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**Ultimate Bearing Capacity Theory
**

Terzaghi (1943) was the first to present a comprehensive theory for evaluating the ultimate bearing capacity of rough shallow foundations. According to this theory, a foundation is shallow if the depth, D, (Figure 11.4), of the foundation is less than or equal to the width of the foundation. Later investigators, however, have suggested that foundations with D, equal to 3 to 4 times the width of the foundation may be defined as shallow foundations. Terzaghi suggested that for a continuous, or strip, foundation (that is, the width-to-length ratio of the foundation approaches 0), the failure surface in soil at ultimate load may be assumed to be similar to that shown in Figure 11.4. (Note that this is the case of general shear failure as defined in Figure l1.2a.) The effect of soil above the bottom of the foundation may also be assumed to be replaced by an equivalent surcharge, q = yDf (where y = unit weight of soil). The failure zone under the foundation can be separated into three parts (see Figure 11.4):

However. as was originally assumed by Terzaghi. The radial shear zones ADF and CDE.3) where Nc. with the replacement of the soil above the bottom the foundation by an equivalent surcharge q. With a = 45 + ¢/2. the basic nature of the failure surface in soil suggested by Terzaghi now appears to be correct (Vesic. Note that. Two triangular Rankine passive zones AFH and CEG The angles CAD and ACD are assumed to be equal to the soil friction (that is. 1973).4 Bearing capacity failure in soil under a rough rigid continuous 1. The triangular zone ACD immediately under the foundation 2. a = ¢).~ FIGURE 11. with the curves DE and DF arcs of a logarithmic spiral 3. can be derived as (l1A) . Terzaghi expressed the ultimate bearing capacity in the form (11. c = cohesion of soil unit weight of soil q = '}'Dj N. Using the equilibrium analysis. Nq. the angle a shown in Figure 11. and N. ¢ '}' = Based on laboratory and field studies of bearing capacity. = bearing capacity factors that are non dimensional and are only functions of the soil friction angle.] Soil Unit weight = 'Y Cohesion = c Friction angle .4 is closer to 45 + ¢/2 than to l/J. the relations for N. the shear resistance of the soil along the failure surfaces GI and HJ was neglected.

61 0.19 78.05 0.57 1.97 1.57 0.00 1.31 134.14 5.39 0.88 NqIN.24 0.35 67.47 16.97 3.65 3.50 0.90 85.82 8.31 66.63 23.33 0.94 0.53 0.40 0.44 1.93 0.09 29.55 0.01 1.41 130.22 155.86 1.31 265.93 14.40 0.51 187.72 16. 22.24 0.16 0. Table 11.21 0.44 10.32 0.83 15.51 319. (11.20 14.20 0. and the relation for Nq [Eq.09 0.06 3.59 3.47 c/J 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 N.16 46.66 Ny 0.25 2.88 0.80 27. as (11.96 64.88 158.64 271.35 0.43 1.05 19. 0.72 19.30 0.67 35.07 1.26 5.34 0.82 16.31 83.85 0.91 0. (11.72 0.67 496.6) Table 11.65 0.35 8.11 1.66 9.88 152.14 32.38 0.51 0.07 Ny 12.31 0.27 0.92 8.38 5.29 0.42 0.1 shows the variation of the preceding bearing capacity factors with soil friction angles.60 0.03 1.18 0.86 30.71 0.11 0.97 1.69 1.53 7.60 10. 0.07 7.04 1.26 0. 0.12 50.44 33.48 0.1 Bearing capacity factors* c/J 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 N.22 35.45 0.68 0.01 613.89 Nq 11.34 13.67 0.36 0.21 222.54 224.87 75. Caquot and Kerisel (1953) and Vesic (1973) gave the relation for N.03 92.72 1.55 186.58 0.37 133.82 0.11 118.49 6.08 1.37 10.40 7.16 762.87 0.20 tan c/J 0.40 25.63 12.75 42.10 173.10 13.65 0.25 0.86 93.18 26.81 7.27 0.20 73.77 5.19 6.45 0.14 0.04 1.47 2.Q2 0.63 61.97 2.26 3.00 0.2 Ultimate Bearing Capacity Theory 395 (11.20 7.45 0.93 55.34 0.72 Nq 1.62 0.94 25.22 0.59 55.07 0.25 0.53 4.75 0.32 20.71 2.12 0.31 0.92 48.73 0.34 4.81 10.02 115.80 9.5) The equation for N.23 0.43 0.19 0.07 0.36 0.80 0.39 6.99 30.85 13.98 11.13 8.28 9.07 4.21 0.15 1.80 6.63 5.71 105.32 0.81 0.64 199.25 109.75 0.90 6.29 2. given by Eq.4)] was presented by Reissner (1924).03 .88 2.76 330.20 9.20 1.63 0.89 NqlN.90 0.49 0.12 1.84 0.15 1.00 0.59 0.42 0.88 18.20 0. 5.53 0.93 266.15 0.03 56.09 1.19 *After Vesic (1973) .31 1.22 1.23 0.28 0.11.40 20.46 0.44 18.38 99.77 0.68 5.70 0.78 0.16 7.70 0.37 0.19 41.34 22.26 229.55 0.51 tan c/J 0.64 42.30 37.5) was originally derived by Prandtl (1921).49 38.54 14.25 23.35 403.57 0.94 4.06 48.06 2.00 1.

Fyd = depth factors Fci.q = (11.3) continuous foundation only.4). Fqi. If the difference between the unit weight of concrete used in the foundation and the unit weight of soil surrounding the foundation is assumed to be negligible. some modifications of the bearing capacity equation are necessary. . Fqd. Meyerhof (1963) the following form of the general bearing capacity equation: where cohesion effective stress at the level of the bottom of the 'Y = unit weight of soil B = width of foundation (= diameter for a circular Fes. (11. It does not apply to the case of rectangular Also. = bearing capacity factors = = c q The relationships for the shape factors. the equation does not take into account the shearing resistance failure surface in soil above the bottom of the foundation (portion of surface marked as GI and HI in Figure 11. and inclination factors mended for use are given in Table 11. Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table Equation (11. However. depth factors. Fys = shape factors Fed.8) where qnet(u) net ultimate bearing capacity.2.5). Fyi = load inclination factors Ne. then qnet(u) = qu . Net Ultimate Bearing Capacity The net ultimate bearing capacity is defined as the ultimate pressure per unit area of the foundation that can be supported by the soil in excess of the pressure caused by the surrounding soil at the foundation level. depending on the location of the water table (see Figure 11. the load on the may be inclined. To account for all these shortcomings. In addition. N.396 11 Shallow Foundations-Bearing Capacity and Settlement The ultimate bearing capacity expression presented in Eq. if the water table is close to the foundation. Nq. Fqs.7) was developed for determining the ultimate bearing capacity based on the assumption that the water table is located well below the foundation.

= yl (1. and inclination factors recommended for use Relationship BNq F = 1 +-Source Shape* De Beer (1970) cs LNe B F qs =1+-tanA. Case I: If the water table is located so that 0 :5 Dr :5 Df. depth.4) tan " (i) (i) Meyerhof (1963). = 1 - O. L 'I' r.4 L B where L = length of the foundation (L > B) Depth! Condition (a): DflB :5 1 Hansen (1970) Fed = 1 + O'~B Df Fyd= 1 Condition (b): Dfl B >1 Fed = 1 + (0. Hanna and Meyerhof (1981) Fqd = 1 + 2 tan c/>(1 .fi)2 c/> where (3 = inclination of the load on the foundation with respect to the vertical *These shape factors are empirical relations based on extensive laboratory tests.2 Factor Modification of 8earing Capacity Equations for Water Table 397 Shape.11..9) where ')Isat = ')Iw = unit weight of water saturated unit weight of soil .3 Table 11. the factor q in the bearing capacity equations takes the form q = effective surcharge = D(y + DkYsat - ')Iw) (11. 'The factor tan " (D/B) is in radians.sin c/»2 tan ? Fyd Inclination = 1 (30)2 ( 1-900 Fei=Fqi= F.

5)Is 6. 2/ ) PEP7H FAcTDRS OEP7/-1 FA-C7~/ZS ~c ~cI (7ab/e //.7.2) t:ffd F'id O (746/~ Ij. '7- 2/) (7d/.ld IJ. 13/ f§~ F-yG 2) 5J5'.1./~ 11. Nc 1\1 (Fr' //./3) (/~j.6) rCY/2 5" /3 rJ 1 (Er' 7..ZI) .2) (74_}/c lit (E!Y7' 7.yJ.5) Nr "s: //.4) 1 (Er_' 1/.- (Er?' 7./3J (C . II) Ny s~ (Ejn.7. Z) 4 ff (C! y/.n I C& / Enfln ee>r/YlJ Ft4t/} d 8f'Yl ~n S(!:>/ / HechdJ P7 / /os 8nq Found& ho~_s (!3rOJ)C2 M.f-· C$eol-ec./.2) dy- (ej'".2) CEjpJ.' l3uclhu) 7 .5"1-/ APE FA-C HA-PE FhCTeJ/2~ Fcs (!ceb/e 11. /1!) . 7. OdS) (#vn.7.

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