CHAPTER 4

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.) t: ~ '"V J".r - 2... (.) - c.. ".37 . (s.------ + QJ. Qals) . . - Frcm Figure 4-49 we obtain the ~olloving ~tianat :I' "'It) . H.(I) CzS ..(s) • H.3.\ For each of the alxJve equaticns... obtain or 8-4-3..I) K... a block diagram can be drawn..I. I I :.(!> _ Q. QIIf) -q.r) - IJ. 6) Ai 'l I (r) .H.or which can be rewritten as or ~-E Taking logari thID ~ a I-. ...t"'..1"" both sides of this last equatim. as 8hovn nat.f" ~(... /f'ID .

we obtain a block diagram ~or the Siaplifying -block di~ thi8 block: diagram successively..38 - .(.I+1 K~ (g. s·t 1)( ('I' c".~ Hzls) .a reasonably aimpli~iad QJ{s) ./)~~.c.Canbining system as sboIm... S "..(".... as ~oUoW!n we obtain. these elements belOVe of block: diagraaa.lr) I R/~' s+I)(I .-- Q..

O.) To investigate the response of the level of the secmd tank subjected to a unit-step disturbance input Qd. F..as follOWS: Fran this last blOdt diagram we obtain H2(s) as a function of Q1(8) and Odes) B-4-4. equaticm..!!b ~--39- fran which we obtain ..S+I) (R. ~-+I)( R:L ('?_ $ -+ I) -+ K R. I< Ie a 'ltle system exhibits . in the response to a unit-step 'H~~& " I> _ disturbance input.. (Note that.. r is the change in the set point.{S) obtained. {R. r =. lA) ibe transfer fUnction between H2(s) and Odes) can be obtained as Hz(s) Fran this _ t.offset . Since the set point of the controller is fUed. (J. we obtain "2(16):= ~ or $~" sllt(s) = R~ . steady-state error =. vhen d1angeS in the variables are small.C'..igure (a) below is a blodt diagram of the given system. C "" where q is the flow rate through the valve and is gi verI by = IIi:t 1= Hence "~-A C. the respalse H2(S) to the disturbance input Oc:!(s) can be For the unit-step disturbance input Oc:!(s)...C. we find it convenient to modify the blOdt diagram of Figure (a) to the one shown in Figure (b). g.

"- =. Doting' that Pol • -tty.lIt of the bel.L1. l 18 a prcport1cinal. Then. fUnction X(s)/Pi (s) is then given by -------.. The transfer we have the following equation: A. 1" '""l'it or (1) Define the __ of be1l0lfll U A and the displace".. nu. Pc + Po- ··ftm· .l8r. /I-A = 1+ . '!be c.a-.. -JlfJfi:M: the ~ of air in· the bel.a.. ~ tI.t.For the bellows and spring.lonI .I + ~ IC « . . (1) ~~ . . Ers) -.1cnnI .caaent of the diaphragm of the pneumatic relay.uatlC1\·.l. ccntrol. RC{-~ +-1-1 = Pc· -40- .w" = It :c.the Laplace transform of the aDilll dispJ. ': a Cl+1...U' - action of this ccntrol.·AT. R Y + 7.4-7. B.. .'CIDtrol. The transfer tunction Pc(s)/'E(s) is given by 1::(!) _.. . z(s) is. the CCIDtml..P.----------------------------------Elr) In this block diagram.18r . proportional.

or Tlr) _ 7c{l) A block diagram f~ .tfJ E(S) Assuae «+b b _.' a proportional-plus-derivativa· B-4-8.. ..tr) _ EU) - 4·+b..J. the control acticm is proportianal.. --. /( All It ATJ.41 - . --------1+t. 'Ihen 1'. ~ k. controller. RCs+/ that KIK~ 1. C S +-1' y Thus.-p1us-derivative.lie4-+ I so this systel is shown below. I> <1.1'. '" ++-1 = (:A~..t RC's+ I 17 ~ ._ I. '1be controller is ~(r) Pcl!) = ' E(s) b 4T 1- 1+ ~K1 A+ & (L _ L ~ .\(~" .

:-41(-:-' /:::. . controller is a PID controller.controller. Referring to the figure shown on the next page.t . the control action is proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative. w_ e(s) - «+'- b ktK = bit «A (/ + . .=( :: )( / + irs) «+ b .fC s +-/ The controller is a proportional-plus-integral .1. we can obtain the equations for the system. . It ·Ct Jf1Col + Ii C'z S + Ki C. 8-4-10.-1-/.42 - .b a+b -1<./ The I ~\ Thus.--~-r-s-.

l ~) Z(s) = _IG_..s Y6-) lTts). ..(:c - J ~"II"" =-3 At.I A..._ = For the pilot val..AJ fi Ajfl S or AJ:/J - x. _ K& It I<z 1.=kaU I... = A s~lified blodt diagra. 01 . 1 .. AJX or = l! For the jet pipe..1z ~ or t.._ For the diaphrl9l and spring aBBE bly.ve. _ II tJ/.43 - . "1 = K.I'2 A...~~_--o-1 I... 'nn• •t 01 ._'· . 'I. for the systa is shawn below.. i ft.« .a this block diagram we obtain ...A. -A. Frc..

r} Z(. -44- . Fran this figure we can construct a bloCk: diagram as shown below. '1beretore. lUlU' 00.s y(J. there is a corresponding value of angle~. and y as sbovn in the figure below. fran the syst_ diagram we See that for each value of y._ s • = • Ib 4. .. ' (9(s) - 4+& S (if K /+ JE. x. for each angle of the control· lever . Define displacements e.. e ..::: Arj'.& We see that the piston displaceaent· y is proportional to the deflection angle 9 thf! control lever.s) Kz X{sJ =: '(l(r) Z{fJ Xfs)._. there is a corresponding steady-state elevator of angle ~.) A_.Yff) 77(..'"s Ie 1:1 All - s» k -----------------------------B-4-11.. Fran the block diagram we obtain the transfer ftmCtion Y(s)/SCs) as foll0W8: ~ Y(s) _.. Also.

_-.tI -t I II i~- 2tr ::!L -elt 25 H(s) Taking "the Laplace transforms of the preceding two equations. initial conditions.{ (s) 2S 2. we get 2s 2 H(S) Hence fran which = -If (~)+ s Q" If) -. -_. we obtain 2~ = .2 S fits) $ _ we get H{$) Q. we have (1) where For the feedback: lever mechanism. ."=$t'+-S"-p. we have X-- a.s + / ------.-- where A is the of the spring. + 2. we obtain assunlng zero =- y(s) + Q~ (so) - 2H(s) s Ylt) = 1I(. Note that JA =-Kv'l+!~-I< ~ (2) (3) _ By substituting the given numerical values into Equations (2) and (3).----------------.+b i{ 1 /I.45 - . EqUation (1) can now be written as follows: C(l. Since the increase of water in the tank during dt seconds is equal to the net inflOW to the tank: during the same dt seconds.------. area Of the bellows and z"is the displacement of the lower erd Alao.8-4-12.s) By eliminating yes) fran the last two equations.

-62 Rz.C. = Ie."OUple of thenaal wall =- to thermocoUple h2 -= heat input rate to thermal well hI input rate 'lben..C.R. - .1!) = 8tH) Noting I . we obtain 9. a (.)s + I that -46- .-8" . [X{s)-zts)] Y(sJ _ K Xli) _ /i(s) -"&' p'.6l)/Rl t.t: where hl = (92 . 'lhus we have I. capacitance thermocoUple R2 -= thermal resistance of theI:mal well of therD¥:x:.t 1. 61. J.& ~ S&+ (R.z.. +A'z l'a +~a.fa . It and h2 "' + ::::::&: = (So ' 92)/R2.e.t "'.·~) 'lberefore. = Iz.~) - = ~[x(s)+ Y(~)J k{'rf))(tJ) = KA S I: ( I t- -f) = kA It ( s+ " ) 8-4-14.'1=-~ YfS")::: LS Hence x (s-) / Y(s)=-Z{r) Ap.hl)J.~11 =It. By eliminating ~ frau the last two equatia1S. Define 90 = 91 92 Rl Cl C2 E ambient teDp!rature teDp!rature of thermocx>uple of telrp!rature 'of thermal well = = = theJ:mal resistance thermal capacitance thermal. ('/1'./Ia ft: J.«t C'a til. the equations for the system can be written as = heat e.f.

$We Hence the denaninator beCanes R/~R&C' .47 - .R1C1 R~2 we have ~2 = = time constant of tllerDxlcoupl. = 6oS&+38$ T1 (R. = liz.rS+/) sec.I 3():.q+Xa... the time constants of the system are = 1. ~ .C'..35 sec Thus. ~ of &1(8)/82(8) S&+ .651 .e time constant of thermal well = = 2 sac 30 sec t!. T'lZ~/)S-+-1 +/ = (/'~~/&+I)(3~7. T2= 36.. C2. as .

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