900 Fort Street Mall ■ Suite 1300 ■ Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96813-3718 Phone: (808) 441-1300 ■ Fax

: (808) 441-1385 U.S. Toll-free Phone: (800) 377-4773 U.S. Toll-free Fax: (888) 512-7599 Website: www.prel.org

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning

Building Capacity Through Education

© 2011 PREL ES1003


Our Earth is part of a solar system, which is made up of the sun, planets, and other objects, including asteroids and meteoroids. The eight planets and their moons revolve around the sun, resulting in the different seasons of the year.

Cycles in our Solar System

Our Earth, the Sun, and the Stars

© 2011 PREL

A long time ago, people thought that Earth was at the center of the universe. Their daily lives were in balance with the rising and setting of the sun each day. However, the view of their world changed as new tools, such as the telescope, were invented. Today we know that the sun is the center of our solar system, and day and night occur as Earth rotates on its axis.

Our solar system is just one part of a huge group of stars called the Milky Way Galaxy. This Milky Way Galaxy is only one of billions of galaxies that make up the universe. Have you ever wondered what keeps Earth and all of the planets in place instead of flying off into space? All of the objects that make up our universe are kept in place by natural forces, such as electromagnetism and gravity. ii

Forces in our Universe


Earth: A Place in the Universe An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i-ii Formation of the Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Understanding The Universe Our Solar System, Galaxy, and the Universe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Our Vast Universe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Forces in our Universe Gravity and Centripetal Forces at Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 Gravity at Work—Creating Tides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Black Holes, Dark Energy & Matter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Ka Nūhou Astronomical Discoveries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10 Factoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 Bridging the Past, Present, and the Future Looking Beyond our Solar System—to the Stars . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16 Maunakea and Haleakalā . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Ask an Astrophysicist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Pāhana Activities and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-20 Reading for Information Helpful Reading Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Hawaiian Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Resources and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-28 Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-30
© 2011 PREL


The Hawaiian Epic Poem
‘O ka walewale ho‘okumu honua ia ‘O ke kumu o ka lipo i lipo ai ‘O ke kumu o ka po i po ai It is the earth-creating slime It is the dark source created in darkness It is the night source created in night

How was the Universe Formed?
Astronomers cannot revisit the time when the universe was formed. However, after observing how the universe now operates, they have theories that explain the formation of the universe. What are these observations that suggest that the universe did have a beginning? 1. The universe has and continues to expand. Astronomers explain that the galaxies are in motion, drifting away from one another, which means that the universe was smaller at one time. Astronomers believe that there must have been a beginning for such movement to occur. 2. Astronomers have observed microwave light glow (cosmic microwave back ground) of what appears to be afterglow effects of a possible sudden expansion of the extremely dense hot matter of the universe. 3. In calculating the age of stars, astronomers believe that there are no stars older than 20 billion years. Scientists believe that these support their theory about the beginning of the universe. The most common theory of its beginning is the Big Bang theory. Astronomers explain that the universe came into existence approximately 14 billion (14,000,000,000) years ago. It all started with the Big Bang. Although it is called the Big Bang, it really was not an explosion as we imagine it, but rather the time when energy of all the extremely dense, hot particles began to expand rapidly in space. More than 4 billion (4,000,000,000) years after the Big Bang, a star formed in a swirling cloud of particles and gas. As the star grew and accumulated mass, its gravitational pull attracted the swirling gas and dust objects around it. These gas and dust objects formed planets, moons, asteroids, and comets, that continued their swirling motion around the star, much like our solar system. This process occurred throughout the universe. Astronomers continue to observe the motion of the objects in the universe for evidence to support their theories.

Go ahead, read it aloud. What you hear are lines from the Kumulipo, the great Hawaiian epic poem of creation, telling us that our universe began in darkness. It is quite interesting that this ancient and indigenous view of life—a mysterious beginning in the dark— seems to be so similar with what scientists think about how our universe came to be. Imagine an extremely tiny and intensely compact ball of matter, so tiny that a teaspoon of it would weigh more than our entire planet, in the middle of a dark and quiet nothing. Then, all of a sudden, bang! Something causes it to expand, sending millions of particles outward at amazing speeds! Deep, inky, jet-black nothingness turns into blinding, shocking brilliance. This universe-building material gets swept up into spiraling clouds that twist and cool, forming early galaxies. All of this action is also reflected in these opening lines of the Kumulipo: ‘O ke au i kahuli wela ka honua ‘O ke au i kahuli lole ka lani In the time when the earth was hot In the time when the skies turned over and under

The Hawaiian composer of this poem, which is more than 2,000 lines long, seems to have had a pretty good idea of the chaos and power that may have been involved at the beginning of our universe.


erse o e univ were t e, t did th ude? If you Wha omeon rs incl ,” to s to rse ances r unive n “you clude? explai ld it in ou what w

It boutf our Hawaiian o nk A

What is a Theory?
© 2011 PREL

A theory is a reasonable, logical, and widely accepted explanation for why something happens. Astronomers continue to observe how the universe operates to provide evidence for their theories on how the universe was formed.

Making Connections

What are the similarities and differences between the Kumulipo’s explanation and astronomers’ theory of the formation of the universe?


What is the Universe?

What we know about the universe is based on inferences that scientists make from the information collected and sent back to Earth by instruments, such as space crafts, space probes, and telescopes. The universe is everything that exists. That means all matter, space, energy, the planets, stars, galaxies, and objects in space. These objects may range from the smallest particle of dust to the biggest galaxy. The universe is also referred to as the cosmos or space.

Our Vast Universe

How large is the Universe? Our solar system is a small part of the universe. The universe is so vast that distances are measured by light-years instead of miles. Light travels 186,000 miles per second. A light-year is the distance that light travels in one year. So how far is this? A light-year is about 6 trillion miles (6,000,000,000,000 miles). What this means is that it takes one Earth year for light from a star 6 trillion miles away to reach Earth.

What are Galaxies?

In our Solar System
Light or Photos Sunlight to reach Earth Photos from Mars Photos from Saturn Photos from Neptune Edge of our Solar System

How long would it take light from the planets to reach Earth?

Galaxies are made up of star systems, large groups of swirling stars, dust, gas, and other matter that rotate around its galactic center, or star. We now think that there are more than 100 billion different galaxies in our universe.

Time 8 minutes 3 minutes 1 hour 20 minutes 4 hours 5 hours 40 minutes

Our solar system is a small part of a galaxy, the Milky Way Galaxy. Our solar system consists of our sun, a luminous body that is really a star, and all the planets that revolve around it. Earth is one of the planets. The planets receive energy in the form of heat and light from the sun. In our universe, there may be other similar solar systems each orbiting a star.

Our Solar System

Objects Beyond our Solar System Nearest Star, Alpha Centauri Pleiades Galaxy Next to the Milky Way Farthest Image. Ultra Deep Field

Time 4.2 light-years 400 light-years 2.2 million light-years 13.2 billion light-years

What is the Farthest Image Captured in Space?

The space-based telescope, Hubble, is able to see farther out into space and capture sharper images than other telescopes because its orbit is located above Earth’s atmosphere (350 miles above Earth’s surface). With the Hubble’s telescopic power, astronomers have captured pictures of what may be the most distant galaxies. There are more than 10,000 galaxies in an area called the Ultra Deep Field located more than 13.2 billion light-years from Earth.

© 2011 PREL

Making Connections

Check out the amazing photos that the Hubble Space Telescope has captured. Why is the information about the universe that we cannot see with our naked eyes, or the information that Hubble sends back to Earth, important to us?


What keeps Earth and all of the other planets and objects in our solar system in place?

Scientists believe that our solar system was formed as rotating dust, gas, and objects circled the sun. As planets formed, they continued to orbit the sun. It is the gravitational force of the sun that keeps the planets, moons, and asteroids in their orbits.

Think about the last time you rode the circular swing or roller coaster at an entertainment park. What did you feel as the rides accelerated? Did you feel like you’d fly off the swing or roller coaster? What did you feel around the turns? Find out what two forces were at work to keep you from flying off into space.

Think About It

Everything has mass, including your body, the book you are holding, Earth you are standing on, and the galaxies in the universe. Mass is how much matter, or material, an object has. For example, your body’s mass includes your hair, skin, brain, heart, blood, muscles, fat and more.

Mass Of The Planets 300 100 75 50

While the gravitational force is pulling the planets to the sun, another force is keeping the planets moving sideways. Try this: Get a string with a weight or ball at one end. Twirl the string above your head. Do you feel yourself pulling at the string to keep it from flying off into space? If you let the string go, the weight or ball will fly out into space. Your pull creates a resistance that acts as a gravitational force, similar to the sun. The other sideway force is called centripetal force. Centripetal force keeps the object in motion in its curved path. The balance between the gravitational pull and centripetal force keeps the planets in their orbits instead of falling into the sun or flying out into space.
© 2011 PREL

If the sun has a greater gravitational force, why doesn’t Earth fall into the sun?

In space, gravity is the attraction among objects, such as a planet, the moon, sun, and asteroids. The amount of attraction is determined by the mass of the objects, and the distances of those objects from one another. The sun has the most mass than the other objects in the solar system. Therefore, it has the greatest gravitational force. The sun’s force of gravity keeps Earth and the other planets and objects orbiting the sun. Path of Inertia Centripetal Force

What is Gravity?

25 When they are close together, an object with a relatively large mass (such as Earth) gravita0 tionally attracts an object with a smaller mass Mass (such as your body). Weight is a measurement Earth=1 of the strength of the gravitational pull or the force of attraction. 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 .50
Gravity Earth=1

Gravity On The Planets

Even if your body’s mass stayed the same, your weight would change if you traveled to different planets. This is because different planets have different masses than Earth. When the mass of a larger object increases, so does the strength of gravity’s pull.
PLANET Mercury Venus (Moon) WEIGHT 38 lbs. 90 lbs. 16.5 lbs. 38 lbs. 236 lbs. 91 lbs. 89 lbs. 112 lbs. 5.9 lbs.


Jupiter has a larger mass than Earth. Because it has a larger mass, it also has a stronger gravitational pull. If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 236 pounds on Jupiter. Your body would have the same mass as it does on Earth, but you weigh more because the gravitational pull on Jupiter is stronger. If you convert Earth weight to moon weight, a 100-pound person would weigh 16 pounds on the moon. The moon has less mass than Earth, so it has less gravitational pull on your body.

Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune (Pluto)

*Weights based on 100 lbs. on Earth



King David Kalakaua shows great interest in having an observatory in Hawai‘i. A telescope is installed at Punahou School.


The Bishop Museum Planetarium and Observatory opens its doors to the general public.


What are Black Holes? Where do we see the effects of gravitational force on Earth?

According to the dictionary, a tide is “the alternate rising and falling of the surface of the ocean and of bodies of waters (as gulfs and bays) connected with the ocean.” A tide happens twice a day as a result of the gravitational force on different parts of Earth by the moon and the sun. The gravitational attraction of the moon causes Earth’s oceans to bulge out in the direction of the moon. Another bulge also happens on the opposite side of Earth at the same time, since Earth is being pulled toward the moon and away from the water on the far side. This means that both, the part of Earth away from the moon and the side facing the moon, get high tides at the same time. During the times when Earth, the sun, and the moon are in a line, both the moon and sun contribute to the tides. These tides are called “spring tides,” and are especially high tides. When the gravitational forces of the moon and sun are perpendicular to one another during quarter moons, the tides are not as high. These are called “neap tides.”

Full Moon

Some astronomers believe that black holes may be the strangest objects in the universe. They believe that a black hole is a celestial object, a part of space that has a gravitational field so strong and massive that no nearby object can escape its gravitational pull, and light cannot escape it. It is believed that a black hole is created when a large star is unable to support itself against its own gravitational pull, runs out of fuel, and collapses. In spite of its name, a black hole is not empty. We cannot see it because no light can penetrate it. How do we know that black holes exist? Because light cannot get past a black hole, scientists use indirect proof. They observe the behavior of objects around black holes. They also use radio astronomy and telescopes to measure and record the radio waves that objects, like black holes, give off.


New Moon

What is Dark Energy?


Scientists describe dark energy as something that fills the empty spaces in the universe and has something to do with the expansion of the universe. Another explanation is that it is a property of space. Still another is that the theory of gravity, which holds the universe, is incorrect. In fact, scientists know very little about it. So why is it important? Scientists believe that 70% of the universe is dark energy. The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) is a NASA mission to provide observations of the universe that will solve the mystery of dark energy.

Making Connections

What is Dark Matter?

Find at least two more examples of gravity and centripetal force at work. In your E Ho‘omau! journal, illustrate how the two forces work in your examples.

Dark matter remains to be a mysterious material that has a gravitational pull, but does not emit (give off) or absorb light, which means it cannot be seen. Dark matter makes up about 25% of the universe. The rest (5%) is everything else that is in the universe—dust particles, planets, and objects in the universe. So it seems that what we know about our universe is only a small part of it (5%). 70% Dark Energy

What’s Next?

25% Dark Matter

© 2011 PREL

In response to recommendations by the National Academy of Sciences, NASA, and the Office of High Energy Physics at the DOE will work together to construct a wide-field telescope in space. This will measure the expansion rate of the universe and provide important clues about the nature of dark energy.

5% Dust particles, planets, and objects



C. E. Kenneth Mees Solar Laboratory at Haleakalā is dedicated to studying the sun.


Dr. Gerard Kuiper places a 12.5-inch telescope on Pu‘u Poliahu of Maunakea. 8

universe in place?

By studying the movement of light patterns in the galaxy, astronomers concluded, “what we know now is that when you look at a picture of a galaxy, what you see—the visible matter—is only 10% of the real matter in the universe.” (Kudritzki p. 64) The other 90% is “dark matter.” According to Kudritzki, dark matter is the dominant force that keeps the universe together. It is everywhere. What is dark matter? Does that mean that dark matter, and not gravity, is the force that keeps the

Dark Matter, a Dominant Force

The oldest image in the universe represents a large explosion, which has traveled more than 13 billion light-years through the universe. This means it took 13 billion years for this image to reach us.

Oldest Image in the Universe

Asteroids Responsible for Oceans?
Astronomers using a University of Hawai‘i telescope have discovered asteroids in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, with chunks of ice on their surfaces. Astronomers wonder if these are responsible for the oceans on Earth?

Life on Mars?

In 2003, astronomers using the NASA telescope on Maunakea found methane on Mars. The presence of methane means there could be some life-like processes taking place on the planet. Does that mean that life on Mars is possible?

The first and only image of another planetary system, other than our solar system, was captured in 2008 by the W. M. Keck Observatory on Maunakea. The solar system (HR8799) is located 130 light-years from the sun. Three planets orbit their sun. Three hundred and fifty known planetary systems have been discovered. However, an image of only this one system has ever been captured.

Image of Planetary System Captured!

Astrophysics is like wondering about tomorrow. According to Dr. Paul Coleman, an astrophysicist at the University of Hawai‘i Institute for Astronomy (IFA), astrophysics is wondering about the universe. “We go a step further and try to figure it out.” Dr. Coleman, Hawaiian astrophysicist at the IFA, studies the largescale structure of the universe by observing “quasars, galaxies,” and yes, even black holes! His work has focused on the distribution galaxies in the part of the near universe that has been “completely” sampled with telescopic surveys. From those What is data he can infer how Astrophysics? the rest of the universe Have you ever asked may operate and uses yourself before falling his observations as asleep, “I wonder what will pieces of a puzzle to happen tomorrow?” And create a model of the even fantasize about your universe. Read the tomorrow? Everyone wants interview with Dr. Paul to know about tomorrow. Coleman on page 18. Hopefully we have many tomorrows to wonder about.

© 2011 PREL



For the first time, faint objects like quasars and galaxies are clearly seen through the 10-meter (33 foot) Keck II telescope on Maunakea.


National Academy of Sciences, NASA, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will work together to construct a wide-field telescope in space that will measure the expansion rate of the universe and provide important clues 10 about the nature of dark energy.

i a n n b was na In 1 Hawa Nona amak een i bove kalani K aper Ka uld be s orld, and a ia co w sp Māna age new bright, it over the u l lang t was so seen al 843.” s come omet wa omet of 1 c C this March t Grea

We know that stars are in the sky all the tim e. During the day, ou sun, is so bright that r star, the we cannot see the oth er stars.

Where do the sta

u rt a ns h m ro e su muc t sta r is a s ef f clstanc gh the it isclosehis st ize o t di ou us xt . T e s x h a i h t nesame y. Altis bec he neentur nth t ligh 0,000 e e a T C .2 0 te thall thher awtar, itr star.xima t one- out 4000,0 s t s b , t ire no e fart ther othe d Pro abou lso a 5,000 ha a m y o ny lle ne s a (2 W Starsnd soan anthan a is cared o n. It i away . a th s ) u l th u Ear mal ur s ears iles m s y o

e os


to ar e r ome s larger to a st s. S eem clos o

Ea closr e

? thr r

How many stars are there in the universe?


Nobody knows exactly how many stars there are in the universe. There are so many that we cannot count them all. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, has about 200 billion stars, and there are billions of other galaxies in the universe. These galaxies may have as many or more stars than the Milky Way. Scientists calcus? lated about 70,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (that's 70 ne , o sextillion) stars in the universe. Even though most os havllites are too faint to see, there are more stars out M n e or y vation sa;t 33 f and there in space than there are grains of sand anser nowpiter nus; on Earth. Mic ob63 k Ju Ura w p of r olescormedns, 27 fo tune. HTe nfi oo n; ep co r m tur r N o a fo S 6 12 7

© 2011 PREL

htbrig heir G2 by t or a “ 10 ? re tars ar, ors ssify s ish st and a col ers cla yellow our sun ent onom sized, than e. fer . Astr ium- rger e blu dif colors e, med times la nes ar e in s and verag 100 rger o om f size is an a t 10 to and la rs c riety o r sun abou e red, sta n a va ure. Ou ars are ars ar Dos comeeimperat” Giant stmaller st t. S dt Star tar. s an warf s s brigh nes d es a ow yell 000 tim , to 1

Astronomers believe that stars do fade away as they run out of fuel. They think that small stars may last for 200 billion years, while medium and large ones last about 10 billion years. When a star runs out of fuel, it ejects much of its material into space, and new stars are formed from this cold material. That is called star recycling.

rs go during the

Do stars fade away?

ng “lo ter ans cen it n d me nd acke whe r p ea ir” nea uag ightly g ha vels e n ng h t a “lo t tr nd t this k la f a ree de o w its come behi sed s. u e G ma ro a ct ut t? m th et is to g hen s o have obje me s fro com ems n. W tream ers tial co es to ume, a met seour Suhair” stronomn celes i is a com the t . A co , like ust “ r. As idde at comet ost of dust e star and d ive sta ntify h Wh ord .” Mice anda densof gas ass elp ide em e w tar Th red s us of with “tail” m th s to h t hai cle paths long ay fro ome nu c or sses tar, a g aw out b n cro h a s ointi tail a suc et, p ng de com resti e int

a Wa43, an es‘p. A shortu in the Ma na (The S road daylimed “The i 8 o

se c me the no a th melt brightle,owritten by d issuero,fstated thn tfact, o cia ly ic 3r ) I sac e rt ght. rch 2 pide

rS om d in n fr t appeare ted schola Hawaiiane e

i‘i? awtae skies amuel H h

What is a star?

hydrogen and gas. This gas is mostly ball of very hot, glowing and energy by A star is a dense huge produce their own light en burns lightest elements. Stars two n occurs when hydrog helium, which are the (joining together). Fusio The center d fusion r to heat up and shine. a nuclear reaction calle energy causes the sta helium. This and is converted into e. llion degrees centigrad may be as hot as 16 mi


Looking Beyond our Solar System—to the Stars

Hawaiians from the beginning of time were not only fascinated by the stars that lit the night sky but knew them so well. They imagined the star groups to be people, animals, or objects they knew. It was like connecting the stars and drawing lines between the dots to form a picture. The pictures or constellations helped Hawaiians to navigate their canoes at night and for farmers to keep track of the seasons. The stars served as a calendar, compass, and even became part of the stories they passed on from one generation to the next. Recent Hawaiian navigators grouped the stars into four-star families that represent the four sections of the sky that extend from north to south of Hawai‘i. Constellations that were most associated with the star family are included.

Ka Iwikuamo‘o (The Backbone)
The second star family that follows the first is called “Backbone” because it extends from the North or Fixed Star (Hōkū pa‘a) to the Southern Cross (Hānaiakamalama). Navigators depended on this star to determine the latitude (distance above or below the equator) of their canoe.

Ke Kā o Makali‘i (Canoe Bailer of Makali‘i)
Makali‘i, the Hawaiian name for the star cluster Pleiades, was special to Hawaiian ancestors. The rise of the first new moon after the rise of Makali‘i is the official Hawaiian new year. When navigators spotted this star cluster, they knew that they had reached their destination, Hawai‘i.

How Did Makali‘i Get Its Name?
Makali‘i was also the name of one of the first discoverers of Hawai‘i. Makali‘i means “little eyes,” or “finely meshed netting.”

The backbone runs from Hōkū pa‘a (Fixed Star) through Hōkūle‘a (Arcturus), Hikianalia (Spica) in Virgo, Me‘e (Corvus) to the Southern Cross.

One of the stories told of Makali‘i was that he was an excellent farmer of taro, sweet potato, yam, and many more crops. Makali‘i would always save part of his harvest in a net hung high in the sky. It is said that during one season, when harvest was poor, hunger spread among the people and animals. The rats smelled Makali‘i’s food. They saw the net hanging above them. They climbed the rainbows, jumped unto clouds, and got close enough to gnaw the piko (bottom) of the net. As they gnawed at the net, the food fell to Earth, began to grow, and eventually fed all of the people.
© 2011 PREL

bout It nk Aber the stories you Thi

mem tellaDo you re out the star cons ld ab ations were to constell ink w did the do you th tions? Ho es? How nam tellations get their ese cons s about th storie d? originate

How did the Backbone get its name?

The stars in family are seen as the vertebrae of life. Each of the vertebra is supposed to represent one generation in a genealogical line.

To this day, the net of Makali‘i can be seen on a lava rock at Kale, South Cape in Ka‘ū, Hawai‘i.

Try This

Can you create the net of Makali‘i? One of the patterns of a popular children’s string game resembles the net of Makali‘i. When the rats gnawed at point A, the food fell to Earth. 14


Ka Makau Nui o Māui (Māui’s Fishhook)

Ka Makau Nui o Māui is the name of Māui’s fishhook, also known as Scorpius. Māui used this fishhook to pull the islands closer together. It is also the name of the fishhook of the Hawaiian fishing god Kū‘ula-kai and his son ‘Ai‘ai.

Kalupeakawelo (Kite of Kawelo)

The four stars of this star family represented the four chiefs of the islands: Manōkalanipō, chief of Kaua‘i; Keawe, chief of Hawai‘i Island; Pi‘ilani, chief of Maui; and Kākuhihewa, chief of O‘ahu.

How did the Kite of Kawelo get its name?

The star family Kalupeakawelo is the name of the kite of Kawelo. On the island of Kaua‘i, Kawelo was raised by his grandparents who were farmers. To help Kawelo grow strong, they built a canoe for him. Kawelo paddled all day, up and down the river. While other boys were learning to wrestle, box, and throw spears, Kawelo built his strength and energy paddling. One day he saw a kite that Kauahoa was flying. He noticed its beauty and heard the loud shouts of the people as the kite rose in the sky. Kawelo asked for a kite. He took his new kite to fly next to Kauahoa’s. He could hear the people cheering as his kite shot into the sky and twisted from side to side. Before he knew it, his kite’s string twisted around Kauahoa’s and broke Kauahoa’s kite free. Kauahoa’s kite was blown away, far over the island to Kaho‘o leinā pe‘a (the kite falling). Today, Kaho‘o leinā pe‘a, located in Koloa, Kaua‘i, is pointed out as the kite falling.

How did Māui’s Fishhook get its name?

© 2011 PREL

This story tells of Māui fishing with his brothers. Everyone knew that Māui was a terrible fisherman and he was tired of his brothers teasing him about his poor fishing. One day as he was going fishing, he decided to take a magic hook that his father gave him. He hooked a fish and told his brothers to continue paddling the canoe and not look back. Māui caught something huge. He asked his brothers to paddle harder as he pulled in his fishing line. Tired and curious, one brother turned to see what Māui caught. As he did, he saw Māui pulling up land! At the same time, Māui’s fishing line snapped. He was upset with his brothers. Instead of pulling up the whole continent, only the mountain tops surfaced above water as islands. As his line snapped, his fishhook flew up into the sky and is now known as the constellation Scorpio. Māui’s Fishhook can be seen at the Hawai‘i Bishop Museum display.

Making Connections


Who were the characters in the stories? What messages or lessons were learned from the stories? If you were to create a story about a star cluster, what message or lesson would you focus on?


Wondering about the Universe with Dr. Paul Coleman, Astrophysicist Past: Landmarks of Discovery

Dr. Paul Coleman, an astrophysicist at the University of Hawai‘i Institute for Astronomy (IFA)

Thin you know abo o you think the o
d Why d p What akea? m the un es” fro ? nd Ma a “bridg future esent to the d in repr nt, an prese the

It bout ut Haleakalā kA

y ast, to

To the Hawaiians, the summits of Haleakalā and Maunakea were important landmarks. The Polynesian navigators knew they had reached land when they could see the summits of these mountains. Today, Haleakalā and Maunakea continue to be regarded as symbols of discovery for astronomers looking beyond Earth. They are like bridges that connect the past, present, and future.

Ask the Astrophysicist

Q. What is the most exciting thing about being an astrophysicist? A. “The most fascinating part of my work is knowing that an infinite universe is out there ready to be explored. Some scientists see the universe as an understood ‘closed’ system. I see it as an ‘open’ system—ready to amaze you at any moment. I am lucky because my job lets me pick which things I want to investigate. If I am doing a test, though, I make sure it is valid, because if I don’t know that the test works, then I may end up believing something that is incorrect.” Q. What piece have you added to the puzzle of the universe? A. “Some coworkers and I have shown that the universe is much more complicated than the simple models used to describe it. This goes against accepted ideas and means that there is a scientific debate on this now. When we are shown to be correct, this will completely upset the current model of the universe. And we are correct.” Q. Why is it so important to study the universe? A. “Just like wanting to know about tomorrow, there is a sense of excitement and mystery about the universe. By trying to answer questions by scientific testing, we are able to solve some of those puzzles. The universe is so vast that there are always many more questions to research. This continuous search to understand the universe helps us to understand our own nature.” Q. What is one “saying” you would like to leave with students about understanding the universe? A. “Getting to be an astrophysicist is a lot of hard work, but getting to investigate the universe is worth it!”

Present: Looking Up at the Sky
Being the highest points on their islands, Haleakalā and Maunakea are also the places where Earth and sky are pulled apart “to create the vast expanse of space.” (Lang & Byrne p. 26)

With the help of telescopes, astronomers are able to peer further into space. Some of the largest and most powerful telescopes in the world are located on Maunakea.

Atop Haleakalā, like Maunakea, is Science City, an 18-acre research center that is home to about a dozen observatories with many large and small telescopes. Important observations of the Sun are conducted by the Haleakalā observatories.

The Future

Each telescope conducts research on specific space questions. Research questions range from understanding objects within our solar system to those at the edges of the universe.

• • • • •

© 2011 PREL

Is there evidence of the existence of black holes outside of galaxies? What are dark matter and dark energy? What’s at the edge of our universe? How and when did galaxies first form? Are there Earth-like planets outside of our solar system?

Making Connections

With every answer to a question, our understanding of the universe continues to change. With every answer to a question, more questions are raised.

In your study of Why Māui Snared the Sun, what other place, artifact, symbol, person, or idea would you consider as a bridge from the past, to the present, and into the future?


Learn how astronomers measure the position of stars. An astrolabe was used to determine how many degrees a star is above the horizon.

What’s Your Age?


Examples of Centripetal Force

Yarn Weight (small rock, fishing weight) Plastic protractor Pencil and paper

Try another example of centripetal force: Place a marble in a round hoop. Move the round hoop so the marble moves around the inside edge of the loop. Centripetal force keeps the marble in motion in a curved path. What happens if you lift the hoop? Can you find more examples of centripetal force at work on the school grounds?

The History of the Universe

How old is the universe? See how scientists have compressed the history into one year in The Universe in One Year at http://school.discoveryeducation.com/ schooladventures/universe/itsawesome/ cosmiccalendar/index.html.

Why would your age be different on each planet? Check out Your Age on Other Worlds at www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/ age/index.html. On which planet are you the oldest? Youngest? How does your age on different planets relate to information on the revolution of the planets?

Order it Up!

Universe Time Machine


1. Tie a 10- to 12-inch piece of yarn to the hole on the straight edge of the protractor. Then tie a weight to the other end of the yarn. 2. Sitting on the ground, facing the horizon, hold the protractor to your eye. a. The curved side of the protractor facing down and the zero degree mark is toward your eye. 3. Point the straight edge of the protractor at the star whose position you want to measure. 4. After locating the star at the end of the straight edge of your protractor, read the degree where the string crosses. This number tells you the location of the star, which is the number of degrees above the horizon. Record the name of the star and its location. 5. Take new readings sitting at the same site every 30 minutes. 6. Notice the pattern of the star movement across the sky.


Did you know that when you look at distant objects in the sky, you are really looking back in time? The telescope is like a time machine. How far back in time you see depends on how long the light from the object took to reach you. Check out how far back in time you can see with current telescopes at Light Years: http://school.discoveryeducation.com/ schooladventures/universe/itsawesome/ lightyears/index.html

Check out Order it Up at www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/games/ order_planets_intro.html, which compares the planets’ mass, gravity, rotation period, length of a year, number of moons, and many more relationships. Click on the question for an explanation of the science information related to the question.

What’s Your Weight

Why is your weight different on each planet? Check out Your Weight on Other Worlds at www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/ weight. On which planet do you weigh the most? The least? How are the sizes of the planets related to gravity? You can click on the images of the planets to get more information about them.

© 2011 PREL

Information and skills you are expected to know and demonstrate after you complete Natural Forces of our Universe
1. Explain how the mass of objects creates a gravitational force on other objects. Understand what the universe consists of. 2. Use the science and grade-level vocabulary words and word-learning strategies with accuracy. 3. Use text structures (cause and effect & compare and contrast) to help you understand what you read.

force n. pulling effect that an object has on another object The force of gravity is strong enough to keep us from falling off Earth. gravity n. a physical energy in the universe that pulls objects together The planet Jupiter has the strongest force of gravity. galaxy n. a collection of billions of stars, dust, and other objects that are held together by gravity Our solar system is part of the Milky Way Galaxy. attract v. to cause an object to move toward another object A magnet attracts objects made of steel or iron. attraction n. the act or power of causing an object to move toward another object The gravitational attraction of objects in the universe keeps all objects in place. accelerate v. to increase the speed of After liftoff, rockets need to accelerate to get into a space orbit. dense adj. packed closely together The planets that are made of gas are less dense than planets made of rocks. energy n. force or power, capacity to do work According to scientists, energy cannot be destroyed, but changes from one form to another (e.g., from heat to light). telescopic adj. visible only with the help of a telescope The telescopic view of Mars showed possible life-like processes taking place on the planet. theory n. a reasonable, logical, and widely accepted explanation for why something happens Astronomers continue to observe how the universe operates to provide evidences for their theory on how the universe was formed. motion n. a continuous movement The pull of the sun’s gravity explains the planetary motion of Earth. convert v. to change one thing into a different form or shape Solar panels convert light energy into electrical energy.

Helpful Reading Tools

Understand Cause and Effect Text Structure

Look for the author’s text patterns and signal words that explain reasons or causes for an event or phenomenon. The gravitational attraction of the moon causes Earth’s oceans in the direction of the moon to bulge out.

Understand Compare and Contrast Text Structure
Look for text patterns and signal words that explain similarities of, and differences between two or more ideas. Jupiter has a larger mass than Earth. It also has a stronger gravitational pull than Earth.

Look for Roots of Words

The root, or main part, of “telescopic” is tele-, a Greek root meaning “far, at a distance.”

force n. pulling effect that an object has on another object The force of gravity is strong enough to keep us from falling off Earth. gravity n. a physical energy in the universe that pulls objects together The planet Jupiter has the strongest force of gravity. galaxy n. a collection of star systems made up of dust, gas, and other matter that rotate around a center star Our solar system is part of the Milky Way Galaxy, which is made up of many star systems.

Science Words to Know

© 2011 PREL



Hawai‘iloa . . . . . . . . . . . . .one of the first discoverers of Hawai‘i Kaho‘o leināpe‘a . . . . . . . .the kite falling; site located at Kōloa, Kaua‘i Ka Iwikuamo‘o . . . . . . . . .The Backbone; refers to a star family that represents the second of four sections of the sky that extend from north to south of Hawai‘i Kalupeakawelo . . . . . . . . .Kite of Kawelo; refers to a star family that represents the fourth of four sections of the sky that extends from north to south of Hawai‘i Ke Kā o Makali‘i . . . . . . . .Canoe Bailer of Makali‘i; refers to a star family that represents the first of four sections of the sky that extends from north to south of Hawai‘i Makali‘i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Little eyes; finely meshed netting; Hawaiian name for the star cluster Pleiades Ka Makau Nui o Māui . . . .Māui’s Fishhook; also known as Scorpio; refers to a star family that represents the third of four sections of the sky that extends from north to south of Hawai‘i Wākea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hawaiian sky father Wao akua. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hawaiian sacred place

Overview Bryan, E. H. Jr. (1977). An Introduction to Astronomy. Stars over Hawaii. (pp. 15–18). Hilo, HI: Petroglyph Press. Globio. (n.d.). Glossopedia. Retrieved January 11, 2010, from http://www.globio.org/glossopedia/article.aspx?art_id=36# Hamilton, Calvin J. (1995–2009). The Solar System. Retrieved December 29, 2009, from http://www.solarviews.com/eng/solarsys.htm National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). (2010, March 29). Solar System Exploration. Retrieved January 4, 2010, from http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/index.cfm Understanding Our Universe Formation of the Universe Beckwith, M. (1971). The Kumulipo: a Hawaiian creation chant. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press. Pages 58, 187. Discovery Education. (2010). Cosmic Calendar. The History of the Universe. Retrieved July 13, 2010, from http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schooladventures/universe/ itsawesome/cosmiccalendar/index.html Mills, John. About.com:Space/Astronomy. (2010). The Origin of the Universe. Retrieved July 15, 2010, from http://space.about.com/od/astronomybasics/a/Origin-Of-The-Universe.htm Odenwald, Dr. Sten (1995) The Astronomy Café. Retrieved July 15, 2010, from http://www.astronomycafe.net/ Student Resources Ask an Astrophysicist. Ask NASA’s Imagine the Universe. Retrieved July 13, 2010, from http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/971108a.html Frequently asked questions are addressed. European Space Agency. (2010). Story of the Universe. Retrieved July 13, 2010, from http://www.esa.int/esaKIDSen/SEMSZ5WJD1E_OurUniverse_0.html The Universe in One Year. Retrieved July 13, 2010, from http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schooladventures/universe/itsawesome/cosmiccalendar/ page2.html The history of the universe is compressed into one year, each month representing approximately 1 billion years. Our Vast Universe The Farthest Visible Reaches of Space. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/cosmic/farthest.html Includes pictures of the farthest part of the universe taken by Hubble. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center @ NASA. (n.d.). Star Child A Learning Center for Young Astronomers. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from http://starchild. gsfc.nasa.gov/ Student site that includes information about the universe.

© 2011 PREL

HubbleSite. (2010). The Telescope Hubble Essentials: Quick Facts. Retrieved June 26, 2010, from http://hubblesite.org/the_telescope/hubble_essentials/quick_facts.php Find out interesting facts about the Hubble Space Telescope. 24


Science@NASA. (n.d.). Where’s Hubble Now? Retrieved June 26, 2010, from http://hubblesite.org/the_telescope/where.a.s_hubble_now/basic_version.php Track the current Hubble location as it orbits Earth. Size of the Universe. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://primaxstudio.com/stuff/scale_of_universe.swf Includes the scale of the universe. Hubble American Museum of Natural History. (n.d.). It’s Awesome. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schooladventures/universe/itsawesome/lightyears/index.html HubbleSite. (2010). New Views of the Universe. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from http://hubblesite.org/hubble_discoveries/hstexhibit/universe/about.shtml National Aeronautic Space Administration (NASA). (1990–2010). Amazing SPACE. Star Witness News. Retrieved June 26, 2010, from http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/news/ National Aeronautics Science Administration. (n.d.). The Farthest Visible Reaches of Space. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/cosmic/farthest_info.html What is the Universe? Cowen, Ron. (2010). Hubble Finds Farthest, Oldest Galaxies Ever Seen. Science News. Retrieved July 28, 2010, from http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/01/hubble-finds-farthestoldest-galaxies-yet/ High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center @ NASA. (n.d.). The Universe. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/universe_ level1/universe.html National Geographic. (1996–2010). Solar System. Retrieved June 6, 2010, from http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/solar-system/ National Geographic. (1996–2010). Solar System. Retrieved June 6, 2010, from http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/universe Wikipedia. (2010). Light-year. Retrieved Jun 24, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-year Forces in Our Universe Amazing Space. (2010). Astronomy Basics. Q&A: Gravity. Retrieved June 26, 2010, from http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/eds/astronomy-basics.php#gravity Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (ipac). NASA. (2010). Cool Cosmos. Ask an Astronomer for Kids! Retrieved June 24, 2010, from http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/ cosmic_kids/AskKids/index.shtml Maxwell, Kahu Charles Kauluwehi Sr. (n.d.). Draft Environmental Assessment for the Faulkes Telescope Facility at Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii. Retrieved June 26, 2010, from http://www.moolelo.com/telescope-eis-comments.html National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2005). Phone Dr. Marc Archives. Retrieved June 26, 2010, from http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/phonedrmarc/2002_july.shtml

Universe Today. (2010). Tega, Jessa. Centripetal Force. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from http://www.universetoday.com/guide-to-space/physics/centripetal-force/ Gravity at Work Exploratorium. (1997). Your weight on other worlds. Retrieved June 14, 2010, from http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/ Huffman, A. & Layton, B. (n.d.). “Mass, Weight and, Density.” In UCLA Physics & Astronomy K–6 Connection. Retrieved June 14, 2010, from http://www.physics.ucla.edu/k-6connection/Mass,w,d.htm National Aeronautics & Space Administration/GSFC (n.d.). “Glossary.” In StarChild. Retrieved June 14, 2010, from http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/glossary_level2/glossary_ text.html#gravity The Planetary Society. (1993-2010). Find your weight on other planets. Retrieved June 14, 2010, from http://www.planetary.org/explore/kids/activities/planetweights.html Gravity at Work—Creating Tides Cooley, Keith. (2002). Moontides. Retrieved July 7, 2010, from http://home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/Astro/moon/moontides/ EnchantedLearning.com. (2010). What Causes Tides? http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ocean/Tides.shtml HowStuffWorks. (2010). What Causes High Tide and Low Tide? Retrieved July 7, 2010, from http://www.howstuffworks.com/tide-cause.htm Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Ed. p. 1306. Springfield, MA: MerriamWebster. Nova. (2002). What Causes Tides? Retrieved July 7, 2010, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/venice/tides.html Universe Today. (2009). What Causes Tides. Retrieved July 7, 2010, from http://www.universetoday.com/guide-to-space/earth/what-causes-tides/ Black Holes National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2005). If the Sun became a black hole, would Earth get pulled inside? Retrieved July 23, 2010, from http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/ phonedrmarc/2003_february.shtml National Geographic. (2005). Supermassive Black Hole at Center of Milky Way, Study Hints. Retrieved July 23, 2010, from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/1102_051102_ black_hole.html National Geographic. (2004). Word Book at NASA. Black Hole. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/blackhole_worldbook.html National Geographic. (2010). NASA’s Imagine the Universe. Retrieved July 23, 2010, from http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l2/black_holes.html Dark Matter and Dark Energy High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC). (2009). NASA’s Imagine the Universe. Dark Energy. Retrieved July 15, 2010, from http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/mysteries_l1/dark_energy.html National Aeronautics Space Administration. (2010). Dark Energy, Dark Matter. Retrieved on July 15, 2010, from http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-is-dark-energy/

© 2011 PREL



National Aeronautics Space Administration. (2010). NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Retrieved July 15, 2010, from, http://jdem.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Factoids Alu Like, Inc., Hale Kuamo‘o, and Bishop Museum. (2006). Ulukau Hawaiian Electronic Library. Retrieved on August 24, 2010, from www.nupepa.org Braqanca.Pedro. Space.com. (2003). Retrieved June 15, 2010, from http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/brightest_stars_030715-1.html Infrared Processing and Analysis Center & National Aeronautics & Space Administration. (n.d.). Cool Cosmos. Ask an Astronomer for Kids! Retrieved July 7, 2010, from http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_kids/AskKids/index.shtml National Aeronautics & Space Administration. (n.d.). Stars. Retrieved July 11, 2010, from http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/universe_level2/stars.html National Geographic Society. (2010). Stars. Retrieved June 14, 2010, from http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/universe/stars-article/ Universe Today. (2009). Interesting Facts About Stars. Retrieved June 14, 2010, from http://www.universetoday.com/guide-to-space/stars/interestingfacts-about-stars/ Looking Beyond our Solar System—To the Stars Astronomical Society of the Pacific. (1992). The Universe in the Classroom. The Constellations. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from http://www.astrosociety.org/education/publications/tnl/21/21.html#who Beckwith, Martha. (1940). Hawaiian Mythology. Retrieved July 2, 2010, from http://www.sacred-texts.com/pac/hloh/hloh26.htm http://www.sacred-texts.com/pac/hm/hm32.htm Bishop Museum Press. (1918–1919). Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History. Fornander Collection of Hawaiian Antiquities and Folk-Lore. Retrieved July 2, 2010, from http://www.archive.org/stream/memoirsbern05bernuoft/ memoirsbern05bernuoft_djvu.txt Hawaiian Astronomical Society. (n.d.). Constellations: Scorpius. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from http://www.hawastsoc.org/deepsky/sco/index.htmlKalupeakawelo Ifa Hawaii. (2003). Constellations. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/~barnes/ASTR110L_S03/constellations.html Kaho‘olein?pe‘a.`Imiloa. Hawaiian Starlines. (2009). The Guidance in the Sky. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from http://www.imiloahawaii.org/assets/Starcharts_fishhook-Edit-lg.jpg http://www.imiloahawaii.org/72/hawaiian-starlines Kaichi, Carolyn. (2008). The GardenIsland.com. Southern Cross graces sky in March. http://thegardenisland.com/news/article_ddb6222f-b1b0-5751-9fd0-205b6ef61e89.html Polynesian Voyaging Society. (n.d.). How the Wayfinder Holds the Canoe’s Course. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from http://pvs.kcc.hawaii.edu/navigate/hold.html Silva, Carol. Makali‘i and the Makahiki. Spirit of Aloha. Retrieved July 2, 2010, from http://www.stravaiger.com/cycling/hawaii/info/makalii/index.php
© 2011 PREL

Bridging the Past, Present, and the Future Lang, Leslie & Byrne, David A. Mauna Kea A Guide to Hawai‘i’s Sacred Mountain. Honolulu, HI: Watermark Publishing. (2005). Maxwell, Kahu Charles Kauluwehi Sr. (n.d.). Draft Environmental Assessment for the Faulkes Telescope Facility at Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from http://www.moolelo.com/ telescope-eis-comments.html Na Maka o ka Aina. (2010). Mauna Kea-from mountain to sea. Retrieved July 23,2010, from http://www.mauna-a-wakea.info/maunakea/A1_waters.html Office of Mauna Kea Management. (2010). Hawaiian Culture. Retrieved July 23, 2010, from http://www.malamamaunakea.org/?page_id=115 Steele, Julia. (2010) View from the Top. Hana Hou! pp. 54–64. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Travelogue, Inc. Timeline Chang, Alicia. Associated Press. (2010). 25,000 new asteroids found by NASA’s sky mapping. The Honolulu Star-Advertiser. July 17, 2010. p. A3. Hilo Living. (2010). World Class Astronomy. Retrieved July 17, 2020, from http://www.hiloliving.com/Astronomy%20Hawaii.html Institute for Astronomy. (2010) http://www.boston.com/travel/getaways/us/hawaii/articles/2009/12/20/island_of_extremes/?page=2 Millis, John. About.com:Space/Astronomy. (2010). The Origin of the Universe. Retrieved July 15, 2010, from http://space.about.com/od/astronomybasics/a/Origin-Of-The-Universe.htm Pickles, Andrew. (2003). Timeline of Astronomy in Hawai‘i. Retrieved August 4, 2010, from http://mkooc. org/css-timeline.html W. M. Keck Observatory. (2010). Cosmic Matters. Zooming in on infant planetary systems. Retrieved July 17, 2010, from http://keckobservatory.org/index.php/blog/zooming_in_on_infant_ planetary_systems/ Western Astronomy Comes to Hawai‘i. (n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.ironwoodobservatory.com/Support/ironwood_observatory_research.pdf Pāhana Discovery Education (2010). The American Museum of Natural History Galaxy Tour. Retrieved August, 2010, from http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schooladventures/universe/ galaxytour/index.html http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schooladventures/universe/itsawesome/lightyears/index.html http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schooladventures/universe/itsawesome/cosmiccalendar/index.html Hipschman, Ron. (1997). Your Weight on Other Worlds. Retrieved August 6, 2010, from http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2009). Space Place. Retrieved August 6, 2009, from http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/ National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA). (2010). Windows to the Universe. Order it Up. Retrieved August 6, 2010, from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/games/order_planets_intro.html Numedeon, Inc. (n.d.). National Aeronautic Space Administration. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Virtual Field Trip. Retrieved August 6, 2010, from http://virtualfieldtrip.jpl.nasa.gov/smmk/top



Photo Credits Dr. Paul Coleman (p. 18) . . . . . . . . King Kalākaua (p. 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . Ke Kā o Makali‘i (p. 13) . . . . . . . . . Ka Iwiku‘amo‘o (p. 14) . . . . . . . . . . Ka Makau Nui o Māui (p. 15) . . . . . Kalupeakawelo (p. 16) . . . . . . . . . . Mees (page 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image (cover) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solar System (p. 2). . . . . . . . . . . . . Farthest Image (p. 10) . . . . . . . . . . Dark Matter (p. 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maunakea (p. 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planetary System (p. 10) . . . . . . . . Spiral Galaxy (p. 9). . . . . . . . . . . . . Moey Night (p. 8, 17) . . . . . . . . . . . Bishop Museum Planetarium (p. 6) Haleakalā Telescopes (p. 17) . . . . .

Courtesy Dr. Paul Coleman Courtesy Hawai‘i Bishop Museum Courtesy Imiloa Astronomy Center of Hawai‘i Courtesy Imiloa Astronomy Center of Hawai‘i Courtesy Imiloa Astronomy Center of Hawai‘i Imiloa Astronomy Center of Hawai‘i Courtesy K. Robertson, Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Courtesy W. M. Keck Observatory Courtesy W. M. Keck Observatory Courtesy W. M. Keck Observatory Courtesy W. M. Keck Observatory Courtesy Michael Q. Ceballos Courtesy Michael Q. Ceballos

Written Contributions Nancy Alima Ali, Coordinator of Public Programs, Center for Science Education, Space Sciences Lab, UC Berkeley Winona Chang, Pacific Resources for Education and Learning Joylynn Paman, Curriculum Writer Karen Victor, Science Teacher, Ke Kula ‘o S. M. Kamakau LPCS Special Thanks To Christine Antolos John Camac Paul Coleman Javier Elizondo Darlene Fainuulelei-Butler Myra Hasegawa Alyce Ikeoka Ross Inouye Amber Inwood Rubellite Johnson

Hedy Kaneoka Terry Kelly Scott Kunihiro Susan Kusunoki Marylin Low Corinne Misaki-Wingert Troy Mulivai Roger Osentoski Jennifer Padua Lori Phillips

Lee Ann Ānuenue Pūnua Rona Dale Rosco Rodenhurst Liane Sing Pamela Suga Marisa Torigoe Melissa Torres-Laing Gerald Yutob

Bishop Museum Haha‘ione Elementary School Imiloa Astronomy Center of Hawai‘i Hawai‘i Department of Education

Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i Kamehameha Schools

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) President and CEO Sharon Nelson-Barber Creative Producer Michael Q. Ceballos Evaluators Andrew Sahalie Chuck Giuli Executive Producer Ormond Hammond
© 2011 PREL

Curriculum Developer Ellen Miyasato Cultural Advisor Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua, Kamehameha Schools Production Assistant Frances Oshiro Line Producer Kaira Resch

Artist Bryson Luke Curriculum Advisors Susan Hanson Cheryl Taitague