THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES

THE STUDY OP PATANJALI .

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A. GRIFFITH MEMORIAL PRIZE. 1915 PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA 1920 .THE STUDY OF PATANJALI BY SURENDRANATH DASGUPTA. PROFESSOR.. CHITTA6ONG COLLE&K M.

THE CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY PBK88. CALCUTTA .AT PK1NTKD Bt ATULOBAND11A BUATTACHAKTYA. SENATE HOUSE.

Kt.. M.Sc. Ph. this philosophical essay is respectfully dedicated as a token of great personal admiration. .. the greatest educationist of modern India.. a true friend and patron to all scholars.S. C. the ONE MAN of the University of Calcutta. D.B To The Hon'ble Chief SIR Justice ASUTOSH MOOKERJEE.U D...I.D.A.

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I Had it Chief great this essay would never have here been published. the patron of learning. As I that I could not properly errors supervise the work of its printing. printing have consequently however hoped that the errors may not be of such little that they will till inconvenience the reader much. aud it is published in a great hurry on the eve of my departure for England. Kt.S. I do very much regret as myself.PREFACE This book was hurriedly written as essay as early as the Griffith Prize 1914. and no one probably is more conscious of its sophy that book is defects had to stay far away from Calcutta at Chittagong and as I had no time in my hands owing to my departure to England. So work has up now been done in the its field of Indian author Philosophy that in spite of many defects.. be published I do not much hesitate to publish This is my earliest attempt on Indian Philothis essay. Many It is escaped. C. the .I. have tried of as to give an account of the Yoga System of thought as contained interpreted in the Yoga Sutra Vachaspati and Vijnana Bhikshu with occasional references to the views of other systems. published shortly by the University of Calcutta is a more advanced and comprehensive work than the present But since it may yet take some time before attempt.. My work " Yoga Philosophy in relation " which I hope will to other Indian Systems of Thought Patanjali by Vyasa. not been for the encouragement of the Hon'ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee.

. The author is will consider to be of his labours rewarded if this essay found any use in any quarter.il PKEFACE has some excuse all in publishing it. It may seem convenient that before entering into the details of the work I should give a brief outline of the Yoga System of Patanjali at the work. which I hope may very beginning of the be of some use to the beginners.

religious and moral environments differed so widely from ours. An Aristotle a Patanjali may not make any direct mention of the arguments which led them dogmatic assertion of their theories. of the observed facts of knowledge. The of details of the criticism . as being relatively unimportant but a thoughtful reader would detect them as lying in the the Universe background behind but at the the shadow time or of the general speculations. but for a reader who intends to understand them thoroughly it is light far to a absolutely necessary that he should read theiri in the as as possible of the inferred . same setting them off before our view. and the processes thinker arrived at of his self-argumentation by which the theory might indeed be suppressed. presuppositions and is inner arguments of their minds he can it in this line way alone that put with the thinker he himself is in the same of thinking willing to him to the fullest extent. social.The Study of Patanjali However dogmatic a system of philosophical enquiry may appear to us.. . I shall therefore try to supplement it with such of my inferences of the presuppositions of Patanjali's mind. which of I think views. it must have been preceded by a criticism Introductory. follow and can grasp In offering this short study of the Patanjala metaphysics. will add to the clearness of the exposition difficulties of his though 1 am fully alive to the making such inferences about a philosopher whose psychological..

some who regarded the principle of matter as the Unknowable Thing-in-itself. . * See Ward's Naturalism and Agnosticism. . and we He Ego regarded matter on one hand. mind. Buddhists who have gone so far as to unyavadi assert that none of them exists. Philosophical enquiries based on the relations of The js relation of mind . and that thought All matter as such is called Real in the highest sense. neither the matter nor the non-Being or like the Maya mind. slowly and in imperceptibly into the other one merging and held together concord with each other by pre-established harmony. which have and dispensed with matter altogether has no reality at have boldly affirmed that matter as such is the only thing which can be all. an acute analysis of matter and thought. There have been some who asserted that matter was only thought externalized. on the other extreme.* There have been theories cal speculations compared.2 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI An entity into the relations of the mental phenomena first start to the physical has sometimes given the to philo- sophy. find Underlying the metaphysics of Patanjali also. . . the senses. and some who God or as two of his regarded their difference as being only one of grades of intelligence. to matter. There have been mechanical and biological conceptions which have ignored mind as a separate entity and have dogmatibe the product of cally affirmed it to Different philosophimatter only. to matter of suc h an important problem existing mind and Philosophy that the philosophical systems classified according to roughly be the relative importance that has may been attached to mind or chemical. some who regarded them attributes as separate independent entities held within a higher reality called only. . There have been Nihilists or Avidya.

the five gross elements and their compounds. distinguished a self-intelligent principle which he called from them Purusha or the Spirit. to be 3 -But he the rraknti. viz. Rajas the factor of obstruction or mass or energy and Tamas or Inertia.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI on the other. from Vachaspati's Tattvavaisaradi on the VySsa BhSshya. Eo Quotation Vachaspati. : Thus Vachaspati says The qualities (Gunas) appear as possessing two forms. are the real points or ? agree- of all Mental things. In the aspect as the perceiver or determiner. 47. the What .. nothing more than two different kinds of modifications of one primal cause. possible he discovered that what we call matter consisted only of three piimal qualities or rather substantive entities. they form the modifications as the and the senses. mental or physical. which he called the Sattwa or the intelligence-stuff. the determiner or the perceiver and the perceived or the determined. It is indeed extremely difficult to make a true conception of the nature of these three qualities or Gunas as he called them. it will comprehend them rightly be necessary to Difficulties of the con- ception of the Gunas which are the underJying reality exact relation grasp thoroughly between the mental and the physical. when we consider that these are the only three elements composition of order to all which are regarded as forming the In phenomena. the Gunas evolve themselves as the five infra-atomic potentials. In the aspect as the determined or the perceived. III. By the highest generalisation Patanjali's view. Physical- and ment between the two same elements be said How to can the behave in the one case as the conceiver and in other case as the conceived. .

their nature as the deter- Mind and matter are the two aspects of the same substance. With Aristotle. For with relative and are only terms. Wrorawa. pose of the of the objects perception of are the same those which form the phenomena that one is only distinction is determined and the other is the determiner. own in " as is reason possibility of Form. in matter as The theory of causation as explained well as in form.. Thus it seems that Aristotle's doctrine has some similarity with the Patanjalatheir difference Aristotle. But much outweighs potentiality is the similarity.. but only on different stages that exhibits itself in both. the perceiving their Hegel all of them asserted in their difference between the ways that there was no intrinsic mental and the physical. . viz. Matter idea and the process of becoming. their nature as being determined or perceived. and Patan^Aristotle or potentially surmounted. the antithesis between world of sense is at least in principle. what is potential to with reference to one thing actual with reference . so-called Aristotle.4 It is THE STUDY OF FATANJALI interesting in to notice here the two words used the by Vachaspati. The elements which comphenomena as . miner or the perceiver and szraftal^rara. characterising twofold aspect of the Gunas. Sankhya actuality doctrine." by him by the finished article simile is of the raw material and the almost the same as has been in his Vijfiana Bhikshu commentary consists in given by on the system of the activity that Sankhya manifests just is the causal action effect of the the (karya) the present in moment stone image existing already only manifested by the activity of as the the statuary. so far as it is one single being. . ). Leibnitz. .

by their similar kinds of power. or thought or is also regarded as the Actual is is the Form. and phenomena. Thus Vyasa The the knowable writes. and the other called the Potential Matter. The mental and the physical represent two different orders of modifications. (Tamas) is of the nature of inactivity. characterised by three essential traits is illumination.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI another. Q. of They evolving. those of the others. The Guna entities with the above characteristics are capable of being modified their by mutual influence are on one another. Inertia Rajas of the nature of energy. But with Patanjali this not the case. faculties all the in themselves the absolute potentiality of all things. With him which Sattwa. classes phenomenon with The Gunas forming the of substantive entities manifest themselves as such. is The Sattwa of the nature of illumina'ion. Potentialities without. They have the characteristics conjunction and separation. They manifest forms by one lending support to the others by distinct None of these loses its proximity. As they conjointly form the manifold other. energy and inertia. When any one . as the gross elements and the perceptive senses. Rajas and Tamas are substantive entities compose the reality of the mental and the physical. they are mental the and physical. and one is not in any way the actuality of the and actualities have place in this system but only in this sense that they are the absolute potentialities and actualities. even though power into any one of them may three exist as the principal factor of a the others as subsidiary thereto. by proximity. in describing of nature of is nature the knowable now of described : The knowable. consisting is of the objects enjoyment and liberation. and in this way. by their varying combinations as well as diverse internal functions.' li 5 All things are arranged in a state of becoming 6 i i* higher and higher .

separating and re-uniting again and there is neither beginning nor end of this Purusha or See Vyasa Bhashya on Patanjali's Yoga Sutras. as All of them are ecpually important and the very various represents as nature of the manifold. fj^^^q^j^ i Quotation from Vyasa It may be argued that in Aristotle also we find that Potentiality and Actuality in all things. roll of the principal their factor of any in phenomenon. of these only the different entities. ri:. is which must be exists noted in this. but the are also may other be more Gunas in their present there and do their functions is own way. exist together in various proportions but the fundamental distinction here. 18. one of the Gunas predominant than the others. II. Form only which it is Matter as striving. combinations Gunas substantive In any combination. the other. its that in Aristotle. even though be as subsidiary qualities. none of them can be held as the goal of the others.. the and the liberation of the spirit. They are always uniting. Gunas. . close others also show presence Their existence as 'subsidiary factor is energies of distinct it the principal inferred by their and independent functioning. No but one of them they serve experiences more conjointly important than one common purpose.6 of THE STUDY OF PATANJALI them plays the the contact. end or goal towards And the manifold nature of the universe only shows the different stages of matter and form But in the three being overcome by each other.

independent other three (sign). is The fulfilment of the objects of the Purusha not therefore the reason of the existence of the cause.THE STUDY OF PATANJALt They have no purpose are of theirs to serve. rren: ^farra^Iiq ?fa i *r s^nstcn ^JTW *nrf?r . the Spirit. As to the three specialised states. it is For the reason that Purusha's objects it is not brought into existence by the said to be eternal. the fulfilment of not the cause which brings about the manifestation of the noumenal state in the beginning. And cause because of the objects of the Purusha become the are *r . so. less determinate.their manifestation *r they said to be non-eternal. f ^foinwmuT vrafa gwsff^g:. more coherent whole.. less more whole differentiated. eternal state. reason that it is For the not brought into existence by the need of the fulfilment of the Purusha's objects it is said to be eternal. the HF (unspecialised) lised) and foSta (specia- have been caused for the sake of the Purusha. the f ulfilment'of the objects of the Purusha becomes the cause of their manifestation in the beginning. objects of the Purusha The fulfilment of the objects of the Purusha is not therefore the reason of the existence of that ultimate cause. the fulfilment of the objects of the Purusha becomes the cause of their manifestation in the beginning. more. evolutionary state deon the pendeut Purusha. That is is to say. 7 but they all always " evolving ever from a relatively less differen- tiated. coherent " for the experiences and the liberation of the Purusha. As to the three specialised states. to a relatively determinate. writes : Thus the Vyasa The objects of the Purusha are no cause of the noumeual states. All stages or evolution. that state of the Gunas is not for the is sake of the ik its w the viz. When in a state of equilibrium they cannot serve the purpose of the Purusha .

II.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI The fulfilment of the objects Vachaspati again says of the of the Purusha could be said to be the cause that state could if bring about the : noumenal state. but is the principium of it almost all existence.. or manifest between true self and other phenomena. the horn of a It described as being beyond both these states of existence and non-existence. unmediated and undetermined. the noumenon (lit.g. Inertia and * See Vyasa Bhashya on Patanjali's Yoga Sutras. 19. which may some sense be Compared with the Being of Hegel. without any manifested (fr^Ttre^' fal'B^m f*TT<T. For it is like that.. ^sjnw ^ffa?' wf I ) Vachaspati explains as follows: of effecting Existence consists in possessing the fulfilment existence horse). It does neither exist nor does not exist. of the distinction If however it did that. the simple. that in is which it and the yet does not that in which there no non-existence uumanifested. indeterminate. t Vfichaspati Misra's Tattavaisaradi commentary on Vyasa Bhashya on Patanjali's Sutras. 19. nor not. gunas of The state of the equipoise of the three Intelligence-stuff. 19. the beginning. which neither . t Vyasu Bhashya. Non- means a mere imaginary is trifle (e. it could II not be a state of equilibrium. loosely compared with the pure Being of Hegel. . the capacity of of the objects the Purusha. wrfflTW^TO^1fWW *=n*fT^?n fWfWWnWtRt *T This state in is fWl^' farwT ?if^tf* i Prakriti n?i it called the Prakriti. II. it background of i all. II. etc. is Thus Vyasa describes is as the state exists . fulfilment of the objects of the Purusha such as the the discrimination enjoyment of sound. the indication).

.. is beyond of it the state of non- existence. it that in which it exists in and does not This means that the cause exists that state in a potential form but not in the effect. exist in the state of the unmanifested. of effect exists it is in the cause of mere the it is potential yet incapable performing . like therefore does not exist such. On does not admit of being rejected as It is non-existent an imaginary lotus of the sky. form of the as Although the power. of But even allowing the force the above arguments about the want of phenomenal it existence of Prakriti on the ground that cannot serve the objects of the Purusha. that does not exist can be born . O If it were then would be lotus of the sky and no would follow from that ffcf T ^ *nfo 1 . it follows therefore that principles of since the Mahat. therefore not non-existent.THE STUDY OF PATAKJALI Energy. function fulfilling the objects of the Purusha therefore said to be non-existent as such. that state can also affect the fulfilment of the said objects of the Purusha. it is because nothing that it exists can be destroyed . etc. of is 9 the as nowhere It it of use in fulfilling objects the Purusha. ff?f TTf . exist in the state of the unmanifested also. the other hand. It is that its of the nature of hare's horn. because nothing destroyed. and if cannot be born again. is How then can it be ? that the unmanifested not possessed of existence as For this reason. the question comes that the principles of Mahat. he describes exist. that of the existence like that effect the effect as like mere the nothing. etc. Further he says effect is that this cause is not such.

In the root of all determinate the different Gunas only annul themselves and this state of state. " its . phenomenal modifications If we ignore Purusha of the system then we can in some sense compare it with the God " excludent of all determiwith of Compared Spinoxa'i Nafcura the Naturans. nation all Spinoza. an invisible and formless thing. which however being perfectly balanced does not This is what is meant by w&l qfr'OT* produce any change. "conceived II. 19. it is clear that it of Hegel or as pure Being. the one which is prior to modifications. It can to possess the be described in the words of Plato as . nor water nor any thing produced from them. the recipient of everything. Had this Prakriti been the only one of (Evolution principle. a may be compared with the pure implicitude which is at Being of Hegel. participating in a certain way of the unintelligible but in a way very difficult to seize". could be compared to the absolute Prakriti as the equilibrium of the three Gunas is the absolute ground of all the mental and pure potentiality. VSchaspati's commentary on Patanjali'a Sutras. * or like the matter of Aristotle. no change takes place. and concrete existence. we do not It is earth nor nor fire. both of which must be conceived through itself and as having always existed simultaneously in it. ." It may be conceived two attributes of thought and matter.10 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Thus we point of see that if it is it looked at from this narrow view of similarity. similars). that though is it must be acknowledged one of tension and the state of equipoise also action. or from which these are produced. " The mother and call it receptacle of all visible things air.

becoming and assumes the most contradictory what however in its own being is different from everything. subject in|all that which the permanent forms . it is called called (Avidya) since . 92. determination.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI in its 11 abstraction from Form as as without is predicate. and has in itself no definiteness whatever. flgi the cause of diversified Maya.. Avidya another knowledge which is opposed to the right knowledge.e. distinction. i* But that this is distinctly opposed in the frsnfaqftfi Bhashya which i. the to preside is over (flwr g in irafti There it is a description that also the Rigveda X. In the In this Manu way also it we find ^uwra^ *rfw^ R^HffR ^a:. ." In later Indian thinkers there had been a tendency to make a compromise between the Vedanta and Sankhya doctrines and to identify (Prakriti) u^fff with the (Avidya) Thus Lokacharyya writes ^ftsiT of the Vedautists. In some of the Upanishads.- it is Prakriti. Avidya and Maya since creation. defines is (Avidya) as ^nrr^T "fasn.. . it is . page 48 (Chovrkhamba edition). Swetaswatara for example." which reminds one of the description of Prakriti (wfa) as fiT:^r?Tre^ (that in which there is " no existence or non-existence). we find that *n?n (Maya) and said v&fo (Prakriti) are it identified fa<gm *nfsR and the great god is g T^T). in the utilised with slight modifications by the different schools * Tattvatraya. it is opposed to knowledge. may be that as shown from Geeta and other undifferentiated. Benares. first Sanskrit texts an the unindividuated cosmic matter beginning was often thought of and principle Later on this idea was discussed from the earliest times. it is : called Prakriti since it 'ffoiT is the source of all change. where ?T^Tff) in said (TT*Kift?j f ' ^^T^t^T Is nor beginning there was neither the " Is the not.

That. who sought to under the different make a reconciliation between them the Sankhyists and those of Prakriti. Patanjala What Avidya means . nature of The most its to understand the point connection with the Purusha. according to the see later on it system we shall whatever it might mean but here we see that does not mean Prakriti according to the of Patanjala also in system. immediately changes. more since it definite is real. and Misra says clearly that Prakriti can in no sense be called A Maya. independent principle and the souls .12 of THE STUDY OF PATANJAL1 Vedantists. so the transformations (ig^f^f) in the sense that of Prakriti are every moment appearing and vanishing and thus suffering constant changes. and that there is no allusion to the celebrated Maya of the Vedantists . It is trifling Just as Maya changing. Bhikshu here. (Cf.) notion of Prakriti we into shall get as Connection with Pnrusha and the difficulty of its we advan ?e further of the details the later in transformations of the connection is conception Prakriti with the Purusha. Vyasa Bhashya makes mention Maya a couplet from Shashtitantrasastra ^ HTH appearance of the Gunas does not come within the line of our vision. Prakriti is an eternal reality and thus different from Maya ?raif% ^m\ ^m^^ro^n vrafa i This explanation of Mi-ra makes it clear that the word Maya is used here only in the sense of illusion. Prakriti is a difficult material. which comes within the The real line of vision is but paltry delusion and Vachaspati explains is it as follows : Prakriti like the Maya but it is it is not Maya. however. non-intelligent. names really Avidya and Maya.

was probably to avoid this difficulty that the dualistic appearance of the philosophy of Descartes had to be reconstructed in the pantheism of Spinoza. neutral. it is But all students of Aristotle know that stand the true relation between form and matter. give some of the other expedients devisby the different schools of Adwaita ^njala point of View. In India also this question has always been a to j." The universe is but a gradation between the two extremes of potentiality and actuality. Again we find also how Kant failed to bring about the relation between noumenon worlds absolutely and phenomenon. particular it very difficult to underand the nature of their interaction with each other. difficulty by his theory of attempt form and matter.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI or spirits are isolated. intelligent 18 and inactive. and again supplemented it by his Critique of Judgment and met with only dubious success. we are not fully satisfied though he has shown much ingenuity and subtlety of thought in devising Aristotle's to avoid the the " Expedient in the single conception of development. and created two unrelated with each other. He tried to make up the schism that he effected in his Critique of Pure Reason by his Critique of Practical Reason. little puzzl- ing and before trying It is seen in other theories Indian as well. . matter and form. Then ? how can In the one come into connection with the other most systems of Philosophy the same difficulty has arisen and has given the same troubles to comprehend it The almost difficulty is . ri * h %- Plato fi S hts the difficulty of unavoidable since it is seen to exist in other western sys- solving the unification of the idea and the non-being and his participation attempts to offer even in theory . and has created a great It divergence of opinion among his commentators. I shall p Tin/. i ed for the purpose. TJ-J. first explain the Vedantism.

e. own Nescience is ft? 5*} ^^i T irsf 3 * Siddhantalesa (Jiveswara Nirupana). the sky in water. space as within the jug.. They illustrate in theory by (*)TOTO) giving those common examples which the Akasa though unbounded spoken of as belonging to a jug or limited by the jug and as such appeared to fit itself to the shape and form of the jug and which is thus in itself is often called ^nnqf'*'* *H*WI. it is the who was brought up in the family of a pure Brahman who by its own Nescience and death and by its undergoes birth again released.. so the and low caste. . in The illustrations that are given to explain it in both cases Adwaita Brahmasiddhi are only Siddhantalesa* and Sun of reflection. or of II. that its reflection in the former we have Iswara. the reflection of the physical in water. i. wn beginning. so which comes by telligence.. connection mother with in- gross matter. in Maya of is without unspeakable. etc. so of necessity follows that their be " the limitation. : *nH6^T? Limitation theory The " all-pervading intelligence must it necessarily limited by soul is its mind. viz. Then we have a it third school of Vedantists : who seek to another way Whereas others hold that explain a reflection uor a limitation but just as the soul is neither in son of Kunti was known his as the is son of pure Brahman by just as the prince Nescience known as the Jiva Badha.14 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Reflection theory I.

Thou art not a forester. a certain minister informs him. who didst originate itself the first which manifests merely Thought. same as in Sankhya explication of the connection. the crystal will there is not a tinge but Now it be seen that all these theories only of show that the union of the principle of Neither pure intelligence is very difficult to comprehend. of the instruction of some kind from Pure as Thou. etc." to As he. immediately having abandoned outcast. As a tinging through Noncase of the Hibiscus and a fancy. to am a king ' too the realises consequence the effect soul. the reflection nor the limitation theory can clear the situatranscendent nature the tion from vagueness and increased incomprehensibility physical illustrations which for is rather by their the Chit or pure intelligence cannot undergo reflection like a physical thing and neither can it be obstructed nor limited . its "I saying. Bhikshu certain TraHTRfrrftq^anrT i rn-i i which <> Yijfiana explains follows n : A king's son of his being born under the Star his Ganda having a forester. thou art a king's son.^ still ^twr: fw^ ^rfwn^: is (1) Though be unassociated (2) there in the discrimination. the idea of his being his an betakes himself " so true soul royal state. purity in person. also avails of the.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI The Sankhya Sutra I 15 story in IV. - In another place there are two (2) it Sutras : fa:^lP fq ^qresf^wtf?." consequence been forester expelled from city and reared by a certain : remains " under the idea he is " I am Having learnt that alive. art a portion thereof/' *Wpi-wrfTfaftr:wfer: ?f.

For the emancipated person the world phenomena (4) cease to exist. (7) ^fi^M l^^m III. now how Patanjali and Vyasa seek to explain some of quote a few Sutras of Patanjali and the most important extracts from the Bhashya and try to Let me get the correct view as (1) (2j ^JT^sHajifJlt* -$e\ much as possible II. For his sake only is the being of the knowable. 25. II.22. 23. 22. ?s?f IT.16 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI it. But here though the metaphor is more suitable to expres? relation the of Purusha with is the Prakriti. 3J?n$' vjfh sre^uR^' cT^n-mmii^TfT '$w.wtfa flsrer^w. : 1*^3 ^farai ^ftwiav. Let us it. 21.9) f^TR^^wrar'^i^iKiqTil ^if%^^T^ IV. self it is as seer is absolute in its transcendent purity (3) yet capable of reperception in experience. (3) (4) ti^er xjei ^n^n II. yet they are not annihilated since thej form r a common field of experience for other individuals. 20. of the colourless crystal which was onlv a seeming redness not the thing with the Vedantists of the reflection school. (2) The . .34. (1) tity of The Ego-Sense is the illusory appearance of identhe subject and the object operating in the field of consciousness. bv The reflection theory that is pointed at by the is not ifiwm: Sankhya-Sutra arcrefife^ftw ^rm: ftf=?i For here the reflection produces an adequate explanation. (6) q<mn?r ^'^iwrft qreijvufl: 1^ <TI^: ^^' III. the exact nature of the relation more lost sight of than see com- prehended. 6. HI. 55. (8) (. 11.

(7) necessarily no conjunction of world-experience. (0) Objects exist only for the Purusha of . by And Panchasikha also ^fovnronFt li^nTf " as if there lf%rr. to be separated." writes. character notion of self in and knowledge. rrqT<w<*f^ ^K i H^l Tranrsftel PraTfefirfw**iMiii ^TttT Not knowing the Purusha beyond the Buddhi to be different therefrom.17 (5) The cause of the realisation of in the natures is of the subject factor and the Purusha (6) consciouness contact. 6 Drik as (l^r) or Purnsha the seer as the Prakriti itself of as Sakti or see that their power much is spoken and we in identity a seeming one. nature is of the Purusha described This seeming again as Tfsj?njW. : consists in the non-differentiation their natures are absolutely distinct arises out of concentration these two which in the knowledge of self on its nature. a man has the the Buddhi through delusion. 8 Vyasa in explaining this Sutra says that the . Thus we the real identity see that when they are is known realised. the oneness of the This state of oneness arises out of the equality of Personal the Purusha and Buddhi in purity. is Thus in II. (before this is When the world is of objects withdraws . etc.. The Purusha thus we see cognises the phenomena of consciousness after they have been formed and though its nature is different from that yet it appears to be the same as that. emancipation) there the destruction self in isolation. (8) consciousness arises is though in its nature unchangeable when the Purusha cast into the mould experience thus of Buddhi. in nature. is no difference. Vyasa or his Bhashya explains miWrfl (unity of nature as identity) w.

All phenomenal knowledge into which has the form of the object can only be transformed " I know this " conscious knowledge as only when it becomes connected with the ego. Even when the Buddhi is without auy objective form it is being always seen by the Purusha. ^ O O fications according to the furm of the object of cognition in the shape and thus a state of conscious cognition " I know it" of results when the Buddhi havinoO assumed the shape of an object the constant factor it becomes connected with Purusha. Now the ego which all illumines our knowledge is only a product of the trans- cendent reflection of the the Purusha into the Buddhi. The exact nature comprehend to .18 Purusha is THE STUDY OF PATANJALI neither quite similar to the Buddhi nor is from it. So Purusha may in a way be said to see again that which was perceived by the Buddhi and thus to impart consciousness Buddhi as the by transferring its illumination into the The Buddhi suffers ohan^inar modiego. but the Purusha not such. so that according as it knows objects or For the Buddhi does not. And we see that neither . always altogether different to the change of the objects that are changeful according offered to it . and is thus connected with the phenomenal form of knowledge. of reflection or identification the through the transcendent Purusha in the Buddhi This is what is meant by T?RnTT<jqs?j (repercepBuddhi transformations by Purusha and thereby intelligising the Buddhi which has assumed the shape of as the ego. is it may it be said to be changeful . tion of the any object of consciousness). very hard to really of this reflection is indeed no physical illustrations can serve make it clear. being reflected Buddhi. as through the always appears as the self. appears connected with which always illumines of the all The notion of self that our mental is phenomena and to this reflection them only due Purusha in the Buddhi.

But the Purusha is the constant seer of the Buddhi. It is the light which remains unchanged amidst all the changing modifications of the Buddhi.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI 1$ the Bhashya nor the Sutras offer any such illustrations as Sankhya did. So that though express it we cannot anyhow. so that we cannot distinthe Thus Purusha guish the Purusha separately from the Buddhi ( 13). in which it disagrees with it. is undergoing of different modifications the Buddhi and again disappears as a Sanskara grasp and again comes into the field of the under(potency) the standing as Smriti (memory). . is this that the Buddhi .. of this seeiug we never is lose our notion unchanging. Thus the Purusha appears always in our consciousness as . the act of having a percept. But the Bhashya proceeds to show the points in and those which the Buddhi may be said to differ from the Purusha. b f grasp n g o f an nothing but its own and thus since an object sometimes comes within of object. is Farther explanations of constuntly undergoing . wo may at least make some advance towards conceiving the situation. modifications . This is what is meant by saying ^: JTf<TO'%^ the Purusha reflects or turns into is its concepts of the its Buddhi and thus manifested in notion all said to own light the know it. whether of it has an object as in it ordinary has forms object phenomenal a state knowledge or of when or seer no as in (Nirodlia suspension) of fafte the Purusha remains the constant the Buddhi and of as a result self.. Thus the is knowing is our consciousness as self or ever-persistent of the ego which of ever so constant a factor in the phenomena consciousness. Thus the Bhashya says that the main difference between the Buddhi and the Purusha .. the distinctness of according as it grasps tlie its objects i one the nature of Purusha and Prakriti. we see that it is qfwfa or changing.

altogether independent. kriti is The will difference between the Purusha and the Pra- be clear in as much as we see that the Purusha free in and for himself. must ever be the self- same. and as dependent on it. self-satis- other end^and has fied. but the Buddhi is on the his That which exists in and for itself. It is absolutely free from all bondage. absolutely Butldhi. light. for whatsoever . It is the self-centred. been so how could the Purusha which is ? absolutely pure become subject to reperception T?a??n3W writes *n^J <rf% Thus the Bhashya f^rr ?fa i TTSKI' nf<m'*w> frefa^trafa. and Buddhi is nothing but such is a modification intelligent. unchangeable entity. The Buddhi is unconscious. which has never to seek any But Prakriti is not such. while the Purusha is the pure light of intelligence. unconnected with the appearance it Prakriti. for it has no other end for which it will be liable to any change. But from the is side of only seems that he the intelligent seer to our conception imparting consciousness all the in reality he remains the seer of himself conscious-like though while. enjoyment and release. existing from any bondage other hand for the Purusha. always undergoing endless complex modifications and as such does not exist for itself but for the Purusha.20 THE STUDY OF PVTANJALI however the Purusha the knowing agent. for the three Gunas are all non-intelligent. it is never to go out of itself. of these three Gunas which are all non- is not altogether But looked at from another point of view the Prakriti different from the Purusha for had it . wre . suffering no transformations or modifications. Really speaking he is not in any way in touch with the only sees himself.

but the notion of the only It is this notion thing permanent amidst all this change. Purusha it ^fsrfiff is certainly unchangeable and does not run after every object. The chaugare . this we have Now as notion of of self persists through it is all the varying that the is change light rj our consciousness shines in inferred which thus our consciousness una changeable. percepts which we had of the external material objects. And when the modifications of the Buddhi assume the form of consciousness by which it is coloured. Our Buddhi is constantly self suffering is thousand modifications. As ( it has been said ) : the power of the enjoyer. he Tn as they have come into the mind. The permanent part is that pure light of intelligence by virtue of which the notion of self reflected in our consciousness. All our states of consciousness parts analysed into two a permanent part and a changing part. they imitate it and look as if they were manifestations of consciousness unqualified by the modifications of the now intelligent Buddhi. it In connection with a changeful object if it appears forever as were being transferred to every object and as if it were assimilating its modifications. So the forms of our concepts which could exactly represent these material objects clearly in their own terms must . To meet this he says i He sees is not quite dissimilar. contents. in much as the Purusha cognises the ideas the form of Buddhi he appears by the act of cognition to be as it were the very self of the Buddhi although in reality he is not so. of self that imparts consciousness to the material parts of All our concepts originated from the our knowledge.. i gence. the ideas after Why? Even though pure.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Well then let it 21 be dissimilar. ing part Analysis of consciousness to find the place of is i the form of our conscious- permanent intelli- constantly varying according to the constant change of its ness u whi ch w .

or personality our consciousness. And we find that the *ffreTr W3*3j' Sutra of the Vibhutipada says: ^Tergwft: which means that when the q\3 or Buddhi becomes as pure as Purusha. by virtue of which it appears as the self all the supreme possessor ? and knower of Purusha to our mental conceptions the this There must be at least some resemblance between justify in Buddhi and the some sense last seeming reflection.2-> THE STUDY OF PATANJALI But with the reflecbe made of the very self-same stuff. the soul. notion of self which content of our consciousness. which it justifies the expression *r^qsg which means that ? perceives by Purusha which itself to imitation (^f^nr^l TOfa is *m 1p?s?0 How can the altogether formless allow any reflection of imitate the form of Buddhi. altogether . by which the Purusha may Puvusha self seer of the concept appears to the spoken of as the virtue of the which is manifested in the consciousness by is that seeming reflection. there comes within the tion of the Furusha. Thus our phenomenal a material intelligent self is partially out of the reality arising seeming interaction of the is spirit and the Buddhi. the makes them as it were all our concepts and spiritualises So this seeming identity of the conscious and intelligent. So much so that the last stage preceding the state of Kaivalya is . For this all through which remains unchanged self. This shows that the pure nature of Sattwa has a great resemblance with the pure nature of the Purusha. non-mtelho-ent How is it possible for the Buddhi to catch a glimpse of the Purusha which illuminates all its concepts into consciousness. be and the Buddhi. that there can even be a seeming reflection of the the [ Purusha n ^e Buddhi which ? is seeming reflection. Kaivalya or oneness is attained. This interaction matter releases the spirit from its the only way by which But a question Explanation of arises how is it seeming bondage.

e. we have Su. seen that something like a unity takes place between the Buddhi and the Purusha. and meant by saying ^Emgwft: ^Ff3W Buddhi becomes as pure purity 4f*rai' i as the not materially differ from the state of Kaibalya. Purusha and To summarise now. when it reflects it in its does becomes so pure. Our conscious personality or self the is thus the seeming unity of knowable in the Buddhi in the shape of conceptual or . which is explained in Yoga Vartika as r: follows *?' *rafcf t*rewiTff.inm. This is what is This state in which the Purusha. as a result whereof this reflection of the Pnrusha in the Buddhi with its which is known as the self. becomes gradually lost and cannot again serve to bind the Purusha. simnl- taneously being determined conceptually. in which the Purusha is in himself the only difference being that Buddhi. I in the Prakriti cannot restrain here the temptation beautiful to of giving a very Further explanation illustration from the by analogy. tj*IW ^rfiffi: : Chitta serves the purposes of f^^T^T^Rfa^^fsfaw^WTfr ?a?WT *j ^f?f I. i.. becomes united with these said conceptual determinations of the Buddhi and the former is to be the perceiver of all these determinations. draws. fihashyakar explain the way in which the Purusha. 4. iron towards towards the Purusha the Buddhi modifications become visible to the drawn and they thereby become serve his purpose. there ' is a ~ seeming reflection of the Purusha the Buddhi.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI the 3 same almost is as the state of Purusha in himself and there is Kaivalya no Buddhi to in which the it. in i.ary. though so it remains unmoved itself. just as a magnet it.. reflect In this state we see that the exactly reflect Buddhi can be so pure that it can the nature of Purusha as he is in himself.e.

is lu all our conscious states there such a synthetic unity self. Thus nition reflections of the the single act of cog- we have the notion of our conceptual or own The personality and the particular perceptual representation true seer. But there is some similarity between the two. the ' * eternal remains from beyond any touch of sully or impurity though of all it the Buddhi. We have discussed the nature of the Purusha and plurality of the its The general relations with the Buddhi. between the determinations of our Buddhi and the that they cannot be distinguished one from the other a fact which is exemplified in all our cognitions which are the union of the this knower and the known. all with pure while which this ego identifies itself. the free. The nature can of reflection is never be is explained by any physical Purusha alto- gether different from the Buddhi in as much as it is the is pure intelligence and absolutely free. ture of the Pnrushn examined. pleasures and sorrows of mind and one the apperceiver of this unity of the seeming reflecof the Purusha who tion is and the determinations of the Buddhi. a transcendent one and illustration. the cogniser our states. The which the Purusha of from the similar spiritual the Sankhya Patanjala . must be remembered that in it is its own seeming reflection Buddhi that appears as the ego.24 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI the in with judgmental representations Purusha in the Buddhi. XT JNow jt 'L\. the the ~ intellisrence. rem ams with US to show a f ew chief point in differs more points about them. for how could the Buddhi otherwise catch a Him is ? It is also seen when we find that the seeming glimpse of pure Buddhi can adapt itself to the pure form of the Purusha which almost identical with the state of Kaivalya. -L Purushas and the views of Sankhya Karika about the na . while the latter non-intelligont and dependent on the Purusha's enjoyment and release which are its sole purposes for movement.

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI principles 25 of regards try to its other systems of philosophy is. which is an assemblage of bedding props. The second argument three elements involved in that ." The an argument from design or teleology by which inferred that there must be some other simple : entity for which these complex collocations of things are intended. because the opi* of the three modes and because the rest (their modi- fications) must exist. Let us this discuss of point in connection Patanjala" of with doctrine the in arguments favour the of the Sankhya a separate principle Purusha. cotton. which we have the intelligence-staff causing all maniby festations. that it Purusha rot as one but as many. Thus Karika sas the : 1 *? ^ things posite is for sake " Because an assemblage of of another. and because of (the sake . not for its own and . first the element * Karika 17. is bed and for whose sake assemblage . . " In like manner as a Thus Gaudapada says is bed. the element of Rajas or energy whieh is always causing transformations and the third is the it. coverlet for and pillows several it is another's use. its component parts render no mutual service there it thence concluded that is a man who five sleeps upon the world. second. So this which is an of elements. there must be a superintending that enjoys power . for another's use or there is a for this enjoyable body consisting is of intellect whose enjoyment and the rest knowable has has been produced. the soul. because there must be a nature existence or of) active exertion for the of abstraction isolation (from first it is material contact) is therefore the soul exists. was made. all the of Sattwa.

Since Prakriti is non-intelligent there must be one who the pains and pleasures enjoys in her. mits the the The comparison the charioteer and the chariot holds good chariot can take a particular is only to the extent course of that the there only when to a particular the charioteer is perform. Really speaking the emotional and conceptual determinations of these are roused into feelings . differently in Davies however explains and says a little accordance ?F3lf<<fa'. Third argument. potentiality for the Rajas three elements kriti composed of these itself." mistake of carrying of But Davies here comsimile too far. all aetionless For the seer must be always the same unchangethe ever present constant factor in entity stages of our consciousness. . Purusha by a reflection from aetionless mental states it become conscious. with a simile in the Tattwa : Kaumudi ^qi T*nfe Kapila power of self-control cannot be predicated of matter which must be directed or controlled for the accomplishment of -"The idea of seems to be that the any purpose. Now such a Pra- cannot be a seer able. The it is motion purpose of the chariot living fulfilled only when connected with the it person of the charioteer. Fourth argument. standing There must be a supreme background on which all our experience may is be co-ordinated the which all pure our This background and expressed. to the it soul a controlling If the soul is a chario- teer must be an active force. whose purpose has to fulfil. of pure consciousness. and external to this controlling matter and diverse from It power must be something The soul howit. ever never acts.26 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI is Tamas element which the mass which serves the to actualise. only seems to act and it is difficult to reconcile this part of the system with that which gives force.

by different the Pnrushas are though he does not Purushas. Karika proceeds to prove the plurality of the Purusha the . which be achieved by liberation . there must be one for whose sake the modifications of the Buddhi are gradually to back withheld and a reverse process set up by which they return to their original cause Prakriti and thus liberate the It is Purusha. " proved that there Or in other words since with is is a plurality of the the birth of one individual all all are not born . " There is. . however. Patanjali the plurality of the way view as in the Sutra guni?' in relation indeed ufws+iiiM^ to ?T^*rcnwflc3Ter. the difficulty that the soul is not affected by How can their various modifications the three modes. Fifth argument." Davies in explaining the former not destroy- ed Karika says. since with death of one do not die and since each individual has separate sense organs for himself and sin -e all ^beings do not work at the same time in the same manner and since the differently qualities of the different G-unas are possessed individuals. on account of this reverse tendency of Prakriti to release the to achieve his his ideal.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI consciousness 27 light of by the seeming Because reflection of the Purusha. from the diversity of occupations at the also from the different conditions of the it modes. yet infer in this this holds many. Purusha that a man highest liberation as the prompted consummation of the feels moral Thus having proved the existence the of Purusha. "From the separate allotment of birth. there is tendency in all persons is to run towards the oneness of the Purusha." " Although destroyed it is him whose objects have been achieved being common to others. death and organs same time and three souls.

different Buddhis we have the notion of follows different then are it that these notions of self. the knower and the false. for the pure Purusha as such is not in But even then any way connected with the Prakriti. it hold must be observed that the Sankhya Yoga view does not that the knower is false but it analyses the nature of the ego and says that it is the seeming unity of the Buddhi and the Purusha. For if it is said that one and by its reflection into selfs. an infinitely extended monad ?" is Really this question the most puzzling one in the Sankhya doctrine. both of which are reals in the sense of the terms. us the idea that this bring home ls & necessary and consistent outcome of the Sankhya view the Purusha is of a dualistic conception of the universe. The Buddhi suffers modifications and at the same just time the Buddhi catches a of the glimpse of the light Purusha. strictest Purusha is justly called the and simultaneously with it there is a modification of the Buddhi. or personality false. Purusha always remains the knower. everything in no way conceive. the knower is false. So the knower being the known also becomes false. there. may be argued that according to the Sankhya philosophy also. Examination of the plurality But a careful penetration into the principles of of Sankhya Yoga would to the Purushas.28 in opposition to the prove the individuality of souls Vedantist doctrine that all souls are only portions of the one.. so that the Samyoga or contact of the Purusha and . viz. For the only true being is the being of the one Purusha. we can known being vanished. is reduced to that which It the Brahman. this seeing becomes joined with this modification of the Buddhi and thus arises the It sees knower ego who perceives that particular form of the modification of Buddhi.

so that ultimately when they vanish there are no other remainders. resembles the exact form of Purusha the Purusha his and then the nature in the knows after himself in true Buddhi. none of them are false in the Sankhya Yoga system at the stage preceding.. They are two real as the as much irreducible metaphysical remainders the Prakriti and the Purusha. modification.. But according to the Vedanta Philosophy the knowledge an illusion imposed upon the of ego is only a false knowledge formless Brahman as Many. its Purusha the cognitions cannot be dismissed as . continued. The knower. The Maya according to the be said to exist nor to non-exist. Vedantist can neither . The Vedanti the Prakriti Maya is as beginningless as the and as ^T*T (ending) as Buddhi of the Sankhyists with reference to the released person. the Prakriti Purusha itself. is But according to the Sankhya doctrine. for as the real seer. Vedanta system. its She is ^ftsfeii. or defined. Their connection is beginningless (*RTfc ^NTtf).THE STUDY OF PATANJALI the Prakriti there is is 29 at one and the of same point the of time in which unity the reflection of Purusha and the particular transformation of the Buddhi. the ego and the knowable. has to which the Buddhi vanishes. the Kaivalya when the BudThe Examination dhi becomes as pure as the its Purusha . But this is is not the case with Sankhya. the The Vedanta admit modifications it of the Maya but has at the same time to hold says that the is as unreal. can never be described Such an unknown and unknowable upon the Maya by of reflection Brahman causes the many the world. all notions of ego or personality are false and they are originated see that according to the We by the illusive action of the Maya. But this connection is not unreal in the Vedauta sense of the term.

in the all Purusha but for the sake of the reflected we want to suppose it to take place in such a Purushas will have to be released. so that with his release all the other so-called Purushas have to be released. and so the Purushas or the knowers as they to us held as real. supposed plurality of the to serve the supposed one Purusha we find should rather expect to one and his this will only mean that there Buddhi and not many. the how should we account For Buddhis. For it released with reference to one individual in connection with others. As the Prakriti nature of is appear not the Maya the Vedaotist (the whose influence over the spiritual principle cannot be determined) we cannot account for the that one Purusha plurality is of the Purushas by supposing being reflected into egoes. then also with the release of one Purusha. the If way as to avoid the said difficulties. then also we cannot see how the Prakriti is moving it for the enjoyment and release of one Purusha. argument's enjoyment and release. We see that if it is the enjoyment (*fT) and salvation (TOJT) of one Purusha which .30 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI must be of unreal. would be only one ego. For really supposed theory there would not be many different Purushas. many Buddhis and that case it generating the difficult to many For if For of in will be in explain the plurality their appearances the Buddhis. there for be one spiritual principle. Supposing for sake that there are many Buddhis and one Purusha which being reflected into them is the cause of the plurality of selfs. For the Purusha is not finally released with the release of it any number bound really of particular individual selfs. but may be may remain So the Prakriti would not be moved in this suppositional case for the sake of selfs only. but it was the one Purusha which had appeared as many. would rather appear to be moved for the sake of the enjoyment and release of the reflected or unreal self.

So we see that from the position in which Kapila and Patanjali were standing. sistent of any mediation by the concepts of images of our So we see that the Sankhya was not inconholding the in doctrine of the plurality of it.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI appear the as so 31 many different his series of enjoyments all and have all emancipations then with experiences his should same experiences. how then can it be But applied to the Purushas which are said to be many. be it With all birth and death. By for only the illusory his release no Purusha really released as at all. speaking appear other the experiences of one For really Purusha which in all the seeming there at all. has to be abandoned. Patanjali does not say anything about since . But there is As the Purushas are nothing but all pervading though another objection that number is a many. But this must have our to be in all our attempts to philosophise to terms of our conceptions that pure inexpressible express free illumination which exists in and for itself beyond the in allowed range mind. the Purushas. unabated even though we should When we go into the domains of metaphysics an rl try to represent of the Reality with the symbols phenomenal conceptions we have really to commit almost a violence to it. this plurality of the Purushas was the most consistent thing that they could think of. should born or is should die at once. enjoys is or releases himself. Any compromise with the Vedanta doctrine here would h?ve greatly changed the philosophical aspect and value of the Sankhya Philosophy. conception of the phenomenal mind. pure intelligences they can as well be that difficulty remains regard the Purusha as one. different Purushas. is And in the suppositions neither emancipation it is nor enjoyment Purusha self that For there. So the fundamental the sake of conception of Prakriti moving the enjoyment and release of the Purusha.

things manifest themselves in The future is the manifestation the appearance which has been that which is which is to be. since The past and the future exist in all qualities of these three different ways. The past is experienced. we have quoted above and says that though for still a it released person this world disappeared altogether. reality. the idealistic against an objecThus in Sutra 12 of the Chapter on '* : Kaivalya he writes reality. with all the other Purushas in proceeds Reality of tive world. the past anything that might be and present in reality exist. the present. For the though it sent and the future also though it has in not made in its the present. Thus the VTTO says So we see that the present holding within itself the past and the future exists in Present. tion. there there would not exist a knowledge thereof. The present If is in active is opera- It is this threefold substance which in the object of knowledge. as appearance yet exists in potentiality we know the past and the future worlds present. remains unchanged common. past has been negated has really been conserve a all(J k ept j n t h e pre . So. they did not exist reality. So the past has not been destroyed . Now Patanjali to world as prove the validity of an external Buddhists. be knowledge in the absence of How could known.32 he is THE STUDY OF PATANJALI more anxious to say with the pre-supposition Thus he speaks of it only in one place as about other things connected of the plurality of the Purusha. Past and Future. For this reason. they both exist and subsist in the That which once existed cannot die and that which did never exist cannot ^ral come to be ( sn^rnffcf: ^VR: fan*c ).

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI but it 33 itself has rather shifted its place and hidden in the body of the present. reality existing it such 5 outside my then why does appear . as Vachaspati says. and the future that has not its made appearance exists in the present only in a potential form. their separate external existence as such may be denied. argued that there is really no external The Buddhists hold that the reality as it appears to us. external reality identical with our ideas and there as no other external ideas. that because the past and the future are not present therefore they do not exist. Again since it is by knowledge alone that the external knowables can present themselves to us we can infer that there is really no knowable external reality apart from its know- ledge. just as exist apart we see that in dream states. knowledge can from the reality of any external world. So they say that the external reality is not different from our idea about it. To this it Reality of the terual world. Ex- mav the is fc e replied that is if as you say. blue thing and its knowledge as blue are identical owing So it may be to the maxim that things which are invariably perceived toether are one. g W+lH<4l*4|e|l<l Now idealists who he proceeds to refute the arguments of those hold that since the external knowables do never exist independently of our knowledge of them. It cannot be argued. and the only difference different among them ?jf^ is way or mode of their existence. since its existence also is only relative ? So all the three exist as truly as any the one of them. for if the past and future do not exist how can there be a present also.

: but there as no object without knowledge without any is corresponding object imagined is in dreams . existence of external world as such ? is The is objective it world present by its own power. outside and independent of my ideas reality have no ground to deny the external and assert that it is only the creation of our The idealists of dream.34 as THE STUDY OF PATANJALI existing ? apart. Vachaspati that method agreement applied by the Buddhists by their . imagination like the experiences in the state Even our ideas carry with them the notion that the reality is All our percepts mental experiences. this and that. thus the objects reality of external things like that of dream but mere imaginations of the subject and unreal. we have of no right to quoted deny Commenting says on the Bhashya the above. How then that this objective world can be given up on the strength of mere Ther<j is logical or speculative abstraction ? Thus the Bhashya says the knowledge of it. The external world has generated the knowledge by its own presentative power (^^ ^pfaraTOrasnEn fatiMUJifc) and thus caused itself to be represented in our ideas and it. arise only by virtue of the how can they deny the influence of the external world outside our and notions as . How can they who say so be believed ? Since they first suppose that the things which so present own force do only on themselves to us by their account of the invalid and delusive imagination of reality the intellect and of the external world on the strength of then deny the such an imaginary supposition of their own.

as such of agreement is not certain application of the method for it cannot be corroborated by the method of difference. the nature of grossness and externality.. To avoid cannot be said there may be . i.e. Now An idea cannot existing separately in separate places. i. does Describing Continued. the attributes of the he says that . not exist we cannot prove that the external reality when we have no knowledge of it.. ) related (TFnt^rfw extension and ^rtei ftp^^gjcn ^ crrsisr^ Thus we see that co- existence in space are the two fundamental qualities of the a percept or concept can never be said to possess them. grossness to means extension. and externality means being separate space.e. i. so knowledge is the cause of the presence of the external reality.e. pervading of more portions of space co-existence in space i.e. for it cannot be said that an idea has been extending in more space than one and yet cogross external world.. the than one.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI (maxim of 35 a chance of simultaneous perception) may have being contradicted difference. be said to exist with other ideas in space and to extend in many points this it of space at one and the that same time. the external world depends for its reality on our knowledge or ideas and owes its origin or appearance that But Vachaspati says this to them. grossness means . For the statement that every case of absence of knowledge is also a case of absence of external reality cannot be proved. external world. by in an application of the method of of The method is the idealists when put Wherever there same as agreement applied by proper form sounds like this: knowledge there is external reality or rather every case of knowledge agrees with or is the every case of the presence of external reality..

knowable external world things like may be of independently co-existing the notions existence and non-existence. It cannot also be said that because grossness and externality can abide neither in the world external nor in our ideas therefore it is false. at which only at the time of time however other ideas may be quite latent and unknown. Again knowledge and the external world because they happen to be presented together can never be said to be identical. For co-existence our and extension can be asserted ideas. their individual operation. Both of them are independwith each other. our ideas would be as false as the false externality The notion our ideas pervades and if they are held to be false no true thing can be known by our ideas and they therefore become equally grossness all and false. reality to negate and it. For the method of agreeitself ment cannot by Knowledge and the prove identity. therefore clear . For this falsehood cannot be thought of to be separable from our ideas. for the sphere of imagination external reality.36 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI > plurality of ideas so in that some may ot co-exist and others may extend never space. it quite distinct from the sphere of can never be applied to an external Imagination is a mental function and is as such has no touch with the reality outside. Uontmued. ently co-existing naturally It is enough says Vachaspati that the force of perception which gives us a direct knowledge of things can never be undervalued on the strength of mere logical abstraction. which it can by no means negate. Imagination has no power to negate their reality. since and can be known they are very fine 'and subtle. for in that case itself.

men may change differently about _ _ . m Ihus A. hold good for if really upon the idea of the objective reality should depend any individual man. is So it must be that the external reality outside and our knowledge about it is what we perceive it mere percepts. The objective world therefore according to these philosophers has no external existence either in the past or in the future. We see common thing generates . There are again others who say that just as pleasure and pain rise along with our ideas and must be said to be due to them so the objective world also must be said to have come into existence along with our ideas. The two can never be mixed together. it ^n:. are they ready to That much existence only attribute to external objects which can be measured by the idea of the moment. different feelings and ideas in different persons external reality cannot be said to or owe its origin to the idea exists imagination of independently mao. that the thing remains same though the ideas and feelings of different Continued. The moment I have an idea of a thing. says Patanjali. but any person's imagination in and of any one for itself. pain or hatred. . C.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI We the 37 further see. the thing rises into existence and may be said to exist only for that moment and as soon as it the idea disappears the object also vanishes. may feel identical perceive the same woman and may that the same pleasure. B. but has only a momentary existence in the present due to our ideas about them. then the objective idea of his reality corresponding to an ought to cease to . For if it be his particular man it is due to the imagination of any own idea which as such eanuot generate the same ideas in another said man. for when cannot be presented to me in the form of ideas it can But this argument cannot be said to exist in no sense.

is What so is that substrate which the basis of many in the changes.38 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI change of his idea or exist either with the when_he directs he restrains attention his to some other all thing. it Now is then if it thus ceases to exist. but said that though it did not follow that it was a product of our own subjective thought yet it did not at the same time exist without us. again directed parts of an object can never be individual side of at is Then supposing that the front then the a thing visible. or when mind from objects of thought. that something which is thought as the vehicle of in manifold such qualities as produce self-subsistent us the ideas. Again once. ( the front side also can as well be said not to exist $ ^i irJMftlcU*r g^ ?fr ^wft T *z^FcT there is ) Therefore it TOMATO T must be is ^jtf life said that an independent external reality which of the . back side which cannot be at all. how can of the all again spring into existence when the attention towards seen all it. actions and re-actions that external we always meet substrate world. ^wti: ^px*wrerc*n: ^ft^ifti ^ R^tifr And all the experiences of the Purusha this from the connection of " Chitta " with the external world. comand indi- mon there field observation for all souls in general separate are also separate (cisn<t " Chittas " for vidual souls ufa^q' result H3^). seen at the time must not be said to the back side exist So if does not exist. Now from this view of the reality of the external world we are confronted with another question underlies Different views about what the is nbstratum. it Locke as called this Substance and regarded unknown. Hume however tried to explain from the standpoint of association of ideas everything and denied all notions . the ground which of this external world What is appearance which has been proved to be real.

B. We know that all things collocations mental or physical are formed by the different of Sattwa of the nature of illumination Rajas. them utative principle of the nature of action ciple and Tamas. and thus make themselves cognisable yet they never forSo we see that sake their own true nature as the Gunas. To understand thoroughly the exact significance of this statement it will be necessary to take a more detailed review of what has already been said about the Gunas. 39 We know that Kant who was much influenced unknown in-itself. These different Gunas combine (^in*Tt wr' themselves in various proportions and form the manifold universe of our of the knowable and thus are made the objects Though combining in different probecome in the words of Dr. the energy or (fiffsn) (WTO). istic qualities an(J says The form the very being of itself character- of the characterised is and it is the change the characterised alone that detailed by means of the characteristic.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI of substantiality. one in which they remain quite unchanged as Gunas. and another in which they collocate and combine themselves in various ways and thus appear under the veil of a multitude of qualities and . by Hume. they have thus got two natures. but whose influence was a great factor in our experiences. But the Bhashya The view of tries to penetrate deeper into the nature of this substrate or substance . Seal portions they more and more differentiated. the obstructive prinof the nature of inertia f^ffa which in their original and primordial state are too fine to be apprehended r' T ?l%w*i^ld). the Bhashyakara. agreed to the existence of some such reality which he was pleased to call the Thingthe nature of which however was absolutely all unknowable. N. determinate and coherent cognition.

they . lopment from the ego or *T5<$|* according to which the ego or . air the atoms elements earth. the three progress of evolution but All the combine together in varying degrees of mutual preponderance and thus together help the process of evolution to produce a single product. and smell are derived.. side of the ego or ^TFSTC by a five ear.g. but the other two derivation of a Gunas are equally also present there and perform their functions does helps well. the individual Tanmatras and Sabda. and thus may bestow the prominent characteristic of that product. Thus we see that though combine to produce on the side . each combine other with a prepon- Tamas in produce the atoms of each gross Thus each combination one Guna remains as . eye. the senses such of as those of hearing. etc. Thus from the *nft^ preponderance of ^r^ the e. sight. ^3RI and . the three Gunas are conjointly In the particular product one of the Gunas may indeed be predominant. Rupa. water. it In the derivation of these all must be remembered that responsible. From which again by a preponderance gross of Tamas fire.. touch. agreeably derance of element. ^ may be said to be im^r. Rasa. Their opposition rather not withhold it. $parsa The Gunas composing each Tanmatra again with to Gandha.40 states of the manifold knowable (s^fo? Jnfi Now these Gunas take their three different courses of deve- The Gunas and derivatives. perception etc. and on the of side the knowable. the of Gunas are three. active senses of From of the Tamas side five of ego or *JWTT by a preponderance of five Tamas. and ether are derived. taste knowledge-giving senses. the Tanmatras. From the Rajas side of ego five by a preponderance of Rajas the speech.

yet cannot themselves be the cause . the preponderance of Rajas and cognitive and conative senses and originating the Superintendent of them both on one side and Manas. the Tanmatras are derived from Ahankara the though of Ahankara traces of Ahankara cannot be 6 easily traced in them.e. 41 it remain as dependent on evolution of but that particular Now this evolution may : be characterised in two ways The Aviseshas and the Viseshas. Now when Ahankara produces the Tanmatras or the senses. (1) Those which are modiproducts of some other fixations or and are themselves capable of other products like themselves (2) Those which originating though themselves derived. Thus in the case of Tattwantara-parinama (as for ex- ample when the Tanmatras are produced from Ahankar). The former may be and the latter said to be slightly (^tfaffa ) specialised thoroughly specialised. different courses according Sattwa. This . the production of a different Tattwa or substance. the Tamas produce the five gross elements. i. or when the Tanmatras produce the five itself is gross elements. whereas others help it indirectly in the product.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI prominent. cause of the origination of other existence like themselves. (frfh). must be carefully noticed that the state of being it involved in the Tanmatras state of is altogether different from the it is not a mere . being change of Thus quality but a change of existence or state of being. These Tanmatras again the Tanmatras on the other. or when Ahankara it is produced from Buddhi or Mahat.. Tattwanfcara-Pari- the evolution takes to three nama. from Prakriti comes Mahat. called Tatt wan tara-pari nama. from Mahat comes Ahankara and from Ahankara we have seen Thus we see that above.

Ahankar tions from themselves. and the ego the unspeciah'sed ones are inferred modifications or and that again of the Mahat. ence of any other primal and more unspecialised justice In one sense the all the emanations can be with called Lingas or states of existence standing as the sign by which the causes from which they have emanated can be inferred. This Prakriti however . but a different existence having properties which differ widely from those of Ahankar. and the five as the source of other emanations. Now are the evolution that the senses and this? the five nature. all With that them there an end of emanation. Prakriti howis ever from which no other primal state inferrible is called the Alinga (^rf^i 5 ) or that which is not a sign for the existstate. for it from the state of Mahat. for from their specialised emanations. i. it Tanmatras are themselves emanations. So we see the Aviseshas or slightly specialised ones are those which being themselves but emanations can yet yield other emanaThus we see that Mahat. for gross elements can undergo can never be of Viseshas. So it is called Tattwantara-parinama. the Prakriti from which must have emanated may be inferred. or substances they which have been too much of specialised to allow the evolution any other substance of a different is grade of existence from themselves.e.. for But this technical name is Linga is reserved the Mahat from which the Alinga the or Prakriti can be inferred. directly Thus in this sense the five gross ele- ments may be called the they again of Linga of the Tanmatras. evolution of different categories of existence. as well Mahat however though is undoubtedly an Avisesha or slightly specialised emanation is called by another technical name Linga or sign.42 derivation pally is THE STUDY OF PATANJALI not such that the Ahankara remains is princi- unchanged and there it is only a change of quality of altogether the Ahankara.

which is a separate its with principle altogether. and be eternal thus held to though of all other states are held to be non- eternal as they are produced for the sake of the Purusha. builds up new ones and initiates original modifications. the one mediating activity that breaks up a jj cornpounds. The Linga and the Alinga have thus been compared in the Karika : The Linga has a is cause. The state Prakriti is that in which the Gunas perfectly overpower each other and the characteristics (*&) and the characterised (^t) are one and the same. generic. Whereas the Alinga is the reverse. and The Alinga or Prakriti in however being the cause has some the characteristics common distinguished from Lingas as contraPurushas. means. Thus the Karika says : The manifested and the unmanifested Pradhaua are both cemposed of the three Gunas. The Rajas it Evolution and what. respects is is the reverse. dependent. objecSoul in these tive. is thus nothing but the manifestation of is mutation. mobile. multiform. Evolution change. Whenever in any particular combination the proportion . or the energy of Rajas. which can is in no way be of any use to the Purusha. attributive conjunct subordinate. it is neither eternal nor universal.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI eternal state 4S which all is not an emanation itself but the basis and source of other emanations. unconscious and productive. indiscriminating. of the We have seen above that Prakriti the state equilibrium of the Gunas.

of these discrete moments succession for the real notion of Even the notion is of one that does not that is really exist but imagined the moment just come into being just . change of an atom is In the mental world however each unit of time corresUnit of change. is In the external world or time that its taken by a Tanmatra is atom to move an than from place is identical with a unit of change. when the moment before had passed they have never taken place together. Now atom will be that quantum which it smaller or finer that point or limit at which can in any by the senses. ponding to of its this own ?j*n unit of space the unit measure of change. is is moments one following the series of moments or pure and the simple Now notion time.of Sattwa. this Rajas or Tarnas is alters.. Thus Vyasa says .e. . They are therefore way be perceived mere points without magnitude or dimension and the unit of time or moment (^ro) that is taken up in changing the position of these atoms or Tanmatras is identical with one unit of change or evolution. by which the another equilibrium established. this in its own turn is again disturbed and again another equilibrium is restored. Thus Vachaspati says ^fra: wn: i Now this instantaneous suc- cession of time as discrete other is the notion of the succession. space is the measure of all physical change or evolution. old equilibrium dominating activity of is destroyed and Now what the the manifestation of this latent activity is of Rajas is called change or evolution. The change or evolution in the external world must therefore be measured by these units of spatial motion of the atoms an atom changing its own unit of i. as a condition of alteration. there the Rajas.

*fWTf?nr. Succession this is involves called time the notion of change those sages moments and by who know what time was. sciousness. Succession means the notion of Thus there change involving a preceding and a succeeding moment. is only the present moment and there are no Therefore there preceding and later moments.THE STUDY OP PATANJALI 45 The moments and do nut belong to the category of actual things Muhurta. cannot be moments in one are those that are The past and the future associated with change. which being * our empirical /. or moments. successive or as continuous unreal. A moment viewed as of relation to things is appear succession. not a substantive reality in itself. There cannot be any succession of two simultaneous things. the whole world characteristics these are associated with All changes. any union of these moments. This time which is their succession . Thus Vachaspati further in explains said to it. the day and night are all aggregates of mental conceptions. is So the conception of time as discrete wfiereas the of real one. the conception time as is Time as discrete and Time as succession and Time as continuous is purely Buddhi-Nirman. only due to the imagination i and relative con- j i . Two moments cannot happen together. the thing as connected with the present moment. but is only a mental concept and which is represented to us through as if it appears to ordinary minds language were an objective reality. Thus suffers moment. .

termination of what is it called of a course of and by the succession a course is changes can be inferred "rasped. t? Now we evolution is have said before. therefore sciousness m our empirical con- which cannot take the real moments in their discrete nature that connect the one with the other and thus imagine succession or time as continuous. that each unit of change or measured by Rshanas. 33. grossest. subtle. Thus Patanjali says in IV. Succession as change of moments A cloth which grasped only by a course of changes. discrete being only the moments of our cognitive As two moments is never co-exist. change cannot be grasped. or rather the unit of change expressed in in terms of these moments but or Of of course our ordinary con- sciousness these it moments can be reasonably inferred. in this way. Even before a thing old there can be a sequence of the subtlest. subtler. grosser and gross changes (Vachaspati's Tattvavisardi). exist . the Even anew This of changes cloth kept with is good care becomes old after a time. was still going on every moment. there Unit of Change and Unit of Time. They . no succession or continuous only time. has not passed through a series of moments cannot be as old considered (Bhashyaon the above). the succession of evolution or change cannot be distin- from the moments coming one after another. Succession involving a guished course of changes is associated with a collocation of moments is (sutra 30-30). . For at the end of a in certain period we observe a change a thing .4fi THE STUDY OF PATANJAtl So we find here that time is essentially life. so. \\ . now this change though it becomes appreciable to us after a long while. this unit of is time ^*H or moment . .

telligible whole group being made inby the inherent Sattwa. place until the past of had the already been is manifested so the manifestation present a concrete of the product past . moment of evolution. We have pointed out before that is the manifestation is of Cosmic evolution as only a collection of the the Rajas or energy as action called change. we that see that there one following the other. involving within in itself it the manifestation a similar way may be said that the manifestation of the present contains itself within the it . So the cosmic history the . the former as one which had already its manifestation and thus kept conserved in the fact of the manifesFor the manifestation of the present tation of the present. seed or the unmanifested state of the future. the past has been conserved as sublatent and the latent. or past and after or future. the future never could have nihilo nihil fits.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Now is then when we have seen that the unit of time and Present. what Now thisjmamfesta- GanaB - tiou of action can only take place of equilibrium of a particular collocation disturbed and the Rajas arranges or collocates with itself when Gunas is the Sattwa and Tamas. It is the present really exists the manifested the moment. So the past and future exist in the future as present. as such could not have taken . for if had not been the case. come world Ex So we see that the whole undergoes a change at one unit point of time and not only that but conserves within itself all the past and future history of the cosmic evolution. past future absorbed in one indistinguishable from the unit of change or evolution and as these moments are not coexisting but . is no past or future as existing as a continuous before.

impure impossible that will all the powers and potencies of Sattwa and Rajas . varying change of these states This fact of we are never divested any one of these states . but all in this of intelligence is therefore neither the particular of any one of these states possession nor that of the sum of these states for if it is not the . This intelligence is the constant factor which . We are passing continually from one state to another without any rest.48 is only the history of the if different it is collocations of the Gunas. possession of intelligence. it is empirical consciousness. the limited scope of the senses all it could have or read and all perceived at once. of know edge all persists amidst changes of our cognitive states. is the possible collocations changes of Such a perceiving mind whose narrowed by the senses can or power perceive knowing the in not all finest modifications of going on III. the body a substance changes that are see Yoga Sutra Kapila and Patanjali proceeded possibly at first with an acute analysis of their phenomena ^lyaisofconBcionB l They perceived that our cognitive states are distinguished from their objects by the fact of their being intelligent. it is. take things only through become manifested at one point of time it has to its senses and can thus take the changes only as their senses whereas on the other hand if its not restricted to by them power of knowing was are affected . in Now vision therefore possible for a seer to see one the possible number of combinations that the Rajas will have with perceive Sattwa he can in one moment future the past. . 53. it cannot be the . present or future of this cosmic evolu- tionary process for with such minds all past and are concentrated at one point of vision cal consciousness appears only in as which to an empiriFor the the series.

side of seeras to exhibit or Form of knowledge which assumes all the form of before it. divested thought when seen as from its sensuous contents one universal mould The Sattwa thought. this energy. It the one principle of our conscious states. intelligibility of all 7 . all is the sensuous contents that are presented It the one universal of cepts or ideas the basis or substratum of itself.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI possession of the 49 of sum of these . is (sattva) in which there no particularity that element of our thought which resembling Purusha most. states. mutation or change. Now apart from this Rajas. can attain its reflection within itself and thus makes the unconscious mental states intelligible. So they regarded so-called in this intelligence as quite distinct from the mental states which became intelligent by coming connection with this intelligence. is our particular conall the different Is-ness shapes imposed upon the pure and simple. is in the case the released is person again there no mental state. are " moveilluminated and pass away. The ideas rise. The actionless. This principle of Thought as such is movement. they called Rajas. absolutely pure and simple intelligence they called the Purusha. Now Now in analysing the different states mind we find that a particular content of thought is illuminated and then passed over. of our possible. they began to analyse the nature of these states to find out their constituent elements Movement of or moments of existence if Thought Rajas. Thus they found that ment " was one of the most principal elements that qpnsti- tuted the substance of our thoughts. but there the self-shining intelligence. All the contents of our thought this is are but modes and limitations of universal form and are thus made intelligible. always moving.

of were within the elements This notion of pure contentless knowledge The Pare Sattwa or 0nfcentle88 is immediate and abstraet and as such know - led e is at once mediated by other necessary phases. liable to suffer various modifications. the intelligence stuff are prominent and It for the Rajas and Tamas altogether suppressed. but it is pure shining itself.50 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Now our intellectual side of life consists in a series of . Both Tamas and Rajas being altogether suppressed then as the Sattwa. universal of our knowledge which underlies all its shining changing modes or modifications of concepts or judgof the ments. is At is stage Sattwa. whereas the Pure Intelligence remains eTer pure and of changeless and this is never the any change. shining Pure Intelligence and pass is but a limitation of the But each concept pure away. connected there- with.. Thus we universal see that this pure conteutless knowledge is the same as the knowledge ego-universal. is what is called the pure object subject-less Intelligence or knowledge differs fiom the Pure Purusha only in this that later on it is the ego. as and the infinite percepts and concepts. Buddhi or Intellect often cannot in any way affect the effulgent nature of this pure knowledge the knower nor the known. is this reason that the spoken of au absolute preponderance of Sattwa Being it has nothing else to manifest. is For this contentless universal only another . The Tamas ideas or concepts t shining concepts after eonforth in the light our thought in connection with the Sattwa side. substrate etc. But as it it shining of contentless in which there is neither must be remembered that itself it is holding suspended Rajas and Tamas which cannot manifest themselves owing to the preponderance of the Sattwa. there is This knowledge in which This pure neither the knower nor the known. the senses.

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI
name
for

51'

the

contentless

unlimited,
also says
in

infinite

of

the

ego-universal.

Thus Fiehte
"
:

the introduction

of his Science of Ethics

become a

subjective,

an objective can ever or how a being can ever become
:

How

an object of representation this never be explained by any one
point

curious

change
not
are

will
find

who

does

a

where

the
all,

objective

and

subjective

not

distinguished at

but

are

altogether one.

Now

such

a point
of

is

established

by,

and made the starting point
poiut
is

our

system.

This
or

the
it

Intelligence,

Reason,

whatever
i

Egohood, the m&y be named."

Thus the Bhashya

II. 19, describes

and aain
^rwtafa

in

I.

36 we find

rn*<T

^(T^TT)^

^farn*?mft!Wt

ff^

i

Thus
this

the

word

^<PTT^

by

which Panchasikha
is

described

Egohood about three thousand years ago
in

only repeated
the

Germany

in the

words of Fiehte as the point where the
are

subjective and the objective
or

not

distinguished,

pure Egohood Patanjali (Sutra IV. 4). This Mahat has also been spoken of by Vijnana Bhikshu as
^famwrer as in
the
TT.

or

Mind

in the

sense

of final

*frrew or

fa^i,

i.e.,

assimilation.

Now what we have already
will,

ta^SSdhT"
limit

said a bout
it

Mahat

clear that this

we hope, make Mahat is the last

which the subjective and the objective can be assimilated as one indistinguishable poiut which is neither

up

to

the one nor the other, but which

is

the source of

them

both.

This
*fT..

Buddhi

is

W&, ^ff and faF according
is

thus variously called as ?r??r, ^fadwn, to the aspects from which

this state

looked
is

at.

This state

called

Mahat

as it

is

the

most universal
from
which

thing conceivable and the one
all

common

source

other things originate.

5fc

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI
Now
this

other phase, steps into the or Ego as the subject.

or pure shining naturally phase of Sattwa that of the Ego as knower

*fmW* was the state
the Rajas and

phase as TO* or was predominant and in which the **r

The

first

Tamas
is

are in a suppressed

condition.

The
sub-

next

moment

that in which the Rajas comes
all

uppermost
the
is

cognition and thus the Ego as the subject of the knower of all the mental states I ject

derived.

The
f?

eontentless

subject-object-less

"I"
the

is

the

passive

aspect of the

Buddhi catching

reflection

of the

spirit or

Purusha.
active aspect

In

its

however
the

it

feels

itself

one with

the spirit and appears as

Ego

or the
wills.

subject

which

knows,
of the

feels

and

Thus Patan-

Buddhi and the

wif?^
we
the

ifacn.

Again

in

vm
find

I.

17

have icvtftan

^ftsfarai,

which
ft?T.

Vachaspati

explains

Thus we

that

Buddhi

is

affected

by

its

own Rajas
active
it

or activity

and posits

itself as

the

Ego

or the subject as the activity.

By

this position

of

the
;

"I "
its

as

perceives

itself in

the objective

in all

conative

and cognitive

senses, in its

thoughts and feelings and also in the external world of extension and co-existence or in the words of

Panchasikha

aranrainii

91

**WTOJ^nf*nratai fTO

<re*FI^*TO

W*%
is

^TTW
or
in

an4^Hr|Jn-JnT5qiq^

V*wi:

i

Here the " I "
of
self-

posited as the active entity

which becomes conscious
the

itself

other

words

"I"

becomes

conscious.

In analysing this notion
has become

of self-consciousness

we

find that here the

Rajas or the element of agility,

activity

mobility predominant and this predominance of Rtjas has been manifested by the inherent

or

Sattwa,

Thus

we

find

that

the

Rajas side or

"I

ae

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI
active" has become manifested or known as such,
i.e.,

53

"I"
just

becomes conscious of

itself

as

active.

And

this

is

what

is

meant by

self -consciousness.

This ego or self-consciousness then comes off as the modification of the contentless pure consciousness of the

Buddhi;
Th

it

is

therefore

that
is

we

see

me

,,

e - ohood

and

that

this

self-consciousness

but a
Buddhi.
as

cffo,

modification of the

universal
object

The

absolute
is

identity

of

subject

and

the

egohood
!1

not a

part

of our natural consciousness for in

stages of our actual consciousness
is

even

in that of self-

consciousness there

an element of the preponderance of Rajas or Activity which directs this unity as the knower and the known and then unites them as it were.

Only

so far as I distinguish myself as the

conscious, from

myself as the object of consciousness
of myself.

am

I at all

conscious

Thus. Fichte says
rests

:

" The whole

mechanism

of

consciousness

upon
of

the

manifold views of this
objec-

separation
tive."

and

reunion

the subjective and the

When we

see

that

the

Buddhi transforms

itself into

the ego, the subject, or the knower at this its first phase there is no other content which it can

The
* he

"

emanation

of

know

>

ii;

therefore

knows

itself in

a

!"

" I " or in very abstract way as the other words, the ego becomes self-

conscious
the

;

but at this

moment

the ego has no content
it is

;

Tamas being

quite under suppression,
;

a preponderance of the Rajas and thus its is manifested by the Saltwa and thus the ego now essentially

evolved by nature as Rajas

knows

itself to

be active, and holds

itself as

the permanent
itself
all

energising

activity

which

connects

with

the

phenomena

of our

life.

54

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI
But now when the ego
first

directs itself

towards

itself

and becomes conscious of

itself,

comes
The Subjective and
"

to

one question which naturally' our mind is, " Can the
itself
'

ego direct
thus divi(ie

towards

itself

and

itselt into
js

a P arfc that sees

I

in or the

conse-

an(}

quenco
fold

aspect of

twothe

one toat
it is

seeD ."

TO meet

this

question

assumed that the Gunas
themselves
the

contain

within

germs
tivity q^prt f% ? *3f'

of both subjectivity
sre*RT?U3r5hi.

re<ju<i<*rcrsr

and objecThus we find

that in the ego this quality as

the

perceiver

of the

Gunas

comes to be
itself

first

manifested and the ego turns
itself itso\vn object.

back upon
stage
:

and makes

It

is

at this

that

we

are reminded of the twofold nature of the

Gunas

It

is

b}-

virtue of
itself
its

tHis twofold

nature that the subject

can

make

own

object

;

but as these two sides

have not yet developed they are as yet only abstract and exist only in an implicit way in this self-consciousness.

Enquiring further into the nature of the relation of thi* ego and the Buddhi, we find that the ego is only another

phase
',

or

modification
it

of

the

Ego only a moditication of Buddhi.

Buddhi

however different

might
an

appear from

Buddhi

it
;

is

only

appearance or phase of it
is

its

reality

the

reality of the
is

Buddhi.
in
its

Thus we
of the

see that

when the

knower

affected

different
is

judgments, the application

modes of concepts and Buddhi as well thus
;

Vyasa writes
:

:

i

Now

from

this

ego

we
,
.

find that three

developments

Modifications of the Ego.

take place in three distinct directions

according
oattwa, Rajas or Tamas.

to

the

preponderance of

. phases becomes an ob3ect to directs itself or turns itself as the subject object. senses with their now undifferentiated differentiated. taste The five BhntRB. that phase of self in which it is merely an object to itself is the phase of its union with Prakriti which further in develops the Prakriti of the moments of preponderance Tanmatras and these again into the inert Tamas of materiality the Bhutadi by a into five grosser elements which are then called the ^rngj or the perceptible. self -consciousness The Sattwa side of this ego or which was The modification as the senses.. the itself as moment in which it perceives itself in its moment of the union of itself as the subject and Now the object in one luminosity of self-consciousness. taste and smell and by a preponderance of Ego Tamas it stands as the Bhutadi and produces the five Tanmatras and these again by further preponderance of Tamas develops into the particles of the five gross elements of earth.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI By into 55 the preponderance of Rajas. we it. see (/') that that in . (ii) when upon itself as the moment of activity which can effect an aspect of of change self. These again . develops itself into the five cognitive senses .. there are The three Phases.. Yak (speech). itself. (feet). the hearing. touch. and smell. of passing the excreta) and Upastha (generative By the preponderance of Sattwa. * * ' with the evolution or the Prakriti on the Tanmatric side of evolution. light-heat. Pada Payu (organ organ). sight. (Hi} the aspect of the consciousness the the object. this which the . air and ether. synch ronisino. Now of itself it is clear that when in the self becomes conscious three self it as the object. the Ego develops itself the five couative senses. five becomes specialised further and modified into the cognitive respective functions of hearing. in itself. water. Pani (hands). touch. sight.

66 individually THE STUDY OF PATANJALI suffer infinite modifications themselves of life. both require the help of the production of this Rajasa Ego for the <<wrc: just as development ("<?i*nit **tft wft ") and Barabara requires for its '*nn?rcTit ^ntfrofq^st in his *n* writes : growth the help of water as instrumental cause. the Ego thus moves the Sattwa part Tamas part generating the gross and subtle matter is . There is another is specialisation Ego as the Manas which AS the Manas its direct itself instrument five connecting O with the senses. and their thus cause an infinite variety sensations in respective spheres in our conscious The Rajas side of the ego or the will becomes specialised as the of the for active faculties of the five different conative organs. of ^T9 and the ?T*m. ^. Sattwika and Tamasa Ahankara into of The mode cause is described as " Rajas working of this instrumental is the mover. cognitive is and conative as What perceived mere sensations by the senses is connected and generalised and formed into concepts by the it is therefore spoken of as Karika. *3^n$' in the ITO and T: *i<ti<<ni in the Now though the e volutes or modifications of Ahankara or Ego are formed by the preponderance the of is Rajas an important factor in all phenomena of evolution. it is the supreme principle of Energy and supplies even it intelligence with the energy which requires : for its own conscious activity." The Rajasa to generate the senses . so the Rajasa Ahankara (Ego) works as the instrumental cause (?mnft) for the of a seed-sprout transformations their evolutes. vet or T5i<B N always all ^e^nft instrumental collocations these varied of the Gunas . Thus Lokacharyya says The Tamasa Ego developing into the material world and the Sattwika Ego developing into the 11 senses.

Mahat gunas and the Ego produced from it are also made up of the Muni : three unas. Taijasa . the lives . for is if the latter are injured in any way. ijjtTtawsTCTq^wt "sninftsngM * K m * H <t*iw( i To take for example the specific case of the faculty of hearing and its organ. " Now faculties speaking of the relation of the sense faculties with the sense Relation of the sense organs. cause of The the Rajasa Ego movement thus the called the common and the of Sattwika Tamasa Eo. we see that . ?. of as the modifications are ^nft^T. we see that the faculty of hearing . ?TW3 or the ego which t |.5i: vwfrf cm Vachaspati also says Though llajas has no work by itself yet since Sattwa and Tamas (though capable of undergoing modi: fication) are actionless in themselves. the with their latter which are made up ot the grossvehicle of the for- specific organs. er e ] ements are the mer. ffci And according The three forms the ego.of in this that ?rarfq it agency of Rajas moves them both for the production the effect. vnt r. and Bhutadi ego may be have three aspects thus three the original Prakriti is made up of says from which every thing is produced. the affected : former also necessarily ^iwifrffflfo JTOiaflPW^^'IW jjicnfasH^. the agent is of movement. Bhutadi and Taijasa The Mahat Barabara also as the source said to of the Vaikarika. . ege is the cause of is Different modifications also : called Vaikarika.THE STUDY OF PAT AN J A LI also 57 moved by the Rajas.

soundness or defect al?o. Such of which manifests a manifestation sound is cannot be without such an auditory power. 41 " To all those whose organs of hearing : are similarly situated. This sense of principle of hearing then having its origin the egoism. the situation of hearing is the same/' The Akasa again which the power of hearing is seated is born out of the soniferous Tanmatra. When when soundness or is defect noticed therein..) . drawn its as it is by sound in the originated and located as in mouth of the speaker acting loadstone. Patanjala. and also possesses the And this sameness of the situation of quality of sound. unison that it takes the sounds of external is This then establishes that the Akasa the substratum of the power of hearing. transforms them into own and modifications sequence of the sounds of the speaker. are to be taken in. in etc. 40. the capacity of resonance residing Akasa in of the ear.58 is THE STUDY OF PATANJALI seated in the ether within oui. Thus Panchareason sikha also says as quoted in WTO III.. for this thus senses that for every living them. etc. Nor of Prthivl (Earth). then in need of the located in the hollow of the ear stands in the substratum. etc. It is here that the power of hearing is is located. And it is creature. noticed the in the power of hearing Further sounds the power of hearing of solids. such an auditory power a quality because it cannot be in its own self both the manifestor and the manifested (sqwy and See Vachaspati III. quality of sound inherent in It is by this sound acting solids. sound is is an indication of the existence of Akasa as that the substratum of the auditory power !ruti which the sounds of the same class in Akasa. the perception of sound in external space in the absence of defects is never void of authority.ear-hole. acts like iron. and has therefore the in itself.

pass by. Sattwika ego + Touch potential = sense of touch. = sense of taste. The Sattwika ego in generating the cognitive limited senses certain with powers of for 8ense laipingaiacharyya the commentator of Vish- counted for their developments from i* itselr . . Thus in or the Sattwika ego + Sound potential = sense of hearing. = sense of smell.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI 59 There are other views prevalent about the genesis of the senses. Last of all the Manas is developed from the ego without any co-operating or accompanying cause.. that of Upastha in accompanithat of Payu in accompaniment of the sense of smell. -f- Sight + Taste + Smell The conative sense paniment of speech = senses of vision. hand in paniment of the sense of touch that of feet in accompani- ment ment of the sense of vision of the sense of taste . . The Naiyayikas however think that the senses are generated by the gross 9 elements. specific accompaniment Tanmatras. But Loka- by charyya matter but are rather sustained and strengthened gross by them. the Naiyayikas> view' ear for example by Akasa. generated that the senses are not There are others who think that the ego is the instrumental and the gross elements are the material causes in the production of the senses. to which it may be worth our Some divergent wn il e to pay some attention as we views considered. the touch by holds air and so forth. is developed in accomaccom- of the sense of hearing. that of . nupurana.

. Ahanksr the cause of the senses. and their corresponding gross Before proceeding further to trace the development The difference of Saukhya and Yoga views of the derivation of the categories. about the supposed difference between the Yoga and the views of ordinary about the evolution of the categories. . Prakrti Mahat I Ego 1 * enses ' 5 Tanmatras Gross elements. senses. . Sankhya compendium^ Now according to the Yoga view two parallel lines of evolution start from Mahat. produced Thus the view as found in the Yoga works may be : tabulated thus Prakriti I Mahat _j I . Asmita 11 senses (eleven). I believe. of the Bhutadi on the Tanmatric side. L_ Tanmatras 5 gross elements. which on one side develops into the Ego. cognitive and the five conative and on another side it develops into the five grosser elements through the five Tanmatras which are directly from Mahat through the medium Ahankar..60 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI The Bhashyakara's view since is.. . though it itself exists as integrated in the Mahat) the elements. . latter differentiations it. T . we see that the now quite clear Mahat through from trom the . . Manas. L I think it is best to refer to the views . 5 The view of ordinary Sankhya Compendiums may be tabulated thus. the five senses. ^he Ahankara (as generates . . .

which may appear suitable the purpose. and Manas the faculty from the Ego from the ego or being the five The Tanmatras however have not been derived But they together with 'sfforcH 'fffJffiT here. egohood Be-uess.61 The enesis place in is the *vw *fTO which refers to this that antler For easy reference I quote that portion for of the here. five elements But let us see how Yoga Varttika here : explains the point Tg fMta Bhikshu'a state- . Avisheshas are the specialisations of the Mahat. It therefore pure Avisheshas are directly derived from ^rfticn of appears that the six the Mahat. are spoken of as the six slightly specialised the five These six the great Tanmatras and the sixth one being the ego. ones. after which the ego develops into gross the 11 senses and the Tanmatras into the in three different lines. Visheshas. In this rng (I) the fully specialised to ones. w. the grosser elements are said have been derived from the Tanmatras and (II) the senses of reflection are said to have been specialised or *lfwn.

for has been I. the Avisheshas and the of as Vithe sheshas . so described in the Sutra ^n'W Nagesha in : 45. Its is associated with the development is thus to be considered .THE STUDY OF PATANJALl 3? WTO fW the Thus we View see that Yoga Varttika is says that -the Bhashya of Nfigesa. ^n^ar?i material cause which is meant. here describing the modifi- cations of Buddhi .. classes. and that the Mahat has been the spoken source of all Avisheshas : the five Tanmatras and the ego. alluded to by the Yoga Varttika: i ^n^rei^fiiira^ idia[*( ?f%. later Now on we in the HTO of the same Sutra 19 The Mahat tattwa (Linga) Prakriti (Alinga). 45. so i Continued. the genesis of the Tanmatras truly speaking however from Mahat takes place through the ego and in association it with the ego. the HTO further says : 1 believe it is quite clear that *re$-K the ^3J ^Rfosnrw of the Tanmatras. spoken of here as This ^fwir*s is the is same again as ^n^ff *KWH as ^T^trfH says Hq^iRi?n II. explaining this ?rafa cf*Jn<nfaj n9 only repeats the view of Yoa Varttika Now : let us refer to the WTO of I. i i^^j i ^xr^n^ i ^^fw^^ii:: ^ifq and Yoga Varttika says here also Here by q^jgc it is the Upadanakarana or ^w. ^^il. in two distinct compared. etc.

Sankhya compendiurns kara from Mahat and from Ahamkara) fications of is (viz. nature of the transformations. it is As these first differentia- tions take place through Ahamkara as the moment in the series of transfoi mations tions take stress is said that the transforma. This Ahankara roused into Tanmatras are produced from the Tamasa is nothing but the Tamasa side creating activity by Rajas. fofws^T &&\ " means integrated and means differentiated.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI as the production of iti a differentiation as integrated within the Prakriti. The six Avisheshas are also to be considered as the production of successive differentiations as integrated within the Mahat. : 19 however < a different explanation. he says . Mahat senses The ^attwika Ahankara the is put as a separate category producing whereas the Tamas as Bhfttadi produces the Tanmatras from the Mahat. and thus it is also said that from Mahat the Avisheshas namely Ahankara and the five Tanmatras come out. We know of that the Ahankara. its disturbance while held up within Nagesa gives quite in the Chhaya Vyakhya of II. Mahat from 1 1 Abam- the senses and the Tanmatras true only in this sense that these moditakes place directly as differentiations Ahamkara of characters in the body of Mahat. The words for they -" ^^ei rfo^w are the real show us the most important here .. This shows that the order of evolution as found in the Prakriti. place directly from Ahankara laid whereas when the on the other aspect it appears that transformations are but differentiations as integrated in the body of the Mahat.ix within integration bridges up the running gulf between the views of Yoga and the ordinary Sankhya Compendiums. This conception of evolution as differentiation s.

the Tattwa YaisaradT.64 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Thus the order of the evolution Order of evolution of the Tanmatras. the the Siddhantachandrika. o f the is Tanmatras : as here referred to as follows (Tamas Ahankara) The evolution of Tanmatras has been variously described in the Puranas and the the the Different views of the genesis of Smriti Tanmatras. treatise already Seal. : Bhutas and those who derive the Ahankara and Bhutas from them. About the Tanmatras I further add that all treatises. Rajsilent. the Kaumudi. Some on of these Schools have been spoken of in the Barabara Muni's the commentary on in the llamanuja Philosophy a systematic Tattwatraya a and have been Dr. the the other Sankhya Karika. Sutrarthabodhinl. I explained way by N. therefore refrain the derivation of from repeating them needlessly. the Sutra and Pravachana Bhashya. martanda and the Maniprablm seem to be . B. views can two Tanmatras from the Tanmatras from tho These divergent be brought under briefly those who derive the classes Literature.

and the Earth or Kshiti atom has been developed from the 5 Tanmatras. Now turning towards the further evolution of the . i. The Ap atom has been developed from the four Tanmatras. gence of view some says : of which are shown below.. of which the Sparsa appears there as the chief.THE STUDY OP PATANJALI Further speaking of the says that 65 Bhikshu Tanmatras. see that there here is a great diveralso. they therefore can neither be felt nor perceived in any way by the senses of ordinary men. Vijnana The Tanmatras are only in unspecialised forms. 44. the Vayu atom has been generated by two Taumatras. Sparsa and Rupa Tanmatras though the Rftpa is predominant in the group. though the Gandha Tanmatra is predominant in the group. though Rasa is predominant in the group. Genesis of grosser atoms. grosser elements from the TanmStras. Thus Vachaspati few: i I. Thus here we find that the Akasa atom ^ri has been generated simply by the Akasa Tanmatra. and they cannot be perceived to be possessed It is of different qualities any way.. The Tejas atom has been developed from the oabda.e. when The Yogis the alone can perceive them. Sabda and Sparsa. is their only specialization a mere thatness. This is that indeterminate state of matter in which they can never be distinguished or specialised in one from the other. Sabda. Rupa and Rasa. Sparsa. 9 . we . for this that they are called Tanmatras.

Seal's treatise. so accompanying agent is necessary at every that we see that the Vayti atom is produced from : these three atom = abda + Sparsa + Rupa + accretion Sabda + Spar sa-f accretion from Bhutadi. Bhikshu's ^ only tfc t Jt that the Akgga atom has been generated from the 6abda Tanmatra with an ai-cretion from Bhutadi. slightly different - says that to produce the gross frQm ^ Tanm traSj an accret i on o f Bhutadi as an step . whereas atom is generated simply Vachaspati says that the Akasa b the Akasa Tanmatra only.Rasa 4. Thus the Yoga Varttika view and atoms. -f- + Gandha + accretion I refrain from Bhutadi. Seal has already described them in his article. Thus he says : "Views referred to in Dr. Rasa and Gandha which therefore may be said to belong to a class akin to the grosser elements of Akasa. the Tattwa Niru[)ana and referred to and described in the Tattwatraya. Nagesa however takes a Nagesa's view. Tejas from Bhutadi. as Dr. Ap atom = oabda + Sparsa + Rupa 4. . Some differentiation has of course as they are called already Sparsa. matras which can be compared to the -IT v Vaisheshika atoms as they have no parts and neither grossness nor visible differentiation. begun Kupa.accretion from Kshiti atom = Sabda Sparsa + Rupa + llasa Bhutadi.66 THE STUDY OF PATANJALJ Now the Yoga Varttika . in the Tanmatras abda. agrees with Vachaspati in it all these details but differs from Vijfiana view. from giving the Vishnu Purana view which has also been quoted in the Yoga Varttika and the view of a certain school of Vedantists mentioned in. We see thus that from *j?nfe comes the five Tan- TanmStras and the Vaisheshika atoms. N. B.

. gross air.. particular qualities by pleasant. third form as gross water. unpleasant virtue of which to us. tion of By the combinais the five Tanmatras. I. hearing of the by quoting a passage from Nagesa The remarks of the Bhashya is this that in the express : A can not it better than . the kshiti atom of generated and earth four by is the conglomeration So again formed. so the Bhashya !<4K l'li Sr^fmTsraTcftgrrm The next one. class. air. Paramanu. q?. nature The gross atoms.. kshiti. Now these Paramauus or atoms are not merely atoms of matter but they contain within The feeling Elements of the Ghmas. s 67 also says. . . which ?r .. water. Tanmatras there exist the specific differentiation that constitute the five elements. the . .'. 40. the . to q*^WT^i*TtS*rRsffarTC.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Vayu.. Tejas. Ap and I Kshiti.. which is gross in its and is generated from the . said T etc. Thus the Yoga Varttika The Bhashya The Sutra The Form also says ^unqgfw^rT' 5^j III. lanmatras which exist in it as parts . fire. is belon to . etc. the these gross atoms gross Tanmatras water by the combination of the atom is formed and the conglomeration of these water atoms make the gross water. themselves those .. they appear. etc. 52. There is however another measure which is called the measure of q?u Tfrf which belongs to Akasa for example. may be compared with Vaisheshikas or the Trasarenu of the with says the atoms of Dalton.. as If or passive we have been .*n^: also notes is qwr.

Some say that it is not however true that the Tanmatras are not endowed with the feeling elements. perceived to be The former cannot be endowed with the feeling elements as the latter. but . cognitive well as emotional. I believe clear that when the inner and the outer source. world only translated and feelings it is therefore that these feelings. pleasurable as well are as painful. proceed from one do not altogether both have been formed by JpsnTt the collocation Gunas ^fas in ^fatsnfimwrw is ' The same book which in the inner microcosm written in the language of ideas has been in the external the language of . So in the external ha e all the grounds of our inner experience. The modifications of into ideas the external . <?ft msngnqftfoitasr ftw ^raricUT ? ? ftsin The Vishnu Purana also says : n Thus we see that here is another difference between the Tanmatras and the Paramanus. the ego differ in nature has been made and the external world from the inner of the .68 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI it able to express ourselves well. world written world we as matter. Paramanus are spoken of as endowed with Thus the Karika says : ^ '.

but ever. Marut Akasa conglomerate together of sentient or non-sentient bodies the etc. This is what as called >f | JRft'n*r. be it is perceived said : by also thus i rfirranrwfa any one except the TTWTsjT^rT^W^^ini <rer possess differentiated . Tej. and vegetables like the tree. etc. of these Paramanus cannot further be evolved any other different kind of f ) into The particular form with the or j^ existence fr ft^. fire.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI they Yogis 69 cannot . distinguished from the Tattwantara- opposed Visheshas themselves which parinama spoken above.. or inanimate bodies such as jug. etc. it but continue ceaselessly no new stadium of existence process that in pose is its the product of the evolution is such the properties of the gross elements which comconstitution can be found directly. ?ftfl*nwr**i The Tanmatras characters. etc. Now or these atoms of Paramanus of Kshiti. Now with the Blmtas we have here the last stadium or of stage of the evolution of Gunas.. The evolution of the Visheshas from the Avisheshas is always styled as craprT?: qftmw: as to the evolution that takes place among the is called ^4n?fTWTjT or evolution by change and form all of qualities. world. These bodies are built up by the conglomerated units of the atoms in such a way that they are almost in a state of fusion and lose themselves into the whoje in a state of combination which has been styled as . Now evolution atoms. air. conglo- merate together and form the different animate bodies such as cow. water. The different atoms of earth. The course evolution however does as is not its cease but by generated. ^^^ * W that the been formed from Paramanus though they have the Tanmatras resemble them only in a very remote way and are therefore placed in a separate stadium of evolution. but this is but they can be perceived only by the Yogis not one of universal admission. Ap..

" tangible or possessing There are some philosophers the quality of action. These bodies change with the different sorts of change or arrange- the particles. themselves are not visible." which appears with all its specific qualities really . Gunas yet functions to different from do counter the prominent help it Guna but to conjointly specific with the prominent the of Guna thing form the modification for experiences of the Purusha. conglomeration of the is particles we have what may are be called a body. Again Harmonious these and atoms though so much unlike the united activity of thp f a Pn>Ce8S Vaisheshika atoms since they contain Tanmatras of a different nature as their constituents and thus differ from the simpler atoms of the Vaisheshikas. In the production not a the different Gunas for do choose different independent courses their evolution. but join together and effectuate themselves in . their other it.70 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI In such a combination the parts do not stand independently but only hide themselves as it were so that by the in order to manifest the whole body. which from the atoms of regarded as a quite different thing which they composed. ment of nothing except but they must be altogether wrong here since they have no right to ignore " the body. the atoms and their the conglomerations becomes prominent. according to which the body may be " " spoken of as one. if they ignore the almost everything for the atoms ." large." "small. organic or is animal bodies such a way that in there no break of harmony when any though not run no Apposition between them of the Gunas existing are but on the contrary. who hold the view that a body was the conglomeration of the atoms and attributes before them body they have to ignore moreover. compose the constituents of in all inorganic.

14). not produce a confusion but in the production of the Thus we The Dharma ' see that the bodies or things Pan- the collocation of the atoms sense differ composed by in some iama from the atoms them- selves and in another are only identical with the atoms of themselves. 71 also Thus we see that when the atoms of different gross elements possessing diffe- rent properties and attributes conglomerate difference of attributes does together their by a common teleology they unite particular substances (see IV. trfafoftraT ^ ^i ^?TCT irwnt of i Often it the change appearance of a thing or a body. We see therefore that the appearance the atoms as bodies or things differs with the change of So we can position of the atoms amongst themselves. Time therefore . atoms of the body had been continually changing and the consequently the appearance of the body or the thing also had been continually changing . a tree or a piece of cloth for example can be marked This however only shows that only after a long interval. s. Each moment or the smallest particle of time is only the atoms of time or gni manifestation of that particular change. there being always a change of appearance in the bodies on every change of the position of the atoms. In the smallest particle the whole universe undergoes a change. for otherwise we can in no way account for the sudden change of appearance.iy that the change of the appearance of things and bodies only shows the change of the collocation of the atoms. consequent The former therefore is only an explicitude in appearance of the change that takes place in the substance itself .THE STUDY OF PATANJALI the evolution of a single product. bodies are continually changing of All the constituent collocation and their appearances. for the appearance of a thing is very selfsame thing the only an explicit aspect of the atoms thus the vrro says : : mPiwwnalft happens that **&:.

It is on account of this that we see that a body comes This birth Continued. It therefore only comes into being with the unfolding of the past which therefore exists only in a sublatent in the past just as is the future form in it. is therefore called the ^qfrBTT The change I Again this change no ^ of appearance can be looked at Lakshana and AvasthftParinima. For had not the past changes taken place the present The present had held itself hidden could not have come. . way in it which will however be manifested All the previous changes of the collocating also lost atoms are not in the particular but exist only in a sublatent way collocation of atoms present before us. into being and dies away. For the past changes are not at all destroyed but preserved in the peculiar and particular collocation of atoms of the present moment. of viz. . ^om two other aspects which though intrinsically different from the have their own special points of change of appearance These are Lakshana view which make them remarkable. hidden within the present. ("IWTParii. we see it that in changes that take place are existing only in the subsequent a latent in future.iama Parinama (srsroqfruw) or Avastha qfcaw). that of an atom has not a separate existence in change Now of here the appearance is called the vfr and that is parti- cular arrangement of atoms or Gunas which the basis of appearance the particular appearance is called the >^f.?2 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI this philosophy as in the amount Vaisheshika but it is only identical with the smallest of its own amount of space.. . in Taking the for particular collocation all of atoms a body review. or death though it is really subsumed aspect. under the change of appearance has on account of which as it its own a It special has been given separate considers name the Lakshana Parinama (srenuwlxniTO).

we in assert that the thing has and decay passing the the interval. who can yet they may not be so remarkable take note of the bigger changes alone. This is what is called the Avastha Parinama or change of condition which however does not materially differ from the ^inifoiJW and can thus be held to be a that a mode of it.THE STUDY OF PATANJALl three stages of an appearance exists 73 the unmanifested in the future. the manifested it when it moment of the manifested. we refer to this which records the history of the thing in future. the onward Thus when we say that a stages thing has not yet come into being. which are only the three different moments of the same thing according to its (^RinqfriiTO) different Lakshana Parinama characters. Thus in explaining the illustration given the . Now it often happens that though the appearance of a thing is constantly changing to the continual change of the owing atoms infini- that compose it. for there greatly differs from to us. it Taking therefore two remarkable stages of the things the difference between which may be so notable as to justify us to call the later one the dissolution or destruction of the former. and that it is no longer. present and past.Bhashya 10 . manifested and manifested past but conserved. lost and of the past when has been to view but conserved and kept in the evolution. as unmanifested. all present. grown in or decayed. yet the changes are so fine and tesimal that they cannot be marked by any one except the may be going on structural though changes tending towards the final passing away of that structure and body into another structure and body which Yogis. It is on account of this substance is called new or old. that it has just come into being. into suffered growth which the actual was during the sublatent and potential was tending towards actualization.

Now of taking the previous its lump for review we may think of dust. may be carried. yn*i)> over or the rising (the present or ^?r) and the unpredicable (future or *raw^jg) sharacteristic qualities of the substance. The or substance that which remains common to the latent (as having passed Dharmi and Dharma. from a state of relative non-being. and stages as its ^*w or qualities. has the power existing in the form of particles of dust. characterised the substance >f*iff . substance and >fl?f u4r. jug may be thought to have undergone a change inasmuch as it has now come into or being. lump and jug. is This Earth therefore one. it stage of lump a stage undergoes what is >HRfww or change of quality. Earth). a lump or a water jug by which stage of stage. of The substance (take for example. This ^z again suffering another change just produced or is as new or old according as its it is running towards dissolution. regarded as its the ^^f. here to The earth we and and see be common being to its is all these three stages which have activity come into by in its own the consequent changes. and future stage as jug as the unpredicable. Earth here common quality so which re- mains unchanged constant all these stages relatively among changes as particles. as the shape of the latency cability. This is called the wrqftwr is of the ^ is unpredi- or qualities as constituting ^z. When called this or substance to undergoes a change from a of jug. as its that of particles being latent. the Yoga Varttika say S . _ is iff ?T9T It now time for us to look once more to the relation of tnflf. and this called gradually the .74 of THE STUDY OF PATANJALI the " w ffir. its quality or is appearance. itself But its ir$.

are suffering There is also the 'SR^nqfrwro of these the srg^qfww. the only happen in order of occurrence of one characteristic being dis- placed by another characteristic which comes after it immediately. the earthen jug. growth and decay. not yet. We thus see that one substance may undergo . Ap. 5re<uq[Ti!W The object which has suffered can be looked at from another point of view. growing or suffering decay towards of This circulation the cosmic matter in to all general applies also ju particular things t The evolutionary process constant. etc. and from thence again back to the inorganic. so it may be said that the trot or substance directly suffers the WRfrwr The *H? ^ra^n^ftwr- and indirectly the si^r and the however suffers the stwuqftww directly. aspects of it . say the of the c ] oth ete< here will evolution be that of powdered particles of earth. viz. Tej. Kshiti. These different states or vffr remaining themselves as inorganic.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI or 75 change of condition. again.. etc. they are constantly suffering changes from the inorganic to the plants and animals. Vayu and Akasa as they are unchanged are suffering ^"Jrof^lW from the inorganic to plants and changed animals and back again to the inorganic. according as they are now. lump of earth. evolution.. and no longer or passed over. states according is as any one of them (the plant state for its dissolu- example). that of change of state. Thus we see that though the atoms of remain unchanged. these different states succession. There the is thus a constant circulation of changes in which different atoms of Kshiti. These three however are not separate from the ^*irofc?rw but are on jy Continued. the broken halves of the jug and again the powdered As the whole substance has only one identical earth. tion.. Ap.

trinsic difference between one thing and another but only changes of character of one and the same thing.. fragile that by the merest touch could these become powdered into dust. the substance has neither past nor future. will in analogy to the arguments seem that even a qualified thing or Now . it stated above.76 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI in order of succession . thus the gross elemental atoms like the water and earth particles acquire various qualities and appear as the various juices of all fruits and herbs. 5^ etc. change must have continued to work from subtler beginnings to the found to manifest themselves grossest ones. the appearances or the qualities O nly are manifested in time of by virtue is which the substance also spoken of as varying and changing temporally. which were after a great lapse of time as in the case of the paddy we have spoken of. The substance two zeroes are placed on the atoms of f%fa. ful example Thus Vachaspati gives the following beauti irawfan *ft t% ^wfr ^*^ TOT* fsretsqsfi*: i (A peasant and the stocks quantities parts of paddy these become so of for many years. successive Such changes it is never Thus. ^re. just as a line but acquires different remains unchanged in itself significances according as one or its right side. ^% *re?f. this to be admitted that in moments. happen with new paddy. endless changes of characteristic or *4 we with the ehange of characteristic and along have the is ^imRiiW and the ^wrfw* as old or new which evidently one of infinitesimal changes of growth and decay.) We now see that The substance. There is no in.. by various changes of quality appear as the manifold varieties of cosmical existence.

According to Darwin the general form of the evolutionary process accomplished by Very slight variations which are accumulated by the effect of natural selection. Thus the i vrro says ^ ^"Ji^^nsiWjfT^T**: 1*T f i TJI TT*ref?rs?t I ^N of Jjwifw Jjijsjnvnsi g nfffi^Ttiifrai 3JH=WTO III. tried scientifically to observe some O f fa e stages of the growth of world the inorganic. are a l w ays in a state the grosser particles of commotion in the and always evolving stated final manner of before. remember that the Gunas which are the final substratum of all in a Gunas always commotion. 13. for it. But And why the this accidental variation. for the sake of the experiences and the realisation of the Purusha. Theirs is man. The pioneers modern scientific evolution have indeed with Comparison modern theories of evolution of Darwin. comes But the in into evolutionists cannot explains final explain.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI appearance 77 substance may be relatively regarded as the when it is seen to remain common to various other modi- fications of that appearance itself. this seeming departure from being the of so causal chain. it the Sankhya Patanjala doctrine teleology or from standpoint all the goal inherent matter. and the into the animal any reason of facts. the only teleology the Prakriti." is is that which " according to a later theory. To be serviceable to the Pqrusha . we see that a new species is constituted all at once by the simultaneous appearance of several new characters very different from the old. Thus a jug which may remain common in all its modifications of colour may be regarded relatively as the wf or substance of all these special appearances or modifications of the We state ot same appearance. that it may be serviceable to the Purusha. but they do not give more an experimental assertion than a metaphysical account of it.

not be matter. Tinduka (Diospyros Myrobalan) can all and peculiar arrangement of the atoms of earth and palm. and direction of the smallest of in particle of From the scientitic point is view the Sankhya the Pataujala doctrine the very for much it same place as modern scientists does not explain the cause of the accidental variation noticed in all the stages of evolutionary process from any physical point to of view based on the observation of facts. for the unit of change of an atom of its own dimension of There is is the change position. So that the differences among things are only due to the diftereut stages which they occupy in the scale of of _ . the serviceability Purusha. the view of teleology. and we see also that the evolution of the organic from the inorganic is also due to this change of position of the atoms themselves. They however found that used to this teleology should of usurp all the nature and function or it By virtue of the Rajas the atoms are always of moving and space energy we find that movement is to this the the atoms are in that all products of evolution difference accountable. by their stress and strain alone . or unpredicabilitv of of the onward a moral course evolution from of the point of view. / always the transformation evolution. . We have found that the between the juices of cocoanut. the course matter. and the teleology of Prakriti.78 is THE STUDY OF PATANJALI the one moral purpose in the whole Prakriti and its which guides manifestations in the whole material world. But it goes much the credit that of the Patanjala this doctrine accidental they explain this variation. Embryopteries) Amalaka (Emblic be accounted for by the particular water alone. Bel. spatial energy from the to the organic and back inorganic again from the organic.

The expressions or of the Gunas. is changes the potentiality into everywhere throughout this changing world. which determine the modes of the evolutionary in environments are also involved process surrounding determining this change . and that if anybody transfers them mutually a Yogi can recognise and distinguish the one from the other by seeing the changes that the of space fruits have undergone in connection with their particular points Thus the different vn&i says : Two Amalaka space fruits having theii the in same two characteristic genus and of species. though there is a thousand manifestation of differences. shape. place.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI but virtually there ^fsr' . causality which are the determining circumstances and surrounding environments.&eit<U3f . their situation points contributes to . there the potentiality of : everything for every thing. 11. there difference intrinsic between Evolution is qualified by the place in which the thing exists. and it is said that two Amalaka fruits placed in sorts two in different places undergo two different the particular of changes connection with points of place in which they are placed. transformations of energy differ according to time. things. is no intrinsic difference of among for things the change the collocation of atoms only actuality. Thus \achaspati writes i i% ^ Looked at is III. according to time. and the manifestations of the place. form and causality.) of from the point no view of the Gunas. f9 as different expressions of the transformation of energy.

similarly the atoms also of suffer different modifications at different points space which can be perceived by Iswara and the Yogis. brought before a man who was inattentive to it then naturally he cannot distinguish this Amalaka as being the distant one which has been brought before him distance is without his knowledge.80 specific THE STtiDY OF PATANJALl distinction as this identified of development so that they may be When an Amalaka at a and that. and the Yogi can perceive the difference of their specific evolution in association with different their points of space . animal form. and instrumental accessories. the vicious do not enjoy happiness. the takes thus saffron grows in is the same still though Kashmere and not in Panchala. competent to that knowledge should be discern the distinction . 53) Vachaspati again says : Though all cause is essentially all effects effect yet a particular cause in a Particular place. place. Thus in accordance with the obstructions of time. ?J^T g i Tpg III. and the sutra says right associated But the place with one Amalaka fruit is from the place associated with another Amalaka at another point of space . So the rains cause do not come in summer. the same cause does not produce the same effect. rafo ift .

we see therefore are the limitations which regulate. etc. the Sankhya Patanjala Thus the Mahabharat says : ?^TlTOT3fT*u1% : Hpq?n: ^f^ cr^nn f^mf^r m^T n . the other causes growth is were all present here the operation of cause limited by space. 15). vegetable and animal kingdoms as the three stages in the evolutionary process. which I think may be added as a supplement to the general doctrine of evolution according to Philosophy as stated here. Time space. our attention ami animal ^Plant-life i is at once drawn to their concept on o f the nature of relation of To this point plantlife to animal life.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI : 81 f fa i i (SSTRWTZT III.. After considering the inorganic. thus Kasmere being the country not grow in the Panchala country even of its though there . I though I do not find any special reference in the Bhashya yet am reminded of a few passages in the Mahabharat. modify and determine to a certain extent the varying transformations and changes and the seeming ences? of differ- things. though in reality they are all ultimately reducible to the three of saffron it will Gunas.

: Thus the W9 says f^^^j ^ Wt: Suppression. the Manas and the senses suffer this ^^nrft^jT*! we shall see hereafter. discovery of Sir Bose that the life func- tions differed only in degree between the three classes. characterization potentialisation.THE STUDY OF FATANJALI Nilkantha in says his commentary goes still further and that a hard substance called ngpftr also may %ff5i' be called an^ict i living. as the will just suffice here to suffers this substance itself in the form of Sanskaras or impressions. ^fl^fq the ^fflffirsitfafWrctfi aft^wiirej Here we stalled see that the ancients had to a certain extent foreJ. with the psyFor the say that the Chitta also change and is modified in a twofold mode . C. plants and animals. constant . the patent in the form of the ideas and the latent. for here there no radical change the elements themselves. microcosm. when we shall deal chology present of it the Sankhya Patanjala doctrine. the inorganic. only illustrations of is These are all ^qfV^w in (Dharma Parinama) Dharma of mind senses. however. Parinama and the The appearanee O f qua ]ities being due only to the arrangement of the atoms of the five gross elements. This change different applies to the Visheshas only the five gross elements How the inner externally and the eleven senses internally.

The operation of the concomitant condition or efficient cause serves only in effectuating the passage of one thing from potency to actualisatiou. ent wqfouw as we have shown it. without a review of the Sankhya view of We a have seen is that the Sankhya Patanjala view holds in that the effect already existent the cause but only in or collocation potential form. power are the characteristics of mind This besides consciousness. and all effects are the cause. we cannot causation. is but a special of the Gunas tion so that the change of collocadiversity of explains the the All change ultimately reducible to the collocation of the Guuas. as the things are the the same. "The grouping alone changes and this brings out the manifestation of the latent powers of the Gunas but without or non-existent.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI change. the life." creation of is anything ^r<r^n*zhn? absolutely new This the true theory as distinguished of the Vedantists from the so-called ^rT^rtsrai^ theory which ought more properly for with illusory. them the cause alone true. to be called the is ^r^F^T ? 5 theory. fchiugt. so excluding that. the cause of the diversity in things is power which the Gunas . 83 movements. Considered from the point of all view of the Gunas. Everything collocation in the phenomenal world . is essentially differfrom the ^m^nr^^ of the Avisheshas which we This discussion about the evolution" close have described above. For with all its them forms being only impositions on the material cause alone is true whereas n^T?*tf!i fa^nft *rm?i ^f^f^n ?fa qj and shapes are only illusory Whereas according ^rw i to the effects Sankhya Patanjala doctrine are true and they are due has of all the appearances or to the power which the those various substance transforming of itself into appearances and effects sffarai^fcssn ntfw& w:.

84 THE STUDY OF PATANJALl have of changing' their particular collocations and thus assuming various shapes. the definite law of qfarWsfi*T Now $akti according to the Sankhya Patanjala doctrine. the the possessor of power. the called the Visheshas. abiding the we say that when the . the Tanmatras called the gross Avisbeshas. The Ahankara and the Tanmatras again resolve themselves into the senses and the gross elements and these again are constantly suffering thousand modifications to called the TO. evolution . poses Of course for all popular purwe can indeed make some distinction but that disis tinction only relatively true. force. lump or jug as its attribute.'sra^n ( qfanr according f*RTfl). As this the appearance of the power of transforming itself as power of transforming itself into in the in lump the or jug. always abides etc. ^^w. Now Linga at once resolves it itself into the Ahankara and through again into the Tanmatras. power or force are not different but identical. of substantive entities Their appearances as substantive entities it power or and as be erro- power or force are but two aspects and so neous to entity will make any such its distinction as the substantive is is and power or is force. etc. That which and that which the subthe force stantive is entity the force the substantive entity. we see on the one hand that no distinction is really made between its earth as jug and the jug.. are also earth earth. jug. earth of is the substantive entity Thus when we say that and the power which it has transforming itself into the produced form. the elements and the eleven senses. and the Saktiman Sakti ami SaktimSn. So the Prakriti and all its emanations and modifications as well as are of the nature force. We have seen that the Prakriti unfolds itself through the great being various stages the Mahat called the five Ahankara..

The example and that its is chosen to ex- plain the nature of the Prakriti modifications con- ceived as power tending towards actuality from potentiality in the ssn^nz? is that of a sheet of water enclosed by temrun out porary walls within a field but always tending to . Of course evident that no real . all actualised. the movement by which itself actualises itself im- manent within and not caused from without. or absolute distinction between TiwwsiftK and ^nsta^t ufa only relatively. The potentiality any power which at state is its the mere potentiality or actuality antecedent cause has of trans- forming itself into it.THE STUDY OF PATANJALt power is 86 is in the potential state. Looked from this point of view it will be seen Prakriti viewed potentiality and as ac- that the Prakriti though a substantial entity is yet a potential power which j tuahty and conservation of energy. is The operation of the concomitant conditions in only manifested removing the negative barriers by which the power was It being of stopped or obstacled from actualising itself. we say that the jug has been Looked at from other gross ele- the Tanmatrie side the earth and the ments must have to be said as to be mere modifications and the such identical to the power which Taumatras or have of changing actuality of of the itself into them. Being it of the of po ver. for the as they may be called so the ^n^^irsif^T srfifi of same tendency which may appear some tendencies may prove as the 4W$qrl elsewhere. state. its potentiality means that it is kept equilibrium by are inherent within struction it is in virtue of the it. the nature of power. which opposing serve as one another's ob- tendencies that and are therefore there is called the *fiwr *u%. we say that the it is jug in the potential and when actualised. s b em g actualised as its various mo- dih'cations as the Avisheshas and the nature is Visheshas.

say by God. of course if these barriers could be the will of sible removed. effect. the shoot thus from a piece of a plant cannot come such its out. mode or form of the ac tualisations of the potential. (3) ^nwK form and constitution of a thing of stone. THE STUDY OF PATANJALl As soon as the temporary wall a all is broken ill some to direction. and is what one has do to break the wall is at particular place.86 of it. From any if cause we can expect can is get any only the necessary barriers be removed. By the concomitant conditions of the phenomenal world. Thus Nandi who was a man is at once turned into a god for his particular merit which served to break of his all the barriers of the potential tendency towards becoming divine. it at once actualises itself into its effect and to so on. but the potential when the barrier of a certain tendency is removed. . The Prakriti also the potential for the infinite diversity of things tendency of and diverse things cannot be all these mutually opposed actualised all at once. sorts of concomit- The Vyasa Bhashya mentions four ant conditions which can Coucomitaut B(?o> serve to break the barrier in a particular Can- way and thus determine the There are (1) f*i place. (2) ^rw time. for everything potentially. then it is not imposthat a shoot of a plant may come out of a piece of . for the that it arrangement of the particles in stone is will oppose and stand as the barrier of potential tendencies to develop into the shoot of a plant . the water rushes out itself. so that the barriers body being removed the potential power of the Prakriti of his body at once actualises itself into the divine body. as Vijnana Bhikshu says. it is everything to only remove the particular necessary the power from actualizbarrier which is obstructing ing itself into that particular effect towards which it is always potentially tending.

the transformations of the bodies and senses that W in What they of mean all or ^^ alone and that which guides living beings Continued. must however be always remembered that the ^4r and ^yft are also the productions of Prakriti and as such cannot affect except by behaving as the obstructions of the opposite it cause for the for removal the ^4r removing the obstructions of WJJT and wfr in of w. it is said that these the barriers of the Prakriti and thus determine modifica- amounts almost to saying that the modifications of the Prakriti are being regulated by the moral conditions of man.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI stone 87 T By the will of God . Vijnana that the Bhikshu and Nagesha agree here modifications due to >Hf and affect saying ^^ are those which is the bodies and it senses. Thus we Nahusha's *nHf of the or demerit stopped the fillings materials of his heavenly body from the five gross elements and those of find in his heavenly senses from the Ahankara. gives We 7 another place that Vachaspati the example . poison may be turned into nectar and nectar into poison merit According to the Sankhya Patanjala theory oan only be said to accrue from those actions which lead to a ^ man's salvation and ^cqw from the can remove its When tions it . is possibly this. general see the Yogis. According to the different stages evolution. different kinds of merit W of man's moral or ^n*V accrue and and mental be affected these again regulate the to or various physical phenomena according either which a man may It pleasurably painfully.

decav pleasure. having anything to do the Prakriti all controlling of modifications of the barriers. We ^nf^r therefore that the in sphere of tffr (merit) and (demerit) particular the helping senses of the formation of the bodies and (from the gross to all elements living and beings their Ahankara according respectively) to suited of of their stages sorts illness evolution their and growth. it is or other as modifications also. after leaving the old ones at Thus Yoga Varttika the says causes senses: " Merit by the removing the obstructions of demerit of development body -and the i and Nagesha says : i Later on he sas aain < As for Iswara I do not remember that the as *nsrefTC or the in Sutras ever mention him the ISwara. but removing the the later commentators by agree in holding him barriers in the responsible Prakriti's for the removal of all way of development. as pain his and or health Thus by particular merit that the Yogi can get his special body or men or animals can get their new bodies death. So that .88 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI *f^ as an illus(tho virtuous enjoys happiness) and wfr as controlling or cause of frfa^l ijng^Tifpf tration of ^ the course of the development of see lies Prakriti.

will perform good throw downwards will indeed be and he to whom as it made very commit bad freedom and But this a bold idea nullify even the least vestige of the n . merit or demerit. stands as the cause of the removal of such obstacles in the Prakriti as may lead to the production of merit or demerit. his in in But he by barriers the very presence causes the obstacles. w : or ^w it serve to as to remove in the obstacles of the Prakriti in such a pleasurable or way result painful of effects but that yields the barriers itself the a Prakriti are by god's help removed and it the is in such way that a man may perform desire. it he whom God actions is wants to raise is made to God wants actions. in Yoga Varttika and Nagesha agree the evolution of Prakriti responsible for the removal of all obstacles in holding Iswara the way of It is actions God is on account of god that we can do good or bad and thus acquire. $antihe regards god's will as wholly responsible for the performance of our good or bad actions. good however by parva or bad deeds according to us to his Nilkantha his quotations in explanation of leads suggest that 300/2. *n^9?f?r Thus god says t^r^nfq wtfayRre sft^iqsTsf ?3 SIFTF: i. as the way of Prakriti's development to be removed for the such a way removal of all that he stands ultimately responsible obstacles in the way of Prakriti's development and thus also of all obstacles in the way of men's performance of good or bad deeds.Iswara lies as the root cause of all the removal of barriers including those that are effected by v*s and ^wif. Of course not active and cannot cause any motion in Prakriti.e. Man's good or bad deeds gig"!*^ or *tg<i?}ff* . For if we lay stress on his quotation v$ ^ai appears that to fi^tafa.

Thus .90 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI and unsupported by the also says Vijnana Bhikshu is of our actions responsibility evidence of other commentators his Vijfianamrita Bhashya III. ft: *ra: ^ftic^ fH t fafaTf' Hnsqiqww ff?T In support of our view we also find that it is by god's nature influence that in the unalterable is t^UnLL in IWara of the *teraal world held fast and of a limit imposed in on the powers man producing changes the external world. with reference to this firuti in of Iswara only in a So we take the Wrfr*Hcn is offered by Him in the help that general 'way to mean . meritorious acts in the external may ^antiparva Nilkantha writes thus : Qnotetion from Nilkantha. i a of the external world in such removing the obstruction way that it perform the be possible for a man to practically world.

are changeable according to space. but there of god is a limitation on their will by the comthe mand thus far and no further.the essentially non-intelligent. Purushartha evolution entirety that is indeed . maintains in that all obstacles of Prakriti such a wav . are not permanent. for the powers of objects as they the difference of class. as we have seen. The Patanjala Iswara removed view. Thus Vachaspati says: ^ The Sankhya however hopes teleology to guide lines in that this immanent and is in Prakriti acts like a blind instinct able the course of its evolution in all its manifold accordance with the best possible service of the Purusha. of its exists for this manifold evolution of affects the interests the Purusha its alone but does uot prove that this in its teleology can as to really guide ensure the best of the evolution possible particular lines so mode this of serving teleology all the interests the Purusha. the aim for which the process in all . and so it is proper that they should act in accordance with the desire of the Yogi .THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Vachaspati in 91 explaining the TM says f Man may any changes they indeed acquire unlimited powers of producing like. in Another point differs our favour is this that Yoga from the Sankhya mainly in this that philosophy the Purushartha or serviceability to the Purusha is only the aim or end of the evolution of Prakriti and not actually the agent which removes the obstacles of the Prakriti in such a way as to determine its course as this cosmical process of evolution. time and condition. Prakriti is for being immanent in .

But with us is the serviceability the Purusha It of is the object as for which that the the Prakriti moves. wfa and f^: according to however. the removal of obstacles by the influence of god takes obstacles.92 that this THE STUDY OF PltANJALt teleology may find scope for its realisation. Its teleology powerless to remove removes own God by his very presence the by which the Prakriti of itself moves in the evolutionary process and thus the teleology is realised for. of Narayana of Tirtha says : According to atheistic serviceability Sankhyathe future the Purusha alone theists is the mover of of the Prakriti. i ( 34) To recapitulate. obstruction. IV As regards the connection of 3. . . it is Bhikshu in denying the by virtue of the immanent connects itself naturally to the Purusha teleology that movement of Prakriti ^^ 1. merely an object serviceability the Purusha may be said to be the mover of the Prakriti. P. Recapitulation. in we see that there is an immanent it teleology the Prakriti which connects with the is Purushas. This teleology however blind lines and cannot choose the suitable of development and cause the along movemeot realisation is of the Prakriti itself them a for its fullest entity- Prakriti though substantial also essentially of the nature of conserved energy obstruc- existing in the potential itself form but always ready to flow if its out and actualise tions its only own immanent is are removed. Thus Sutrarthabodhiui Continued. Vijnana both Saokhya and Patanjala agree the interference of Iswara .12.

Ethical enquiry the chief aim of the liberation of the Pnrusha.) WTO I The Yoga philosophy has and its essentially a practical tone object consists mainly in demonstrating the of attaining salvation. in demonsWe had first to explain the metaethical views. its Prakriti with reference to whom and have not been So the world is is both eternal and non-eternal relative eternality only not absolute ( *w V: n IV. The Yoga Philosophy. though reali. metaphysical discussed at theory which we have it is some length though goal It is the basis which justifies its ethical not itself the it principal subject of Yoga it discussion.e. exists in the form of its states which are called its VrittiK. the teleology of the ised. only because without understanding that. It has now become time for us to direct our attention towards the right comprehension of the ethical Chitta or mind always theories of this philosophy. exists for the other Purushas. it was impossible for us to get a right conception of their ethical theories. These comprehend all the manifold states of consciousness . means the oneness. only mentions incidentally so far as trating its becomes necessary for it. physical theory.33.STtJDY OF PAT ANJALl place in such a 98 its fullest way that the teleology may get scope of realisation Realisation of the teleology means that interests of the Purusha are seemingly affected and the Purusha appears to see and feel in a manifold way and after a long series of such experiences it comes to the understand itself in its own nature and this being the the Prakriti last and final realisation of the teleology of all with reference to that Purusha connections of the Prakriti . with such a Purusha at once ceases to be liberated it the Purusha for is then said and the world ceases unliberated him to exist.

of the ( Vachaspati also says that this Chitta being essentially nature of ^wir is as all-pervading as the ego i itself This Karana Chitta contracts or expands and appears the Karana Karya Relation of Chitta Chitta. each being connected with souls (" each of the numberless Purushas or ^^ ( fart ^n5qfansjiitrT[ and also f^f*t^ fafi wff)rttifiyii*iwl < yc^ifi gfc|Jr^rR. as our '"dividual Chittas in the & various kinds of our bodies at the successive rebirths. represent the as senses in this that they functions and Chitta stands the entity holding the conscious states with ly which we are direct- concerned. 10. . consciousness ness it is itself. But the Chitta which we have thus described is as existing only in its states as effect as distinguished called the fil^rf^ or f^ff from the ^nTirf^ff or farf as cause. .?t ^ ) <^i V. as quotation. is is evident from the that the Yogi can have the knowledge of all things all at once. .") The reason assigned for acknowledging such a Karana Chitta which must be all Reasons for acknowledging a Kfimna ' pervading. | (. and we cannot distinguish consciousness from of states the Cliitta.. The Karaiia Chitta is always connected with the Purusha and appears contracted when the Purusha presides over the .94 of THE STUDY OF PATANJALI our phenomenal existence. exists states and passes away are with their passing It differs and from submerges the faculties when whereas they submerged. tor the consciousits . These Karana Chitta or Chittas as cause are all-pervading like the Akasa and are infinite in number.i not in something its separate from states .

as expanded Chitta appears manifests the itself as 3Hifa^ which always with the our states of consciousness. is After death Karana Chitta which itself in always connected Purusha manifests by the or the new body which apparently the is formed ^\^ (filling in of ggffa on account of effective merit acquired. it The Chitta being all-pervading. ) It is this f^ffi which appears as the particular states of consciousness in which there are both the The nature of ChittH.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI animal presides 95 bodies and as relatively over ever human bodies when he expanded and more expanded when he This contracted or our presides the bodies of gods etc. 10. 10. kuower and the known . The Sankhya view however does not regard the Chitta to be essentially faf but small or great ttenkhva Chitta. to suit appears at once to contract or the particular ) *n^rfa. it is only its ^n^ff^T? or ffa that appears in a contracted or expanded form. to suit The Yoga does not hold that the which with it it may fafi has got a separate fine astral body within remain encased and may be transferred along to another body at rebirth after death. 10. ) IV. itself expand body destined for it by its merit or demerit but there is no separate astral body. of the it is Karana Chitta due to this ^I|T. according to the particular body which it as such always remains faf or may be said to occupy. IV. all In reality the pervading. view of according as the body it has to occu- py faff fff fl|?n: flfag^ps Tfiftq^l t snIT^q fcn^fl^TOZWtsT ^ g faj ( *n5N IV. demerit that the of Purusha had The formation expansion fndjfari the body as well as the as contraction or corresponding.

but the is This Chitta is not indeed 1 1 a separate the summed up the five (fiita unity of the senses and eo that and also Pranas 10. described the means by which one with an out-going mind (*i3ni f^r) also mav Yoga. In the third chapter are described those phenomena which strengthen the faith of the Yogi acquire .96 reflected. states which The modifications ^n^rfa^T is of the ^nT^feiTT into the as the due to . there takes place by concentall- a backward movement and the pervadiug state of the Chitta being restored to itself and all Tamas being overcome. first is The the Yoga Yoga philosophy in the for him whose mind chapter describes towards inclined is trance-cognition. the Yogi acquires omniscience and finally when this Chitta becomes as pure as the form of Purusha self itself. Tattwa. and therefore we see that knowing the states themselves are comprehended both the knower the Purusha and the known. its being overcome by its inherent Tarnas and Rajas so when the transformations of the Chitta into the passing states are arrested ration. It thus stands for all is Psychical in man the states of consciousness including the living principle in activity of the five Pranas. but by the seeming it reflection is in appears as the knower who certain object. its is oriinal cause the ^nr<ufa^ all-pervading. It is the object of the man represented by the Yoga to restrain the its Chitta gra- dually from Ksrana and Karya Chittas. and it of that this Chitta as ( fa*l ) is essentially a modification of Prakriti and of such is non-intelligent. the Pur isha becomes conscious of him- and is liberated from the bonds of the Prakriti. V. various states and thus it gradually cause J to turn back to . In the second chapter. THE STUDY OF PATANJALI comprehends them both in one state must however bo remembered It consciousness.) .

. The fanfa'ri is characterised wandering. because it is being the Rajas.good and are again drawn towards 13 evil. mind represents the ordinary people who are sometimes tended towards. Now none of these three kinds of mind can hope to attain that This last type of contemplative concentration called Yoga.1 ^t^jirf^T wrong course : ( fainTT ^f*5^n 1. HW are fit describes the five classes of Chittas comments upon for their fitness for Y oga are I. ?|.1. that of anger etc. III. always being moved and fro by them. mastery of himself is required far for attaining absolute The is man rather from to attaining his any a slave to own and passions and oscillated II. Htofffi 1. The chitta ftf^ra is feri or distracted or occasionally steady that mind which rationally avoids the painful actions and chooses the pleasurable ones. the excess of which may indeed for the time overpower the mind and thus generate a temporary concentration. or oneness which the end of all the Yoga and the The Who Yoga.sfa3 The or passions like (See fafW ^fe^n 1. Those ( ( getful ) III. faf%H 1 ( wandering ) II i$% <cr^TRj occasionally steady ) IV.2.) Swarni Harihararanya suggests a beauti- ful some kinds example of concentration in this state as in the case of snake who become completely absorbed in the prey they are ready to pounce upon.) is that which is overpowered by Tamas. f%F ( for- one pointed as ) ft^s ( restrained ). by which it loses its senses and always chooses the 1. but it has nothing to do with the contemplative concentration independence. leading to Kaivalya. In the chapter is described Kaivalya. absolute inde- pendence practices.2.97 on the means described fourth in the the is second chapter. This is that Chitta which always moved is by and fro by the rise always moved to of passions.

the mind . When comes. possible become arrested thereby. Vrittis the formation of Samskaras and their conservation . V. actual There is a circulation the from Vrittis ( to Samskaras and from them again to So. but is preserved in as the mind in a latent form are Samskaras which always actual trying to manifest themselves in the states thus are at form. we all states which those mental are naturally possess. thus type. which The Nirodha or the restrained mind all is that in the mental states are arrested. This leads to Kaivalya.. the Samskaras the potency. THE STUDY OF PATANJALl One pointed ( *WW ) is that kind of mind in is brought which true knowledge of the nature of reality due to thereby the afflictions before the mind and and the Nescience or false knowledge are attenuated mind or becomes favourable for attaining the the All these come under restrained state. Samftdhi mental states are full of Rajas These our ordinary and . ordinary When the process ot our with mental states of is arrested. our minds all engaged only in perception.98 IV. Ordinarily inference etc. When into another. Another important fact which must be taken note of is the relation of the actual states of mind called the Vrittis with Vritti the latent states called & Samskara.. The \rittisor actual once generating the Samskaras and they also are always tending to manifest themselves and actually generating similar Vrittis or states. lamas. flows lastly an abundance even the ^r in the is UW Sarnadhi all when states ^flUffi state arrested. it is a particular mental state passes away not altogether lost.

and the thinking of pain as pleasure . It means that kind opposed to true ^n^W<*tf*KJT ) knowledge which ( is AvidyS. weaken and destroy the Sanskara of those actual states which he Unless by such a has arrested by his contemplation. habit. if he arrests any particular but he must attain . as the pure as for example the passions and the attractions that an woman's body may have for a man through which he thinks the im1H. (3) This also explains the thinking of vice as virtue. for a Yogi. the latter is shoot forth again in favourable season into their of or Nescience here corresponding actual states. but even when the plant above the soil is destroyed the roots remain undisturbed plants whenver it So. The conception tive but it Avidya of is not nega- has a definite positive aspect. we know that for a Yogi every phenomenal state of existence . knowledge This is fapsnfaqrtfT of four kinds (1) the is thinking effect of the non-eternal world which eternal . class and may again shoot forth as they may get a favourable season. soil the strength and continuity of these Saras- The Samskaras are like the roots stuck deep in the which grow with the growth of the plant above. is not enough. the habit of similar continuity is Vrittis or actual aud their again guaranteed by karas.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI are 99 gradually being strengthened by states. of the undesirable as the desirable .meh a habit of mental states of hi* restraint that the l>e Sauaskara generated by so his habit of restraint must strong as to overcome. merely an as (2) the thinking of the impure II. the Sanskara of restraint ( ftfttnr ^nT ) which is opposed to the Sanskaras of the restrained mental states become sure to powerful and destroy the latter. pure body of the woman as pure.

Of course this also qfow?:*iraT. from pain causes or potencies and these again .suffering when helped by Painfulnesa SanskSras. Enjoyment of pleasure or their impressions by called *fan?. memory. whence follows action. happening one and the same time that a man is enjoying a pleasure. (2) is Again at the time of to for always seen also pain . attachment or aversion and again action and so forth.. but it differs from the former in this that in the case pleasure is of qftiFW *HsT (Pleasure turned into pain) turned into pain as a result of change or Parinama in the future whereas in this case the anxiety of pain is a thing of at the present. satisfaction.Tunas are seen al e ' Which contary to are one another. can only give temporary pleasure for it is Enjoyment can never but only drags a bring man further and further into sorrows. associations naturally create their L memory and thence comes attainment or aversion. whence pleasure and pain and whence impressions. These contraries their remarkable in and these Gunas are seen to developed forms abide in various proportions and compose all our mental . n tne three (. enjoying pleasures there the suffering from pain in the form 1 of aversion the tendency of aversion from pain can only result from the incipient is memory of previous sufferings. All states are the modifications of the in three Gunas .100 is THE STUDY OF PATANJALI painful A other sure Yogi knows that attachment TTJI to sensual and objects soon to be turned into pain. Pain due to the contrariety of f and f every one of them the functions .

The thinking of the mind and body and the objects of the external world as the true self and to feel affected by their change is what is called Aviclya. but not so by corning into contact with any other organ. .THE STUDY OF PATANJALI states. possessed as they are of a mind full of afflictions. who any have again and again taken up pains as the consequence of their own karma. by the eternal flow beings thus surrounded turns for refuge to right knowledge. (I) The Avidya many of kinds. who are all round pierced through as it were by Nescience. however. and who again took it up after having given it up. once even 1 very sensitive and anxious our so-called pleasures. As a thread of wool thrown into the eye pains by a mere touch. how e -j O wn ieh as described above springs from the identification of the ff% with the Purusha. 101 Thus it is seen that a for Yogi all who is wants to be released is from to ) pain avoid see II. the cause of the destruction of all pains. The Yogi then seeing tion himself and the world of of living pain. "> ( fcfT q I 4TC^ case 1 T^r't w^iF ^ffciqqt i ) The wise have in this a similarity to the eye-ball. who " I " and the " Mine " in relafollow in the wake of the to things that should be left apart. but not one else whom they reach. so do these 1 afflict the Yogi who is as tender as the eye-ball. variegated by eternal residua of passions. As to others. the three-fold caused by both external and internal means run after pain them as they are repeatedly born. this The modifications that lected Avidya suffer may be col- under four heads.

aversion from pain and the love of life. persons and appears I live It is the in a posi- tive aspect in the form " May on " and in a negative ". also springs Now we from attachment to pleasure. since Avidya or of all the five afflictions. Repulsion from pain also springs from the ego and at is of the nature of the anxiety for its removal. ego springs TIT or attachment which is] the inclination towards pleasure aid consequently towards From this the means necessary for attaining it for a person who has and remembers them. previously experienced pleasures IV. Now we effects are in a position to see the far-reaching of the identification of the Purusha with the iff We dya efft>dT have already seen how it has a" d its Senerate<' the ior Macrocosm or the see that exter- world on the one hand. farer or the afflicted are all The the is five afflictions just men- tioned false comprehended is in Avid v a. which exists in us as a residual potency ( ^Wft ) and causes the instincts of selfThis preservation and fear of death and love of life. connected with identification in also inseparably which consists the . in the case of him who has felt the pain and has the memory of it. feeling Love that of life also springs exists in all from the ego. These are called the five Kleshas or afflictions.10:1 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI II. aspect in is the form " would that I were never to cease due to the painful experience of death at some previous state of our existence. motives which are seen in most of our states of consciousness. and v^ it and the senses on the other. Clicks in the mind in consequence of (he feeling of pain. knowledge of at root all The sphere all Avidya and that of Asmita is our experiences false knowledge generally. anger in pain and means which brings pain. which are therefore called the states. V.

their limvt is strengthened which in due course by habituation suppresses the Aklishta ones. for both Punya and Papa Kartna are said to have sprung from the Kleshas. does not become the village of Sala which a Kirata himself by that. It must however be rememare that afflictions only the different aspects of ^ifsRii the Avidya. which being antagonistic to the afflicted states. and cannot be conceived separately from These always lead us into the meshes of the world. far and far of our away from our h'nal goal the realisation own self the emancipation of the Purusha. They must not however be confused with ^^jw^r' (virtuous action). There is no hard and fast rule with regard to the appearance of these Klishta and Aklishta states. self with the sensual objects of the world. and the loss of which bered is so painful to these five us. Aklishta states also might come as the practice and desirelessness born by the study of the Veda. states quite distinct A Brahmin being in is full of the Kiratas. it Opposite to f ho are the Vrittis or states which ^iffre are called unafflicled. or to adopt suitable means for it. Kach Aklisbta state produces its own potency or J-NfiT*: and with the frequency of the states.T&E STtJDY OF PATANJALl the attainment of which seems to please us 103 of the intelligent. to These represent such thoughts of that tend towards emancipation conceive and are produced from our final our attempts rationally state emancipation. so that in the stream of the Klishta states or in the intervals thereof. are helpful towards achieving the true knowledge or its means ( nf ). . reasoning and precepts ( and remain unmixed with the Klishta in itself. the *WJ (habit of Akhshta steadiness) and Yairagya.

104 These THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Klishta and Aklishta modifications are of ( five descriptions tion ( RWU Real cognition abstraction ) ftqdre ( unreal eogui- ) ft^'S (logical sleep )ifri (memory). mental activity mentioned presenidea- tative ideation) ?ni tm<Q (retention) t^ (reception or (representative tion) ^refe (conceptual selection) ffafstfw (decision (right knowledge) and determination) of which these states ^WSTTT are the products. considered as the wf or substance. may ( be divided into four classes (I) Sukla. motor or active These Karmas. & the Akl ishta We know also that both these sets of Vrittis the of Klishta and the Aklishta produce Sanskaras. flips' 3i*& These Vrittis are also called the as different from the *n^r=fi*fr achieved five in the exterior world by the senses. Kleshaa SanskSras. 18) and imagination ) fagT These Vrittis or states however six The five Vrittis. These are of two kinds viz: .Krishna Krishna (black) (2) Sukla (White) (3) white and black) ( I) Asukla Krishna (neither white nor black). All these modifications of Chitta as ) Vritti and Sauskara are the Dharmas ( ^ of Chitta. Abhy- Vrittis. lead to right knowledge and as such are antagonistic to the modification of the Gunas on the Avidya side. Avidya. and Sans- the Aklishta or PrainS (inn) Sanskara. sa. must be distinguished from the kinds of in (II. Vairagva \ which spring from precepts &c. We have seen that from Avidya springs all the Kle- shas or afflictions which are therefore seen to be the source of the Klishta Vrittis as well. The Krishna Karma are those committed by the wicked and as such. the Klishta their own kinds Sauskara and Vrittis karas. are wicked actions called also ^*W (demerit).

because actions achieved world however good ( in the external W ) they might ( be. such opposed ukla are to Sraddha. The deeds. Virya. called W^ these as it is the cause of for the : The enjoyment Krishna injury pleasure side is and happiness actions as it of viz that of doing to others called W*f 14 . the ^ crsw). are *nmni3pT*RTHi the actions The Suklakrishna external Karma achieved in the world are called These by the motor or active senses.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI of others stealing other's property etc. study and meditation T&R'W. Virya (<rf?qfto *reifc which are called the Karma. cannot all For altogether be devoid of external actions entail some wickedness 9^ T ) harm to other living 'ftfi beings qsn^fT ^fV. which are infinitely superior to actions achieved in These can the external world by the motor or the ^rsi : active senses i cwifffj ^ffa: anftrir i STITTPH f?r the Sukla Karma belongs ( to those who resort ) to ( 3) . Smriti. 105 and JTPW the former being of the nature of speaking states ill ( ftpz\ tTT^T- ^ITT^tfa ^ as ) and are the latter of the nature of etc. white and black.^r^sra' cm: ^wife ^^f^cr f% Even the Vaidika are associated ( duties though they are meritorious entail the sacrificing of with sins as they animals ^rtCtwifa ffsre^tV^ ^^r^ q^fsi^r ) i era f^^fat nftr^ vs i ^^T^^T: ^^fr^K: swwl: is The white others side of these actions viz therefore of : that of helping and doing good the doer. These are Sainadhi and Prajna Sraddha. Sukla Karmas virtuous or meritorious the form of mental states only happen in and as such can take place only in the ^rra ?w.

for that reason called a sin or vehicle vehicles orww). we *ee that being produced from desire *n* avarice 3to ignorance ifa? vehicles of action brought about and anger afa its it has Se passions. As in all our ordinary states of existence we the influence of W are always under and ^^ to which are therefore called I (vehicles of actions) ^wg:*nifr% ^TSTft^nf^^l *u%^ ?fa **W. whose afflictions is the last one i have been destroyed and whose present body they will have ( '^npnfi'^T **nf%Tf ^twntr 'ST'^^TTt ) Those who have renounced actions. from all desire. because they dedicate to Iswara the fruits of by the practice of Yoga. either mental ductive external. because they do not perform such actions. Asmita. not got the nowhere the belong found performing to They have vehicle black vehicle of actions. Abhinivesa. Dwesha. are not in any afflictions passions named above. Taking the question of Karmasaya again for review. It will Raga. Here the Purushas the in evolution of are be understood as living is in sheath actions (which or virtue. be seen easily that the etc. reall * v Sot t root the Kleshas (afflictions) such as Avidya. called all merit or virtue and is pro- of happinees. That in which some thing lives is its vehicle. different the Kleshas or virtuous or named before and as ae ti ons . the Karma Samnyasis) actions (and not those are who Samnyasasrama merely) which depend upon external means. is Krishna Karma either mental or external called demerit. way .106 is THE STUDY OF PATANJALI for the the cause of the sufferings of pain doer. and demerit are the All is Sukla Karma therefore. of all Nor do they possess the white actions. The Karma white) is called Asukla Krishna ( neither black nor of those who have renounced everything. sin or vice and is productive of pains. lust. Merit of or actions.

* are destroyed the also power which disappears . innumerable and having no time for their fruition being do not possess the power of producing fruit. no Karmasaya can accu- mulate but even when many are accumulated they are rooted out Karmasayas of many lives when the afflictions are is destroyed. ^tw clear enough these virtuous or sinful actions spring forth from the Kleshas. For. whose time of ripeness is uncertain. otherwise. it is said sentiments of that all ^rw. if the roots is the afflictions true exist. *ta. it tnat when the afflictions are rooted out. Kavmasaya divided into two classes acoordinp to ripen inp. it difficult to conceive that the Karmasaya accumulated for infinite number of years. and Not only . trance Mantras and that Papa Karmaeaya .THE STUDY OF PATANJALI sinful 107 have their springs from the *ft^. ( Hence ) afflic- tions help the vehicle of actions duction of their fruits also. two kinds (1) Ripening life (jnjtgnsr). to bring about the manifestation and on vehicles of actions although existing. Karmasaya afflictions. time of Karmasaya which intense by and repetition of purmcatory action. its ther nnknown Hf e is . It is ^rofara the pro- for this reason that helps when the that affliction. Now Ripening this Kartnasaya the the ripens into life-state. life ex- perience and of life time. will be rooted out So ! even if there be no fresh Karmasaya after the rise of true knowledge. accumulated Karmasayas of endless For this reason. Ripening in That Puiiya generated . because their account the seed powers are destroyed Karmasaya is of by his intellection. when the in it is watered by the stream of afflictions. the Purusha cannot be liberated but shall be required to suffer an endless cycle of births and rebirths to exhaust the already lives. the mental plane becomes a field for the production of the fruits of action only. in the same (F^5!ii%^t?T) (2) .

possibility of experiencing the effects of the Karmas. Jauma intended . fruit in some unknown living beings life. have to reap m . of which they could meet in Hiat very saya the effect There are others whose have no AdrishVedaniya Karmasaya. should produce one for then and lif e . some other They Jauma Vedaniya Karma.108 which is THE STUDY OF PATANJALI evil done to generated by repeated men who are of fear. that tor sufferance only and their body is Bhoa ^.^ intended for the sufferance alone and not for accumulating any Karmalife. called the for. The Karmasaya _The effect of are thus said to have no Adrishta of both kinds itself described into the above ripens life-state. life time Karma- and ed iife _ ex perience. The in hell have no Drishta life is . then there being endless Karmas. because if for each one of the Karmas we have one or more there would be no the effects. high-minded whereas other kinds of Karmasayas ripen into very life. Karmasaya. vice or demerit. and they are conducive of pleasure or pain according as they are the products of Punyakarma( saya virtue (or Papa Karmasaya) ) . disease and helplesssuffering the extreme misery confidence or to those who are ness or to those who place and ripen into fruit in that perform Tapas. Lives which possess Janma Drishta no Vedaniya Karmasaya. These are or call- the three ripenings Vipakas of the Karmasaya . room for getting lives for experiencing getting the and there will be no certainty of . have been spent up and exhausted and they have thus no such afflictions Who ta Janma Karmasaya the will effect of which they lite. ?N>^to qRcmniHl H"mH*9itg5rm Many Karmasayas combine for it is produce one Ayush life state not possible that or l each Karma Jati. states there many wou d be HO Bnoga. lives.

pleasurable or is painful. means where manifested death is caused. . bhabika ( muiti-genital) Vasans.109 effects in a certain life for it may take endless time to It is exhaust the Karmas already accumulated. in order to produce their effects. The order of undergoing the experiences the order in which the Karmas manifest refer to themselves as effects. after some delay are secondary ^sf^^l^- *HrHfR w$ sTsfa thus that there is ?m faf%fe!i5rr / rifqw^ We see a continuitv of existence all through. O ' when the Karmas of this life ripen jointly they tend to fruc- tify themselves. The virtuous and Karmasayas accumulated in cne life. cause the death of the individual and manifest themselves in producing the birth of the individual. generally the ' Karmasaya . means one life and Ekabhabika means the product of one . viz : Aneka. his duration of life and particular experiences.by causing another birth as a to. the Chitta theory in related before life and the same Karmasaya. s-aya and the Ekabhalnka Karma- Sflfr ^ and is . Thus that those Karmas which produce primary whereas called <ra n^rtf their effects imme- diately are called effects those which produce ( ). unigenital. held or ( therefore that many Karmas unite to produce one life state birth ) and determine also its particular duration of life ^nfr sinful and the experiences (Bhoga). Now i. regarded it as ftkabhabika or unigemtal. the Karmasayas period of which life again take a similar course and manifest themselves in the We The production of another life and so on. and along with it life is another body (according to the Dharma and Adharma of the WJTTars ) formed by the wsng* ( cf. the principal ones being manifested earlier in life. and the experiences of that life. regulates the ) . have seen that the Karmasaya has three fructi"Cations. The principal Karmas here their those it is which are too ready said to generate effects. accumulates in one Ekabhaba life.e. k. life.

This Vasana results from a a life memory of the experiences of th of generated in by the fructification Karmasaya and kept sions ( the ^r'^in: ). vasana or the cause of the instinctive tendento habits of deriving pleasures and pains peculiar different animal lives. its life fructification ftmro ). or impressions must have own. of Thus the habits of a dog-life aud its peculiar modes taking its experiences and of deriving pleasures and pains are very different in nature from those of a man-life. individual has undergone from eternity it therefore the memory in of those various experiences of keeps thousands of is lives the form of Sanskara or potency and there- fore compared with a fishing net pervaded all over with The Vasanas therefore are not the results of the knots. that the Chitta all remains constant iu the births and rebirths that an .liO THE STUDY OF PATA&JALi ^gwTttfossi it or accumulated in one life wf). therefore be explained on the and must basis of an incipient ( memory the in the 'iK ) of experiences that an individual form of potency. at once his corresponding . Regarded from this point of view may be contrasted with the Vasanas which remain accumulated from thousands of previous lives with them is like a fishing net from eternity and the mind pervaded all over covered all over with knots. of its Now when doglife is by the on a fructification of the Karmasaya a settled person. undergone in a previous dog-life. Chitta in the form of potency or impresNow we have seen before. of accumulation of one life experiences of or the memory of them but as many lives and are therefore called ifita'ttftfi contrasted to the Karmasaya representing its the in virtuous life and vicious actions which are aacumulated life. one and which produce another duration as a result of is experiences ( and This cies.

therefore that Vasanas of a dog-life are at once revived in another dog-life. lives. It . the same / ' applies as to the as virtue of j g ds t ) principle . If there was not in this law of Vasanas then any VSsana life. manner of a dog ' . r^i Now as the Vasanas are of lie the in nature of Sanskaras the chitta or impressions. man would take interest it. so we see that whenever a Sanskara is revived.. it means nothing but . they Yftsaniis heiner of ingrained is and no hindrance i the nature of Sansksras is Rimilar to "W being is possible towards their i revived on account of their memory intervened by the other births. dog-life though the between the first- and the second dog-life.. eating grass : and derive if pleasure from Thus those kartnas which produce a Nagesa says a man life would manifest the vasanas of animal lives Now as then it is one might a man therefore that it is said that only the ( be inclined to eat grass and vasanas corres- ponding to the karmas are revived.. The difference between man. any oftheVasana of animal in would be revived and with the manifestation a life. this impressions the and is Smriti latent so or memory that is former the . say that and though the second dog-!ife may take place many hundreds of years after the first dog-life and in quite different countries.THE STUDY OF PATANJALT Vasanas of a 111 previous dog-life are revived and he begins to take interest in his dog-life in the The manifestation of the Vasauati accorthe to ding particular fructification of the Karmaeaya. state simply whereas the is latter the manifested state we see that the memory and the impressions are identical in nature. a Sanskaras. 8. individual of a might have passed many other bull etc. individuals ( men or IV.

these interventions do not destroy antececedence of causal those past lives. long then time and remoteness space even for the purpose of the revival of the Vasanas they be regarded as immediately following each other. they cause of their revival in a moment.1U THE STUDY OF PATANJALI memory of the the manifestation of the same experiences Experiences conserved in the sanskara in a latent state. the particular of the Karma- the form of a particular else. and the other inter- vening experiences can it is with the Vasanas according to saya or in in So no way hinder their revival.. ( . of there are again the impressions memories are so revived by there manifestation the karmasayas. revived in no time too. as a man. any thing It is now clear is that the of Karmasaya tending towards the fructification the cause manifestation of the Vasanas KarmSsaya are the cause of manifestation of the Vsnauns. Prom these (Sanskaras). since vened the may be memories from past impressions interby many lives. mind are [ n a latent form. memories and impressions : are the same is (Sutra IV. when they take place. which are fructification life. in the mind. or a dog. fch already existing in the . may for 9). the The Bhashya says of past lives tracts the Vasana like memory (Smriti) and so there can be intervened memory from the impressions by many lives and by remote memories so the of country. keep their impressions thousands of other experiences and may be intervened by are revived with the proper but time lapse of etc. : Thus the Sutra similar lives says When two by of intervened lapses of miny births.

so the cause of this fear cannot be sought the experiences of this life but in the memory of past experiences of fall and pain arising therefrom. beginningless ^The that ^ is con}d ^ ^ ^. experiences existed as some previous of and in that life also it life life innate in that also as some other previous memory the innate memory of some other time. which is innate as Vasana in this life and thus causes this instinc- tive fear. . falling . for it has never fallen down on the ground and suffered through fear. which fnm ^ see experience of this if Thus we a small baby The lessness of Vasanas or memories. ground and is therefore Now this pain therefrom in . Eka- Now coming to the question of the unigenitality bhabikatwa of the of the Karmasaya and reading of the confusion has occurred among this the commentators passage in about to the following subject: the Bhashya which refers : The *TTO sas trw . beginningthese innate thrown upwards it is seen to shake and cry like a grown-up man and from thig it be i n ferred t h at it is afraid . So this innate memory which causes this instinctive fear of not its origin of death from the very time of birth has in this life but it is the memory of the life. shaking baby has never in this life learnt from experience that a fall on the ground will cause pain. the .^ life. and and so on to beginningless And this goes to show that these Vasanas are without any beginning. of . .THE STUDY OF PATANJALI that 113 These Vasanas are however beginningless since we see a baby even shortly after its birth is seen to feel instinctively the fear of death. down on c .

visible life and not of some other previous Bhaba or life for that reason that the and they agree in holding that Bhashya makes no mention of this the Drishtajanma Vedanlya Karmasaya in no other Bhaba Karma is . fructified in another never an ideal for it of Ekbhabikatwa three different or unigenital : character It may have action. fructified in whose product is being that life. courses (1) may may become merged be destroyed without fruition. (2) It in the ruling (3) It may exist long time overpowered by the ruling action whose fruition has been appointed.114 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Here aud smN take the reading to be etc. being fructified . for here of positively lives Karma Karma of any other life. Karma the these effects is the only true is Karma where not due to the Karmasaya are Ekabhabika unigenibut are due to the tal. or previous birth there. previous of that very So these only are the true causes Ekabhabika Karmasaya Thus according to Vachaspati (to be we see that the Adrishta life ) Janma Vedanlya Karma of unappointed fruition is . says that the Drisbta Janma Vedanlya the same Karn or unigenital for there ( to be fructified in visible life) is can never be Ekabhabika no Bhaba. Vachaspati says that the Drishtajanma vedanlya (to be in the same visible life) fructified Vachaspati. however. Vijfiana for a Bhikshu and his follower Nagesha.. before there is the reading quoted Vachaspati takes a divergence of meaning on this point thus between Yoga Varttika and bis follower Nagesa on one side and Vachaspati on the other. for this Karma Jt is is of that same . it is clear that here. whereas .

These therefore can never be styled as Ekabhabika effect. and Suklakrishna are rooted out The 'Sukla Karmasaya again rising from study and asceticism destroys the Krishna ones without their being able to generate their effects. Krishna .THE STUDY Otf PATANJALt 115 Thus we Drishta is see that about the typical ease birth) it Jaurnavedaniya Karma. in Thus it is said that the experts being immersed in lakes of happiness brought about by their sacrifice sacrifices bear gladly particles of the fire of sorrow brought about by the sins of killing animals at (TSW % H^rewtta^flS^jw >T^ ). fructified in Karma another fruition (I) (works life) to of unttpp oi nted different has three courses of As we have observed before by the rise black nor white) Karma the other Asukla Krishna (neither Karmas Sukla. should not at is all be considered it Ekabhabika since there no *r* here or birth. being fructified in the same The Adrishta Janma Vedaulya be Adrishtajanma Vedaniya Karma. So we see that here also the minor actions having been performed . Vachaspati of Ekabltabika Karma (Karma of the holds that same whereas Vijnana viz. Bhikshu holds just the opposite view. since they are destroyed effects without producing any '(I!) When the minor actions are merged into the effects of the major and ruling action and the sins originating from the sacrifice of animals at a holy sacrifice are sure to produce bad effects though they may be minor and small of comparison to the good effects rising from the performance of the sacrifice and these are merged along with it.. that the Drishtajanmavedaniya as Karma life.

actions and example some extremely vicious A man for so that at actions the time of death.) of the influence some other action. benefits are such as man : Ekabhabika (to be reaped in one We may summarise the classification of : Karrnas according to Vachaspati in a table as follows Karmasaya Ekabhabika Niyata Vipaka (of appointed fruition). the Karmasaya of those vicious fruition generate becoming ripe an animal life. may do some good actions.116 with the THE STUDY OF PATANJALI do not produce their effects indemajor and so all their effects are not fully manifested pendently and hence these secondary Karmasayas cannot be regarded as Ekabhabika (wft ). then and fit for appointed his good actions whose will may be reaped only in a man-life remain overcome until the man is born again as a so this also cannot be said to be life). unappointed fruition fafara foqw) remains overcome for a long time by another Adrishta Janma Vedaniya Karma (to be fructified in of (Ill) Again the Adrishta be fructified in another life) Janma Vedaniya Karma (to another life) of appointed fruition.) . | Anekabhabika Aniyatavipaka | Adrishtajanma Vedaniya Drishtajanma vedaniya Adristhtajanmavedaniya (Destruction) inflwsrnnwFT (Merged in the effect _ Tro*rr*wirffcrifT ( of the To remain overcome by major action.

^g and Htj? and the Vasanas or the residues of the memory of . i. is Ekabhabika means that which accumulation succeeds it.e. but directly produces its effects in the succeeding life. it does not remain intervened by other lives. one being that of appointed fruition and the other unappointed fruition. i. not the production of a Bhaba. Whereas this is Vachaspati inclined to call this also Ekabhabika. So according to Vijiiana Bhikshu. of Karmas in one life produced from the in the life which it Vachaspati whereas is however takes also life to mean it that action which attains fruition in the same is that performed what Vijnana Bhikshu understands which the is by Ekabhabika the life that action alone produced in immediately succeeding accumulated. so we that is action Niyata Vipaka Drishta Janma Vedaniya neither Ekabhabika nor Anekbhabika. faffr) virtuous Review of Avidya.. Now the theory is that the Niyata Vipaka (of appointed fruition) Karmasaya is always Ekabhabika.e. from which also proceed the actions (fif. and the other that of Drishtajanma Vedanlya and Adrishta Janma Vedaniya. We have described Avidya and its special forms as the Kleshas. Ekabhabika as it vedanlya action cannot be called undergoes three different courses described above.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI 117 Thus the Karmasaya may be viewed from two sides. since it has no preceding see life.. About the action Niyata Vipaka Adrishta Janma Vedaniya being called Ekabhabika (unigenital) there seems The Aniyata Vipaka Adrishtajanma to be no dispute. and their vicious *hHi) which in turn again produce nf?T. as a result of their fruition. the Niyata Vipaka (of appointed fruition) Drishta Janma Vedanlya (to be fructified in the life in which it was same life) action is is not Ekabhabika. it It cannot be Anekabhabika also.

Bhoga and so however is just in the same position as he Ayush and was or would. Jati. Attain every new life or snfa is produced a man from the fructification of actions of a previous life . the Avidya was not it but at the time of new creation such Budd his as might be suitable receptacles for being revived created it. cosmical When there ww or involution of the world process return back the individual Chittas of the separate Purushas.118 these experiences. have been before the involution or Pralaya. remain in as Prakriti Vasanas and Prakriti being under the influence of these Avidyas as Vasanas create the correspond- which were ing Buddhis for the individual Purushas connected with them before the last Pralaya dissolution) So we with their individual ^fren lost see that though the Chittas had returned to their original causes Nescience. their fructification produce another new actions are earned by virtue of the in which life is again Kleshas and thus the cycle of is life is continued anew. with their own to the Prakriti and lie within it. and these actions life and its experiences. Prakriti with it. together or evolution Avidyas and at the time of each new creation world these are created anew with such changes as of the are due according to their individual Avidyas. and spend an undividable inseparable existence (The Avidyas of some other creation being in merged the the Prakriti along with the chittas. is manifested in it as the Kleshas and these in the the individual Karmasaya. with which the they had to return back to their original causes. actions good or bad by the Kleshas to made perform as a result of which are rooted in him. The of the Chittas which had returned to the Praktftr Avidyas . These Buddhis are seen again to be modified further into their specific Chittas or mental planes by the name Avidya which then again on .

whereas the former represents gent power which abides outside the pale of Prakriti. but which removes the obstructions offered by the Prakriti. being unintelligent and not knowing where and how to yield so as to form the actual modifications necesand specific objects sary for the realisation of the particular of the numberless Purushas. are distinguished in this that the latter represents the end logy of the Prakriti ing itself the ever-evolving energy transformmodifications as into its the mental and the that intelli- material world. the Chittas and the macrocosm or the exterior world. Ethical Pro- knowledge of the nature of the Purufa which wi]1 bfj suceeede j b v the liberation of the Purusha and his abso- lute independence Kaivalya which is the last the ultimate goal of all the realisation of the Purusha freedom or movements of the Prakriti. Avidya. The ethical problem of the Patanjala philosophy is the uprooting of this Avidya by the attainment of true The hlems. herself .THE STUDY OF PATANJALI at the time of the creation being revived created their 119 own Buddhis of the previous creation and by their connection with the individual Purushas are the causes of the Sansara or the cosmic evolution the evolution of the microcosm. these Avidyas hold within themselves the gwra or serviceability of the Purushas. and are the cause of the connection of the Purusha and the Prakriti (cffi^grf^n) it is. . said so that when these Avidyas are rooted out ability of the that the Purusartha is or the service- Purusha at an end and the Purusha bethis is comes liberated from the bonds of the Prakriti and called the final goal of the Purusha. In this new creation the creative agencies of God and or teleo- Continued.

cease once for all. knowledge but the Praina is not deeply seated. and the consequent fruition of actions. and occasionally the native phenomenal states of consciousness are seen to intervene in the form of " I am. is of the Purusha arises and the false that state of Chitta which far from tending towards towards the the objective world tends Kaivalya of the Purusha In the first stages when the mind attains the discrimi- Continued. but when by continual knowledge becomes strengthened in the mind.120 This THE STUDY OF PATANJALI final uprooting of the Avidya attainment of true knowledge called directly follows the the Prajna in which state the seed of its with Vasanas false knowledge is altogether burnt and cannot be revived again. natures of the Before this state.) This (<T<r." because even then. the disrecognition of criminative knowledge which arises as the the distinct Purusha and Buddhi remains practice. its potency grows stronger and stronger. all from impurity." " Mine. Thus when in this way of Buddhi becomes almost as pure as the Purusha self-enquiry subsides." " I do not know. the Sattwa as the mani- festing entity becomes of the highest purity and in that state flows on the stream of the notion of discrimination the recognition of the distinct natures of the the Buddhi free Purusha and the state itself. the old potencies finally weaker and weaker are not quently though becoming destroyed and conse- occasionally produce their corresponding conscious . w spr*iifr?fa. and the impurity of the energy of Rajas being removed." " I know. the vision of the real form knowledge together with the consequent Kleshas. and roots out the gradually of activity (sasnr ^T*) potency of the out-going states and thus the seed of false knowledge becomes burnt up and incapable of fruition. this discriminative shaky.

by the destructing influence of the phenomenal In this higher state of mind in is which the mind stream in its natural. which and in comparison to which the crippled insignificant light of objective and thus an infinitude within itself all finitude.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI 121 manifestation as states which are seen to intervene the flow of the discriminative knowledge (fff?H flsigi^^fa *3RiW. The Purusha Jivanmukta state. this state may be said to be Jivan_ w^ra mukta. and objectless When there of flowing Prajna. (n^i^RTf^te^ The potency however of Purusha is is *r*ren M^?n^: Wfo: liberated free this state of consciousness lasts until the finally from the bonds of Prakriti the state and absolutely (ti^rat). Now all its this is when the Chitta becomes overcome all. infinite on the true knowledge. passive. IV. r _ _ ?ra ^fa'imTsHsjTOt ^ . rises the true knowledge which distinguishes thj Prakriti from the Purasha and is called the Dharmamegha *nfa:) Samadhi. is knowledge shrinks altogether acquired which has absorbed which therefore cannot have any separate existence or manifestation from this infinite knowAll finite states of knowledge are only a limitation ledge. __ 16 . 29. and finally no intervention occurs in the flow of the stream of Prajna states of consciousness. absorbs within itself all limitations s^sK^^fT^ in tnT^TR'BJT^ %9*rero). one does not want to get anything from Dhyana even. in which there It is no limitathese tion of this and (rRi that.) but constant practice to root out the {>oteucy of this state destroys the potencies of the outgoing states of activity. it is called the wft^jtnfa. it infinite and Tamas being finally can reflect shines forth like the sun.

the Asmita in the Lmga and the Linga in the Alinga. The Purusha remains absolute freedom.) This state of Kaivalya must be distinguished from the state of the for GunM that Mahapralaya in which also retum back to th * Prakriti. effect fer^faip (The Gunas as cause experiences. And now comes absolute freedom when the Gunas the performing their serviceability for the Pradhana their primal causes. they by having achieved experience much as and emancipation. " order of is the return of the Gunas for a of Kevali qw*qfa. always ever in himself in his own The Purusha. and their succession having ended. whereas that in only a temporary one. so that they lose all their hold on the Purusha and the Purusha remains as it it is in itself. involving ordinary Samadhi Nirodha become submerged in the Manas .122 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI IV. *i*rf% i ^Mr w: and and ^ftwwm. the Manas becomes submerged iu the Asmita. state later is again succeeded by with Purushas through the O Buddhis but the state of Kaivalya is an eternal state which connections of Prakriti is never again disturbed by any connection with Prakriti the state for is now the separation of the Prakriti with the Purusba an eternal one. 31. described below in the words ^nsrartwa^nft qinft sfarn fair .) x with the rise Now have of such is W^r in the succession as of the changes of the qualities fulfilled their object. Mahapralaya is . over. *j 'JniHflTfafsrcfaswnr. and there is never again any connection of with the Buddhi. they cannot stay even return back to for a moment (era: ficn^sft qfrwnfiflmfa: ^WHT^). after Purusha by finishing the experience and the salvation of the Purusha.

Purushas we that that in four conception of the released affirm their existence. from this point of view both Purusha and the Prakriti and are eternal. and therefore said to possess evolutionary eternity qfr*mfafai?n Our phenomenal conception cannot be and it is free from changes therefore also. from the bondage is of the that this Patanjali thus says state being final in each stage JRJT). Prajfia sevenfold Of these the first four (<w W*l fl^jfa: are due to our stages . have seen just now with regard to the comes to an end when is Kaivalya is attained. final release of the Purusha Prakriti. It is which indeed true as we that the succession of changes of qualities Budclhi. 33). f z^f latter is and the evoluis only eternal in or an tionary form.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI We of finished this 123 section after eternality.. that this is due to the carefully noted and expressions and not limited character of our thoughts when we say But it must be to the real nature of the released for ever unqualified by Purushas which remain any changes or modifications. pure very self and colourless (see IV. as for example the released Purushas exist eternally. for the changes of qualities to in the Gunas themselves never in come in any end. review the the Purusha and the Eternality of Prakriti. etc. of the Purusha and of j noting the two kinds of the Prakriti and a Prajfia state. The permanent eternal reality that remains unchanged with its changing appearances. the ca ]\ e(i The un- former s perfectly t^si and changeably eternal. as the of shining intelligence We short shall now conclude of this section after giving a appear- analysis the Prajfia state from its first ance to the Prajfia stage. their So the Gunas or themselves are eternal are i this changing evolving character. but this with reference to the Purusha.

II. known. This is the second stage or aspect of the ascension of trai. has The cause of the pains has been removed and nothing further remains to be removed of it. true For or remains to be done by the the attainment of the final It is knowledge of cramf. . The end Vairagya. highest ^. After this stage nothing this is Purusha himself. fore called the This there- Karya Vimukti (or salvation depending on the endeavour of the Purusha) or Jivanmukti. so that I have will be come to learn that it. The nature of the extinction of pain has already been perceived by like one in the state of Hnfa. O . After this follows the Chitta Vimukti or the of release of the process Purusha from the Chitta.124 conscious of endeavour and when these conscious states a stream and are not hindered or inter Prajna flow in vened in any way by other phenomenal conscious states or Pratyayas libera(nra) the Purusha becomes finally ted through the natural backward movement of the Chitta to its own primal cause and this backward movement is other three stages. also is i . . 15) to be I. Nothing further remains of the : is to be is known of of it. summation i in whicli the Purusha has is no duties to perform. The seven Prajna stages may thus be enumerated removed The pain (ef. It the . II. my final extinction of pain something IV. 7 in three stages. represented by the Seven stages Prajna. called the Para coni the dntiee of the Purusha. This the first aspect the Prajna in which the exhausted he person willing to be released knows that all that is knowable of the pains. the true and immediate means of the extinction of pain has been realised. III. The final discrimination of Prakriti and Purusha.

for the Avidya being rooted out there is no tie or bond which can hold it connected with Purusha and make All it suffer the changes for the service of the Purusha. direct attention to the fourth. (I) Sansara (the evolution of the (II) Prakriti in connection with the Purusha). This is. of release. We . Of Means these three have been described at some our . the the felling of stones thrown from the summit of a for Gunas cannot remain even Purusha but at once retire a moment to bind the back to their primal cause. the ideal to . VII. viz. ' . now . We A . cines so : this u Yoga philosophy has also four divisions. /-.. Vyasa says that Four the Divisions of science of medicine has four divisions: (1) disease. (2) the cause (4) v. No sooner as this state is attained like hill. Purushartha being finished the Gunas disof the appear of themselves. the stage of the retirement of the Chitta. above. the Prakriti . (HI) the first flta (release). recovery.r have described above that the ethical goal. (3) ' '. (IV) *frftra (the means of release). realised. these last three stages the Purusha has nothing to do but the Gunas of their own nature suffer these their own primal backward modifications and return back to cause and leave the Purusha Kevall (for as the ever solitary). The rspect of the Buddhi which has finally finished its services of the the Purusha's else Purusha by providing scope of experiences and release . . so that it has perform for nothing first to the Purusha. The cause of Sansara (^Ktg). their teleology being fulfilled or It is of course easy to see that in . The seventh and that last aspect Gunas is they never return back to bind the Purusha again. length . VI.125 V. of disease. medi- Yoga Philosophy.

necessary to be adopted All actions which tend towards for man are this approximate realisation of this goal called (^sra) Kusala and the man who " achieves goal is called (*Ji*r^) Kusall. this person avoidance of the actual eye-ball. with the necessary retirement of the Prakriti. a An ordinary man is feels pain only in pains but a yogi who as highly sensitive as the feels pain in pleasures as well and therefore or all is determined pleasuris to avoid all experiences. the realisation of ever. the so-called The extinguishing true of ethical of experiences a self however not the goal. But this means reprehighest end of a person. the goal beyond which duties cease . is the absolute consider the line of actions that for this goal the the summura bonum. It is in Ihe teleology of Prakriti that man should undergo pains which include all phenomenal experiences of pleasures as wel and ultimately adopt such a course of conduct as to avoid them altogether and finally achieve the true goal. The duties of the Purusha cease with the thorough extinguishing of all his CJ & O This therefore is the means of experiences. but the complete extinguishing of all pains is identical with the of all the extinguishing experiences.-ajna or in discriminative know- ledge the difference nature of Prakriti and its . being only means to the realisation the Kaivalya or the true and nature of the Purusha sents all his the (^w?fa*).126 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI freedom or Kaivalya and shall now is realised. for after this Kaivalya comes and in himself itself manifests naturally. is states or vrittis of consciousness cal and true this again identi- with the of rise of P. which will extinguish all pains for him for The motive therefore which prompts is towards this ethico-metaphysical goal pain. painful ables. extinguishing all his pains which are the highest end of all his duties . ing this state Purusha has nothing to do in effectuatwhich comes of itself.

These three state sides only the three aspects of the same which is immediately precede Kaivalya.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI effects 127 from the Purusha the are unchangeable. which to after afflictions leads weakening the hold of the and dawning the Real mental vision graus trut }. the of extinguishing pains as the aspect. before our dually nears towards the attain- ment of our final goal is only possible with the last two . be moral in all his actions and begins to and suppress his mental states This in order to acquire is this Nirvija or the seedless state. we look at it from the side of the feeling aspect. Yoga the We have said before that freir of five kinds of fit mind fen. The Yoga How Yoga g filiation. that of acquiring a state of painlessness and as a means of attaining it tries to purify res- the train mind.. ^TO and only the last two are acquire for the process of Yoga and ultimately other three absolute freedom. yet there is no the afflictions of Avidya and consequently there no final release. 33. advancement as hereafter. the same Nirvija (f-rffar) ^amadhi goal CT But when we direct our attention to this in our ordinary states of experience. we shall have occasion to show This suppression of mental states ( which has thus been described as the means of attaining the final release. is called (gtTf^Tlfaftffa:). the sphere of his conduct which is called is Yogauga. of duties of Of course there a division according to O the individual the Different Adhikaris. the ultimate ethical goal of life. the suppression of the states of consciousness or experiences the aspect of the cessation of or all conscious activity and the aspect of of all painlessness feeling state. ft fan. viz. In the though concentration extrication of may the occasionally mind from is happen. The prajna aud it is aspect the aspect of the highest knowledge.

kinds of minds and (cognitive) is of two kinds : (1) Samprajnata and (2) Asanprajnata (ultra-cognitive).. At his first the Yogi holds a gross he can material object before view but when make himself steady in five causes of it. This state also like himself. although the previous other states of the Samprajnata type is a and he is said to be in positive state of the mind and not a mere state of vacuity of objects or negativity In this state appears first all (fsffRn^nsmsr^ ^f%5H<T^wf fafta:). determinate character of the states disalive. holds the great egohood as his object in which all stage gradually his object loses ter its determinate charac- a state of suppression in devoid of any object. the the grosser elements. is The Samprajnata Yoga trated to some object external or internal in such a way that it does not oscillate or move from one object to another but remains fixed and settled it. Chitta returns back to own primal of called cause. practising lower stages also sometimes as but gradually of the mind are becomes fixed. The first four stages are the Samprajnata state \*$Sji state * Madhumati. that in which the mind is concen- in the object that holds before itself. and when he is success- ful in this he holds his internal senses as his object and last of all when he has found himself lie fully successful in these attempts. the lower stages potencies of this stage. Madhu Pratlka. so that the potencies the overcome by the mind flows in its calm current in this state of suppression and at last the higher as a result of which the Prajiia dawns. states often Samadhi. and their potencies only remain of In the stages a of Yogi the conscious intervene. he tries with the subtle Tanmatras. potencies or this state are also burnt and extinguished its (frffsr) and the . Prakriti and the Purusha attains absolute freedom. Visoka and the Sanskarasesha .

129 and Vitarkanugata. state of So also no mind which has not or up to the highest ftffa suppression is for the It is Asamprajnata or the Nirvija state. True knowledge begins to dawn from the first also stage of this Samprajnata state. so that with final the return of primal cause. So the last stage of Asamprajnata Samadhi represents the stage in which ordinary consciousness has been altogether surpassed and the mind is in its own true infinite aspect and the potencies of the stages in which the mind was the full of finite knowledge are the Chitta to is also its burnt. false 17 . the knowledge cannot obtain absolute certainty and permanency. in the It is now easy to see that no mind which fit is not Ekagra prajfiata Samadhi object and that risen fit or one pointed-state can be in for the Asam- which it has to settle itself on one alone. but still so long as the potencies of the lower stages of relative knowledge remain. Vicharanugata Anandanugata and Asmitanugata. langour. become threatened by any possible encroachment by the other states of the past Vyutthana (phenomenal activity now existing as the sub-conscious). indecision. level and examine the obstructions on account Distractions. the knowledge reaches culminating point. The last state Samprajnata Sanskarasesha. the of emancipation effected. and when its the Yogi reaches the last stage. as it will always. only because here the residua of the potencies of sub-conscious thought only remain and the actual states of consciousness become all Samadhi is called extinct. attachment towards the objects of sense. These nine in number are the ot Disease. idleness of body and mind. want of having the mental requirements necessary for Samadhi. now necessary to come down to a lower . one-pointed following : or which a mind cannot easily become Ekagra.

non-attainment of the state of concentrated of contemplation. W5 ^ desirable object Abhyasa means the steadiness of the . . mind in one state and not altogether absence of any state jnata trance. being attended to for a long time without inte ruption and with devotion. Samadhi and Prajiia . an endeavour of setting the mind on one state.130 and THE STUDY OF PATANJALI illusory knowledge. and as such does not differ from the application of the five means of Yoga with H. comes after also hereafter. 13). attain cal shakiness These are again seen to be unsteadiness of or breath and giving out of it. in unsteadiness and unstability state the mind a Samadhi even if it can anyhow accompanied by pain. Vijiiana Bhikshu make the habituation on one truth. Physiand despair owing to the non-fulfilment of desire. Smriti. truth is Now object it whether this one does not matter very Iswara or any other for the true principle much . Vlrya. that Samprathis steadiness. To prevent How to these distractions it is and their accompaniments necessary that we should practise . five it is it for the Bhashya- kara himself has said in the Samapattisutra. it. As we shall see means nothing but the application of the means !raddba. however says that here by one truth fine : any object gross or fi^T^wi is intended (^nf^rf fa&fciT fTvT farWSfm H^l H*I ) and Bhoja supports Vijnana " one truth " Bhikshu and says that here might mean any (^ffaifa^fVwi). that this one truth to which the says mind should be settled and fixed was Iswara and Ramananda Saraswati and Narayana Tirtha agreed with him. Vachaspati mind steady. This rooted. nine distractions described above of a distracted mind. taking in of These are seen to follow the the limbs. a view to settle and steady the mind effort (<T?f wfa*nfajFsn<ftat ^iswwt srtRRwgwrcwTSbecomes firmly- fin . well 1.

pleased. But . that the steadiness he of or may a acquire will always be It will threatened by the danger sudden collapse.THE STUDY OP PATANJALI of 131 Yoga is the setting of the mind on one truth. of Yoga that it adopts. principle it or object. keeps the mind steady. it nary man that the for in no easy matter to do order to do it successfully is for an ordi- it is necessary mind should be equipped with Sraddha conviction of or faith the firm the Yogi in the course that he adopts. calm and free from doubts of any kind. such as heaven. fullest conviction In its negative aspect Yairagya is of two kinds Apara is and Para. foods. Unless a all man has a firm hold on the course that he pursue?. is So it is that the Yairagya the effect of I. of restrained from the objects sense. '20. so that the Yogi may proceed This in the realisation of his object without any vacillation. its right aspiration of attaining the highest goal of absolute freedom. Sraddha and w*?ra for fr5TTtfirg. with For by it the mind is an aversion or dislike towards the objects of sensual pleasures and worldly its desires . such as women. The Apara one that of a mind free from attachment to perceptable enjoyments. is be seen that Vaii-a^va &v of this desirele*?ii3ss oulv * the negative aspect Sraddha. of doubtlessness and calmness in and the it. drinks and power and having no thirst for scriptural enjoyables. In order to make ^ng^nsrrrai product a person suitable Vairagya represents the cessation of the mind from the objects of sense and their so-called pleasures and Sraddha means the positive faith of the mind in the path Y'oga. this aversion towards worldly joys of is only the other aspect of the (the faith the mind and the calmness of said its currents f^TT^w^T^) towards the right knowledge and absolute freedom. The attainment of the states of Videha and the Prakritilaya has when it comes into contact with such divine .

the mindsets before itself the task of removing the attachment and aversion towards mental or avoiding dishonour. of Vairagya called Vaslkar that in which the mind has perceived the futility of of sense and all attractions for external objects scriptural objects of desire and having them altogether the mind does not feel attached. and undesirable objects as : This Vairagya in may be said to have four stages (1) which the sensual objects are discovered to be in defective and the mind recoils from it. ('2) Vyatireka Yatamana which the senses to be conquered are taken note of. and worldly a consciousness of its own.132 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI objects. or the power or concentration and from it (*m*tn) again 8 ^" Brings Smriti-or continuity of one dhLtc.^^ ' As Vairagya advances Sraddha object of thought and from it comes Samadhior cognitive and ultra-cognitive trance. Yogi from one stage to another. also advances. in (3) which attachment towards internal pleasures Ekendriya and aversion towards external pains. the This Vairagya. passions for getting honour stage The fourth and the is last. etc. even if it any how comes in connection with them. after which . being removed. from Sraddha comes Vlrya-energy. With the consummation of this last stage of Aparar the suppressed Vairagya. and thus he proceeds higher and higher until the final state is arrived. Para Vairagya the rise or which leading to is identical with the final Prajna absolute independence. due to an about understanding of the defects of those objects brought miraculous powers. comes the Apara Vairagya. This consciousness of power is the by same and such as the consciousness of indifference to their is devoid of all desirable enjoyment. unafflicted Sraddha states and (^fffreffa) Abhyasa represent the which suppress gradually These lead the the Klishta or the afflicted mental states. .

There is a difference of opinion here about the meaning of the word ^tn. Samadhi which are not ^ means cation of from Vairagya and Abhyasa. Each of these or may vary according to the mildness." But that not . ttl they being * V their ther as P ecfs are or simultaneous it is products) the of attaining Yoga. of supreme knowledge or Prajfia (^wretwiwt different ( As Sraddha.. Vlrya. Thus there are nine kinds of Yogis. (3) of means of intense energy. Samvega means quickness in the performance of the means of attaining is Yoga .e. Smriti. it. i. the supreme and extinction of states of consciousness. Sraddha with Abhyasa we its and the that other the for Abhyasa and Vairagya are the two internal means achieving suppression the final goal of the all Yogi. tfbreRllfVwfalTC.THE STUDY OF PAfANJALI follows Prajna and the final release. between Vachaspati and Vijnana Bhikshu. means " Vairagya. whose mind Of these the best Yogi is he who is is most intensely engaged and whose practice is also the strongest. some say that for if it. 'with which they may be towards attaining applied the the goal : of the Yogi. Thus the Yogis of are of nine kinds (1) of mildly energetic means. intensity which the Yogi may apply them. Vairagya. of all afflictions and the Avidya the last state <Tf?rcta: i). possible to make a classifi- Yogis according to the strength of these and the strength of the quickness (*tr) with the Yogi.Vairagya . (:i) means of medium energy.true . The former says that holds that q%i\ cannot S3*r means ITTOT here. but the latter mean Vairagya and the Vairagya being the effect of the Sraddha cannot be counted separately " " from. of the quickness or readiness medium with state. of 136 inclusion Thus by the see Sraddha within of products effect.

according to the strength of their mental acquirements. (3*?*nfwift). have said just now that the Yogis are of nine kinds. (2) (#) Those : who have low mental acquirements.the consequent from objects of distraction. also and man perform Of course in order to attain Si addha from which the other requisites spring up. mental acquirements of Sraddha. not mean Vairagya We means have seen just now that Sraddha. are the of attaining Yoga. etc. the quickness the Yoga and the which they may be of Neglecting division by the strength or quickness of application along with these mental requirements we may divide the Yogis again into three kinds have the best mental acquirements (1) Those who Those who are mediocres. but we have not discussed what purificatory actions must an ordinary Parikarmas Kriya Yogas..134 is THE STUDY OF PATANJALI effect of the an due performance of the means of Yoga there cannot be the separate ninefold classification of Yoga of intensity of the means of apart from the various degrees " " does Yoga practice. may these purificatory actions are for they must necessarily depend upon the conditions of purity or impurity of each mind . Sraddha. We the requisite means with strength of applied. thus a person who is already in an advanced state not the same for all persons may not require the performance of those purificatory actions which will be necessary for a man of lower state. etc. In been the said first chapter of the Yoga aphorisms the it has that Abhyasa.. cessation of the mind and Vairag)a. the application of etc. The word Samvega etymological ly " " also. .

When a his man well may his rest contented with mental actions Abhyasa and Vairagya. ordinary full Ordinary persons pass before whose a minds of of impurities must purificatory through certain course to those actions. they hope mental acquirements by which they can follow the course of Jnanayoga with facility. and Samadhi (trance). attenuated more and more. This discriminative knowledge is means that its highest culmination in .THE STUDY OF PATANJALI lead final 135 to the extinction of all our is mental states and of developed he alone. lustre of knowledge until supreme knowledge can be acquired are They of are also called Yogangas as they by gradually knowledge. for the highest of Yoga. Dhyana (meditation). in his Dharana (concentration). here disappearance. practice Thus of these the Bhashya V unreal savs */ BV 4/ the of sustained Yogangas or accessories Yoga which is destroyed the of five-fold cognition (^ftsn) nature of impurity. can obtain hope to These actions which remove the impurities of the mind. so also the light of goes on increasing more and more of in wisdom process wake following in the reaches its culmination which destruction. of so real knowledge ment are being impurity is manifested. which may be called perceive the Jnanayoga. in release. it fS the as And it more and more of being destroyed. thus when that is the Destruction means is destroyed. They represent the means by which even an ordinary mind (ftfaHfVri) may help process the maturity of the Yoga increasing the lustre gradually purify the mind and ideals make it fit. and thus gradually increase the the final state of called Kriyayoga. this it is But it is easy enough of are to that Jnanayoga requires very high mental not within the easy reach powers and so persons. practised As the means achieveis being more and more.

only by removing the obstacles which were impeding the progress of these transformations in a particular direction . the. mentions nine (1) In connection with the Bhashyakara the : operation of causes: of as the cause . which finitude this. (i) of preservation (3) manifestation (4) . no. the causal state passes out of its own immanent Thus helped state is energy is by removing the intervening obstacles. the necessary obstructions being removed the Chitta passes natural Iv tions of itself into this in infinite state of the all attainment of true knowledge kinds of of birth . Gunas.these actions are the causes of . again they are the causes of the attainment of the supreme in.canse can of itself produce any effect and the only in way into which it can help the production of this effect which by the principles of conservation and transformation of energy. respect to this Bhashyakar with question says that they are the causes of the impurities of the mind just as an pf the separation and axe is the cause of the splitting of a piece of wood .136 THE STUDY OF PA. Now the the assertion that . just as the passage of Chitta into a happy by TO removing the intervening obstacles or good actions by his previous removing the obstacles. regard to this supreme attainment.TANJALI of -. brings the question pf the exact natures of their operations with Nature of the operation of the Y ogangas to bring salvation. attainment of salvation. the knowledge the nature of the Purusha and . is merged. is knowledge just as TO is the cause of happiness and not any other way. It must be remembered that causation viewed according to the Yoga theory as mere transformathe operation of concomitant causes is tions of energy . so also the passage of the Chitta into the state of true knowledge the attainment of is only helped by the removal of obstrucdue to the performance of the Yogangas . '::'.

the is tirst aspect as the cause of birth or production of seen so when for example. The f^afh^nr^ or the cause which makes things preserved cause of as they are. for knowledge is nothing production but mind with its particular modifications as states Its the difference from ^Tfa^nr% which is not directly the production. of Vikara and 18 Anyatwa (otherness) . is the end they serve is . but serves to help it only in an indirect way by the removal of obstacles. things inferential cognition as well smoke in the hill also falls under this) other (the sight of Then come the fourth and the 5th (change) causes. knowledge springs out that the mind is called the cause of the birth Here mind of is mind. thus the serviceability preservaall of the Purusha tion the cause of the existence and as it is. Thus. thus the cause of . of the mind and not only of mind but of our phenomenal experiences. of know- ledge.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI of 137 of . modification . (6) separation (7) of attainment (8) differentiation (9) of upholding. the material cause ('Stn^TT ^TT^r) of knowledge. is quite manifest. The third cause of the ^fasqfai ^ITIF or the cause of manifestation (which is compared to a camp which manifests things before our view) according to Bhikshu included among is an epistemological cause and as such. (5) of sequential . cognition of . The tion principle of of conservation the of energy and transforma- energy being root idea of causation in this system these different aspects represent the different points of view in which the word causation is generally used. .

Of their course these are only examples from the physical world. cooked by it the raw food just as bile changes the cause of ^51 (otherness) such as that brought about by a goldsmith in gold by making from it. but the former only mechanical changes of latter heat is shape and form only. Then comes our consideration is which only a cause of separation (Viyoga) negative aspect of the positive side of the . changes paddy does not remain unchanged heat altogether its the as paddy rice .138 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI (ft*!*) " . change change & that thus which causes a exemplified as being that the mind suffers a change by the objects is that are presented to is it . the there in the produces indifference knowledge of its true reality is thus the same and of causal external change as in for is found world. thing anger makes the thing painful. rice whereas the case of the fire cooked for from raw rice by in the case for different. are and heat both effects indeed efficient causes. is a bangle as regarded as Vikara. whereas the the cause of structural and chemical changes. different Now change spoken of the difference between the gold being the from turned into bangles or necklaces and turned into soft rice bangles are in each is the this that in the raw rice being former case when remains the same production of is made out of gold. and desire it makes pleasurable . and then again a necklace from it. the in gold case. corresponding manner thus the change produced in the mind by the presentation of different objects follows a law which is the same as is found in the physical world when the in same object causes different kinds of feelings . modification sfa * t goldsmith. causal operations in the mental sphere vary in a . in different persons a when Ignorance causes forgetfulness.

. : ^lf^flTB^flTOTZfWfl?1?\T^TT^IJTiTJ1Ttf5(tS^n^iFT^ Restraint. Now coming to Yogangas. the cause of upholding.. live on the bodies of men and other animals and so also plants. Abstraction. Observance. riz. fosfn^i. Posture. Concentration. Meditation and Trance are the eight accessories of Yoga. Regulation of breath (qrorraw). etc. discriminative knowledge. adopt one another for their mutual support. as in the gradual extinctions of impurities consequent upon the transformation of tha Chitta towards the attainment of the supreme state of absolute independence last by discriminative knowledge. also organic bodies the bodies of animals. ^qTSJ.139 the causes of transformations. ^W and are all included within those nine causes mentioned in Sankara's works : in this quotation of the Bhashyakara. elements are the upholding causes of the etc. Thus the human body lives bodies of by eating the bodies of many animals and the tigers etc. many animals live on the bodies of i) The four kinds of causes that are mentioned taries '^ii4 and grammatical commenlike that of: Sushena. . we see them enumerated as follows Yogangas. The Yogangas not only remove the impurities of the mind. the causes in a double (I) of the dissociation of the impurities (fw5)frn*n:fl) (2) of removing the obstacles which impede the course of the mind for attaining the highest development (^RTfowKir). but help the mind by removing the obstacles to attain the highest perfection of The operation of the Yogangas.. thus the body upholds the senses and supports them for the actualizations of their activities on the body just as (Dhrti) the five gross . is The cause for consideration . are Thus thev sense . men.

^5i. Regulation of breath (Prauayama) inspiratory the stoppage and expiratory movements (of breath) . viz. Absinence from theft. included The five means under w. I. II. ^% <re:. uwwm: is i I\ O f the . are by their very nature included within the Yoganga< mentioned above. etc. : and also the which are not different from Abhyasa and Vairagya. cleanliness. Niyama Observances These observances are ficatory action. striving after attaining the highest perfection of These Yama Yama Restraint restraints twfistfjan^gir^sriqfcreTqfiT: are : Abstinence from injury (Ahhtni). wifa and jpsn are said to be included ^ren?r and i^cufa^ of the Niyamas and Vairitgya under To understand Their definitions. 'III. ^fH. Veracity.. 1H and *nfa. abstinence from avariciousness. continence. and are not to be considered as independent ftertestfo means 1 different *?np?3t from zrarsNSfT ^ them (^n the IfWHWT- Tr^rcta^frcT ^r^wfafarrsgT:).MO It THE STUDY OF PATANJALI must be remembered that the Abhyasa and Vairagva five means of attaining Yoga. *TfT.. The of in Parikarmas or embellishments first of mind spoken chapter which we shall deal later on are also under the three Yogangas ^win. Asanas Posture *fir %Tgw*iSiTO steady posture and easy position <Tfa^ ^Wsuj9tif?!f^ip<r. study and the making of contentment. these better it is better first of all to give the definitions of the Yogangas and then discuss about ascertain their relative them values and for a man toga. puriGod the motive of all action.

whereas actualised have mostly action. contact with their by which the senses do uot come objects and follow as it were the ^ranwfefKq ^K*lt. The continuation is there of mental understand) meditation VIII. is ^^q^ji^^ of The same when shining with alone. Meditation the era ui?NmMcn effort (to '<2JRR. Samadhi ^*ufa: Trance contemplation tf^mra r>* the light itself. i ) . Dbyana (nf). again we see that mental side more others in predominant. to be exterior Dhyana and Samadhi which are purely of the Samprajnata type and also the UWWW and JWTflT Dharana. VII. it steady and can therefore be assimilated as tioned in (35) same with the Parikarmas men(fin^i Book en Sutras 84-39 flsre: fawmt (36) (39) f%q?if<ft fli^/^T Of f^ifoftwft. the object and devoid as it were of trance (or contemplation. 141 posture has when steadiness of V. These are the eight adopt for his Yogaugas which a Yogi must perception. Dharana centration is Concentration Con- the steadfastness of the mind. VI. nature of the mind. Abstraction in is that. Samadhi). Of these some have the Yogangas ami Parikarmas.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI which may he practised been secured. Pratyahara abstraction. (37) ftaTTJTftBRi WT fati<R (38) *5f<rf*T5TWl*nsiM <n course these serve to Samadhis steady of the Samprajnata and to take type it only the mind in attainin discriminative knowlede. which are accessories to them serve to cleanse the mind of its impurities and make being the I.

cleanse pure. sympathy was not anger. the mind and make it We must cultivate the habit . tNtanr^n- Sf^ftffamt ysngwnwrrot HreTRTftro'ireT^'w habits (By cultivating of friendliness. and mm. this will indeed remove Maitri Mudir. Next comes which one should diligently cultivate as wards those who are virtuous. This will remove the dirt of here be clearly seen that *j\. viz. as for example. It will possible. This mind with reference to the . and thereby Karuna and Upeksha. gfc* B^T mentioned here are only the different aspects all of universal in is sympathy which should remove unite us with of the perversities our nature and the positive aspect our fellow-beings. makes our minds pleasurably inclined toThis removes the dirt of envy from the mind.1*2 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI it In this connection I think for will not be out of place me to . Next comes the habit of indifference which we should acquire towards vice in vicious persons. virtue and vice cultivate (respectively) mind becomes pure.it jealous feelings. This means that we are to the habit of friendliness towards those who all are happy . compassion towards those who are suffering pain thus when the mind shows compassion which means that of it wishes to remove the miseries of others as it if they were his own. indifferent We should acquire the habit of remaining where we cannot sympathise.. with persons get angry who are vicious towards those we should not on any account who are bad and with whom .the cleaning mention the other remaining accessories for mind as mentioned in Book I. indifference towards the happiness. injury becomes cleansed of the to dirt of the desire of is doing others for compassion he sympathy which naturally brings others towards only another name for oneself to the level of whom may the habit of it complacency be sympathetic. complacency and misery. compassion.

Our minds also become steady in proportion as their impurities are The cleansing of impurities only represents the cleansed. finer one remain. negative aspect of the positive side of making the minds steady. the mind <*9Rf) H^RsWfewTCTRlt T few It will be seen that these to cleanse the represent the mental endeavours for the mind and to make and it fit festation of Sraddha. indeed no scope for the applifor cation steady. supplemented by Abhyasa application of Sraddha.. therefore. means (^*lt "131. by which the turbidity of mind is removed. some course of conduct must have to be discovered by which they can purify their minds and elevate them to such an extent that they may be in a position to cleanse the mind by or purifications the mental Parikarmas just now mentioned. thus to proper manisteady it towards attaining the true discriminative knowledge. etc. *=2TR and ^'fl'sna *wrfa and that by the habit of sympathy as respective manifested is in 5ft. of the Parikarmas by WJT. are indeed things which are very hard to begin with. Again Their positions. etc.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI abstinence of 143 injury the which the will cleanse the is (^f^i mentioned. . ordinary people. there For unless raddha) ^IIT.. ^*n. etc. the former a more advanced state of the extinction of impurities than the latter. impure sympathy as manifested in fhft. For to mind an object as TWHT. etc. It is naturally that the positive universal also necessarily difficult for in them to steady the men nr and *m\fc. removed by the or the mental Parikarmas. etc. under Yamas) mind and make it fit for the appli(5 is cation of means of of mind of pure.iges. The these grosser are impurities being removed. making H ^tnqr. Only in advanced stages can begin to practise them. But it is easy to see that ordinary minds can never make They the are beginning so of their practices from these st..

ury sometimes limited to castes as for example the injury by a fisherman and in this case it inflicted is called *ljw?! or restricted Ahimsa of ordinary men as opposed to universal . H^V. ?R:. 3J. They are as we have said before ^f?*T. are removed. Niyamas serve the ^rfV^T perfect. when Kaivalya Dhyana is habit of Nirodha attained. " 1 shall by time. we have to come to Yamas. time and circumstances and is is adhered to thoroughly universally. at last gradually more of and the final germs or the impurities destroyed by the force of Sarnadhi. ^1ira to make *lrV^T more and more is it performed limited or any way without being by caste. fl^4 and smftflS . with . country. called *TOW or the great duty of abstinence from in.U4 etc. only serve This *f%'qi when restricted in is Niyamas sft^. ^'31. ^Rfaf and mentioned before only serve to make have seen before that strengthen of it. W9. by warriors in nowhere This restrict d Ahinisa only for . by circumstances as when a man says to himself. it is regarded as the root of the the other *'g. Now to speak of that course of conduct by which the gross impurities of ordinary minds Yamag. or the battle Held alone is when injury and in is causfd else. are Thus more are wheu the impurities attenuated. We to Nt. THE STUDY OF PATANJALI for the purpose of rnaLiug the mind steady. wm^. and jeiVrence to a person who says to himself Brahmins only ".." 1 shall not cause injury on the sacred day of Cliaturdasi". " 1 shall cause injury for the sake of gods and in the ease of a man who says to not cause injury at a sacred place " . Ahimsa of the Yogis called *Nn?m the same ^f&vr is limited to country as himself. 3i. of these ^ifV^l is given such a high place that other Yamas. fjfofT' and 3T<Nl the ^%'HT since they are only the positive aspects but now we the see that not only they but other Yamas and and also other t^Tflfij^Tn perfec-t.

^iff 'w its good works (w^i*8) and the perfect realisation of the mind naturally passes into the state in which and actions are ueither good (T^K) nor bad (*)igw) . and at all times without being restricted or qualified by any limitation In Mahabharat Mokshadharmadhyaya it is whatsoever. in Veracity consists in word and thought being is accordance Speech and mind correspond to what has been facts. It ^f?J only serve to make *if%'*3T more is not however easy to say whether Sankhyists gave so it much see stress to ^f%'T that they regarded stages to lead to 3Wlfa directly without the intermediate of Samadhi. however good they may be. everywhere.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI ordinary 145 men who cannot for a Yogi. All other virtues of and more the perfect. It is by this Ahimsa alone that we ourselves fit l. heard and inferred as such. it We . \Ye have seen that from this are (w*fi*fr) point of view Yoga holds that pure works only those of ^?f%'^T perfection of mental works of good thoughts in which a With the growth can be attained. Speech is uttered for the 19 . duty which a man should on himself in all conditions of impose 11 lire. is follow the universal law of Ahimsa Ahimsa a great universal AhimsJi. upon ^fwi whereas the but here we see that Yoga also holds that of all Ahimsa should be the greatest ethical motive our conduct. this state immediately followed by the state of Kaivalya. for external all external acts actions can never be such that they can be performed without doing any harm to others. can make for the higher type of Samadhi. cannot be such that they would not lead to some they kind of injury or ff'^n towards beings. said that the Sankhyists lay stress lays stress Yoga upon Samadhi . however that the Yoga also lays great stress on and holds that a mau should withhold from for. with seen.

purpose of transferring the good of others and not for always to be employed for their injury. this a facsimile of virtue and oue let everyone examine gets into painful darkness.TALI It is one's knowledge to another. Abstinence from theft consists in the absence of the desire thereof. Yoga giving Were I to take . by remove the the sinful thoughts ideas by to habituating them. as truth. one happens on seeing the defects of attachment and of the caused by the earning. he should in order to drive them : away entertain ideas like the fires following Being burnt up as I am in the I have taken world. All truths should be tested by the canon of ^ft^n (non-injury). Asteya (^ 9) is the virtue of abstaining from stealing.146 THE STUDY OF PATAN. preservation and destruction injury of the objects of sense. Brahmacharyya (Continence) is the restraint of the generative organ. and the thorough control of sexual Aparigraha to attain (^iqfal^) is want of avariciousness. a man he should try himself it is be troubled to of sin. Theft is the making one's own unlawfully of things belonging to others. though By this outward appearance. refuge in the practice of as it of the does protection to all living beings. it injurious it is to living . the non-appropriation of it things not one's own . Therefore well and then utter truth for the benefit of all living beings. If in performing the great The mind ' purification of virtues duty of ^rtV^i and the other which are auxiliary to it. not truth is it is beings even a sin only. proves uttered to where be his motive was bad. however. If. Thus to ideas which are contrary said if the high fever of the sins opposed to the virtues tend to push him along the wrong path. for it should not be defective as with Yudhishthir. aurW tendencies.

Also intense-mild. middling and intense are again threefold each mild-mild. A A Hirnsa. mild-middling and mild-intense. by middling or desire.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI up the sins 147 having once given them up I should certainly be a dog in my conduct. Thus we see kinds of these sins. that there may be twenty-seven Mild. etc. and intense-intense. The contrary tendency Thinking of the eon- consists in the notion that these infinity immoral tendencies cause an tmry tendencies. ra*TT This called the practice of (Pratipaksha Hhabana) meditating on the opposites of the temptations. or permitted to be done . middling-middling and middling-intense. to be described are called men become to by the performance fit and gradually ^roifa of which rise the state of TIT^T by represents and first attain This course thus the stage Kaivalya. ordinary people should begin their Yoga . option (fa*'^) and conjunction (^gw^). and these again may be further divided according as they are preceded anger and ignorance intense. these are again slight. classification of the sins of f^T. fcrawtT. of these o f p a i ns an(] untrne cognition. As it: the dog takes up his I own vomit. . These Yarnas together with the Niyamas which are ~ iroingr Kriya Yoga.. Thus there may infinite on be eighty-one kinds. . with which work. Middling-mild. so should I be acting were to take up again is what nf*N^ I have once given up. intense-middling. This again becomes account of rule (fa9*0. according as classification of they are actually O r caused to be done. Pain and unwisdom are the unending fruits in this immoral tendencies and that' idea lies the power which brings the habit of giving a contrary trend to our thoughts. may be made done.

"When these are duly performed the gradually attenuated and trance afflictions is afflictions become brought about. c. have no necessity of making Thus it their is beginning therefrom. its own primal cause Prakriti and Kaivalya is . of second Boko cR. hunger and thirst. *3Tn9 means the study of tion of the syllable philosophy and the repeti- Aum.. they selected rule <tq. been burnt up by the fire of high intellection and the mind untouched by afflictions come up to the distinct natures of the Purusha and **r. . so that fruit a man desists from all desires gaining any therefrom. God.148 But fliK people STUDY OF PATANJALI who are mere advanced and naturally in possess the virtues mentioned Yama. The thus attenuated become characterised by unproductiveness. where it homage and adoration of god. Niyamas that though they are mentioned under are also specially in the Niyamas. ^rens an d t'JTUfaWT it is for this reason . Here to it is a kind of fagiqfr and hence it means the i. the absence of and speech ^nwrtf and the absence of social indications. Isvarapranidhana is r^nftwr meant love. said that some people may make their begin- Those who made their with the beginning ning with the Niyamas. by virtue of which god by his grace makes Samadhi easy for the Yogi. This different from the Iswara Pran id liana mentioned in Book 1.. not for one's own self but for of God. and spoken of as the the fipilJftl the very first . . work. the mind naturally returns to attained.^imr^qf'n^T*iifa farawii: means the strength of remaining unchanged in changes like that of heat and cold. bestowal of all our actions to the Great Teacher. and when their seed-power has as it were. rfT. standing sitting.

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI
Those who are already much advanced do not require
even
About those who are
naturally vanced.

this

Kriyayoga

(%n*itl)>

as
in

much

t ] le j

r afflictions

ad-

are already in

man

an attenuated state, and their minds in
a
fit

condition to adapt themselves

to

Samadhi; they can therefore begin all at once with Tn^qfa. So in the first chapter it is with respect to these advanced

men

that

it

has been said that
('swig)

by Abhyasa

and

Kaivalya can be attained Vairagya without adopting the

sfmq fwi II. :2) at the Niyama Kriya Saucha (srN) and Santosha (^wfa) remain Yogas only to be said. Saucha (afN) means cleanliness of body and
5farar<WT-:n

mind.

Cleanliness of body
of

cleanliness

mind

is

brought about by water, brought about by the removal of
is

the mental

impurities of pride, jealousy and vanity.
(

Santosha

^RTfa
is

)

contentment

is

the absence of desire to

possess more than
life.

necessary for the preservation of one's

It should be

added that

this is the natural result of
(*f?f).

the correction of the appropriation of others' things

At the
it is

close of this section on the

Yamas and Niyamas,
lies

best to note their

difference which

principally

in this that the

the latter are
fore
last

former are the negative virtres, whereas The former can and therepositive ones.
at all stages of Yoga, whereas the

must be practised
being
positive

are

attainable

only

by the distinct
adhered to at

growth of mind through Yoga.
stages of the

The

virtues of non-injury,
all

truthfulness, sex-restraint, etc., should be

Yoga
that

practice.

They

are indispensable for

steadying the mind.
It
is

said

in

the presence
all

acquired steadiness in
of
;

^f^n

of a person who has animals give up their habits

enmity when a person becomes steady in truthfulness, When a person whatever he says becomes fulfilled.

150

THE STUDY OF PATANJALl
in

becomes steady
different quarters

*tw

absence of theft,

all

jewels from

approach him.
being
confirmed,

obtained. is vigour of the Non-covetiousness being confirmed, the knowledge By the steadiness of cleanlicauses of births is attained.

Continence

ness, disinclination

to this

body and cessation of contact
internal
aft^

with others

is

obtained.

When
of

the

mind

attains

or cleanliness

mind, his

*T? becomes pure, and

he

acquires high-

ttiindedness one-pointedness, control of

the senses

and

fit-

knowledge of self. By the steadiness of contentment comes the acquisition of extreme happiness. the dirt of this veil is removed and steadiness of fftf
ness

of

the

By

v

from that come the miraculous powers of endurance of the bodv ^faw, etc. and also the miraculous powers of the
senses,
viz.,

clairaudience
steadiness
of

and thought-reading
*n*n?l

from a
Rshis
is

distance.

By

the

gods,

the

and the Siddhas become
the
the
it

visible.

When
is

Iswara

made
this

motive of

all

actions,

trance

attained.
to

By
just

Yogi knows
is

all

that

he
in

wants

know

as

in

reality,

whether

another place, another body

or another time.

It should not, however, as

His intellect knows everything as it is. be said, says n^frf, that in
^fllfa is

much

as the

wait!

attained by
*f

making Iswara
useless.

the motive of
Iswara Pranidliarm

all

actions, the remaining

and the other Togaiigas.

seven
these

Yogangas
Yogangas

are
are

For
the

useful
all

in

attainment of that mental rnood which devotes
to

actions

purposes attainment of ^Hiina *Wfa
collocations,
W5fT?T ?rfa

the

of

Iswara.

They

are also

useful in the
their

by separate kinds of
also

and Samadhi

leads

to

the fruition of
it is itself

but this meditation on Iswara though
direct

a

species of ^'jTJjf'WT
is

yet

more

itself, Samprajnata Yoga (^RrsTRT sh*r) means than them. About the relation

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI
of tfTufarwr
:

151

with

the

other

Angas

of

Yoga,

Bhikshu

It cannot be said that since Yoga o,au be attained writes by meditation on Iswara, what is the use of the other

disciplinary

practices

of

the Yoga, for the meditation on

The other accessories Eswara only removes ignorance. bring about the Samadhi by their own specific ways of
operation.

Moreover

Iswara

that

by the help of meditation on one succeeds in bringing about Samadhi
it
is

through the performance of
the
other
accessories
;

all

the accessories of

Yoga;

so

of

Yoga can
it
is

not be

regarded

as

unnecessary

or

rather

the other accessories which

Dhyana and Samadhi through meditation on God and thereby produce salvation since they cannot do that themselves ^f^t ( T ^Tijfatnin,^
bring Dharana,
:

g

?[

T

fii<i

i

)

Asanas are secured by slackening of
transformation
Asanas.

effort

as

infinite.

by thought Thus
and
effort

posture
to

becomes

^

perrect

that

end ceases, so that there

may

be no

movement

of

the body ; or when the mind is transformed into the infinite that makes the idea of infinity its own, it brings about

the

perfection
is

mastered, he
cold, etc.

when posture has once been of posture not disturbed by the contraries of heat and
;

After having secured stability in the Asanas a person The should try the Pranayamas.
Prariayaina.

pause
inhalation
called

that

comes

after

and that after a deep
first
is

exhalation

deep are each

a

i

and the a Pranayama ; the There is however a third mode, when the second internal.
called external

152

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI

much dilated nor too much contractlungs are neither too where cessation of ed there is another total restraint ;
motions take place as water thrown on a heated
both these
all sides.

by a single
stone

effort

just

shrivels

up

from

These can be regulated by keeping eye over space, Thus as the breathing becomes slower span and number.
the space that
is

it

occupies also becomes smaller and smaller.

two kinds, internal and external. At the Space time of inhalation the breath occupies internal space which
again of
can
be felt even
in

the

soles of

hand and
try

feet, just like

the slight

touch

of

an

ant.

To

to feel this touch

along with deep inhalation serves to lengthen the period of External space is the distance cessation of breathing. from the tip of the nose to the most remote point up to

which breath can be
the

movement

placed there.

by any light substance like cotton, etc., Just as the breathing becomes slower and
felt,

by the palm of the

hand,

or

of

slower the distances traversed by
smaller.

it

also

becomes smaller and

Regulations

by time
in

over the time taken

up

when eye is kept breathing by moments each
is

seen

;

moment being

the

fourth part of the twinkling of the eye.

So regulation by time means the fact of our attending to the moments or Kshanas in the acts of inspiration, spent
pause

and

respiration.

These

Pranayams can

also

be

measured by the number of normal duration of breaths. The time taken by the respiration and expiration of a
healthy

man

is

the

same

as that

which

is

measured bv

snapping the fingers after turning the hand thrice over the knee, is the measure of duration of normal breath ; measured by 36 such Matras or measures in the first

attempt or Udghata called it is the second Udghata
it is

mild;

when

it

is it is

doubled,
trebled

(middling) when

the third

Udghata

(intense) called intense.

Gradually

also cease along with it. then second and on until the duration increases up to a day. etc.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI the 153 Yogi acquires the practice of Pranayama of long duration. and this steadiness acquired in the as we find also in the Sutra When by Pratyahara the senses are restrained from their external objects we have what is called Pratyahara. It that while the Pranayams are being practised. a fortnight. remains as if in its own nature being is altogether or with the object of inner concentration contemplation the and thus when this Chitta again suppressed senses ceased from coming into contact and become submerged in the Chitta with other objects Dharana is the concentraitself. fit By where the practice as of in Pranayama the mind becomes for concentration it Sutra is H^4 5rf<r*TTinwit ^T mw. mind mustexternal or will be without which these of no avail for the true object of Yoga. There is also a fourth kind of Pranayama all these transcending stages of unsteady practice when the Yogi is steady in his cessation of breath. The mind may thus be held steadfast in such places as the sphere of the navel. which have already tion of Chitta on a particular place. however. be fixed by nr and >*TT1!T to some object internal must be remembered. fortnight a month as stated before. a month. being daily practised and being increased in succession of a day. 20 . the forepart of the tongue and such like parts of the body. is said that steadiness is acquired by same way as concentration RT^JT?TW. the forepart of the nose. the lotus of the heart. the light in the brain. b^v which the mind identified . Of course he the proceeds first by mastering so the first Udghata. which is so very necessary at the time of Pranayamas mentioned before.

Also for the breath- purpose of inhibiting the distractions arising from ing. By to Pratyahara or power ot abstraction mind which desists it is from all other objects to be centred . the changing flow of the mental (^KIIT) effort in the object of < Dharana other nmediated by any break of conscious states. Pranayama and Pratyahar. may or at once begin with with vmn the . ^K*UT we have seen means con- centration. and also acquire the desist a man can to virtues in the Niyamas and thus arising secure himself against any intrusion of distractions his from mental passions. the Niyamas. the the Asanas. These are therefore the indirect and remote conditions which qualify the person for attaining Win. A man who through his good deeds by the grace of god is already so much advanced that he is naturally above all such distractions to remove which it is necessary to practise the Yamas. Samadhi or trance contemplation results when by deep mind becomes transformed to the form of the object of contemplation. Again in order that steadfastness in these he must which mental may be opposed to stated attain hope from any such conduct the Yamas. thinking of that thing alone and no other thing thus we see that with the practice of this state called fw or \ . concentration Samadhi. t.154 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Dhyana is the continuance. advancement of which the mind becomes steady in repeating the object of its concentration. IM and Samadhi. except the one intended the Yogi as he thus to abstracts his mind also tries to give is it some internal or external object..e. it must also be noticed that to acquire the habit of the abstraction arising ness of wn the and in order to inhibit from the shakiness and unsteadiis the body to it necessary to practise steadfast posture and cultivate Pranayama. which called ^TCWT .

for a person who is very highlv advanced. Yogangas are only its indirect or remote causes merely. Saniprajuata Samadhi. ^Kiji. is the special object of God's grace may at into the once by intense Yairagya and Abhyasa Nirodha state or the state of suppression. substances as Division we of shall see just now. when the mind is fixed on subtle *jfr*nTT and fsrf^^^a with the object of etc. the the or for here mind can hold concentrate its and name. flow into even conscious of this activity ceases and the under mind transformed concentration the form of the object becomes steady therein. so the Sanyama is gradually For while the dawning of this Prajnaloka of Samadhi knowledge This *391 is this Sanyama beginning also rises higher and higher. which is called the is Savitarka state . We see therefore that Samadhi is the consummation of that process which ^K^JJT begins in 3*nfe or concentration. These three of the .THE STUDY OF PATANJALI meditation state in 155 without the which the mind flows steadily in that one any interruption. JTI and of represent last the three is stages same process which the together one the perfection *j?w and these three are technically called which directly leads to and is immediately followed by other five whereas the the Samprajnata state. _ Nirvitarka Savitarka Savichara Nirvichara . and gradually with this. Samprajnata Samadhi. the light Samadhi.. or For Asamprajnata state however these three are also not so intimate. the next plane or stage of Sanyama its that when the mind becomes one meditation without any consciousness Next come the other two stages call"d of its name. become one with' a gross object together with etc. pass By the possession of of Sanyama as gradually dawns the knowledge or strengthened.

the concept (tiff). it has so many hair on its body and so forth. is Now seems to its that state of Samadhi the in mind with become one with the is thing name and concept ^f%<i<*1 . cow. not different from ordinary conceptual states in which the particular thing is not only associated with the concepts and their names but also with other concepts and their various relations ." This state therefore the is the first stage of is Samadhi in which mind has not become steady and not as yet beyond the range of our ordinary consciousness. thus a cow will not only appear before the mind with its concept and name. or the name its (st?) are But still by force of the thing of association the . but only This state illusory way which appears in ordinary associated with the concept and the name. the particular name concept and with which the It is easy to see that the concept or the thing is associated. they seem to be so much associated from the thing or which the together of that the name cannot be called Vikalpa. word and concept the function of name stands both for mind by virtue want of their which real or inspite of this unreality having :\ny identity of connections. thing (**). lowest stage to stage Samadhi here its called it is the lowest because the true it gross object does not in life is appear a false the mind in in reality.150 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI To comprehend its scope it is necessary to its understand first of all the relation. between a thing. so that the mind not in direct touch with the reality of the . but also along with other relations and thoughts associated " This is a with the cows as for example. it belongs to so and so. and quite distinct. differentiated its idea. From by of its all this steadiness comes the Nirvitarka stage when the mind O can become one with its object divested of other is associations name and concept.

centres and identifies itself with the subtle Tanmatras which are the constituents of the atoms as a conglomeration of which before the object appeared our after eyes in the Nirvitarka itself state. This Samadhi thing.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI thing. with settle the sun in true aspect state of it as pure tends to on a still finer either by making the senses so steady that the outward appearance vanishes or by seeking finer and finer stages than the grosser manifestation of light as such. The objects of this may be the gross material objects and the senses. of the mind as the object to of its conreal This state brings home diverted us the knowledge of the by other false and from explicating the real nature of the object served only to hide it. state does not appear to be an 157 in this The thing object of my consciousness of . uncontaminated by associations. It has great its with the ^fren^f from that stage spring from stage. as I know this but the mind becomes one with the thing so that the notion of subject and object drops off and the result is <he one steady transformation templation. the fact that here the object is the Tanmatra and not the differences gross Bhuta. it it light and knows while apprehends the Tanmatric state of the as such. Now this state is followed by the state of ^ift^w fl^T which dawns when the mind neglecting the grossness of the object sinks deeper and deeper into its finer constituents and the appearance of the thing in its grosser aspects drops off and the mind having sunk deep. Thus when the mind its identifying light. The mind in this stage with the Rupa Tanmatra for holding communion example is not coloured . and we have what is called the similarities ^ft^TTT stage. but or f the consciousness ' becoming divested all ' I ' mine is becomes one with the object itself so that there no such notion here. illusory associations which apart is knowledge or n?n state called fHf^WT.

space. the and the Prakriti. This state however is not an indeterminate stage as the Nirvitarka stage. blue. and fine two kinds of from the Prajna. feels thus these the mind here that it sees at the present time Tanmatras which are of such a subtle state that with... as in the Savitarka with gross light. Savichara Nirvichara arising communion with the under one name as of Tanmatras have been collocated Vicharanugata. state in But when the mind acquires complete habit of this which the mind becomes so much identified with fine these objects the Tanmatras etc. causality. spoken of in the Savichara and the Savitarka state vanish fine away. So a state of a fcelingless representation of one uniform Tanmatric state when the object appears as a conglomera- Tanmatras of Kupa. for the Tanmatric light or light potential has no such varieties as different kinds of colour. so that there are also no different kinds of feeling of or pain arising this is pleasure from the manifold varieties of light. that all con- ceptual notions of the associations of time. causality. and causality.. It and particular collocations originate centration in this stage are not must be noted here that the subtle objects of conthe Tanmatras alone but Buddhi also other subtle substances including the ego. space. etc.158 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI communion variously as red.. etc. and the mind of its becomes one with the These object communion. in they are not associated are also They from the endowed with their the way that them atoms. But when the object object of communion called is the ego as the subtle cause of the senses it is is ^s^ira and when the ft communion the subtle cause of ego the called also the . for this Tanmatric conception is tion of associated with the notions of time. Rasa or Gandha as the case might be. etc. pleasures and pains.

42. There can be i no comm onion it is with the manifested Prakrit as the object for not an actual state which can stand as the object of but only a state of final retirement. or knowledge knowledge is altogether different from the knowledge which is derived from the Vedas or from inferences or from ordinary perceptions . our minds become altogether purified and there springs the w%} or true . 44 as follows Through the Nirvichara called ^HfT'W'O state. this true for the knowledge that it can give of Reality can never be had by any other means of knowledge inference or either by perception.THE STUDY OF PATANJALl it is 159 Nirvichara called ^faraig?ra. 43. is testimony for their comof munication only by the conceptual process generalisations affirm and abstractions and thus can never anything about the things as they are in themselves which are altogether different from their illusory demonstrations in conceptual terms which only prevent us . the all the effects into their primal state there communion of returning back of potentiality . restate the Samprajnata : Sam ad hi 17 with I. Thus we may reconciling I. so can never be a Prajna of such a division of stage.

he gradually is acquires firmness in at once in his The Yogi who practising comes to know one's as the higher stages gradually dawn it is mind and distinguish them from each other . of this Prajna the potency of ordinary states of distracted COD- seiouness this and is thus also attains When however is Prajna suppressed. the potenof the Samprajnata state become weaker and weaker whereas the potencies of the Nirodha state become stronger and stronger and finally the mind comes to the Nirodha state and become stable therein of course this holds . impossible to give an exact expressions of symbolical for the stages become clear to the mental vision his of the Yogi as practice. thus a matter of own experience. we have what called the state of Nirvija Samadhi at the end of which comes final Prajna leading to the dissolution of the Chitta and the absolute freedom of the Purusha Samadhi we have seen on of is the becoming of mind's concentration it oneness with an object by a process of acute it and a continuous other thoughts principal repetition of with the exclusion all of all kinds. so that no certain other teacher can advise follows ( him whether a lower. within of itself a long mental state history.160 THE STUDY OF PATANJAL1 reality. just as the ordinary in cies conscious states are called Vyutthana comparison to the Samprajnata state. for the potency the Nirodha can be stronger only when the . We have indeed described the stages it is of the advancement of our Samprajnata Yoga but picture of it with the concepts . stage which its is higher or Yoga itself is own teacher When it is the mind passes in from the called Vyutthana comparison to the Samprajnata state Nirodha state. from knowing the true arrests The potency stability.

the change manifested in time. Samprajnata Here therefore which we to we see that the same at w. ^reij. or percepts. These are the three kinds of change which the mind undergoes called the Dharma. next comes the the state change. ^niWfft'SI'l have already described the sensible some length with regard the to the objects apply also to as mental states. Lakshana and Avastha change. It from the passage of the mind from one said has been for that there are two different sets of qualities visible qualities states. or has just come. or The the mind. visible and invisible. in this suppressed long being made up of the three transformations and changes. The invisible . when stage to the also mind of passes from the suppression (foCte). we can say that the change of Vyutthana into Nirodha has not yet come. thought products. that here the third potencies of change of condition.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI mind for practises it 161 condition and remains of time. this But there described is one difference between in change thus from the changes observed sensible objects that here the changes are not visible but are only inferrible state to another. whose changes can be noticed are conscious etc. of intervals This shows that the mind is Gunas always suffering state Thus from ordinary gradually distracted consciousness it becomes one in it pointed state and then gradually become transformed of an object when (internal or external) of a is said to be change undergoing the Samadhi parinama or Samadhi the Samprajnata type . or that the Vyutthana state exists no longer. the mind having There is also transformed itself into the Nirodha state. while that of the Nirodha state becomes and stronger. Thus the change from the Vyutthana is Nirodha state so the >**tRfrww. when we see that the Samprajnata state become weaker and stronger weaker.

inference. life. . Object of Sanyam. No reason are offered about the why of these attainments but they are said to happen as a result of the mental union with different objects. products or mental Yoga by which the people may experiments become convinced of the method of Yoga as being the rneth true one. It is best to note them here in a tabular form. characterisation. but be their existence established by and changes or modifications may These are suppression. potentialisation. movements and power or energy of movements. TOT In connection with the miraculous attainments are to Samprajnata Samadhi some also described. constant change. to the the Yogi the advances.IfiiJ ones are seven in number and cannot be directly seen. which are said belief strengthen of the faith or of the processes Yoga in the as the path like of salvation as Yogi. These are the )d.

of the I hunger aud (14) Tortoise (15) Coronal Tube . of (9) Sim ! Knowledge the world (the geographical position of countries. light i Vision of the perfected ones the seer or all knowledge | by prescience. sympathy. (6) Karma of fast or slow j Knowledge of death. other powers. (8) Powers of elephant i Power of elephant. and compassion. of their movesystem . (18) Grose substantive Control over the element from which follows atten- the astral ?mj conpur- junction pose (19) Act. of the starry i Knowledge ments. she conjunction and the pnrposefulness of sensation ! Mastery over the senses and thence come the quickness as of mind. of of the body. &o. fulness uation. unaided mental and perception mastery over the Pradhana.. perfection of the body and non -residence their by characteristics. ?j*ft Power. .' (12) Plenus of the Navel (13) Pit of the throat i Knowledge Subdual thirst. fruition. ) (10) . Steadiness. (17) Purusha Knowledge i of Purusha. Attainment. egoism. i Sanyama.. the substantive ! appearance. Knowledge systems. of the mind. (7) Friendliness. . (o) Over the form of body.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI Object or Sanyani 163 Sanyam. ] Disappearance (by virtue of the perceptibility being checked). (16) Heat ' Knowledge .

way in which leads to Jnanayoga. the position of the Bhaktiyoga and Yoga system with reference to a person who seeks deliverance from the bonds and shackles of Avidya. Yoga gradually deepen the faith ^\ of the Yogi in the performance of his deeds and his and their thus position in the Yoga help main goal .164. now . THE STtJDY OF PATANJALt These Vibhutis as they rise with the performance of the processes of Vibhati Philosophy. and tinit is nature of Karmayoga. more and more strengthening After describing the it Divested from the ideal they have no value of any importance. his has been affirmed in the scriptures and are taken therefore as the true one on their authority. until they are again are also in finally released but Iswara though he suffer is a Purusha yet in He does not way. I believe time for - us Bhaktiyopa iswara. He never He is the ancient teachers too beyond the range of the conditioning by of time. i and easiest means attaining salvation.. but they at least seemingly have to undergo the afflictions and consequently birth and rebirth. Other Purnshas reality untouched by the afflictions. by the fact of his being untouched afflictions or vehicles of the of action. 8 This nature and The authority of the scriptures are aSain acknowledged only because they have proceeded out of God or of an argument in a circle has no Iswara. etc. He is always had nor will have any teacher of the any bondage free and ever the Lord. to describe or the third and the . or ideal . by always pushing or drawing him forwards and forwards towards it l>y the of his faith. Iswara in the Iswara distinct in the all Yoga system by the fruition is that Puiusha who is from others. relation to these sort of any bonds. The objection .

Again CT at the body of pure Sattwa becomes submerged in the Prakriti . But because he does not he has to help only so of much as they deserve as a king likes. He is omnihim is the furthest limit is of omniscience from which there no beyond. . scriptures. because case such equality there may be oppositions between lwara. just though he is quite free to act in any way he punishes or rewards people according as they deserve. what he is. At the end of each Kalpa he adopts the pure body from Sattwa which is devoid of any Karmasaya and thus communicates through His it to all his devotees and pnre Sattwa- dictates the ^ ^ maya body. In accepting this Himself untouched body it he has no personal desires to satisfy as we have said before. continues for ever that at each new creation the pure Sattw amaya body springs forth and submerges back into the Prakriti at the time of the dissolution of the universe. the rival Iswaras which m ight of therefore result in the lowering scient in the highest degree for in any one of them. scriptures at each tion of the world after dissolution. He adopts the people only for the purpose of saving by instructing them with is knowledge and piety which not possible without . is There in the no other of divinity equal to Iswara. he does not nullify the Law Karma. of his This Iswara of is all-merciful.THE STUDY OF PATAttJALl place here since 165 with the connection of the scriptures Iswara is begiuningless. and at the time of its submersion in the Prakriti Iswara wishes that it might time of dissolution this come thus forth again at it r the beginning of the new creation . and though he has no desires him to satisfy yet for the sake devotees he evolu- dictates the His functions. release all persons.

in the second of all used to mean the Iswara under abnegation desires of the fruits of action to in and thus Iswara Pranidhana this sense is included . or worship of God. means has communicating knowledge A may duce 1 Yogi also who similarly attained absolute independence or accept one more pure Sattwamaya Nirmana Chittas from the Asmitamatra and of may all pro- one Chitta as superintendent iraiarar these (fsrofaf-infiT *rremtmsi?[) Oreftiftf fari^w swfttTi). the the the first and second books of Pa tan jala Yoga or devotion to it is In the centre first book it means love God apphorisms. . but onlv adopts to people. as the one of meditation. By Swadhyaya or Pranava the mind fit becomes one-pointed and for Yoga. Such a Chitta adopted by a true Yogi by the force of his meditation is not under the control of the vehicles of action as is the case with the other four kinds of Chitta from birth. he as a is not in any of way under control. Oshadhi.166 a pure THE STUDY OF PATANJALl Sattwamaya body any way by is it. but such for it it not the case its Iswara. though at the its time of dissolution n atheW rd forlsM arI the word of Pranava together with denotative power becomes hl th<? submerged as roots the shoot season. or The Pranava Aumkara is his name . so he adopts is it but is not affected in One who under the control nature from is of Nescience and thus with cannot distinguish his real always led by it. in is word according to the used in two senses. This commentators Iswara Pranidhana. ?krit\ they new creation also reappear with just in forth from beneath is the ground called the rainy This Pranava on this concentration Swadhyaya. attaining o Now one of the means of Yoga o is Iswara Pranidhana. Mantra and Tapas.

. from that by Abbyasa and Vai- from the general means of Yoga. This abnegation of all fruits of action to this Iswara purifies the mind and makes it fit for Yoga . viz. only a special being Purusha with the aforesaid powers (q^ as here considered as . the easiest course for attaining We tion can make our minds pure all the easiest way by abnegating by sphere of firm our actions to Iswara and attaining salvaand steady devotion for Him This is the which the tedious complexity of the Yoga process may be avoided and salvation acquired in no time by the supreme grace of Iswara.THE STUDY OF PATAN. 30.'3 1 and at once prepares his mind for the highest realisation of his own absolute in- dependence. is distinguished as the from the Iswara Pranidhana of the of first it Book is Bhabana Pranava and Iswara in this that connected with actions and the abnegation of their fruits whereas the latter consists only in keeping the mind in worshipful state in Iswara and his word or name Pranava.TALI 167 Kriyayoga. tsj indeed distinct For here also Abhyasa applies to the devotion of Iswara as one Supreme Tattwa witli all or and Vairagya is necessarily associated true devotion and adoration of Iswara. . Achit and Compared with hjt form the body of Iswara whereIswara is Raruanuja system. etc. Abhyasa and Vairagva which applies in all stages. obstructions in I. described Release throngh the grace of Iswara. Iswara. truth of Iswara This conception of Iswara differs from the conception in the Ramanuja system in this that there Prakrit! and Purusha. this So is for a person who can in love and adore Samadhi. By devotion of Iswara Prema or Bhakti he is drawn towards the devotee through his Nirmana Chitta of pure Sattwa and by his grace he removes all of illness. Bhaktiyoga by This means is not This different process not..

1 i i p i a " other kinds or knowledge. etc. inference. .) In this system Iswara in is not again the ^ foreign Prakriti the sense of ^fwT*rt%fa but of his Dharma and Adharma. After what we have studied above main stress of the it will be easy to see that the method Samadhi and points of its of Yoga Philosophy lies in its Samadhi. For the teaching of scriptures and words are but names.168 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI T I. ordinary that can be acquired by perception. All based upon .. the absolute species. manifested in words . major propositions arrived at by inductive so it is easy to see that all generalisations knowledge that can be imported by them are only generalised conceptions. The knowledge i difference from perception inferences or scriptures as sources of knowledge. thereby helping the evolutionary process Thus Iswara is distinguished from the Iswara of San- kara Adwaita Vedan- Vedanta existence in is this that there the ^rue ascribed only of Iswara whereas all other forms and modes of Being are only regarded as illusory.I. in this that it alone can bring objects before our mental eye with the clearest and most unerring light of comprehensibility in true nature of the thing is at once observed. it differs from 11. and the words of general are which the Inferences scriptures are based on concepts or notions of things. which is not the genus of any other . Their process only represents the method by which the mind can pass from one generalised conception to another so the mind can in no way attain the knowledge of the Real things. and agency is only in the removal of obstacles and of Prakriti. terms or concepts similarities formed by noting down the general of certain things and binding them down by a deductive inferences are also symbol.

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI thing. that objects. a representation taken from successive other than points of view from which as possible between the we note object new many which we as resemblances are studying . else is fall By intuition meant what the kind of intellectual sympathy in by which one places is oneself within an object in it (cf. {- and thus thing at once flashes before it. development into symbols. and things which are obstructed from our view. limited by and remote knowledge by ordinary perception is the incapacity of our senses to perceive subtle things. as j t were j n o the form of that thing. ftiN) order to coincide with and consequently inexpressible. deep concentration when all other states of mind are checked it is centred on one thing steadily and that alone. true and real in the strictest sense of the terms. similarity of things and not the also its is things as perception not of much avail here since Ordinary it cannot bring things so within scope the subtle and fine that are obstructed from the view of things and the senses . so the knowledge absolutely unobstructed. Anaunique on the contrary. the nature of which as described by Bergson applies in a certain measure to Samadhi. But Samadhi has no such that can be attained by it is limitations. cate to 169 so inference and scripture can only communiof the real us the nature agreement they or are. as a function of something Analysis is thus a translation. " It follows that an absolute could Thus Bergson says : only be given within the province in an intuition whilst everything of analysis. is to elements common both fore is and other thing To analyse there- to express a itself. the mind becomes transformed By Samadhi and the intuition of Bergson. the It is true nature of that akin to the conception of intuition by Bergson. is the operation which reduces the lysis object to elements already to it known.

a single act. and which we believe we desire to know already. they are connected in one chain of development . to each other _ Like Kant p a tamali does not bring about a schism between science and metaphysics. infra-conceptual in or ultra-concept ual stages are nut unreal senses or any way though they cannot be grasped either by the by our conceptual intelligence. He does not make the metaphysics entirely artificial. It goes on therefore to infinity. and far from there being any schism between them. In its embrace the object around eternally which it is compelled to turn. are things in themselves or things as they not transcendent to the that the world of Phenomena. and the science wholly relative . To grasp them . it though as it is reality its sphere so much limited that alone. move in con- thinking or knowledge. is But intuition. analysis multiplies without end the number of its points of view in order to complete unsatisfied its always incomplete representations and ceaselessly varies its symbols that it may is perfect the always imperfect trans- lation. so-called The realities of metaphysical order the are. carries start in concepts. . science reigns where the miud is being led from concepts to concepts with the dogmatic belief that all knowledge must necessarily cepts and end in concepts call it. can grasp the general notions and these The thing the real Vishesha (fMfa) apart from its symbolic side of conceptual representations can never be grasped by the But the conceptual side of knowledge. but are only so subtle cannot grasp them.170 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI others. as that it we all with it the belief in comprehends is that is knowable. or This view of Samadhi intuitional trance is not opposed to whatever we say conceptual or perceptual intelligence that they are complimentary Kant Bergson and Patanjah. if intuition possible. but with him both are true in senses their own respective spheres.

Moral and virtuous actions are here advocated only because they purify the mind and help it to acquire the power of intuition (^fs\) by which the real nature of things is revealed to the Yogi is . and coincided. the Prakriti then appears in her own also true nature. . . of gradually to rise higher and higher in the acquisition metaphysical knowledge. before whose vision before all obstruction melts in away and all reality shines him absolute effulgence." according is invert the habitual direc. . our want of intuition of Vision of a Yogi. ouly be the expression and development of what is invariable. all to one concept and to that and repeat it again and again thus become the other possible concepts. Plato to Plotinus proceeded " a variation out of a supposition that can . of " to To philosophise. the one ideal consummation of all metaphysical knowledge is attained .THE STUDY OF PATANJALI our mind its 171 must follow an inverse process of stopping itself flow from concepts to concepts. when exc'usion of shines before the the limitations of the concept at once vanish and the thing mind in its true reality. . of the thing and the very life of " therefore Patanjali. The whole philosophy from Plato. Such a Prajna is or intuitive knowledge absolutely unerring for here the mind has been merged to in installed in the reality it. but concentrated alone. is the reality. hidden beneath the oontinual now or our varied concepts that the root of all control exercised by the Prakriti over us. and her relations with is the Purusha are freed from all discerned and the Yogi it is absolutely bondage According to Patanjali of Prakriti. tion the work of thought in to practise it not in a random way but the true a profoundly methodical manner. with a definite end in view until the highest stage." that " there is more . is nothing too small for his intuition and nothing too great. identified as it were with it.

With Plato we have seen that there diminution of the is nothing positive outside ideas. But by a mere diminution. it is perpetual oscillation from one side to the other of this point of equilibrium. .172 in THE STUDY OF PATANJALI the immutable than to iu the moving and we pass from the stable the with Patanjali as that. rolled them set into each them up into a ball. form fall is more than change. eternal disquiet like a suspicion insinuated between loving hearts." The ideas or forms are the whole of intelligible reality. and by a veritable that the logical system of ideas rationally subordinated and co-ordinated among themselves is scattered O into a physical series of objects placed one after another. that is to say of truth. As to sensible reality. he pressed other. stable is always stable and unstable is always unstable and they must not be confused by either in any way. is an illusive nothing. Aristotle exist " and events accidentally Physics is but logic spoiled. and above the . find that he had never any such bias we unstable Prakriti. All evil is begotten out of their seeming illegitimate connection which forms the basis of all. it creeps between the ideas and creates endless agitation. is Immutability it is more than becoming. is unstable the sphere of the mutable and the not on that account less true than the Purusha the immutable and neither All evil is only their realities are of two different kinds of them can "ever be reduced to the other." that ideas could not tolerate should thus that he of this independently by themselves could but finding not Aristotle. due to the want of right comprehension of their relative spheres . of Reality which into that of the unstable occurs by a process of diminution by the addition of " " " matter " zero-like Platonic the Aristotelian non-being a metaphysical zero joined to the ideas multiplies it in In the words of Bergson " this non-being space and time. deprive them character.

the idea of ideas or to use his own words the thought of thought. could exist in Aristotle a sort of refraction from himself. . perfection. since happening he is is in a single one. In an aspiration of things and consequently an ascent towards the divine perfection. and that the movement of things that this perpetuity of mobility could happen only if it was backed by an eternity of imti.utability which in a chain without beginning or end. Everything first principle and everything aspires to one. or simply the Platonic ideas as if inclining towards are the world. by affirming that this movement could not have begun and could never come to an end. it unwound In that revival of Platonism in Alexandria we see that as the possibility of an outpouring of Platonic ideas God exists behind us and his vision Neo-platonism.THE STUDY OF PAT AN JA LI 173 physical world a form that was thus found to be the form of forms. and as descending consequently from God to The necessity with Aristotle of a first motionless it mover is not demonstrated by founding on the assertion must have had a beginning but on the contrary. in vain should we look for the ideas of Plato within But if only we imagine the God of the God of Aristotle. they the were involved the unity of is essence. return remoter the emanation lower the degree of reason soul. After the it possesses the greatest perfection and after comes the The true then we . towards God as the effect of a contact of God with the of the universe there first movement sphere things. at once seen to pour themselves out in of his him. Such is the God of Aristotle is necessarily immutable and apart from what in the world. . by the conscious intellect. It only the synthesis of all concepts true that no one of the manifold concepts apart such as it is in the divine unity. as sucli is always virtual and never actually realised is derived from the to it .

not so that the objects him but so that all difference between the knower and the known self . by its very nature can itself but which he cannot help striving to He fix it pursues it with to all dialectic.174 see THE STUDY OF PATANJALI transcends of it the is bounds not of reason. not " Knowledge by any " therefore won by inter- of remain outside mediating process." . the is the of the all single principle of things. disappears . vision The supreme degree of cognition supreme. its own it is not reason who has the we who have the vision of its own vision of self . " The inmost experiences of our being is an To this experience which can never be uttered. which. it is a vision of reason into reason. proof. has attained this veritable union with God. because it was still after all only a movement and presupposed a feels itself filled by it difference between the seer and the seen. he is well it aware that he can never find the last conclusive word for and has to fall back on the thought that it is unspeakable. this latter in divine rapture touches the absolute and He who and illuminated by it. as ness driven by the presence of a conscious- never get utter. endeavouring for his find weapons of a subtle some distinction which is the will readers and he endlessly fertile in metaphors and symbols by which he seeks to flash some new light upon it. Thus Edward Caird wrote of Plotinus. in itself. despises even that pure thought which he formerly loved. which masters him. difficulty Plotinus if returns again and again from new points of view. in it which which separation between and the soul ceases. Yet in all this struggle and almost agony of his expression. but even the vision of reason within to which subject and object are still opposed each other as different from each other must itself be transcended. or This mystical is absorption the last swooning into the absolute therefore word of the Alexandrians.

he has substituted the universal relations Mathematic for a single and closed-in of ideas. make-shift of symbolical relativity and never the since Reality it as it is. and impossible has nothing more to metaphysics is do than to parody ceptual with phantoms of things the work of conarrangement which science practices seriously on relations. .. system of the Platonic world imprisoning the whole of reality in a network prepared in advance in which is unified and reconciled all the plurality of our knowledge in one universe of science. And of necessity. Our to intellect never is be able to come into a touch with the limited reality it absolutely restricted and of this innate incapability . and what the object order that an uninterrupted mathematic may bind them together. a law. attempts have been made to determine what in the intellect must be. . a some-thing-like-non-Being and in its place are substituted some barren relations which are said science... To realise this dream or at best an ideal. intuition is eluded our grasp. if all possible experience can be made to enter thus into the rigid it and is already (unless formed frame-work of our understanding we assume a itself pre-established harmony) because our understanding organises nature and finds itself therein in a mirror. to form an universe dignified by the name of shall . all By changing the Platonic idea from a thing by into a relation of the understanding. There . altogether is . The real again things in themselves remain an unknown entity. doing anything all but Platonising in ideas and as such science only represents this dreamy. .175 With the revival of Platonism in modern philosophy in Kant we see that the "beyond" the "Reality" has Revival of Platonism. no intuition that carries us into thus found to be sensuous the non-temporal intuition.

we that he as agrees with Aristotle all conceiving an unmoved for it is the cause of that is endlessly moving itself. " " unmovable " of our consciousness This " unmoved and of pure shining effulgence. " unmoved " which but does not explain the stable and forms the background of all our conscious experiences. as much real as the unmoved realities they are two be said to be there tion is independent Purusha. It is them all in the conceptual No the one absolute is concept can ever catch " stable " element. of its Movement the reality of matter which in none stages can in true sense be called the " unmoved. Plato had to acknowledge the separate to deprive it of all existence though he qualities. Instead of wanted determinate it have been making more consistent which holds non-being colourless if would he conceived the idea as the truly and absolutely colourless and the non-being of the itself equilibrium within the principle of all . into these that the former unwinds That which unwinds is the same as that which is un" winded the " unmoved only represents the throbbings .176 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI distinguish Patanjali To from these different shades of representations spoken see in above." itself its Matter holds within it is own dynamic or of motion . the absolute potentiality. and pulsations of the unactualised unwindings. a constant factor it. But this "unmoved" only represents the ground of the comic dynamic of all mutability and change. and none of them can stable derived from the other and consequently no diminution of reality involved in the concep- of matter. hold all of it. of It all is conceptual the mobility can never be confused with true only altogether distinct immobile which no change can effect from the universals or the particulars of our thought but illuminating illumination. else are moving.

unconsciousness remained unexplained states altogether and without it our intellectual life will be reduced to a mere mobility of with which principle to parsing they may be connected without any stable principle and unified. shown in the illumination of the history of world-civilisation 23 . but substituted for the independent reality of the ideas only and an ideality towards which matter is striving and thus made it the imanent teleology of matter. But Patanjali was not satisfied with it for even here the stable . final The comprehension not a dream with him as release of the of Purusha it is necessary to invest the to outgoing process and one-pointed by conceptual flow. the microcosm and Aristotle the macrocosm. this metaphysical reality is with Kant. This all which or for which these passing states form together an unified life. but a complement of our ordinary scientific or For the achievement of this phenomenal experience. The Neo-platonists agree of the supreme validity of the which brings about trance is concerned. caught sight of this.THE STUDY OK PATANJALI determinations genesis 177 of all and differentiations the ground and transformations which appear within and without as the inner and outer worlds. which serves as the external of teleology of the Prakriti. Plotinus process Kant in their difference from and agree Patanjali in so far as the assertion in this that there are other sources of right knowledge than those provided by the scanty scope of conceptual The light that they have relativity of our thoughts. make it steady which all the differentiating process and when the real being arrested the mind tends to become steady and stable last stage is attained the nature of the form of the Purusha is reflected order of the phenomena by a reverse process and the outgoing returns back to with Patanjali Prakriti. and the experiences of pleasures and pains is the Purusha.

The face of truth is hidden eternal bliss and by a golden veil (ffTiRW mankind combine in their adore the unveiled truth as ii?Nr *si*nqiicT g?i) and it let all efforts to draw away and be worth it is in itself. theories speak a few words on the the physical world as " supplementing the views that have to of . and gaseousness represent only an impermanent The division of matter from the standaspect of matter. Ap and Kshiti as the ether. the gaseous heat and liquids and solids. At the close of the previous sections it may while Ancient and modern division of matter. Akasa.. Tej. liquidity point in of the possibility of our sensations has a firm root therefore our nature as cognising beings and has a better rational footing than the of matter into elements modern chemical division daily threatened culture. . light. by and compounds which are being the gradual advancement of cur fixed scientific They carry with them no conception as and the consistent rational the definition of . ness corresponding to the relative grossness of the Some modern five investigators have viz. Gross matter as the possibility of sensation has been divided into live classes according to their relative grosssenses. tried to understand the Bhutas. But I cannot venture to say so when I think that solidity. hidden mysteries are daily being discovered by men of genius by this intuitive perception srfmare but none of us into the depths of this land of try to penetrate methodically communion. been already stated above.178 will THE STUDY OF PATANJAL1 manifest of beams the any enquiring mind as of hope and sunshine bringing messages itself to first bliss the gloomy and from the region of eternal sunshine beyond of our science and will always awaken us to imperfect vision which is hidden from our view I that with believe reality may Many stand face to face only if I possess the will to do it. Marut.

five aspects from at. OsfNm'). (3) Sukshma vattwa (subtle). Ap (wr). subtlety (flll^). (5) Artha- (purpose for The Sthula or the gross : physical characters of the Bhutas are described as follows Qualities of struction. from the charac- teristic of the previous ones. These physical characteristics are distinguished from their aspects non-obstructive different by which they appeal called their to the senses which are Earth or is Swarupas. Vayu throwing. dissipating (^t^fe). characterised by Gandha taste. Tejas Going (?^). difference. Motion in all directions (^r<Ttif?r. (vritti). pushing. (^). manifestation ) ob- stability. softness (TIT). transverse motion strength (fa*4*3Ti). Ap by etc. want Akasha shadow (^^emcn) different from the characteristic of the previous ones. support. heaviness (qfoencf). (conjunction). conservation purity cementa- tion (*WH). Looked at from this view we see that smell arises particles with the hard by the contact of the nasal organ . which gross matter can These are (1) Sthula (2) ^*R (substantive). non- agglomeration (-qsg^) (^rw'H:) from the characteristic of the previous ones. (4) Anvaya use). whiteness (aftW). Smoothness (*ifl). Earth Form. purity efsj)^ (qfa<^). burning (3^'f%). mere makeshifts for understanding or matter and have There are Sthula Uupa.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI ancients 179 but are representing certain chemical changes of therefore merely a relative value. shining different cooking (qr^^f). of (^i^^rt^ movability (^w). roughness. Swarupa. (^tlWT^s ). light (vn^T). turbidity (3frrj hardness and enjoyability. llasa or Teja by Hupa. be viewed (gross). clearness (*fM). smell. energising upwards (^f). heaviness.). coolness.

A Dravya or a substance an aggregate of the former is type or and the grouping of qualities generic specific and is not a and specific the abode of generic qualities like the Dravya of the Vaisheshika separate entity conception. Those (2) in- mate un i on mechanical aggregates or collocations of distinct and dependent parts (gcifasfrore) as is the trees in a forest. and that belongs to Akasa. so this rate which can so genethe Svvarupa in the sensibility Gandha is said to be with only this liquidity or Sneha is the Swarupa or nature liquidity so manifests itself in the quality of visibility of Ap. Anwaya and Arthavattwa qualities (action). f%% or (inertia). Speaking about the aggregation with regard to the structure of matter we see that this is of two kinds (1) those of which Aggregation. The is the Swarnpa of connection with heat. The aspect of an unification of generic . the parts are in inti- which can never an j f us i orij eg ^ any vegetable or animal body. The third aspect of is the aspect of Tanmatras which are the causes the atoms or Paramanus aspect is Their fourth or the ffi?n their aspect of Gunas Their Suksha. of y<$w (illumination). with the vibration of air on the epidermal surface so this vibrating nature is the Swarupa of air. so this obstructionlessness is the Swarupa of Akasa. so heat of Kshiti. Taste can originate connection sensibility of touch is generated in connection . Light fire. fifth as- pect is that by which they his are serviceable to the Purusha by causing pleasurable painful experiences and finally his liberation. The sensibility of sound proceeds from the nature of obstructionlessness.180 THE STUDY OP PATANJALI hardness or solidity of of matter. the parts of be considered separately.

collocation of the distinct The other aggregation of Yutasiddhavayaba. There are accoring to Vijnana Bhikshu and Nagesha two kinds of Akasa. mango-grove we see that many mangoes indeed make a Thus grove but the stress is mangoes are not different from the grove. for clearly grove side of mangoes brings trees home to our mind the the distinct mangoe which form a grove. and independent parts of the is again ?S sum ha nds i' v f Ynta ' Vayaba.e. The first or the original is the undifferentiated formless Tamas.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI and specific 181 in qualities is seen in parts united aspect. i. the ego as the first Karyakasa from envelop of Vayu The Karanaas a like kasa as or the non-atomic Akasa should not be considered mere vacuum ('fW^Twra) but must be conceived all-pervasive positive entity (^^TJM^q*?) physicists. for itself in in that stage it has not the quality of manifesting sounds (jf^q the This Karanas has the later on develop of this into atomic Akasa to which property sound. Akasa seems especially to require a word of explanation. something the ether of the modern From this Akasa springs the atomic Akasa or the . intimate ago-rec5O union and fusion gation of parts is called the Dravva v The the structural aspect of which the side of unification of appearance lities is the generic and specific qua- called the Dravva. the conception of the Puranas. Of the gross elements. According evolves or air. and (2) that in two kinds. Karana or primal and Karya the atomic. Here laid to the aspect that as the grove which however is not the case the mangoes are the same when we say expression that here of is a grove of mangoes.ay be laid to the distinction of parts. i.. (1) in which stress which stress is laid to their in the expression unity more than their distinctness.

182

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI
is

Kfu vak asha which
sound.
All

the

cause

of

the

manifestation of

powers of hearing
hollow
is

even

their origin in the principle of

egoism
It is

reside in the

though they have Akasa
the power
defect
is

placed in the
of

of

ear.

here that

hearing

located.

When

soundness or
is

noticed therein, soundness or defect
of
in

noticed in the power

Further when of the sounds working hearing also. unison with the power of hearing the sounds of
are to be taken in, then the

solids, etc.,

power of hearing
in

located in the

hollow of the
resonance

ear

stands
in

need of the
of

capacity

of

residing

the

substratum

the Akasa of the ear.
its

This sense of hearing then,
principle

having

ego acts when it is attracted by the sound originated and located in the mouth
origin
in

the

of

of

the

speaker,

acting as

a loadstone.
to
all

It is this
;

Akasa
of

which
this

gives

penetrability

bodies

in

absence

all

bodies

difficult

even to pierce them with a needle.
12.

Sutra
are of

II.

would be so compact that it would be In the Sankhya is it said that eternal time and space

the

nature of

Akasa

So

this

so-called

from

the

eternal time and space does not differ one undifferentiated formless Tamas which we
infinite time, arises

have spoken just now. Relative and from the motion of atoms in space

the

cause

of

all

change and transformations
Seal, as
points,

and space as relative position ; cannot be better expressed than in the words of Dr. B. N.
"
totality of

positions as
it
is

an order of co-existent
to the

and as
like

met
order

wholly relative
being

under-

standing
basis

in

time,

constructed

on the

of

relations of

position

intuited

by our empirical
is

or

relative

consciousness.

But there
:

this
is

difference

between

space,

order

and time order

there

no unit

THE STUDY OF PATANJALI
of spd.ce as
as,

188

position

(fe^) though

we may conceive time,
results only

the momc'nt (^ij) regarded as the unit of change in the
Spatial position
(

causal series.
different

f^r
all

)

from the

relations in

which the

pervasive Akasa stands

to the various finite objects.

On

the other

hand, space as

extension or locus of a finite body, or Desa, has an ultimate
unit being analysable into the infinitesimal extension quality

inherent in the

Gunas

of Prakriti."

Chitta or mind
States of Chitta.

has
states

two stages:
such
as

(I) in the

form of
(n*nr)

real

cognition

including
petent evidence, unreal

perception, inference,
sleep

comand

cognition, imagination,

memory,
are

(2)

in

the

form

in

which

all

those

states

suppressed

(f*Hx^).

out-going activity
all states,

Between the stage of complete (SI^TT) and complete suppression of
infinite

there are thousands of states of

variety

through

which a man's experiences have to pass from the Vyutthana state to the Nirodha. In addition to the five
spoken of above, there
is

states

another
Prajna,
fixed to

kind

of

real

knowledge,

and

intuition,

called
is

which dawns

when by concentration the Chitta
and that alone.
of

any one
other

state

This Prajna

is

superior to

all

means
evi-

knowledge

either perception, inference or
it is

competent

dence of the Vedas in this that
unrestricted or unlimited in
its

altogether unerring,

scope.

Pramana we have
Description of the
states.

seen

includes perception, inference

and competent evidence.
originates

when the mind

Perception or Chitta

taste

through the senses (ear, skin, eye, and nose) and being modified by their modifications by the external objects passes to them

Perception.

knowledge about them
are

and generates a kind or notion or in which their specific characters

more predominant.

184

THE STUDY OF PATANJAL1
Mind
is

all

pervasive

and

it

can

generate
the

its

notion

in the external

world by which

we have

perception of

the thing.

though
Vrittis

it

Like light which emits rays and pervades all, may remain in one place, the Chitta by its
in

comes
into

contact with the external

world

and

is

form of the object of perception and is changed thus the cause of perception ; as the Chitta has to pass
the

through

the

senses
fact

it

explains the

that

becomes coloured by them, which perception is impossible without

the

help
it

of

the

senses.

As

it

has to

pass through the
senses,

senses

undergoes the
if it

limitations of the

which

it

can avoid,

can directly concentrate itself to any object

without the help of the senses; from this originates the Prajna by which dawns the absolute and real knowledge
senses,

of

the thing

unhampered by the limitations of the
only within a certain area or within its sphere the subtler

which can act

distance
objects.

and cannot take

We
are

see

that

in

our ordinary perceptions

our minds

drawn towards the object as iron is attracted by magnets. Thus Bhikshu says in explaining the Bhashya

of IV.

17:-

i

re
in

:

i

The

objects of

knowledge though inactive

them-

selves

may

yet like
it

Chittas towards

a magnet draw the everchanging and change the Chittas in accordance
just as a piece

with their
red

own form
into

of cloth

is

turned
it
is

by

coming

contact

with

red

lac.

So

that the

Chitta attains the form of anything with which it comes in touch. Perception or Pratyaksha is distinguished from inference, etc., in this that here the knowledge arrived
at is

predominantly of the specific and special characters

THE STUDY OF PATAXJALI
of the
inference, etc.

185

thing and not of the generic qualities as in

Inference proceeds from the inference and depends upon
the fact that certain

common
So
that

qualities

are found

in

aH

the

members
will be
:

of a class, as distinguished

from the members
affirmed of a

of a different class.
class

the
all

qualities

found to exist in
this

the

individual

members
it

of that class

affirmation

of the

generic characters
is

of a class to the individual

members that come under
it

the essence of inference.
to
tracin
all

seems comes very nearly deductions from the dictum de ommi et
This

An
is

object

perceived or inferred by a competent

man

described by
his

him

in

words with the intention of trans;

ferring
fication

and the mental modiknowledge to another which has for its sphere the meaning of such
verbal

words

is

the has

cognition of the

bearer.

When

the

speaker

neither perceived nor inferred the object,

and

speaks of things which cannot be believed, the authority of verbal cognition fails. But it does not fail in the
original

speaker

God

or Iswara

and

his dictates the Shas-

tras with reference to either

the object of perception or of

inference.

Viparyyaya or unreal eagnition is the knowledge of the unreal a knowledge which possesses a form that does
not
a
tally

with the

real

nature of the thing, ?#., when

man

sees
(e.y.)

two

Doubt
of

moons by some defect of the eye. "Is it a log of wood or a man :" The

illusoriness

of seeing all

the

eye can only be
;

known when the
in

things yellow through a defect objects are

seen in their true colour

doubt however the defective

nature
definite

is

at

once manifest.

Thus when we cannot be
a post or a man. Here So we have not to wait
is

whether a certain thing
is

no knowledge

not definite.

is Asmita. Things themAll class selves however do not exist in the nature of the symbols or names or concepts. Thus and sometimes one of breaks of into predicates the and are its two parts sometimes different. When is we there say is Purusha the is of the nature of consciousness. speaking no such thing exists as the cow of Chaitra has no connection in reality with the cow. notions ting and concepts are formed by taking note of only the general characters of things and associathem with a symbol called the name. Raga." say only actually Chaitra.186 till THE STUDY OF PATANJALt the illnsoriness of the previous knowledge is demon- strated of The evil nature by the advent of right knowledge. in When the concepts united or separated our thought and language they consequently represent only an imaginary plane of knowledge for the things Thus when we are not as the concepts represent them. " Chaitra's it is an imaginary relation for cow. predicates unity two concepts which f>f^t wwfrrafa. it is only an aspect of them that is dia grammatically represented by the are intellect in the form of concepts. in the relationship it one to a predication. same of illusory relation. ? Now is what here itself predicated what Purusha con- sciousness of and there of must always be a statement another concept other. Nescience in Avidya Viparyyaya is exemplified etc. a wide 3ifa?T 3TfiJwPn*m^ Thus sphere has latitude in all thought process conducted through . It this distinguished from is Vikalpa Imagination in that though the such is is latter also unreal knowledge their nature as not demonstrated by any knowledge all that follows but on the other hand admitted on consent of all hands by the the common who mankind. It is only learned can demonstrate by arguments the illusoriness of such Vikalpa or imagination.

sleep in unreal cognition. represented Sleep is that mental state which has for its objective substratum the feeling of voidness. our minds are clear or listless. It is said to be ar^^sri^trifft relationing of knowledge springs from the or names which relationing does concepts that it is the not actually exist in the objective world as in prepositional forms. of the Chitta of with eternal objects according to the forms is which the Chitta transformed . mind percepts that have already been therefore is Memory It of the percepts acquired by real cognition. For a person who has to attain communion or Samadhi these notions of sleep are to be suppressed we have our minds are like all other of objects Memory is the retaining in mind when perception occur by the union perceived notions. wandering and unsteady. It is called a state or notion of mind for it is called back on awakening when ~ we feel that slept we have badly. the latter are of the nature of perceiving the unknown and unperceived. slept well. This represents the faculty by which our concepts are arranged synthetical ^?p2^ft fa^n?i:. These Sanskaras occur generate memory when such events which by virtue of associations can manifest them. in analytical or proposition. as impressions or Sanskaras b} its inherent Tamas. manifests dreams as well as waking . Thus memory comes when the percept already known and acquired are kept in the mind in the form of impression and ae manifested by the Udvodhakas or the associaIt differs from perceptions in this th it tive manifestors. itself in imagination.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI struction 187 language and involves an element of abstraction and con- and is called Vikalpa. and memory. states. it 7 keeps these percep- tions. /. whereas the former serves to bring before the acquired.<..

the strengthens the Sanskaras and the states again. sight is that of eye.. Knowledge and feeling are but two different aspects of the modifications of Chitta . viz. third aspect if " Asmita " senses. and on the other hand. perception.188 THE STUDY OF PATANJALI The relation is between these states of mind and the Sanskaras this that. (pleasure). them can be thought fusion separately from the The of feeling in with the knowledge is therefore more fundamental here than tripartite division of mind. It is indeed difficult to find the relation of Manas with the senses and the Chitta. Their fifth aspect is that they are motived for the Purusha. Duhkha (pain) and Moha These feelings cannot be treated separately from the states themselves. for tlieir manifestations are not different from the manifestation of the states themselves." viz.ff. aspect is their that of manifestation (u^ra) action (fgpn) nd retention (figft). Manas is as described a is sense said organ. Their itself in or ego which manifests the form of the Their fourth characteristic of the Gunas. e... There of is another aspect in the cognitive and which Manas to be the king at the motor senses. possibly Looked the directing side from this aspect Manas is of the ego by which it directs . is In more than one place Manas identified with Chitta. frequency and repetition of this thus ensures the revival of These states are all endowed with Snkha (ignorance). is known " " has got its special is sphere of work. Swarupa. viz." grahana." " distinguished from Pratyaksha/' which means " effect of Each sense perceiving.. made out of Prakriti hence none of other. In connection with this we as are to consider the senses is whose action on the external world which the perceiving. his experiences and liberation. and this called their second aspect.

Apoha (negative premise) and Tattwajnana (logical conclusion) which are the modes of different Anuvyavasaya of the Manas. ftf%?r and Man's mind or follow these outgoing states or experiences or remove these emotions which are commonly graduallv Chitta may . These emotional elements remain alone in the germinal state state .. this The motives which keep process of outgoing activity are false knowledge. ^nr. As a necessary attribute of this is directive character of Manas. integrated. these may be regarded as the point modifications of Chitta as well. aversion. are called fc^H. 18 Yoga Varttika). are also to be counted (Sec. This is the Tamas side of Manas. II. Looked at from the of view of Chitta.THE STUDY OF PATANJALI the cognitive and the conative senses to the external 189 world and the cause of their harmonious activity for the experiences of Purnsha. in the in mind as power or exist a fully operative when a man or is under the influence of any one of them. will. etc. and love of life. differentiated. the power of concentration by to which is developed Manas. This is is Pranayam is said the Rajas side of Manas. Along with these. attachment. or they ment these become alternated by other ones. This is possibly the Sattwika Anuvyavasaya or side of Manas. In connection with this we may mention Uha (positive premise). such as attachaversion or they may become attenuated by the It is meditation of contrarieties. and such other emotional elements as egoism. assimilated into percepts and concepts. is There another aspect concepts be repeated or revealed again are retained (^K^F) in the in by which the percepts and mind as Sanskaras to the mind as actual states. according to this that f\^. aspect of belong to There another Manas which is called the reflection by which the sensations (Alochana) are associated.

called afflictions periences and lead himself towards the All the Psychic slates described above. the So also afflicted states may come when in man is deeply bent or far advanced or those actions which are motived by Vidya the tendency for Kaivalya. self-criticism or right argumentation or from the instruction of good men ^JIH and Yairagya may be motived by Yidya(Vight knowledge) and tendency for Kaivalya may appear in the mind even when the man is immersed in the afflicted states of outgoing activity. They so that influence us whenever suitable opportunities occur by the study of the Vedas. afflictions that led These two kinds of motives. K*u etc. pressions or It only strengthens the im- Panskaras of those actual states and makes overcome the'r propen sity of generating their coi responding actual states and thus to allow him to tread an course. are called either afflicted or nnaffliated thev are moved towards outgoing activity according as or are actuated of self-realisation and self-release to by the higher motive narrow the field of experiences gradually to a smaller and smaller sphere and afterwards suppress them altogether.. seems that the Yoga view of actions or Karma does not deprive man of his freedom of will through habituation It in one kind of psychic states or actions towaids Yyutthus thhana or towards Nirodha. viz.190 THE STUDY OF PATANJAL1 and thus narrow the sphere of these exfinal release.. The other it more and more difficult to unhampered limitation the activity of his free will is the Vasana aspect of the Sanskaras by which he naturally feels himself attached with pleasurable ties towards certain to the scope of . one of towards love of him external objects of attachment and aversion or and that which leads him to strive for Kaivalya are the only motives which guide all human actions and life psychic states.

life states of insects. experiences. for this from the teleology of Frakriti directly which moves for the experiences and the liberation of the is But the free will not curbed free will follows Purusha.THE STUDY OF PAT AN J A LI experiences 191 and painful ones towards others. of all So this motive of liberation which is the basis to good conduct can O which never be subordinated the other impulse. But these only represent the difficulties and impediments which are put before a man when he has to adopt that course of life the contrary of which he might have been practising for a very long period extending over many in life states. becomes influence itself subordinate and occur which and power events to produce a vision nullify the false knowledge by tending of the true knowledge of the relation of Prakriti with Purusha. false Thus for example is if by the grace of God the all knowledge (Avidya) before the removed. any way. goads the towards false man towards outgoing But on the other hand this original impulse which attracts as it man these ordinary experiences identifies the is due to the knowledge as such which Prakriti loses its with the Purusha.g. the true knowledge at the afflictions lose once dawns their power. . etc. and e.. mind and Free-will states which in those life responsibility of action cease are intended for the sufferance of actions only.

APPENDIX
S PHOT AV ADA
Another point to be noted
of
in

I

connection with
is

the main

Patanjali metaphysical theories which considers the relation of words

the Sphota theory

with their ideas

and the things which they signify. Generally these three are not differentiated, one from the other, and we are
not accustomed
to

distinguish

them from one
identified or

another.

Though

distinct yet they are often

taken in

The nature of one act of thought, by a sort of illusion. this illusory process comes to our view when we consider
the process of auditory perception of words.
follow the Bhashya as explained
h'nd that

Thus

if

we

by Yijnana Bhikshu we
the letters
in the
is

by an

effect of

our organs of speech,

are pronounced.

This vocal sound

of

the

speaker

from
it

which

produced place the sound

mouth
in

moves

aerial

waves until

reaches the ear
it

drum

of the hearer,

by coming

in contact

with which

produces

the audible

sound called Dhwani.

The

special modifications of
in

this

Dhwani

are seen

to be generated

the

form

of letters
is

name
it

for

these
in

modifications

Nada.

and the general This sound as
also called
in the
is

exists

the stage of Varnas or letters are

Varna.

If

most general sense, then
second
the

we apply the word Sabda or sound we can say that this
of

the

stage

sound moving
the

towards
its

word-cognition,
utterance
in the

first

stage being
the

stage of
third

mouth

is speaker. that in which the letters for example G, au, and h, of the word " Gauh " are taken together and the complete word

of

The

stage of

Sabda "

APPENDIX
word form
of

I

193

" comes before our view. form " Gauh
of this complete
is

The comprehension an attribute of the mind and

not of the sense
senses

the

letter
letters

For the sense of hearing form of the sound one by one as the
hearing.

particular

are

they approach the ear one
letter

pronounced by the speaker and as by one in air-waves. But each
it is

of

generated, for the sense hold them together and power hearing comprehend the letter forms as forming a complete letter

form

sound vanishes as
no

has

to

form.

The
is

ideation

of

this

mind

called Sphota.
it
is

It differs

complete letter form in the from the letter form in

this that

complete, inseparable, and unified whole devoid of any past, and thus are c^uite unlike the letter forms which die the next moment that they originate. According
to the system of Patanjali as explained
tors, all significance

belongs to this

by the commentaSphota-form and never

pronounced or heard. Letters when they are pronounced and heard in a particular order serve to
to

the

letters

give

to such complete ideational word images which some denotation and connotation of meaning and possess " are thus called Sphotas," or that which illuminates.
rise

These are esseutialy different in nature from the sounds in letter forms generated in the sense of hearing which are

momentary and evanescent and can never be brought together to form one whole, have no meaning and have
the sense of hearing as their seat. Sankara Misra however holds The Faisesika view " " that this theory is absolutely unnecessary, for Sphota " " the supporters of even Sphota agree that the Sphota
:

stands conventionally for the thing that it signifies ; now if that be the case what is the good of admitting Sphota
at

say that the conventionality of names belongs to the letters themselves, which by virtue
all ?

It

is

better

to

pf

that

can

conjointly

signify

a thing

;

and

it is

when

194

APPENDIX

I

the letters from this aspecttheir unity you look at with reference to their denotation of one thing 'that you
call

them a Pada or name,

fatwrrfl <RW
this

^^
"

f

2. 22).
is

So according to
a

view we find that there
called

no

"

existence of "

different

entity

name

''

or

Sphota

which can

be distinguished from the

letters

coming
hearing.

in a definite order

The

letters

within the range of the sense of pronounced and heard in a definite
a

order are
particular

jointly

called

name when

they

denote

a

meaning
:

or object.

Kwnaril** view
the

Kumaril the celebrated scholar
also

of

Mimansa

school

denies the Sphota theory

and

asserts like the
letters

Kan ad as

that the significance belongs to the

themselves and not to any special Sphota or name. To prove this he first proves the letter forms as stable

difference

and eternal and as suffering no change on account of the in their modes of accent and pronunciation.
H,e

then
to

goes on to
increase the

show

serves

Sphota view only without any attendant complexity
tha*;

the

advantage.
defect

Thus

the objection that applies to the so-called

of the

letter

denotation theory that
since

the letters

cannot together denote a thing
theory, since

they do not do it to the name-denotation of the individually, applies Sphota.
there
also
it is

said that

though there
letter

is

no
the

Sphota or name corresponding to each
letters

yet

conjointly give rise to a Sphofa or
ste:

complete

name.

mfr wf%fa:

\

ufiwf
H)

The
The

letters
it.

however are helped by
denotation
theory
to

their

potencies

(Sanskaras)

the

object,

or the
to

meaning.

Sphota

has

according

Kumaril and

Parthasarathi also

admit this Sanskara of the letters

APPENDIX
in

I

195

the

manifestation

of

the
it

name
as

or the Sabda-Sphota,

whereas

they only admit

the letters in denoting the object

the operating power of or the thing signified.
are the
this

Sanskaras

according

to

Kumaril

thus

admitted

both by the Sphota theorists and school of Mimansa, only with

Kumaril Bhatta's
difference

that

the

latter

with

its

help

can

directly

denote

the

object

of the

go a step
give
rise

signified, whereas the former have only to his Sanskara to backwards in thinking

to

the

name

or

the

Sabda-Sphota

alone.

ftf

Kumaril says that he take< great pains
nullity
if

to prove the

of the Sphota theory only because the Sphota be accepted then it comes to the same thing as to say that words and letters have no validity so

view

that

all

actions

depending on them

a\*o

come

to lose

their validity.

far^nfH ^l^iiqqR^nftr,
:

Jsnf*T 3n]' aicrcr^ gsr.).

Frafikakara
for according to
definite

Prabhakara also holds the same view

;

him

also

the

letters are

pronounced

in

a

though when individually considered they are momentary and evanescent yet they maintain themselves by their potency in the form of a Pada or name
order
a.td
in

thus
his

signify an object.

Thus Saliknath Misra says
p. 89,

Prakarana Panchika,

Sahara:

The views

of

Kumaril and i'rahhakara thus

explicated are but only

elaborate explanations of the view

then we should expect no difference of signification or meaning by the change of order in the utterance of the letters that " " Rasa. the utterance of other letters becomes unnecessary letter it . . thus we find that Kaiyata explaining the following passage of Mahabhashya. So it must be admitted that the power of Sphota as signification belongs to the manifested by the Nadas as has been described in detail in Vakyapadiya. Kaiyata says f names The Vaiyakaranas admit the significating force of as distinguished from the letters. simultane- since they are uttered one after another.J96 of Sabara APlPENDtX who states the I whole theory in a single line The last letter together with the is potency generated by the preceding letters Mahabhasfiya and view of those it is the cause of significance. On the view of manifestation also since the letters are manifested one after another. and in this view if it is held that each has the generating power then also they cannot do ously. they cannot be collected together in due order ." ought meaning as ." is to have the same Sara. if their existence in memory is sufficient. : Kaiyata After describing the who are antagonistic to the Sphota theory in necessary to mention the Yaiakarana school who are in favour of it. For if the signibe attributed to letters quite ficating force individually. then the first letter being sufficient in significating the object.

etc. Though names occurs to be a before the manifestation in propositions and one and the same time yet there seems and after according to the before and after . also the reflected to or the of of manifested image differs the letters.. As the the object relation of perception between the perceiving capacity and is a constant one so is also the relation between the Sphota and the Nada as the manifes(98). etc.. water. according ...APPENDIX Thus Bhartrihari says . the difference manifesto!' (iOO). s'j to the variation of the reflector as oil. etc. ted and the manifestos Just as the image varies according etc. I 197 : f%$T 'gfcraT forai : w \\ ii i (98) ufafwii <?Tfc? T i (100) fwsft ii (102) (103) : n (49) (73) i : n (74) ' ^ : i (89) 't n (91) etc.

Thus though really con- the Pada-Sphola or the sist Valtya-Sphota do not of paits yet as the powers of letters cannot often be differentiated from them. pronounced succession by one their effort of speech that the individual lexers by own particular contiguity or distance from . they also appear often to be made View. Though tie letters which manifest names and propositions arc altogether different from them yet their powers often appear as Thus quite (89). up of parts (91). so also does the Sphota though unchanging in itself yet appears to suffer change in accordance with the change of Nada which manifests it (4-9). but none of them can do it individually .198 of the APPENDIX Nada the utterances 1 That which is produced (102). As there are no parts of the letters themselves so tha letters also do not exist as parts of the name. real is There is again no ultimate or (73). for propositions only are here regarded as valid (74). and disunion (of Nadas or Dhwanis) through is bv the senses called Sphota. The the Yoga A tout the in relation of the letters to Vachaspati says explaining the Bhashya. of water the As by the movement image of a thing situated elsewhere also appears to adopt the movement of the water and thus seems to move. when propositions are manifested by the cause of the undifferentiated from them manifestation parts of propositions they appear to consist of when they first appear before the mind. That which others regard as is the most important thing regarded as false here. difference betwen names and propositions are It only in popular usage that they regarded as difference. that each of the letters has the potentiality of manifesting endless meaning. whereas other Pound perunion arising ceptions from sounds are called Dhwanis (103). it is only when the letter form sounds are in Sphota.

What is spoken here of the letter form Vakya-Spkota sounds and the sabda-^photas also apply to the relation : that sabda-Sphotas bear to propositions or sentences. their origin in the organ of speech when they are and the sense of hearis ing when they heard. where- letter form sounds have are uttered. so the words also by their mutual combination or collocation demonstrate judgmental or prepositional significance or meaning. It well to note here that the theory that the letters themselves are endless tiality potent- their in and can manifest any word-Sphotas. is quite keeping with the main metaphysical doctrine of the Sankhya-Patanjala theory. form sound may manifest any meaning or for the particular order and the association of sounds depend upon in form the particular their output of energy required is making utterance. just as different reference letter cation a single form sounds demonstrate by their mutual colloword or sabda-Sphota . The Sphota as the thus a particular modification of Buddhi. The single word "tree" with- to any other word which can give it a form has no meaning. Knowledge of words prepositional always comes in prepositional forms. Thus the word " tree" whenever it is pronounced carries with it the notion of a verb "asti" or "exists. it always exists as the combined with other words in the form of a proposition. according to particular combinations aud re-combinations.APPENDIX one another can Sphota. As the letters themselves have no meaning so the words themselves side have also no side in a meaning. it is only by placing them that a by particular order meaning dawns ." and thereby demonstrates out any its meaning. A' word or name does not standalone. distance I 199 manifest a to complete word called ' the Thus owing by the variation of contiguity letter of intervention from other form sounds any word letter letter .

other words to carry a meaning. something the object of "rice" only spethe subject Devadatta and the object and the object. connected with each other and as grammatically they only express an action " or something connected with action . We cannot have a^ease of a noun without some governing verb and vice -. ." that is. expressing one subsequently combined into a sentence connected idea.200 in the APPENDIX mind. serve to specialise that meaning (fawro necessary for they Thus "cooks" means that any subject makes. The mention of his cooking. Co well). generally view of the meaning of a sentence of it an imaginary division This re- as cases. The latter means that words only express a meaning as parts of a sentence.<$ (Sarvadarsana-sangraha.w. cient "by association with When single yet sentences or propositions should not be deemed un- ^fjj^:). The Yoga point of view It will : " be seen that strictly speaking the Yoga view does not agree with any one of these it views though approaches nearer to the Anwitabhidhana .." that ings The former means these are words themselves can express their separate mean- by the function Abhidha or denotation . Though the analysis cialises the subject into of a sentence the words of which it is constituted is as imaginary as the analysis of a word into the letter form done in order to get an analytical it is sounds. verbs. the bovine genus as connected with bringing. of sentences to words. theories about the " the Abhihitanyaya- vada and the Anwitabhidhanavada. I words ave pronounced they with themselves and thus appear associate other words But though a single word is suffito aignify a meaning. in (?amanaya) bring " " " " " the cow does not properly mean gam gotwa but anayananawitagotwa. : Abhihitanyayavada and Anwitabliidhanavada minds us of the relation two very famous viz. etc.

Rajas and Tamas. ningless only imagined to be so. and this word is the same this object. defned as ^taWVg: is W ^fT^ q^^gtf^TfTTTarwp?: n*Fff:. tradition. one primal matter called Prakriti constituted of three Gunas. by beginThis view roav well be contrasted */ - with the Nyaya view which ^snn u^FT ^?H^f says that the convention of words by which of God. Thus there it is is no actual unity of words and their objects. those eases where there is no simply by virtue of the manifesting power of the letter form sounds T5=5THi^tn<ft ^rpg^r fsR?^: This Sanketa is again a*5?:. Buddhi and the object which exists in the These three though altogether distinct from one another yet appear to be unified on account of the Sauketa or sign (*T^qrgr<*i*iiiiaw: f <nfa^r. Of course knowledge can arise even in actual external object. Sattwa.APPENDIX the I 201 view than the Ablrihitanyaya view. the sabda-Sphota and the thing can never he distinguished from one another. i w*w\) so that the letter form sounds. is only an imaginary analysis an after thought. words only serve to manifest this idea but have themselves got no meaning. 26 . and one omniscient. they signify objects are ^tlfstr. This the same as this word. The division of a sentence into the component word conceptions. all. q\v i wn^: of ?. the sabda-Sphota which is maniof According to only from a fested in the external world. For according to Yoga view the idea of the sentence is the only true thing . the cauxe of verbal Confusion Patanjali's cognition : confusion in view verbal cognition proceeds the letter form sounds which are perceived the sense of hearing. <*i 3forprrw>zirenj : ^?ft H^f?f Convention a manifestation of memory of the nature of mutual confusion object as is words and their meanings. due to the will i ?^?r^i^q: The Patanjala system admits numberless souls.

sentiment energy. inertia. obstructive entity and the principle of potentiality). who at his sweet own will connect His relation with his will all himself with a pure body or dismiss Prakriti consists in this that he removes by in the obstructions process and impediments the way of the evolving of the Prakriti either for the experiences or for the liberation of the Purushas. to should appear again before him. it conserves and thus it preserves it from dissipation. Its behave in three different aspects. essence. and principle of mutation). illu- Sattwa (translated variously as goodness. At end of each Pralaya his its body merges back with Prakriti and at the time of it it merging with Prakriti he wishes that time of creation. at the appears at every new creation from Iswara himself cycle and so on ad infinitum. can at his it. mass. reality. intelligence stuff. in a special Purusha yet differs from other Purushas free and always the lord. Tamas (translated variously as darkness. principle). is He this that always and only adopts his pure body from the Prakriti and and all-powerful and the dictator appears as omniscient for the of the Vedas good of the other Purushas and the the Saviour of his devotees by his grace. itself by retarding and keeping it back within as . cycle untouched by any one of the qualities however remains of the Prakriti and like an ne actor will plays different parts.202 powerful APPENDIX Iswara which is I also the universal dictator Iswara though he is of the scriptures of the Vedas. Prakriti is that ultimate substance which is the source of all the psychical developments are seen to called and physical phenomena. minating entity. Sattwa seems to be that aspect in which the energy becomes manifested and Tamas is actualized. and the aspect which becomes interfused with energy. Rajas (translated variously as passion.

its I 203 Prakriti is always self-evolving by virtue of immanent Rajas is or energy. thus the All actions and in inter-actions of Guuas is at this state happen only a potential way. It also explains the The Yoga school differs from the Sankhya in holding Iswara to be responsible for the particular lines of development chosen by Prakriti. Prakriti Noumenon all the true potentiality the unmoved but the mother of movements. obstruction. in which she is best able to be of service to the Purushas. is with which the Prakriti eternally so connected that her changes and either states should be of service to the Purushas by supplying scope for their experiences or emanThis external teleology is the cause of the order cipation. She is propelled by the influence of the Purushas to be of service to them. and gives a moral order and purpose to all physical events. it passes however states by the transcendental influence of Purushas. but being blind . Reals or substantive (the succession The method less of evolution less from a to relatively differentiated. find in and arrangement that we without. coherent whole a relatively more of differentiated more of coherent whole). proceeds by the the different collocation them might be more predominant or suppressed than others. But in its primordial state it is conceived as an equilibrium of the Gunas a state in which there no stress. or prominence of any one of the Gunas> suppression of any one of them and no is consequently there no the visible change. the manifold world agreement of the external world with the phenomena of our mind. of The Gunas though characterised with the qualities manifestation. The energy by which the different collocations of the Gunas may be Gunas by which any one explained into exist already in Prakriti . and mutation are themselves entities.APPENDIX potentiality.

subjectivity and From Tamnatras emanate the atoms five gross of the corresponding elements. tion is possible because the Gunas themselves natures of possess in a potential way the twofold objectivity. the first emanation that of Buddhi is " " nor the pure implicit Be-ness which is neither " is not " the Ego-hood. (1) or the modifications of of emanations Avisheshas which are the mothers of other emanations. e. due to the peculiar replaeings of different Tejas. which there are only qualitative. and Vyoma. find necessity of The Sankhya school however does not any intervention from Iswara. and cona- and the Manas which possesses the characteristics of This twofold emanaboth and is the king of them all. so arranges by such obstructions or barriers mere wish of Prakriti are removed so for that her energy flows through of for the nearest channel. Kshiti. emanations two parallel lines towards objectivity into the five Tanmatras." proceed in From this ego. All the changes that occur gross Bhutas are of the nature of change of of colour. and (2) evolutions in Visheshas. Marut in these five quality. the realisation of the experiences and the emancipation the Purushas. cognitive Marut and Vyoma.. Ap. Ap. The changes two kinds. This includes . the focal point of all unity of subjectivity and objectivity. etc. From Prakriti.g.204 cannot adopt APPENDIX I the right course to be followed his . towards tive subjectivity into ten senses. tern poral and condiis tional changes.) placings and kinds of atoms. of the potentiality into Prakriti being removed the flows out naturally and is turned barriers actual states. Kshiti. as the the serviceability of Purusha lines of is external teleology suffi- cient to explain all the particular development Prakriti are in the evolution of Prakriti. From him emanates the ego or " Aham. Tejas. form. but Iswara that all though inactive.

changes psychical changes as sensations.APPENDIX the two other kinds of I 205 things due to the order of the or appearance or actual. ideas. including the senses. of these Vasanas that all living beings derive account their liar is is own peculiar pleasures and pains in their own pecu- instinctive ways. Others show themselves only fructifications of connection the some principal actions. The fruits of intensely good or life bad actions accumulate in one life and come to fruition in the next through the death of the individual in the past and birth in in the new with one. etc. life-experiences fruits of and death are the men's own action. pain through innumerable form of It is on impressions and these are called Vasanas.. life-time. the experiences lives in the The Chittas hold within themselves pleasure. potential present and past or latent. decay. vice) may they involve at least some be called mixed (virtue and who Those only mental actions can be purely virtuous. Any particular of kind of instincts Vasana which revived and manifested in the form suited to and which had been previously that Chitta by its experiences in a similiar acquired by Other VSsanSs however life of his previous existence. in performed the external world etc. that state remain only in a potential form only and manifest themselves in other suitable lives. and also such conditional which are involved with these. The also come under the psychical this in Dharma-parinama. etc. Life-state. by the rise of true knowledge. of qualities as future. have abnegated the fruits of their actions to . as injury to insects. Others however are sometimes altogether burnt All actions up.. perceptions. The sum-total of man Buddhi conceived as one Chitta. ego and unified principle is called the for Each Purusha has got a separate Chitta he is him of which lasts until finally emancipated. growth.

. contentment. his Asamprajnata state . state his mind remains a vacant restrained all and of with the increase of habit in this state the potencies of the seeds the afflicted phenomenal states becomes burnt up the Buddhi becomes almost as pure as the Purusha himself and catches the true reflection of the Purusha naturally and the Chitta as all its actions are fulfilled merge back again into the Prakriti. to attachment. cold. control over from covetousness or greediness serve only to and the perfection of the great heighten the glory. Those who are already in an advanced state begin need not with the elementary duties of Satya. Asteya. Avidya. with their own hues most . his faith in the . As by these Chitta or mind becomes Yoga. love of which are seen tinge life. the generative sense. purity In perof abstention from doing injury to others. ignorance the of of the all real nature of affliction Prakriti and Purusha cause the life of Egoism. meditation and contemplative trance powers also increase and his mind becomss naturally restrained from all such ideas or actions as proceed from purified. thirst. etc. refrain from doing injury to others is the greatest other subsidiary duties such as truthfulness.. the meditation all of the Pranava and the abnegation of the fruits of to actions the Lord. of the phenomena of our Thus gradually and and Samprajnata stage he selects subtler and subtler objects for his contemplation finally all as he advances in the objects in cease in. the power of bearing all contraries of heat. aversion. means of salvagradually tion increases concentration. virtue abstention also cleanliness of fecting the great duty of non-injury come body and mind.206 APPENDIX have neither virtue nor I God To vice accruing from their actions. hunger. tion from stealing. abstenduty. leaving the Purusha absolutely independent.

knowledge dawns which gives the knowledge of things and is infinitely superior to other means of knowledge by perception. As the Yoga way through Samadhi. inference or testimony. Devotion is to God and meditation of his name the however the shortest and easiest way of attain- For God being pleased all ing the Yoga salvation.. as Asanas as Pranayamas may directly begin faith in with great with the contemplative practices Yoga and restrain themselves from to all states of worldly experience due the seeds of the Avidya Pranava afflictions. but I '207 Aparigraha etc.APPENDIX Brahmacharya. geuce which are altogether actionless and incapable of any touch of extraneous impurity. infinite knowledge state dawns and the Chitta Purusha. Santosha. with Saucha. hindrances are removed by his grace and a man may Purushas are pure intelliattains alvation in no time. . the Prakriti from At the time of each cycle their Chittas or in minds indeed become merged the Prakriti but at the time of each creation through Avidya they become again connected with their respective Purushas and have to undergo all the experiences of phenomenal Purushas Prajna or life. intuitive advance the Finally the Prajua becomes so pure that all finitude being transcended. its connection with Prakriti is only seeming like the seeming redness of the crystal by a reflection from the Jaba flower. births in and rebirths as usual. They are connected with beginningless time. or with the the the Niyamas. becomes as pure as the pure form of the is This of the naturally followed by the letirement Chittas and the final liberation of the Purusha.

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