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Physiognomonica

Physiognomonica

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Physiognomonics (Greek: Φυσιογνωμονικά, Latin: Physiognomonica) is an Ancient Greek treatise on physiognomy casually attributed to Aristotle (and part of the Corpus Aristotelicum) but now believed to be by an author writing approximately 300 BC.
Physiognomonics (Greek: Φυσιογνωμονικά, Latin: Physiognomonica) is an Ancient Greek treatise on physiognomy casually attributed to Aristotle (and part of the Corpus Aristotelicum) but now believed to be by an author writing approximately 300 BC.

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HYSIOGNOMONICA

BY

T.

LOVEDAY

AND

E. S.

FORSTER

OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1913

PREFACE
THIS work, as \ve have it, is evidently a compilation of two treatises, the second beginning with Chapter IV.
Neither
is

Aristotle s

:

both

may

be Peripatetic.

Prantl

s

text (Teubner, 1881) has been used, but a great many emendations have been taken from Forster s text and

very

notes in his Scriptores Physiognomonici (1893), vol. i. On J. B. Forster s excellent work we have chiefly relied has also proved Porta s De humana physiognomonia (1650) useful. We have, as before, to thank Mr. W. D. Ross
;

for his kind advice

and suggestions.

After some hesitation

we decided
,

to use the less
,

clumsy
the
.

forms

more accurate

physiognomic Physiognomy physiognomonic Physiognomony
,

in place of

T. L.

E. S. F.

CONTENTS
CHAP. 1. Methods.
2. 3.

Sources of signs. Signs of different characters.

4.
5.

Body and

soul.

Method

again.

Typical animals.
Inferences, chiefly from animals.

6.

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
I

not independent of and unaffected 805* but is conditioned by the state of by bodily processes, and contrariwise the body is sympathetically the body influenced by affections of the soul. 1 The former of these propositions is well exemplified by drunkenness and sick ness, where altered bodily conditions produce obvious 5 mental modifications, and the second by the emotions of
character
is
;

MENTAL

love and fear, and by states of pleasure and pain. 2 still better instances of the fundamental connexion of

But
body
10

and soul and their very extensive interaction may be found normal products of nature. 3 There never was an animal w ith the form of one kind and the mental character of another the soul and body appropriate to the same kind always go together, and this shows that a specific body involves a specific mental character. Moreover, experts on the lower animals are always able to judge of character it is thus that a horseman chooses his by bodily form
in the
r
: :

15

horse or a sportsman his dogs.
to

be true (and

it

always

is

true),

Now, supposing all this physiognomy must be

practicable.

Three methods have been essayed in the past, each having had its special adherents. i. The first method took as the basis for physiognomic
inferences the various genera of animals, positing for each

20

genus a peculiar animal form, and consequently upon this a peculiar mental character, and then assuming that if a man resembles such and such a genus in form he will
resemble
1

it

also in soul. 4

8o5
*
&>5

a

2, 3.

a
805"

*

8o5
xav

a

(})v<Tioyi><t>fjLovov<ri,

Read Kivr^f^v, rouro SjjXov (as in Stobaeus, Anthol. i. 47 b ). Place re after \virat, as Forster suggests. i.e. in animals. 8. Read with Wachsmuth of /ueV yap eV TWI/ yev&v 2l,22. Km did TidffMvoi Kud eKao-rov yevos dSos n
7.
q>ov

oia fnerui rca rotouro) o-co/ucm, eiYa TOV Sfiowv
ii

TO
TUVT<J>
(T<*p.<i

[or

keep rw

Kttl

8os

a

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
Those who adopted the second method proceeded in the same way, except that they did not draw their inferences from all kinds of animals but confined themselves
2.

25

to

human

(e. g.

beings they distinguished various races of men Egyptian, Thracian, Scythian) by differences of appear
:

ance and of character, and drew their signs of character from these races just as others did from animal genera.
3.

The

third

method took
which

as

its

basis the characteristic
to

facial

expressions

are

observed

accompany
fear,

different conditions of mind,
30

such as anger,

erotic

excitement, and all the other passions. the All these methods are possible, and others as well selection of signs may be made in diverse ways. The last:

mentioned method by itself, however, is defective in more than one respect. For one thing, the same facial expression may belong to different characters the brave and the
:

impudent,
5

for example, look alike,

are far asunder.

Besides, a man is not normally his expression which

person will assume a cheerful countenance, whilst a naturally cheerful man, if he be distressed, will change his expression accord And, thirdly, the number of inferences that can ingly.

though their characters may at times wear an for instance, a morose now and again spend an enjoyable day and
:

be drawn from
10

facial expression alone

is

small.

arguments from beasts, the selection of signs is made on wrong principles. Suppose you have passed in review one by one the forms of all the different kinds of animals, you still have no right to assert that a man who
to

As

15

resembles a given kind in body will resemble it in soul In the first place, speaking broadly, you will never also. 1 More find this complete likeness, but only a resemblance.

20

very few signs are peculiar to individual genera most of them are common to more than one kind, and of what use is resemblance in a common attribute ? A man will resemble a lion, let us say, neither more nor less than a deer. (For we have a right to suppose that common signs indicate common mental characters and peculiar
over,
;

1

8o5
is

b
15.

jue r rt

should probably be omitted with

I

a
,

but

Hayduck

s

(v TI

attractive.

CHAPTER
signs peculiar characters).

I

8os
will

b

Thus the physiognomist

not get any clear evidence from common signs. 1 But is he any better off if he takes every genus by itself and
selects signs that are peculiar to

each

?

Surely not, for he

cannot

tell

what they are

signs

of peculiar characteristics,

They ought to be signs but we have no right to assume
of.

that there are any mental characteristics peculiar to the different kinds of animals that we examine in physiognomy.

found in many 25 nor timidity to the hare, but it shares this quality with numberless other creatures. Thus it is equally fruitless to select the common and the peculiar features, and we must abandon the attempt to proceed by an examination of every kind of animal singly. Rather, we ought to select our signs from all animals that have some 3 mental affection in common. 2 For instance, when investi gating the external marks of courage, we ought to collect all brave animals, and then to inquire what sort of affections are natural to all of them but absent in all other animals. For if we were to select this or that as the signs of courage 8o6 a
Courage
is

not confined to the
;

lion,

but

is

other creatures

in

the animals chosen in such a

way

as not to exclude

the possibility of the presence in all these animals of some other mental affection, 3 we should not be able to tell

whether our selected marks were really signs
or of this other character.
filled,

of

courage
ful
5

Two

conditions

must be

therefore

:

the animals from which

we choose our

signs

must be

as

numerous as

possible,

and they must not

have any mental affection in common except that one of which we are investigating the signs. Permanent bodily signs will indicate permanent mental qualities, but what about those that come and go ? How
can they be true signs
also
1

if

the mental character does not
if

come and go

?

4

No doubt

you took a transitory

ro

Read with Forster duio-afyjijeit on the evidence of the Latin version by Earth. Messanius. 2 b 8o5 29. The Latin version of Earth. Mess, supports amivrcav in place of avdpunatv. Otherwise uvopoluv would seem more likely to have given rise to the error. 3 8o6 a 1-3. Inserting wore before pi]. Wachsmuth proposed to omit rnvTi errrt TCI rrrj/jLf ia avUpeias. 4 a 8o6 9. Omitting with Hayduck.
i

b 8o5 2i.

^

8o6 a

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
might be true once in a way, but still it would be worthless because it would not be a con stant concomitant of a particular state of soul. 1
it

sign to be permanent,

r

Then again there are affections of soul whose occurrence produces no change in the bodily marks on which the physiognomist relies, and they will not provide his art with
recognizable signs.
for the fact of
2

Thus

as regards opinions or scientific

knowledge, you cannot recognize a doctor or a musician,

having acquired a piece of knowledge will not have produced any alteration in the bodily signs on
relies.

which physiognomy

20

special province of physio- 2 the range of its application is limited), and gnomy (for the sources from which its various kinds of data are drawn,

WE

must now determine the

and then we may proceed to a detailed exposition more convincing among its conclusions.

of the

25

for its province, as the name implies, natural affections of mental content, and also such acquired affections as on their occurrence modify the

Physiognomy has

all

I will signs which physiognomists interpret. later \vhat kinds of acquired characters are meant, explain

external

3

but now I will give a list a complete list of the sources from which physiognomic signs are drawn. They are
these
:

30 tcristic facial

movements, gestures of the body, colour, characexpression, the growth of the hair, the smooth

of the body,
is

ness of the skin, the voice, condition of the flesh, the parts and the build of the body as a whole. Such

the

list

in
r,5

which they find

that physiognomists always give of the sources their signs. Had this list been obscure

or insignificant, 4 there would have been no use in my going any further but, as things are, it may be worth while 8o6 b to give a more detailed description of the more convincing 5
;

of the inferences that they
1

draw from
7rp<iy/*<m.

their material,

and

2

8d6 a 8o6 a
a
4>

12.
1

F. reads

-rradfjfiaTi

for

5.

Or, accepting F. s suggested yvwptora,
his art.

they will not be
error

recognizable by
3

(u6um)m,
4

8o6 a

The text seems to be corrupt. F. suggests TU trrjuela rwr KrA. F. reads evaaff)^- r) /j.t] n<Trj^.os. 358o6 a 37. Read (mtfjavfVTfpa F.
o6 25.
ru>v.

The

may

lie

in

CHAPTER
to state
*

2

8o6

l

what
to

their various signs arc
I

supposed

be found, so far as

and where they are have not already done so.
naturally good
5

A

brilliant

complexion indicates a hot sanguine temper,

whilst
parts,

when

a pale pink complexion signifies it occurs on a smooth skin.

Soft hair indicates cowardice, and coarse hair courage. This inference is based on observation of the whole animal

The most timid of animals are deer, hares, and whilst the lion and they have the softest coats sheep, and wild-boar are bravest and have the coarsest coats. Precisely the same holds good of birds, for it is the rule that birds with coarse plumage are brave and those with soft plumage timid, particular instances being the cock and the And again, among the different races of mankind quail.
kingdom.
;

10

the

same combination

of qualities

may

be observed, the

15

inhabitants of the north being brave and coarse-haired, whilst southern peoples are cowardly and have soft hair.

A

about -the belly signifies loquacity, whole tribe of birds, for the one is 2 a bodily and the other a mental property peculiar to birds. When the flesh is hard and constitutionally firm, it in
thick growth on the evidence
of hair of the

20

dicates

dullness

of

sense

;

when smooth,

it

indicates

naturally good parts combined with instability of character, except when smooth flesh goes with a strong frame and

powerful extremities.
Lethargic movements are a sign of a soft character, rapid
25

movements of a fervid temper. As to the voice, when deep and full it is a sign when high-pitched and languid, of cowardice.
Gesture

of courage;

and the
their

preted by
instance,

varieties of facial expression are inter for 30 if, affinity to different emotions
:

disagreeably affected, the look which normally characterizes
irascibility
1

when
is

a

man

takes

on

an angry person,

3

signified.
re

8o6 b

I.

Omitting

with F.
;

of birds in the sense that they do not occur lower animals but they may occur in men, for other wise no physiognomic conclusions could be drawn from them. 3 806^ 30-31. Reading orav yap mitrx?) TI, d TOIOVTOV TI yiverni olov

2

These

qualities are

ifiia

in the rest of the

e^fi orav Tis opyifyrai, opyiXov TO

vrjp.f iov.

rov 8 CIVTOV ytvovs TO

tippfii

KT\.

8o6 b

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
Males are bigger and stronger than females
kind, and their extremities are stronger firmer and capable of more perfect
of the same and sleeker and

performance

of

all

3?

functions.

But

inferences

drawn from the parts

of the

body
8o7
a
is

of character

are less secure than those based on facial expression 1 and movements and gesture. In general it silly to rely on a single sign you will have more reason
:

5

your conclusions when you find several signs all pointing one way. Here I may mention a possible method of physiognomy which has never yet been tried. Suppose, e.g., that irasci2 bility and morose sulkiness necessarily involve an envious disposition, and that the physiognomist could, without any bodily signs of the last character, deduce its presence from the presence of the other characters, we should then have a method peculiarly appropriate to masters of philosophy,
,

for confidence in

10

since

when

is, we suppose, the peculiar mark of philosophy, certain premises are given, to know the necessary conclusion. 3 But this method which considers the inter

it

relations of

empirical observation

mental affections and that which proceeds by of animals sometimes arrive at

4 Take the voice, for example. By contrary conclusions. the former method you might feel bound 5 to connect a shrill voice with a fierce temper, because in vexation and 15

anger

one

s

voice tends to

become loud and

shrill,

whilst placid

people speak in tones at once languid and deep. But as against this, if you observe beasts, you find that a deep voice goes with courage and a shrill voice with
timidity,
bull,

as witness on the one

hand the roar

of lion

and

the

20

hound s bay, and the deep-noted crow of high-spirited and on the other, the high-pitched tones of deer and
1

cocks,
hares.

2

8o6 b 36. Omitting eV rols with three MSS. Cf. 805* 28. a 8o7 5. Reading mKpo with Sylburg. a 8o7 ip. Reading TO avaynalov (I8(vm. Schneider reads Snep
i/

e

fl8fvai.
4

807*^11,
TiovTiu
T<U

12.

Kara ra

In this very corrupt passage F. reads fvriv ore eWeo-Ti S 6Ye seems Trdffr] (f)V(noyva>p.nv?iv TO Kara TU
f<5n.

necessary to^ avoid undue abruptness. The abruptness of the next sentence irepi (jxavijs is suspicious. The sense is Kara TU fcoa, olov rrein
OVI]S
6

KOTO

(Ji(l>

KrA.
8e"iv

807*

14.

Read with L a

in place of 8velv

eVe/cei/.

CHAPTER

2
to connect
voice,

8o7

a

Yet perhaps even in these cases it is better not courage and cowardice with the pitch of the
rather with
its
1 intensity, so that

but

it is

strength of voice that

marks the brave and a languid and feeble voice the coward. It is safest, however, to refrain from all positive assertion when you find that your signs are inconsistent and contrary to one another in detail, unless they belong to classes, some of which you have determined to be more trustworthy than
others.

25

Above

all it is

best to base your arguments

upon
it is

assertions about species

and not about
is

entire genera, for

the species more nearly resembles the individual, and

with individuals that physiognomy

concerned

;

for in

physiognomy we try
of of

from bodily signs the character or that particular person, and not the characters this the whole human race.
to infer
of

?>0

3

SIGNS
of the
ities
;

Courage
;

are-

coarse hair

;

an upright carriage

and strength of bones, sides and extrem body the belly broad and flat shoulder-blades broad and
size
;

neither too closely nor too loosely knit 35 a sturdy neck, not very fleshy a chest well covered with flat hips flesh and broad the thickness of the calf low 8o7 b down the leg 2 gleaming eyes, neither wide and staring
set well apart,
;
;
;

;

;

nor yet mere
brilliant

slits,
3

and not glistening

;

the

body

of a

a forehead straight and lean, not large, and neither quite smooth nor yet a mass of wrinkles. Signs of Cowardice are a small growth of soft hair the figure

hue

;

;

5

stooping

and lacking in quickness the thickness of the calf high up the leg a sallow complexion weak blinking weak extremities little legs, and hands long and eyes delicate loins small and weak a rigid gesture of the
; ;

4

;

;

;

;

;

ro

with undecided, deprecating, scared movements, body and a shifty downcast look. Good natural parts are indicated by rather moist and
;

5

1

8o7 23.
,

a

fv eppaneirii
orTf
(fi<avi]v.
!

8o7
vfl^, d

b

F. thinks that there is a lacuna between f v rw and and suggests that the last of the missing word s may be But it is more likely that there is an anacoluthon.
TI]I>

I.

807"

2, 3

&c. 807

IO.

Read with Schneider Karecrn-uo-^ai. Read (Tvppvov, avx^porepov TO ... ov ptrumov 4 b 8o7 5. Read ro5 o-w/zm-t avyKKa6fiKa>s. Read TO o-co/ua (Tvirovov, ev TOIS Kivrjcrecriv owe ira/io?. F.
cra>/j.aTOS

Soy
tender

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
flesh, not exactly firm nor yet extremely fat by leanness of the shoulders, neck, face, and neighbouring regions; by shoulder-blades closely knit and the parts
;

i

?

below slack

a somewhat gaunt back by supple sides a small a thin skin a clear pinkish hue over the body and of hair, neither very coarse nor very black growth
1
; ; ;

;

;

;

20

Dullness of sense is indicated when the back of the neck and the legs are fleshy and stiffly the shoulderthe hip-joint round fitted and knitted
moist, gleaming eyes.
;
;

blades high-set

25

the the forehead big, round, and fleshy and vacant the legs thick and fleshy and round eyes pale at the ankles; the jaws big and fleshy; loins fleshy;
; ; ;

legs long

;

neck thick-set
of

;

the face fleshy and rather long.

The manner
of the dull

movement, gesture, and facial expression 2 man, you may take it, are analogous to his

character.

jo

Impudence is signified by small, bright, wide-open eyes, with heavy blood-shot lids slightly bulging 3 high shouldera carriage of the body not erect, but crouched blades
;

;

slightly forwards

over the body

;

a reddish hue quickness of movement with a sanguine complexion, a round face,
;

;

and high
35

chest.
;

Signs

of

Good Moral Character are

a slow gait

a slow
;

and weak

4

voice

speaking with a breath-like small eyes, black but not lustrous, not

way

of

open and staring, nor yet mere
8o8 a movement of the
lids

slits

;

with a slow, blinking

for rapid blinking signifies either

cowardice or a hot temperament.

Good Spirits are indicated by a good-sized forehead, fleshy a rather the region of the eyes rather low and smooth
;

;

5

drowsy-looking countenance, neither keen nor reflective. The gait, we may suppose, will be slow and languid, the and facial expression those of a good but not
gesture a quick man.
;

brows
1
8c>7

lean and wrinkled Signs of Low Spirits are enfeebled eyes (but you should notice that weak

2
:!

4

8o7 b 8o7 3O. b 8o7 35.

b i6. b 28.

Read uvfipiva. Schneider. Read ava\a^ave (F.) on evidence of Barth. Mess. Read Traced, p.iKpbv eyKvpra. Read d<r0(^s. F. (I a has aadivts according to Bekker).
de physiogn.
liber,

Cp. Anon,

107

Vocem

infirmi

spiritus

.

.

.

CHAPTER
eyes

3

8o8 a
10

may signify softness and
x

effeminacy as well as dejection
gait.
;

and low

spirits)

;

a

meek bearing and weary
;

his head weak-eyed and knock-kneed hangs on his right shoulder his hands are carried upturned and flabbily and as he walks he either wags his loins or else holds them rigid and he casts a furtive by an effort for all the world like Dionysius the gaze around, Sophist.
is
; ;

The Pathic

i5

Sulkiness

is

indicated

by a
;

plexion and withered skin

snarling grin ; a black com a gaunt, wrinkled face and the
;

neighbouring regions furrowed with lines black hair.

and by straight
20

Men

of Fierce
ribs

about the

Temper bear themselves erect, are broad and move with an easy gait their bodies
;
;

are of a reddish hue, 2 their shoulder-blades set well apart, their extremities large and powerful large and broad they are smooth about the chest and groin they have great beards, and the hair of the head starts low down with a
;
;

vigorous growth. Those of a Gentle disposition are robust-looking, well covered with plenty of moist flesh well-sized men and
;

25

well-proportioned

back
than

;

carrying themselves with head thrown and their hair starts rather higher up on the head
;

is

usual.

his eyes,

is fat about the face, with wrinkles round and he wears a drowsy expression. The Small-Minded have small limbs and small, delicate, lean bodies, small eyes and small faces, just like a Corin

The Sly man

30

thian or Leucadian.

Men

addicted to Gaming and Dancing have short arms,
the
their

like weasels.

Railers have
3

projecting,

and

upper lip updrawn, hue is reddish.

and the lower

The Compassionate are delicate, pale, and lustrous-eyed the top of their nostrils is furrowed with lines, and they are always weeping. Such men are fond of women and
:

35

beget

,

.
.

.

TU n*v
M.
I

.

.

efy\v,

TU Of

x

SoS<*

20.
.

Read

r
1

TW KT/\., as F. suggests. fWupor), optfos tr^mi-i, etijrXtvpos, efyufyos, f ninvppns TO
. . .
<=i>

8cS- 33.
845-8

Read

TU KUTCO irpantTes with

Schneider.

E

8o8 a

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
female children, and in character they arc erotic and mindful of the past, with good natural parts and a fervid temper. of these qualities have already been mentioned. The
signs

8o8 b Compassion goes with wisdom, with cowardice, and with with stupidity and good moral character, hardness of heart
effrontery.

5

navel to Gluttony is indicated when the distance from chest is greater than that from chest to neck. Lasciviousness is indicated by a pale complexion, a heavy
a growth of straight, thick, black hair over the body, heavy of straight hair on the temples, and small, lustrous, growth lewd eyes. In the Somnolent the upper parts are disproportionately 1 such men are bulky and hot, and their flesh is firm. large
:

indicated by disproportionate size of the a thick growth upper parts, with a round delicate build, and of hair about the belly. when the upper parts are is A Good
2

Loquacity

is

Memory

signified

10

are delicate and tolerably disproportionately small, and covered with flesh. well

SOUL and body, as it seems to me, are affected symon the one hand, an alteration pathetically by one another
:

of the state of the soul

15

produces an alteration in the form and contrariwise an alteration in bodily form of the body, Grief and joy, soul. produces an alteration in the state of the soul, and every one to take an instance, are states of knows that grief involves a gloomy and joy a cheerful countenance. Now if it were the case that the external rid of these expression persisted after the soul had got 3 we might still say that soul and body are in emotions, not be sympathy, but their sympathetic changes would
concomitant.

20 entirely

As a matter

of fact,

however,

it is

obvious that
1

every modification

of

the one involves

a

Read oyxwSeis with Rose. Read exovrft. AuXoi* ol TO livm KT\. F. following Schneider and Rose. 8o8 b 17, 8. The passage is corrupt and
2
1

8o8 b 7. 8o8 b 8.

/ieia>

t^wrfs

KUI

translation supposes that

fiivtiv is

the sense uncertain. nearer to the original than the better

supported

CHAPTER
modification of the other.
to be

4
best instance of this
it
is

808"

The

is

Mania, insanity. generally a condition of the soul, yet doctors cure it partly by administering purgative drugs to the body, partly by prescribing, besides these, certain courses of diet. Thus the
allowed,
is

found

x

in

manic

result of proper

treatment of the body

is

that they succeed,

and that too simultaneously, not only in altering the physical condition, but also in curing the soul of mania and the fact that the changes are simultaneous proves that the sympathetic modifications of body and soul are
;

25

thoroughly concomitant.
equally indisputable that differences in the soul s capacities are represented by corresponding physical traits, so that all the resemblances 2 in animals are indicative of
It is

some

identity.
30

Again, if we consider the behaviour of animals, we find that some affections of the soul are peculiar to particular
genera, whilst others are common to several, and that the peculiar activities are accompanied by peculiar, the

physical traits. Examples of common characters are insolence, which is found in all animals with bushy tails, and violent sexual excitability, 3 which is

common by common,

35

found alike
railing
is

in asses

and

in

dogs

4
:

whilst on the other

hand

a character peculiar to dogs, and insensibility to a pain is peculiar to the ass. I have already explained how 8og common and peculiar characters are to be distinguished.

At the same time it is only by long and wide experience that one can hope for oneself to attain detailed and expert understanding of these matters. For not only are visible
characteristics of the
as

body

to be referred for explanation,
5

drawn partly from animals, from modes of action, but there are other external partly traits which depend on the varying proportions of bodily
are told, to analogies

we

Read yeW. F. Read anavrn (ra) o/uoui. Siebeck (Gesch. Psycli. I. 2. 263) takes this to mean that alle Erscheinungen am lebendigen Wesen nur die Erscheinungsformen eines und desselben Princips seien and but it probably means merely that speaks of organische Einheit wherever you find similarity of external traits, you can reckon on some 3 8o8 b 34. Read identity of character. Sylburg. 8o8 b 36. Read for ITVMV, as F. suggests.
2

1

8o8 2i. 8oS b 29.

<uv)

</.

,

eK<rruu-ir.

Kw5>r

E 2

8og

a

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
heat and cold
traits are
;

and

to

add
alike

to the difficulty,

some

of these

very

much

and have not got

distinctive

10

with the paleness that results names, as is the case e.g. 1 Now when from terror and the paleness due to fatigue. can hardly be discerned except the difference is so slight, it

by those

the taught to appreciate with different shades of expression congruity of different from congruity of mind, and so the argument conditions

whom

practice has

15

2 and soundest conclusions, and enables It is a method us to distinguish minute differences. in the selection of physio and particularly generally useful, with the signs selected must be congruous signs, for gnomic 3 what they stand for. of signs, ,o Deduction also should be used in the selection 4 we attach whenever possible. In the deductive procedure them. For instance, if to our data known attributes of 5 and we have it given that a man is an impudent blackguard we can add that he will be a thief and a miser,

leads to the quickest

25

penurious, the other as the one as a consequence of his effrontery, In all such cases we a consequence of his penuriousness. in our procedure. to include the deductive method

ought
I

they are or timorous, upright, or dishonest. respectively brave the whole animal kingdom for this purpose have to divide and to show into two physical types, male and female, are congruous with each of these what mental attributes 6 the female is In all beasts that we try to breed ,o types. than the male, less power tamer and gentler in disposition reared and more manageable. One may ful, more easily a less spirited temper, conclude from this that the female has
if

WILL now first attempt to make a division are bound to differ by the marks in which they

of

animals

,

We

35

and

I

think

we

for find a parallel to this in ourselves,

when
7

we are mastered by a fit of temper we become more and and totally intractable; we grow headstrong
a 8o9 10. a 2
1

obstinate

violent

3
* 5

7

8oo 14. a 8o9 18. a 8o9 20. 8oo a 2l. a So9 30. a 8o9 35,

Read Read

xdi al OTTO.

F.
6.

A

apio-ros (rpon-os)

F.

passage corrupt, perhaps beyond Omit and TI. F. Read TIS for re. F.

36.

Read eWi 8e onola OWXii/M^" rptqxiv. Read SrorrapaTrttcrTOTepoi. Sylburg.
ai>

CHAPTER
the female
in

5
Further,

and do whatever our temper impels us to do.

is, my opinion, more mischievous than the h Every one can 8og male, and (though feebler) more reckless. see that this is so in women and in domesticated animals, and according to the unanimous evidence of herdsmen and

hunters
it is

it is

no

less true of

the beasts of the

field.

Moreover,
5

of the beyond dispute that in every genus the head female is smaller than that of the male, her visage narrower, her neck thinner, her chest weaker, her sides of smaller

build,

and

that, whilst her hips

and thighs are
:

fuller,

she

inclines to be knock-kneed, the lower parts of her legs are in short, less stout, and her feet more delicately made l rather than to the eye the build of her body is pleasing

ic

imposing, and she of moister tissue.
his
is is

comparison feeble and tender, and 2 The male is the opposite of all this the braver and more upright nature, whilst the female
is

in

:

the more timid and less upright. This being so, the lion manifestly exhibits the male type He has a good-sized mouth his in its most perfect form.
:

15

level with visage is square and not too bony, the upper jaw his nose you would call, the lower and not protruding his gleaming eyes are deep-set, if anything, rather thick and neither absolutely round nor unduly long, and of 20
:
:

moderate size 3 his brow is of the right size, his forehead square and slightly hollowed from the centre, and over its lower part, towards the eyebrows and nose, there hangs a sort of cloud, and from the top of his forehead down to 4 his his nose there runs a ridge of hairs sloping outwards head is of moderate size his neck of due length and broad in proportion, with a tawny mane upon it, which is neither
: : :

stiff

and

bristly nor yet too closely curled.

About the
:

25

his supple and not too tightly articulated shoulders are stalwart, his chest powerful, his trunk broad, there is no superfluity of with sides and back to match
clavicles

he

is

:

flesh
1

on his haunches or thighs
10.

:

his legs arc powerful

and

30

809
2
8<X)

3
4

jj8uu KOI (i^aXfoTe pnj/ 77 with F. from Adamantius. F. rightly marks a lacuna after evavrin, to be filled by TOU Sppams or the like. 809 20. Read ^frpiovs, as F. suggests. b b 8o9 23, 24. Read aro<nX\6p. Sylburg. Cp. 8l2 34.

Perhaps

b i2.
/j,ei>

8og

b

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
sinewy, his gait vigorous, his \vholc frame well-knit and he moves slowly sinewy and neither too stiff nor too soft
:

with a large
is

his bodily appearance,
1

35 liberal,

Such generous and and ambitious, yet gentle and just and proud
stride, rolling his shoulders as

he goes.

and

in soul

he

is

affectionate to his comrades.

The panther, on the other hand, of all animals accounted brave, approximates more closely to the feminine type, save
8io
a

uses to perform any feat of strength. 2 For its face is small, its mouth large, its eyes small and white, its forehead set in a hollow, but rather flat in themselves
in its legs,

which

it

:

too long and tends to be curved rather than flat near its chest narrow its neck too long and thin the ears
is
:

:

5

haunches and thighs fleshy flanks and and its whole abdomen rather flat its colour blotchy body ill-articulated and ill-proportioned. Such is its bodily aspect, and in soul it is mean and thievish, and in a word,

and

its

back long

:

:

:

:

10

a beast of low cunning. I have now described the more notable examples of the male and the female types of body to be found among

animals accounted brave, and the characterization of the remainder will present no difficulty. I will next proceed
to explain in a chapter on selection of signs

what marks

derived from animals the student of physiognomies should take into consideration.

THE accepted doctrines character are as follows
:

of

the

semeiotics

of

human 6

15

large and shapely foot, well-articulated and sinewy, is For evidence we arc held to signify a strong character.

A

A small, narrow, illreferred to the male sex in general. articulated foot, pretty but weak, signifies a soft character,
ao

as in the female sex.

and

Curved toes are a sign of impudence, so are curved nails, on the evidence of birds with curved claws, whilst toes that are not properly divided indicate

3 timidity, as in web-footed water-birds.
1

2

3

b 8o9 34. Read f Xeu& piof. Gesner. 809 38. Read evf^yel, as F. suggests. 8lo a 23, 24. Read opuffca TOVS crTfyavonoftas.

Gesner.

CHAPTER
Ankles

6

8io a
2?

sinewy and well-articulated mark a strong on the evidence of the male sex fleshy and illcharacter, a soft character, on the evidence of the articulated ankles,
;

female sex.

When
:

the lower leg

is

at once well-articulated

and sinewy

and stalwart, it signifies a strong character, as in the male 30 when it is thin and sinewy it signifies loquacity, 1 as sex
in birds.

When

it is full

and almost bursting,

it

signifies

by congruity blatant effrontery. Knock-knees are a sign of the pathic, by congruity. Thighs bony and sinewy indicate a strong character, as
in the

35

male sex

:

but when bony and

full,

a soft character,
of

as in females.

Buttocks pointed
character,
as
in

and bony are a mark
:

fleshy buttocks character, as in females, whilst lean buttocks which look as if they had been rubbed bare, are indicative of a mis

males

fat

a strong 8io b of a soft

chievous disposition, as in apes. A narrow waist 2 marks the hunter, as in the lion, 3 and you will find that the best hunting dogs also are narrow in
the waist.
loose build round about the belly indicates strength of character, as in the male sex, whilst the opposite is by

5

A

congruity indicative of a soft character. A well-sized and sturdy back marks strength, and a narrow
feeble

10

back softness

of character, as in

males and females
softness, as
15

respectively. Strong sides indicate strength
in

and weak sides

males and females respectively, whilst swollen inflated

4 When the sides signify aimless loquacity, as in frogs. distance from navel to infra-sternal notch exceeds that from

the notch to the neck,
1

it

is

a

mark

of

gluttony and of

Read XuXot, as F. suggests. The correction of favoi Barth. translates bene lumbosi But Porta seems right in into tvfavoi dates from Gesner and Porta. saying potius succinctos, et graciles, quam lumbosos interpretandum if one looks at actual specimens. 3 8io b 5. Omit Km raits nrvas as F. suggests. Cp. 8ii a 21, 8l2 a 10, where the author is evidently adding instances from dogs to the accepted
31.
4.
2
. ,

8io a 8iob

examples. 4 8iob 16.

Omit

TOVS /3of?

r)

tm with

F. as a variant

on

fiarpaxovs.

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
dullness of sense,
of
20 a receptacle of food,

and

gluttony because there is so large of dull sense because the seat of

1 the senses is correspondingly confined and compressed by the receptacle of food, so that the senses have become stupefied by repletion of the stomach rather than, as is 2 usual, by inanition.

large well-articulated chest signifies strength of char acter, as in males.
25

A

When the upper part of the back is large and well covered with flesh and well-knit, the character is strong, as in males
:

when
soft,

it

is

feeble

and gaunt and

ill-knit,

the character

is

as in females.
fall in

When

it

is

very
it is

much bent and

the

shoulders
30 to signify

upon the chest,

argued by congruity

of the

a mischievous disposition, since the front parts body, which ought to stand clear to view, become

invisible.

When

it is

curved backwards,

it

signifies

vanity

and lack of intelligence, as in the horse. So it must not be either convex or concave and something intermediate between these extremes, therefore, should be looked for as
;

marking a man
35

When

good natural parts. the shoulders and the back of the neck are wellof

articulated, they signify a strong character, whilst weak and ill-articulated shoulders signify a soft character, the

8n a

reference being to the sexes, as I explained when speaking of feet and thighs. Supple shoulders signify liberality of

the argument being based on the external appear with which liberality seems to be congruous. On the ance, other hand, stiff, clumsy shoulders indicate an illiberal dissoul,
5 position,

3

also

by

congruity.

Suppleness of the clavicles signifies quickness of percep tion, for when the collar-bone is supple, stimulation of the
senses

10

Contrariwise, a indicates dullness of sense, because then apprehend sense-stimuli.
is
1

rendered easy. 4

stiff
it

collar-bone
difficult to

is

Read (rvveuxr^fvov. F. Read (//aXXoi/) fv8dns. F. 8ii a 2. Read Aev&ptoi. F. 4 811*5-10. With a supple collar-bone it is easy, with a stiff one difficult, to move the head and so adjust the facial sense-organs to
2
rj

Sio b 2i. 8lO b 23.

3

stimuli.

CHAPTER
A

6
:

8n a

thick neck indicates a strong character, as in males a thin neck, weakness, as in females a neck thick and full, fierce temper, as in bulls * a well-sized neck, not too thick, a proud soul, as in lions a long, thin neck, cowardice, as
:
:

15

:

in

deer

:

an unduly short neck, a treacherous disposition,

as in wolves.

that part
corners,

Lips thin and pendulous at their points of junction, such 2 of the upper lip overhangs the lower at the
is

20

given

signify pride to the lion, but

of

soul.

The

reference

generally

you may

see the

well in large

and powerful breeds of dogs. hard with a prominence about the eye-teeth are a sign of base breeding, 3 on the evidence of swine. Thick lips, with

same thing as Lips thin and

25

the upper overhanging the lower, and the ape. Projecting upper
railer,

mean
lip

folly, as in

the ass

and gums mark the
:

A
but

on the evidence of dogs. nose broad 4 at the tip means
thick from the
it

laziness, as witness cattle

dullness of sense, as in 30 tip, if the swine is pointed, irascibility, as in whilst tip dogs a round, blunt tip indicates pride, as in lions. Men with a nose thin at the tip have the characteristics of birds.
if
; ;

means

such a nose curves slightly right away from the forebut when it head, it indicates impudence, as in ravens is strongly aquiline and demarcated from the forehead by
:

When

35

in

a well-defined articulation, the eagle and when it
;

it is

indicates a proud soul, as hollow, with the part next

the forehead rounded and the curve rising upwards, it 5 A snub nose means signifies lasciviousness, as in cocks.
lasciviousness,
fierce

as in deer. Open nostrils are a sign of for they enter into the facial expression of temper,

8n b

temper.
1

2
3

8ii a i4. 8ll a 19.

811*23.
4 5

8ll a 28. 8ii a 37ff.

Omit %ioeiSer?. F. Read wore n for eVi. Read dy ewfis. Bonitz. Read TrXaTeZay.
u>s

F.

Like Porta

gallos consuluimus

cum eiusmodi nasum

F. reads Trpos TO utranrov and suggests Karn^epf} for Porta translates Tifpifapr), But this does not much improve the sense. incavus nasus ante frontem, rotundus, et supereminens [i.e. the comb] rotundum which, as his illustration shows, gives a sense not far from the actual appearance, if it could be got from the text. Either the text is corrupt, or the author had not kept poultry.

ignoraremus.

,

b
8"

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
The
if

5

face,

when

fleshy,

indicates laziness, as in cattle

:

10

1 gaunt, assiduity, and if bony, cowardice, on the analogy of asses and deer. A small face marks a small soul, as in the cat and the ape: a large face means lethargy, as in asses and cattle. So the face must be neither nor

large

little

:

an intermediate size

is

therefore best.

A

mean-

15

looking face signifies by congruity an illiberal spirit. As to the eyes, when the lower lids are pendulous and baggy, you may know a bibulous fellow, for heavy drink

20

produces bagginess below the eyes but when the upper lids arc baggy and hang over the eyes, 3 that signifies somnolence, for on first waking from sleep our upper lids hang heavily. Small eyes mean a small soul, by congruity and on the evidence of the ape as
ing
:

2

in cattle.

In a

man

of

large eyes, lethargy, good natural parts, therefore, the
:

Hollow eyes eyes will be neither large nor small. as in the ape villainy, protruding eyes,
:

imbecility,

mean by con-

25

gruity and as in the ass. The eyes, therefore, must neither recede nor protrude an intermediate position is best.
:

When

the eyes are slightly deep-set, they signify a proud

soul, as in lions:

and when a

little

deeper

4
still,

gentleness,

as in cattle.
30

A small forehead means stupidity, as in swine too large a forehead, lethargy, as in cattle. A round forehead means dullness of sense, as in the ass a somewhat long and flat
:
:

forehead,
35

quickness

of sense, 5 as in

the dog.

A

square

8i2 a

and well-proportioned forehead 6 is a sign of a proud soul, as in the lion. A cloudy brow signifies self-will, as in the lion and the bull a taut brow is taken from observation to mark the flatterer, and you may notice how a dog s brow smooths out when he fawns upon you. 7 So, a cloudy brow indicating self-will and a smooth brow obsequiousness,
: 1

2 3

Sii ;. 8li b l5.
8l I b l6.

1

Read as F. suggests (cp. Ps. Pol. 179). Read e juTreTTttKoou. Schneider. Read Kva-nBff. (ot? 8e ra eVi TO IS o^daX/jinls olov
o<rra><5;?

(<}>((TTT]Ka(Ti.

4

8ii b 27.
.

F. after Taube. Or, better, ols TO KT\., to match But not unduly deep. Or read with Kekule,
<$

1.

13.

flat

8li b 32.
"

8u b
cSu

3-5.

7

37.

Read Read Omit

fvoicr&pot. TO
ot

F. reads

alcrdrjriKni

;

cp.

8l2 a

6.

^eYa>7roi>.

Warhsmuth.

KiW.

F.

CHAPTER

6

8ia

a

the proper condition must be intermediate between these A scowling brow means a morose disposition, extremes.
for

we observe

that vexation

is

brow means querulousness,
observation.

as

a downcast thus expressed also be verified by may
:

5

A
A

of sense,

means quickness and a small head dullness of the dog and the ass respectively. peaked head means impudence, as in those birds which
large head

on the evidence

have curved claws. Men with small ears have the disposition of monkeys, those with large ears the disposition of asses, and you may notice that the best breeds of dogs have ears of moderate
size.

10

Too black a hue marks the coward, as witness Egyptians and Ethiopians, 1 and so does also too white a complexion, So the hue that makes for as you may see from women. must be intermediate between these extremes. courage A tawny colour indicates a bold spirit, as in lions but too
:

15

ruddy a hue marks a rogue, as in the case of the fox. A pale mottled hue signifies cowardice, for that is the colour one The honey-pale are cold, and coldness turns in terror. means immobility, and an immobile body means slowness. A red hue indicates hastiness, for all parts of the body on
flaming skin, however, indicates mania, for it results from an overheated body, and extreme bodily heat is likely to mean mania.
being heated by

20

movement

turn red.

A

25

A

fiery colour

on the chest

signifies irascibility, for

it

is

part of the expression of the onset of anger. Swollen veins on the neck and temples also signify irascibility, being part A face that reddens easily of the expression of anger.

30

marks a bashful man, for blushing is an expression of But when the jowl goes red, you have a bashfulness. for a red jowl is an expression of heavy drinking drunkard,
:

whilst eyes that flush red indicate uncontrollable temper, for in a wild outburst of temper the eyes flush red. If the

35

eyes are too black, they signify cowardice, for we that this is the signification of too black a hue
:

saw above

8ia b

if they are not too black, but inclining to chestnut, they indicate a bold
1

8l2 a

12.

Read Alymriavs

(*<"}

klffioiras,

Frnnz.

8ia b

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
spirit.

Grey or white eyes indicate cowardice,
is

for

we saw
:

5

the signification of a white hue but if they arc gleaming rather than grey, they mean a bold Goatish 1 eyes mean lustfulspirit, as in lions and eagles.
ness, as in goats fiery eyes, impudence, as in dogs eyes pale and mottled, cowardice, for in terror the eyes go pale with splotches of colour glistening eyes, lasciviousness,
:

above that this

:

10

:

on the analogy of the cock and the raven.
15

Hairy legs mean lasciviousness, as in goats. Too much hair on breast and belly means lack of persistence, as argued from birds, in which this bodily characteristic is most
developed
;

but breasts too devoid

of hair indicate

im

20

pudence, as in women. So both extremes are bad, and an intermediate condition must be best. Hairy shoulders

mean much

lack of persistence, on the analogy of birds too hair on the back, impudence, as in wild beasts. Hair on the nape of the neck indicates liberality, as in lions
: :

hair on the point of the chin, 2 a bold spirit, on the evidence
35 of

dogs. Eyebrows that meet signify moroseness, by 3 congruity eyebrows that droop on the nasal and rise on the temporal side, silliness, as is seen in swine. When the
:

30

up stiff, it signifies cowardice, by congruity, for fright, as well as cowardly disposition, makes the hair stand on end and very woolly hair also signifies as may be seen in Ethiopians. Thus extremely cowardice,
:

hair of the head stands

bristly and extremely woolly hair alike signify and so hair gently curling at the end will make
35 of spirit, as is to

4

cowardice,
5

for boldness

ridge of hair on the upper part of the forehead indicates a liberal disposition, as in the lion but a growth of hair on the forehead down by

be seen

in lions.

A

:

8i3

a

the nose 6 indicates illiberality, the argument being from con gruity, because such a growth presents a servile appearance.
8i2 b 6, 7. Read nlyatiroi. Gesner, &c. But no reading suggested very satisfactory. 2 8i2 b 24- Clearly the meaning must, as Porta points out, concern hair. Porta suggests naKpoyeveioi, but it is doubtful whether this could mean with a long beard nor have most dogs long beards. The passage remains uncertain, but it does not mean with a long chin 3 8i2 b 26. Read TT/JOS Schneider. plvn. 4 8l2 b 32. Read e^nivova-i. F. 5 b 8i2 34, 35. Read fiiwriXAor But the whole sentence is corrupt. 6 See F. s note. 8i2 b 36. Omit F. rtjt Ktfa&rfs.
1

is

,

.

n}i>

.

M

CHAPTER
A

6

s

8i3

slow to begin, but long and slow step indicates a mind when started, for the length of the stride shows persistent A short determination, but its slowness procrastination. tardiness without persistence, for shortness slow step means and slowness do not indicate determination. A long quick
step means enterprise indicates enterprise and
Identical
1

5

and

persistence,

for

its

speed
short

its

2 length determination.

A

without persistence. quick step signifies enterprise
references
3

are

made about
s

10 gesture of hand,
stiff
4

elbow, and arm.

To hold one
:

shoulders straight and

as one walks signifies a vainglorious spirit, on 5 the analogy of the horse but to roll the shoulders if one a little forwards means a proud soul, as in the lion.

and

roll

them

stoops

To walk with
bending
7

feet

and
is

legs

bent out means effeminacy,

15

as being a characteristic of

women.

To keep

turning and

a sign of obsequiousness, for that To walk with a stoop to the is the gesture of the flatterer. held to argue a pathic. right is by congruity of appearance

the

body

Mobile eyes signify keenness and rapacity, as in hawks the eyes. blinking eyes, cowardice, for flight begins with
:

20

of Sidelong leering glances are held to be characteristic a fop, 8 and so are drooping movements of one lid half over a motionless eye, and an upward roll of the eyes under the upper lids 9 10 with a tender gaze and drooping
>

25

eyelids,

and in general all tender melting glances we argue these partly from congruity, partly from the fact that of the A slow movement looks are common in women. eyes which allows a tinge of white to show all the time, so
;

that they look stationary,
1 2

11

indicates a reflective character

;

3
4

6 7

8

a Si3 7. Omit OVK. Willich. a 8i3 8. Read eVitfmKoj for TeXeo-TiKoi and omit OIK. F. a 8l3 IO, II. Read dt/a<popai for di/a0epoyTm. 813* 12. Read yavponXa^ovfs. Sylburg. a 8i3 13. Read eTno-aXeiWres with the Cod. Ambros. 813*15. Read tyXets. 813* 1 6. Read fyK^ivdptvoi for eyrpt/Sopcpot. F. 813*21. Read 01 /mXXaiVoj>res (Hemsterhuis), or KaTiXXuimu
,

I
b>pa(0rai<

1

.

j3Xc 8i3 23. Read vrro T 10 813* 24. Read ttyeu. Sylburg. 11 l 8i3 29. Read, perhaps, oxr/rep seems to be corruptava>

9

a

(pap<(.

F.

COTJJKU TI.

But the whole passage

8ia

a

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
when
big,

30 for

the

mind

is

absorbed

in reflection,

our eyes also
in

are motionless.

A

deep voice indicates insolence, as

the ass

:

a

voice which, starting low, rises to a high pitch, indicates despondency and querulousness, the argument being partly
35

from
tones

cattle

and partly from congruity.

Shrill, soft,

broken

8i3

b

the speech of the pathic, for such a voice is found in women and is congruous with the pathic s nature. A deep, hollow, simple voice signifies a noble soul, 1 as in the
stronger breeds of dogs, and also A soft, languid voice congruity.

mark

by the argument from means gentleness, as in

s

sheep

:

a
of

shrill,

Men

shrieking voice, lewdness, as in goats. abnormally small stature are hasty, for the flow

of their blood having but a small area to cover, its move ments are too rapidly propagated to the organ of intel 2 Men of abnormally large stature, on the other ligence.
10

hand, are slow, for the flow of the blood has to cover a large

and its movements are therefore propagated to the organ of intelligence slowly. Small men with dry tissues, or of the hue that heat produces in the body, have not
area,

for their persistence enough to effect their purposes blood flowing in a confined space, and at the same time,
;

15

consequence of the fiery condition of the body, flowing rapidly, their thought never keeps to a single topic, but is always passing to something new before being done with the old. 3 Again, big men with moist tissues or of the hue
in

that results from cold, also lack persistence for their blood over a large area, and slowly, on account of the flowing
;

20 to

cold condition of the body, its movement does not manage reach the organ of intelligence entire. 4 On the other
<pa>vov<ri

2. Read ftapv noiXuv rrenXfyfJifvov, and mark a lacuna after ntn\fy^vov. F. following Gesncr. 2 b 8i3 9- Sc. the heart. F. refers to Empedocles in Theophr. De Senstt, 10, as confirming the view that TO (fipovovv is the blood. But if TO (ppovovv is the blood, then al KiMjaeis are not of the blood. Yet Moreover, virepxwpovai in Kivfjo-fws in 1. 22 must refer to the blood. 1. 33 becomes almost unintelligible, unless indeed a distinction is drawn between blood near the heart as the seat of intelligence and other blood as stimulating it. If, however, TO (ppovovv is the heart, m Kiv^arfis are movements of the blood occasioned by stimuli, or at any rate con
fj,f)

veying stimulation to the heart. 4 b 8l3 19, 20. Read uv (iwuvvfi
;

3

8i3

b

16.

Read
F.

TO ntpwv.

F.
inserts

nfyiKv-jvptvi],

(F. also

KtVf;criy

before

uv.)

CHAPTER
hand, small
results

6

8i 3

b

men with moist
1

tissues

and

of the
;

hue that

from

cold,

do

effect their

moving
its

in a confined area, the less

purposes mobile
3

for their blood
2

constituent in

eifectiveness.
of the

composition produces a proportion which conduces to 4 And again, big men with dry tissues, and
also persistent, of tissue

hue that results from heat, 5 arc for the warmth are keen of sense
;

and and com

25

plexion counteracts the excessive size, so that a proportion conducive to effectiveness is attained. Such, then, are the conditions under which opposite extremes of stature tend

and now to ineffectiveness. But a stature intermediate between these extremes confers upon its possessors the greatest acuity of sense and the greatest

now

to effective activity,

3

general effectiveness, for on the one hand, movements of the blood, not having a long distance to travel, easily reach the reason, while on the other hand, not being con
fined in too small a space, they do not pass beyond their mark. 6 Thus the greatest tenacity of purpose and the

greatest acuity of sense will be found in persons of moderate 35 stature.

An ill-proportioned body indicates a rogue, the argument 814* being partly from congruity and partly from the female 7 sex. But, if bad proportions mean villainy, a well-propor
characteristic of upright men and the standard of the right proportions must [only, be sought in the good training and good breeding of the body, and not in the male type, as determined at the begin-

tioned frame

must be

brave

:

5

8 ning of this treatise].

advisable, in elucidating all the signs I have men tioned, to take into consideration both their congruity with
It is

8l3 2I. Readxpw/*a(TU>, (a) Sia x/^poVr/ra yiVon-cu, eVireXeoTiKot. F. b 8l3 22. sc. cold. 3 b 8i3 23. sc. between size of body and speed of movement of blood, as in 1. 26 not between constituents of the blood. 813 23. Read Trpos TO for TO TTpwTor. F.
2
; 1

1

b

8l3 24, 25. Read xptt/uxeru , (a) yivovrut, eVriTfXeo-TiKot b 8l3 33. Insert ov% with F., but retain vrrefjxfopovtnv. 7 814* I. Read 5e for yap. Sylburg. * a 8l4 3-5. This passage is in complete contradiction to Chapter V and to the next paragraph. It must be regarded as an interpolation. It may be noted that only here in the Physiognoiiwiuni is used with
. .

6

b

.

.

(i

8i 4

a

PHYSIOGNOMONICA
various characters and the distinction of the sexes, which is, as I showed, the most complete distinction, the male

being more upright and courageous and, in short, altogether It will be found, moreover, in better than the female.
8i4
b

every selection of signs that some signs are better adapted than others to indicate the mental character behind them.

The

5

indications are given by signs in certain suitable parts of the body. The most suitable particularly part of all is the region of the eyes and forehead, head and next to it comes the region of the chest and shoulders, face
clearest
;

and next again, that of l the legs and feet whilst the belly and neighbouring parts are of least service to physioIn a word, the clearest signs are derived from gnomics. those parts in which intelligence is most manifest. 2
;

F. 8i4 6. Read eVeira ntpl. b 8l4 8. Read emfjuivfia, which gives a better sense than eVt/rpeVeia. Earth. Mess, translates in quibus et sapientiae plurimae superappais his term for eVic^m^ and rentia fit and, as superapparens his MS. must have read fjrt<pdveta. fTn<paiv6p.fvos,
1
1j

2

()

;

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