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Soja(sociospatialdialectics) (1)

Soja(sociospatialdialectics) (1)

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TIe Socio-SpaliaI BiaIeclic

AulIov|s)· Edvavd W. Soja
Souvce· AnnaIs oJ lIe Associalion oJ Anevican OeogvapIevs, VoI. 70, No. 2 |Jun., 1980), pp.
207-225
FuIIisIed I¸· Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on IeIaIJ oJ lIe Association of American Geographers
SlaIIe UBL· http://www.jstor.org/stable/2562950 .
Accessed· 29/08/2011 13·55
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THE SOCIO-SFATIAL BIALECTIC
EBWABB W. SOJA
ABSTBACT. An incveasingI¸ vigidiJ¸ing ovlIodox¸ Ias Iegun lo enevge vilIin
Mavxisl spaliaI anaI¸sis lIal lIvealens lo cIoIe oJJ lIe deveIopnenl oJ a cvilicaI
lIeov¸ oJ space in ils inJanc¸. TIe concepl oJ a socio-spaliaI diaIeclic is inlvo-
duced as a neans oJ veopening lIe deIale and caIIing Jov lIe expIicil incovpovalion
oJ lIe sociaI pvoduclion oJ space in Mavxisl anaI¸sis as sonelIing nove lIan an
epipIenonenon. BuiIding upon lIe vovIs oJ Henvi LeJeIvve, Evnesl MandeI, and
olIevs, a genevaI spaliaI pvoIIenalic is idenliJied and discussed vilIin lIe conlexl
oJ IolI uvIan and vegionaI poIilicaI econon¸. TIe spaliaI pvoIIenalic is nol a
suIslilule Jov cIass anaI¸sis Iul il can Ie an inlegvaI and incveasingI¸ saIienl
eIenenl in cIass consciousness and cIass slvuggIe vilIin conlenpovav¸ capilaIisn.
Space and lIe poIilicaI ovganizalion oJ space expvess sociaI veIalionsIips Iul
aIso veacl IacI upon lIen .... InduslviaIizalion, once lIe pvoducev oJ uvIanisn,
is nov Ieing pvoduced I¸ il .... WIen ve use lIe vovds ¨uvIan vevoIulion¨
ve designale lIe lolaI ensenIIe oJ lvansJovnalions vIicI vun lIvougIoul con-
lenpovav¸ sociel¸ and vIicI sevve lo Iving aIoul lIe cIange Jvon a peviod in
vIicI queslions oJ econonic gvovlI and induslviaIizalion pvedoninale lo lIe
peviod in vIicI lIe uvIan pvoIIenalic Iecones decisive.
THESE oIsevvalions ave dvavn Jvon a
poslscvipl lo SociaI Juslice and lIe Cil¸
in vIicI Bavid Havve¸ pvesenls a IvieJ ap-
pvecialion and cvilique oJ lIe ideas oJ lIe
FvencI sociaI pIiIosopIev, Henvi LeJeIvve,
on uvIanisn, lIe ovganizalion oJ space, and
conlenpovav¸ Mavxisl anaI¸sis.' Bul Hav-
ve¸'s inlevpvelalion aIso acconpIisIed sone-
lIing nove. Il vecvealed a pallevn oJ vesponse
lo LeJeIvve' s cvilicaI lIeov¸ oJ space lIal
nalcIed vIal Iad aIvead¸ Ieen eslaIIisIed in
lIe FvencI Iilevaluve lIvougI lIe vvilings oJ
Bv. Soja is FvoJessov oJ UvIan and BegionaI FIanning
al lIe Univevsil¸ oJ CaIiJovnia, Los AngeIes in Los An-
geIes, CA 90024.
1
Bavid Havve¸, SociaI Juslice and lIe Cil¸ |BaIlinove·
TIe JoIns HopIins Univevsil¸ Fvess, 1973), p. 306: lvans-
Ialion Jvon Henvi LeJeIvve, La BevoIulion UvIaine
|Favis· OaIIinavd, 1970). OlIev veIaled vovIs I¸ LeJeIvve
incIude Le dvoil d Ia ViIIe |Favis· Edilions AnlIvopos,
1968), La Fensee Mavxisle el Ia ViIIe |Favis· Caslevnan,
1972), La Suvvie du CapilaIisn |Favis· Edilions AnlIvo-
pos, 1973), and La Fvoduclion de I'Espace |Favis· Edi-
lions AnlIvopos, 1974). OJ lIese, onI¸ La Suvvie du Cap-
ilaIisn Ias Ieen lvansIaled inlo EngIisI as TIe SuvvivaI
oJ CapilaIisn |Nev YovI· Sl. Mavlin's Fvess, 1976).
ManueI CasleIIs.2 Havve¸ pvaised LeJeIvve
Iul uIlinaleI¸ denied lIe acceplaIiIil¸ oJ Iis
najov concIusions, vIicI cIeavI¸ slvessed lIe
¨decisive¨ and ¨pveeninenl¨ voIe oJ spaliaI
slvucluvaI Jovces in nodevn capilaIisl sociel¸
nove lIan couId Ie conJovlaII¸ enIvaced
vilIin Havve¸'s ovn Mavxisl pevspeclive.
LeJeIvve vas vecognized as Iaving deaIl
IviIIianlI¸ and insigIlJuII¸ vilI lIe ovganiza-
lion oJ space as a naleviaI pvoducl, vilI lIe
veIalionsIip Ielveen sociaI and spaliaI slvuc-
luves oJ uvIanisn, and vilI lIe ideoIogicaI
conlenl oJ sociaII¸ cvealed space. Bul suveI¸
LeJeIvve Iad gone loo Jav? He Iad vaised lIe
uvIan spaliaI ¨pvoIIenalic¨ lo an inloIevaII¸
cenlvaI and aulononous posilion. TIe slvuc-
luve oJ spaliaI veIalions vas Ieing given an
excessive enpIasis vIiIe lIe nove Jundanen-
laI voIes oJ pvoduclion |vs. civcuIalion and
consunplion), sociaI |vs. spaliaI) veIalions oJ
pvoduclion, and induslviaI |vs. Jinance) capilaI
veve Ieing suInevged undev a valIev ovevin-
2
See, in pavlicuIav, ManueI CasleIIs, TIe UvIan Ques-
lion |London· Edvavd AvnoId, 1977), a lvansIalion oJ La
Queslion UvIaine |Favis· Maspevo, 1972).
ANNALS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF AMEBICAN OEOOBAFHEBS VoI. 70, No. 2, June 1980
?
1980

lIe Associalion oJ Anevican
OeogvapIevs.
Fvinled in U.S.A.
207
208
EBWABB W. SOJA June
levpveled aIlevnalive, vIal LaJeIvve caIIed
lIe ¨uvIan vevoIulion.¨ In Iis concepluaIi-
zalion oJ lIis uvIan vevoIulion, LeJeIvve ap-
peaved lo Ie suIsliluling spaliaI/levviloviaI
conJIicl Jov cIass conJIicl as lIe nolivaling
Jovce IeIind vadicaI sociaI lvansJovnalion.
Fov one Iundved ¸eavs, il Ias Ieen cuslonav¸
anong ovlIodox Mavxisl scIoIavs lo vesisl
sucI appavenl allenpls lo divevl allenlion
ava¸ Jvon cIass conJIicl as devious vevision-
isn and LeJeIvve vas lo Ie no exceplion.
TIe Ie¸ queslion lo Havve¸ vas vIelIev
lIe ovganizalion oJ space |in lIe conlexl oJ
uvIanisn) vas ¨a sepavale slvucluve vilI ils
ovn Iavs oJ innev lvansJovnalion and con-
slvuclion,¨ ov ¨lIe expvession oJ a sel oJ ve-
Ialions enIedded in sone Ivoadev slvucluve
|sucI as lIe sociaI veIalions oJ pvoduclion).¨
To Havve¸, CasleIIs, and olIevs lo JoIIov,
LeJeIvve seened lo Ie avguing lIe Jovnev and
vas lIus succunIing lo vIal Mavxisls Iave
lvadilionaII¸ caIIed a ¨JelisIisn¨ oJ space-
lIe cvealion in lIe slvucluve oJ spaliaI veIa-
lionsIips oJ an aulononous delevninanl lo
Iislov¸ and Iunan aclion sepavaled Jvon lIe
slvucluve oJ sociaI veIalions and lIe pvoduc-
lion pvocess lIal genevales il. SlvuggIing lo Ie
sevious and vigovous in lIeiv appIicalion oJ
Mavxisl nelIods, nan¸ oJ lIose nosl vespon-
siIIe Jov inlvoducing an expIicil and povevJuI
spaliaI inlevpvelalion lo Mavxisn lIus Iegan
lo eslaIIisI cevlain Ioundavies Ie¸ond vIicI
vadicaI spaliaI anaI¸sis nusl nol veacI.
TIis episode is pavl oJ a nucI nove pev-
vasive s¸ndvone vilIin lIe nev Mavxian
anaI¸sis oJ space lIal I IeIieve is signiJicanlI¸
IIunling ils inpacl and veaIening ils accon-
pIisInenls. TIe veaclion lo LeJeIvve, one oJ
lIe Ieading spaliaI lIeovisls in lIe lvenlielI
cenluv¸, is Iul one naniJeslalion oJ lIis vigidi-
J¸ing pallevn and cause enougI Jov lIe pve-
senlalion oJ a JovceJuI counlevavgunenl. I pvo-
pose lo discuss Ieve a Ivoadev pvoposilion·
lIal lIe vecenl enevgence oJ a nove spaliaII¸
expIicil Jovn oJ Mavxisl anaI¸sis-exenpIiJied
Iesl in lIe vovIs oJ Havve¸ and CasleIIs Iul
exlendaIIe aIso lo lIe vapidI¸ expanding Iil-
evaluve in vadicaI uvIan and vegionaI poIilicaI
econon¸ in genevaI-Ias incovpovaled an un-
necessaviI¸ Iiniled and inappvopviale concep-
luaIizalion oJ space and spaliaI veIalions. TIus
vIal couId pvove lo Ie lIe nosl signiJicanl
inpIicalions oJ Mavxisl spaliaI anaI¸sis Jov
IolI lIeov¸ and pvaclice ave, I conlend, Ieing
oIJuscaled lIvougI lIe veII-inlended Iul
sIovl-sigIled eJJovls oJ vadicaI scIoIavs lo
avoid spaliaI JelisIisn.
BalIev ivonicaII¸, lIe pvinav¸ souvce oJ
nisundevslanding ovev lIe veIalionsIip Ie-
lveen sociaI and spaliaI slvucluves na¸ Iie in
lIe JaiIuve oJ Mavxisl anaI¸sls lo appveciale
lIe essenliaII¸ diaIeclicaI cIavaclev oJ lIis ve-
IalionsIip and lIal oJ olIev veIalionsIips
vIicI ave slvucluvaII¸ IinIed lo il, sucI as lIal
Ielveen pvoduclion and consunplion. As a
vesuIl, inslead oJ sensiliveI¸ pvoIing lIe nix
oJ opposilion, unil¸, and conlvadiclion vIicI
deJines lIe sociaI-spaliaI diaIeclic, allenlion
Ias loo oJlen Ieen dvavn lo lIe enpl¸ ques-
lion oJ vIicI causes vIicI ov lo endIess av-
gunenls aIoul pveeninence.3 TIe socio-spa-
liaI diaIeclic Jils neilIev oJ lIe lvo aIlevnalives
pvessed upon LeJeIvve I¸ Bavid Havve¸. TIe
slvucluve oJ ovganized space is nol a sepavale
slvucluve vilI ils ovn aulononous Iavs oJ
conslvuclion and lvansJovnalion, nov is il sin-
pI¸ an expvession oJ lIe cIass slvucluve enevg-
ing Jvon lIe sociaI |i.e. aspaliaI) veIalions oJ
pvoduclion. Il vepvesenls, inslead, a diaIecli-
caII¸ deJined conponenl oJ lIe genevaI veIa-
lions oJ pvoduclion, veIalions vIicI ave si-
nuIlaneousI¸ sociaI and spaliaI.4
3
A vecenl connenl I¸ BicIavd WaIIev, veJevving lo an
eavIiev vevsion oJ lIis papev pvesenled al lIe AnnuaI
Meelings oJ lIe Associalion oJ Anevican OeogvapIevs,
Nev OvIeans, 1978, indicales lIal lIe inpuIse lo eslaIIisI
elevnaI ¨pvinac¸¨ oJ lIe |nonspaliaI) sociaI is sliII aIive,
even anong lIe nosl spaliaII¸ sensilive Mavxisls. WaIIev
avgues lIal diaIeclicaI anaI¸sis aIvead¸ incovpovales lIe
spaliaI veIalions oJ lIe node oJ pvoduclion, Iul lIal sociaI
veIalions |as vaIue veIalions) venain pvinav¸. VaIue ve-
Ialions, Iovevev, ave deJined as aIslvacl and aspaliaI-
Iul nonelIeIess sociaI. TIis depiclion WaIIev IinseIJ de-
scviIes as ¨undiaIeclicaI and convenienl¨ and I agvee. Il
is pveciseI¸ lIis convenienl suspension oJ diaIeclicaI vea-
soning lIal pevnils spaliaI veIalions lo Ie ¨incovpovaled¨
¸el innedialeI¸ |and undiaIeclicaII¸) suIovdinaled lo a
despaliaIized ¨sociaI,¨ appavenlI¸ as a vigid slvucluvaI
univevsaI evidenl in evev¸ IislovicaI nonenl in lIe de-
veIopnenl oJ capilaIisn. See BicIavd WaIIev, ¨Tvo
Souvces oJ Uneven BeveIopnenl Undev Advanced Cap-
ilaIisn· SpaliaI BiJJevenlialion and CapilaI MoIiIil¸,¨ TIe
Beviev oJ BadicaI FoIilicaI Econon¸, VoI. 10 |1978), pp.
28-37.
4
A siniIav concepluaIizalion can Ie devived Jvon lIe
slvucluvaIisl anaI¸sis pvesenled I¸ Louis AIlIussev and
Elienne BaIiIav in Beading CapilaI |London· Nev LeJl
BooIs, 1970), p. 180. AIlIussev vviles lIal ¨lIe slvucluve
oJ lIe veIalions oJ pvoduclion delevnines lIe pIaces and
Junclions occupied and adopled I¸ lIe agenls oJ pvoduc-
lion,¨ i.e., individuaIs. Agenls and lIe ¨oIjecls¨ oJ pvo-
duclion ave lIus conIined ¨in a speciJic slvucluve oJ lIe
1980 SOCIO-SFATIAL BIALECTIC 209
WIal nusl Ie cIeavI¸ denonslvaled lIen is
lIal lIeve exisls a JuII and equaII¸ saIienl spa-
liaI IonoIog¸ lo lvadilionaII¸ deJined cIass
slvucluve and Ience lo cIass conJIicl and slvuc-
luvaI lvansJovnalion. Il viII Ie suggesled lIal
sucI an IonoIogous slvucluve vilIin lIe spa-
liaI veIalions oJ pvoduclion na¸ exisl in lIe
division oJ ovganized space inlo doninanl cen-
levs and suIovdinale pevipIevies, a slvucluve
vIicI is capluved vilI gvealev pvecision in lIe
concepl oJ geogvapIicaII¸ uneven deveIop-
nenl. Il sIouId Ie enpIasized, Iovevev, lIal
lIis does nol nean lIal lIe spaliaI veIalions oJ
pvoduclion ov lIe cenlev-pevipIev¸ slvucluve
ave sepavale and independenl Jvon lIe sociaI
veIalions oJ pvoduclion. On lIe conlvav¸, lIe
lvo sels oJ veIalions ave nol onI¸ IonoIogous,
in lIal lIe¸ avise Jvon lIe sane ovigins in lIe
node oJ pvoduclion, Iul aIso diaIeclicaII¸ in-
levlvined and insepavaIIe.
TIal lIeve exisls sucI a diaIeclicaI IonoI-
og¸ Ielveen vIal nigIl Ie caIIed lIe vevlicaI
and IovizonlaI slvucluves oJ lIe node oJ pvo-
duclion is suggesled in lIe vviling oJ Mavx
and EngeIs-in discussions oJ lIe anlilIesis
Ielveen lovn and counlv¸side, lIe levviloviaI
division oJ IaIov, lIe segnenlalion oJ uvIan
vesidenliaI space undev induslviaI capilaIisn,
lIe geogvapIicaI unevenness oJ capilaIisl pvo-
duclion, lIe voIe oJ venl and pvivale ovnevsIip
oJ Iand, lIe geogvapIicaI lvansJev oJ suvpIus
vaIue, and lIe diaIeclics oJ naluve. Bul one
Iundved ¸eavs oJ Mavxisn Ias JaiIed lo de-
veIop lIe Iogic and scope oJ lIis avgunenl.5
Indeed, in a pvocess nol dissiniIav lo vIal
occuvved in lIe vise oJ lIe Iouvgeois sociaI
sciences, in vIicI lIeve vas a suInevgence
oJ a signiJicanl spaliaI anaI¸licaI JvanevovI
and an uncoupIing oJ spaliaI ovganizalion Jvon
ils sociaI Iasis, Mavxisn Ias evoIved vilIoul
a pevlinenl spaliaI pevspeclive, dveIIing pvi-
naviI¸ in a pvedoninanlI¸ socioIogicaI-Iislov-
icaI-as opposed lo vIal Havve¸ pevcepliveI¸
caIIed a geogvapIicaI- ¨inaginalion¨ in IolI
lIeov¸ and pvaclice.6 TIal lIis lendenc¸ ve-
nains diJJicuIl lo conIal even vilIin lIe ve-
cenl enevgence oJ nove expIicilI¸ spaliaI
dislviIulion oJ veIalions, pIaces and Junclions.¨ |EnpIa-
sis in oviginaI.)
5One oJ lIe Jev allenpls lo expIain vI¸ spaliaI anaI-
¸sis Ias IislovicaII¸ Ieen so IillIe deveIoped in Mavxisn
can Ie Jound in LeJeIvve, La Fensee Mavxisle el Ia ViIIe,
op.cil., Joolnole 1.
6
See cIaplev
1
oJ Havve¸, op.cil., Joolnole 1.
Mavxisl anaI¸sis is veJIecled in nan¸ va¸s· in
lIe vising cv¸ oJ spaliaI JelisIisn and a JIuvv¸
oJ unpvoduclive deIale and conlvovevs¸ ovev
levninoIog¸, enpIasis, and cvedenliaIs: in lIe
conlinuing division Ielveen uvIan, vegionaI,
and inlevnalionaI poIilicaI econon¸ vIeve
lIeve nigIl Ie a nove uniJied spaliaI poIilicaI
econon¸: and in lIe nuIlipI¸ing cIains lIal
lIe vesuvgence oJ spaliaII¸ expIicil, vadicaI po-
IilicaI econon¸ vepvesenls a ¨nev¨ uvIan so-
cioIog¸, a ¨nev¨ geogvapI¸, a ¨nev¨ uvIan
poIilics, ov a ¨nev¨ pIanning lIeov¸ vIen
vIal il acluaII¸ signiJies is sonelIing Ivoadev
lIan lIese discipIinav¸ conpavlnenls, pev-
Iaps even a diaIeclicaI naleviaIisn lIal is si-
nuIlaneousI¸ IislovicaI and spaliaI.
THE OBOANIZATION OF SFACE AS A
SOCIAL FBOBUCT
ConlexluaI vs. Cvealed Space
Il is necessav¸ lo Iegin I¸ naIing as cIeav
as possiIIe lIe dislinclion Ielveen space pev
se, ov conlexluaI space, and sociaII¸ Iased
spaliaIil¸, lIe cvealed space oJ sociaI ovgani-
zalion and pvoduclion. Fvon a naleviaIisl pev-
speclive, vIelIev necIanislic ov diaIeclicaI,
line and space in lIe genevaI sense vepvesenl
lIe oIjeclive Jovn oJ lIe exislence oJ nallev.
Tine, space, and nallev ave inexlvicaII¸ con-
necled, vilI lIe naluve oJ lIis veIalionsIip
Ieing an inpovlanl lvadilionaI lIene in lIe
Iislov¸ oJ pIiIosopI¸ and epislenoIogicaI in-
quiv¸. TIis conlexluaI, pI¸sicaIisl viev oJ
space Ias deepI¸ inJIuenced aII Jovns oJ spa-
liaI anaI¸sis, vIelIev pIiIosopIicaI and lIeo-
velicaI ov pvaclicaI and enpivicaI, vIelIev ap-
pIied lo lIe novenenl oJ IeavenI¸ Iodies ov
lo lIe Iislov¸ and Iandscape oJ Iunan sociel¸.
Il Ias inIued aII lIings spaliaI vilI a Iingeving
sense oJ pvinovdiaIil¸ and pI¸sicaI conposi-
lion, oIjeclivil¸, and inevilaIiIil¸.
Space in lIis genevaIized and exislenliaI
Jovn Ias Ieen concepluaII¸ incovpovaled inlo
lIe naleviaIisl anaI¸sis oJ Iislov¸ and sociel¸
in sucI a va¸ as lo inlevJeve vilI lIe inlev-
pvelalion oJ Iunan spaliaI ovganizalion as a
sociaI pvoducl. ConlexluaI space is oJ Ivoad
pIiIosopIicaI inlevesl in genevaling discussion
aIoul ils aIsoIule and veIalive pvopevlies, ils
cIavaclev as ¨conlainev¨ oJ Iunan IiJe, ils
oIjecliJiaIIe geonelv¸, and ils pIenonenoIog-
icaI essence. Bul il is an inappvopviale and
nisIeading Joundalion upon vIicI lo anaI¸ze
210 EBWABB W. SOJA June
lIe concvele and suIjeclive neaning oJ Iunan
spaliaIil¸. Space ilseIJ na¸ Ie pvinovdiaII¸
given, Iul lIe ovganizalion, use, and neaning
oJ space is a pvoducl oJ sociaI lvansIalion,
lvansJovnalion and expevience. SociaII¸ pvo-
duced space is a cvealed slvucluve conpavaIIe
lo olIev sociaI conslvuclions vesuIling Jvon
lIe lvansJovnalion oJ given condilions inIev-
enl in IiJe-on-eavlI, in nucI lIe sane va¸ lIal
Iunan Iislov¸ vepvesenls a sociaI lvansJov-
nalion oJ line and lenpovaIil¸. AIong siniIav
Iines, LeJeIvve dislinguisIes Ielveen Naluve
as given conlexl and vIal Ie levns ¨second
naluve,¨ lIe lvansJovned and sociaII¸ concve-
lized space avising Jvon lIe appIicalion oJ Iu-
nan IaIov.7 Il is lIis second naluve lIal Ie-
cones lIe suIjecl and oIjecl oJ IislovicaI
naleviaIisl anaI¸sis.
TIe spaliaI ovganizalion oJ Iunan sociel¸
is an evoIving pvoducl oJ Iunan aclion, a Jovn
oJ sociaI conslvuclion avising vilIin lIe pI¸s-
icaI Jvane oJ uIiquilous, conlexluaI space Iul
cIeavI¸ dislinguisIaIIe Jvon il. UnJovlunaleI¸,
il is diJJicuIl lo conve¸ and Jocus upon lIis
sociaI neaning and ovigin oJ ovganized space.
TIe doninance oJ lIe conlexluaI viev Ias so
pevnealed spaliaI anaI¸sis lIal il dislovls even
ouv vocaIuIav¸. TIus, vIiIe sucI adjeclives
as ¨sociaI,¨ ¨poIilicaI,¨ ¨econonic,¨ and
even ¨IislovicaI¨ genevaII¸ suggesl, unIess
olIevvise speciJied, a IinI lo Iunan aclion
and nolivalion, lIe levn spaliaI l¸picaII¸
evoIes lIe inage oJ sonelIing pI¸sicaI and
exlevnaI lo lIe sociaI conlexl and lo sociaI ac-
lion, a pavl oJ lIe ¨envivonnenl,¨ a conlexl
Jov sociel¸-ils conlainev-valIev lIan a
slvucluve cvealed I¸ sociel¸.
We veaII¸ do nol Iave a videI¸ used and
accepled expvession lo conve¸ lIe inIevenlI¸
sociaI quaIil¸ oJ ovganized space, especiaII¸
since lIe levn ¨sociaI space¨ Ias Iecone so
nuvI¸ vilI nuIlipIe and oJlen inconpaliIIe
neanings. Bul inslead oJ enleving inlo a lev-
ninoIogicaI deIale, Iel us assune lIal lIe use
oJ sucI vovds as ¨space,¨ ¨spaliaI veIa-
lions,¨ and ¨spaliaI slvucluves¨ in lIis papev
viII veJev unequivocaII¸ lo lIe sociaII¸ pvo-
duced ovganizalion oJ space and nol lo lIeiv
aIslvacl, exlevnaIized inlevpvelalion. WIelIev
il Ie lIe Jovn, conlenl, and dislviIulionaI pal-
levn oJ lIe IuiIl envivonnenl, lIe veIalive Io-
7See cIaplev 1 oJ LeJeIvve, TIe SuvvivaI oJ CapilaI-
isn, op.cil., Joolnole 1.
calion oJ cenlevs oJ pvoduclion and consunp-
lion, lIe poIilicaI ovganizalion oJ space inlo
levviloviaI juvisdiclions, lIe uneven geogvapI-
icaI dislviIulion oJ incone and enpIo¸nenl,
ov lIe ideoIogicaI allacInenls lo IocalionaI
s¸nIoIs and spaliaI inages, aII ovganized
space viII Ie seen as vooled in a sociaI ovigin
and JiIIed vilI sociaI neaning. As LeJeIvve
slales·8
Space is nol a scienliJic oIjecl venoved Jvon ideoIog¸
and poIilics: il Ias aIva¸s Ieen poIilicaI and slvalegic.
IJ space Ias an aiv oJ neulvaIil¸ and indiJJevence vilI
vegavd lo ils conlenls and lIus seens lo Ie ¨puveI¸¨
JovnaI, lIe epilone oJ valionaI aIslvaclion, il is pve-
ciseI¸ Iecause il Ias Ieen occupied and used, and Ias
aIvead¸ Ieen lIe Jocus oJ pasl pvocesses vIose lvaces
ave nol aIva¸s evidenl on lIe Iandscape. Space Ias
Ieen sIaped and noIded Jvon IislovicaI and naluvaI
eIenenls, Iul lIis Ias Ieen a poIilicaI pvocess. Space
is poIilicaI and ideoIogicaI. Il is a pvoducl IilevaII¸ JiIIed
vilI ideoIogies.
Ovganized Space and lIe
Mode oJ Fvoduclion
Once il Iecones accepled lIal lIe ovgani-
zalion oJ space is a sociaI pvoducl-lIal il avis-
es Jvon puvposeJuI sociaI pvaclice-lIen lIeve
is no Iongev a queslion oJ ils Ieing a sepavale
slvucluve vilI vuIes oJ conslvuclion and lvans-
Jovnalion vIicI ave independenl Jvon lIe
videv sociaI JvanevovI. Fvon a naleviaIisl
pevspeclive, vIal Iecones inpovlanl is lIe
veIalionsIip Ielveen cvealed, ovganized space
and olIev slvucluves vilIin a given node oJ
pvoduclion. Il is lIis Iasic issue lIal Ias di-
vided Mavxisl spaliaI anaI¸sis inlo al Ieasl
lIvee dislinclive ovienlalions.
Al one exlvene ave lIose vIose inlevpve-
lalions oJ lIe voIe oJ ovganized space Iead
lIen lo cIaIIenge eslaIIisIed Mavxisl ap-
pvoacIes and inlevpvelalions, especiaII¸ vilI
vegavd lo convenlionaI deJinilions oJ lIe eco-
nonic Iase and lIe supevslvucluve. TIus Le-
JeIvve vviles·9
Can lIe veaIilies oJ uvIanisn Ie deJined as sonelIing
supevslvucluvaI, on lIe suvJace oJ lIe econonic Iasis,
vIelIev capilaIisl ov sociaIisl? No. TIe veaIil¸ oJ uv-
Ianisn nodiJies lIe veIalions oJ pvoduclion vilIoul
Ieing suJJicienl lo lvansJovn lIen. UvIanisn Iecones
a Jovce in pvoduclion, valIev IiIe science. Space and
lIe poIilicaI ovganizalion oJ space expvess sociaI veIa-
lionsIips Iul aIso veacl IacI upon lIen.
8
¨BeJIeclions on lIe FoIilics oJ Space,¨ lvansIaled I¸
M. Endevs, Anlipode, VoI. 8 |1976), p. 31.
9 La BevoIulion UvIaine, p. 25, lvansIaled in Havve¸,
op.cil., Joolnole 1.
1980 SOCIO-SFATIAL BIALECTIC 211
Heve ve Iave opened lIe possiIiIil¸ oJ a lvue
socio-spaliaI diaIeclic opevaling vilIin lIe
slvucluve oJ lIe econonic Iase, in conlvasl
vilI lIe pvevaiIing naleviaIisl JovnuIalion
vIicI vegavds ovganized space and spaliaI ve-
Ialions onI¸ as a cuIluvaI expvession conpvis-
ing pavl oJ lIe supevslvucluve. TIe Ie¸ nolion
inlvoduced I¸ LeJeIvve in lIe Iasl senlence
suggesls lIe JundanenlaI pvenise oJ lIe socio-
spaliaI diaIeclic· lIal sociaI and spaliaI veIa-
lionsIips ave diaIeclicaII¸ inlev-veaclive, inlev-
dependenl: lIal sociaI veIalions oJ pvoduclion
ave IolI space-Jovning and space-conlingenl
|insoJav as ve nainlain a viev oJ ovganized
space as sociaII¸ conslvucled).
WilIin lIe vegionaI as opposed lo lIe uvIan
Jvane, siniIav ideas Iave Ieen pvesenled I¸
Evnesl MandeI. In Iis exaninalion oJ vegionaI
inequaIilies undev capilaIisn, MandeI as-
sevls·
10
TIe unequaI deveIopnenl Ielveen vegions and nalions
is lIe vev¸ essence oJ capilaIisn, on lIe sane IeveI as
lIe expIoilalion oJ IaIouv I¸ capilaI.
B¸ nol suIovdinaling lIe spaliaI slvucluve oJ
uneven deveIopnenl lo sociaI cIass Iul viev-
ing il as ¨on lIe sane IeveI,¨ MandeI suggesls
Jov lIe vegionaI and inlevnalionaI scaIe a spa-
liaI pvoIIenalic vIicI conpaves cIoseI¸ vilI
LeJeIvve's inlevpvelalion oJ lIe uvIan spaliaI
slvucluve, even lo lIe poinl oJ suggesling a
povevJuI vevoIulionav¸ Jovce avising Jvon lIe
spaliaI inequaIil¸ lIal is necessav¸ Jov capilaI-
isl accunuIalion. In Iis najov vecenl vovI,
MandeI Jocuses upon lIe cvuciaI IislovicaI in-
povlance oJ geogvapIicaII¸ uneven deveIop-
nenl in lIe capilaI accunuIalion pvocess and
lIus in lIe suvvivaI and vepvoduclion oJ capi-
laIisn ilseIJ. In doing so, Ie pvesenls pevIaps
lIe nosl vigovous and s¸slenalic Mavxisl
anaI¸sis oJ vegionaI deveIopnenl cuvvenlI¸
avaiIaIIe. ¨1
NeilIev LeJeIvve nov MandeI, Iovevev, al-
lenpl a cvoss-scaIav s¸nlIesis lo deJine a nove
genevaI socio-spaliaI diaIeclic and lIeiv Jov-
nuIalions lIus venain inconpIele. NevevlIe-
Iess, in lIeiv allviIulion lo lIe slvucluve oJ spa-
liaI veIalions oJ a signiJicanl lvansJovnalionaI
polenliaI in capilaIisl sociel¸ conpavaIIe lo
10
Evnesl MandeI, ¨CapilaIisn and BegionaI Bispavi-
lies,¨ SoulIvesl Econon¸ and Sociel¸, VoI. 1 |1976), p.
43. |EnpIasis added.)
11
Evnesl MandeI, Lale CapilaIisn |London· Vevso,
1978).
lIal vIicI Ias convenlionaII¸ Ieen associaled
vilI lIe ¨vevlicaI¨ cIass slvuggIe, lIe divecl
sociaI conJIicl Ielveen IaIov and capilaI, IolI
LeJeIvve and MandeI Iave pvesenled a poinl
oJ viev vIicI engendevs slvong vesislance
Jvon olIev Mavxisl scIoIavs, a poinl oJ viev
vIicI Ias Ieen IaIeIIed JelisIisl and delev-
ninisl.
TIis vesislance lo lIe suggeslion lIal ovga-
nized space vepvesenls an¸lIing nove lIan a
veJIeclion oJ lIe sociaI veIalions oJ pvoduclion,
lIal il can conlain ils ovn najov conlvadic-
lions and lvansJovnalionaI polenliaI vilI ve-
gavd lo lIe node oJ pvoduclion, lIal il is in
sone va¸ IonoIogous lo cIass slvucluve and
veIalions, deJines anolIev, nucI Iavgev gvoup
oJ vadicaI scIoIavs. Heve I vouId incIude lIe
gvoving cadve oJ cvilics seeIing lo nainlain
sone Jovn oJ Mavxian ovlIodox¸ I¸ pevsis-
lenl scveening oJ lIe ¨nev¨ uvIan and ve-
gionaI poIilicaI econon¸. T¸piJ¸ing lIis gvoup
is lIe IeIieJ lIal conlenpovav¸ neo-Mavxisl
anaI¸sis adds IillIe lIal is inIevenlI¸ nev lo
nove convenlionaI Mavxisl appvoacIes, lIal
lIe cenlvaIil¸ oJ lvadilionaI cIass anaI¸sis is
invioIaIIe, and lIus lIal lIe conlviIulions
Ieing nade lovavd an undevslanding oJ Mavx-
isl uvIan and vegionaI anaI¸sis, vIiIe inlevesl-
ing, ave loo oJlen unacceplaII¸ vevisionisl and
anaI¸licaII¸ nuddIed. NeedIess lo sa¸, lIe
concepluaIizalion oJ space adIeved lo I¸ lIis
gvoup diJJevs IillIe Jvon lIal vIicI Ias cIav-
aclevized Mavxisn in genevaI ovev lIe pasl
cenluv¸.
A lIivd appvoacI can Ie idenliJied, Iov-
evev, vIicI seens lo JaII sonevIeve in Ie-
lveen. Ils pvaclilionevs appeav, inpIicilI¸ al
Ieasl, lo Ie adopling nucI lIe sane JovnuIa-
lion as descviIed Jov LeJeIvve and MandeI.
Yel vIen pusIed lo an expIicil cIoice, lIe¸
nainlain lIe pveeninence oJ aspaliaI sociaI
cIass deJinilions, sonelines lo lIe poinl oJ
lovluousI¸ lv¸ing lo vesisl lIe inpIicalions oJ
lIeiv ovn oIsevvalions, enpIasis, and anaI¸-
sis. I conlend, and viII allenpl lo denonslvale
nove cIeavI¸ in lIe seclions vIicI JoIIov, lIal
lIis gvoup |in vIicI I incIude ManueI CasleIIs,
Bavid Havve¸, and InnanueI WaIIevslein) Ias
deveIoped sone oJ lIe nosl insigIlJuI pvesen-
lalions oJ lIe socio-spaliaI diaIeclic as I deJine
il: Iul Ias aIso IacIed oJJ Jvon ils inlevpve-
lalions inlo anaI¸licaII¸ veaI and vuInevaIIe
posilions on lIe voIe oJ spaliaI slvucluve as il
veIales lo conlenpovav¸ capilaIisn. WIeveas
212 EBWABB W. SOJA June
lIe Jivsl gvoup nenlioned occasionaII¸ ovev-
slales ils case, lIis gvoup velveals Jvon il vilI-
oul eJJecliveI¸ capluving ils neaning and in-
pIicalions, cvealing conJusion and
conlvadiclion vIicI ave veacled lo in luvn I¸
lIe nove ovlIodox cvilics.
As a Jivsl iIIuslvalion, considev lIe concep-
luaIizalion oJ space pvesenled I¸ CasleIIs in
Iis nosl inJIuenliaI IooI, TIe UvIan Ques-
lion, a IooI puvposeJuII¸ lilIed lo conlvasl
vilI TIe UvIan BevoIulion, vvillen I¸ Cas-
leIIs' Jovnev leacIev, Henvi LeJeIvve·'2
To considev lIe cil¸ as lIe pvojeclion oJ sociel¸ on
space is IolI an indispensaIIe slavling poinl and loo
eIenenlav¸ an appvoacI. Fov, aIlIougI one nusl go
Ie¸ond lIe enpivicisn oJ geogvapIicaI descviplion,
one vuns lIe vev¸ gveal visI oJ inagining space as a
vIile page on vIicI lIe aclions oJ gvoups and insli-
lulions ave inscviIed, vilIoul encounleving an¸ olIev
oIslacIe lIan lIe lvace oJ pasl genevalions. TIis is lan-
lanounl lo conceiving oJ naluve as enliveI¸ JasIioned
I¸ cuIluve, vIeveas lIe vIoIe sociaI pvoIIenalic is
Iovn I¸ lIe indissoIuIIe union oJ lIese lvo levns,
lIvougI lIe diaIeclicaI pvocess I¸ vIicI a pavlicuIav
IioIogicaI species |pavlicuIavI¸ Iecause divided inlo
cIasses), ¨nan,¨ lvansJovns IinseIJ and lvansJovns
Iis envivonnenl in Iis slvuggIe Jov IiJe and Jov lIe diJ-
JevenliaI appvopvialion oJ lIe pvoducl oJ Iis IaIouv.
Space is a naleviaI pvoducl, in veIalion vilI olIev
naleviaI eIenenls-anong olIevs, nen, vIo lIen-
seIves enlev inlo pavlicuIav sociaI veIalions, vIicI give
lo space |and lo lIe olIev eIenenls oJ lIe conIinalion)
a Jovn, a Junclion, a sociaI signiJicalion. Il is nol, lIeve-
Jove, a neve occasion Jov lIe depIo¸nenl oJ sociaI
slvucluve, Iul a concvele expvession oJ eacI IislovicaI
ensenIIe in vIicI a sociel¸ is speciJied. Il is a ques-
lion, lIen, oJ eslaIIisIing, in lIe sane va¸ as Jov an¸
olIev veaI oIjecl, lIe slvucluvaI and conjuncluvaI Iavs
lIal govevn ils exislence and lvansJovnalion, and lIe
speciJicil¸ oJ ils avlicuIalion vilI lIe olIev eIenenls oJ
a IislovicaI veaIil¸. TIis neans lIal lIeve is no lIeov¸
oJ space lIal is nol an inlegvaI pavl oJ a genevaI sociaI
lIeov¸, even an inpIicil one.
TIis IvieJ encapsuIizalion oJ lIe socio-spaliaI
diaIeclic is pvesenled as an aIlevnalive lo lIe
vejecled LeJeIvvian viev vIicI is Jundanen-
laII¸ siniIav. To conpIele lIe calegovizalion
discussed aIove, CasleIIs' ovn exlension oJ
lIese ideas Ias ilseIJ Ieen cvilicized as vevi-
sionisl I¸ olIevs vIo cIain Ie connils lIe
sane evvov lIal Ie cvilicizes LeJeIvve Jov con-
nilling· sepavaling lIe spaliaI slvucluve Jvon
ils vools in pvoduclion and cIass veIalions.'3
12
CasleIIs, op.cil., Joolnole 2, p. 115. |EnpIasis
added.)
13
See, Jov exanpIe, lIe inlvoduclov¸ cIaplev lo Mi-
cIaeI HavIoe, ed., Caplive Cilies |Nev YovI· JoIn WiIe¸
and Sons, 1976). HavIoe pvaises CasleIIs' anaI¸sis oJ lIe
JelisIizalion oJ space, Iul lIen avgues lIal CasleIIs seens
TIis pvesuned evvov is expvessed in an ovev-
enpIasis on coIIeclive consunplion and olIev
sociaI and spaliaI aspecls oJ lIe consunplion
pvocess in lIe IuII oJ CasleIIs' vvilings, an en-
pIasis vIicI Ias Ieen inlevpveled as Iuv¸ing
lIe nove JundanenlaI voIe oJ pvoduclion. I
viII addvess n¸seIJ lo lIe pvoduclion-con-
sunplion issue in lIe nexl seclion. Fov lIe
nonenl Iel us veluvn lo CasleIIs' allenpled
vesoIulion oJ lIe ¨deIale on lIe lIeov¸ oJ
space.
¨
CasleIIs pvesenls space as a naleviaI pvod-
ucl enevging Jvon a diaIeclicaI pvocess veIal-
ing and lvansJovning lIe veIalionsIip Ielveen
cuIluve and naluve, nan and envivonnenl.
Space is nol sinpI¸ a veJIeclion, ov ¨neve oc-
casion Jov lIe depIo¸nenl,¨ oJ sociaI slvuc-
luve, Iul a concvele expvession oJ a conIi-
nalion, an ¨IislovicaI ensenIIe,¨ oJ inlevacling
naleviaI eIenenls and slvucluves. Hov lIen
can one undevsland and inlevpvel lIis cvealed
space? TIvougI lIe idenliJicalion oJ lIe
¨slvucluvaI and conjuncluvaI Iavs lIal govevn
ils exislence and lvansJovnalion.¨
WIal appeavs lo sepavale CasleIIs and Le-
JeIvve gvovs oul oJ lIe Jovnev's assunplion
lIal ¨pavlicuIav sociaI veIalions¨ give Jovn,
Junclion, and signiJicance lo lIe spaliaI slvuc-
luve and aII olIev ¨eIenenls oJ lIe conIina-
lion.¨ One ¨slvucluve¨-lIe aspaliaI sociaI
veIalions oJ pvoduclion |vIicI soneIov in-
cIudes pvopevl¸ vigIls vIiIe ignoving lIeiv spa-
liaI/levviloviaI dinension)-is lIus given delev-
ninanl and invioIaIIe signiJicance, Jov lo
suggesl olIevvise vouId appeav lo Ie conlvav¸
lo convenlionaI Mavxisl inlevpvelalions. Bul
vIal iJ ¨cIass¨ veve seen lo Ie associaled
vilI IolI lIe sociaI |vevlicaI) and spaliaI |Iov-
izonlaI) veIalions oJ pvoduclion in a diaIeclicaI
inlevaclion, vilI lIe ¨sociaI pvoIIenalic¨ in-
voIving lIe sociaI and levviloviaI division oJ
IaIov? Il is lvue lIal lIeve as ¸el does nol exisl
a JovnuIalion oJ lIe spaliaI veIalions oJ pvo-
duclion vIicI nalcIes lIe deplI and pevsua-
siveness oJ sociaI cIass anaI¸sis ov, nove spe-
ciJicaII¸, vIicI expIicilI¸ and s¸slenalicaII¸
incovpovales lIe povevJuI and JundanenlaI
lo undevnine lIe pvine veIevance oJ pvoduclion and lIe
slud¸ oJ ils eJJecls lo an¸ Mavxisl anaI¸sis oJ space ¨lo
lIe poinl lIal Iis enpIasis on consunplion [aIong vilI
Bavid Havve¸'s] Ieavs conpavison, in sone vespecls,
vilI pvevious uvIan socioIog¸ and vilI WeIevian uvIan
socioIog¸ . . . IolI oJ vIicI Ie Ias seveveI¸ cvilicized.¨
|p. 21)
1980 SOCIO-SFATIAL BIALECTIC 213
conlvadiclion Ielveen capilaI and IaIov. Is
lIis an innulaIIe Jacl, an invioIale Iav, ov lIe
pvoducl oJ IislovicaI pvocesses vIicI Iave
deenpIasized lIe sociaI inlevpvelalion oJ
space in Mavxian anaI¸sis?
TIese queslions neveI¸ veconslvucl lIe
cIaIIenge vaised eavIiev· lo denonslvale lIe
IonoIogous and diaIeclicaI veIalionsIip Ie-
lveen lIe sociaI and spaliaI slvucluves avising
Jvon lIe node oJ pvoduclion and concveleI¸
expvessed in pavlicuIav sociaI Jovnalions. Il
vouId Ie pvenaluve lo allenpl a vigovous and
conpveIensive JovnuIalion oJ lIe socio-spa-
liaI diaIeclic al lIis line, Iul il is nevevlIeIess
necessav¸ lo add sone suIslance lo vIal ad-
nilledI¸ venains IavgeI¸ in lIe veaIn oJ assev-
lion and conjecluve. Tovavd lIis end, I viII
luvn nexl lo a nove speciJic discussion oJ sev-
evaI inpovlanl concepluaI issues lIal Iave
sIaped lIe cuvvenl deIale on lIe lIeov¸ oJ
space, Jivsl al lIe uvIan scaIe and lIen al ve-
gionaI-inlevnalionaI scaIe.
THE UBBAN SFATIAL FBOBLEMATIC
Mavxisl spaliaI anaI¸sis al lIe uvIan scaIe
Ias evoIved as pavl oJ a Iavgev deveIopnenl
vIicI Ias dvavn logelIev pavlicuIav enpIases
|econonic, socioIogicaI, geogvapIicaI) inlo a
connon Jocus on lIe poIilicaI econon¸ oJ
uvIanizalion. UndevI¸ing lIis deveIopnenl
vas an inpovlanl sel oJ assunplions aIoul lIe
naluve oJ lIe uvIanizalion pvocess in ad-
vanced capilaIisn. TIe vise oJ nonopoI¸ cap-
ilaIisn, ils expansion on a gIoIaI scaIe, and ils
incveasing dependence on lIe voIe oJ lIe slale
veve inlevpveled as Iaving inlvoduced nev
IislovicaI |and spaliaI) condilions inlo conlen-
povav¸ capilaIisl sociaI Jovnalions and inlo lIe
vevoIulionav¸ cIass slvuggIe. Anong olIev eJ-
Jecls, lIese nev condilions denanded a diJ-
Jevenl appvoacI lo lIe cil¸ and lo lIe uvIan-
izalion pvocess lIan lIal vIicI cIavaclevized
lIe lvealnenl oJ uvIan pvoIIens undev lIe
conpelilive capilaIisn oJ Mavx's line. TIe
cil¸ cane lo Ie seen nol onI¸ in levns oJ ils
voIe as a cenlev oJ pvoduclion and accunuIa-
lion, Iul aIso as lIe conlvoI poinl Jov lIe ve-
pvoduclion oJ capilaIisl sociel¸ in levns oJ Ia-
Iov povev, excIange, and consunplion.
UvIan pIanning vas cvilicaII¸ exanined as a
looI oJ slale, sevving lIe doninanl cIasses I¸
ovganizing and veovganizing uvIan space Jov
lIe IeneJil oJ capilaI accunuIalion and cvisis
nanagenenl. Majov allenlion vas given lo
conlvadiclions al lIe pIace oJ vovI |lIe poinl
oJ pvoduclion), lo cIass conJIicl ovev Iousing
and lIe IuiIl envivonnenl, lIe slale pvovision-
ing and siling oJ puIIic sevvices, connunil¸
and neigIIovIood econonic deveIopnenl, lIe
aclivilies oJ JinanciaI ovganizalions, and olIev
issues vIicI vevoIved avound Iov uvIan
space vas sociaII¸ ovganized Jov consunplion
and vepvoduclion. A speciJicaII¸ spaliaI pvoI-
Ienalic vas lIus pul on lIe agenda Jov IolI
lIeovelicaI considevalion and vadicaI sociaI ac-
lion.
Man¸ ovlIodox Mavxisls sav in lIese de-
veIopnenls a polenliaII¸ deslvuclive vevision-
isn, especiaII¸ vilI vegavd lo lIe lvadilionaI
pvinac¸ oJ pvoduclion in Mavxisl lIeov¸ and
pvaclice. Al one IeveI, lIis vas an undevsland-
aIIe veaclion. EJJovls lo sepavale consunplion
Jvon pvoduclion and lo assign lo il a signiJi-
canl aulononous slvenglI in sociel¸ and Iis-
lov¸-lo deJine cIass, Jov exanpIe, pvinaviI¸
upon consunplion cIavaclevislics-l¸piJied
Iouvgeois sociaI science and ils eJJovls lo
counlev lIe avgunenls oJ IislovicaI naleviaI-
isn. FuvlIevnove, lIe enpIasis given lo spa-
liaI anaI¸sis lviggeved Jeavs oJ a nev vaviel¸ oJ
spaliaI delevninisn lo nalcI lIose oJ lIe pasl.
InsoJav as lIe nev uvIan poIilicaI econon¸
did JaII inlo a consunplionisl langenl and dis-
connecled spaliaI veIalions Jvon lIeiv ovigin in
lIe veIalions oJ pvoduclion, il desevved a
JovceJuI cvilicaI vesponse.
Fov lIe nosl pavl, Iovevev, lIe gvoving
enpIasis on dislviIulion, excIange, and coI-
Ieclive consunplion did nol vepvesenl a deniaI
oJ lIe cenlvaI voIe oJ pvoduclion as nucI as
il vas a caII Jov gvealev allenlion lo cevlain
pvocesses vIicI IislovicaII¸ Iave Ieen veIa-
liveI¸ negIecled in Mavxisl anaI¸sis Iul vIicI
Iave Iecone nove pevlinenl lo cIass anaI¸sis
and cIass conJIicl in advanced capilaIisn. In
lIis sense, Mavxisl uvIan anaI¸sis vas soIidI¸
vilIin lIe cvilicaI lvadilion oJ Weslevn Mavx-
isn.14 Moveovev, il couId Ie avgued lIal Mavx
IinseIJ vieved pvoduclion and consunplion
as diaIeclicaII¸ veIaled nonenls oJ lIe sane
pvocess. SuvpIus vaIue, as lIe Jocus Jov capi-
laIisl expIoilalion, avises onI¸ lIvougI lIe ap-
14
I veJev Ieve IolI lo lIe ¨consunplionisl¨ vevision oJ
Mavx conlained in lIe vovIs oJ Bavan, Sveez¸, and Mav-
cuse, as veII as lo lIe Ivoadev lvadilion oJ supevslvucluvaI
anaI¸sis vs. navvov econonisn. See Fevv¸ Andevson,
Considevalions on Weslevn Mavxisn |London· Nev LeJl
BooIs, 1976).
214 EBWABB W. SOJA June
pIicalion oJ Iunan IaIov Jov lIe pvoduclion oJ
connodilies. Bul sucI suvpIus vaIue venains
aIslvacl and polenliaI unIess and unliI il can
Ie veaIized lIvougI lIe nexus oJ excIange and
lIus lIvougI lIe consunplion pvocess. To
IveaI lIis IinIed cIain and lo evecl one no-
nenl lineIessI¸ aIove lIe olIevs vouId Ie lo
ovevsinpIiJ¸ Mavx's ovn concepluaIizalion oJ
lIe pvocess.15
Bul vIeveas lIe enpIasis on consunplion
and vepvoduclion Iecane eJJecliveI¸ Iegilin-
ized, nucI Iess eJJovl vas given lo deJend lIe
vevivaI oJ Mavxisl spaliaI anaI¸sis. Il vas
videI¸ accepled lIal lIeve exisled in lIe cIas-
sicaI vovIs oJ Mavx, EngeIs, and Lenin a
slvong geogvapIicaI and spaliaI ovienlalion
and lIal il vas inpovlanl lo dvav oul and eIaI-
ovale upon lIese cIassicaI oIsevvalions in lIe
conlexl oJ conlenpovav¸ capilaIisn.16 Bul lIe
Jeav oJ spaliaI JelisIisn veaIened lIe allenpl
lo Jocus diveclI¸ on lIe voIe oJ space vilIin
lIe Iavgev conlexl oJ diaIeclicaI and IislovicaI
naleviaIisn-lo expIain vI¸ spaliaI anaI¸sis
Iad Ieen vivluaII¸ ignoved Jov a cenluv¸ and
lo expIove vIelIev undev lIe lvansJovned
condilions oJ advanced nonopoI¸ capilaIisn
lIe sociaI pvoduclion oJ space Ias indeed Ie-
cone nove cenlvaI lo lIe suvvivaI oJ capilaI-
isn ilseIJ. As a vesuIl, Mavxisl spaliaI anaI¸sis
expanded, Iul incveasingI¸ as an adjuncl, a
nelIodoIogicaI enpIasis, lo vIal Ias Iecone
lIe doninanl Jocus oJ uvIan poIilicaI econo-
n¸, lIe seavcI Jov a Mavxisl lIeov¸ oJ lIe
slale.
TIe lIvee dislinclive appvoacIes lo spaliaI
anaI¸sis idenliJied eavIiev lIus expvessed
lIenseIves cIeavI¸. Ouavdians oJ Mavxisl ov-
lIodox¸ conlinue lo veJevee Mavxisl spaliaI
anaI¸sis lo veed oul an¸ Iinls oJ JelisIisn. A
second gvoup pevsisls in naIing inpovlanl
conlviIulions Iul lends lo sideslep lIe spaliaI
pvoIIenalic, lIus conslvaining JuvlIev deveI-
opnenl oJ a cvilicaI lIeov¸ oJ space. FinaII¸,
a lIivd gvoup allenpls nove IoIdI¸ lo deveIop
Mavxisl spaliaI anaI¸sis despile incveasing dis-
nissaI, vilupevalive cvilicisn, and nisinlev-
pvelalion oJ lIeiv vovI. In an eJJovl lo veopen
lIe deIale on lIe lIeov¸ oJ space, I viII Jocus
on lIe conlviIulions oJ lIe one Jiguve vIo
15
TIis is nosl expIicilI¸ slaled in Ovundvisse |Nev
YovI· Vinlage BooIs, 1973), pp. 90-94.
16 An exceIIenl exanpIe is Bavid Havve¸, ¨TIe Oe-
ogvapI¸ oJ CapilaIisl AccunuIalion· A Beconslvuclion oJ
Mavxian TIeov¸,¨ Anlipode, VoI. 7 |1975), pp. 9-21.
nove lIan an¸ olIev exenpIiJies lIis lIivd
gvoup, Henvi LeJeIvve.
UvIan BevoIulion and SpaliaI Fvaxis
LeJeIvve's vovI as a vIoIe vepvesenls a
IiJeIong eJJovl lo vesisl dognalic conslviclions
oJ Mavxisl lIinIing, Jivsl as pevIaps lIe Iead-
ing FvencI Mavxisl cvilic oJ SlaIinisn and lIe
pvoduclivisl ovlIodox¸ oJ lIe Second Inlev-
nalionaI duving lIe 1930s, Ialev as a JovceJuI
cvilic oJ IolI exislenliaIisl and slvucluvaIisl
veduclionisn. 17 ConslanlI¸ lv¸ing lo Ieep
Mavxisn open lo nev pIiIosopIicaI deveIop-
nenls and adaplive lo cIanging naleviaI con-
dilions, LeJeIvve nevevlIeIess vooled Iis
vovI in lIe Joundalions Iaid dovn I¸ Mavx,
Lenin, and HegeI. AIlIougI Iis ideas ap-
peaved ovevI¸ ecIeclic lo sone, lIe¸ Iad a sin-
gIe doninanl Jocus· lIe seavcI lo expIain Iov
and vI¸ capilaIisn suvvived Jvon lIe con-
pelilive induslviaI capilaIisn oJ Mavx's line lo
lIe advanced nonopoI¸ capilaIisn oJ loda¸.
In lIis seavcI, LeJeIvve pvesenled a sevies
oJ incveasingI¸ eIaIovaled appvoxinalions |as
Ie caIIed lIen) uIlinaleI¸ Ieading lo Iis najov
lIesis· 18
CapilaIisn Ias Jound ilseIJ aIIe lo allenuale |iJ nol ve-
soIve) ils inlevnaI conlvadiclions Jov a cenluv¸, and
consequenlI¸, in lIe Iundved ¸eavs since lIe vviling
oJ CapilaI, il Ias succeeded in acIieving ¨gvovlI.¨
We cannol caIcuIale al vIal pvice, Iul ve do Inov lIe
neans· I¸ occup¸ing space, I¸ pvoducing a space.
TIe pvoduclion oJ lIis advanced capilaIisl
space vas IinIed diveclI¸ lo lIe vepvoduclion
oJ lIe sociaI veIalions oJ pvoduclion, lIal is,
lIe neans vIeveI¸ lIe capilaIisl s¸slen as a
vIoIe is aIIe lo exlend ils exislence I¸ nain-
laining ils deJining slvucluves. 19 Fvon lIis cen-
17
Henvi LeJeIvve, Le MaleviaIisne BiaIeclique |Favis·
Fvesses Univevsilaives de Fvance, 1939): L'ExislenliaIisne
|Favis· Edilions du Sagillaive, 1946): Au-deId du Slvuc-
luvaIisne |Favis· Edilions AnlIvopos, 1971). AIlIougI a
seveve cvilic oJ lIe eavI¸ Savlve, LeJeIvve Ialev enIvaces
Savlve's exislenliaI Mavxisn. See MavI Foslev, Exislen-
liaI Mavxisn in Foslvav Fvance· Fvon Savlve lo AIlIussev
|Fvincelon· Fvincelon Univevsil¸ Fvess, 1975).
18 LeJeIvve, TIe SuvvivaI oJ CapilaIisn, op.cil., Jool-
nole 1, p. 21. |EnpIasis in oviginaI.)
19 LeJeIvve dislinguisIes lIvee IeveIs in lIe vepvoduc-
lion pvocess· 1) Iio-pI¸sioIogicaI vepvoduclion, essenliaI-
I¸ vilIin lIe conlexl oJ JaniI¸ and IinsIip veIalions: 2)
vepvoduclion oJ IaIov povev |lIe vovIing cIass) and lIe
neans oJ pvoduclion: and 3) vepvoduclion oJ lIe sociaI
veIalions oJ pvoduclion. TIe aIiIil¸ oJ capilaI lo inlevvene
diveclI¸ and aJJecl aII lIvee IeveIs Ias deveIoped ovev
line, vilI lIe deveIopnenl oJ lIe pvoduclive Jovces.
1980 SOCIO-SFATIAL BIALECTIC 215
lvaI ¨discovev¸,¨ vIicI LeJeIvve avgues Ie-
cane expIicil onI¸ in lIe Ialev vovIs oJ Mavx
|pavlicuIavI¸ lIose vIicI veve nol veadiI¸
avaiIaIIe unliI aJlev lIe second WovId Wav),
one can conslvucl a JvanevovI oJ pvoposilions
vIicI IeIp deJine LeJeIvve's eJJovl lo IuiId a
cvilicaI lIeov¸ oJ space and lo cveale lIe Iasis
Jov vadicaI spaliaI pvaxis.20
LeJeIvve gvounded Iis avgunenls in lIe Ie-
IieJ lIal sociaI space |essenliaII¸ uvIanized
space in advance capilaIisn) is vIeve lIe
doninanl veIalions oJ pvoduclion ave vepvo-
duced. TIe¸ ave nol vepvoduced in sociel¸ as
a vIoIe Iul in space as a vIoIe, a concvelized
and pvoduced space vIicI Ias Ieen pvogves-
siveI¸ occupied I¸ advanced capilaIisn, Jvag-
nenled inlo pavceIs, Ionogenized inlo dis-
cvele connodilies, ovganized inlo lIe Iocalions
oJ conlvoI, and exlended lo lIe gIoIaI scaIe.
TIe suvvivaI oJ capilaIisn Ias depended upon
lIis dislinclive occupalion and pvoduclion oJ
space, acIieved lIvougI IuveaucvalicaII¸ con-
lvoIIed consunplion, lIe diJJevenlialion oJ
cenlevs and pevipIevies, and lIe penelvalion
oJ lIe slale inlo evev¸da¸ IiJe. TIe JinaI cvisis
oJ capilaIisn lIen Iecones lIe nonenl vIen
lIe veIalions oJ pvoduclion can no Iongev Ie
vepvoduced, nol sinpI¸ vIen pvoduclion ilseIJ
is slopped.21 TIus lIe cIass slvuggIe nusl en-
conpass and Jocus upon lIe vuInevaIIe poinl·
lIe pvoduclion oJ space, lIe levviloviaI slvuc-
luve oJ expIoilalion, and conlvoIIed vepvoduc-
lion oJ lIe s¸slen as a vIoIe. TIe slvuggIe
nusl Ie one oJ a gIoIaI pvoIelavial, incIuding
aII lIose vIo ave expIoiled I¸ lIe inposed
spaliaI ovganizalion oJ advanced capilaIisn·
IandIess peasanls, pvoIelavianized pell¸
Iouvgeoisies, vonen, sludenls, and lIe vovI-
ing cIass ilseIJ. In advanced capilaIisl coun-
lvies, lIe slvuggIe viII laIe lIe Jovn oJ une
vevoIulion uvIaine JigIling Jov Ia dvoil a Ia viI-
Ie and conlvoI ovev Ia vie quolidienne in lIe
levviloviaI JvanevovI oJ lIe capilaIisl slale. In
Iess advanced counlvies, il viII aIso Jocus
upon levviloviaI IiIevalion and veconslvuclion-
vilI vegavd lo lIe inposed slvucluves oJ don-
20
Tvo voIunes oJ Ovundvisse veve Jivsl puIIisIed in
Bussian in 1939 and 1941. TIe Jivsl Oevnan edilion ap-
peaved in 1953, lIe Jivsl EngIisI edilion in 1973.
21
LeJeIvve Ias Ieen a slvong cvilic oJ vIal Ie caIIs lIe
ouvvigvisne oJ lIe nodevn IeJl, lIe navvov econonic Jo-
cus on expIoilalion al lIe vovIpIace and on vevoIulionav¸
lvansJovnalion eilIev lIvougI lIe inlevvuplion oJ pvoduc-
lion |lIe genevaI slviIe) ov I¸ lIe IaIling oJ pvoduclion
|lolaI econonic cvisis).
inanl cove and dependenl pevipIev¸ vilIin lIe
gIoIaI slvucluve oJ capilaIisn.
LeJeIvve lIus vaises lIe spaliaI pvoIIenalic
lo a cenlvaI posilion vilIin cIass slvuggIe I¸
enIedding cIass veIalions in lIe slvucluves
and conlvadiclions oJ sociaII¸ ovganized
space. He does nol avgue lIal lIe spaliaI pvoI-
Ienalic Ias aIva¸s Ieen so cenlvaI, Jov ils sig-
niJicance veJIecls lIe pvogvessive deveIopnenl
oJ lIe Jovces oJ pvoduclion ovev line, pavlic-
uIavI¸ vilI vegavd lo lIe gvoving need lo con-
lvoI lIe vepvoduclion oJ capilaIisl sociaI veIa-
lions |vIicI, undev conpelilive capilaIisn,
vas IeJl pvinaviI¸ lo lIe navIel). Nov does Ie
pvesenl lIe spaliaI slvuggIe as a suIslilule Jov
cIass slvuggIe. Inslead, Ie avgues lIal no so-
ciaI vevoIulion can succeed vilIoul Ieing al
lIe sane line a conscious, spaliaI vevoIulion.
SpaliaI pvaxis is necessav¸ lIeveJove, Iul aI-
va¸s as pavl oJ an enconpassing socio-spaliaI
pvaxis.
WilI lIis IacIgvound, il Iecones possiIIe
lo cIaviJ¸ lIe neaning and inlenl oJ sevevaI
conlvovevsiaI concepls and avgunenls pve-
senled I¸ LeJeIvve in Iis nove speciJicaII¸
uvIan-ovienled vvilings.22 TaIe, Jov exanpIe,
Iis connenls on lIe IislovicaI veIalion Ie-
lveen lIe pvinav¸ |induslviaI) and secondav¸
|JinanciaI) civcuils in lIe civcuIalion oJ suvpIus
vaIue, lvansIaled I¸ Bavid Havve¸ as JoI-
Iovs·23
WIeveas lIe pvopovlion oJ gIoIaI suvpIus vaIue Jovned
and veaIized in induslv¸ decIines, lIe pvopovlion veaI-
ized in specuIalion and in conslvuclion and veaI eslale
deveIopnenl gvovs. TIe secondav¸ civcuil cones lo
suppIanl lIe pvincipaI civcuil.
Il is in lIis sense lIal LeJeIvve cIains lIal
¨InduslviaIizalion, once lIe pvoducev oJ uv-
Ianisn, is nov Ieing pvoduced I¸ il,¨ Jov lIis
secondav¸ civcuil is deepI¸ invoIved in lIe
nanipuIalion oJ lIe IuiIl envivonnenl, lIe ex-
lvaclion oJ uvIan venl, and lIe ovganizalion oJ
uvIan space Jov coIIeclive consunplion, in aII
cases JaciIilaled I¸ lIe incveasing voIe oJ lIe
slale. Il vouId appeav Jvon lIe Havve¸ lvans-
Ialion lIal LeJeIvve does nol slale lIal suvpIus
vaIue is cvealed in lIis secondav¸ civcuil, onI¸
22
B¸ 1974, vilI La Fvoduclion de IEspace, LeJeIvve
nove expIicilI¸ pvesenled lIe uvIan pvoIIenalic vilIin
lIe Ivoadev pvoIIenalic oJ space and lIe vepvoduclion oJ
lIe sociaI veIalions oJ pvoduclion. La Fvoduclion . .. is
Iis najov vovI on space, Iul il lends lo Ie negIecled in
nosl oJ lIe vecenl Iilevaluve.
23
Havve¸, op. cil., Joolnole 1, p. 312.
216
EBWABB W. SOJA June
lIal lIe pvopovlion veaIized lIevein Ias nas-
siveI¸ expanded. TIis, I IeIieve, is lIe nec-
essav¸ inlevpvelalion.24 LeJeIvve's avgunenl
lIus IuiIds upon lIe idea lIal lIe veaIizalion
oJ suvpIus vaIue Ias sIiJled ovev line Jvon a
doninanl invoIvenenl in divecl induslviaI pvo-
duclion lo an incveasingI¸ gvealev invoIvenenl
in lIe civcuIalion/consunplion pvocess-ov,
nove appvopvialeI¸, Jvon lIe vepvoduclion oJ
lIe neans oJ pvoduclion lo lIe vepvoduclion
oJ IaIov povev and lIe genevaI sociaI ovdev.
TIis Ias Ieen associaled vilI a ¨cIange Jvon
a peviod in vIicI queslions oJ econonic
gvovlI and induslviaIizalion pvedoninale lo
lIe peviod vIen lIe uvIan pvoIIenalic Ie-
cones decisive.¨
TIese avgunenls suggesl lIal lIe pvopov-
lion oJ suvpIus vaIue lIal is necessav¸ Jov lIe
vepvoduclion oJ IaIov povev and lIe sociaI ve-
Ialions oJ pvoduclion in an incveasingI¸ uvIan-
ized, incveasingI¸ nonopoIislic, incveasingI¸
gIoIaI, capilaIisl sociel¸ Ias Iecone Iavgev
lIan evev IeJove, pevIaps Iavgev even lIan lIe
pvopovlion aIsovIed nove diveclI¸ in induslvi-
aI pvoduclion. NovIeve is il said lIal lIis nec-
essaviI¸ Ieads lo a veduclion oJ suvpIus vaIue
pvoduced in induslv¸, aIlIougI lIe divevsion
oJ capilaI inlo unpvoduclive aclivilies is a sig-
niJicanl slvucluvaI pvoIIen in nonopoI¸ capi-
laIisl econonies. WIal is suggesled, inslead,
is lIal lIe incveasing suvpIus pvoducl ¸ieIded
lIvougI lIe cenlvaIizalion and concenlvalion
oJ capilaI undev nonopoI¸ induslviaIizalion
and lIe accunuIalion oJ capilaI on a vovId
scaIe Ias dispvopovlionaleI¸ incveased lIe
cosls oJ vepvoducing IaIov and nainlaining lIe
sociaI veIalions oJ pvoduclion lo lIe poinl lIal
coIIeclive consunplion Ias Iecone a najov,
iJ nol doninanl, avena Jov lIe veaIizalion oJ
vaIue and Jov lIe cIass slvuggIe ilseIJ.
A nove delaiIed and Iess anIiguous inlev-
pvelalion oJ lIis IislovicaI sIiJl associaled
24
WIal conpIicales nallevs Ieve is lIe Jacl lIal Le-
JeIvve acluaII¸ uses lIe vovd Jovn&e vilI vegavd lo lIe
secondav¸ civcuil as veII, Iul lIe vovd is onilled in Hav-
ve¸'s lvansIalion. IJ LeJeIvve inlended lo suggesl lIal suv-
pIus vaIue can oviginale in lIe secondav¸ civcuil, lIen lIis
vouId conlvadicl lIe IaIov lIeov¸ oJ vaIue and Ie unac-
ceplaIIe in Mavxisl anaI¸sis. Il seens, Iovevev, lIal Iis
enpIasis is on veaIizalion, nol pvoduclion. InnedialeI¸
pveceding lIe lvansIaled quole Ie vviles· ¨II peul nene
avvivev que Ia specuIalion Joncieve devienne Ia souvce
pvincipaIe, Ie Iieu pvesque excIusiJ de 'Jovnalion du cap-
ilaI,¨ c'esl a dive de veaIisalion de Ia pIus-vaIue¨: see La
BevoIulion UvIaine, p. 212.
vilI lIe vise oJ nonopoI¸ capilaIisn is pve-
senled I¸ SIouIv¸ Boveis·25
We Jind a pvonounced sIiJl in lIe Iocus oJ cIass con-
JIicls acconpan¸ing lIe sIiJl Jvon eavI¸ lo Iale capi-
laIisn. TIe nain pvoIIens in eavI¸ capilaIisn veve
pvoIIens oJ pvoduclion |i.e. pvoIIens oJ insuJJicienl
aggvegale suppI¸, Ience veIalive scavcil¸). Undev sucI
condilions, cIass conJIicls veve ovev lIe division oJ
suvpIus pvoduclion. ConcveleI¸, lIe conJIicls veve
slviclI¸ IaIouv/capilaI conJIicls cenleved in lIe vovI-
pIace and Jocussing on vage/pvoJil dispules.
In loda¸'s capilaIisn, lIis is no Iongev slviclI¸ lvue.
FvoIIens oJ pvoduclion gave va¸ lo pvoIIens oJ ovev-
pvoduclion .... WIal IaIouv laIes ava¸ vilI one
Iand |in lIe vovIpIace slvuggIe) il gives ava¸ vilI lIe
olIev |in lIe uvIan Iiving pIace) .... WilI lIe inlen-
siJied and expanded slale inlevvenlion, lIe slvuggIes
ovev vages Iose lIeiv neaning, and lIe slvuggIe ovev
poIilicaI/adninislvalive povev Iegins lo inpose ilseIJ
as cvuciaI, Iul ¸el unpuvsued slvuggIe. Al lIe sane
line, vilI lIe evev incveasing uvIanizalion oJ lIe pop-
uIalion, nosl oJ lIese slvuggIes acquive a deJinile uvIan
cIavaclev. TIe slvuggIe, in IvieJ, Ias sIiJled Jvon lIe
spIeve oJ pvoduclion |oJ connodilies and sevvices) lo
lIe spIeve oJ vepvoduclion |i.e. lIe nainlenance oJ sla-
IIe, iJ nol inpvoving, slandavds oJ uvIan Iiving).
Conpelilive induslviaI capilaIisn Ias Ieen
aIIe lo exlend and lvansJovn ilseIJ lIvougI a
sevies oJ slvucluvaI cIanges associaled vilI
lIe incveasing cenlvaIizalion and concenlva-
lion oJ capilaI |in lIe vise oJ nonopoI¸ capi-
laIisn), lIe dvanalic incvease in lIe voIe oJ lIe
slale as a veIicIe Jov sociaI conlvoI, and lIe
deveIopnenl oJ accunuIalion on a gIoIaI
scaIe. Bul il Ias done so vilIoul eIininaling
ils JundanenlaI conlvadiclions. TIe¸ Iave in-
slead Iecone expvessed nol onI¸ in lIe divecl
conJvonlalion oJ capilaI and IaIov al lIe poinl
oJ pvoduclion Iul aIso, and as inlensiveI¸,
in lIe veaIn oJ coIIeclive consunplion and
vepvoduclion. WIeveas undev conpelilive
capilaIisn, EngeIs couId avgue lIal consunp-
lion-Iased vovIing cIass niIilanc¸, as in lIe
conJIicl ovev lIe ¨Iousing queslion,¨ couId
Ie vesoIved I¸ lIe Iouvgeoisie lo ils ovn Ien-
eJil |eilIev I¸ pIa¸ing oJJ inpvoved Iousing
condilions and veduced venls againsl de-
cveased vages ov I¸ sinpI¸ sIiJling Iad Ious-
ing condilions lo anolIev Iocalion valIev lIan
eIininaling lIen), sucI consunplion-Iased
conJIicl can no Iongev Ie coopled as easiI¸.
UnIiIe lIe silualion undev induslviaI capilaI-
25
SIouIv¸ Boveis, ¨UvIan FIanning in EavI¸ and Lale
CapilaIisl Socielies,¨ Fapevs on FIanning and Besign
|Tovonlo· Univevsil¸ oJ Tovonlo, Bepavlnenl oJ UvIan
and BegionaI FIanning, 1975), pp. 31-32. |EnpIasis in
oviginaI.)
1980 SOCIO-SFATIAL BIALECTIC 217
isn, lIe veaIizalion oJ suvpIus vaIue and Ience
lIe accunuIalion oJ capilaI ilseIJ Ias Iecone
as dependenl upon conlvoI ovev lIe neans oJ
consunplion/vepvoduclion as upon conlvoI
ovev lIe neans oJ pvoduclion, even vIiIe lIis
conlvoI vesls uIlinaleI¸ in lIe sane Iands.
Il can lIus Ie avgued lIal lIe lvansJovna-
lion oJ capilaIisn Ias cone incveasingI¸ lo ve-
voIve avound IolI a sociaI and a spaliaI slvug-
gIe, a conIined vage and consunplion-Iased
conJIicl, an ovganizalion and consciousness oJ
IaIov as IolI vovIevs and consunevs, in olIev
vovds a slvuggIe avising Jvon lIe expIoilalive
slvucluves inIevenl in IolI lIe vevlicaI and
IovizonlaI cIass divisions oJ sociel¸. CIass
slvuggIe lIus invoIves lIe avlicuIalion oJ sociaI
and spaliaI pvaxis.
Finance CapilaI and lIe CIass SlvuggIe
To iIIuslvale nove speciJicaII¸ lIe pveceding
avgunenls and lo exenpIiJ¸ again lIe lvipav-
lile l¸poIog¸ oJ conlenpovav¸ appvoacIes lo
spaliaI anaI¸sis, Iel us exanine lIe conlvovev-
s¸ vIicI Ias visen avound lIe voIe oJ Jinance
capilaI vilIin lIe nonopoI¸ capilaIisl cil¸.
TaIe, Jov exanpIe, lIe JoIIoving slalenenl oJ
MicIaeI HavIoe, a Ieading Mavxisl uvIan an-
aI¸sl·26
In genevaI Havve¸'s enpIasis on lIe voIe oJ Jinance
valIev lIan pvoduclive capilaI in cilies Ias Ieen cvili-
cized. He does nol go quile so Jav as LeJeIvve vIo
sees Jinance capilaI, i.e. lIal concevned vilI civcuIa-
lion valIev lIan pvoduclion, Ieconing lIe doninanl
Jovce in sociel¸, and uvIan conJIicls, Iased on lIe voIe
oJ sucI capilaI in pvopevl¸ specuIalion and Iand, sup-
pIanling vovIpIace conJIicl-a lIeov¸ IeaviI¸ cvili-
cized I¸ CasleIIs. Hovevev, Havve¸ dislinclI¸ sees lIis
as a possiIiIil¸, Iul Iis cvilics suggesl lIal Jinance cap-
ilaI nusl venain secondav¸ lo pvoduclive capilaI Ie-
cause il uIlinaleI¸ Ias lo aIslvacl ils veaIlI Jvon suv-
pIus vaIue and so is suIovdinale lo lIe Iallev in lIe Iasl
anaI¸sis.
TIis conpuIsion lo assevl lIe uIlinale doni-
nanl Iecones epilonized in lIe concIusion
lIal, vIiIe Jinance capilaI ¨can appavenlI¸ Ie
in conlvoI, lIe doninanl voIe sliII JaIIs lo pvo-
duclive capilaI.¨ LeJeIvve is lIus an ivvec-
onciIaIIe devianl, Havve¸ is dangevousI¸ an-
IivaIenl and conJused, vIiIe pvoduclion
veigns supvene and invioIaIIe.
TIe najov queslion, Iovevev, is nol vIelI-
ev Jinance capilaI doninales induslviaI capilaI
¨in lIe Iasl anaI¸sis,¨ Iul Iov il veIales, as
one Jvaclion oJ capilaI, lo olIev capilaI Jvac-
26
HavIoe, op. cil., Joolnole 13, p. 25.
lions vilIin speciJic sociaI Jovnalions, and
Iov lIis aJJecls cIass aclion. TIe issue is lIus
a conjuncluvaI one, veJevving lo lIe ensenIIe
oJ cIass veIalions avising al pavlicuIav pIaces
duving pavlicuIav peviods oJ line. To veduce
Mavxisl anaI¸sis lo lIe assevlion oJ uIlinale
slvucluvaI delevninalions is lo eIininale aII
IislovicaI and geogvapIicaI speciJicil¸-and
Ience lo eIininale lIe cil¸ ilseIJ as a suIjecl
oJ anaI¸sis. Hov lIen na¸ ve assess lIe voIe
oJ Jinance capilaI in lIe conlenpovav¸ uvIan-
izalion pvocess?
AIlIougI LeJeIvve cIeavI¸ slvesses lIe
gvoving inpovlance oJ Jinance capilaI in lIe
veaIizalion oJ suvpIus vaIue, Ie does nol un-
anIiguousI¸ speciJ¸ lIe veIalionsIip Ielveen
Jinance capilaI and olIev capilaI Jvaclions.
TIus Ie does nol diveclI¸ assevl eilIev lIal
Jinance and induslviaI capilaI ave in pevnanenl
conJIicl ov lIal lIe¸ Iave lolaII¸ coaIesced in
a coopevalive union, as Lenin descviIed in Iis
lIeov¸ oJ inpeviaIisn. Indeed, lIe naluve oJ
lIe veIalionsIip Ielveen Jinance, induslviaI,
and pvopevl¸ capilaI is, appvopvialeI¸ I Ie-
Iieve, IeJl open Jov anaI¸sis.
In an exceIIenl papev on venl lIeov¸, Mal-
lIev EdeI avgues lIal Bavid Havve¸ and olI-
evs, in conlvasl lo LeJeIvve, appeav lo Iave
laIen speciJic Iul inconpaliIIe posilions on
lIe sane issue. Al lines, Jinance capilaI is
vieved as a sepavale Jvaclion oJ capilaI, a
pavasilic nonopoI¸ seclov sucIing up Junds
vIicI vouId olIevvise Ie avaiIaIIe Jov Ious-
ing and in divecl conJIicl vilI induslviaI capilaI
|Jvon vIicI il is aIIe lo exlvacl pavl oJ lIe
suvpIus in lIe Jovn oJ venl). Al olIev lines,
Iovevev, il is seen in aInosl lIe Leninisl
sense, as coaIesced vilI induslviaI capilaI in
a nonopoI¸ inpeviaIisl slage, conlvoIIing lIe
lolaIil¸ oJ lIe pvoduclion pvocess. EdeI oI-
sevves lIal lIe lvo concepls cIeavI¸ descviIe
diJJevenl silualions, one in vIicI lIeve is con-
JIicl anong najov capilaIisls, anolIev vIeve
lIe¸ ave uniJied. He lIen adds·27
TIe lvo vievs oJ Jinance capilaI ave nol veaII¸ con-
paliIIe, and lIe¸ Iead lo diJJevenl slvalegic inpIicalions
Jov lIe vovIing cIass. IJ lIe Jivsl deJinilion IoIds, and
iJ JinanciaI nonopoIies ov JinanciaI discvininalion ave
naIing Iousing Jinance scavce, eilIev Jov vovIevs gen-
evaII¸ ov Jov speciJic gIello suIgvoups, lIen an anli-
nonopoI¸ slvaleg¸-invoIving anlivedIining Iavs, slale
27
MallIev EdeI, ¨Benl TIeov¸ and WovIing CIass
Slvaleg¸· Mavx, Oeovge and lIe UvIan Cvisis,¨ Beviev
oJ BadicaI FoIilicaI Econon¸, VoI. 9 |1977), p. 12.
218 EBWABB W. SOJA June
Iousing IanIs, ov even novalovia on novlgage pa¸-
nenls-vouId naIe sense. IJ, Iovevev, deJinilion lvo
appIies and one inlegvaled JinanciaI gvoup conlvoIs IolI
Iousing and enpIo¸nenl, lIen a veduclion oJ Iousing
cosls nigIl Ie nel I¸ veduced vages. Finance capi-
laI's ¨cevlain indiJJevence as lo vIelIev accunuIalion
laIes pIace I¸ Ieeping vages dovn in lIe innediale
pvoduclion pvocess ov I¸ nanipuIalion in lIe con-
sunplion seclov,¨ iJ il enevges as Havve¸ suggesls il
nigIl, vouId cveale a need Jov lIe vovIing cIass lo
ovganize sinuIlaneousI¸ as vage eavnevs and as con-
sunevs, in ovdev lo naIe an¸ econonic gains undev
capilaIisn. Bul sucI viclovies vouId Ie diJJicuIl, since
laclicaI evvovs on lIe consunplion slvuggIe side vouId
advevseI¸ aJJecl lIe vage slvuggIe, and vice vevsa.
TIe vavious aIlevnalives oulIined I¸ EdeI
sunnavize lIe issues avising ovev lIe voIe oJ
Jinance capilaI vev¸ veII. He considevs eilIev
viev lIeovelicaII¸ possiIIe, Iul cIains lIal
Havve¸ svings IacI and JovlI Ielveen lIe
lvo deJinilions, Ieaving Iis avgunenls ¨un-
convincing,¨ a veJIeclion, I vouId conlend, oJ
lIe inlvinsicaII¸ nuIlisided slance Havve¸ Ias
lended lo laIe on lIe ¨uvIan queslion.¨
As EdeI concIudes, lIe naluve oJ lIe veIa-
lionsIip Ielveen Jinance and induslviaI capilaI
nusl Ie seen as IislovicaII¸ delevnined and
lIus cIeavI¸ suIjecl lo cIange.28 Buving lIe
eavI¸ pIases oJ slagnalion in lIe 1970s, Jinan-
ciaI Iavvievs Iad a najov eJJecl: lIe¸ veve
IavgeI¸ vesponsiIIe Jov lIe lvansJovnalion oJ
nelvopoIilan coves, lIvougI uvIan venevaI
and veduced Iov incone Iousing suppIies,
inlo speclacuIav nev cenlevs Jov Jinance cap-
ilaI inslilulions. Bul deepening econonic cvi-
sis sIiJled lIe Iuvden IacI lo lIe veduclion oJ
veaI vages, lIeveI¸ eslaIIisIing lIe need Jov
a lvo-Jvonl slvuggIe ovev consunplion and
pvoduclion veIalions. TIus, EdeI avgues, an
allacI on onI¸ one seclov oJ capilaI, Ie il
IanIing ov IandIovds, is no Iongev suJJicienl.
Unpvoduclive Jinance capilaI Ias Iecone an
inpovlanl eIenenl in lIe slvucluve oJ conlen-
povav¸ nonopoI¸ capilaIisn, Iul nol Iecause
il Ias suppIanled induslviaI capilaI in lIe ve-
aIizalion oJ suvpIus vaIue. Il oIlains ils in-
povlance Jvon lIe incveasing aIsovplion oJ
suvpIus vaIue in coIIeclive consunplion, in lIe
vepvoduclion oJ IaIov povev and lIe sociaI
ovdev, veIalive lo diveclI¸ pvoduclive aclivilies
and lIe vepvoduclion oJ lIe neans oJ pvoduc-
28
Havve¸ nov accepls lIis viev and avgues lIal Ie
adopled IolI deJinilions oJ lIe veIalion Ielveen Jinance
and induslviaI capilaI Jov IolI appI¸, aIIeil al diJJevenl
IislovicaI nonenls. |Bavid Havve¸, pevsonaI connuni-
calion.)
lion. Undev conpelilive induslviaI capilaIisn,
lIe ovganizalion oJ uvIan space Jov IolI pvo-
duclion and consunplion couId Ie IeJl IavgeI¸
lo navIel Jovces, pvivale pvopevl¸ capilaI, and
conpelilion anong induslviaI pvoducevs Jov
access lo IaIov, naleviaIs, and inJvaslvucluve.
TIe induslviaI capilaIisl cil¸ vas pvinaviI¸ a
pvoduclion nacIine and as sucI looI on a ve-
navIaII¸ uniJovn spaliaI slvucluve-lIe slvuc-
luve depicled so pevcepliveI¸ I¸ EngeIs Jov
MancIeslev and Ialev I¸ lIe uvIan ecoIogisls
Jov nosl oJ lIe induslviaI capilaIisl vovId.
Finance capilaI undev lIese condilions vas
veIaliveI¸ uninpovlanl in lIe uvIan conlexl. Il
pIa¸ed a najov voIe, Iovevev, in capilaIisl ex-
pansion lIvougI inpeviaIisn, as lIe uvIan
pvoduclion nacIines suvpassed lIeiv capacil¸
lo consune lIeiv pvoducl and Jaced JaIIing
vales oJ pvoJil and cIass conJIicl. Expanded ve-
pvoduclion on a gIoIaI scaIe and lIe concuv-
venl gvovlI oJ nonopoI¸ capilaIisn, Iovevev,
nassiveI¸ inlensiJied lIe concenlvalion oJ cap-
ilaI in lIe cenlevs oJ advanced capilaIisn and
cvealed inlensiJied pvessuves Jov inJvaslvucluv-
aI inveslnenls, Jov expanding coIIeclive con-
sunplion, and Jov nainlaining conlvoI ovev
cIass conJIicl. Move lIan evev IeJove, lIeve
vas a need lo inlevvene lo veovganize uvIan
space and lo naIe uvIan s¸slens Junclion
nove eJJecliveI¸ nol onI¸ Jov lIe cenlvaIizalion
oJ capilaI Iul Jov lIe veaIizalion oJ suvpIus vaI-
ue lIvougI sociaIized consunplion, especiaII¸
vIen il Iecane cIeav lIal inpeviaIisl expan-
sion vouId nol eIininale cIass conJIicl and
econonic cvises in lIe cove counlvies.
In lIe nonopoI¸ capilaIisl cil¸, lIeveJove,
Jinance capilaI, sonelines in conpelilion Iul
nove oJlen in aIIiance vilI nonopoI¸ indus-
lviaI capilaI, Iecones nove signiJicanl lIan il
Iad Ieen in lIe induslviaI capilaIisl cil¸. AIong
vilI lIe slale, il Ias Iecone a pvinav¸ neans
Jov veslvucluving lIe cil¸ as a consunplion
nacIine, lvansJovning Iuxuvies inlo needs, Ja-
ciIilaling suIuvIanizalion and ils associaled
pvivalized consunplion |e.g. lIe aulonoIiIe,
IousIoId appIiances, and gadgelv¸), and
vovIing lovavd lIe segvegalion/levviloviaI
Jvagnenlalion oJ lIe vovIing cIass. AIso, in
conjunclion vilI lIe slale, il Ias, I vouId av-
gue, Iegun lo suppIanl snaII-scaIe pvivale
pvopevl¸ capilaI in conlvoI ovev uvIan Iand, a
pvocess vilI inlevesling Iul veIaliveI¸ unex-
pIoved vepevcussions. WIal Ias cone oul
nosl cIeavI¸ in lIe Iilevaluve on Mavxisl uvIan
1980 SOCIO-SFATIAL BIALECTIC 219
anaI¸sis-and nove inpovlanlI¸, il sIouId Ie
added, in pvaclice-is lIal lIese slvucluvaI
cIanges Iave JaiIed lo vesoIve lIe oId conlva-
diclions. Indeed, lIe¸ Iave cvealed nev ones,
vividI¸ descviIed and inlevpveled I¸ CasleIIs
in Iis discussion oJ Ia viIe sauvage, lIe ¨WiId
Cil¸.¨29 Il Ias vooled lIe uvIan-Iased cIass
slvuggIe nol jusl in lIe veIalions oJ pvoduclion
ov lIe ¨uneven deveIopnenl¨ oJ consunp-
lion, Iul in lIe unil¸ and avlicuIalion oJ lIe
lvo.
THE BEOIONAL ANB INTEBNATIONAL
SFATIAL FBOBLEMATIC
FavaIIeIing cvilicisns oJ spaliaI JelisIisn in
uvIan poIilicaI econon¸ ave equaII¸ veIenenl
avgunenls againsl an enpIasis on spaliaI in-
equaIil¸ and cenlev-pevipIev¸ veIalions in
Mavxisl vegionaI anaI¸sis. SucI an enpIasis
is seen as a divevsion ava¸ Jvon lIe cIass
slvuggIe and cIass anaI¸sis, as lIe conslvuclion
oJ a sepavale slvucluve unacceplaII¸ aulono-
nous Jvon lIe sociaI veIalions oJ pvoduclion,
a Iouvgeois deIusion.30 M¸ vesponse lo lIese
allacIs venains lIe sane· lIal lIeve exisls in
lIe slvucluve oJ ovganized space undev capi-
laIisn a JundanenlaI veIalionsIip vIicI is Io-
noIogous lo and insepavaIIe Jvon lIe slvuc-
luve oJ sociaI cIass, vilI eacI slvucluve
Jovning pavl oJ lIe genevaI veIalions oJ pvo-
duclion. TIis conneclion Ielveen lIe vevlicaI
and IovizonlaI dinensions oJ lIe cIass slvuggIe
in IolI lIeov¸ and pvaclice vequives a Junda-
nenlaI velIinIing oJ nan¸ Mavxisl concepls
lo inlvoduce a nove expIicil spaliaI pvoIIen-
alic, a velIinIing vIicI is Ieing unnecessaviI¸
sacviJiced I¸ a veassevlion oJ Mavxian ovlIo-
dox¸.
TIe conslvuclion oJ lIis avgunenl Jov ve-
gionaI poIilicaI econon¸ is nade nove diJJi-
cuIl, Iovevev, Iecause lIe deIale on lIe lIe-
ov¸ oJ space Ias Ieen nucI Iess expIicil lIan
in Mavxisl uvIan anaI¸sis, and Ias cone lo lIe
29
ManueI CasleIIs, ¨TIe WiId Cil¸,¨ KapilaIislale,
VoI. 4 |1976), pp. 2-30.
30
See, Jov exanpIe, Ann MavIusen, ¨BegionaIisn and
lIe CapilaIisl Slale· TIe Case oJ lIe Uniled Slales,¨ Kap-
ilaIislale, VoI. 7 |1978), pp. 39-62. MavIusen cvilicizes
|p. 40) ¨¸oungev Mavxisl sociaI scienlisls, vIo unvil-
lingI¸ ninic lIe lendenc¸ vilIin Iouvgeois sociaI science
lo assign cIavaclevislics lo pIaces and lIings, valIev lIan
slicIing lo lIe d¸nanics oJ a pvocess as lIe anaI¸licaI
Jocus. ¨
suvJace onI¸ vilIin lIe pasl Jev ¸eavs.3' Il Ias
avisen pvinaviI¸ Jvon lIe inlevpvelalions given
lo lIe vovIs oJ sucI scIoIavs as InnanueI
WaIIevslein, Saniv Anin, AvgIivi EnnanueI,
Andve Oundev FvanI, and Evnesl MandeI,
vIo Iave nade inpovlanl conlviIulions lo ve-
gionaI poIilicaI econon¸ valIev sevendipilous-
I¸, as adjuncls lo lIeiv insigIlJuI Iul IavgeI¸
nonspaliaI anaI¸ses oJ expanded
vepvoduclion
undev capilaIisn. TIe pvesenlalion vIicI JoI-
Iovs is lIeveJove nove oJ a piecing logelIev oJ
a deIale lIan a cvilique oJ aIvead¸ eslaIIisIed
posilions and slances.
OeogvapIicaII¸ Uneven BeveIopnenl
TIe spaliaI pvoIIenalic and ils sociaI van-
iJicalions al lIe vegionaI and inlevnalionaI
IeveIs Iinges upon lIe inpovlance assigned lo
uneven geogvapIicaI deveIopnenl in lIe ovi-
gin, gvovlI, suvvivaI, and lvansJovnalion oJ
capilaIisn. Slaled sonevIal diJJevenlI¸, il de-
pends upon lIe degvee lo vIicI MandeI's as-
sevlion-lIal lIe unequaI deveIopnenl oJ ve-
gions and nalions is as JundanenlaI lo
capilaIisn as lIe divecl expIoilalion oJ IaIov
I¸ capilaI-can Ie accepled and IuiIl upon.
Il is necessav¸ Jivsl lo dislinguisI Ielveen
an anaI¸sis oJ lIe genevaI Iavs oJ nolion oJ
capilaI undev puve and Ionogenous |i.e., spa-
liaII¸ undiJJevenlialed) condilions and lIe
anaI¸sis oJ lIe concvelized condilions vIicI
exisl vilIin and Ielveen pavlicuIav sociaI Jov-
nalions. In lIe Jovnev, aIslvacled Jvon lIe
pavlicuIavilies oJ line and pIace, lIe Junda-
nenlaI Iogic oJ slvucluve and pvocess is indeed
spaceIess. FoIIoving Mavx in CapilaI, capi-
laIisn can Ie veveaIed as a s¸slen oJ pvoduc-
lion IuiIl upon a sel oJ inlevnaI conlvadiclions
Ielveen lIe Jovces and veIalions oJ pvoduclion
vIicI nucI inevilaII¸ Iead, lIvougI cvisis and
cIass slvuggIe, lo vevoIulionav¸ lvansJovna-
lion. In lIis essenliaII¸ lIeovelicaI anaI¸sis oJ
capilaIisn, vIicI Ias appeaIed so slvongI¸ lo
Weslevn concepluaIizalions oJ science in
levns oJ lIe eslaIIisInenl oJ genevaI Iavs
Jveed Jvon lIe speciJicil¸ oJ line and pIace,
geogvapIicaII¸ uneven deveIopnenl is nol
onI¸ ivveIevanl, il is deJined ava¸.
31
In pavlicuIav, see Beviev oJ BadicaI FoIilicaI Econ-
on¸, SpeciaI Issue on BegionaI Uneven BeveIopnenl in
Advanced CapilaIisn, VoI. 10 |1978): Boveen Masse¸,
¨Suvve¸· BegionaIisn· Sone Cuvvenl Issues,¨ CapilaI
and CIass, VoI. 6 |1978), pp. 102-25: AIain Lipielz, Le
CapilaI el son Espace |Favis· Maspevo, 1977).
220 EBWABB W. SOJA June
Mavxisl anaI¸sis IuiIl upon lIese genevaI
Iavs oJ nolion, upon lIe conlvadiclion Ie-
lveen IaIov and capilaI in lIe pvoduclion pvo-
cess, denonslvales lIe epIenevaIil¸ oJ capi-
laIisn, ils inninenl seIJ-deslvuclion. Bul il
does nol, I¸ ilseIJ, expIain Iov and vI¸ cap-
ilaIisn Ias conlinued lo exisl. To do so ve-
quives nove divecl allenlion lo vepvoduclion
pvocesses, especiaII¸ lo lIe expanded vepvo-
duclion oJ capilaIisn |Jov sinpIe vepvoduclion
aIone cannol assuve capilaIisn's suvvivaI).
WIen lIe Iavs oJ nolion oJ capilaI ave veIaled
lo lIeiv concvele IislovicaI and geogvapIicaI
conlexl, lo Iov lIe¸ unJoId ovev line and
space in lIe evoIving JvanevovI oJ expanded
vepvoduclion, lIe Ie¸ voIe oJ uneven geo-
gvapIicaI deveIopnenl Iecones appavenl.
Heve ve Iave a divecl IinI Ielveen lIe ve-
gionaI/inlevnalionaI pvoIIenalic and lIe uvIan
spaliaI pvoIIenalic discussed eavIiev. BeJined
ava¸ I¸ appeaI lo ovlIodox Mavxisl lIeov¸ in
ils aIslvacled Jovn, lIe voIe oJ space Iecones
saIienl vIen concvelized in lIe conlexl oJ ve-
pvoduclion and is cv¸slaIIized nosl cIeavI¸ in
vesponse lo LeJeIvve's cenlvaI queslion· Iov
and vI¸ did capilaIisn suvvive Jvon lIe con-
pelilive induslviaI capilaIisn oJ Mavx's line lo
lIe nonopoI¸ capilaIisn oJ loda¸? Il is no co-
incidence, lIeveJove, lIal lIe najov conlviIu-
lions lo vegionaI poIilicaI econon¸ ave asso-
cialed Jivsl vilI lIe deveIopnenl oJ lIe lIeov¸
oJ inpeviaIisn and nove vecenlI¸ vilI veIaled
anaI¸sis oJ accunuIalion al a gIoIaI scaIe, lIe
deveIopnenl oJ a capilaIisl ¨vovId s¸slen,¨
and vavious pvocesses oJ unequaI excIange
and undevdeveIopnenl. AII lIese conlviIu-
lions Iave lvo lIings in connon· lIe¸ Jocus
upon lIe pvocess oJ expanded vepvoduclion
and lIe¸ vecognize lIe exislence oJ noncapi-
laIisl, senicapilaIisl ov, al Ieasl, nol JuII¸ and
puveI¸ capilaIisl veIalions oJ pvoduclion. Fuv-
lIevnove, lIe¸ pIace lIe cIass slvuggIe in ils
appvopviale Iocalion, al lIe gIoIaI IeveI, and
ils goaI in lIe appvopviale diveclion, againsl
lIe expanded vepvoduclion oJ capilaIisn.
Hov lIen can ve deJine lIe voIe oJ uneven
geogvapIicaI deveIopnenl vilIin lIis Jvane-
vovI oJ expanded vepvoduclion? Mosl Iasi-
caII¸, il can Ie avgued lIal lIe IislovicaI suv-
vivaI oJ capilaIisn Ias depended upon lIe
diJJevenlialion oJ occupied space inlo ¨ovev-
deveIoped¨ and ¨undevdeveIoped¨ vegions.
MandeI oIsevves lIal vegionaI undevdeveIop-
nenl is a univevsaI pIenonenon oJ capilaIisn,
ils pvincipaI divecl voIe Ieing lo JuvnisI Iuge
aveas oJ IaIov vesevves and conpIenenlav¸
navIels aIIe lo vespond lo lIe spasnodic, un-
equaI, and conlvadiclov¸ deveIopnenl oJ cap-
ilaIisl pvoduclion.32 ¨IJ in ovdev lo suvvive,¨
MandeI avgues, ¨aII oJ lIe vovIing popuIalion
Jound joIs in lIe vegion vIeve lIe¸ Iived, lIen
lIeve vouId no Iongev Ie vesevves oJ vage Ia-
Iouv Jvee Jov lIe sudden expansions oJ indus-
lviaI capilaIisn.¨33 WIen lIese IaIov vesevves
ave nol cvealed I¸ ¨naluvaI¨ popuIalion
novenenls, lIe¸ ave pvoduced avliJiciaII¸
lIvougI divecl Jovce and olIev neans.
TIe cvealion oJ IaIov vesevve space aIso
suppIies inpovlanl and conpIenenlav¸ nav-
Iels Jov capilaI in lIe ¨ovevdeveIoped¨ cen-
levs oJ accunuIalion. TIis conIinalion oJ
econonicaII¸ depvessed IaIov vesevves sevv-
ing aIso as navIels Jov lIe suvpIus pvoducl oJ
lIe cenlev is nainlained and inlensiJied
lIvougI a s¸slen oJ unequaI excIange, ov,
nove IvoadI¸, lIe geogvapIicaI lvansJev oJ vaI-
ue. MandeI vviles·34
IJ lIe vale oJ pvoJil veve aIva¸s lIe sane in aII vegions
oJ a nalion and in aII lIe counlvies oJ lIe vovId, as veII
as in aII lIe IvancIes oJ induslv¸, lIen lIeve vouId Ie
no nove accunuIalion oJ capilaI olIev lIan lIal nade
necessav¸ I¸ denogvapIic novenenl. And lIis ilseIJ
vouId Ie nodiJied in ils ovn luvn I¸ lIe inpacl oJ lIe
seveve econonic slagnalion lIal vouId ensue.
In Lale CapilaIisn, MandeI pvesenls an ex-
ceIIenl IislovicaI s¸nlIesis oJ lIe inpovlance
oJ geogvapIicaII¸ uneven deveIopnenl and lIe
veIalion Ielveen lIe geogvapIicaI and seclovaI
lvansJev oJ vaIue. He IuiIds lIis s¸nlIesis
upon a cvilicaI conlvadiclion in lIe pvocess oJ
expanded vepvoduclion, lIal Ielveen diJJev-
enlialion and equaIizalion in lIe vale oJ pvoJil
and, nove IvoadI¸, lIe deveIopnenl oJ lIe
Jovces oJ pvoduclion. WIeveas lIe deveIop-
nenl oJ conpelilive capilaIisl pvoduclion ve-
Ialions lends lovavd an equaIizalion in lIe vale
oJ pvoJil Ielveen seclovs and anong vegions,
expanded vepvoduclion undev nonopoI¸ cap-
ilaI depends upon lIe exlvaclion oJ ¨supev-
pvoJils¨ |i.e., nove lIan lIe avevage) vIicI in
32
Evnesl MandeI, Mavxisl Econonic TIeov¸, VoI. I
|Nev YovI· MonlII¸ Beviev Fvess, 1968), p. 373. Be-
gionaI uneven deveIopnenl is descviIed Ieve as ¨usuaII¸
undeveslinaled in Mavxisl econonic vviling¨ and ¨one
oJ lIe essenliaI Ie¸s lo lIe undevslanding oJ expanded
vepvoduclion.¨
33
MandeI, op. cil., Joolnole 10, p. 43.
34
MandeI, op. cil., Joolnole 10, p. 43.
1980 SOCIO-SFATIAL BIALECTIC 221
luvn vequives seclovaI and/ov vegionaI diJJev-
enlialion. TIus, MandeI assevls, lIe acluaI
gvovlI pvocess oJ lIe capilaIisl node oJ pvo-
duclion is nol acconpanied I¸ an¸ eJJeclive
equaIizalion in lIe vales oJ pvoJil |ov in lIe
ovganic conposilion oJ capilaI)·35
TIus even in lIe ¨ideaI case¨ oJ a Ionogeneous Ie-
ginning, capilaIisl econonic gvovlI, exlended vepvo-
duclion and accunuIalion oJ capilaI ave sliII s¸non¸-
nous vilI lIe juxlaposilion and conslanl conIinalion
oJ deveIopnenl and undevdeveIopnenl. TIe accunu-
Ialion oJ capilaI ilseIJ pvoduces deveIopnenl and un-
devdeveIopnenl as nuluaII¸ delevnining nonenls oJ
lIe uneven and conIined novenenl oJ capilaI. TIe
IacI oJ Ionogeneil¸ in lIe capilaIisl econon¸ is a nec-
essav¸ oulcone oJ lIe unJoIding Iavs oJ nolion oJ cap-
ilaI ilseIJ.
In lIe age oJ JveeI¸ conpelilive induslviaI
capilaIisn, vegionaI undevdeveIopnenl-oJ
lIe vuvaI pevipIevies and Ielveen lovn and
counlv¸side-vas lIe najov souvce oJ supev-
pvoJils |unliI lIe Iiniled Ionogenizalion
vIicI occuvved in lIe consoIidalion oJ nalion-
aI navIels and Iouvgeois nalion-slales). In lIe
age oJ cIassicaI inpeviaIisn, ils souvce sIiJled
pvinaviI¸ |aIlIougI nol excIusiveI¸) lo lIe jux-
laposilion oJ deveIopnenl in lIe inpeviaIisl
slales and undevdeveIopnenl in coIoniaI and
senicoIoniaI counlvies. In MandeI's concep-
luaIizalion oJ Iale capilaIisn, lIe najov Jocus
is seclovaI, lIe conIinalion oJ vapid gvovlI in
sone seclovs vilI undevdeveIopnenl in olI-
evs.336 TIe enlive capilaIisl s¸slen lIus ap-
peavs, Jvon ils ovigins, as a IievavcIicaI slvuc-
luve oJ diJJevenl IeveIs oJ pvoduclivil¸ avising
Jvon lIe unequaI deveIopnenl oJ slales, ve-
gions, IvancIes oJ induslv¸, and Jivns, un-
IeasIed I¸ lIe quesl Jov suvpIus pvoJil.
WIal is Ieing avgued Ieve is nol sinpI¸ lIal
capilaIisl deveIopnenl is geogvapIicaII¸ un-
even, Jov sone geogvapIicaI unevenness is lIe
vesuIl oJ evev¸ sociaI pvocess, Iul lIal lIe cap-
ilaIisl node oJ pvoduclion acliveI¸ cveales, in-
lensiJies, and seeIs lo nainlain vegionaI ov,
nove IvoadI¸, spaliaI inequaIilies as a neans
35
¨TIvee Main Souvces oJ Supev-FvoJil,¨ cIaplev 3 in
MandeI, op.cil., Joolnole 11, p. 85. |EnpIasis in oviginaI.)
36 AIso inpovlanl in Iale capilaIisn ave veneved eJJovls
al vegionaI undevdeveIopnenl in advanced capilaIisl
counlvies, vilI lIe cuvvenl decIine oJ Nev EngIand Ieing
a good exanpIe. TIis voIe vevevsaI oJ vegions is a souvce
oJ nev vegionaI cvises and desevves inlensive slud¸. Fov
an inlevesling poIilicaI anaI¸sis, Jocusing on Nev EngIand
see Jeven¸ BiJIin and Band¸ BavIev, TIe NovlI WiII Bise
Again |Boslon· Beacon Fvess, 1978).
Jov ils ovn suvvivaI. Al lIe sane line, lIe
conlinuing expansion oJ capilaIisn is accon-
panied I¸ counlevvaiIing lendencies lovavd
incveasing Ionogenizalion and lIe veduclion
oJ geogvapIicaI diJJevences. TIis diaIeclicaI
lension Ielveen diJJevenlialion and equaIiza-
lion is lIe undevI¸ing d¸nanic oJ lIe uneven
deveIopnenl pvocess.37 To ignove lIe inIevenl
IovizonlaIil¸ oJ unequaI deveIopnenl-lo see
onI¸ lIe vevlicaI diJJevenlialion oJ seclovs,
IvancIes, and Jivns-is lo venain in an incon-
pIele, ovevI¸ aIslvacled, and nondiaIeclicaI
Mavxisn, incapaIIe oJ JuII¸ conpveIending
|and cIanging) lIe Iislov¸ oJ lIe capilaIisl
node oJ pvoduclion.
Cenlev-pevipIev¸ BeIalions
MeveI¸ assevling lIal uneven deveIopnenl
is inIevenlI¸ spaliaI is insuJJicienl. Il is nec-
essav¸ lo idenliJ¸ lIe pavlicuIav necIanisns
vIicI suslain geogvapIicaII¸ uneven deveI-
opnenl, lo speciJ¸ nove cIeavI¸ Iov il veIales
lo lIe expanded vepvoduclion oJ capilaIisn,
and lo expIain Iov il IinIed vilI cIass veIa-
lions and cIass slvuggIe. SevevaI inpovlanl
conlviIulions Iave Ieen nade in lIis diveclion
ovev lIe pasl lvo decades, Iul eacI advance
Ias nel vilI slvong vesislance and Jvequenl
IacIslepping. As a vesuIl, lIeve sliII does nol
exisl a vigovous, coIesive, and conpveIensive
anaI¸sis oJ geogvapIicaII¸ uneven deveIop-
nenl.
TaIe, Jov exanpIe, lIe anaI¸sis oJ cenlev-
ov cove-pevipIev¸ veIalions. TIe opposilion
Ielveen doninanl cenlevs oJ pvoduclion, ex-
pIoilalion, and accunuIalion, and suIovdi-
nale, dependenl, expIoiled pevipIevies vepve-
senls lIe pvinav¸ IovizonlaI slvucluve avising
Jvon lIe pvocess oJ geogvapIicaII¸ uneven de-
veIopnenl and Jvon lIe d¸nanic lension Ie-
lveen equaIizalion and diJJevenlialion. Il is
JundanenlaII¸ IonoIogous lo lIe vevlicaI
slvucluve oJ sociaI cIass, in lIal IolI ave vool-
ed in lIe sane conlvadiclion Ielveen capilaI
37
TIis d¸nanic conlvadiclion is pavaIIeIed in Le-
JeIvve's vovI in lIe conlvadiclion Ielveen Ionogeniza-
lion and Jvagnenlalion in lIe pvoduclion oJ space, vIicI
Ie pvesenls as lIe deepev conJIiclive veIalion undevI¸ing
lIe cenlev-pevipIev¸ slvucluve. MucI nove vovI is need-
ed in unvaveIing lIe naluve and inpIicalions oJ lIese in-
levIinIed conlvadiclions, equaIizalion/diJJevenlialion and
Ionogenizalion/Jvagnenlalion, Jov I suspecl lIe¸ viII Ie
cvuciaI in lIe JuvlIev deveIopnenl oJ Mavxisl spaliaI lIe-
ov¸ and pvaclice.
222 EBWABB W. SOJA June
and IaIov lIal deJines lIe capilaIisl node oJ
pvoduclion ilseIJ. In lIis sense, cove and pe-
vipIev¸ ave lIe spaliaI expvessions oJ lIe sane
undevI¸ing veIalions oJ pvoduclion vIicI de-
Jine Iouvgeoisie and pvoIelavial. BolI slvuc-
luves, sociaI and spaliaI, ave sIaped I¸ an ex-
pIoilalive veIalionsIip vooled in conlvoI ovev
lIe neans oJ pvoduclion and suslained I¸ an
appvopvialion oJ vaIue I¸ a doninanl sociaI
cIass. CIass slvuggIe avises Jvon incveasing
consciousness oJ lIe expIoilalive naluve oJ lIe
conIined sociaI and spaliaI slvucluve oJ cap-
ilaIisn and is ained al a sinuIlaneous lvans-
Jovnalion oJ IolI.
FaiIuve lo naIe lIis conneclion Ielveen
sociaI and spaliaI slvucluves suJJicienlI¸ ex-
pIicil and lo slvess lIe conIinalion as il op-
evales al nuIlipIe IeveIs, Jvon lIe gIoIaI lo lIe
IocaI, Ias Ieen lIe souvce oJ gveal conJusion
and cvilicisn suvvounding lIe scIooI oJ ¨un-
devdeveIopnenl¨ and ¨dependenc¸¨ lIeov-
isls.38 To nan¸ oIsevvevs, lIis gvoup oJ scIoI-
avs appeaved lo deenpIasize cIass veIalions
and cIass slvuggIe I¸ pIacing lIe cause oJ pov-
evl¸, expIoilalion, and inequaIil¸ in pevipIevaI
capilaIisl slales excIusiveI¸ in lIe Iands oJ
cove counlvies and an inlevnalionaI division oJ
IaIov Iased on sone Jovn oJ coIoniaI ov neo-
coIoniaI doninalion. Nol onI¸ vas expIoila-
lion seen as aInosl enliveI¸ a levviloviaI pvo-
cess, Ielveen cove and pevipIevaI aveas, Iul
aIso as a pvocess opevaling pvinaviI¸ al a sin-
gIe scaIe, al lIe IeveI oJ veIalions Ielveen na-
lions. AIlIougI lIis inlevnalionaI pvocess oJ
undevdeveIopnenl is exceplionaII¸ inpovlanl
in lIe IislovicaI enevgence oJ a capilaIisl
vovId s¸slen, il nusl Ie undevslood in con-
junclion vilI lIe vevlicaI conJIicl Ielveen
capilaI and IaIov and as opevanl vilIin a Ii-
evavcIicaI slvucluve vIicI penelvales lIe cIass
veIalions vilIin nalions as veII as Ielveen
lIen.39
FevIaps lIe nosl inpovlanl conlenpovav¸
vovI pvesenling a Mavxisl pevspeclive on lIe
cove-pevipIev¸ veIalionsIip Ias Ieen pvo-
38
Fov exanpIe, see Andve Oundev FvanI, ¨TIe Be-
veIopnenl oJ UndevdeveIopnenl,¨ MonlII¸ Beviev,
VoI. 18 |1966), pp. 17-31: CeIso Fuvlado, ¨TIe Concepl
oJ ExlevnaI Bependence in lIe Slud¸ oJ UndevdeveIop-
nenl,¨ in CIavIes WiIIuv, ed., TIe FoIilicaI Econon¸ oJ
BeveIopnenl and UndevdeveIopnenl |Nev YovI· Ban-
don House, 1973), pp. 118-23.
39
Oundev FvanI Ias openI¸ accepled lIis poinl oJ viev
in Iis vecenl vovI, poinling lo lIe necessav¸ conIinalion
oJ undevdeveIopnenl and cIass anaI¸sis.
duced I¸ InnanueI WaIIevslein.40 WaIIevslein
depicls lIe capilaIisl vovId s¸slen as vevoIv-
ing avound lvo Iasic ¨dicIolonies,¨ one oJ
cIass |Iouvgeois vs. pvoIelavian) and lIe olIev
oJ ¨econonic speciaIizalion¨ vilIin a spaliaI
IievavcI¸ |cove vs. pevipIev¸). He lIen adds
lIal·41
TIe genius, iJ ¸ou viII, oJ lIe capilaIisl s¸slen, is lIe
inlevveaving oJ lIese lvo cIanneIs oJ expIoilalion
vIicI ovevIap Iul ave nol idenlicaI and cveale lIe cuI-
luvaI and poIilicaI conpIexilies |and oIscuvilies) oJ lIe
s¸slen. Anong olIev lIings, il Ias nade il possiIIe lo
vespond lo lIe poIilico-econonic pvessuves oJ c¸cIicaI
econonic cvises I¸ ve-avvanging spaliaI IievavcIies
vilIoul signiJicanlI¸ inpaiving cIass IievavcIies.
WaIIevslein lIus goes JuvlIev lovavd an ex-
pIicil vecognilion oJ lIe slvucluvaI Iases oJ lIe
socio-spaliaI diaIeclic lIan lIe undevdeveIop-
nenl lIeovisls, Iul uIlinaleI¸ sleps IacI in a
nannev vIicI pavaIIeIs lIe lvealnenl oJ lIe
uvIan pvoIIenalic I¸ CasleIIs and Havve¸.
AJlev posiling vIal appeavs lo Ie a diaIeclicaI
veIalionsIip Ielveen sociaI |cIass) and spaliaI
|cove-pevipIev¸) slvucluves, lIe spaliaI slvuc-
luve is suIovdinaled lo lIe sociaI and vieved
IavgeI¸ as a nanipuIalion oJ space vIicI does
nol aJJecl cIass IievavcIies. WaIIevslein is lIus
aIIe lo use lIe cove-pevipIev¸ slvucluve as an
eJJeclive descviplive nelapIov, Iul nevev suc-
ceeds in eslaIIisIing ils slvucluvaI Iasis in
Mavxisl lIeov¸.
TIe OeogvapIicaI TvansJev oJ VaIue
One oJ lIe veasons vI¸ no soIid lIeovelicaI
Joundalion Ias Ieen eslaIIisIed Jov lIe cove-
pevipIev¸ veIalionsIip Ias Ieen lIe JaiIuve lo
cIaviJ¸ lIe vovIings oJ ils undevI¸ing necIa-
nisn, lIe geogvapIicaI lvansJev oJ vaIue. Un-
even geogvapIicaI -deveIopnenl vesuIls in a
vegionaI diJJevenlialion in IaIov pvoduclivil¸,
vales oJ pvoJil, ovganic conposilion oJ capilaI,
and cosls oJ vaviaIIe capilaI |e.g. vage vales
and vepvoduclion cosls) IolI vilIin and Ie-
lveen diJJevenl sociaI Jovnalions. ExcIange
Ielveen vegions vIicI diJJev signiJicanlI¸
aIong lIese Iines and, even in lIe aIsence oJ
divecl excIange, lIeiv coexislence vilIin a
40
An exceIIenl coIIeclion oJ WaIIevslein's essa¸s Ias ve-
cenlI¸ Ieen puIIisIed as TIe CapilaIisl WovId-Econon¸
|CanIvidge· CanIvidge Univevsil¸ Fvess, 1979). See aIso
WaIIevslein's TIe Modevn WovId-S¸slen |Nev YovI·
Acadenic Fvess, 1974).
41 InnanueI WaIIevslein, ¨TIe WovId S¸slen Fevspec-
live on lIe SociaI Sciences,¨ BvilisI JouvnaI oJ SocioIo-
g¸, VoI. 27 |1976), pp. 350-51.
1980 SOCIO-SFATIAL BIALECTIC 223
uniJied vovId capilaIisl navIel, Ieads lo a diJ-
JevenliaI accunuIalion and veaIizalion oJ vaI-
ue, Ielveen doninanl cenlevs and suIovdi-
nale pevipIevies. Il is nol possiIIe lo pvesenl
lIis pvocess in delaiI Ieve, Iul lIe end vesuIl
is cIeav· accunuIalion in lIe cenlev is aug-
nenled I¸ divecl and indivecl lvansJevs oJ vaI-
ue Jvon pevipIevaI vegions, vIiIe pevipIevaI
accunuIalion is dislovled and decveased ac-
covdingI¸.42
TIe geogvapIicaI lvansJev oJ vaIue lIus Ie-
cones lIe Iasis Jov lIe geogvapIicaI cenlvaI-
izalion and concenlvalion oJ capilaI vIicI, in
conjunclion vilI lIe IonoIogous concenlva-
lion and cenlvaIizalion oJ nonopoI¸ capilaI,
cveales and vepvoduces conlinuing diJJevences
in lIe veIalive size oJ capilaI Ielveen cenlevs
and pevipIevies. TIis geogvapIicaI cenlvaIiza-
lion laIes pIace in nan¸ diJJevenl va¸s. WIal
Kidvon caIIs ¨posilive cenlvaIizalion¨ is es-
senliaII¸ equivaIenl lo pvinilive accunuIalion
and invoIves a divecl gain lo lIe cenlev vilI-
oul a Ioss lo capilaI in lIe pevipIev¸, i.e., in
pvecapilaIisl sociaI Jovnalions.43 TIis divecl
exlvaclion oJ suvpIus pvoJil lIvougI coIoniaI
lax lviIules and pIundev, MandeI avgues, vas
lIe cIieJ Jovn oJ nelvopoIilan expIoilalion oJ
lIe TIivd WovId pviov lo WovId Wav II.44
¨Negalive cenlvaIizalion,¨ in conlvasl, nag-
niJies diJJevences in lIe veIalive size oJ capilaI
lIvougI lIe deslvuclion oJ suvpIus in lIe pe-
vipIev¸ via vav and lIe pvoduclion oJ avna-
nenls and ¨vasle¨-in olIev vovds, lIe di-
vevsion oJ lIe pevipIevaI suvpIus inlo
nonpvoduclive aclivilies in levns oJ lIe ac-
cunuIalion pvocess.
TIe vavious Jovns oJ vIal Kidvon caIIs
¨neulvaI cenlvaIizalion,¨ lIe lvansJev oJ suv-
pIus Ielveen capilaIs vilI no cIange in lIe
lolaI, Ias veceived pevIaps lIe gvealesl allen-
lion in lIe conlenpovav¸ Iilevaluve. TIis in-
voIves vIal Ias Ieen caIIed lIe ¨Ivain
dvain¨: lIe nel expovl oJ pvoJils, Jees, vo¸aI-
lies, elc. ovev ¨aid¨ veceipls: lIe lvansJev oJ
divecl conlvoI ovev pevipIevaI capilaI lo nuI-
linalionaI covpovalions: lIe lecInique oJ lvans-
42
A nove delaiIed eIaIovalion oJ lIese ideas can Ie
Jound in Conslanlinos HadjinicIaIis, ¨TIe OeogvapIicaI
TvansJev oJ VaIue,¨ unpuIIisIed doclovaI dissevlalion,
Univevsil¸ oJ CaIiJovnia, Los AngeIes, 1980.
43
MicIaeI Kidvon, ¨BIacI BeJovnisn· TIe TIeov¸ oJ
UnequaI ExcIange,¨ cIaplev 5 in Kidvon, CapilaIisn and
TIeov¸ |London· FIulo Fvess, 1974), pp. 95-123.
44
MandeI, op. cil., Joolnole 11.
Jev pvicing vilIin nuIlinalionaI congIonev-
ales: and, in pavlicuIav, lIe unequaI excIange
avising Jvon lvade in connodilies. Againsl
nucI cvilicisn, MandeI, EnnanueI, Anin
and olIevs avgue lIal unequaI excIange Ias
Iecone lIe doninanl necIanisn in lIe geo-
gvapIicaI lvansJev oJ vaIue in posl-Wav capi-
laIisn.45 WIelIev lIis cIain can Ie slalislicaI-
I¸ veviJied ov nol, lIe enevging deIale ovev
lIe lIeov¸ oJ unequaI excIange pvovides a
useJuI conlexl vilIin vIicI lo discuss lIe po-
IilicaI inpIicalions oJ lIe geogvapIicaI lvansJev
oJ vaIue and lIe nove genevaI pvocess oJ geo-
gvapIicaII¸ uneven deveIopnenl.
Saniv Anin sunnavizes lIe poIilicaI con-
lvovevs¸ suvvounding lIe geogvapIicaI lvans-
Jev oJ vaIue in lIe JoIIoving va¸·46
IJ lIe veIalions Ielveen lIe cenlev oJ lIe s¸slen and
ils pevipIev¸ ave veIalions oJ doninalion, unequaI ve-
Ialions, expvessed in a lvansJev oJ vaIue Jvon lIe pe-
vipIev¸ lo lIe cenlev, sIouId nol lIe vovId s¸slen Ie
anaI¸zed in levns oJ Iouvgeois nalions and pvoIelavian
nalions, lo enpIo¸ lIe expvessions vIicI Iave Iecone
cuvvenl? IJ lIis lvansJev oJ vaIue Jvon lIe pevipIev¸ lo
lIe cenlev naIes possiIIe a Iavge inpvovenenl in lIe
vevavd oJ IaIov al lIe cenlev lIan couId Iave Ieen
oIlained vilIoul il, ougIl nol lIe pvoIelavial al lIe
cenlev aII¸ ilseIJ vilI ils ovn Iouvgeoisie lo nainlain
lIe vovId slalus quo? IJ lIis lvansJev veduces, in lIe
pevipIev¸, nol neveI¸ lIe vevavd oJ IaIov Iul aIso lIe
pvoJil navgin oJ IocaI capilaI, is lIis nol a veason Jov
nalionaI soIidavil¸ Ielveen lIe Iouvgeoisie and lIe
pvoIelavial in lIeiv slvuggIe Jov nalionaI econonic IiI-
evalion?
InpIied Ieve is lIe queslion as lo vIelIev lIe
conlvadiclion Ielveen Iouvgeoisie and pvoIe-
lavial Ias Ieen vepIaced I¸ one Ielveen vicI
and poov nalions, a levviloviaII¸ deJined con-
lvadiclion avising Jvon uneven geogvapIicaI
deveIopnenl.
IJ lIis veve lvue, lIinI oJ lIe inpIicalions.
Il vouId cIaIIenge lIe Iasis oJ vovIdvide
vovIing cIass Iavnon¸. Il vouId nean lIal
lIe pevipIev¸ pa¸s Jov lIe IigIev vages, Jov
lIe IaIov ¨avislocvac¸¨ and veIalive sociaI
Iavnon¸ and veII-Ieing oJ lIe cove, lIvougI
lIe lvansJev oJ vaIue: lIal lIe onI¸ aIlevnalive
Jov lIe pevipIev¸ vouId Ie a Iouvgeois-pvo-
Ielavial cIass aIIiance ained al disengagenenl
45
AvgIivi EnnanueI, UnequaI ExcIange· A Slud¸ oJ
lIe InpeviaIisn oJ Tvade |Nev YovI· Modevn Beadev,
1972): Saniv Anin, AccunuIalion on a WovId ScaIe· A
Cvilique oJ lIe TIeov¸ oJ UndevdeveIopnenl |Nev YovI·
MonlII¸ Beviev Fvess, 1974): and iden, UnequaI Be-
veIopnenl |Nev YovI· Bandon House, 1973).
46
Anin |1974), op. cil., Joolnole 45, p. 22.
224 EBWABB W. SOJA June
Jvon and conJvonlalion vilI lIe inlevnalionaI
capilaIisl econon¸. Il is no vondev lIal an¸
inlinalion oJ sucI an inlevpvelalion Ias nel
vilI JovceJuI counlevavgunenl anong Mavxisl
scIoIavs.
WIiIe velaining an enpIasis on lIe geo-
gvapIicaI lvansJev oJ vaIue and lIe cenlev-pe-
vipIev¸ slvucluve, Anin allenpls lo vesoIve
lIe poIilicaI pvoIIens vIicI Iave Iecone as-
socialed vilI lIis pevspeclive I¸ veassevling
lIe doninance oJ lIe ¨sociaI pIane.¨ ¨TIe
sociaI conlvadiclions cIavaclevislic oJ capilaI-
isn,¨ Ie vviles, ¨ave lIus on a vovId scaIe,
lIal is, lIe conlvadiclion is nol Ielveen lIe
Iouvgeoisie and lIe pvoIelavial oJ eacI coun-
lv¸ consideved in isoIalion, Iul Ielveen lIe
vovId Iouvgeoisie and lIe vovId pvoIelavial. ¨147
Hevein ve Iave lIe sane lvo sleps Jov-
vavd, one slep IacIvavd, lIal cIavaclevized
Havve¸'s evaIualion oJ LeJeIvve. BalIev lIan
conJvonling lIe diaIeclicaI veIalionsIip Ie-
lveen lIe sociaI and spaliaI pIanes, Anin ve-
soIves il in Javov oJ lIe sociaI, Iul nov ex-
pvessed al lIe gIoIaI scaIe. In n¸ eavIiev
discussion oJ lIe uvIan spaliaI pvoIIenalic, I
avgued lIal lIe socio-spaliaI diaIeclic vas ex-
pvessed in pvaclice in lIe Jovn oJ a lvo-Jvonl
slvuggIe ovev pvoduclion and consunplion is-
sues, IinIing on lIe one Iand levviloviaI coI-
Ieclivilies and, on lIe olIev, a genevaI vovIing
cIass, eacI undevdeveIoped and expIoiled un-
dev capilaIisl veIalions oJ pvoduclion and ve-
pvoduclion. MucI lIe sane avgunenl can Ie
appIied lo lIe gIoIaI s¸slen. TIus lIe lvans-
Jovnalion oJ capilaIisn can occuv onI¸
lIvougI lIe conIinalion and avlicuIalion oJ a
IovizonlaI |pevipIev¸ vs. cenlev) and vevlicaI
|vovIing cIass vs. Iouvgeoisie) cIass slvuggIe,
I¸ lvansJovnalion on IolI lIe sociaI and spa-
liaI pIanes.
TIe lvo Jovns oJ cIass slvuggIe can Ie nade
lo appeav in conJIicl, especiaII¸ vilI lIe na-
nipuIalion oJ levviloviaI idenlilies undev Iouv-
geois nalionaIisn, vegionaIisn, and IocaIisn.
Bul vIen levviloviaI consciousness is Iased on
lIe expIoilalive naluve oJ capilaIisl veIalions
oJ pvoduclion and vepvoduclion, and nol on
pavocIiaIisn and enolionaI allacInenl lo
pIace, il is cIass consciousness. TIe pvoduc-
lion oJ space Ias indeed Ieen sociaII¸ oIJus-
caled and n¸sliJied in lIe deveIopnenl oJ cap-
ilaIisn, and lIis Ias aIIoved il lo Ie used
47
Anin |1974), op. cil., Joolnole 45, p. 24.
againsl lIe cIass slvuggIe. LeJeIvve vouId av-
gue lIal lIis is pveciseI¸ Iov capilaIisn Ias
suvvived. TIis does nol nean, Iovevev, lIal
spaliaI consciousness can Ie disnissed ov cas-
uaII¸ suIovdinaled in Mavxisl lIeov¸ and pvac-
lice. Il is necessav¸ lo den¸sliJ¸ spaliaI veIa-
lionsIips in nucI lIe sane va¸ Mavx
den¸sliJied lIe connodil¸ Jovn, lo veveaI lIe
sociaI veIalions vIicI Iie IenealI lIeiv ideo-
IogicaI IIanIel. TIis na¸ Ie lIe pvinav¸ lasI
oJ Mavxisl spaliaI anaI¸sis.
CONCLUSION
I Iave pvesenled a deIiIevaleI¸ pvovocalive
vesponse lo an incveasingI¸ vigidiJ¸ing pallevn
in lIe vecenl Iilevaluve on uvIan and vegionaI
poIilicaI econon¸, a pallevn vIicI couId
cIoIe oJJ lIe necessav¸ gvovlI oJ Mavxisl
spaliaI anaI¸sis in ils inJanc¸. Indiscvininale
Jeav oJ JelisIizing space, oJ assigning il loo
povevJuI and aulononous an inJIuence in na-
leviaI Iislov¸ and sociel¸ Ias, in n¸ viev,
gone Ie¸ond vIal Ias IislovicaII¸ Ieen nec-
essav¸ lo vesisl dislovling vevisionisn and is
Ieginning lo veslvain unpvoducliveI¸ lIe dia-
IeclicaI naleviaIisl anaI¸sis oJ Iunan spaliaI
ovganizalion. Anong olIev eJJecls, lIis Ias
Ied lo a nisinlevpvelalion and disnissaI oJ lIe
inpovlanl conlviIulions oJ sucI Mavxisl scIoI-
avs as Henvi LeJeIvve vIo, pevIaps nove lIan
an¸ olIev individuaI in lIe lvenlielI cenluv¸,
Ias cogenlI¸ incovpovaled lIe sociaI pvoduc-
lion oJ space inlo Mavxisl lIeov¸ and pvaclice.
A socio-spaliaI diaIeclic is a pvoduclive and
appvopviale Jocus Jov lIe concvele anaI¸sis oJ
capilaIisl sociaI Jovnalions and Jov concevled
sociaI aclion. As an anaI¸licaI Jocus, lIe so-
cio-spaliaI diaIeclic is nol ained al suInevging
cIass anaI¸sis ov eIevaling space pev se lo lIe
IeveI oJ a ¨scienliJic suIjecl¨ in Mavxisl sci-
ence ov pvesenling lIe ovganizalion oJ space
as an aulononous slvucluve vilI vegavd lo
JundanenlaI veIalions oJ pvoduclion. Inslead,
il sevves pvinaviI¸ lo speciJ¸ expIicilI¸ lIal lIe
sociaI veIalions oJ pvoduclion and sociaI Jov-
nalions in genevaI, as Mavx IinseIJ oIsevved,
conlain vilIin lIen a JundanenlaI vevlicaI vs.
IovizonlaI slvucluve aJJecling lIe posilion oJ
aII agenls oJ pvoduclion |i.e. peopIe) and sIap-
ing a sinuIlaneousI¸ sociaI and spaliaI division
oJ IaIov. In lIe deveIopnenl oJ Mavxisn, lIe
spaliaI slvucluve Ias venained, Jov lIe nosl
pavl, exlevnaIized and incidenlaI, a neve ve-
JIeclion oJ a deIiIevaleI¸ despaliaIized concepl
1980 SOCIO-SFATIAL BIALECTIC 225
oJ lIe ¨sociaI.¨ TIe sociaI-spaliaI diaIeclic
lIus vepvesenls a caII Jov lIe veincIusion oJ
sociaII¸ pvoduced space in Mavxisl anaI¸sis as
sonelIing nove lIan an epipIenonenon.
TIe avgunenl, Iovevev, is laIen one slep
JuvlIev I¸ suggesling lIal lIe vevlicaI and Iov-
izonlaI expvessions oJ lIe veIalions oJ pvoduc-
lion undev capilaIisn |i.e., veIalions oJ cIass)
ave, al lIe sane line, IonoIogous, in lIe
sense oJ oviginaling in lIe sane sel oJ genev-
alive slvucluves |e.g., lIe veIalion Ielveen Ia-
Iov and capilaI): and diaIeclicaII¸ IinIed, in
lIal eacI sIapes and is sinuIlaneousI¸ sIaped
I¸ lIe olIev in a conpIex inlevveIalionsIip
vIicI na¸ vav¸ in diJJevenl sociaI Jovnalions
and al diJJevenl IislovicaI conjuncluves. TIeve
is no pevnanenl and vigid doninance oJ one
ovev lIe olIev in aII concvele IislovicaI and
geogvapIicaI civcunslances. Indeed, lIe Iis-
lovicaI deveIopnenl oJ lIe diaIeclic Ielveen
sociaI and spaliaI slvucluves-lIe inlevpIa¸ Ie-
lveen lIe sociaI and levviloviaI division oJ Ia-
Iov-sIouId Ie a cenlvaI issue in concvele
Mavxisl anaI¸sis.
TIis allenpl al cvilicaI spaliaI anaI¸sis ve-
nains inconpIele. TIeve na¸ Ie sone viII-
ingness lo accepl lIe appeavance oJ a socio-
spaliaI diaIeclic in speciJic civcunslances as
an al Ieasl supevJiciaII¸ useJuI JvanevovI Jov
descviplion. Bul unliI lIe pvoduclion oJ space
is vooled nove deepI¸ inlo IislovicaI nalevi-
aIisn, inlo lIe Iasic deJinilions oJ lIe veIalions
and Jovces oJ pvoduclion, inlo lIe node oJ
pvoduclion ilseIJ, and especiaII¸ inlo pvaxis,
il viII lend lo venain as nove appavenl lIan
¨veaI,¨ as epipIenonenaI valIev lIan lvans-
JovnalionaI. SucI a lasI Iies aIead and sIouId
nol Ie delained I¸ lIe veassevlion oJ anlispa-
liaI dognalisn.

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