passenger-km was reported by France (728 billion in 2007). In Slovenia 12 375 passenger-km by car were traveled per inhabitant in 2008. Lithuania (11 285 in 2008) and Sweden (10 718 in 2008). Denmark (11 414 in 2006).

2 Transport Table 2. transport and environment indicators .4.3: Passenger transport by buses and coaches (1 000 million passenger-km) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania (1) Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : : : 15 : : 3 : : 49 43 : : 3 3 : 19 : 7 9 30 : : 3 9 8 9 47 1 : : 4 : : 2004 : : : 14 : : 3 : : 53 44 : : 3 4 : 17 : 7 10 30 : 9 3 10 8 9 48 1 4 : 3 : : 2005 : : 12 16 : : 3 : : 53 44 : : 3 4 : 18 : 7 9 29 : 12 3 9 8 9 48 1 : 4 : 3 1 : 2006 : : 12 16 7 : 3 : : 49 45 : : 3 3 : 18 : 6 9 28 : 12 3 : 8 9 : : 4 : 4 : : 2007 : : 12 15 : : 2 : : 59 47 : : 3 4 : 17 : : 10 27 : 12 3 8 8 9 : : 4 : 4 1 : 2008 : : 12 15 : : 3 : : 61 : : : 3 3 : : : : : 27 : : 3 7 8 9 : : : : : 3 : : Source: Eurostat (online data code: road_pa_mov) 128 Energy.

the highest values for passenger transport by buses and coaches were observed in Spain (61 billion passenger-km in 2008). Bulgaria (1 569 in 2008) and Slovenia (1 565 in 2008). transport and environment indicators 129 . the United Kingdom (48 billion in 2005) and France (47 billion in 2007). last year available (passenger-km per inhabitant) EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria 2008 Czech Republic 2008 Denmark 2006 Germany Estonia 2008 Ireland Greece Spain 2008 France 2007 Italy Cyprus Latvia 2008 Lithuania 2008 Luxembourg Hungary 2007 Malta Netherlands 2006 Austria 2007 Poland 2008 Portugal Romania 2007 Slovenia 2008 Slovakia 2008 Finland 2008 Sweden 2008 United Kingdom 2005 : : 2 : : : : : : : : 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: road_pa_mov and demo_pjan) Note: Data are not harmonised and therefore not fully comparable. Hungary (1 663 in 2007).Transport Figure 2.3: Passenger transport by buses and coaches. Data availability does not facilitate comparisons among countries for the same year. Taking this into account. Energy. The largest volumes of passenger-km per inhabitant were recorded in Estonia (1 940 in 2008).4.

4.4: Passenger transport by air (1 000 passengers) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 15 096 : 7 761 : 121 136 : : 28 165 120 239 96 292 73 917 6 077 : 722 : 5 010 2 648 41 168 15 799 : 17 739 2 718 : 626 10 516 : 177 902 1 562 : 18 825 25 676 : : : 2004 : 17 469 : 9 950 21 006 135 850 991 20 851 29 509 129 771 103 039 81 213 6 421 1 056 994 1 509 6 380 2 790 44 494 18 297 6 092 18 423 3 193 1 046 1 081 11 785 19 957 192 280 1 889 : 19 621 26 568 : : : 2005 : 17 814 : 11 266 22 173 145 977 1 393 24 254 30 799 143 680 107 955 87 906 6 782 1 872 1 434 1 538 7 918 2 757 46 433 19 685 7 080 20 272 3 494 1 217 1 519 12 348 20 997 204 013 2 111 : 18 579 28 876 : : : 2006 : 19 155 : 12 171 22 966 154 146 1 533 27 558 32 762 150 599 113 183 95 914 6 714 2 488 1 799 1 597 8 246 2 700 48 583 20 825 13 738 22 027 4 900 1 327 2 124 13 443 25 745 211 229 2 278 : 24 053 31 829 : : : 2007 20 805 6 071 13 098 24 042 163 844 1 723 29 840 34 786 163 523 120 034 106 294 7 004 3 156 2 196 1 634 8 580 2 971 50 501 22 926 17 120 24 324 6 909 1 504 2 232 14 465 26 967 217 288 2 462 : 26 386 34 538 : : : 2008 21 982 6 418 13 429 24 629 166 095 1 804 30 018 34 404 161 401 122 724 105 217 7 218 3 687 2 552 1 713 8 429 3 110 50 419 23 900 18 727 25 180 8 031 1 649 2 596 14 851 27 817 213 888 2 241 : 27 717 36 596 4 504 : : 1 093 839 1 101 889 Source: Eurostat (online data code: ttr00012) 130 Energy.2 Transport Table 2. transport and environment indicators .

while in Malta and Ireland it was at least 3 times higher. transport and environment indicators 131 . the ratio of air passengers per thousand inhabitants in the EU-27 was 2 214. about 1 102 million passengers were transported by air in the EU-27. there has been an increase in the use of air transport in all Member States. Latvia and Poland at least threefold.4: Passenger transport by air (passengers per thousand inhabitants) EU-27 (1) Cyprus Malta Ireland (2) Denmark (2) Spain Luxembourg (2) United Kingdom Netherlands Greece Sweden (2) Austria Finland Portugal Belgium Germany France Italy Latvia (2) Estonia (2) Czech Republic Bulgaria (1) Hungary Slovenia (2) Lithuania Poland (2) Slovakia Romania 2 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 2003 (1) (2) 2008 2007 data instead of 2003. Energy.Transport Figure 2. In Cyprus air passenger transport per inhabitant was 4 times above the EU-27 average. 2004 data instead of 2003.4. In 2008. The increase in Slovakia was fourfold and in Lithuania. 19 % traveled through the airports of the United Kingdom and 15 % through the airports of Germany and Spain. In the past six years. Source: Eurostat (online data codes: ttr00012 and demo_pjan) In 2008.

5: Passenger transport by sea (number of seaborne passengers embarked and disembarked in all ports — 1 000 passengers) 2003 419 387 739 4 48 653 32 146 5 172 3 747 102 760 20 041 27 405 82 576 287 118 135 6 942 2 015 3 188 616 : 47 16 341 32 748 33 708 407 4 656 19 483 : 2004 413 458 787 6 48 555 29 815 6 452 3 550 96 744 21 694 27 068 83 316 247 130 146 7 250 2 012 2 031 650 : 42 16 806 33 318 32 837 404 5 787 21 519 : 2005 395 293 922 13 47 924 29 490 8 639 3 275 86 068 22 410 25 804 78 753 194 144 166 7 103 2 116 1 640 662 : 35 17 112 32 617 30 207 422 6 663 22 182 : 2006 406 561 891 15 48 145 29 256 8 546 3 207 90 402 22 167 26 402 85 984 228 217 190 7 328 2 127 1 737 686 : 30 16 739 32 334 29 930 433 6 280 23 061 : 2007 414 232 909 10 48 409 30 200 8 665 3 225 92 423 23 134 27 048 86 970 174 362 212 7 802 1 871 2 456 735 0 51 16 450 32 662 30 465 : 6 447 24 611 : 2008 412 877 799 8 46 657 28 945 9 190 3 108 91 101 22 478 26 813 90 156 150 437 212 8 132 1 959 2 647 762 1 50 16 975 32 745 29 555 : 6 208 26 044 : EU-27 Belgium (1) Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia (2) Ireland Greece (3) Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands (4) Austria Poland Portugal (4) Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey data reporting system. (3) In 2003 data exclude cruise passengers. (1) The increase registered between 2004 and 2005 is partly due to an improvement of the (2) Up to 2004 data exclude national transport.4. (4) Data exclude cruise passengers. transport and environment indicators .2 Transport Table 2. Source: Eurostat (online data code: mar_pa_aa) 132 Energy.

.16 000 20 000 2003 (1) (2) (3) 2008 2003 data exclude cruise passengers.4.. 2003 data exclude national transport.... Denmark and Greece ranked second and third with 8 521 and 8 124 passengers per thousand inhabitants respectively.. another 22 % by the ports of Italy and 11 % by the ports of Denmark... the most striking increase — almost fourfold — was recorded in Latvia.Transport Figure 2. Data exclude cruise passengers..... Malta presented a particularly high value (19 820) in 2008. Between 2003 and 2008. Energy....5: Passenger transport by sea (passengers per thousand inhabitants) EU-27 Malta Denmark Greece (1) Estonia (2) Sweden Finland Italy Ireland Spain United Kingdom France Germany Latvia Cyprus Netherlands (3) Belgium Portugal (3) Poland Lithuania Slovenia Bulgaria Romania 2 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000. 22 % of the EU total was handled by the ports of Greece... Source: Eurostat (online data codes: mar_pa_aa and demo_pjan) 413 million passengers passed through EU-27 ports in 2008... As far as passengers per thousand inhabitants are concerned... a 2 % decrease since 2003.. transport and environment indicators 133 ..

also available at Eurostat (online data codes: tsdtr420 and demo_pjan) 134 Energy.1: Persons killed in road accidents (persons killed in road accidents/100 000 inhabitants) 2003 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 10 12 12 14 8 8 12 9 15 13 10 11 14 23 20 12 13 4 6 11 15 15 10 12 12 7 6 6 8 15 6 7 16 6 6 2004 10 11 12 14 7 7 13 9 15 11 9 11 16 22 22 11 13 3 5 11 15 12 11 14 11 7 5 6 8 3 6 7 14 8 6 2005 9 10 12 13 6 6 13 10 15 10 8 10 14 19 23 10 13 4 5 9 14 12 12 13 10 7 5 6 6 6 5 6 13 7 6 2006 9 10 14 10 6 6 15 9 15 9 7 10 11 18 22 8 13 3 4 9 14 9 12 13 11 6 5 5 10 5 5 14 7 6 2007 9 10 13 12 7 6 15 8 14 9 7 9 11 18 22 9 12 3 4 8 15 9 13 15 12 7 5 5 5 5 5 14 8 7 2008 8 9 14 10 7 5 10 6 14 7 7 8 10 14 15 7 10 4 4 8 14 8 14 11 10 6 4 4 4 3 5 5 15 8 6 Source: Community database on Accidents on the Roads in Europe. transport and environment indicators . DG for Mobility and Transport.5.2 Transport Table 2.

the number of persons killed in road accidents for the EU-27 was 38 875. also available at Eurostat (online data codes: tsdtr420 and demo_pjan) Note: Fatalities caused by road accidents include drivers and passengers of motorised vehicles and pedal cycles as well as pedestrians. a 23 % decrease since 2003. In Lithuania 15 persons were killed per 100 000 inhabitants. The countries of East Europe recorded highest numbers of road fatalities in 2008. Romania. Poland.1: Persons killed in road accidents (persons killed in road accidents/100 000 inhabitants) EU-27 Lithuania Poland Romania Latvia Bulgaria Greece Slovenia Cyprus Czech Republic Slovakia Hungary Estonia Belgium Portugal Austria Italy Denmark Luxembourg Spain France Finland Ireland Germany United Kingdom Sweden Netherlands Malta 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 2003 2008 Source: Community database on Accidents on the Roads in Europe. Energy. The Commission has a target to halve the number of road fatalities between 2001 and 2010 by raising awareness and making cars safer. Except for Romania and Bulgaria. among other measures.Transport Figure 2. Bulgaria and Greece followed with 14 persons per 100 000 inhabitants. corrective factors were applied. In 2008. killed within 30 days from the day of the accident. Latvia. The trend in the number of persons killed in road accidents presented a continuous decrease for the EU-27 between 2003 and 2008. DG for Mobility and Transport. For Member States not using this definition. transport and environment indicators 135 .5. the rest of the EU-27 presented decreases in the number of persons killed in road accidents.

.

Environment indicators .

9 66. also available at Eurostat (online data code: env_air_ind) 138 Energy.2 75.4 39.9 98.1 71.1: Greenhouse gas emissions and agreed reduction targets (Kyoto base year emissions: Index=100) 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 EU-27 (1) EU-15 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus (1) Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta (1) Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia (1) The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey (1) 100.0 94.4 108.0 100.8 98.6 97.0 102.0 79.8 123.1 103.7 91.0 102.4 146.8 121.6 116.2 94.0 100.8 92.6 96.2 52.2 99.6 84.6 133.5 110.1 91.9 141.4 140.2 53.3 100.6 79.2 100.0 93.4 101.6 111.7 88.0 115.2 97.0 99.9 203.8 100.6 96.3 75.0 92.6 99.7 80.1 104.5 83.9 95.3 45.2 120.0 67.7 69.9 75.1 53.8 46.1 99.6 105.0 118.4 51.8 130.3 96.2 196.5 100.3 91.2 121.6 99.0 104.9 95.1 114.5 99.4 102.8 43.0 92.0 89.1 106.7 131.7 93.0 : 97.5 54.5 87.0 92.4 90.4 77.3 Environment Table 3.0 94.8 93.0 : 98.4 86.1 64.2 83.3 118.7 47.9 98.3 49.0 54.3 99.0 92.5 88.8 : : 100.9 144.5 69.5 Target 2008-12 : 92.5 151.8 99.5 111.8 100.4 150.0 127.7 121.4 106.0 (1) There is no legal EU target.3 78.1 102.4 172.0 90.6 126.7 47.7 97.7 91.4 48.9 49.1 70.8 176.9 89.1.0 184.0 113.7 98.7 80.0 67.5 99.5 100.7 : 97.9 97.8 110.0 71.2 66.5 113.3 97.7 143.7 68.3 95.2 147.4 100.0 79.8 182.4 102.1 65.3 102.5 105.4 57.7 95.0 92.8 126.4 82.9 100.0 126.0 79.8 98.3 52.4 100.3 74.8 100.9 96.8 144.4 69.3 123.7 124.8 44.0 118.8 88.0 125.6 98.9 101.1 : 98.1 73.3 100.2 187.2 93.5 110.5 : 92.5 68.9 104.8 100.0 101.1 77.4 97.1 42.0 100.5 55.6 117.8 79.2 100.2 99.6 98.7 69. Source: European Environment Agency. transport and environment indicators .0 136.1 108.0 109.5 93. artificial base year 1990.6 99.4 112.9 103.7 51.5 97.4 110.7 74.7 106.0 92.7 69.5 132.2 144.0 193.0 : : 98.0 99.4 78.6 98.9 90.4 55.5 94.1 111.0 92.0 72.9 96.5 100.4 72.9 63.2 100.0 92.2 110.4 48.4 101.4 45.6 44.5 91.0 92.2 75.4 67.0 87.0 158.8 108.0 127.4 : 96.4 98.2 107.8 98.4 186.3 135.3 101.3 93.3 45.4 49.1 92.0 107.2 119.8 94.0 90.0 87.0 95.2 39.4 108.8 102.0 101.8 122.7 82.0 93.5 92.8 84.0 : 94.3 100.8 116.0 92.0 99.4 110.

51 %).48 %) and Bulgaria (. The Protocol defined individual targets per country. Estonia (. followed by Portugal (30 %).1: Index of greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 from the base year and agreed reduction targets according to Kyoto Protocol for 2008-2012 EU-15 Spain Portugal Ireland Greece Austria Italy Slovenia Finland Netherlands Luxembourg France Denmark Belgium Sweden United Kingdom Germany Czech Republic Poland Slovakia Hungary Bulgaria Romania Lithuania Estonia Latvia 3 25 50 75 100 125 150 2008 Target 2008-2012 Source: European Environment Agency. In 2008.53 %). the United Kingdom (13 %) and France (11 %) decreased their emissions by 22 %. The EU agreed to an 8 % reduction of its GHG emissions by 2008-2012 compared to the Kyoto base year and redistributed this target among its then 15 Member States under the burden-sharing agreement (Council Decision 2002/358/EC). Ireland (21 %) and Greece (19 %). GHG emissions in the EU-15 fell by roughly 7 %. among the largest emitters. In contrast.1. while Italy (11 % of the total) increased them by 5 %. Between the Kyoto base year and 2008. Romania (. Spain recorded the highest increase in its GHG emissions (40 %). Germany (19 % share of total EU-27 emissions). also available at Eurostat (online data code: env_air_ind) The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement that includes legallybinding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions targets for the industrialised countries and aims to an overall reduction of at least 5 % from the 1990 levels by the period 2008-2012.Environment Figure 3. Energy. Over this period. significant decreases were observed in Latvia (. 19 % and 7 % respectively compared to the base year. Lithuania (.54 %).45 %). transport and environment indicators 139 .

2: EU-27 greenhouse gas emissions.1.3 Environment Figure 3. transport Agriculture Waste Transport Industry (processes) Solvent and other product use Source: European Environment Agency. transport Transport Agriculture Industry (processes) Waste Solvent and other product use 5 567 3 489 778 592 484 207 17 5 215 3 188 836 513 463 201 14 5 062 3 047 915 501 413 173 14 5 117 3 095 968 475 420 146 13 5 100 3 076 974 472 421 145 13 5 039 2 999 979 472 434 142 13 4 940 2 945 962 472 410 139 12 Source: European Environment Agency. breakdown by sector (Global warming potential in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent) 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total Energy excl.1. also available at Eurostat (online data code: env_air_gge) 140 Energy. breakdown by sector (million tonnes of CO2 equivalent) 6 000 5 500 5 000 4 500 4 000 3 500 3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Energy excl.2: EU-27 greenhouse gas emissions. also available at Eurostat (online data code: env_air_gge) Table 3. transport and environment indicators .

Environment Figure 3.7 14. Fuel combustion in the energy sector and manufacturing industries accounted for 60 % of this share. In 2008.7 8. while the transport sector made up the remaining 19 %. also available at Eurostat (online data code: env_air_gge) Table 3. Energy. In the last 18 years. transport was the only sector that presented an increase (24 %) in its emissions. emissions by non-energy related sectors comprised agriculture (10 %). breakdown by sector. also available at Eurostat (online data code: env_air_gge) Total EU-27 GHG emissions recorded an 11 % decrease between 1990 and 2008.1.2a: EU-27 greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008. 79 % of the total GHG emissions were energyrelated.5 1. 2008 Fugitive emissions from fuels Fuel combustion in transport Other (energy) 3 Industrial processes Fuel combustion of manufacturing industries and construction Agriculture Waste Solvent and other product use Fuel combustion of energy industries Source: European Environment Agency. breakdown by sector. Emissions from waste fell by 33 %.1.2 Source: European Environment Agency.3 9.2a: EU-27 greenhouse gas emissions. 2008 Sector Energy related Fuel combustion of energy industries Fuel combustion of manufacturing industries and construction Fuel combustion in transport Fugitive emissions from fuels Other (energy) Non-energy related Industrial processes Agriculture Waste Solvent and other product use % of total 30. from agriculture by 20 %.6 2. followed by industrial processes (8 %) and waste (3 %).8 0.3 19.9 12. transport and environment indicators 141 . from the energy and manufacturing industries by 16 % and from industrial processes by 15 %.

2.3 Environment Table 3.1: Total waste generated (hazardous. non-hazardous) (thousand tonnes) Hazardous waste 2006 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 88 690 4 039 785 1 307 493 21 705 6 619 709 275 4 028 9 622 7 465 17 65 127 234 1 300 51 4 949 962 2 381 6 063 1 032 116 533 2 711 2 654 8 448 : : 757 : : : : 2008 100 690 5 524 13 043 1 510 420 22 323 7 538 709 275 3 649 10 893 7 465 24 67 116 199 671 51 4 724 1 330 4 075 3 368 524 153 527 2 163 2 063 7 285 : 0 1 336 : 228 6 1 024 Non-hazardous waste 2006 2 872 270 55 313 241 704 23 439 14 210 342 081 12 314 28 890 51 050 156 918 436 244 147 560 1 232 1 793 7 538 9 353 20 987 2 810 88 859 53 325 264 360 28 890 343 393 5 919 13 969 69 495 112 929 337 695 : : 8 295 : : : 46 081 2008 2 550 860 43 950 273 050 23 909 14 736 350 473 12 046 28 890 51 050 145 606 334 109 147 560 1 819 1 428 6 719 9 393 19 715 1 444 94 867 54 979 206 798 33 112 188 799 4 886 10 945 79 630 84 105 326 842 : 0 9 091 : 3 945 1 356 63 746 Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_wasgen) 142 Energy. transport and environment indicators .

while the remaining 4 % was hazardous — harmful for health or the environment. 96 % of this amount was non-hazardous waste.2. the amount of hazardous waste has grown by 14 % and the amount of non-hazardous waste has dropped by 11 %. The main types of hazardous waste treatment varied across Member States.1: Hazardous waste treatment by type. Since 2006. 2 652 million tonnes of waste were generated in the EU-27. Energy.Environment Figure 3. The most common were recovery and landfilling. the largest amounts of non-hazardous waste were recorded in Germany (350 million tonnes). France (334) and the United Kingdom (327). Belgium (11 %) and Portugal (9 %). transport and environment indicators 143 . The only exceptions were Estonia (38 %). Regarding hazardous waste. 2008 (% of total hazardous waste) EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom 3 c 0% 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % Landfill Incineration Energy recovery Recovery Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_wastrt) In 2008. the largest amounts were observed in Germany (22 million tonnes) and Bulgaria (13). At country level. The share of hazardous waste did not exceed 6 % of the total in most countries.

steam and air conditioning supply Waste from households Other EU-27 2 651 550 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO CH HR MK TR 49 474 286 093 25 420 15 155 372 796 19 584 29 599 51 325 149 254 345 002 155 025 1 843 1 495 6 835 9 592 20 385 1 495 99 591 56 309 210 873 36 480 189 323 5 038 11 472 81 793 86 169 334 127 : 0 10 427 : 4 172 1 362 64 770 1 603 090 26 865 269 387 10 818 5 677 225 495 8 297 21 365 21 717 70 643 254 175 53 321 936 15 415 8 292 5 818 1 099 59 746 32 068 67 848 9 976 141 007 1 431 1 453 56 252 62 012 186 962 : 0 1 612 : 163 : : 363 120 10 090 3 447 5 293 1 454 52 322 3 772 4 067 5 285 19 369 21 640 39 997 138 501 2 758 673 4 789 13 15 824 13 077 80 626 9 001 11 064 1 735 4 469 16 948 11 927 22 837 : 0 3 689 : 1 727 : 10 741 95 090 1 087 7 655 1 920 1 358 11 708 5 424 347 12 986 4 872 1 004 3 005 2 20 51 1 3 050 0 1 318 569 21 971 255 7 058 354 1 151 1 531 1 508 4 885 : 0 46 : 136 : 25 525 221 480 4 459 2 907 3 176 2 514 35 405 440 1 979 4 133 24 431 29 311 32 523 433 606 1 363 276 3 466 168 9 482 3 819 6 879 5 157 8 464 714 1 772 1 674 4 393 31 539 : 0 2 365 : 0 : 28 454 368 410 6 973 2 697 4 214 4 152 47 866 1 652 1 482 7 205 29 939 38 872 26 179 334 353 2 248 350 3 262 215 13 222 6 776 33 549 12 091 21 730 805 2 627 5 387 6 328 87 904 : 0 2 715 : 2 145 : : Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_wastrt) 144 Energy. 2008 (thousand tonnes) Total waste Mining.3 Environment Table 3.2.2: Waste generation by economic activity. gas. transport and environment indicators . quarrying and construction Manufacturing Electricity.

steam and air conditioning supply Waste from households Other Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_wastrt) In 2008. quarrying and construction industries were responsible for the largest share of waste. the mining. transport and environment indicators 145 .2. gas. steam and air conditioning supply 4 %. quarrying and construction Manufacturing Electricity. in Lithuania. gas. Slovakia.2: Waste generation by economic activity. However. households 8 % and electricity. Other economic activities made up the remaining 14 %. The manufacturing industry generated 14 % of the total. quarrying and construction industries accounted for 60 % of the 2 652 million tonnes of waste generated in the EU-27. In 22 Member States the mining. Energy. 2008 (million tonnes) Germany France United Kingdom Bulgaria Poland Romania Italy Spain Netherlands Sweden Finland Austria Greece Belgium Portugal Ireland Czech Republic Hungary Estonia Denmark Slovakia Luxembourg Lithuania Slovenia Cyprus Latvia Malta 3 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Mining.Environment Figure 3. Poland and Slovenia the manufacturing industry accounted for the majority of generated waste and in Latvia waste from households made up 41 % of the total.

3 Environment Table 3.2.3: Waste management. transport and environment indicators . 2008 (thousand tonnes) Recovery EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 1 090 570 17 345 2 700 13 442 10 283 255 337 5 456 15 462 10 527 70 355 194 549 75 633 745 646 1 361 5 311 5 307 43 67 619 32 150 107 179 8 812 7 710 3 040 3 875 22 855 9 818 143 008 : : 4 542 : 384 323 14 632 Energy recovery 81 870 4 453 94 556 3 320 23 316 257 142 16 2 552 12 056 2 633 8 18 194 38 767 0 2 456 3 904 3 122 1 432 1 247 314 586 9 809 8 411 171 : : 2 091 : 321 0 143 Incineration 48 370 3 883 61 69 0 13 895 0 35 16 490 8 612 6 020 14 0 52 135 65 6 6 369 1 594 630 400 47 16 66 170 87 5 635 : : 514 : 25 0 81 Deposit onto or into land 1 111 230 3 050 276 745 4 792 1 034 74 485 11 675 7 074 38 432 64 036 106 864 31 640 1 014 721 3 809 6 147 9 684 1 070 5 512 10 706 29 147 11 390 148 940 1 873 4 562 42 189 62 920 151 715 : : 2 390 : 2 579 1 180 45 190 Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_wastrt) 146 Energy.

Important differences can be observed among Member States. Belgium (15 %). deposit was the only treatment type that recorded a decrease (. About 48 % of waste was deposited and 47 % was recovered. Energy. Energy recovery and incineration were less common with 4 % and 2 % respectively.3: Waste management. the main waste management options in the EU-27 were deposit onto or into land and recovery. Belgium also incinerated an outstandingly higher proportion than the EU average (14 %).Environment Figure 3. the Netherlands recovered 83 %. Finland (13 %) and Sweden (10 %). Bulgaria. In contrast. Compared to 2004. The volume of deposited waste in 2004 made up 53 % of the total. Compared to the EU average. transport and environment indicators 147 . Malta and Romania deposited 99 %. 2008 (% of total waste) EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom 3 0% 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % Landfill Incineration Energy recovery Recovery Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_wastrt) In 2008. 96 % and 94 % of their waste in 2008.2. energy recovery was considerably higher in Denmark (23 %).9 %).

Portugal.9 13. Hungary 2000.0 34.3 20.7 4.6 19.4 26.24.0 4.8 31.21. transport and environment indicators .3 Environment Table 3. Norway 2001.8 37.1 (1) Break in series for: Estonia 2001.1 11.6 12.5.4 35.5 4.16.6 7. though similar wastes from sources such as commerce.1 22.9 . Slovenia and Slovakia 2002.1 4.8.4 .9 16. It consists of waste collected by or on behalf of municipal authorities and disposed of through the waste management system. The bulk of this waste stream is from households. Lithuania 1999. offices and public institutions are included.8 1.9 . Turkey 2004.2 . 148 Energy.6 6.4: Municipal waste generated(1) (kg per capita) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 496 457 495 293 593 647 400 557 378 566 508 472 664 247 443 629 484 470 593 532 306 423 277 584 259 466 431 543 452 : 647 613 : : 510 2000 523 476 516 334 665 643 440 603 408 662 516 509 680 270 363 658 445 547 616 581 316 472 355 513 254 503 428 578 466 : 615 657 : : 458 2005 517 481 475 289 737 564 436 740 438 597 532 542 739 310 376 678 460 624 624 620 319 446 377 423 289 479 482 585 521 : 427 663 : : 438 2006 2007 2008 523 484 446 296 741 563 466 804 443 599 538 553 745 411 390 688 468 624 622 654 321 454 388 432 301 495 497 587 570 : 461 711 : : 415 525 497 468 294 801 582 507 788 448 590 544 550 754 377 400 694 456 652 630 598 322 472 378 441 309 507 518 572 566 : 494 724 : : 430 524 493 467 306 802 581 515 733 453 575 543 561 770 331 407 701 453 696 622 601 320 477 382 459 328 522 515 565 555 : 490 741 : : 428 Change 1998-2008 (%) 5.2.6 12.4 48. For areas not covered by a municipal waste scheme an estimation has been made of the amount of waste generated.6. Source: Eurostat (online data code: tsdpc210) Note: This indicator presents the amount of municipal waste generated.0 .8 : . The quantity of waste generated is expressed in kg per person per year (per capita).0 19.9 18.9 : : .2 28.10. Switzerland 2004.

1998-2008 (%) EU-27 Malta Romania Denmark Latvia Ireland Estonia Slovakia Greece Sweden Italy Cyprus Austria Portugal Finland Luxembourg Belgium France Netherlands Poland Czech Republic United Kingdom Spain Bulgaria Hungary Lithuania Germany Slovenia 3 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Source: Eurostat (online data code: tsdpc210) Figure 3.4b: Municipal waste generation and treatment. notable changes were observed in waste treatment. most countries recorded increases in their volumes of municipal waste generation per capita. The highest increase was observed in Malta (48 %). In the last decade. EU-27. municipal waste generation varied from 306 kg per capita in the Czech Republic to 802 kg per capita in Denmark.2. Between 1995 and 2008. Energy. Among the EU-27 countries. in 2008. transport and environment indicators 149 .2.Environment Figure 3. 1995-2008 (kg per capita) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Landfilled Incinerated Recycled Composted Source: Eurostat (online data codes: tsien130_esms and demo_pjan) EU-27 municipal waste generation per capita reached 524 kg in 2008.4a: Change in municipal waste generation per capita.

transport and environment indicators .5: Energy production from municipal waste incineration (thousand tonnes oil equivalent) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 6 465 314 0 635 1 339 187 1 560 273 0 23 60 1 129 114 0 0 0 15 416 402 1 : 127 370 : 2000 7 441 323 88 726 1 362 229 1 857 334 0 27 58 1 189 108 2 174 0 45 498 420 2 : 128 435 : 2005 10 318 490 97 903 1 662 379 2 278 1 111 0 36 66 1 355 194 18 207 35 157 736 595 2 : 191 839 : 2006 10 969 589 95 918 1 838 504 2 199 1 281 0 38 94 1 324 264 39 201 42 134 765 643 2 : 195 897 : 2007 14 438 368 96 935 4 933 618 2 272 1 400 0 39 108 1 386 249 43 188 38 172 923 669 : : 203 1 000 : 2008 14 848 562 : 100 957 4 923 : : : 656 2 328 1 278 0 : : 38 92 1 489 207 19 183 : : 46 210 1 059 702 : : 218 942 : : : Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_1071a) 150 Energy.2.3 Environment Table 3.

followed by France (16 %).5: Energy production from municipal waste incineration (thousand tonnes oil equivalent) Germany France Netherlands Italy Sweden Denmark United Kingdom Spain Belgium Finland Austria Portugal Czech Republic Hungary Slovakia Luxembourg Poland 3 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 1998 Source: Eurostat (online data code: nrg_1071a) 2008 Energy production from municipal waste incineration in the EU-27 was 14 848 ktoe in 2008. Finland showed the highest increase (fourteen-fold). incineration of municipal solid waste for energy production more than doubled. Netherlands (10 %) and Italy (9 %). Italy presented an almost fivefold and Germany an almost fourfold increase. Energy. all Member States recorded significant increases in their energy production from municipal waste incineration. However. Between 1998 and 2008. Among the main producers.2. transport and environment indicators 151 . Over the last ten years. In 2008. Germany accounted for 33 % of total EU-27 production.4 %.Environment Figure 3. its share of the EU total did not exceed 1.

2008 (thousand tonnes of CO2 equivalent) Total EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 138 949 1 015 7 592 3 605 1 241 10 859 675 1 095 2 969 15 565 10 381 16 614 637 917 1 140 69 3 725 176 5 655 2 024 8 911 7 879 6 615 620 2 380 2 202 1 740 22 647 221 2 1 215 650 930 : 33 922 Solid waste disposal on land 104 142 482 6 720 2 430 1 057 7 518 514 936 2 257 11 336 5 802 11 076 592 607 758 39 2 933 149 4 896 1 557 6 502 4 916 5 385 400 1 812 1 853 1 465 20 150 196 0 1 053 258 655 : 30 170 Wastewater Waste Other handling incineration 27 992 397 872 718 152 2 410 39 159 709 3 558 2 262 4 879 45 308 382 14 726 27 657 291 2 166 2 961 1 190 217 434 230 147 2 044 23 1 162 233 274 : 3 753 4 054 91 456 32 4 10 1 840 655 1 1 67 0 12 244 2 40 4 16 128 453 1 0 0 43 0 : 2 761 46 931 121 662 477 4 2 16 102 163 117 119 2 1 116 : - Source: European Environment Agency 152 Energy.6: Greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment. transport and environment indicators .2.3 Environment Table 3.

in spite of a 57 % reduction in its emissions compared to 1990. while wastewater handling contributed 20 % and waste incineration 3 %. The United Kingdom was the largest contributor (16 %) to the EU-27’s emissions from waste in 2008. transport and environment indicators 153 .73 %). Spain (11 %) and Germany (8 %) also made significant contributions. all waste treatment methods recorded decreased GHG emissions due to better management of waste (less waste going to landfill) and higher rates of recycling and incineration with energy recovery. Solid waste disposal on land accounted for 75 % of this amount.6: Greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment. Between 1990 and 2008.2. Energy. Emissions from waste disposal on land fell by 39 %. Since 1990.Environment Figure 3. Germany recorded the largest reduction in its emissions from waste (. 2008 (thousand tonnes of CO2 equivalent) United Kingdom Italy Spain Germany France Poland Portugal Bulgaria Romania Netherlands Hungary Czech Republic Greece Slovakia Finland Austria Sweden Denmark Lithuania Ireland Belgium Latvia Estonia Cyprus Slovenia Malta Luxembourg 3 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 Solid waste disposal on land Waste incineration Source: European Environment Agency Wastewater handling Other GHG emissions from waste treatment in the EU-27 amounted to 138 949 thousand tonnes of CO2 equivalent in 2008. Italy (12 %). emissions from wastewater handling by 11 % and emissions from waste incineration by 26 %.

3 Environment Table 3. also available at Eurostat (online data code: env_waspac) According to the Directive on packaging and packaging waste. (2) Data are for 2006.Reports on the implementation of Community waste legislation.2. in 2001. Recycling rate 58 80 55 66 57 67 50 61 48 56 57 57 26 40 43 63 46 11 61 67 48 57 31 40 61 52 59 59 : 88 68 : : : : Recovery rate 72 95 55 71 97 95 52 64 48 62 67 67 26 41 44 92 55 11 92 90 60 59 37 46 67 84 82 64 : 100 90 : : : : (1) The EU-27 recycling and recovery rates are estimates by Eurostat.7: Recycling and recovery rate for packaging waste. transport and environment indicators . 2007 (%) EU-27(1) Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta (2) Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia(2) Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey and SI. They include 2006 data for MT Source: European Commission. 154 Energy. Member States had a minimum recovery target of 50 % and a recycling target of 25 %. DG Environment . For 2008 these targets were set to 60 % and 55 % respectively.

DG Environment .Reports on the implementation of Community waste legislation. Environment Source: European Commission. also available at Eurostat (online data code: env_waspac) 3 155 . Data are for 2006.Figure 3.7: Recycling and recovery rate for packaging waste. transport and environment indicators ES PL PT BG HU EE EL SI(2) LT LV RO CY MT(2) 0 EU-27(1) DK BE DE LU NL AT FI SE CZ FR SK IT UK IE Recycling rate Recovery rate (1) (2) Data for EU-27 in 2007 is estimated by Eurostat.2. 2007 (%) 100 90 80 70 60 Recovery target 50 40 Recycling target 30 20 10 Energy.

derived from production statistics .2. transport and environment indicators Source: Eurostat.3 Harmful 156 Table 3.8: Production of environmentally harmful chemicals (million tonnes) Environment EU-15 EU-27 Impact on the environment 33 12 8 57 58 168 137 139 145 135 112 154 157 167 151 138 176 179 153 52 56 50 48 65 66 70 191 158 53 59 51 44 60 62 66 8 7 8 6 9 9 9 9 64 72 193 158 12 12 13 12 12 12 12 13 13 9 66 68 192 163 32 33 29 28 30 31 34 35 36 36 13 8 68 70 194 168 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 32 15 9 59 65 180 155 30 15 7 51 59 162 129 Severe chronic 26 27 26 28 29 28 28 29 31 Significant chronic 11 11 13 13 12 11 12 11 12 Moderate chronic 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 Chronic 46 50 52 53 54 53 53 55 59 Significant acute 54 56 55 54 57 53 55 53 58 Total 145 151 153 154 160 153 156 157 167 No impact 112 121 120 117 138 131 135 134 137 Energy.

In 2009.8 % lower than in 1996. Production fell by 31 million tonnes (. Energy. The chemical industry in countries from the 12 new Member States produced in 2009 — with 25 million tonnes — 15.Environment Figure 3. transport and environment indicators 157 .8: Production of environmentally harmful chemicals (million tonnes) 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2003 2005 2007 2009 3 EU-15 Severe chronic Chronic Significant chronic Significant acute EU-27 Moderate chronic Source: Eurostat. In the EU-27 the share of production of classified environmentally harmful chemicals in the European Union's total chemical output was 53.2 % to the highest value of 194 million tonnes.2.3 % of the environmentally harmful chemicals in the EU-27. The EU-27 production of environmentally harmful chemicals (all five environmental impact classes) grew from 2002 to 2007 by 10. followed by 'significant chronic'. The indicator monitors progress in shifting production from the most environmentally harmful to less harmful chemicals.3 % in 2002 and 55.16 %) in 2008/09 and stood at 163 million tonnes in 2009. the production in EU-15 stood at 138 million tonnes and was 4.4 % lower than in 2002. The EU-15 production of environmentally harmful chemicals (all five impact classes) increased from 1996 to 2005 by 34 % to the highest value (168 million tonnes). The most harmful ones are the 'severe chronic'.8 % in 2009. derived from production statistics The aggregated production volumes of environmentally harmful chemicals are divided into five impact classes. 'chronic' and 'significant acute' chemicals. 'moderate chronic'. it was 7.

1: Stock of wood and biomass on forest and other wooded land.3 Environment Table 3. 2010 Forest Growing stock Commercial Biomass stock Above ground Below ground Deadwood Other wooded land Growing stock Commercial Biomass stock Above ground Below ground Deadwood Total million m3 million t million m3 Total million t EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO CH HR MK TR 21 551 168 656 769 108 1 210 449 73 185 873 2 584 1 384 8 633 470 26 339 0 70 1 135 2 049 154 1 390 416 514 2 150 3 358 379 0 1 987 428 : : : 23 966 168 656 769 108 3 492 449 74 185 912 2 584 1 384 9 633 470 26 359 0 70 1 135 2 049 186 1 390 416 514 2 189 3 358 379 0 2 987 428 : : : 15 946 106 337 639 63 2 165 264 36 132 670 1 979 952 5 411 248 17 227 0 46 620 1 479 154 1 070 278 351 1 428 2 035 234 0 1 671 234 : : : 4 105 25 93 118 10 645 69 9 37 228 564 235 1 132 57 2 57 0 9 185 415 64 245 79 76 237 476 38 0 0 118 70 : : : 1 222 3 62 36 1 55 24 3 61 285 250 37 3 53 22 1 10 0 3 10 11 54 103 12 31 32 58 3 0 0 37 20 : : : 43 0 1 6 0 2 2 1 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 10 11 1 0 0 25 0 : : : 203 1 1 6 1 54 2 33 64 4 2 2 0 2 2 3 1 10 11 1 1 0 25 1 : : : 186 0 1 4 0 20 73 12 48 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 7 10 1 2 0 20 1 : : : 71 0 0 1 0 10 35 6 11 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 : : : 105 0 0 0 0 17 60 10 11 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 5 0 : : : Source: Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (Food and Agriculture Organisation). growing stock will be published in Eurostat (online data code: for_vol) 158 Energy.3. transport and environment indicators .

In absolute terms. Energy. the largest total growing stocks are found in Germany. Finland and Poland. About 89 % of the EU-27’s total growing stock is made up of commercial species. total biomass (above and below ground) in the EU-27’s forests amounted to 20 051 million tonnes. the estimated total growing stock on forest and other wooded land (FOWL) in the EU-27 amounted to 24 168 million m3 of wood.Environment Figure 3. which refers to the growing stock of commercial species and not to forests available for wood supply (FAWS) amounted to 21 593 million m3. Biomass stock is measured by analysing ecosystem productivity and assessing energy potential and the role of forests in the carbon cycle. Commercial growing stock. Deadwood was about 1 222 million tonnes in EU-27’s forests and 105 million tonnes on other wooded land. It is expressed as dry weight of living organisms. 23 966 million m3 were in forests. In 2010. Of these. with a further 257 million tones on other wooded land. while the remaining 203 million m3 were on other wooded land. growing stock will be published in Eurostat (online data code: for_vol) Growing stock provides information on existing wood resources and its estimates form the basis for the estimation of biomass and carbon stocks for most countries.1: Breakdown of biomass stock in forest and other wooded land. transport and environment indicators 159 . by category. 2010 (%) EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom 3 0% 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % Above ground Below ground Deadwood Source: Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (Food and Agriculture Organisation).3. France. Sweden. In 2010.

carbon stock will be published in Eurostat (online data code: for_vol) 160 Energy.3.3 Environment Table 3.2: Stock of carbon on forest and other wooded land. 2010 (million tonnes of carbon) Forest Above ground Above ground Below ground Deadwood Other wooded land Below ground Deadwood Litter Litter Soil EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO CH HR MK TR 7 812 52 158 300 32 1 082 131 18 62 315 940 448 2 206 124 8 114 0 23 304 756 73 503 139 174 714 1 017 117 0 0 336 110 : : : 2 008 12 44 55 5 323 34 5 17 107 268 110 1 66 29 1 28 0 5 89 212 30 115 39 38 118 238 19 0 0 59 33 : : : 622 2 32 17 1 27 12 1 32 147 129 17 1 27 11 1 5 0 2 5 6 28 53 6 15 16 29 2 0 0 19 9 : : : 2 322 14 7 17 7 138 28 0 49 227 138 40 2 70 52 2 25 0 9 48 116 43 149 7 22 258 829 25 0 0 126 27 : : : 16 214 48 373 170 52 858 346 280 376 1 751 1 120 808 4 248 156 7 195 0 40 374 900 333 597 123 271 3 853 2 201 730 3 1 970 95 : : : 91 0 0 2 0 10 36 6 23 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 4 5 1 0 10 0 : : : 34 0 0 0 0 5 17 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 : : : 52 0 0 0 0 8 30 5 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 : : : 168 1 526 0 1 1 0 22 78 13 14 2 2 2 0 1 1 1 0 12 16 0 0 22 2 : : : 1 2 21 2 100 362 61 156 5 7 6 0 4 6 6 2 453 330 3 7 0 102 6 : : : Source: Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (Food and Agriculture Organisation). transport and environment indicators Soil .

carbon stock will be published in Eurostat (online data code: for_vol) Forests influence the global carbon cycle due to their role as carbon stores. as sources of carbon emissions and as carbon sinks.2: Above and below ground carbon stocks(1) on wooded land per unit of area.3. planting and rehabilitation. Carbon stocks in forests can be conserved or increased through sustainable management. In contrast. 2010 (tonnes of carbon/ha of FOWL area) Malta Czech Republic Slovenia Luxembourg Germany Slovakia Romania Poland Austria Belgium Latvia Netherlands Estonia France Lithuania Hungary Denmark Bulgaria Italy United Kingdom Sweden Finland Portugal Ireland Spain Greece Cyprus 3 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Above ground (1) Below ground Above ground carbon stock is the sum of above ground biomass and deadwood. Finland’s FOWL stored the most significant total amounts of carbon in absolute values (5 429 million tonnes).3. 8 % in litter. However. 58 % of this amount was stored in soil. At Member State level. degradation and poor forest management.Environment Figure 3. the total carbon stock on FOWL was estimated at 30 848 million tonnes. highlighting how important it is to preserve peat bogs in order to keep carbon stored there.2 shows a different aspect when looking at the carbon stock per unit of FOWL. Figure 3. 26 % in aboveground biomass. all countries with large areas of peat bogs. Below ground carbon stock is the sum of litter. soil and below ground biomass. they are reduced through deforestation. followed by Sweden (4 667) and Spain (3 069). transport and environment indicators 161 . the United Kingdom. Source: Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (Food and Agriculture Organisation). Finland and Estonia. In 2010. The carbon above ground on wooded land is dwarfed in relation to what is below ground. Below-ground stocks are highest per unit of area in Ireland. Energy. 7 % in below-ground biomass and 2 % in deadwood.

3 Environment Table 3. while the country data cover all trade. 162 Energy.3: Supply balance for wood products (million tonnes of carbon) 2006 EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO CH HR MK TR 23 5 0 2 1 14 1 1 1 3 7 3 0 2 1 1 1 0 4 5 2 2 1 1 1 10 11 3 0 0 2 2 : : : 24 5 0 1 4 13 1 1 2 6 7 9 0 1 0 1 1 0 5 5 2 1 0 1 1 5 4 7 0 0 1 1 : : : 274 4 2 7 1 44 3 1 1 17 43 12 0 5 2 1 2 0 4 15 14 6 5 2 4 32 36 13 0 0 5 4 : : : 23 5 1 2 1 17 1 1 1 3 7 3 0 2 1 0 1 0 4 6 2 2 1 1 1 10 11 3 0 0 2 2 : : : 2007 23 6 1 1 3 16 1 1 1 6 7 9 0 1 1 1 1 0 5 5 3 1 1 1 1 4 4 8 0 0 2 1 : : : 295 4 2 8 1 56 2 2 1 16 43 12 0 5 2 0 2 0 3 16 15 6 6 2 4 34 40 13 0 0 5 4 : : : 23 5 0 2 1 18 1 1 1 3 6 3 0 2 1 0 1 0 4 5 2 2 1 1 1 9 11 3 0 0 2 1 : : : 2008 20 6 1 1 3 15 0 1 7 5 7 8 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 4 3 1 0 1 1 5 4 7 0 0 1 1 : : : 275 4 2 7 1 48 2 1 1 16 42 11 0 4 2 0 2 0 3 15 15 6 5 2 4 30 38 12 0 0 5 4 : : : Exports Imports Production Exports Imports Production Exports Imports Production Source: Eurostat (online data codes: for_basic.3. transport and environment indicators . for_swpan and for_pp) Note: The exports and imports for the EU-27 cover only extra-EU trade.

3: Supply balance for wood products.Environment Figure 3. Energy. In order to make products in different units of measurement comparable. It is a measure of the self-sufficiency of countries for wood products. Between 2006 and 2007. The EU-27's wood production was 275 million tonnes of carbon in 2008. a 17 % decrease from 2006. production grew by 7 %. a slight decrease of 1 % from 2006. followed by France. exports to countries outside the EU-27 amounted to approximately 23 million tonnes of carbon. Germany had the largest production of wood products. the data were converted to tonnes of carbon using recommended conversion factors. 2008 (million tonnes of carbon) Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom 3 -25 0 25 50 75 Production Imports Exports Source: Eurostat (online data codes: for_basic. In 2008. for_swpan and for_pp) A supply balance for wood products shows production plus imports minus exports.3. Sweden and Finland. but in 2008 it dropped again to 2006 levels. In 2008. Imports from countries outside the EU-27 amounted to 20 million tonnes of carbon in 2008. transport and environment indicators 163 .

38 2.36 1.48 3.55 3.18 : 3.44 3.42 7.50 2.20 11.24 3. (3) Data for the last 5 available years have been used.1: Water resources: LTAA (1) — split into external inflow and internal flow Water resources (million m3/year) Internal flow EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta (3) Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 12 327 18 085 15 237 16 340 117 000 : 47 500 60 000 111 133 175 293 167 000 327 16 901 15 510 905 7 533 71 8 480 55 000 54 800 38 593 39 415 18 596 13 074 107 000 172 710 172 502 170 000 : 377 290 40 714 23 007 : 227 400 Water resources per capita (2) (thousand m3 per capita per year) Actual Total Actual Total Internal external freshwater flow external freshwater inflow sources inflow sources : 19 933 107 226 15 977 16 340 188 000 12 347 47 500 72 000 111 133 186 293 175 000 327 33 731 24 500 1 644 116 430 71 89 680 84 000 63 100 73 593 225 735 32 092 80 326 110 000 183 360 175 342 170 000 : 389 442 53 512 : : 234 300 : 1.36 : 7 606 89 141 740 0 75 000 : : 12 000 0 11 000 8 000 0 16 830 8 990 739 108 897 0 81 200 29 000 8 300 35 000 186 320 13 496 67 252 3 200 11 830 2 841 : : 12 152 12 798 : 1 014 6 900 (1) LTAA: Long term annual average (>20 years).17 0.79 7. Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_watq1a) 164 Energy.00 7.84 552.44 2.61 0.3 Environment Table 3.30 0.14 0.05 : : 2. transport and environment indicators .96 0.42 14.54 : 83.88 13.60 1.94 10.72 11.60 5.89 20.75 0.00 4.42 5.16 2.13 : : 3.00 1.01 6.25 2.83 9.48 10.26 : 0.00 0.50 0.22 3.01 5.42 : 11. (2) The population used was of the 1st January 2007.96 14.14 1.45 11.90 0.58 1.28 18.93 2.17 0.85 20.64 1.66 6.12 2.00 0.70 : 0.41 4.07 0.42 20.10 : 1.64 6.52 6.96 3.07 0.00 2.88 552.71 12.47 15.96 1.28 9.82 0.54 : 80.47 0.95 2.17 5.50 2.76 2.91 : : 1.66 1.30 8.19 7.50 0.61 1.4.55 10.57 0.37 2.64 1.82 0.

2) and Cyprus (0. These two countries also recorded the largest volumes of internal flow per capita. In order to account for the annual fluctuations in rainfall and evaporation/transpiration.1). transport and environment indicators 165 . Slovakia recorded the highest external inflow per capita. In contrast. the lowest total per capita volumes were observed in Malta (0. hydrology and geography.4. Renewable fresh water resources are the sum of internal flow and actual external inflow. Due to absence of legal obligation data availability is limited. Energy.4).Environment Figure 3. Finland had the highest total fresh water sources per capita (20.1: Water resources: LTAA — split into external inflow and internal flow (thousand m3 per capita per year) Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia (1) Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta (1) Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom 3 0 5 10 15 20 25 Actual external inflow (1) Internal flow Data for the last 5 available years have been used.8 thousand m3/capita/year). Internal flow is the volume of precipitation (all forms) minus the evaporation from surfaces and the evapotranspiration by plants. based on population density. water resources are calculated as long term annual averages (LTAA) for 20 years or more. followed by Sweden (20. In absolute values. Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_watq1a) Note: Water statistics data are collected through the Joint OECD/Eurostat Questionnaire on Inland Waters. Actual external inflow refers to the inflow of water from neighbouring territories either at the surface (river flow) or subsurface (groundwater flow). there are considerable variations among Member States and per capita values also varied significantly among countries.

3 Environment Table 3.2: Abstraction of fresh water (million m3 per year) 1990 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : : 10 218 3 623 1 261 : 3 215 : 7 862 : : : : : 4 311 : : : 7 800 3 807 15 164 7 288 17 510 : 2 116 2 327 2 968 : : : : 2 665 : : 28 073 1995 : 8 242 6 326 2 743 887 43 374 1 780 : 7 787 : : : : 418 4 582 57 : 20 : 3 449 12 924 : 10 300 : 1 386 2 535 2 725 : 165 : : 2 571 : : 33 482 2000 : 7 535 6 132 1 918 726 : 1 471 : 9 924 37 071 32 715 : 187 283 3 578 : : 19 : : : : 7 967 : 1 171 : 2 688 : 163 : : 2 564 : 692 43 650 2005 : 6 389 6 017 1 949 : : : 799 9 654 34 958 33 873 : 221 238 2 365 : : 14 10 326 : : : 5 301 924 907 : 2 630 : 165 : : 2 507 : 1 157 : 2006 : : 6 557 1 937 : : : : 9 447 33 760 32 552 : 218 209 2 081 : : 13 9 779 : : : 5 330 907 : : 2 630 : : : : 2 660 : 900 : 2007 : : 6 182 1 969 : 32 301 : 730 9 539 : : : 209 211 2 269 : : 14 : : : : 5 934 935 688 : 2 630 : : : : : : 551 : Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_watq2_1) 166 Energy. transport and environment indicators .4.

except for Spain (42 %). The volumes of abstracted groundwater depended on the availability of resources and abstraction practices. France and Spain. Spain and France in 2006 and Germany in 2007 reported significant total water abstraction. transport and environment indicators 167 . Regarding surface water abstraction. A contrasting trend was observed in Slovakia and Lithuania. where the decrease exceeded 50 %. in most Member States the volumes of abstracted groundwater fell. Energy. The breakdown of abstraction between groundwater and fresh water revealed also large differences between countries.4. Greece (17 %). The highest volumes were reported by Portugal.Environment Figure 3. Slovenia (19 %) and Cyprus (1 %).2: Abstraction of fresh water. by source. Over the last ten years. last year available (million m3 per year) Belgium 2005 Bulgaria 2007 Czech Republic 2007 Denmark 2004 Germany 2007 Estonia 2002 Ireland 2007 Greece 2007 Spain 2006 France 2006 Italy N/A Cyprus 2007 Latvia 2007 Lithuania 2007 Luxembourg 1999 Hungary 2006 (1) Malta 2007 Netherlands 2006 Austria 1999 Poland 1999 Portugal 1998 Romania 2007 Slovenia 2007 Slovakia 2007 Finland 1999 Sweden 2007 United Kingdom 1989 3 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 30 000 Fresh ground water (1) Fresh surface water Fresh surface water data not available. in Cyprus and Netherlands the increase over the past decade was 88 % and 63 % respectively. Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_watq2_1) Total abstraction of fresh water showed considerable differences among Member States.

transport and environment indicators .3: Abstraction of fresh water per capita (m3 per capita per year) 1990 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : : 1 165 350 246 : 2 047 : 777 : : : : : 1 167 : : : 524 498 399 729 754 : 400 468 348 : : : : 399 : : 506 1995 : 814 751 265 170 532 1 229 : 735 : : : : 167 1 258 141 : 55 : 434 335 : 454 : 259 497 309 : 618 : : 366 : : 547 2000 : 736 749 187 136 : 1 072 : 910 926 556 : 271 119 1 019 : : 49 : : : : 355 : 217 : 303 : 584 : : 358 : 342 653 2005 : 612 775 191 : : : 194 871 812 541 : 294 103 690 : : 35 633 : : : 245 462 168 : 292 : 562 : : 338 : 568 : 2006 : : 850 189 : : : : 849 772 517 : 285 91 611 : : 32 599 : : : 247 453 : : 291 : : : : 357 : 441 : 2007 : : 805 191 : 392 : 169 854 : : : 268 93 670 : : 34 : : : : 275 465 128 : 289 : : : : : : 270 : Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_watq2_1) 168 Energy.4.3 Environment Table 3.

last year available (m3 per capita per year) Belgium 2005 Bulgaria 2007 Czech Republic 2007 Denmark 2004 Germany 2007 Estonia 2002 Ireland 2007 Greece 2007 Spain 2006 France 2006 Italy N/A Cyprus 2007 Latvia 2007 Lithuania 2007 Luxembourg 1999 Hungary 2006 (1) Malta 2007 Netherlands 2006 Austria 1999 Poland 1999 Portugal 1998 Romania 2007 Slovenia 2007 Slovakia 2007 Finland 1999 Sweden 2007 United Kingdom 1989 3 0 200 400 600 800 1 000 Fresh ground water (1) Fresh surface water Fresh surface water data not available. Regarding the abstraction of surface water per capita the highest volumes were observed in Estonia (864 in 2002) and Bulgaria (743 in 2007). transport and environment indicators 169 . most Member States decreased their abstraction of fresh water per capita.4. Between 1995 and 2007 (depending on data availability). by source.Environment Figure 3. Energy.3: Abstraction of fresh water per capita. Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_watq2_1) The Member States with the highest groundwater abstraction per capita were Portugal (622 m3/capita in 1998) and Greece (327 in 2007). The only exceptions were Greece (16 %). the Netherlands (14 %). Bulgaria (7 %) and Slovenia (1 %).

4: Use of water (public water supply) by the domestic sector (households and services) per capita (m3 per capita per year) 1990 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : : 81 53 76 : : : : : : 87 : : : : 56 : 60 : : : : : : : 74 : : : : 111 : : : 1995 : 24 50 38 : 47 : : : : : : 71 : : : 57 32 : 46 49 : : : : : 72 : : : : 100 44 : : 2000 : 24 47 49 : : : : 51 82 : : 69 35 : : 62 30 : 47 39 : : : : : 70 : : : 179 105 45 42 : 2005 : 33 41 45 : : : : 58 80 : : 98 34 23 : 47 21 49 : 36 51 : 47 : : 65 : : : : 94 49 41 : 2006 : 33 42 44 : : : : 58 78 : : : 36 24 : 43 27 50 : 37 50 : 48 : : 65 : : : 101 95 52 42 31 2007 : 32 43 44 : : : : 56 : : : : 37 25 : : 34 : : 36 57 37 49 : : 65 : : : 101 : 55 42 : Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_watq3) 170 Energy.3 Environment Table 3. transport and environment indicators .4.

transport and environment indicators 171 . the trends in the evolution of domestic water use per capita have also varied per Member State. therefore drawing solid conclusions should be dealt with caution. Except for Mediterranean countries.Environment Figure 3. France. Per capita water use by the domestic sector was higher among the Mediterranean countries (Cyprus. Spain. Similarly to previous water indicators.4.4: Use of water (public water supply) by the domestic sector per capita. Energy. Portugal and Greece). data availability was limited and fragmentary. The only exception was Malta. from 1995 to 2007. Lithuania doubled its use between 2002 and 2007. On the contrary. which reported one of the lowest water uses. It ranged between 25 m3 per capita per year for Lithuania in 2007 and 98 for Cyprus in 2005. last year available (m3 per capita per year) Belgium 2007 Bulgaria 2007 Czech Republic 2007 Denmark 2004 Germany 2004 Estonia Ireland Greece 2007 Spain 2006 France 2001 Italy 1999 Cyprus 2005 Latvia 2007 Lithuania 2007 Luxembourg Hungary 2006 Malta 2007 Netherlands 2006 Austria 2002 Poland 2007 Portugal 2007 Romania 2007 Slovenia 2007 Slovakia Finland Sweden 2007 United Kingdom 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 20 40 60 80 100 Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_watq3) Per capita use of water from public water supply by the domestic sector varied among the EU-27. Italy. Depending on data availability. Sweden also recorded significant domestic water use per capita. the lowest figures appeared among the new Member States and Belgium.

5: Water use for energy production (cooling water) Water use for energy production (cooling water) per capita (m3 per capita per year) 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 : : : : : 532 488 396 : : 501 423 536 538 455 78 49 : 57 59 : : : : : : 300 : : : : 814 : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 : 148 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 324 1 502 1 539 : 34 29 27 27 : : 612 525 584 : : : : : 376 379 362 366 : : : : : : : : 599 556 : 173 204 : : : 173 166 173 192 186 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 90 : : : : 7 10 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 214 210 203 225 : : : : : : : : : : : 29 28 : 37 : Water use for energy production (cooling purposes) — share of total water use in the country (%) 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 : : : : : : : 66 68 66 : : 55 76 78 81 82 77 34 38 33 : 34 35 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 87 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 : : 35 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 23 21 22 21 : : : 88 88 88 : : : : : : : 67 : : : : : : : : : : 67 : : 66 64 : : : : : : : 50 57 62 64 65 65 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 2 3 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 56 58 59 60 63 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : EU-27 BE BG CZ (1) DK DE (1) EE (1) IE EL (1) ES (1) FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL (1) AT (1) PL (1) PT RO SI SK FI (1) SE (1) UK IS LI NO CH HR MK TR 1990 : : 493 99 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 563 208 180 : : : : : 3 : : : : 225 : : : (1) Public water supply data not available. Data include self supply only. Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_watq3) 172 Energy.4.3 Environment Table 3. transport and environment indicators .

while in Latvia it only reached 21 %. transport and environment indicators 173 . The share of water use for energy production over total water use also varied considerably.5: Water use for energy production (cooling water) per capita.Environment Figure 3. In 2007. Data include self supply only.4. last year available (m3 per capita per year) Belgium 2005 Bulgaria 2007 Czech Republic 2007 (1) Denmark Germany 2000 (1) Estonia 2002 (1) Ireland Greece 2007 (1) Spain 2004 (1) France Italy Cyprus 2007 Latvia 2007 Lithuania 2007 Luxembourg Hungary 2006 Malta Netherlands 2006 (1) Austria 2002 (1) Poland 2007 (1) Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland 1999 (1) Sweden 2004 (1) United Kingdom 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 400 800 1 200 1 600 (1) Public water supply data not available. Cyprus presented the highest water use for cooling water in energy production with 1 539 m3 per capita. Considerable differences were observed among countries. In most cases they only included self supply which is most relevant for this use. Energy. On the other hand. This value refers solely to self supply. Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_watq3) Data on water use for energy production were scarce. water use for cooling water in Greece in 2007 reached 9 m3 per capita. in Lithuania it was 88 %. In 2007.

1: Manufacturing sector's environmental protection expenditure by environmental domain in EU-27 for 2006 (thousand EUR) Total domains EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 144 017 557 345 : : 82 989 : : 2 212 245 : : 25 494 : 79 057 : 397 619 : : : 1 140 206 364 753 346 588 189 063 195 516 544 100 813 461 3 566 075 : : 450 268 : 129 931 : : Air Wastewater 10 926 650 : 27 142 123 636 : : 26 440 : : 518 227 : : 4 754 : 22 702 : 116 521 : : : 418 440 81 769 83 697 56 203 31 469 202 800 210 707 1 137 400 : : 137 017 : 34 115 : : Waste 10 243 467 : 16 177 164 370 : : 33 298 : : 862 015 : : 8 027 : 24 023 : 140 712 : : : 344 113 83 981 75 359 53 771 45 943 146 100 202 856 1 351 708 : : 159 583 : 33 573 : : Non-core domains 6 432 565 : 24 825 115 213 : : 8 072 : : 271 828 : : 4 457 : 3 870 : 79 077 : : : 64 735 39 986 60 781 19 795 38 936 62 300 189 182 660 672 : : 27 040 : 31 117 : : 36 717 137 9 114 456 : 75 872 154 126 : : 15 179 : : 560 176 : : 8 257 : 28 462 : 61 309 : : : 312 919 159 017 126 751 59 294 79 167 132 900 210 717 416 294 : : 126 628 : 31 127 : : Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_exp1) 174 Energy. transport and environment indicators .5.3 Environment Table 3.

In 2006. In 2006. has the biggest share in the total environmental protection expenditure of the industry sector1.europa. transport and environment indicators 175 . groundwater and surface water.4 % of GDP.5. the EU-27 industry sector (mining and quarrying. with more than 80 %. the amount of manufacturing sector's expenditure was relatively equally distributed among the environmental domains. Protection and remediation of soil. followed by waste management (28 %) and protection of ambient air and climate (25 %).Environment Figure 3. share of total domains 3 Non-core domains 18 % Air 25 % Waste 28 % Wastewater 29 % Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_exp1) Environmental protection expenditure (EPE) is an indication of the expenses made towards the prevention. protection against radiation. protection of biodiversity and landscapes. Manufacturing sector.eurostat. noise and vibration abatement. The expenditure in order to tackle environmental issues relating to wastewater management made up 29 % of the total. 1 http://epp. gas and water supply) spent about 50 billion EUR on prevention and reduction of environmental pressures. electricity.ec.1: Manufacturing sector's environmental protection expenditure by environmental domain in EU-27 for 2006. research and development and other environmental protection activities form the non-core domains which accounted for 18 % of the total expenditure of the manufacturing sector.eu/portal/page/portal/product_details/publication?p_ product_code=KS-SF-10-031 Energy. manufacturing. an amount slightly above 0. reduction and elimination of pollution resulting from the production or consumption of goods and services.

3 Environment Table 3. last year available (thousand EUR) Environmental protection expenditure EU-27 2006 Belgium 2005 Bulgaria 2007 Czech Republic 2007 Denmark Germany 2005 Estonia 2006 Ireland 1998 Greece 2003 Spain 2006 France 2004 Italy 2005 Cyprus 2006 Latvia 2005 Lithuania 2007 Luxembourg Hungary 2007 Malta Netherlands 2005 Austria 2005 Poland 2007 Portugal 2006 Romania 2007 Slovenia 2006 Slovakia 2007 Finland 2006 Sweden 2007 United Kingdom 2006 Iceland Liechtenstein Norway 2006 Switzerland 2003 Croatia 2007 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 1997 9 114 456 170 709 54 372 213 905 : 1 760 000 15 179 31 852 : 560 176 459 900 : 8 257 6 424 21 605 : 132 449 : 431 964 230 313 253 067 159 017 151 794 59 294 72 479 132 900 178 943 416 294 : : 126 628 150 152 50 061 : 25 461 Total investments 2 969 709 69 556 38 903 147 882 : 480 000 14 156 21 231 : 370 058 328 000 : 4 134 5 604 12 572 : 115 044 : 113 064 96 813 148 928 141 886 109 157 46 437 56 551 44 200 107 307 174 263 : : 74 225 107 690 33 654 : 11 359 Total current expenditure 6 144 747 101 153 15 469 66 023 : 1 280 000 1 023 10 622 4 871 190 118 131 900 161 918 4 123 820 9 033 : 17 405 : 318 900 133 500 104 139 17 131 42 637 12 857 15 928 88 700 71 637 242 031 : : 52 403 42 462 16 407 : 14 102 Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_exp1) 176 Energy.2: Share of investments and current expenditure for air protection in total EPE for the manufacturing sector.5. transport and environment indicators .

last year available EU-27 2006 Belgium 2005 Bulgaria 2007 Czech Republic 2007 Denmark Germany 2005 Estonia 2006 Ireland 1998 Greece Spain 2006 France 2004 Italy Cyprus 2006 Latvia 2005 Lithuania 2007 Luxembourg Hungary 2007 Malta Netherlands 2005 Austria 2005 Poland 2007 Portugal 2006 Romania 2007 Slovenia 2006 Slovakia 2007 Finland 2006 Sweden 2007 United Kingdom 2006 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0% 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % Total investments Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_exp1) Total current expenditure In the context of the efforts made to combat climate change. of which 66 % investment expenditures. Energy. and investments can be either for pollution treatment or pollution prevention. it might be interesting to look at the various components of environmental protection expenditure in the domain of ambient air and climate.Environment Figure 3. Spain followed with 560 million EUR in 2006.2: Share of investments and current expenditure for air protection in total EPE for the manufacturing sector. the manufacturing sector of Germany recorded in 2005 the highest level of expenditure for air protection (1 760 million EUR). transport and environment indicators 177 . Among European countries. of which 73 % represented current expenditure. Current expenditure represented 67 % of this amount. while total investments made up the remaining 33 %.5. In 2006. the Netherlands (432 million in 2005 with 74 % current expenditure) and the United Kingdom (416 million in 2006 with 58 % current expenditure). Environmental protection expenditure is the sum of total investments and total current expenditure of the sector. High level of air protection expenditure was also recorded in France (460 million EUR in 2004 with 71 % going to investment). the total air protection expenditure by the EU-27 manufacturing sector was slightly above 9 billion EUR.

3: Evolution of investments in "cleaner technologies" (pollution prevention investments) for air protection in the manufacturing sector (thousand EUR) 2001 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : : 0 : : : 1 055 : : 77 310 121 800 35 325 509 0 7 353 : 10 628 : : 29 002 52 492 : 19 346 : 19 034 : 199 397 : : : : : : : 2002 : 23 800 0 : : : 2 710 : 4 586 73 500 85 504 6 508 3 098 4 472 : 14 430 : 16 241 22 502 44 725 : 11 518 : 9 750 c 65 678 : : 17 740 : : : : 2003 : : 0 25 099 : : 562 : 24 022 73 500 42 212 572 3 278 2 969 : 71 020 : : 15 504 37 890 78 052 : 10 680 3 459 17 609 c 63 440 : : 24 827 69 854 : : : 2004 : : 0 36 443 : : 805 : : 54 700 98 107 1 021 1 427 4 683 : 7 963 : : 16 977 20 301 : 8 704 6 803 11 332 c : : 16 309 : 5 589 : : 2005 : 35 698 0 41 854 : : 818 : : 2006 2007 : : 1 670 : : 8 641 : : : : 709 : : : : : : : : : : 6 270 : : : : : : : : c : : : : : 3 114 : : 51 520 78 731 92 910 105 690 154 620 181 767 205 703 92 500 111 000 26 734 270 3 303 2 027 : 9 002 : 61 900 19 696 47 825 : 16 016 2 522 15 800 c : : 25 221 : 3 689 : : : 56 : 1 187 : : : : 14 978 26 051 86 354 140 935 90 197 38 375 : 19 787 5 300 c 51 047 : : 9 009 : 3 576 : : 79 000 107 700 114 786 21 864 10 644 67 486 115 677 Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_exp1) 178 Energy. transport and environment indicators .3 Environment Table 3.5.

5. in 2006 the highest level of investments in "cleaner technologies" was recorded in Spain (206 million EUR). From 2001 to 2007. annual variations were observed per country. equipment and land. transport and environment indicators . while in 2001 the countries spending most were: the United Kingdom (199 million EUR).3: Investments in "cleaner technologies" (pollution prevention investments) for air protection in the manufacturing sector. 179 Energy. processes. Moreover. Pollution treatment or end-of-pipe investments have no influence on the amount of pollution generated. In absolute values. Total investment can be either in the direction of pollution treatment or pollution prevention. Pollution prevention investments are defined as capital expenditure on new. France (122 million EUR) and the Netherlands (86 million EUR). Portugal (115 million EUR) and France (111 million EUR). equipment (or parts thereof) designed to prevent or reduce the amount of pollution created at the source.Environment Figure 3. methods. last year available (million EUR) EU-27 Belgium 2005 Bulgaria 2007 Czech Republic 2007 Denmark Germany Estonia 2006 Ireland Greece 2003 Spain 2006 France 2006 Italy 2005 Cyprus 2006 Latvia 2005 Lithuania 2007 Luxembourg Hungary 2007 Malta Netherlands 2005 Austria 2005 Poland 2007 Portugal 2006 Romania Slovenia 2006 Slovakia 2007 Finland 2006 Sweden United Kingdom 2006 N/A 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A c 0 50 100 150 200 250 Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_exp1) Investment expenditure on environmental protection involves all expenses made for environmental protection purposes on machinery. or modification of existing. the trend for investments in air pollution prevention technologies by the manufacturing industry was not uniform among European countries. technologies. but aim at its treatment after its generation. thereby reducing the environmental impacts associated with the release of pollutants and/or with polluting activities.

0 208.1 48.6 49.6 148.2 300.8 77.1 141.3 274.1 199.4 154.3 163.6 114.2 97.8 202.4 36.2 148.6 218.2 248.0 164.3 95.2 118. transport and environment indicators .1 125.3 103.9 111.4 55.0 91.9 112.8 170.8 150.4 167.3 98.1 26.0 152.2 55.1 : : : : 2008 158.3 119.2 108.7 196.0 : : : : 2000 171.7 261.4 26.0 117.4 152.5 117.3 87.8 105.8 24.6 138.8 197.5 85.7 92.5 290.7 : : : : Source: Eurostat (online data code: tsien040) 180 Energy.0 177.3 38.2 101.4 141.5 52.1 71.1 267.1 78.9 212.1 32.5 65.7 196.0 143.0 68.7 160.3 106.3 137.5 70.8 127.8 173.4 78.7 127.4: Implicit tax rate on energy (EUR per toe) 1998 EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey 161.2 77.1 182.8 150.1 : : : : 2005 165.0 24.2 154.0 128.3 58.0 : 189.5 : : 176.6 203.7 200.2 149.0 : : 159.5 190.8 : : 177.3 210.9 : : 160.3 Environment Table 3.5 272.8 58.5 148.5 168.8 48.8 193.3 65.5 133.4 : : : : 2006 164.1 42.7 84.8 99.7 142.8 169.2 122.4 108.0 48.7 114.3 42.7 67.7 43.3 206.5.9 74.2 201.1 33.5 150.3 47.3 119.9 52.4 279.7 : : : : 2007 164.6 97.5 : : 162.3 177.3 108.8 192.4 154.0 52.5 140.4 37.8 71.3 217.7 173.7 182.8 163.7 32.2 108.0 111.3 102.3 193.7 96.7 100.6 : 187.6 93.2 121.4 110.5 153.5 173.3 79.2 178.6 210.2 102.8 58.1 180.6 138.1 : 114.2 140.9 77.7 86.0 249.3 149.2 113.8 31.5 153.6 65.5 84.2 : : 150.2 123.

Energy. transport and environment indicators 181 .Environment Figure 3.5. Denmark displayed the highest rate (268 EUR per toe). It measures the taxes levied on the use of energy which contributes to foster energy efficiency. In spite of this increase.66 %) between 1998 and 2008. also reported the most notable decrease (. the most considerable increases were observed in Cyprus and Bulgaria (about threefold). On the other hand. both countries remained below the EU average.4: Implicit tax rate on energy (EUR per toe) EU-27 Denmark Malta (1) Germany Sweden Netherlands Italy United Kingdom Luxembourg France (1) Ireland Austria Portugal Czech Republic Slovenia Spain Finland Cyprus Poland Greece (1) Hungary Belgium Slovakia Lithuania Bulgaria Estonia Latvia Romania 3 0 (1) 50 100 150 200 250 300 1998 2007 data instead of 2008. In 2008. From 1998 to 2008. The implicit tax rate on energy for the EU-27 grew by 6 % between 1998 and 2000 and it fell by 8 % from 2000 to 2008. which was the country with the lowest rate (26). Eastern European countries presented the lowest rates. Source: Eurostat (online data code: tsien040) 2008 Implicit tax rate on energy is the ratio between energy tax revenues and final energy consumption. Romania.

repair of motor vehicles. Hotels and restaurants. motorcycles and personal and household goods. last year available (thousand EUR) Agriculture. forestry quarrying. (2) Other Services: Real estate. extra-territorial organizations data not available.3 Environment Table 3.5: Energy taxes in the European countries by their payers. Total Other Not hunting. transport and environment indicators . Mining and Electricity. public administration and community services. Hotels and restaurants.5. repair of motor vehicles. activities of households. Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_taxind) 182 Energy. gas Transport. (3) Other services: Wholesale and retail trade. and water supply. public administration and community services. Real estate. motorcycles and personal and household goods. extra-territorial organizations. activities of households. Financial intermediation data confidential. storage and activities by services (1) classified and fishing Manufacturing Construction communication households EU-27 BE 2005 BG 2005 CZ DK 2007 DE 2006 EE 2007 IE EL ES 2007 FR IT 2007 CY LV 2007 LT 2006 (2) LU 2007 HU MT 2006 NL 2007 AT 2007 PL PT RO SI SK FI SE 2006 UK 2007 (3) IS LI NO 2007 (2) CH HR MK TR : 35 015 23 184 : 127 833 915 098 10 457 : : 487 200 : 601 769 : 11 461 20 485 4 976 : 1 082 246 000 245 907 : : : : : : 257 430 376 646 : : 63 835 : : : : : 107 894 54 841 : 307 328 6 004 813 33 118 : : 925 000 : 4 244 543 : 30 112 61 842 15 767 : 1 192 893 000 577 984 : : : : : : 340 112 2 768 638 : : 242 398 : : : : : 189 948 33 977 : 190 792 2 359 165 28 063 : : 424 600 : 3 311 380 : 33 454 64 565 43 989 : 12 164 145 000 257 031 : : : : : : 946 098 2 223 110 : : 182 081 : : : : : 1 297 228 184 910 : 451 408 3 851 153 41 199 : : 4 169 000 : 3 355 310 : 105 909 70 156 126 939 : 16 645 1 057 000 796 852 : : : : : : 864 669 7 862 129 : : 869 817 : : : : : 722 835 84 169 : 940 064 7 330 922 28 237 : : 1 271 300 : 4 771 363 : 81 667 61 849 410 150 : 2 475 1 685 000 : : : : : : : 1 409 641 2 443 592 : : 399 472 : : : : : : 2 112 579 0 211 485 : : : 2 867 433 0 26 233 850 : 93 867 0 : : : : 6 135 000 1 144 900 : : 13 668 910 1 823 726 : : 122 172 : 88 534 : 285 989 : : : 12 146 0 6 264 000 : 1 793 706 : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 579 653 1 991 20 853 909 401 129 : : : : 1 287 132 : : : : : : : : : (1) Other services include: Wholesale and retail trade. Financial intermediation.

households pay between 24 % (in Lithuania) and 61 % (in the Netherlands) of energy taxes. storage and communication (1) (2) (3) Environment (4) Other services include: Wholesale and retail trade. public administration and community services. Other services data not available. Malta. motorcycles and personal and household goods. Bulgaria. extra-territorial organizations data not available. where 46 % of energy taxes were paid by the other services sector (including real estate. Other Services: Real estate. Real estate. public administration and community services. Financial intermediation. extra-territorial organizations. Spain. Financial intermediation data confidential. repair of motor vehicles. Latvia. Hotels and restaurants. Austria. where it reached over 20 % of total energy taxes. Among European countries. but not more than 36 %. activities of households. or in Malta. gas and water supply and construction sectors paid 27 % of energy taxes. last year available (%) 100 % 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10 % EL Mining and quarrying. transport and environment indicators EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE 2005 2005 2007 2006 2007 Agriculture.5: Energy taxes in the European countries by their payers. activities of households. Construction Households N/A N/A 0% Interesting phenomena might be seen in Luxembourg. the United Kingdom and Norway. Other services: Wholesale and retail trade. as well as transport taxes and pollution/resource taxes by their payers is rather limited at this point in time. Manufacturing Other services (1) ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL 2007 2007 2007 2006(2) 2007 2006 2007 2007(3) PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 2006 2007(4) Electricity. Hotels and restaurants. Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_taxind) N/A 3 183 . hunting. Data availability regarding the distribution of energy taxes. forestry and fishing Transport.Figure 3. where the electricity. The contribution of the transport sector to energy taxes was also considerable in some countries like Belgium. gas and water supply. Energy. repair of motor vehicles. motorcycles and personal and household goods. for which data were available.5. extraterritorial organizations). activities of households. public administration and community services.

Financial intermediation. motorcycles and personal and household goods. Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_taxind) 184 Energy. Total Other Not hunting.5. repair of motor vehicles. and water supply. (2) Other services: Wholesale and retail trade. forestry quarrying. Real estate. extra-territorial organizations. last year available (thousand EUR) Agriculture.6: Transport taxes in the European countries by their payers. motorcycles and personal and household goods. public administration and community services. Financial intermediation data confidential. extra- territorial organizations data not available.3 Environment Table 3. public administration and community services. gas Transport. activities of households. (3) Other Services: Real estate. transport and environment indicators . repair of motor vehicles. Mining and Electricity. Hotels and restaurants. activities of households. storage and activities by services (1) classified and fishing Manufacturing Construction communication households EU-27 BE 2005 BG CZ DK 2007 DE EE 2007 IE EL ES 2007 FR IT 2007 CY LV 2007 LT 2007 LU 2007 HU MT 2006 NL 2007 AT 2007 PL PT RO SI SK FI SE 2006 UK 2007 (2) IS LI NO 2006 (3) CH HR MK TR : 17 077 : : 21 447 : 614 : : : : 96 561 : 1 841 1 332 82 : 414 18 760 10 980 : : : : : : 31 083 90 233 : : 12 624 : : : : : 98 457 : : 37 861 : 952 : : : : 285 131 : 4 849 4 721 1 474 : 3 155 117 103 69 771 : : : : : : 28 207 86 878 : : 134 960 : : : : : 77 322 : : 85 823 : 1 106 : : : : 187 602 : 5 151 5 908 4 733 : 309 132 110 25 199 : : : : : : 56 745 176 594 : : 93 833 : : : : : 172 110 : : 124 941 : 3 564 : : : : 127 650 : 17 919 20 013 14 029 : 4 269 210 809 43 904 : : : : : : 56 192 250 384 : : 177 640 : : : : : 418 820 : : 161 699 : 1 726 : : : : 635 056 : 12 460 8 370 6 101 : 9 228 2 815 217 : : : : : : : 151 542 369 236 : : 550 850 : : : : : : 1 669 445 65 056 : : : : 3 295 049 1 292 044 : : 2 999 0 : : : : 3 857 000 430 000 : : 4 384 000 3 476 000 : : 18 010 : : : 38 887 : : : 47 764 0 4 449 000 : 1 652 357 : : : : : : : : : : : : : 837 905 62 055 7 690 178 791 229 : : : : 2 385 773 : : : : : : : : : (1) Other services include: Wholesale and retail trade. Hotels and restaurants.

activities of households. forestry and fishing Transport. The only exceptions were Estonia. (4) Other services: Wholesale and retail trade. storage and communication sector.5. Energy. motorcycles and personal and household goods. Manufacturing Other services (1) FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL 2007 2007 2007(2) 2007 2006 2007 2007(3) PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 2006 2007(4) Electricity. storage and communication (1) Environment (2) Other services include: Wholesale and retail trade. Hotels and restaurants. Households paid 92 % of transport taxes in Austria. Hotels and restaurants. gas and water supply. extra-territorial organizations. Real estate. but at the same time data for households' contribution were not available. motorcycles and personal and household goods. Lithuania is a particular case. repair of motor vehicles. Construction Households N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0% As noticed for energy taxes. repair of motor vehicles. transport and environment indicators EU-27 BE BG 2005 CZ DK DE EE IE 2007 2007 EL Agriculture. public administration and community services. Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_taxind) N/A 3 185 . Households data not available. in the sense that 50 % of transport taxes were paid by the transport. 89 % in the United Kingdom and 88 % in Denmark. where the transport.Figure 3. hunting. (3) Other services data not available. households also made the most considerable payments of transport taxes in the European countries for which data were available. last year available (%) 100 % 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10 % ES Mining and quarrying. Financial intermediation data confidential. Financial intermediation. storage and communication sector paid the largest share of transport taxes (33 %) and Latvia with 30 % of transport taxes.6: Transport taxes in the European countries by their payers.

7: Pollution/resource taxes in the European countries by their payers. repair of motor vehicles. Financial intermediation. Real estate. activities of households. Hotels and restaurants. storage and activities by services (1) classified and fishing Manufacturing Construction communication households EU-27 BE 2005 BG CZ DK 2007 DE EE 2007 IE EL ES 2007 (2) FR IT 2007 (2) CY LV 2007 LT 2007 LU HU MT 2006 (2) NL 2007 AT 2007 PL PT RO SI SK FI SE 2006 (2) UK 2007 IS LI NO 2006 (2) CH HR MK TR : 11 629 : : 45 012 : 15 175 : : 300 : 3 810 : 294 319 : : : 22 000 9 644 : : : : : : : 3 850 : : 1 457 : : : : : 27 555 : : 2 644 971 : 30 432 : : 58 500 : 116 209 : 2 748 14 162 : : 3 462 37 000 62 179 : : : : : : 2 387 586 345 : : 8 109 : : : : : 2 237 : : 24 294 : 37 401 : : 81 200 : 53 923 : 2 792 6 343 : : 252 24 000 26 046 : : : : : : 6 275 23 213 : : 3 035 : : : : : 2 084 : : 5 529 : 279 : : 2 000 : 39 327 : 272 1 767 : : 450 12 000 10 592 : : : : : : 0 46 573 : : 3 399 : : : : : 36 520 : : 233 574 : 7 972 : : 0 : 221 862 : 8 773 5 445 : : 547 159 000 : : : : : : : 231 894 955 : : 22 906 : : : : : 427 215 : : 259 977 : 421 : : 0 : 62 690 : 36 : : : : 186 000 308 750 : : : : : : 24 0 : : 126 973 : : : : : 87 400 : : 9 988 : 0 : : 34 000 : 180 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 32 631 0 : : : : : : : (1) Other services include: Wholesale and retail trade. extra-territorial organizations. last year available (thousand EUR) Agriculture. Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_taxind) 186 Energy. forestry quarrying. public administration and community services. motorcycles and personal and household goods.5. Mining and Electricity. Total Other Not hunting. (2) Resource taxes data not available. transport and environment indicators . and water supply. gas Transport.3 Environment Table 3.

storage and communication (1) (2) (3) Environment (4) Other services include: Wholesale and retail trade. Households data not available. extra-territorial organizations. the mining. hunting. transport and environment indicators EU-27 BE BG 2005 CZ DK DE EE IE 2007 2007 Agriculture. motorcycles and personal and household goods. Hotels and restaurants.Figure 3. last year available (%) 100 % 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10 % EL Mining and quarrying.5. Manufacturing Other services (1) ES FR IT CY LV LT LU 2007(2) 2007(2) 2007 2007(3) HU MT NL AT PL 2006(2) 2007 2007(4) PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 2006(2) 2007 Electricity. The electricity. repair of motor vehicles. Financial intermediation. Spain (57 %) and Estonia (41 %). Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_taxind) N/A 3 187 . gas and water supply. Energy. The only Member States where the agriculture. Households paid significant pollution/resource taxes in Belgium (84 %).7: Pollution/resource taxes in the European countries by their payers. gas and water supply and construction sectors made the largest contribution in Sweden (70 %). forestry and fishing sector made up a notable share of total pollution/ resource taxes was Estonia (17 %). forestry and fishing Transport. Resource taxes data not available. Other services data not available. Construction Households N/A N/A N/A N/A 0% In the case of pollution/resource taxes. activities of households. Real estate. public administration and community services. hunting. Norway (77 %) and Austria (74 %). quarrying and manufacturing sectors paid the largest shares of total pollution/resource taxes in Denmark (82 %) and Malta (73 %).

2007 (thousand tonnes) Nonmetallic minerals 4 250 607 95 618 60 062 94 780 82 115 591 026 16 671 166 537 51 343 562 637 487 393 447 438 14 257 22 534 25 706 4 757 61 381 501 54 673 87 575 254 119 161 664 307 716 45 193 29 044 134 362 103 192 288 314 : : 69 594 52 064 : : 341 554 Fossil Waste for energy Other final materials products treatment /carriers and disposal 1 908 871 40 825 40 909 72 708 36 051 16 297 17 467 88 390 141 030 144 057 182 383 2 630 2 781 5 887 .12 186 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: tsdpc230 or env_ac_mfa) 188 Energy.218 111 .333 0 .2 141 1 129 496 .2 749 .243 0 0 0 0 .1: Domestic material consumption by material.3 Environment Table 3.808 .175 0 0 1 0 13 0 : : -2 .6.1 403 2 563 : : 1 123 . transport and environment indicators .92 755 1 530 1 441 7 347 : : .1 481 0 5 0 2 0 .39 .106 76 2 288 .4 978 .16 : : 0 Total EU-27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK IS LI NO CH HR MK TR 8 200 305 195 685 142 247 196 650 155 530 1 314 170 38 171 229 540 186 334 877 811 907 955 804 257 20 020 48 594 48 614 6 821 109 684 2 234 184 299 172 154 642 108 218 109 427 914 62 372 67 801 207 033 183 454 750 745 : : 173 628 92 145 : : 719 518 Biomass 1 728 709 49 756 11 674 24 222 34 516 262 044 5 024 38 656 32 177 144 179 247 964 146 896 2 278 23 165 16 704 2 050 17 936 603 46 204 46 285 179 604 31 804 50 426 7 306 19 277 33 545 54 869 199 547 : : 20 299 20 051 : : 206 447 Metal ores 312 047 9 542 30 794 4 411 2 097 43 709 152 7 907 13 057 28 992 24 179 29 793 585 171 536 38 2 665 99 7 408 9 598 49 107 2 119 6 023 955 2 678 8 690 6 187 20 554 : : 5 460 2 245 : : 47 702 429 578 .1 192 533 751 26 453 1 368 967 4 362 .2 254 269 185 .17 0 -4 0 -1 1 .136 27 808 954 76 475 29 838 161 418 21 568 63 252 9 011 16 047 28 906 17 752 234 983 : : 79 680 15 237 : : 122 692 5 050 .

Fossil energy materials/carriers and biomass accounted for approximately similar shares with 23 % and 21 % of the total respectively. Energy. On a breakdown by material. 2007 (million tonnes) 3 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: tsdpc230 or env_ac_mfa) Domestic material consumption (DMC) measures the total amount of materials directly used by an economy and it can provide an assessment of the absolute level of the use of resources. while metal ores made up the remaining 4 %. However. This trend was in accordance with the development in Domestic Extraction Used (DEU).6. plus all physical imports minus all physical exports. transport and environment indicators 189 . It is defined as the annual quantity of raw materials extracted from the domestic territory. From 2000 to 2003. consumption of minerals and metal ores grew by 14 % and 10 % respectively. non-metallic minerals made up 52 % of total EU-27 DMC in 2007. In 2007. while the consumption of fossil fuels showed a moderate increase (3 %).1: Domestic material consumption.Environment Map 3. reaching an overall increase of 8 % between 2000 and 2007. DMC decreased by 3 %. since 2003 it has increased by 11 %. From 2000 to 2007. total DMC in the EU-27 was approximately 8 200 million tonnes.

6.2: Total imports and exports of materials in the EU-27. transport and environment indicators . 2000-2007 (million tonnes) Imports Total Biomass Metal ores (gross ores) Non-metallic minerals Fossil energy materials/carriers Other products Waste for final treatment and disposal Exports Total Biomass Metal ores (gross ores) Non-metallic minerals Fossil energy materials/carriers Other products Waste for final treatment and disposal 1 782 454 319 314 575 118 3 1 779 451 322 305 580 118 4 1 828 1 881 1 987 2 022 2 056 2 100 463 328 304 604 123 5 486 343 304 615 127 6 496 381 314 654 135 7 527 377 327 646 140 6 529 406 332 641 141 6 535 425 344 641 148 7 2000 2 824 495 496 332 1 384 116 0 2001 2 854 510 486 328 1 414 117 1 2002 2 897 526 486 327 1 438 119 1 2003 3 003 538 508 328 1 503 126 1 2004 3 193 564 566 340 1 585 137 1 2005 3 247 587 544 348 1 629 138 1 2006 3 355 594 601 357 1 659 143 1 2007 3 425 614 632 381 1 643 153 2 Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_mfa) 190 Energy.3 Environment Table 3.

their growth was continuous. From 2000 to 2006. but they kept rising since. while biomass and metal ores contributed 25 % and 20 % to total exports. transport and environment indicators 191 . Energy.0. while exports presented a slight decrease between 2000 and 2001 (.Environment Figure 3. while from 2006 to 2007 it marked a slight decrease (. imports grew continuously. the amount of fossil fuels exported by the EU-27 made up a 31 % share of total exports. The imports of biomass and metal ores were at similar levels (18 % of the total). In 2007.6. the EU-27 presented increased exporting activity for all materials. the total imports and exports of materials in the EU-27 grew by 21 % and 18 % respectively. Over this period. the imports of fossil fuels in the EU-27 accounted for almost half of the total and reached 1 643 million tonnes. The amount of imports was about 63 % higher than the amount of exports.1 %). The highest increase was observed in metal ores (33 %).2: Total imports and exports of materials in the EU-27 (million tonnes) 3 500 3 300 3 100 2 900 2 700 2 500 2 300 2 100 1 900 1 700 1 500 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 3 Imports Source: Eurostat (online data code: env_ac_mfa) Exports Between 2000 and 2007. In 2007. the amount of imported biomass and metal ores grew by 24 % and 27 % respectively.2 %). Since 2000. From 2000 to 2007.

56 39.23 of which: Domestic extraction used 13.56 19.93 13.35 14.6.84 20.97 28.56 18.69 7.39 21.64 37.17 15.91 15.08 56.52 21.30 5.29 8.68 7.03 46.26 5.15 13.79 44.74 8.11 18.48 15.87 12.63 : : 11.15 19.23 7.56 14.87 6.28 16.47 6.55 25.28 2.05 12.74 19.23 13.22 26.84 : : 9.31 : : 74.94 4.69 21.3: Domestic material input and domestic material consumption per capita.13 Domestic material consumption 16.78 28.34 10.81 : : 7.66 26.69 24.05 14.04 16.57 19.52 5.81 15.90 29.08 23.54 11.31 5.92 18.77 17.90 24.37 24.01 3.96 21.12 : : 82.95 27.71 6.79 3.85 12.75 4.98 29.18 10.04 18.65 19.17 46.72 19.11 10.74 16.86 30.23 5.56 36.74 11.40 14.52 18.79 : : 2.87 18.3 Environment Table 3.01 0.18 12.91 12.82 6. transport and environment indicators . 2007 (tonnes per capita) Domestic material input EU-27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Switzerland Croatia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey : 36.00 36.16 10.91 5.25 20.46 11.50 9.92 37.07 12.45 52.10 34.03 28.35 6.29 20.10 4.14 9.21 10.20 : : 10.05 9.66 6.85 20.54 21.61 8.26 Source: Eurostat (online data codes: tsdpc220 or env_ac_mfa and demo_gind) 192 Energy.31 : : 36.36 15.15 20.15 14.10 Imports 6.29 21.50 28.39 12.42 18.68 16.

transport and environment indicators 193 . The relation of DMC to DMI indicates to which extent material resource inputs are used for own domestic consumption or are exported for consumption in other economies. Cyprus (94 %) and Malta (91 %). The highest shares of DMI use for own DMC were recorded in Romania (95 %). DMI equals domestic extraction used plus imports.Environment Figure 3. DMC in the EU-27 was at 16. DMI ranged between 6 tonnes per capita in Malta to 56 tonnes per capita in Ireland. 2007 (tonnes per capita) Ireland Finland Luxembourg Estonia Slovenia Denmark Belgium Sweden Netherlands Austria Cyprus Latvia Czech Republic Portugal Spain Romania Bulgaria Germany Lithuania Poland Greece Slovakia France Italy United Kingdom Hungary Malta 3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 DEU Imports DMC Source: Eurostat (online data codes: tsdpc220 or env_ac_mfa and demo_gind) Direct Material Input (DMI) measures the direct input of materials for use into the economy.6. the share was low in Luxembourg (32 %) and the Netherlands (38 %). In 2007. The reasons of the diversion in these shares differ across countries. In contrast.3: Domestic material input and domestic material consumption per capita. High DMI was also observed in Finland (47) and Luxembourg (44). Domestic material consumption (DMC) equals DMI minus exports. Energy. Ireland (94 %). while data for DMI were not available.5 tonnes per capita. At Member State level.

fishing. GCV See “Gross Calorific Value”. Gross domestic product The gross domestic product (GDP) is the value of the output of all goods and services produced within the borders of a country. agriculture/forestry. commercial and public services. It excludes the non-energy consumption. and when the products of combustion are returned to ambient temperature. It is calculated using the following formula: net imports / (gross inland consumption + bunkers). Biofuels comprise biogasoline. 194 Energy. It is defined as the ratio of Gross Inland Consumption of energy to Gross Domestic Product. Secondgeneration biofuels refer to biofuels produced from wastes. Gross calorific value The gross calorific value (GCV) is the total amount of heat released by a unit quantity of fuel. The thermal efficiency of a combined heat and power unit is significantly higher than that of a unit producing electricity only. Final energy consumption Final energy consumption is the energy consumed in the following sectors: industry. Combined heat and power A combined heat and power (also referred to as a cogeneration or a CHP) unit is an installation in which heat energy released from fuel is transmitted to electrical generator sets which are designed and operated in such a way that energy is partly used for generating electrical energy and partly for supplying heat for various purposes. Energy intensity Energy intensity gives an indication of the effectiveness with which energy is being used to produce added value. transport and environment indicators . residential and other. CHP See “Combined Heat and Power”. residues. Energy dependency Energy dependency shows the extent to which a country relies upon imports in order to meet its energy needs. non-food cellulosic material and lingo-cellulosic material. transport. GDP See “Gross Domestic Product”. deliveries to the energy transformation sector and to the energy sector. This quantity includes the heat of condensation of any water vapour contained in the fuel and of the water vapour formed by the combustion of any hydrogen contained in the fuel. biodiesel and other liquid biofuels. when it is burned completely with oxygen. Cogeneration See “Combined Heat and Power”.Annexes Annex A: Glossary of terms used in the energy section Biofuels Liquid or gaseous fuels used primarily for transport produced from biomass.

coking coal. Net calorific value The net calorific value (NCV) is the amount of heat released by a unit quantity of fuel. with all plants running. quantities supplied to sea going ships). The precise definition depends on the fuel involved: − Hard coal. consisting mainly of methane. coke oven coke and coal tar. Installed capacity Installed capacity represents the maximum active power that can be supplied. whether liquefied or gaseous. It is calculated using the following formula: primary production + recovered products + imports + stock changes – exports – bunkers (i. It includes both "nonassociated" gas originating from fields producing hydrocarbons only in gaseous form. for heating or operation of equipment and auxiliaries) as well as any quantities supplied to other on-site producers of energy for transformation or other uses. when it is burned completely with oxygen.g. and the fuel input. continuously. production includes the quantities consumed by the producer during the production process (e. Power station efficiency The efficiency of a thermal or nuclear power station is defined as the ratio between the output. Net import Net import is calculated as the difference between imports and exports. transport and environment indicators 195 . Energy. NCV See “Net Calorific Value”. and when the products of combustion are returned to ambient temperature. the gross electricity generated. Lignite and derived products Lignite and derived products include lignite. and "associated" gas produced in association with crude oil as well as methane recovered from coal mines. occurring in underground deposits. Primary energy production Primary energy production is the extraction of energy from a natural source. Hard coal and derived products Hard coal and derived products include hard coal (anthracite.e. In the case of a combined heat and power installation the output is the gross electricity generated plus the heat produced. peat.e. This quantity does not include the heat of condensation of the water vapour formed by the combustion of hydrogen contained in the fuel. calculated after any operation for removal of inert matter. patent fuels.Annexes Gross inland consumption Gross inland consumption is the quantity of energy consumed within the borders of a country. brown coal/lignite briquettes and peat briquettes. bituminous coal and sub-bituminous coal). lignite: Quantities of fuels extracted or produced. Natural gas Natural gas comprises gases. In general. i.

in gas extraction. including off-shore production. wind. Solar photovoltaic: Quantities of electricity generated. wood wastes and other solid wastes. Production includes only marketable production. tidal and geothermal energies. Production is calculated on the basis of the difference between the enthalpy of the fluid produced in the production borehole and that of the fluid disposed of via the re-injection borehole. RES See “Renewable Energy”. wood. transport and environment indicators . Geothermal energy: Quantities of heat extracted from geothermal fluids. the production is the heat content (NCV) of the fuel. The production includes all quantities of gas consumed in the installation for the fermentation processes. Production is the actual heat produced or the heat calculated on the basis of the gross electricity generated and the thermal efficiency of the nuclear plant. solar. − − − − − In the case of anaerobic digestion of wet wastes. Hydropower. Biomass / Wastes: In the case of municipal solid wastes (MSW). measured after purification and extraction of natural gas liquids and sulphur. Production is calculated on the basis of the gross electricity generated and a conversion factor of 3 600 kJ/kWh. Natural gas: Quantities of dry gas within national boundaries. and any extraction losses. Renewable energy Renewable energy includes hydroelectricity. and excludes any quantities re-injected. pipeline systems and processing plants. vented and flared. biomass. The production includes all quantities used within the natural gas industry. production is the heat produced after combustion and corresponds to the heat content (NCV) of the fuel. 196 Energy.Annexes − Crude oil: Quantities of fuels extracted or produced within national boundaries. In the case of biofuels. Wind. and excludes all quantities of flared gases. production is the heat content (NCV) of the biogases produced. and excludes any quantities returned to formation. Nuclear heat: Quantities of heat produced in a reactor. The production includes only marketable production.

statistics from EFTA. safety) and on the other hand.6. quantity and performance for the transport of freight and passengers.1.pdf.6. figures from miscellaneous international or national bodies have been used and some estimates (put in italics) have been made.eu. annual aggregated data covering many aspects of inland modes of transport (rail.2003) – Road accidents: Council Decision 93/704/EC of 30 November 1993 (O. while figures from the DG for Mobility and Transport have been used as an additional source. freight and traffic: Regulation (EC) No 437/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 February 2003 (O.3. For some missing data. millions of transport figures from EU countries plus. available at http://www. Mediterranean and Candidate countries. UNECE and ITF. L 163 of 6.2009) – Aviation passengers. L 14 of 21.12. on a voluntary basis.org/trans/main/wp6/pdfdocs/glossen4. traffic and accidents) (O.J.9.J. The “Common Questionnaire” of Eurostat.J. transport and environment indicators 197 . most of the indicators combine basic transport figures with population or Gross Domestic Product (GDP).J.J.1998) – Inland waterways: Regulation (EC) 1365/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 September 2006 (O.htm. passengers. L 264 of 25. Two main channels are used by Eurostat to collect statistical data: 1. such as the “Panorama of transport” and several “Statistics in Focus”. road. inland waterways. vehicle-kilometres.int/irc/dsis/coded/info/data/coded/en/Theme7. L 66 of 11.2003) – Road freight: Council Regulation (EC) 1172/98 of 25 May 1998 (O.J. According to a commonly agreed breakdown. The main dissemination channel used for Eurostat data is the on-line database which covers.europa. Other voluntary agreements cover the collection of other types of data such as regional transport indicators. pipelines. the indicators are presented on the one hand by domains of interest (equipment.1993) 2. from the early eighties.12. by modes of transport (rail.unece. The indicators presented in the transport section of this pocket book represent a small part of the very detailed data collected by Eurostat in the framework of legal acts and voluntary data agreements. to a lesser extent. L 141 of 6. Further clarification of the terms used in transport statistics can be found in the Eurostat/ITF/UNECE "Illustrated Glossary for Transport Statistics" publication. maritime and aviation). inland waterways and pipelines).2006) – Maritime: Directive 2009/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on statistical returns in respect of carriage of goods and passengers by sea (O. road.1980) replaced by Regulation (EC) No 91/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 (rail freight.Annexes Annex B: Terms and methodology used in the transport section The main terms used in the field of transport statistics are defined in the "Eurostat concepts and definitions database (CODED)" accessible under the Eurostat web site at http://forum. To facilitate the comparisons between smaller and bigger countries. Legal acts on transport statistics which cover detailed data collections for all the main modes of transport: – Rail freight: Council Directive 80/1177/EEC of 4 December 1980 (O. L 350 of 23. which is used to collect.J. Some miscellaneous publications in paper and electronic formats are also available. L 329 of 30. Eurostat’s on-line database has been used as the main source for the indicators. Energy.

Emissions of some substances resulting from burning of fossil fuels and other activities like industrial processes or agriculture significantly change the composition of the atmosphere and cause the anthropogenic greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 equivalent CRF – Common reporting format for source and sink categories The CRF is used by countries for reporting of greenhouse gas inventories since 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).int/resource/docs/cop5/07. DEU is the annual amount of raw material (except for water and air) extracted from the natural environment.html 198 Energy. the Kyoto Protocol. In order to aggregate the emissions of the different substances and present a single figure for the climate change issue they are expressed in CO2 equivalents.pdf). transport and environment indicators . The International Panel for Climate Change has developed carbon factors for estimating the carbon content of forests and of different types of wood products1. Domestic Extraction Used (DEU) Domestic extraction used (DEU) is the input from the natural environment to be used in the economy. perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). panels.ipcc-nggip.iges. These substances have individual global warming potentials (GWP) ranging from 1 (CO2) to 23 900 (SF6). methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). the carbon remains stored in products made from wood (rafters used in buildings. These factors were applied to standard forest data on standing volume of forest trees.unfccc. cardboard. which are released into the atmosphere when the wood is incinerated or ultimately broken down during the process of decomposition. Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) Domestic material consumption (DMC) measures the total amount of materials directly used by an economy and is defined as the annual quantity of raw 1 http://www. veneers. Before that happens. and EU GHG Monitoring Mechanism (Decision 280/2004/ EC). The sources categories in the highest aggregated levels are the following: CRF 1 Energy CRF 2 Industrial Processes CRF 3 Solvent and Other Product Use CRF 4 Agriculture CRF 5 Land-Use Change & Forestry CRF 6 Waste CRF 7 Other Please note that the fuel combustion for energy use in the industry and in the agriculture as well as the waste incineration with energy use – all these emissions count to the CRF source and sink categories "Energy". It is in line with the 1996 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC 19971). net annual increment and wood products to convert these data to tonnes of carbon.Annexes Annex C: Glossary of terms used in the environment section Carbon content of woody biomass and wood products Different tree species store different amounts of carbon. etc).or. paper. and is described in the Reporting guidelines (http://www.jp/public/2006gl/vol4.

Domestic Material Input Direct Material Input (DMI) measures the direct input of materials for use into the economy. Internal current expenditure exclude purchases of environmental protection services bought from the Public sector or Specialized producers such as waste collection. plus all physical imports minus all physical exports. reduction and elimination of pollution or any other degradation of the environment resulting from the production process or from the consumption of goods and services.e. Total current expenditure for environmental protection There are used also in the data reported under Structural Business Statistics regulation. Environmental protection investments Investment for environmental protection includes all outlays in a given year (purchases and own-account production) for machinery. DMC does not include upstream "hidden" flows related to Imports and Exports of raw materials and products. These are sometimes not part of specific surveys but estimated based on existing information e. A large part of internal expenditure is related to operating environmental protection equipment. There are also other internal expenditure such as general administration. instead they serve to treat pollution already generated. all materials which are of economic value and are used in production and consumption activities. i. and includes both internal current expenditure and fees/purchases: . They serve to reduce the amount of pollution generated. and the amount of pollution generated. All such purchases are reported under Fees/Purchases. environmental consultancy services. These are investments which lead to a modified or adapted production process. both from public and private producers. or surveillance fees.g. equipment and land used for Environmental Protection purposes. on number of units and unit costs. transport and environment indicators 199 . Internal current expenditure includes purchases of connected and adapted non-capital goods such as extra cost for low sulphur fuels. Environmental protection expenditure Environmental protection expenditure (EPE) include all purposeful activities directly aimed at the prevention. These payments are clearly linked Energy. maintenance and own personnel for measures made by the sector to protect the environment. It is the sum of two categories: . environmental management and certification. material.Fees/Purchases Fees/Purchases include all purchases of environmental protection services. These investments do not affect the production process itself. The coverage of adapted and connected products in the figures reported could vary considerably between countries. DMI equals domestic (used) extraction plus imports. sewage treatment. information. research and development.Annexes materials extracted from the domestic territory.Internal current expenditure (in-house) Internal current expenditure includes the use of energy. education.Investments in integrated technologies (pollution prevention investments). . .End-of-pipe (pollution treatment) investments. It is important to note that the term "consumption" as used in DMC denotes apparent consumption and not final consumption.

Payments of general environmental or green taxes (such as energy taxes) are excluded completely from this statistics. with environmental management and education. Environmental domains The scope of environmental protection is defined according to the Classification of Environmental Protection Activities (CEPA 2000). The different energy products are aggregated on the basis of their net calorific value. The payments include: • Payments to specialised producers (enterprises) for waste and wastewater collection and treatment and payments to environmental consultants linked e. noise and vibration abatement.Annexes with an environmental protection activity done outside the enterprise and should exclude e. .g. these taxes are the ones whose tax base is a physical unit (or a proxy of it) of something that has a proven.Core domains: protection of ambient air and climate (Air). protection against radiation. Carbon dioxide taxes are included under energy as they are often an integral part of general energy taxes. The concept consists of the revenues from four types of taxes: energy-. commercial. transport and environment indicators . protection of biodiversity and landscape. transport-. which distinguishes nine different environmental domains grouped for practical reasons in 2 categories: . waste management (waste). Payments of taxes directly used for financing environmental protection expenditure — so called earmarked environmental taxes are excluded. charges etc) as well as permits and surveillance fees. deflated with the final demand deflator). public and households sectors but exclude deliveries to the energy transformation sector and to the energy industries themselves. Energy Tax Revenues is the sum of taxes on energy products used for both mobile and immobile purposes.and resource taxes. but are reported as Subsidies/Transfers. wastewater management (wastewater). groundwater and surface water. industrial.g. • Payments to public sector for waste and wastewater collection and treatment (whatever the name of the payments — fees. pollution. 200 Energy. fines and penalties. Final Energy Consumption include energy consumed in the transport. It measures the taxes levied on the use of energy which contributes to foster energy efficiency.Non-core domains: protection and remediation of soil. agricultural. and excluded are general Value Added Tax (VAT). and expressed in tons of oil equivalent. specific negative impact on the environment. Environmentally related taxes Called "environmental taxes" for practical reasons. research and development and other environmental protection activities. Implicit tax rate on energy The indicator expresses energy tax revenues in relation to final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year (Euro per ton oil equivalent.

the EU-15 has agreed to an 8 % reduction in its greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990. and SF6 is used in high-voltage switch gear and magnesium production. methane. Kyoto base year In general. Hydrofuorocarbons and perfluorocarbons comprise a large number of different gases that have different GWPs (IPCC. According to the Kyoto Protocol anthropogenic emissions of the six greenhouse gases (the ‘Kyoto basket’) are aggregated using the global warming potential: carbon dioxide (CO2). perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) are greenhouse gases with a very high global warming potential. Poland (1988). 21 (methane). Romania (1989) and Slovenia (1986). 1996).Industry: includes the breakdown of the first category described in Sectors according to NACE.Sectors: industry. perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Energy. PFCs are used in semi-conductor manufacture and as cleaning solvents. Ireland. No targets exist for Cyprus. The main uses of HFCs are as refrigerants. private households activities. cleaning solvents and foam blowing agents. The new EU Member States and candidate countries have differing targets under the Kyoto Protocol which became binding to its Parties worldwide in February 2005. environmentally related taxes can be broken down by: . Global Warming Potential (GWP) The global warming potential is the estimated potential of a greenhouse gas contributing to global warming in the atmosphere.Annexes For the purpose of this publication. provided these are off set by reductions in the other Member States. It is based on its effect over a 100-year time horizon. Malta and Turkey. nitrous oxide. 310 (nitrous oxide) to 23 900 (sulphur hexafluoride). Spain and Sweden) to increase emissions. Some countries have selected different base years: Bulgaria (1988). These substances have individual GWP ranging from 1 (carbon dioxide). from 2008 to 2012. Fluorinated gases (F-gases) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). non-residents and not-allocated (impossible to be allocated to the first 3 categories) . Individual targets for each of the EU-15 countries have been agreed under the EU burden sharing agreement (Council Decision 2002/358/EC4) which allows five countries (Greece. Kyoto reduction targets In the first quantified emission limitation and reduction commitment period. transport and environment indicators 201 . perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride). Hungary (average 1985–87). methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and hydrofuorocarbons (HFCs). and 1995 for the fluorinated gases (hydrofluorocarbons. Greenhouse Gases (GHG) These emissions are reported under 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and for the EU member states under the Decision 280/2004/ EC. the base year it is 1990 for carbon dioxide. Portugal.

iges. in English: Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community.e.Annexes NACE Nomenclature statistique des Activités économiques dans la Communauté Européenne. gas and water supply Construction Wholesale and retail trade.html 202 Energy. paper and paper products.1 DA DB DC DD DE DF DG DH DI DJ DK DL DM DN Manufacture of food products. beverages and tobacco Manufacture of textiles and textile products Manufacture of leather and leather products Manufacture of wood and wood products Manufacture of pulp. Manufacture of electrical and optical equipment Manufacture of transport equipment Manufacturing n. Sections of NACE rev 1. publishing and printing Manufacture of coke. motorcycles and personal and household goods Hotels and restaurants Transport.or.c. renting and business activities Public administration and defence. chemical products and man-made fibres Manufacture of rubber and plastic products Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products Manufacture of basic metals and fabricated metal products Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.c 1 http://www. compulsory social security Education Health and social work Other community. social and personal service activities Activities of households Extra-territorial organizations and bodies Sub-sections of NACE rev 1. storage and communication Financial intermediation Real estate. refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel Manufacture of chemicals.ipcc-nggip. repair of motor vehicles. NACE is organised in sections and sub-sections. transport and environment indicators .jp/public/2006gl/vol4. hunting and forestry Fishing Mining and quarrying Manufacturing Electricity.1 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q Agriculture.e.

Public water supply: Water supplied by economic units engaged in collection. It corresponds to division 41 (NACE/ISIC) independently of the sector involved. The bulk of this waste stream is from households. It is measured in cubic metres over bark (including the bark). offices and public institutions are included. transport and environment indicators 203 . Waste Waste means any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard. 2 http://stats. though similar wastes from sources such as commerce. purification and distribution of water (including desalting of sea water to produce water as the principal product of interest. For areas not covered by a municipal waste scheme an estimation has been made of the amount of waste generated. Deliveries of water from one public supply undertaking to another are excluded. and excluding system operation for agricultural purposes and treatment of waste water solely in order to prevent pollution). Water Water net abstraction (= water withdrawal): Water gross abstraction minus returned water.org/glossary/detail. Municipal waste generated consists of waste collected by or on behalf of municipal authorities and disposed of through the waste management system. and cooling water used in other industrial processes.oecd. In the questionnaire cooling water is broken down into cooling water used in the generation of electricity in power stations.Annexes Net annual increment The average annual volume over the reference period of gross increment less natural losses2. Cooling water: Water which is used to absorb and remove heat.asp?ID=6517 Energy.

955 1 MJ (GCV) 1 MJ (GCV) 1 MJ (GCV) 1 MJ (GCV) 1 MJ (GCV) 1 MJ (GCV) 1 MJ (GCV) 1 MJ (GCV) 1 kWh 1 kWh 1 MJ (GCV) 1 kWh 900 900 1 000 900 1 000 1 000 1 000 1 000 3 600 3 600 1 000 3 600 0.411 .955 1.024 0.0.022 1.186 .733 0.027 1. transport and environment indicators .28 300 26 800 .024 0.330 0.750 0.1.0239 0.134 .900 0.051 1.0215 0.0.251 .10 500 10 500 .931 0.099 1.0239 0. waxes.024 0.024 0.30 700 13 800 .003 0.676 0.681 0.051 1.182 1. jet fuels Naphtha Gas diesel oil Residual fuel oil White spirit.017 0.086 0.994 .764 0.041 1.478 0.0.015 1.251 0.0215 0.943 1 0.0.330 .640 .21 000 7 800 .086 0.502 0.13 800 20 000 37 700 39 500 41 868 41 600 .31 400 28 500 5 600 .0215 0. industrial spirit Lubricants Bitumen Petroleum cokes Others petroleum products (paraffins. etc.) Natural gas Coke-oven gas Blast-furnace gas Works gas Nuclear energy Biomass Solar energy Geothermal energy Hydro energy Wind energy Derived heat Electrical energy 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 17 200 .Annexes Annex D: Calorific values and conversion factors Calorific values kJ (NCV) Hard coal Recovered hard coal Patent fuels Hard coke Brown coal Black lignite Peat Brown coal briquettes Tar Benzol Oil equivalent* Crude oil Feedstocks Refinery gas LPG Motor spirit Kerosenes.42 800 42 500 49 500 46 000 44 000 43 000 44 000 42 600 40 000 43 600 42 000 39 000 32 000 40 000 kgoe (NCV) 0.086 204 Energy.0.0.

1868 x 104 1.52 x 10-8 8.968 1.Annexes * The tonne of oil equivalent is a conventional standardised unit defined on the basis of a tonne of oil with a net calorific value of 41 868 kilojoules/kg.8 3. watts and watt hours: kilo (k) mega (M) giga (G) tera (T) peta (P) = = = = = 1 000 or 1 000 000 or 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 000 000 1 000 000 000 000 000 103 106 or or or 109 1012 1015 Conversion Factors Energy From TJ Gcal Mtoe Mbtu GWh 1 4. joules.388 x10-5 1 x 10-7 1 2.0551 x 10-3 3.163 x 10-3 1 2.2778 11 630 1 3.1868 x 10-3 4. The following prefixes are used for multiples of toe. The conversion coefficients from the specific units to kgoe (kilogramme of oil equivalent) are thus computed by dividing the conversion co-efficients to the kilojoules by 41 868.6 238.8 1 1 x 107 0.252 860 2. transport and environment indicators 205 .6 x 10-5 947.968 x 107 3 412 0.931 x 10-4 To TJ Gcal Mtoe MBtu GWh Energy.

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transport and environment indicators Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union 2011 — 205 pp. No KS-DK-10-001-EN-C .European Commission Energy. — 10.5 x 21 cm Theme: Environment and energy Collection: Pocketbooks ISBN 978-92-79-16303-6 ISSN 1725-4566 doi:10.2785/52270 Cat.

g.eu).europa. . annual series of the Official Journal of the European Union and reports of cases before the Court of Justice of the European Union): • via one of the sales agents of the Publications Office of the European Union (http://publications.europa. You can obtain their contact details on the Internet (http:// ec.eu/others/ agents/index_en. Priced subscriptions (e.eu).eu) or by sending a fax to +352 2929-42758.htm). • at the European Union’s representations or delegations. Priced publications: • via EU Bookshop (http://bookshop.europa.How to obtain EU publications Free publications: • via EU Bookshop (http://bookshop.europa.

It presents data for the European Union aggregate EU-27.europa. The objective of this publication is to provide an overview of the most relevant indicators on energy.eu/eurostat . http://ec. transport and environment indicators The multi-thematic pocketbook Energy. transport and environment indicators comprises a broad set of data collected by Eurostat and the European Environment Agency. for the EU Member States as well as for the candidate countries and EFTA countries.KS-DK-10-001-EN-C Energy. transport and environment. with particular focus on sustainable development.

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