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SCHUHFRIED GmbH Hyrtlstrasse 45 2340 Moedling Austria
Media owner and editor: SCHUHFRIED GmbH Place of publication: Mödling Publisher: Paul Gerin Druckerei, Wolkersdorf Editor-in-chief: Doreen Kallweit Responsible in law: Gerald Schuhfried Graphics: Johanna Kurz, Vienna, www.johannakurz.com Photos: SCHUHFRIED GmbH, fotolia, istock, pixelio: p. 8 Konstantin Gastmann and p. 26 Thomas S. Copyright © SCHUHFRIED GmbH, Moedling. All rights reserved.
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YOU GET MORE The Vienna Test System – a recipe for success Introducing SCHUHFRIED Our product promise Language options and internationalization Areas in which the Vienna Test System is used
Input devIces and accessorIes user Interface testIng wIth the vIenna test system Test selection Test administration Test scoring Report generation specIal functIons VTS Help Client database Scoring program for paper & pencil tests Norm Table Explorer Two monitors – one test system Hardware Test Data export & import Integration into other programs Data protection addItIonal programs Ranking Calibration module Individual norms the test generator networked systems Group testing system Decentralized testing Online testing expert systems
THE VIENNA TEST SYSTEM
26 INTERLINKING 27 QUALITY 28 28 28 28
OF THE VIENNA TEST SYSTEM AND COGNIPLUS MANAGEMENT
SERVICE Demo version VTS updates Webinars see next page for detailed list
117 119 120 121 124 126
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FIND IT FAST
All tests from A-Z All tests by dimensions All tests by languages All tests by areas of use
VIENNA TEST SYSTEM
VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .Contents tests 32 32 33 35 36 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 84 85 85 86 87 88 INSSV IntellIgence test BatterIes IBF Basic Intelligence Functions INSBAT Intelligence-Structure Battery Intelligence Structure Battery – short form specIal IntellIgence tests 2D Visualization 3D Spatial Orientation A3DW Adaptive Spatial Ability Test AMT Adaptive Matrices Test ANF Adaptive Numerical Flexibility Test APM Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices CPM Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices FOLO Inductive Reasoning HCTA Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment MIP Mathematics in Practice MR Mental Rotation NTA N-Test Alpha PST Pilot’s Spatial Test RIS Calculating with Symbols SPM Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices SPMPLS Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Plus VISGED Visual Memory Test TESTS specIal aBIlIty tests 2HAND Two-Hand Coordination ALS Work Performance Series ATAVT Adaptive Tachistoscopic Traffic Perception Test B19 Double Labyrinth Test COG Cognitrone CORSI Corsi Block-Tapping Test DAKT Differential Attention Test DAUF Sustained Attention DT Determination Test DTKI Determination Test for Children ELST English Language Skills Test F1 Formula Uno FLIM Flicker/Fusion Frequency FVW Continuous Visual Recognition Task GESTA Gestalt Perception Test LVT Visual Pursuit Test MDT Movement Detection Test MLS Motor Performance Series MTA Mechanical/Technical Comprehension NVLT Non-verbal Learning Test PERSEV Perseveration Test PP Peripheral Perception RA Reaction Time Analysis RT Reaction Test SIGNAL Signal Detection SIMKAP Simultaneous Capacity/Multi-Tasking SMK Sensomotor Coordination STROOP Stroop Interference Test VIGIL Vigilance WAF Perception and Attention Functions ZBA Time/Movement Anticipation 4DPI BFSI EPP6 TCI 4-Dimensional Personality Inventory Big-Five Structure Inventory Eysenck Personality Profiler V6 Temperament and Character Inventory personalIty structure InventorIes 4 .
tests 89 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 1 00 101 1 01 102 103 1 04 105 106 1 07 Contents specIal personalIty tests AGDIA AVEM AVIS DSI DSIHR EBF FET IPS IVPE MMG SBUSB SKASUK Aggression Assessment Method Work-related Behaviour and Experience Patterns Aggressive Driving Behavior Differential Stress Inventory Differential Stress Inventory HR Recovery-Stress Questionnaire Attitude to Leadership Inventory for Personality Assessment in Situations Inventory of Driving-related Personality Traits Multi-Motive Grid Scales for the Assessment of Subjective Occupational Stress and Dissatisfaction Customer Service and Orientation Scales oBjectIve personalIty tests AHA BACO HKSD OLMT RISIKO WRBTR WRBTV Attitude towards Work Resilience Assessment Hyperkinetic Syndrome Assessment Method Objective Achievement Motivation-Test Risk Choice Vienna Risk-Taking Test – revised version Vienna Risk-Taking Test Traffic 108 attItude and Interest tests 1 08 AISTR General Interest Structure Test – revised version 1 09 MOI Multi-method Objective Interests Test Battery 110 110 11 1 12 1 13 1 14 1 clInIcal tests ATV FBS FFT FSV MSS Identification of Alcohol Risk Suicide Risk Evaluation Questionnaire Questionnaire Concerning Functional Drinking Questionnaire on Reaction to Pain Multi-Dimensional Pain Scale 115 test creatIon programs 15 TQ 1 Test Generator for Questionnaire Tests 16 TT 1 Test Generator for Tachistoscopic Tests TESTS VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .5 .
Input devices and accessories Page 12 … and your personally tailored Vienna Test System is complete! Ready for you to use as a reliable means of measuring ability and personality traits in the context of psychological assessment. -year licence: the test can be used as often as required for seven years. First select your tests. no time T limit is set. Objective Efficient. 6 .You get more The Vienna Test System – a recipe for success Take these ingredients … management software Each new system needs the WINWTS management software. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . The dongle may be a USB licence stick or a software code. read more … about the user interface. This is used to administer the tests. It has many functions that make everyday work easier. Page 14 dongle The dongle contains details of the licences purchased and provides protection against unauthorized copying. then for each test decide on one of these two pricing models: est usages: the test can be used a certain number of times. Accurate. Some tests require special input devices and accessories. There are more than 80! Page 31 onwards read more … about input devices and accessories. 7 The majority of tests can be worked using a conventional computer keyboard or mouse. tests read more … about the tests. score the results and manage the data.
This is appreciated by many businesses and organizations. Why not carry on using the old familiar methods. The Help Desk helps with technical queries. so that it is always in touch with the 13 military institutions latest trends. Used in 67 countries. a first-class credit rating.7 . 4| 7 reasons VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . SCHUHFRIED is at home all over the world.250 systems in private companies and has good contacts recruitment agencies SCHUHFRIED works with experienced experts in every 1. 530 universities ist events SCHUHFRIED networks with the other major 250 systems within airlines and flight training centers players in the sector. computer specialists and marketing gurus.350 systems in traffic examination centres relevant field – scientists. All its products are developed in-house. 1| SCHUHFRIED has experience 2| 36 distributors. The importance of product development at SCHUHFRIED is reflected in its expenditure on research and development. founded in 1947 as a family business.400 self-employed users SCHUHFRIED 1. So the results of tests and training programs are generated automatically. 5| SCHUHFRIED specializes in computer-based psychology “Quality by competence” has been SCHUHFRIED’s motto for many years. symposiums and special. The sales team is the first point of contact and can turn many questions asked into questions answered. Or setting the trend itself. Everything is still coordinated from our headquarters in Moedling on the outskirts of Vienna (Austria). innovative ability. closely coordinated and continuously improved.600 clinics. Psychologists are available to answer questions on psychological matters.5 million test sessions. has more than 60 years’ experience behind it. available immediately and guaranteed to be accurate. Because time is money! 6| SCHUHFRIED systems are simple and user-friendly SCHUHFRIED goes the extra mile for its clients. SCHUHFRIED operates internationally The success of SCHUHFRIED products is built on the unique interplay between the three strands of psychology. hospitals and rehabilitation centres 1. which accounts for more than 25 percent of its annual turnover. such as paper-and-pencil tests? SCHUHFRIED makes new ventures simple. Each year SCHUHFRIED’s Vienna Test System is used to conduct some 12. good quality management and significant investment in research and development. The company received ISO 9001 certification in 2003 and has been awarded the Austrian coat of arms. hardware and software. And it knows where its roots are.You get more Introducing SCHUHFRIED The SCHUHFRIED company. Its systems are easy to use and have many advantages. including: 7| SCHUHFRIED is a strong partner 2. This is the highest award granted in Austria and is only awarded to businesses that can demonstrate a high level of exports. 3| SCHUHFRIED wins awards for excellence Using new technology can be a daunting prospect. At congresses. Today the company leads the world in computer-based psychological assessment.
You get more Our product promise reliable tests including special ability More than 80 accurate and tests. systems as useful readymade packages for 8 . objective personality in up to 25 languages. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . batteries and expert Standard testgreater convenience. Easy to use thanks to a clear and customizable interface and intuitive mode of use. Save time through efficiency and accuracy. especially if time-based licences are purchased. Continuous test maintenance and updating of norms ensure that high quality standards are maintained. adaptive–and multimedia tests – tests. Good value for money.
read more … about all available language versions of the Vienna Test System.C.9 . During the translation process tests are adapted if necessary to different cultural environments. the countries in which we have dealerships include: The management software is available in 13 different languages while individual tests are produced in up to 25 languages. oceania Australia VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . .O. on page 124 europe Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic France Germany Great Britain & Ireland Hungary Italy Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey america Brazil Chile Colombia USA africa Egypt South Africa Tunisia asia China India Iran Iraq Malaysia Oman Russia South Korea Taiwan R.You get more Worldwide The Vienna Test System speaks many languages INTERNATIONAL SCHUHFRIED DEALERSHIPS schuhfrIed has a strong international outlook.
psychological assessment tests have proved useful in diagnosing depression. The tests can be package for cognitive training. Tests can also be used for preselection. the perfect complement in reliable and valid CogniPlus.at order your free copy now! catalog neuropsychology E-mail info@schuhfried. anxiety states and perseveration tendencies. reliable and valid. They highlight an individual’s preferences and thus help identify the best career course to pursue. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .You get more Areas in which the Vienna Test System is used neuro & clinical personnel transport: road transport: rail transport: aviation sport education At a glance: Pick out the tests for your specialism – easily recognized by the symbol in the margin. They can also help to identify pain-related performance impairments. 31 onwards CLINICAL & NEUROPSYCHOLOGY Clinical psychology uses psychological tests to measure both ability factors and personality traits. Neuropsychological assessment is used primarily to make a detailed diagnosis of changes in performance or personality traits after lesions or disease processes affecting the brain. PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY In the field of HR psychological tests are used in personnel selection. used to provide an ojecRead more about the interlinking of the tive assessment and VIENNA TEST SYSTEM and COGNIPLUS description of the func on page 26 tional impairment.at 10 . The tests of the Vienna Test System meet these requirements. tests provide valuable information about candidates’ personality and skills – information that is often not easy to gather in an interview. order your free copy now! catalog expert system hr E-mail info@schuhfried. the SCHUHFRIED software ways. such as attention. For example. DIN 33430 stipulates that tests used in the application process must be objective. personality disorders. Tests on p. employee counselling and career guidance. memory. motor skills and executive functions. The tests used include tools which measure basic mental functions. In personnel selection. and coping strategies. Interest tests are indispensable tools. In employee counselling and career guidance tests are used to identify personal strengths and weaknesses and analyse potential. stress levels that are likewise related to pain.
resilience. SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY In sports psychology psychological tests are used to measure both ability factors and personality traits. Assessment in the field of aviation psychology covers the testing of pilots.at EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY The aim of educational psychological assessment is to measure relevant aspects of performance and learning ability in order to make the best possible recommendations for the individual’s continuing educational or career pathway. Information on aspects of personality relevant to sport is provided by tests that measure achievement motivation. peripheral perception and anticipation of time and movement. self-control. reflectivity and aspiration level. concentration. The specific aspects of performance that are measured include concentration.at order your free copy now! catalog expert system avIatIon E-mail info@schuhfried. interest and achievement motivation tests are therefore an indispensable component of the repertoire of tests used in educational psychological assessment. The findings can be compared with the requirements of different educational and career training programs. With the help of these tests it is possible to reliably preselect applicants for pilot training by checking both for specific abilities and for relevant personality traits. In both civil and military aviation psychology tests are used to assess the suitability criteria specified in the JAR-FCL3 guidelines. Psychological tests are used to identify strengths and weaknesses as well as personal interests. eyehand coordination. It is also important to check reactive endurance. 11 . impulsivity vs. Willingness to adapt to traffic conditions is assessed using personality tests. order your free copy now! catalog expert system traffIc E-mail info@schuhfried. sensomotor skills and intelligence or memory. reaction behavior. stress management. willingness to take risks and tendency to aggressive interaction in road traffic. It is also possible to verify the ability of pilots who are already licensed to fly. reaction ability. frustration toleration. The aspects of personality that can be tested include a person’s sense of social responsibility. applicants for pilot training and air traffic control staff.You get more TRAFFIC PSYCHOLOGY In the field of traffic psychology. order your free copy now! catalog sport psychology E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . emotional stability. Of particular interest in assessing fitness to drive are the ability to gain an overview. Alongside tests for assessing intelligence structure. tests are used to assess fitness to drive and willingness to adapt to traffic conditions.
though. have been developed. Response Panel instead of computer keyboard) can increase respondents’ motivation It should also be borne in mind that some respondents may be and acceptance. keyboard or touch screen. The points light up when the respondent points the light pen at them. target points are positioned on the CRT screen. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . universal response panel 2 twist knobs 2 analog joysticks 7 color keys 10 number keys 1 sensor key Connection for foot-operated keys USB connection 12 . showing that the response has been recorded. They provide a user-friendly means of entering responses and can be used to administer a wide range of tests.g. To enable test responses to be entered. known as response panels. Target points The light pen interface provides the interface to the PC Light pen Two special keyboards.The Vienna Test System Input devices and accessories Many of the tests in the Vienna Test System (VTS) can be worked using the computer mouse and keyboard. worth knowing Easier input devices (e. disadvantaged because they cannot readily use the mouse. special input devices or accessories are needed. A cross appears. RESPONSE PANELS standard response panel 7 color keys 10 number keys 1 sensor key Connection for foot-operated keys USB connection worth knowing The Standard and Universal response panels can also be used as input devices for CogniPlus. LIGHT PEN This device is particularly popular with respondents who rarely use a computer. for some. mouse and touch screen. SCHUHFRIED’s hardware designers have therefore developed special ergonomic input devices as alternatives to the computer keyboard.
eripheral display: light diode matrix. 13 . Needed for the test: FLIM Flicker/Fusion Frequency The flicker frequency analysis measures CNS activation (arousal). one- and two-handed 2 25 small holes on both left and right sides for inserting wo small metal plates for tapping.0 Hz in steps of 0.The Vienna Test System MOTOR PERFORMANCE SERIES Needed for the test: MLS – Motor Performance Series read more …about MLS. on page 74 The Peripheral Perception test measures the ability to perceive and process peripheral stimuli. At the same time peripheral light stimuli are presented and the respondent is required to react selectively to these. on page 65 stimulus light from 10. The Motor Performance Series is a highly reliable and state-of-the-art on page 70 test that has been developed from Fleishman’s factor analysis of fine motor skills.0 to 80. one-handed two-handed MLS Work Panel FLICKER TUbE read more … about FLIM. Both dynamic and static dimensions of finger/hand/arm movement are measured. one- and groove with several bends and angles for line tracka x 20 contact points for aiming. 8 rows and 64 p ight stimuli from the center to the periphery of the l ultrasound distance measurement determines head position visual field columns on each side Peripheral Perception VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .1 Hz minimal influence of extraneous physiological and physical variables Flicker tube PERIPHERAL PERCEPTION Needed for the test: PP Peripheral Perception read more … about PP. the mls work panel features: h oles of different diameters for steadiness. The respondent’s attention is held in the center of the field of view by asking him to carry out a tracking task. one- and twot USB connection handed pins. one- and two-handed ing.
For example. The client database can be adapted to individual requirements by adding additional data fields to those provided as standard. to install new tests and define access rights.The Vienna Test System The user interface of the Vienna Test System The user interface of the VTS management software is divided into convenient and intuitively arranged index cards. “client list” tab The “Scoring” tab contains a database of clients’ test scores. “scoring” tab “setup” tab “testing” tab Under “Setup” important basic settings for the Test System can be specified and if necessary adapted to individual requirements. “Testing” is used to call up and administer individual tests and test batteries. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . making it easy for the user to navigate and to switch between the different functions. The four main tabs are: In the “Client list” existing client-related data can be edited and details of new clients can be entered. 14 . thereby creating a personalized database. it is possible to define input devices and options for the output of results.
This enables different forms of the same test to be used to meet different requirements. As well as individual tests. test administration and output of results can each be conducted in different languages – with no additional installation worth knowing required. practice phase This is followed by a practice phase which checks whether the client has understood the task. There is no involvement of the test administrator at this stage. “dimensions” tab The dimensions list is conveniently structured and divided into categories. children. The instructions and practice phases are often linked and contain a series of stages based on the principles of programmed learning. Different test forms have been designed for use with specific groups (e. “tests” tab A test battery is a fixed sequence of Many tests are available in different test forms which may. tandard catalog: approx. gifted individuals) or for particular measurement purposes (e. As a result. Regardless of the language of the user interface. vary in test length or difficulty. Since the Vienna Test System is designed for international use. In this list. the required tests or test batteries are selected and the test session is started.The Vienna Test System Testing with the Vienna Test System TEST SELECTION worth knowing individual tests. for example. the test administrator can intervene. New languages are continually being added to the Vienna Test System. If particular tests are to be administered. screening). The following lists are currently available: TEST ADMINISTRATION Once the client’s details have been entered. this ensures a high level of objectivity.g. To standardize the test administration process. Individual tests and predefined test batteries are available. When required the administrator can read more then call up the test battery … about predefined test batteries in and administer it. 150 more finely differentiated dimensions human resources: personnel-specific characteristics sport: sport-related characteristics dimensions Instructions Each test begins with instructions. in which the task is described. completing the last item of one test leads automatically to the start of the next test.g. simply click on the characteristics that need to be tested: the Vienna Test System then suggests the most suitable test and test form. In a test battery. the client quickly grasps what is required. the section “Expert systems” “test batteries” tab page 24 VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . test phase The client now works the test items. 50 generally formulated s full catalogue: approx. they should be selected in the test list. The dimensions list provides an additional means of convenient access. a test battery can be saved in advance and made available to a test administrator. a test battery can be administered. 15 . Please enquire! test forms and language selection worth knowing Search the Demo DVD by dimensions if you are not yet familiar with the SCHUHFRIED tests. The average time needed to complete the test is also shown. it supports many different languages. The “Manual” button can be used to open the description of the suggested test. if he does not.
The normal range is shaded grey. In addition to percentile ranks. profile diagram results table test protocol freely adaptable title line data from the client database Brief description of the test raw score. The results are presented in a standardized way in both tabular and diagrammatic form. The norm score comparisons relate either to an overall sample or to subsamples based on age. showing the questions posed and the answers given. confidence intervals clearly presented information in the colored profile explanations of the test variables test protocol and item analysis for detailed information on the course of the test notes on test interpretation 16 . so that deviations are immediately obvious.The Vienna Test System Testing with the Vienna Test System TEST SCORING After completion of the test or tests the results are immediately available. norm score comparison with choice of sample. The results table lists the test variables. warnings on interpretation of the test are given. The test protocol gives details of the client’s responses and his working time per item and shows whether any answers were corrected. confidence intervals are also given. If reliabilities exist. the raw scores obtained and the corresponding norm scores. The coloured profile diagram enables information to be taken in at a glance. In some tests additional explanations of the test variables are also displayed. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . For many questionnaires an item analysis protocol is available. If the client’s responses are implausible or incomplete. educational level or other criteria. T-scores and/or Z-scores are usually displayed. gender.
g.1966. HR. This corresponds to a percentile rank of 37.) are available. Whan assessing concentration by means of the Cognitrone a mean time "correct rejections" of 2. All changes can then be identified at a glance. Doe reached a performance parameter of -1. 17 . Mr. treatment. In the Determination Test. profile pleased to set up this additional funcetc. A report template is sup. the test battery scoring system presents the worth knowing test results one below the Please contact us if you would like to other. … about expert systems. Sport and Traffic Expert page 24 Systems and for individual tests. This corresponds to a percentile rank of 66. John.06. which corresponds to a percentile rank of 93.18 seconds was achieved. In summary these test results lead to an allocation certainty to the group of the persons with adequate driving related ability of 78%.117.0 84. In the Tachistoscopic Traffic Test. 42. by which the ability to get an overview was measured.read more plied for the Aviation. where Mr.2009 Profile: T 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 profile comparison REPORT GENERATION The test system contains a function which enables the system to incorporate individual test results into a report template at the click of a mouse.09.1980 AMT DT RT RT COG ATAVT PP PP PR General intelligence Number of correct reactions Mean reaction time Mean motor time Mean time "correct rejections" Getting an overview Field of vision Tracking deviation 0. DEMO record! born 16.9 50. In the Reaction Test to assess the reaction ability Mr. We shall be tions (results table.7 99. All the display opuse this form of scoring. Page 2 of 3 VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . TEST bATTERY SCORING All reported percentile ranks result from a comparison with the age independent norm sample. Comment(s): The highlighted range marks the required characteristics of the examined ability and personality dimensions for the set traffic-psychological question (group 1 . The Vienna Test System can carry out a profile comparison that enables the results of these repeated tests to be quickly compared. male. 21. This special scoring method involves superimposing the profiles of the different test sessions on each other. Driving-related psychological opinion Doe. a test to assess the relative stress tolerance. Doe reached a mean reaction time of 486 milliseconds – which corresponds to a percentile rank of 25 – and a mean motor time of 126 milliseconds – which corresponds to a percentile rank of 79. The separate profile curves are Expert System Traffic shown in different colors and/or different types of line. Doe had 252 correct reactions.3 15.9 years. Education level 4 Test administration: 19. which corresponds to a percentile rank of 83.1 97. training) has taken place. This report can be edited. Up to seven profiles can be compared. printed and saved using Microsoft Word ©. the client grasped 17 traffic situations completely correct.9 Case history: <insert text> Test results: The test battery lasted all together 41 minutes and shows the following results: General Intelligence was measured with the Adaptive Matrices Test.03. tion for particular test batteries.motorists without increased responsibility) Serial number of the examination center: 000000 In contrast to the standard scoring system in which the results of each test in a test battery are presented separately.1 2.The Vienna Test System It is often useful for a client to repeat a particular test after intervention (e.
As in Microsoft Windows®. necessary. VTS HELP vts help is divided into the following sections: basic information on computer-aided psychological the Vienna Test System the Test Generator update info test documentation assessment For each installed test the raw scores on all test variables are expressed as percentile ranks and T-scores (or in the form of the normed test score usually used for the test in question.The report serves as evidence of the port appears on the screen equipment testing that is mandatory in and can be printed out if many institutions. Comparisons with a norm can also be carried out. Manuals for individual tests are available in digital form. NORM TAbLE ExPLORER CUSTOMIzAbLE CLIENT DATAbASE The client database contains the standard fields Name. The scoring program can be used for all the tests in the test system. HARDWARE TEST 18 . Date of birth. Upon completion of the test a re. Scoring code and Language. e. administration. An individual template can thus be created. page 12 TWO MONITORS – ONE TEST SYSTEM The Vienna Test System includes a special scoring program that enables tests administered in paper-andpencil form to be scored and managed via the computer. It is often not practical for the test administrator and the client to use the same screen. Gender. age range and distribution of educational levels are quoted. Additional self-defined fields can be added as required. topics can be searched for using “Content”.g. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .The Vienna Test System Special functions The Vienna Test System includes extensive contextsensitive help – on matters ranging from installation and use of the VTS to Tips and Tricks and literature references. If available. First name. thus enabling the administrator to observe the progress of the test session on a separate read more monitor and to intervene if necessary. The respondent’s answers on the response sheet are either entered via the keyboard or scanned in. The test results can then be displayed and exported in the same way as for computerized VTS tests. SCORING PROGRAM FOR PAPER & PENCIL TESTS The Hardware Test can be used to test the functioning of the individual components worth knowing of the Test System. gender distribution. “Index” or “Search”. The light pen interface makes it possible to connect two monitors. In most cases the sample size. The client’s … about the light pen interface in the monitor is used only for test section “Input devices and accessories”. Education. as Z-scores or Sten scores). reliabilities are also given.
securIty level 1: test administration unrestricted. functions partially blocked Test batteries cannot be created or changed. The database can only be used to evaluate and score the data generated during administration of the tests. In both areas there is also the possibility of combining online (decentralized) testing with local test administration. all available flexibly. default settings cannot be changed and tests cannot be installed or deleted. the client codes can be encrypted. Integration and data exchange between different software read more programs are made possible … about networked systems. securIty level 3: test administration unrestricted. but these changes cannot be saved. access to database unrestricted. thus ensuring that high-quality testing forms part of a clear and efficient work process. by the open interface design page 22 of the Vienna Test System. access to database unrestricted. To ensure confidentiality during data export. functions partially blocked The test system can be used only for test administration.The Vienna Test System All data (raw scores and/or norm scores on the test variables) can be exported into standard statistical programs (such as Excel and SPSS) for further statistical processing. The Vienna Test System is easy to integrate into existing workflows or software programs. Data export options cannot be changed. languages: management software in up to 13 languages. Access to all other functions and to the database is barred. functions unrestricted All the functions of the Test System can be accessed. access to all other functions is barred. Access can be authorized at different levels and is controlled by four passwords. The Vienna Test System is frequently integrated into applicant management systems used in personnel selection and management and into IT systems used in clinics. at no extra cost and with no need for additional installation easy importing of self-generated norms creation of decision-oriented (conditional) test batteries report on the number of tests administered scope of results output can be individually defined measurement of change through profile comparison VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . 19 . functions partially blocked The test system can be used only to administer and score tests. access to database restricted. enabling the following user groups to be defined: securIty level 0: test administration unrestricted. Other data in the database cannot be accessed. Temporary changes can be made to samples and test result displays. An ASCII file can also be produced. The test system can therefore be used to administer tests and unrestricted access to the databases is permitted. OTHER SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE test administration in up to 25 languages and scoring of results in up to 14 languages. access to database blocked. INTEGRATING THE VIENNA TEST SYSTEM INTO OTHER PROGRAMS securIty level 2: test administration unrestricted. DATA ExPORT & IMPORT DATA PROTECTION For purposes of data protection the Vienna Test System includes functions that prevent unauthorized use of the system and the data collected by it – especially personspecific data. It is likewise easy to “exchange” client data between two Vienna Test Systems via a network or external data storage medium.
In some computer systems stimulus output may be significantly delayed (by up to 100 milliseconds). To prevent mistakes there is also the option to check self-generated norms for syntactic errors.Percentile rank Impulsiveness V8 = EPP6/S1 PR-IR/1000 . Gary. 1 The variable indicates the match to the ideal profile in per mill. This enables measurement to be accurate to the nearest percentile rank irrespective of the computer system used.8 years.Percentile rank Manipulativeness V11 = EPP6/S1 PR-RI/1000 .2008 Comment(s): The confidence intervals are displayed next to each of the comparison scores (in parentheses).75 0.03.Percentile rank Verbal intelligence functions 16776+ 585- 4932486+ 30- 435+ 67+ 91+ 25+ 86+ 7381+ 5378+ Ideal range 25-100 0-50 50-90 25-75 25-75 25-75 10-75 0-25 0-90 25-75 10-60 25-90 75-100 50-100 25-100 75-100 Relevance 0. Vienna Test System .50 0. male.12.10.1971 The following job profile was used for the computation of the ranking: Variable V1 = EPP6/S1 PR-AC/1000 .1976 Smith.Percentile rank Long-term memory V14 = IBF/S1 PR-ZNI/1000 .837 0 (0-1) 20 (16-24) 55 or Verbal intelligence functions -1.2009.Percentile rank Assertiveness V5 = EPP6/S1 PR-DO/1000 .Percentile rank Numerical intelligence functions V15 = IBF/S1 PR-ZRV/1000 .00 1.1963.Percentile rank Aggression V3 = EPP6/S1 PR-AM/1000 .75 1. 05. In only a few easily learned steps the user can produce overall norms or norms partitioned by gender.50 0. The norms thus created can be readily imported into the Vienna Test System using any text editor. CALIbRATION MODULE new l ranges can target and idea r ranking be defined fo Ranking of 'Personnel selection DEMO' Rank Points Client V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V10 V11 V12 V13 V14 V15 V16 No rating (test results are not completely available): Hoffer.75 0.12.2008 21 22 Test results: 24 Test variable 22 Cognitive ability General intelligence 2 Verbal intelligence functions 0 Numerical intelligence functions 17 Long-term memory Visualisation 19 Occupational personality Sociability 23 Expressiveness Assertiveness 20 Ambition Dogmatic 16 Winch.837 -1. 02. age or other self-defined variables. Jimmy.1963.2008 Test results: Especially in areas in which even greater precision is needed. 45. page 1 of 1 Test variable Cognitive ability Raw score PR T IQ INDIVIDUAL GENERATION OF NORMS WITH FLExNORM Sociab y You ilitfirst define reExpressiveness quirements profiles Assertiveness Amb on for itithe positions or Dogmatic occupations.04. Ranking is based on the degree of deviation from the requirements you have specified. education.Percentile rank Dissimulation V10 = EPP6/S1 PR-MA/1000 . 14.Percentile rank Ambition V4 = EPP6/S1 PR-AS/1000 .Percentile rank Activity V2 = EPP6/S1 PR-AG/1000 . The time-critical tests of the Vienna Test System are designed to identify these sources of technical error and allow for them.766 36 (13-66) 46 (39-54) 95 (83-106) Visualisation -0. 31.2008 20 . RANKING For time-critical tests calibration of the computer system used is recommended. It is useful if Numerical intelligence functions -2.12.Ranking of 'Personnel selection DEMO' 10. Education level 3 Test administration: 02.125 0 (0-1) 20 (15-25) 55 (48-62) you have a number of posts to fill or if you wish to esLong-term memory -0.Percentile rank Expressiveness V7 = EPP6/S1 PR-IM/1000 . use of the calibration module is recommended.The Vienna Test System Additional programs A special module in the Vienna Test System enables different applicants and their test results to be directly compared with each other. Gary born 28.10. Kathy.882 3 (1-11) 31 (24-38) 72 (62-82) occupation an individual is best suited for. the module identifies the most suitable person.00 2.Vienna Test System .Percentile rank Irresponsibility V9 = EPP6/S1 PR-LI/1000 .00 0. Gary. 18.104.22.1687 Webber. This could result in erroneous interpretation of the results. 50 55 55 48 55 54 Comment(s): The confidence intervals are displayed next to each of the comparison scores (in parentheses).125 -0.766 -0.75 1.Percentile rank Visualisation V16 = IBF/S1 PR-ZVI/1000 . 02. This guarantees the highest level of measurement precision. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM Vienna Test System . male.75 0. 45.882 -2. Bill.50 0.2008 02.03.1955 Snyder. Rick.12.Test results Winch.975 Practical and technical interests Intellectual and investigative interests Artistic and linguistic interests Social interests Entrepreneurial interests Organizational and administrational interests Occupational aptitude Aptitude for technical professions Aptitude for commercial professions Aptitude for social professions Occupational intersts Practical and technical interests Intellectual and investigative interests Artistic and linguistic interests Social interests Entrepreneurial interests Organizational and administrational interests 27 33 32 27 34 Occupational aptitude Aptitude for technical professions 28ions Aptitude for commercial profess Aptitude for social professions 1 50 69 69 42 69 66 21 22 24 22 20 17 19 23 20 16 42 57 51 PR 49 0 61 3 0 57 36 33 48 22 55 77 53 55 47 86 51 75 41 70 68 53 T 20 (16-24) 31 (24-38) 20 (15-25) 46 (39-54) 46 (38-53) IQ 55 (49-61) 72 (62-82) 55 (48-62) 95 (83-106) 93 (82-105) (0-1) (1-11) (0-1) (13-66) (11-63) 27 33 32 27 34 28 685 1 660 1 646 1 50 505 5 69 69 55 42 69 48 66 55 54 42 57 51 49 61 57 48 55 55 51 This SCHUHFRIED software program is a Windowsbased tool that provides a simple and efficient means of creating norms for the Vienna Test System. The lAssignment function indicates which position (49-61) Genera intelligence -4. Gary Aggression Risk-Taking Impulsiveness Irresponsibility Manipulativeness 22 77 53 47 86 75 41 70 68 53 Raw score -4. Patti. Once the requirements profile has been entered and the different aspects of it weighted.12.01.00 0.50 1.75 0. 19. Education level 3 Test administration: 02.Percentile rank Sociability V13 = IBF/S1 PR-ZLZG/1000 .33 Test battery occupational counselling Winch.975 33 (11-63) 46 (38-53) 93 (82-105) tablish individuals’ suitability for particular occupations.8 years.1973 Murray. In the Aggression Risk-Taking evaluation the system Impulsiveness shows ilityto what exIrresponsib Manip lativen ss tent uthe eindividual fits Occupational intersts these profiles. 685 1 660 1 646 1 02.75 0. The variable indicates the match to the ideal profile in per mill. This ensures that measurement precision is accurate to around three percentile rank points. Occupational personality Test battery occupational counselling born 28.2008 .Percentile rank Dogmatic V6 = EPP6/S1 PR-EX/1000 .Percentile rank Risk-Taking V12 = EPP6/S1 PR-SO/1000 .03.Test results Winch.
e. this method is used in clinics to ask patients about their current state of health.g. tests that you have developed yourself can be administered within the Vienna Test System (VTS). scanned-in questionnaire tests (TQ).The Vienna Test System The Test Generator Incorporate your own tests into the Vienna Test System Using the Test Generator. The Test Generator is available for questionnaire tests (TQ) and tachistoscopic tests (TT). Questions can be entered directly into the Test Generator or read more can utilize multimedia options … about the Test Generator for (graphics. new at tractive pric ing model VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . The same functions are available for these self-generated tests as for all other tests in the Vienna Test System. For example. photos. 21 . The questions to be … about the Test Generator for put to the respondent after tatachistoscopic tests (TT). from job applicants. The Test Generator in use in a clinic advantages no programming knowledge required tests are quick to produce norms – either self-generated or adopted from maximum flexibility adaptable to individual requirements elsewhere – are easy to incorporate Questionnaires can be designed either as power tests or as personality tests. audio and video files). These questionnaires are not tests but simple surveys. TACHISTOSCOPIC TESTS QUESTIONNAIRES AND SURVEYS USING THE TEST GENERATOR Use of the Test Generator to administer a questionnaire is very popular. material. chistoscopic on-screen pres on page 146 entation of the pictures are also easy to produce. while in companies it can be used test a person‘s knowledge or obtain biographical information. on page 145 QUESTIONNAIRES The Test Generator in use in a company Creating tachistoscopic tests involves providing your own pictures or picture series and defining the length of time for which they will be read more shown.
It is run at a test administrator workstation. The test battery assigned to him is then presented automatically. 1) control monitor The candidate uses his code number to log on to one of the test computers. At the client workstations the various candidates can work the tests simultaneously but completely independently of each other and at their own pace. where the tests assigned to him will then be administered automatically. the group testing procedure How it works: In one or more test rooms you set up computers on which the Vienna Test System is installed. 22 . The test administrator gives each candidate his assigned code number. One workstation is allocated to the test administrator and the others to the clients. test form and client data. Two functions that make group testing even easier: The control monitor is a separate program used to monitor and manage the individual workstations in a test system network. the computers are linked to form a local network. Different tests or test batteries can be administered at each workstation. Immediately after testing the results can be displayed or printed out. Using this ID the client can log on at any workstation. All the candidates invited for testing are entered in the database. The AutoTest function enables the test administrator to prepare test sessions for different clients in advance. test batteries prepared and scoring carried out. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Each candidate is assigned a test battery and a code number. for each client workstation it shows information such as test length. Each client is given an ID number.The Vienna Test System Networked systems TEST SYSTEM NETWORK Use of a test system network is recommended if a large number of respondents need to be tested at the same time. At the end of the series of tests the program instructs the applicant to contact the test administrator. the candidate contacts the test administrator. 2) autotest The test administrator uses the control monitor to monitor the progress of testing. At the test administrator workstation client data is collected.
You can set up a central workstation with full access rights at which a group of experts can adjust settings. DECENTRALIzED TESTING In online testing the Vienna Test System is installed on a server rather than on individual computers. He manages the candidates’ data. which has all the functionality of the offline version of the Vienna Test System. in a clinic. carried out under conditions that are virtually indistinguishable from offline testing. manage data and select tests. ONLINE TESTING desktop technology rather than a web browser. institutions with a number of different departments. Candidates complete the tests on their own computer. where patients may be moved from one ward to another. are connected to a server. From his computer the test administrator accesses the VTS control interface on the server. useful comparison studies can Decentralized testing is also useful in also be carried out. onlinetest single workstation system or (mobile) number of single workstation A systems with a shared database decentralized testing test system networks of individuals Simultaneous testing of a number Local installation of the Vienna Test System not required online testing www VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . the psychologist on the new ward can immediately access the patient’s details. candidates’ details and test results are stored in a central database on the server. This enables testing to be The symbol next to the test descriptions (page 31 onwards) shows which tests are available online. draws up test batteries and evaluates test results. Testing is thus conducted at different sites but the data is managed centrally. This enables organizations that have dispersed or global networks to administer tests at different locations. Since all data is collected worth knowing in one database. The VTS user rights function is used to define the rights assigned to different workstations. At the peripheral workstations rights are restricted and depend on whether the user is a test administrator or a test candidate. Testing can be carried out on any computer with internet access.The Vienna Test System Computers at different sites. worth knowing Invitations to work the tests VTS Online uses a modern remote are sent out by e-mail. on which the Vienna Test System is installed. For example. 23 . The VTS settings.
At the end of the test session the results are available in a table. from manager to technical specialist.at ExPERT SYSTEM HR The Expert System HR is a version of the Vienna Test System developed especially for personnel selection and potential analysis. an overall assessment of driving-specific ability is provided. The overall assessment is based on a model – which has been validated in a number of independent studies – of the correlation between the test results and the assessment of driving behaviour in a standardized driving test. A useful ranking function shows at a glance which candidate is best suited to the job. In addition to the results of the individual tests. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . from apprentice to engineer. A less detailed version of the report is also provided for the client. The Expert System Traffic achieves a classification rate of 86% with a validity coefficient of 0. standard general intelligence (precision) general intelligence (screening) general work habits vocational interests memory customer orientation mathematical abilities visualization risk appetite inductive reasoning language abilities ability to work in a team technical comprehension premIum Standard package + working accuracy vs.The Vienna Test System Expert systems SCHUHFRIED’s expert systems are standardized test batteries with an overall assessment to which all the tests contribute. The HR manager selects from a list of job-specific ability and personality dimensions those that are to be tested. assistant worth knowing call centers Fixed package price with manufacturing work 1-year licence! Use the tests sales and marketing as often as you wish for a year. The following profiles are available for psychological personnel selection and potential analysis: order your free copy now! catalog expert system traffIc E-mail info@schuhfried. It combines scientifically based quality with ease of use and can be used to test aptitude for a large number of occupations - from call center worker to administrator. The Expert System HR is available in Standard and Premium versions. working speed eye-hand coordination English as a foreign language fine motor skills multi-tasking stress-related work behaviour profiling Predefined profiles are provided for assessment situations relevant to HR. The resulting Word report can be edited and hence adapted to individual requirements. The system then selects the appropriate tests and subtests.78. as an easy-to-read diagram or as a written report. At the press of a button all personal details.at 24 . finance and controlling IT product development and research technical administration and processing management junior management talent assessment career counselling order your free copy now! catalog expert system hr E-mail info@schuhfried. These profiles include not only the readymade test battery settings but also a predefined ranking and a specific test battery scoring system. raw scores and percentile rankings can be incorporated into the Word template of a traffic-psychological assessment. The user can choose from tests measuring 19 success-related personality and ability factors: ExPERT SYSTEM TRAFFIC The test batteries of the Expert System Traffic can be used to assess driving-specific abilities and willingness to adapt to traffic conditions. test results.
These profiles include not only the ready-made test battery settings but also a predefined ranking and a specific test battery scoring system. be added to either version. The system then chooses the appropriate tests.The Vienna Test System ExPERT SYSTEM AVIATION The Expert System Aviation contains a standardized and validated test battery for testing applicants for pilot training. The results are provided in the form of a verbal report and a ranking. ExPERT SYSTEM SPORT This sport psychology package is easy to use.Fixed package price with mium versions. concentration. This assesses all the ability and personality factors recommended in the international JAR-FCL3 guidelines. psychomotor coordination and decision quality. including logical reasoning.85. The supple. From a list of sport-related dimensions the user selects the ones that are to be tested. The Expert System Sport is worth knowing available in Standard and Pre.1-year licence! Use the tests mentary children’s module can as often as you wish for a year. The Expert System Aviation achieves a classification rate of 92% with a validity coefficient of 0. order your free copy now! catalog expert system avIatIon E-mail email@example.com standard general sport-related personality characteristics anticipation of movement memory concentration reaction behavior under stress ability to react selective attention timing visual perception premIum Standard package + distractibility eye-hand coordination stress screening sustained attention visual field information processing leadership achievement motivation spatial visualization readiness to take risks independence of external influences supplementary children’s module fine motor skills – children memory (children) reaction behavior under stress (children) Predefined profiles are provided for particular sport-related assessment situations. The following profiles are available for psychological sport assessment: success factors – motor sport success factors – games (team) potential screening – children (6-10 years) potential screening – children (11-14 years) profiling VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . 25 . Using the test battery data and a requirements profile. the system calculates an overall assessment of the candidate’s cognitive ability and safety-related personality traits. spatial visualization.
The corresponding tests and training programs are based on the same t h e o r e t i c a l l y clearly defined worth knowing constructs but CogniPlus is a training system for involve differ. The training programs are based on the same theoretical models as the tests to which they correspond.at 26 . VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . The summary shows which CogniPlus training programmes are specifically tailored to the deficits tested by the Vienna Test System. ent tasks.The Vienna Test System and CogniPlus: they go together! 1|TEST 2|TRAIN 3| TEST THE SUCCESS OF TRAINING Alertness Vigilance WAFA WAFV WAFS WAFF WAFG WAFR CORSI CORSI NbN GNL* INHIb PLAN TEST* A3DW MLS 2HAND ALERT VIG SELECT FOCUS DIVID SPACE VISP CODING NbACK NAMES HIbIT PLAND ROTATE VISMO *| in implementation | Attention Selective Focused Divided The neuropsychological tests of the Vienna Test System and the training procedures of CogniPlus are inter-coordinated. This enables a reliable distinction to be made between the material–specific learning effect and the material-independent training effect which is being aimed at. this provides an efficient and theoretically sound link between assessment/ training and the subsequent analysis of effectiveness.visual Long-term memory Executive functions Learning of facename associations Response inhibition Planing and action skills Mental rotation Visuomotor coordination Spatial processing Visuomotor skills order your free copy now! catalog cognIplus E-mail info@schuhfried. Neglect-/visual field training Visuo-spatial attention Visuo-spatial Working memory Spatial and temporal encoding Updating .training cognitive functions.
QUALITY MANAGEMENT To facilitate empirical data collection. This confirms that products comply with technical safety regulations and EMC guidelines for medical electrical appliances (EN60601). DIN 33430 stipulates that the norms of tests used in suitability assessment must be checked every eight years to ensure that they are still appropriate. They comply with the Medical Products Act and therefore carry the CE mark. The development and production guidelines which have been drawn up as part of our quality management system ensure that our products are durable. The SCHUHFRIED research laboratory is mainly concerned with norming work involving representative samples. RESEARCH LAbORATORY WIENER TESTSYSTEM . which is a version of EN ISO 9001:2000 adapted to medical products. 27 .Quality management SCHUHFRIED GmbH has a quality management system in accordance with EN ISO 13485:2003. a research and development laboratory with eight test places has been set up near the university in Vienna. SCHUHFRIED GmbH complies with this requirement for all the tests that it sells. bio-compatibility guidelines (EN30993) and other product-specific requirements. highly reliable and fault-free. Products of SCHUHFRIED GmbH are developed and produced in accordance with EU Directive 93/42/EEG.
hardware).com. Conveniently presented update information enables you to see at a glance what changes have been made. 28 . software. Know-how from our development departments (psychology.at UPDATE AGREEMENTS weBInars SCHUHFRIED regularly organizes webinars. read more a glance. As an alternative to an update agreement you can request an update at any time. giving you access to: new test forms new norms new languages updated test items new additional functions compatibility with current operating systems and computer hardware VTS UPDATES order your free copy now! vIenna test system demo dvd E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. Forthcoming events are listed at www. Also on the website are recordings of past webinars and presentation documents. just contact us. An update agreement is the ideal way to ensure that your Vienna Test System is always completely up to date. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . All SCHUHFRIED contact details at page 2 worth knowing If you would like to test the Demo Version online.Service DEMO VERSION Order the Demo DVD and browse through the Vienna Test System! Those who are already VTS users will also find a glance at the latest demo version helpful: in “update info“ in the Help menu you will find a list of all additions and changes (language versions. insights from our test and research laboratory and the practical experience of our clients and users are all incorporated into its implementation. Updates enable you to benefit on favorable terms from the improvements that we regularly introduce. The Vienna Test System is the result of many years of development work and continuous product maintenance. norms. some of which may be of interest to you. test forms).
As a traffic psychologist I rely on
Main areas of application
Neuro & cliNical PersoNNel TransporT: road TransporT: rail TransporT: aviaTion sPort eDucatioN
repeatedly if necessary.94 (Numerical Intelligence). Personnel Transport: Road The results of the IBF are given in the form of z-transformed factor scores for the ability areas of Verbal Intelligence. The IBF is particularly useful as a screening test when a quick global overview of intelligence level is required. incorrect. In addition for Form S2 norms for 5581 individuals aged 13 and over are available. Standardised instructions and practice items are presented before each group is worked. Validity Test forms Two test forms are available: Form S1 (Standard form) Form S2 (Easy short form) Neuro & clinical Scoring Studies show correlations with Raven’s matrix tests APM (Raven. G. omitted) and how much time was required for the test. Norms For Form S1 computer norms are available for 4771 individuals. N= 256) for the item groups and r=0. Bonn (Directors: E. 1998) and SPM (Raven.92.47. based on a hierarchical linear structural equation model.74 and r=0. 1979) of r=0. T-scores and an optional IQ score are reported.95 was obtained. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) of the individual ability areas lies between r=0. Gittler.93.30 to r=0. 45-65 minutes (actual test time). Theoretical background The test aims to provide a differentiated assessment of the main areas of ability which are hierarchically structured at a level of medium abstraction. Application Assessment of intelligence level and intelligence structure. Building on Thurstone’s primary factors of intelligence (1938). For the test as a whole the value is r=0. this tool for analysing the intelligence structure covers the following four ability dimensions: Verbal Intelligence (35 items).42 to r=0. The test has been optimised to combine an economical test length with a very high degree of reliability. Institute of Psychology of the University of Vienna © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Economical intelligence screening battery based on Thurstone’s primary factors. 30-45 minutes (actual test time). The respondent chooses the right answer from a multiple-choice selection. Trost). 1995) are between r=0. Numerical Intelligence. Within the permissible time limits it is possible to go back to any item in the group in order to change the answer. Visualisation and Memory. Testing time Transport: Rail Form S1: approx. Correlations with INKA (Heyde.und Begabungsforschung GmbH. Raven & Court. suitable for respondents aged 13 and upwards in all relevant contexts. Transport: Aviation Sport Education 32 . Fay. For the test as a whole a value of r=0.Intelligence Test Batteries IBF Onlinetest Basic Intelligence Functions ITB Institut für Test. Numerical Intelligence (40 items). education and gender for individuals aged 14 and upwards.52 (SPM. Reliability Administration There is a time limit for the completion of each group of items. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . An overall intelligence score is also provided.41 (APM.66 for the overall test score.54 for the test as a whole (N=320). these norms have also been separated according to age.36 and r=0. G.84 (Visualisation) and r=0. The test protocol indicates how the individual items were answered (correct. In addition the intelligence profile can be used to provide initial information before a more detailed investigation of particular ability areas. Amendments can be made to individual answers within an item group. Form S2: approx. Raven & Court. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) of the individual ability areas in the short form lies between r=0. or r=0.52 and r=0. Visualisation (17 items) and Memory (20 items). N=237) and r=0. All test scores are compared with the norms and percentile ranks. amended.
Intelligence Test Batteries
M. Arendasy, L. F. Hornke, M. Sommer, J. Häusler, M. Wagner-Menghin, G. Gittler, B. Bognar, M. Wenzl © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH
A modular intelligence test battery constructed on theory-led principles and designed to measure work-related abilities both fairly and economically.
Assessment of intelligence level and intelligence structure, for respondents aged 14 and over.
INSBAT, a decision-oriented psychological assessment tool, is constructed modularly. This means that only those subtests that are maximally informative for the purpose of the investigation need be presented. INSBAT is based on the hierarchical intelligence model of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (Carroll, 1993; Horn, 1989; Horn & Noll, 1997). The model assumes that the intercorrelations between the subtests for measuring the primary factors can be explained by nine second-order factors that are broader in content than the primary ones. The correlations between the second-order factors are explained by a general factor of intelligence, which forms the peak or tip of the hierarchical intelligence model. The validity of this factor structure has been replicated in many studies from different countries (e.g. Arendasy, Hergovich & Sommer, 2008, Brickley, Keith & Wolfe, 1995; Carroll, 1989; Gustafsson, 1984; Horn & Stankov, 1982; Undheim & Gustafsson, 1987). For the construction of INSBAT the following second-order factors were selected as being relevant to practical areas of application such as work psychology, commercial/industrial and organisational psychology and educational psychology: Fluid intelligence: the ability to recognise relationships between stimuli, understand implications and draw valid logical conclusions (subtests: Numerical Inductive Reasoning, Figural Inductive Reasoning, Verbal Deductive Reasoning). Crystallised intelligence: the breadth and depth of acquired cultural knowledge as well as word fluency and verbal comprehension (subtests: Lexical Knowledge, Verbal Fluency, Word Meaning). Short-term memory: the ability to retain visual and verbal information in the short term and to reproduce it accurately (subtests: Visual Short-term Memory, Verbal Short-term Memory). Long-term memory: the ability to retain information in the longer term, integrate it into one’s own knowledge base and recall it accurately (subtest: Longterm Memory). Visual processing: the ability to imagine how objects will look after they have been mentally rotated or transformed (subtest: Spatial Perception). Processing speed: defined as the number of basic cognitive operations that can be carried out in a particular period of time (subtest: Inspection Time). Decision quality: defined as the number of basic cognitive operations required in order to make a fast and accurate decision in the context of non-trivial tasks (subtest: Decision Quality). Quantitative reasoning: the ability to understand and apply mathematical skills and concepts (subtests: Computational Estimation, Arithmetical Competence, Arithmetical Flexibility, Algebraic Reasoning). In all there are therefore 16 subtests available. The items of these subtests were devised with the aid of various method of automatic item generation (AIG: Arendasy & Sommer, in press; Irvine & Kyllonen, 2002), drawing on the findings of current research in the cognitive sciences and applied psychometrics.
The items were constructed either by human item writers or completely automatically using item generators. With regard to the psychometric properties of the item material it was considered important that (1) the items of the individual subtests should be scaleable in accordance with the 1PL Rasch model and (2) the theoretical model on which the items are based should be able to explain at least 50% of the variance in the item difficulty parameters. This has the advantages for the practitioner of scaling fairness and unambiguity of interpretation of the individual subtest results.
INSBAT has been designed as a modular intelligence test battery. This means that only those subtests that are relevant to the purpose of the particular assessment situation need be presented. This can be done using Variable Form I (S1) or Variable Form II (S2). While Form S1 allows only for the choice of subtests to be changed, Form S2 incorporates the additional possibility of changing the order of the subtests and the end conditions of the adaptive tests in line with the requirements of the test situation. These two test forms are particularly useful for predicting educational and career success in fields where there are clearly defined requirement profiles. For the differentiated assessment of intelligence level and intelligence structure each second-order factor should be measured by a marker subtest (Figural Inductive Reasoning, Lexical Knowledge, Visual Short-term Memory, Long-term Memory, Spatial Perception and Inspection Time). To complement the picture a second subtest can be administered for each second-order factor, thus ensuring that the whole breadth of the second-order factor’s content is adequately covered. This approach is realised in the Global Form (S3). According to Schmidt and Hunter (1998), this procedure is particularly suitable for predicting the work-related performance of people in occupations involving very diverse and heterogeneous activities. If insufficient time is available for the separate assessment of an individual’s different abilities, the Short Form (S4) can be used. Each subtest is provided with standardised instructions and practice examples based on the principles of programmed instruction and “mastery learning”. Depending on the subtest, the respondent’s answers are given either in multiple-choice format or as automated free responses. The tasks in the individual subtests are presented partly in power test form and partly with a time limit on each item. In 11 of the subtests the items are presented as an adaptive test (CAT) with the test starting point
Neuro & clinical
VIENNA TEST SYSTEM
Intelligence Test Batteries
being selected on the basis of socio-demographic data; this maximises the information gain without using items that are either too easy or too difficult for the respondent.
Four test forms are available: Form S1 (variable form 1), Form S2 (variable form II), Form S3 (global form) and Form S4 (short form)
Neuro & clinical
For each of the selected subtests the ability parameter in accordance with the Rasch model is reported. While the number of correctly worked items is merely a measure of an individual’s performance, the ability parameter makes it possible to estimate the underlying latent ability dimension. This represents an important and at the same time diagnostically necessary inferential step. This inferential step is, however, linked to the fit of the Rasch model, which has been demonstrated for the subtests of INSBAT (cf. van der Linden & Hambelton, 1997). If more than one subtest relating to a particular second-order factor has been selected, an ability parameter is calculated for that second-order factor. The ability parameter for the general factor General Intelligence (G) is calculated if at least one subtest has been selected for each of the six second-order factors Fluid Intelligence (Gf), Crystallised Intelligence (Gc), Visual Processing (Gv), Quantitative Reasoning (Gq), Short-term Memory (Gstm) and Long-term Memory (Gltm). Alongside the provision of the ability parameters and factor scores a norm comparison (percentile ranks and IQ; confidence interval) is carried out. At the conclusion of testing the results are displayed both in tabular form and as a profile, and these can be printed out. The test protocol for each subtest provides a record of the latency times for each item, the selected answer, scoring information and statistics relating to the adaptive process. In addition INSBAT has provision for transferring the test results automatically into a report template.
The construct representation (Embretson, 1983) of the individual INSBAT subtests has been demonstrated in studies in which the item difficulties were predicted from task characteristics derived from the theoretical models for the solving of these types of tasks. The multiple correlations between the item difficulty parameters of the Rasch model (Rasch, 1980) and the item features thus obtained fluctuate for the individual subtests between R=0.70 and R=0.97. This means that between 50% and 94% of the difference in the difficulty of the individual items can be explained by the theoretical models on which construction of the items in the individual subtests is based. In addition, a number of studies of the nomothetic span (Embretson, 1983) of the individual subtests are now available. A study by Sommer and Arendasy (2005; Sommer, Arendasy & Häusler, 2005) provided evidence of construct validity for the test battery as a whole and for the global form and short form. By means of a confirmatory factor analysis the authors were able to confirm the theory-led assignment of the individual subtests to the second-order factors of the CattellHorn-Carroll model. These results were supplemented by studies carried out by Arendasy and Sommer (2007) and Arendasy, Hergovich and Sommer (2008), in which the results previously reported were replicated on an independent sample using alternative subtests. Evidence of the criterion validity of the individual INSBAT subtests has come from the fields of aviation psychology (selection of trainee pilots) and educational counselling (prediction of student success at universities of applied sciences).
Norms are available for 904 adults aged between 16 and 73, as well as norms of a sample of 1595 young people aged between 12 and 15. Both norms are also available separated according to age, gender and education.
Due to the adaptive presentation mode used in some subtests and the applicability of a probabilistic test model that this requires, any desired level of reliability can be achieved. For reasons of economy the reliability of the individual task groups lies between r=0.70 and r=0.95. The stability of the subtests after some 15 months fluctuates between r=0.63 and r=0.87.
The time required for completing Variable Form I (S1) and Variable Form II (S2) depends on the subtests selected and the chosen reliability. The length of the individual subtests varies between 3 and 40 minutes. In the case of forms S3 and S4, which consist of a fixed sequence of subtests, the time required for the tests is 2 hours 52 minutes and 1 hour 27 minutes respectively.
34 . VIENNA TEST SYSTEM
Intelligence Test Batteries
Intelligence Structure Battery – short form
M. Arendasy, L. F. Hornke, M. Sommer, G. Gittler © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH
INSSV is an intelligence test battery constructed on theory-led principles and designed to measure work-related abilities in a fair and economical manner.
Assessment of intelligence level and intelligence structure, for respondents aged 14 and over.
As its name indicates, the Intelligence Structure Battery – Short Form is a simplified version of the Intelligence Structure Battery (INSBAT). Like INSBAT, it is based on the hierarchical intelligence model of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (Carroll, 1993, 2003; Horn, 1989; Horn & Noll, 1997), which assumes that there are broadbased secondary factors that underlie the correlations between the individual primary factors or subtests. The correlations between the secondary factors are in turn explained by a general factor of intelligence, which forms the peak or tip of the hierarchical intelligence model. The validity of this factor structure has been replicated in many studies from different countries (e.g. Arendasy, Hergovich & Sommer, 2008, Brickley, Keith & Wolfe, 1995; Carroll, 1989, 2003; Gustafsson, 1984; Undheim & Gustafsson, 1987). For the Intelligence Structure Battery – Short Form the following secondary factors were selected: fluid intelligence, crystallised intelligence, quantitative reasoning, visual processing and long-term memory. With the exception of visual processing and long-term memory, each of the selected secondary factors is measured by two subtests - the subtest with the highest loading onto the factor in question and an additional subtest that helps to depict the breadth of content of the secondary factory. The eight subtests of the Intelligence Structure Battery – Short Form were created using a variety of approaches to automatic item generation (AIG: Arendasy & Sommer, in press; Irvine & Kyllonen, 2002), taking account of recent research findings in the cognitive sciences and applied psychometrics.
terest – the secondary factors, which can be used to assess both intelligence structure and level. Alongside the reporting of the factor scores a norm comparison (percentile ranks and IQ; confidence interval) is carried out. At the conclusion of testing the results are displayed both in tabular form and as a profile, and these can be printed out. In addition INSSV has provision for transferring the test results automatically into a report template.
The reliability of the five secondary factors lies between 0.70 and 0.84. The reliability of the general factor is 0.91.
There is one test form.
Unlike in INSBAT, the user of the Intelligence Structure Battery – Short Form can only omit entire secondary factors; it is not possible to omit individual subtests or to adjust their reliability to specific assessment needs. Each subtest is provided with standardised instructions and practice examples based on the principles of programmed instruction and “mastery learning”. Depending on the subtest, the respondent’s answers are given either in multiple-choice format or as automated free responses. The items in the individual subtests are presented partly in power test form and partly with a time limit on each item. In seven of the eight subtests the items are presented as an adaptive test (CAT) with a starting item selected on the basis of sociodemographic data, thereby maximising reliability and test security.
The construct representation (Embretson, 1983) of the individual subtests has been demonstrated in studies in which the item difficulties were predicted from task characteristics derived from the theoretical models for the solving of these types of task. The multiple correlations between the item difficulty parameters of the Rasch model (Rasch, 1980) and the item characteristics thus obtained vary for the individual subtests between R=0.70 and R=0.97. This means that between 50% and 94% of the difference in the difficulties of the individual items can be explained by the theoretical models on which construction of the items in the individual subtests is based. Many other studies of construct validity are now available that confirm the theory-led assignment of the individual subtests to the secondary factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model (Arendasy & Sommer, 2007; Arendasy, Hergovich & Sommer, 2008; Sommer & Arendasy, 2005; Sommer, Arendasy & Häusler, 2005). Evidence of criterion validity has come from the fields of aviation psychology (selection of trainee pilots) and educational counselling (prediction of student success at universities of applied sciences).
Neuro & clinical
ISSV has been normed on 904 adults aged between 16 and 73. The total norm has also been partitioned according to age, gender and education.
For each subtest the ability parameter is first calculated according to the 1PL Rasch model. However, since the reliability of the individual subtests is deliberately set low as standard, these test scores are not reported. They merely form the starting point for calculation of the real factors of in-
The time required depends on the subdimensions selected.
VIENNA TEST SYSTEM
More recent research on cognitive intelligence describes the factor as one of the “multiple intelligences” (e. NeW Now available in Czech and Slovakian! Application Non-verbal test for assessing mental visualisation and the ability to apply transformations to objects in three-dimensional space. 2000) also includes abilities which by definition correspond to the Sfactor. Construct validity has been demonstrated by correlation analysis.g. The test has 22 items. 1927. The test’s psychological validity is evident – respondents immediately associate the test with “understanding of shapes” and “doing a jigsaw puzzle”. Vernon.g. Both raw scores and percentile ranks are reported in the results protocol. Validity Administration Neuro & clinical A given figure has to be completed. Logical validity arises from the operational definition of what is measured. Transport: Rail Reliability The split-half reliability coefficients vary between 0. two or three of these segments must be selected to fill the gap and thus complete the bar. Theoretical background The primary factor measured by the 2D test is that of Spatial Ability (S) as defined by Thurstone in his Primary Factor Theory (Thurstone. A further 2 – 3 minutes are required for the instructions and practice examples. The starting point is a bar that has a gap in it. Below the bar are 16 different segments.86 for respondents of different educational level. For the first 8 items only one segment is needed to complete the bar. The content of the 2D test is similar to that of other tests that measure spatial ability and that have good predictive validity for a variety of occupations. in each item the gap is of a different shape. 1956) and by those who support hierarchical models of intelligence (e. For each item one. as it is assessed in this test. 1938). Hagman © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Visualization. Norms There is one test form. and for the last 6 three are required. We are currently planning our own study of the test’s predictive validity. 2001). for the next 8 two segments are needed.84 and 0. age and educational level. Transport: Aviation Sport Education 36 . It is the ability to think in various dimensions and to organize thoughts on the basis of mental pictures. 1950). The test itself takes 6 minutes to complete. Norms for a sample of 547 Swedish adults are also available. Spearman. E. Guilford. It can therefore be assumed that 2D also has predictive validity. Personnel Test forms Scoring Standardization was performed on a respresentative sample of normal individuals (N=364) who were tested at the SCHUHFRIED company’s research laboratory between 2004 and 2007.g. all of which are also of different shapes. Gardner. Sternberg’s Three Factor Theory (Sternberg. This factor has been repeatedly confirmed both by adherents of factor theories (e.Special Intelligence Tests 2D Onlinetest Visualization O. is an aspect of intellectual capacity providing the psychologist with essential information about the respondent which cannot be assessed with other cognitive tests. On account of its very varied manifestations the factor has been very important in research. suitable for use with respondents age 15 and upwards. These norms are available partitioned by gender. Transport: Road Testing time The number of correctly worked items is taken as the measure of spatial visualisation ability. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . 1949. The norms are also available separated according to age and education. Burt. Bratfisch.
A quota plan was used. is an aspect of intellectual capacity providing the psychologist with essential information about the respondent which cannot be assessed with other cognitive tests. We are currently planning our own study of the test’s predictive validity. A further 2-3 minutes are required for the instructions and practice examples. as indicated by an arrow. Reliability Standardization was carried out on a representative sample of 357 individuals who were tested at the SCHUHFRIED Company’s research laboratory in 2004 and 2007. age and educational level. The content of 3D is similar to the content of other tests that measure spatial ability and that have good predictive validity for a variety of occupations. Personnel Testing time The test itself takes 3 minutes to complete. Construct validity has been demonstrated by correlation analysis.87 for respondents of different educational level. He is given four alternative answers. suitable for use with respondents age 15 and upwards.Special Intelligence Tests Spatial Orientation 3D Onlinetest O. Norms for a sample of 547 Swedish adults are also available. The 3D test consists of 30 items The test’s face validity is evident – respondents immediately associate the test with “understanding of shapes”. Bratfisch. It is the ability to think in various dimensions and to organize thoughts on the basis of mental pictures. These norms are also available partitioned according to gender. Administration Validity Each item consists of a picture of a number of building blocks of the same shape and size that are placed together to form a structure. Logical validity arises from the operational definition of what is measured. These norms are likewise partitioned according to gender. This confirms the predictive validity of the present test. Hagman © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Spatial orientation. E. 37 . Both raw scores and percentile ranks are reported in the results protocol. age and educational level. from which he must select the picture that correctly depicts how the bricks would appear from the perspective indicated. Theoretical background Non-verbal test for assessing mental visualization and the ability to apply transformations to objects in three-dimensional space. Test forms Scoring There is one test form.82 and 0. NeW Now available in Czech and Slovakian! Application Non-verbal test for assessing mental visualization and the ability to apply transformations to objects in three-dimensional space. The respondent is asked to imagine how each arrangement of building blocks would look when viewed from a different angle. Norms The number of correctly worked items is taken as the measure of spatial ability. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . suitable for use with respondents age 15 and upwards. Neuro & clinical The split-half reliability coefficients vary between 0. as it is assessed in this test.
g. in court assessments). NeW Now available in Czech and Slovakian! Application This Rasch-homogenous and adaptive test assesses the (non-verbal) ability to perceive and transform spatial elements (spatial perception) for both adolescents aged 13 years and over and adults. where increased measurement precision is of great importance (e. for students where spatial perception is assessed as an additional control factor).61 in school students that were retested after 21 months. The retest-reliabilities amount to r=. The 8 answer options are designed to reduce guessing to a minimum. Gittler © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH With the creation of the A3DW. The increased measurement precision obviously extends the administration time. Probabilistic characteristic values were estimated for the items. Validity The presentation of items is adaptive. Neuro & clinical Administration Test forms Numerous results of statistical correlation analyses and inter-group comparisons (including other tests and various external criteria) back up the convergent and discriminant validity of the test and allow a differentiated judgment of the A3DW with respect to various validity aspects. Arrer (1992) showed that the paper-and-pencil form of the 3DW is also valid for the computerized version of the test.82 and . The resulting item pool allows for an adaptive test presentation with all advantages provided by modern computerized diagnostics: shorter administration time with increased measurement precision and highly motivated respondents due to an adequate and personalized item selection. Transport: Aviation Sport Education 38 .Special Intelligence Tests A3DW Onlinetest Adaptive Spatial Ability Test G. a test has become available to which the often mentioned critical comment does not apply that spatial perception tests are not suited for a comparison of genderspecific performance as men and women use different task-solving strategies. does not apply for the A3DW. Personnel Transport: Road There are three test forms that vary as regards the precision of the person parameter estimation (PAR). VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . when testing a person does not have any consequences to him/her (e. The A3DW thus provides representative norms for Austria (n=4064). Norms Testing time 10 to 30 minutes. Reliability The internal consistency is given due to the validity of the Rasch model (applied to all pool items). The screening offers a quick overview.g. Cronbach’s Alpha) vary between . and categorized according to specific school types and grades (=age-equivalent). The numerical values of the individual samples and reliability coefficients determined by various methods (split-half. The long form S3 should only be administered in special cases. This means that the same latent ability dimension is assessed in all respondents. students: n=432. both gener specific and not. Transport: Rail Scoring The person parameter of the variable “Spatial perception“ is determined as characteristic test value. Just to mention an example: Students from technological colleges have significantly higher results than students from non-technological colleges. The unidimensionality (Rasch-homogenity) of the A3DW was proven in many empirical studies. Thus the criticism that spatial perception tests are usually not suited for a comparison of gender-specific performance due to the fact that men and women use different task-solving strategies. adults: n=161).91. Theoretical background Spatial perception is one of the primary intelligence dimensions. It is not possible to omit an item or to return to the previous one.
70. Etzel.7. Rettig with the assistance of A. the construction rational correlates at 0. The eight alternative answers to each question reduce the probability of successful guesswork.63 for test form S1. together with tests of inductive and deductive thinking. A percentile ranking with reference to a norm sample is also given. The resulting item pool means that the test can be presented adaptively and that it has all the advantages of modern computerized test procedures: shorter administration time but improved measurement precision.63 for S11 (corresponding to reliabilities of 0. This is the central and significant advantage over other widely-used psychometric tests based on classical test theory: all respondents are assessed with equal reliability. According to Hornke. but in contrast to these they are constructed on the basis of explicit psychologically-based principles involving detailed analysis of the cognitive processes used in solving problems of this type. Neuro & clinical Norms Personnel Norm data is available for an evaluation sample of N=1356 respondents and for a norm sample of N=461 respondents. Etzel and Küppers (2000. 2005) demonstrating using a confirmatory factor analysis that this test. It is suitable for subjects aged 13 and over. Reliability Because of the validity of the Rasch model. S2. Administration Items are presented adaptively – that is. 0. The items were analysed using the Rasch dichotomous probabilistic test model and the corresponding characteristic values were estimated for the items (cf. This reliability applies to all respondents and at all scale levels. 0. A number of studies carried out in the fields of traffic and aviation psychology also confirm the test’s criterion validity. It is not possible to omit an item or to go back to a preceding one.44. F.83. S. 0.39 and 0. NeW Now available in Arabic! Application This AMT is a non-verbal test for assessing general intelligence as revealed in the ability to think inductively. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Moscow and Vienna. The standard measurement error is set at 0. Küppers & Etzel.86 and 0. Theoretical background The items resemble classical matrices. K. 0. In addition.Special Intelligence Tests Adaptive Matrices Test AMT Onlinetest L.72 with the difficulty parameters. Sommer and Arendasy (2005. 0. and high respondent motivation because the items presented are appropriate to the respondent’s ability.86 and 0. Hornke. loads onto the factor of fluid intelligence (Gf). Küppers © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The relation between test length and measurement precision is optimized. Hornke.39 for S3 and 0. 2000).70). Arendasy & Häusler. 0. reliability in the sense of internal consistency is given. Fluid intelligence was found to be the intelligence factor with the highest g-loading. A total of 289 items were created and they were evaluated in three extensive studies involving large numbers of people in Katowice (Poland). S3 and S11. corresponding to reliabilities of 0. Hornke.83. after an initial phase the respondent is presented only with items of a level of difficulty which is appropriate to his ability.63. 39 . The estimate is produced on the basis of the Rasch model according to the maximum likelihood method. 2002). 0.70.44 for S2. Validity Test forms There are four test forms S1. 0. Sommer. depending on test form. they differ in respect of the pre-set precision (standard measurement error) of the person parameter estimate and in the level of difficulty of the first item. For the four test forms it has been set at a standard measurement error (SEM) of 0. Between 20 and 60 minutes (including instruction and practice phase).63. Scoring Testing time Transport: Road The test yields an estimate of the respondent’s general intelligence. The AMT requires fewer items than most non-verbal intelligence tests for more accurate calculations.
The Adaptive Numerical Flexibility Test assesses the ability to understand the basic arithmetical operations and apply them flexibly in solving abstract arithmetical problems. Validity Studies are available both of the construct representation and of the convergent and discriminant validity of the Adaptive Numerical Flexibility Test. It is not possible to omit an item or to return to a preceding one. Norms are available (overall norm. M. Arendasy. and separated by gender and educational level) for a sample of N=1362 individuals (585 men. In contrast to linear test forms the quoted precision applies to all respondents across all parts of the range. which corresponds to a reliability of 0. Reliability Items are presented adaptively. Hergovich © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The ANF is the first test on the market to provide an adaptive and fair assessment of cognitive flexibility in the area of mathematical problem solving.Special Intelligence Tests ANF Onlinetest Adaptive Numerical Flexibility Test M. linking the operands in such a way that the given answer is achieved. these demonstrate the construct validity of the test. 1997). Horn & Noll. Theoretical background Quantitative thinking is an important second-order factor both in the Three Stratum theory (Carroll. Norms Scoring Transport: Road Transport: Rail The test yields an estimate of the respondent’s numerical flexibility. Test forms Personnel There are two adaptive test forms which differ in their preset precision of measurement (standard estimation error) of the person parameter estimate. The data was collected at the end of 2004 and beginning of 2005. A. corresponding to a reliability of 0. It covers not only number comprehension but also the understanding of basic arithmetical operations and mathematical principles and the ability to apply them. 1993) and in the modified Gf-Gc theory of Horn (1989. so that after the initial phase the process of presenting only those items which are appropriate to the respondent’s ability is increasingly refined. In addition a percentile ranking is provided based on comparison with a norm sample. Neuro & clinical Administration Reliability in the sense of internal consistency as taken as given as a result of the validity of the Rasch model. Because any of the four basic arithmetical operations can be used as often as required the probability of arriving at the correct answer by guesswork is very low. Sommer.50.55. Application The Adaptive Numerical Flexibility Test is a tool for assessing flexibility in mathematical problem-solving as one of the important sub-dimensions of quantitative thinking as defined in the modified Gf-Gc theory (Horn & Noll.75. The estimate is made on the basis of the dichotomous logistical model of Rasch (1980) using an exact parameter estimation process (Fischer. The respondent has to insert the correct arithmetical operators in the blank spaces. Transport: Aviation Sport Education 40 . Precision is represented for the short form by a critical standard estimate of error of 0. 777 women. Each item presents the respondent with a series of unrelated operands and an answer which can be obtained by appropriate linking of the operands. age range 15-52). 1997). For the standard form the critical standard estimate of error is 0. 2000).70. Testing time The time required for the test is between 30 and 45 minutes. This represents a decisive advantage over conventional psychometric tests constructed on the basis of classical test theory. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .
As perception in general is a process of understanding that includes the capacity to find a structure in a chaos. S2 (Set I + II).87. applicable to people 12 years of age and over. the mouse. Among other things. In addition.e. the touchscreen or the computer keyboard. This version of the RPM can be administered without any time limit. Raven. uses little material. because it involves a standardized test of performance that provides an evaluation in numeric values that describe the position of the respondent on a testing scale and/or in relation to a standardized sample. Testing time ii S1: 25-50 minutes ii S2: 25-60 minutes ii S3: 7-15 minutes ii S4: 20-50 minutes ii S5: 20-40 minutes. Spearman and other psychologists agree that the general factor (g-factor) assessed in most intelligence tests consists of two main components. and a second set (II) with 36 items to assess this area more thoroughly. It also includes rather conventional studies that document the correlations of the APM scores with certain abilities to achieve a job position or to keep it. Administration Objectivity After an instruction phase. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Reliability In a summary. the test authors indicate consistency coefficients between r=. and S4 (Set II) without time limit. Comprehensive standardizations and validation studies have been conducted all over the world. Application Non-verbal assessment of general intelligance for performances above average. S1 (Set I + II) and S5 (Set II) with time limit. Theoretical background The extensive administration of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) resulted in a demand for a short screening form. the scoring can be completely quickly and easily. 41 . and the instructional phase is sufficient for those with little or no computer experience to practice correctly entering the answers. correlations with differentiated performances of students as well as with specific occupational groups are pointed out. the RPM measure one of the most basic human abilities. or the meaning of apparently randomly compiled elements. J. As with all Raven Matrices Tests. as well as for a test to assess the upper 25% of the cogni-tive capacity range.Special Intelligence Tests Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices APM J. S3 (Set I). the APM also assesses the ability to detect a certain order in a chaos. The APM provides objectivity in test interpretation. eductive and reproductive abilities. J. the items are presented according to difficulty level. and as it computerized.83 and r=. it describes the influence of the eductive capacity on the effectiveness of performances demanded in social and professional fields. is simple to use. C. which are represented again after the last item has been responded to. Neuro & clinical Economy Personnel Test forms The APM test can be considered economical. The APM consists of some exercises (Set I with 12 items) that can also be used for screening. According to experience gained so far. Note This test is only available for customers in the European Union. Fairness Scoring The following variables are scored: ii Number of correct for set I and set II The test protocol indicates each individual answer as well as the time needed to respond. the eductive ability (the word eductive comes from the Latin word educere: deduce). He or she can correct the selected answer and can return to the previous item. H. as very little computer literacy is required for administering the test. Court.91 (interval of 6-8 weeks). Raven © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH For years the Progressive Matrices have played an important role as an instrument to assess non-verbal intelligence and especially logical reasoning. Norms A wide range of norms derived from the paper-and-pencil version is available if so desired. From this point of view. the APM can be considered a fair test. The respondent selects one out of eight answers with the light pen. The Advanced Progressive Matrices were developed to meet these de-mands. based on eductive thinking. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM Sport Education . Transport: Road There are 5 test forms available. just like the paper-andpencil version. It is also possible to omit items. Various studies showed that the paper-and-pencil and the computerized version yield the same results. Validity The current APM manual includes a detailed discussion about the issue validity. i. The retest-reliability amounts to rtt=. Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) can be considered to assess logical reasoning and recognition. as it requires only a short test administration time. Persons with little or no computer experience are not at an disadvantage.
reliabilities are usually lower for clinical and less gifted groups. in increasing order of difficulty within each set. H. to omit items and to correct one’s answers. Administration A number of reliability studies are quoted in the test manual.9 – 12. J. Raven. Raven © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH For years the Progressive Matrices have played an important role as an instrument to assess non-verbal intelligence and especially logical reasoning. ii Form S2: this test form is provided with corrected norms of the standard form (without adult norms). skills of understanding and logical reasoning. The majority of the internal consistencies lie between r=0.90. although there are differences depending on the composition of the test battery. It is possible to return to a preceding item. Results are reported in the form of raw scores and percentile ranks. The colourful and appealing design is particularly attractive to children and helps to sustain their motivation. together with an optional test protocol of the respondent’s answers to each item. they should be read aloud to respondents who have reading difficulties. ii S1: Standard form ii S2: Pattern completion form (with assistance): In this test form the form of presentation used in the instructions (the selected answer “jumps” into the incomplete pattern) is continued in the test itself. C. This eductive ability is one of two components of general intelligence (g-factor). The 36 items are presented in three sets of 12. ii Error distribution.80 and r=0. Administration All factor analytical studies show that the Raven Matrices Test is a good indicator for Spearman’s g-factor. Comprehensive standardizations and validation studies have been conducted all over the world. Education 42 . Scoring The following variables are scored: ii Total of correct. J. Even pre-school children usually have no difficulty in using the light pen. in most studies retest reliability is above r=0.Special Intelligence Tests CPM Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices J. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . ii S3: Parallel form to S1. Reliability Neuro & clinical Child-friendly on-screen presentation was regarded as particularly important. applicable to people aged 5 years and over and to adults for purposes of clinical investigation. but without feedback on whether the answer is correct. Depending on the age that has been entered. mouse or computer keyboard. The answers are entered using a light pen. ii Adults aged 55 – 100.80. Correlations with school performance are usually lower that those between school performance and knowledge tests. The instructions are short and simple. the program presents either the instructions for children (up to 15) or those for adults. The results vary depending on the population studies. The instructions for adults are slightly modified. The three sets provide respondents with the opportunity to become familiar with the type of problem-solving (thought processes) that successful completion of the test involves. Application Non-verbal assessment of general intelligence in children and less gifted adults on the basis of logical reasoning.00. Sport This test is only available for customers in the European Union. Theoretical background CPM is based on the same principle as Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Test but is intended to measure performance in the lower part of the range. Validity Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail Two test forms are available. ii Expected values of all sets compared to the raw scores for the entire test. It measures the ability to identify a system in material that at first sight seems confusing – in other words. Percentile ranks and T-score norms of the paper-and-pencil form are available for the following groups: ii Children aged 4. Norms Testing time Note Transport: Aviation Between 10 and 30 minutes. Court.
This intelligence factor is frequently regarded as forming the core of general intelligence. Theoretical background FOLO measures logical inductive reasoning . O. processing capacity etc. Reliability Administration The split-half reliability coefficients vary (after application of the Spearman-Brown correction) between r=0. Hagman. Construct validity has been demonstrated by factor analysis. 15 minutes Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . selecting from the eight possible alternatives that are provided. is presented. norms are also available for 375 Austrian adults. Additionally. The various definitions of this factor cover a broad spectrum: abstract reasoning. There is one test form with 25 items. i. test administrator independence and scoring objectivity. 1938). judgement ability. these norms have also been partitioned according to education and age. Logical validity arises from the operational definition of what is measured. logical relationships.91 for respondents of different educational level. 43 . FOLO can thus be assigned to the intelligence factor of ‘Reasoning’ (Thurstone. as it is tested here.Special Intelligence Tests Inductive Reasoning FOLO Onlinetest E. Neuro & clinical Like all (normed) computerised tests.147 Swedish adults are available. Predictive validity has been demonstrated for occupations that require skill in logical reasoning. NeW Now available in Polish! Application FOLO is used to measure non-verbal logical reasoning.the ability to deduce a general rule from a specific case. FOLO has maximum objectivity. Raw and standard scores and percentile ranks are shown in the results protocol. A series of six figures.89 and r=0.e. The norms are also available separated according to age and education. Norms The number of correctly worked items is taken as the measure of inductive reasoning ability. Objektivität Norms for a sample of 1. Testing time Approx. constructed according to a specific rule. The items require the respondent to identify the rules underlying the constructin of a series of figures and to apply these rules correctly in continuing the series. Bratfisch © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Nonverbal logical thinking. is fundamental for all occupations where abstract information is being processed. Validity Test forms Scoring The face validity of FOLO is evident – respondents immediately associate the test with logic and logical reasoning. The respondent’s task is to identify the rule and state which two figures form an appropriate continuation of the series. inductive reasoning.
self-awareness. formulat-ing inferences. which are described in the manual. The norm sample consisted of 200 adults from the United States ranging in age from 18 to 72 (mean age = 32) with a range of educational backgrounds. Theoretical background Neuro & clinical Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation The development of critical thinking skills is listed as the most important outcome of education and the most prized ability for high-level success in the workforce (Stanovich. 1998. HCTA has been administered to several hundred adults in multiple countries. they are predisposed to think critically. skills in thinking as hypothesis testing. Different authors use different terms and vary in the breadth of their definition. as the ability to self-regulate in order to apply context-appropriate learning strategies (Svinicki. Critical thinkers use these skills appropriately. critical thinking has to be regarded as a hierarchical multidimen-sional construct comprising the facets verbal reasoning. 2003). Application Assessment of critical thinking skills for respondents aged 15 years and older. but overall there is considerable agreement about the importance of and the sorts of skills that are included under a critical thinking rubric. Practicing critical thought requires metacognition. reasoned efforts (Ennis. we are evaluating the outcomes of our thought processes--how good a decision is or how well a problem is solved. Administration Sport Norms Education Both test forms of HCTA consist of 25 scenarios of everyday events. and usually with conscious intent. which he describes as rational thinking. and goal directed. Test forms Two different test forms are available: S1: Standard version. and making decisions. 2009). and cognitive management. Testing time Depending on the test form the completion requires between 20 (short form—recognition items only) and 60 to 80 minutes (constructed response and recognition items). the respondent is asked to respond to a series of multiple choice questions pertaining to the same scenario. No specialized domain-specific knowledge is needed. Scoring The two test forms differ with regard to the variables obtained. Time estimates include instruction and practice phase. 1994. Critical thinking entails self-reflection. which is attributable to the use a standardized computerized scoring module that has been developed in a series of usability examinations. Test form S2 only contains the multiple choice questions to provide a quick screening of the critical thinking ability of the respondents. calculating likelihoods.97. 44 . The calculation of the recognition variables is fully automatic. Critical thinking is the kind of thinking involved in solving problems. Stanovich describes the ability to think critically as “what intelligence tests miss. Test form S2 comprises responses to recognition variables. Critical thinking also involves evaluating the thinking process--the reasoning that went into the conclusion we’ve arrived at or the kinds of factors considered in making a decision. They are purposeful. the scenarios are presented together with questions that use a constructed response format. the free recall measures require scoring the respondents’ answers by the test administrator. Each administration has been validated using a variety of techniques. in a variety of settings. and decision making/problem solving skills (Halpern. When we think critically. Validity The HCTA is content valid because it was derived from commonly accepted definitions of critical thinking. The results of these analyses jointly argue for the constructand criterion validity of the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment. test form S1 enables the calculation of recognition and free recall measures of critical thinking. Therefore. is more useful than informa-tion gained from standardized intelligence tests.” He makes strong arguments as to why the assessment of critical thinking. Halpern. abilities that require guidance and development (Kuhn. Norm samples of adults are available for both test forms. That is. But. Results of an inter-rater reliability study indicated a high level of scoring objectivity of the free recall variables.85 and α=0. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . 1993. In test form S1.Special Intelligence Tests NEW HCTA Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment D. 1999). what does it mean to “think critically”? Experts have generally reached consensus in describing a critical thinker as someone who will attempt and achieve a desired outcome by thinking rationally and in defining critical thinking skills as goal-directed. who is guided by a series of questions for each scenario. using likelihood and uncertainty. reasoned. which can be described generally as “thinking about one’s thinking. argument analysis skills. Halpern © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Onlinetest HCTA is the first test that enables a content-representative assessment of recognition and recall aspects of critical thinking. Upon completion of the constructed response question. without prompting. Reliability Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) lies between α=0. 2003). 2005).” but more specifically in educational contexts. which requires constructed response and multiple-choice answers S2: Multiple-choice short version. The definition of “critical thinking” used for construction of the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment characterizes critical thinking as those cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome.
Theoretically the test has to be placed in the borderland between a cognitive intelligence test and a test of knowledge. Hagman © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The test measures the ability to apply the basic arithmetical operations . Criteria used were “completed occupational education without complications” and “poor performance on the job There is one test form available. Reliability Testing time The split-half reliability coefficients vary between rtt=.addition. Neuro & clinical Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . 45 . paper and pencil are provided. i.Special Intelligence Tests Mathematics in Practice MIP Onlinetest O. the ability to adequately apply the basic arithmetic operations (addition. arithmetic”. Norms The number of correctly solved items constitutes the score for Calculation capacity. career counseling. They are composed of 2346 Swedish and 261 Austrian adults. Application The test is primarily conceived for personnel selection.89 and . The logical validity is given by the operational definition of the task. Content validity has been proven by correlation with a numerical test. Validity Administration “Daily life” calculation tasks are presented on the screen in writing. Theoretical background The object of measurement is Calculation capacity.quickly and correctly in “daily life“ situations. E. subtraction. Prognostic validity could be demonstrated for occupations demanding. among other prerequisites. Test forms Scoring The face validity is evident – the respondents think immediately of “calculations. Bratfisch. and a knowledge element. solving the practice items and actual testing time (10 minutes) is approximately 13 minutes. multiplication and division .and standard-scores for the total performance. Norms for a European sample of 2607 persons are available. Additional areas of use are within clinical settings. Subgroup norms according to EU-educational level 1-3 and 4-5 are also presented. a high degree of Calculation capacity. For calculation purposes.91 for respondents with different educational levels. It is also used for training purposes at universities and colleges.e. subtraction. The print-out shows raw. diagnosis and assessment. The required time for instructions. multiplication and division) on “daily life” mathematical issues. It contains numerical as well as verbal and logical components in the sense of Thurstone’s model for primary abilities.
U. neurology and psychiatry). in other words. M. Five minutes should be allotted for the instruction phase.Special Intelligence Tests MR Mental Rotation H. The data was collected in Vienna in 2003. These were subject to criticism due to their homogeneousness and one-dimensionality. It describes the scope of the respondent’s spatial perception skills. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 46 . Bauer. NeW Now available in Czech . the respondent’s ability to mentally picture and manipulate spatial content. One-dimensionality (Rasch homogeneousness) has been proven for the Mental Rotation (MR) spatial perception test. Neuro & clinical Test forms Scoring There is one test form with 20 items. and broken down by gender. Leodolter. skills assessment in psychological practice and in the clinical area (e. Leodolter © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH This test distinguishes itself by using three-dimensional.b). This means that the same latent skill dimension is measured in all respondents. Norms A norm sample (total norm. This is. Shortly afterward. Theoretical background Psychometric research into spatial ability began at the start of the 20th century and was analyzed with relative precision for the first time thanks to the introduction of multiple factor analysis (Thurstone. Russian and Slovakian! Application Mental Rotation is a Rasch homogenous computerized test for assessing respondents’ spatial perception skills. education and career counseling. personality development. G. Areas of use include: vocational. the test was designed for adolescents from the age of 16 and adults.81. Transport: Road Testing time The test takes a maximum of 20 minutes to complete. age and education level) of N = 195 (104 men and 91 women. Thurstone established the existence of seven so-called primary factors of intelligence. The test score has been defined as the number of correctly solved items and is presented as a standardized value (percentile rank and t value). 1931a. Initial analysis based on correlation statistics points to the convergent and divergent validity of the MR. the test phase presents the respondents with a total of 20 items in sequence.g. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Administration Validity Personnel After a general instruction phase and three practice examples. The MR can also be used for research purposes. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) comes to . Reliability Reliability in the sense of an internal consistency can be said to exist on the basis of the validity of the Rasch model. age span 16-73 years) is available. one per screen. It is not possible to go back and correct answers to items already given. Spatial ability research based on factor analysis led to the definition of a host of various spatial ability factors and factor-analysis based spatial perception tests. Guttmann. as well as counseling in the context of university studies. multi-media test material for the recording of the spatial perception skill as well as by its scaling fairness due to the validity of the Rasch model. The respondent has one minute to solve each item. to be solved. of which one of them was spatial ability.
Personnel Each correct answer is scored as one point. Test forms Scoring Norms Neuro & clinical There is one test form containing 80 items. subtracted from each other.Special Intelligence Tests N-Test Alpha NTA Onlinetest O. arithmetic”. Additional areas of use are within clinical settings. to be able to apply the basic calculation operations in an automated way. The factor analytic school of intelligence research has identified this factor . The print-out shows raw and standard scores.91 for different education levels. Samples of n=1587 Swedish adults as well as n=217 Austrian adults are available. Thus. the name Numerical ability is an unfortunate one as it leads to the wrong conclusion that it concerns numbers and arithmetic only. No calculation can be passed over. multiplication and division – no matter if that is done automatically or not). Bratfisch. Prognostic validity could be demonstrated for occupations demanding. Add approximately three minutes for instruction and solving the practice items. Theoretical background The primary object of measurement is Numerical ability.addition. it should be called Symbol system factor. 5-8. The logical validity is given by the operational definition of the measurement content. is probably nor quite as evident. In addition to the total score. diagnosis and assessment. However. which were originally solved by means of logical thinking. the subject is required to give an answer. Testing time The testing time is 5 minutes. Hagman © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The N-Test Alpha represents a reliable realization of Thurstone’s N-factor. Within each group two stimulus numbers have in turn to be added to each other. the total number of tasks is 80. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .N – as a primary intelligence factor. subtraction. on the other hand. not only the number symbol system) in an automated way on tasks. Application The test is primarily conceived for personnel selection. The domain is broader than that. amongst other prerequisites. career counseling. 5x8 and 5/8. Criteria used where “completed occupational education without complications” and “poor performance on the job”. The construct validity has been proven through correlation with a test of Calculation Ability. 5+8. NTA measures not only the Symbol system factor but can also be used as a simple test for the assessment of Calculation capacity (defined as the ability to handle each of the basic arithmetic operations . E.g. 47 . 1966) is 0. It enables the measurement of the ability to handle a system of symbols in an automatical way. the sum of correct answers is available separately for each of the four basic calculation operations. The assessment variable Symbol system factor. Reliability The reliability according to Cronbach’s Alpha (Cronbach. Thus. Validity Administration NTA consists of 20 groups of tasks. multiplied with each other and finally divided with each other. Subsamples according to educational level and age are also presented. personnel selection. The face validity with respect to the assessment variable Calculation Ability is undoubtedly high – the respondents think immediately of “calculations. It concerns the ability to apply the rules of a symbol system (any symbol system. It is also used for training purposes at universities and colleges. E.
A homogenization of the item pool according to the Rasch model guarantees that subjects cannot apply any other solution technique than that required and thereby utilize other skills. navigation skills for spatial orientation for the purpose of performance and suitability diagnostics in aviation psychology. Administration The subject’s task consists of specifying the differences between two pictures with regard to the depictured airplane’s position (rotation about the three spatial axes). proportion of correct answers (in percentage). on the skill of rotating mental images about one or more of the three spatial axis (mental rotation). Test forms Scoring Norms One test form with 13 items is available. He/she is presented with pairs of pictures giving information on flight position as in visual or instrument flights. and secondly. Norms from an evaluation calibration sample comprised of 596 persons for the age groups 17 to 38 are available. with respect to the internal criterion (Eliot Price Spatial Test) rtc=. Theoretical background The test requirements focus on two skill components: firstly. Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 48 . VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . on the ability of switching from an egocentric to an allocentric reference frame. Reliability Validity The internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) is rtt=. sum of incorrect answers. Testing time Approx. proportion of incorrect answers (in percentage).64. Validity with respect to the external criterion (orientation.56. Grössenbrunner © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Rasch-homogenous test for pilot selection. 30 minutes.Special Intelligence Tests PsT Pilot’s Spatial Test P.74. The test protocol shows types and assessments of solutions as related to the spatial axis. Neuro & clinical Scoring is based on the following variables: sum of correct answers. and working time. with high selectivity in the upper range of performance. established on an instrument flight simulator) is rtc=. NeW Now available in Czech and Slovakian! Application The test is a Rasch-homogenous procedure with the objective of measuring.
1967). Administration Validity The person taking the test is confronted with a series of simple arithmetic equations using meaningless shapes instead of numbers. according to Thurstone. There is no time limit. and now even includes the assumption of item homogenity (Rost.89. The test is reliable in the sense of an internal consistency due to Rasch model. The RIS focuses mainly on the latter aspect. The internal consistency according to Cronbach’s Alpha amounts to r=. Norms Test forms Scoring There is one test form available. Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Correlations with the test WMT are situated at r = 0. Testing time Neuro & clinical Between 20 and 50 minutes. K.71. and the ability to keep to restrictions for completing a task (Jäger. deductive thinking. The number of correctly completed items is a measure for the ability of the test respondent Reasonableness Reliability This test will be difficult for people with a performance below average. 1996). However. T-scores and percentile ranks are available of a representative sample of N=236 people between 16 and 84 years of age divided into two age groups.Special Intelligence Tests Calculating with Symbols RIs Onlinetest C. It is not possible to omit items or to return to one that has already been completed. which leads to the mathematical correct solution of the equation if used instead of the symbol. The results of the Rasch analyses could be reproduced with two further independent samples. C. Kubinger. Schmotzer. Maryschka © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH In some professions and trainings it is an essential ability to keep to certain restrictions when competing a task. 49 . The solution is to find the number. encompasses the following abilities: inductive thinking. Application Non-verbal assessment of general intelligence based on deductive thinking. Calculating with Symbols makes possible a fair and reliable assessment of this sub-factor of reasoning. This is especially confirmed by the results of the Martin-Löf test for the examination of item homogeneity. Furthermore. The construct validity results from the correspondence with the Rasch model. the algebraic symbols for these (basic) calculations remain as usual. Validity is given with respect to deductive thinking according to Thurstone. there are also T-scores and percentile ranks available based on the data of N=165 psychology students. Theoretical background The authors followed the factor “Reasoning“ which.
working people. The test protocol depicts each item together with the time spent for answering it.93 in a summarizing overview. often amounting up to r=.95. Intercorrelations are the highest with arithmetic. Validity Test forms ii S1: Standard form of the SPM according to Raven. Raven. Personnel Scoring ii The sum of correct answers (with norm comparison) is the measure for the eductive component of the g-factor. Raven. Reliability Administration After the instruction. the items are presented according to their difficulty level. including 60 items ii S4: Short form with 32 Rasch-homogeneous items ii S5: just like S4. Spearman and other psychologists showed that the eductive ability (eductive capacity) is one or two main components of general intelligence or the g-factor Eductive derives from the Latin word educere. a corresponding message is included into the scoring report. in other words: the ability to recognize and think clearly. Correlations between the SPM and school performances result in values up to r=. The split-half-reliabilities were r > . Correlations with other intelligence and ability tests vary between r=. J. If this is really the case. s/he may omit the item. Sport Note This test is only available for customers in the European Union. Application Non-verbal assessment of general intelligence in people with average capacity on the basis of eductive thinking. H. about 10 to 30 minutes. Education 50 . applicants. All the omitted items will be presented again at the end of the test. Special test forms S4 to S6 are provided with norms of the computerized version: ii S4: Representative sample.Special Intelligence Tests sPM Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Test: J. age. ii S7: Parallel form of the Standard form S1. e = out + ducere = to lead. In addition. Theoretical background The Raven Matrices Test assesses the ability to recognize a certain order in an apparent disorder. 1999). as well as some ethnic and job-specific groups.77 and r=. C. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Factor-analytical calculations show high values in the g-factor.90 in over 40 studies with people of differing age and from diverse cultural backgrounds. There is the possibility for multiple corrections by switching to another answer or even by returning to the previous item. Norms Transport: Aviation Testing time Depending on test form. that is. In this form of the SPM. Transport: Road Transport: Rail A wide range of comparative norms of the paper-and-pencil form is available for test forms S1 and S7. applicable to people ages 5 years and over. J.96 was determined in various norm samples.83 and rtt=. psychiatric patients. among others age-specific norms from 6 to 80 years. job applicants. forklift truck drivers ii S6: Applicants. Court. Comprehensive standardizations and validation studies have been conducted all over the world. technological and scientific abilities.80. This is why the correlations with other tests or external criteria are most of the time rather low. and capacity of the respondent. Norms collected with the computerized version are also available for spezial groups (people with organic disorders. Raven © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH For years the Progressive Matrices have played an important role as an instrument to assess non-verbal intelligence and especially logical reasoning. The test authors indicate retest-reliabilities varying between rtt=. In case a respondent is not able to select an answer. the raw-scores are compared with the expected results. the answering patterns of those taking the test are examined to find out whether or not they manipulate the raw-scores intentionally (McKinzey. the various fundamental abilities necessary in everyday life. presenting the easiest 47 items out of form S1 Raven Matrices Tests assess general intelligence. however. there is a time limit (time limited Neuro & clinical short form) of 15 minutes ii S6: Short form for traffic-psychology.70. The person taking the test selects one out of six or eight answers. an internal consistency between r=. job-seekers). job seekers ii S5: Applicants.20 and r=. Manual: J. Additional scores (in test forms S1 and S7 only): In all 5 sub-sets. C.
The items follow the testing model by Rasch. Austrian norms (n=247) from the computerized version are also available. 1992) showed clearly the necessity to provide the test with some new and more difficult items so as to achieve the previously given differentiation capacity of this test which it had at the beginning. C. in order to use the norms. often amounting up to r=. USA norms (5 – 17 years). J. Studies for developing a parallel form were be-ing conducted (see also the description of the SPM). In addition. Transport: Rail Note This test is only available for customers in the European Union. about 30 minutes. and Polish norms (ages 15 years and over). Application Non-verbal Rasch-homogeneous assessment of general intelligence on the basis of eductive thinking.20 and r=. the items are presented according to their difficulty level. J. Raven Matrices Tests assess general intelligence.93 in a summarizing overview. Norms Neuro & clinical Test forms There is one test form with 60 items. Validity Administration After the instruction. the various fundamental abilities necessary in everyday life. Personnel Transport: Road Testing time Depending on age and capacity of the respondent.90 in over 40 studies with people of differing age and from diverse cultural backgrounds. or the key-board. The person taking the test selects one out of six or eight answers by means of the light pen. Correlations with other intelligence and ability tests vary between r=. Raven. Court. the raw-scores are compared with the expected results. Standardization studies (Raven.95. Intercorrelations are the highest with arithmetic. Theoretical background What triggered the development of the SPMPLS was mainly the opinion of practitioners that the SPM might generally be too well known.Special Intelligence Tests Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Plus sPMPLs Test: J. Comprehensive standardizations and validation studies have been conducted all over the world. The test authors indicate retestreliabilities varying between rtt=. For further information see also the corresponding SPM catalog page. for respondents (ages 14 years and over) that are assumed to know the items of the SPM well. Raven. However. the mouse. Reliability The split-half-reliabilities were r > . H.83 and rtt=. extension of the SPM with some new and more difficult items. There is the possibility for multiple corrections by switching to another answer or even by returning to the previous item.80. s/he may omit the item.70. Three norm groups of the paper-and-pencil forms are available: German norms (ages 14 years and over). It is also possible to convert the raw-scores by means of a conversion table described in the manual to the ‘classic form’. ii Additional scores: In all 5 sub-sets. In case a respondent is not able to select an answer. 1979. various reasons caused that these first efforts did not yield the desired results. All the omitted items will be presented again at the end of the test. This is why the correlations with other tests or external criteria are most of the time rather low. Raven © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH For years the Progressive Matrices have played an important role as an instrument to assess non-verbal intelligence and especially logical reasoning. Scoring ii The “Sum of correct answers“ (with norm comparison) is a measure for the eductive component of the g-factor. C. Correlations between the SPM and school performances result in values up to r=. 51 . Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Manual: J. technological and scientific abilities. Factor-analytical calculations show high values in the g-factor. that is.
The latter sample is also available divided into four age groups. Since the item presentation occurs adaptively. Etzel. expert opinions in a legal context). As soon as the respondent has marked a spot on the map. education and study counseling. assess visual memory performance. This is to avoid overstrain or under. The Screening Form can be used to provide a quick overview in situations where the assessment has no particular consequences for the respondent (e.g. research. air traffic psychology. thus giving the respondent feedback on the correctness of his/her answer. All items conform to the criteria of probabilistic test theory and thus can be shown to measure the same aptitude dimension. Sport Education 52 .g. The individual tasks vary with regard to the number of symbols and the spatial characteristics.Special Intelligence Tests VIsGeD Visual Memory Test S. career.84 for Test Form S3. The respondent has to memorize the positions of the individual symbols and afterwards recall them correctly.64 for Test Form S1. railway stations etc. these differ according to the degree of precision with which they estimate the person parameter (PAR). created on the basis of a specific construction rationale. In addition norms are available for a student sample of N=590 and a representative sample of N=481 people in the age range 17-85. Validity Personnel Test forms Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation There are three test forms. The required degree of measurement precision can therefore be achieved with significantly fewer items than would otherwise be the case. The embedding of the tasks in a realistic scenario contributes to the ecological validity of the test. Czech. The respondents are only confronted with those tasks that correspond to their performance level. This is tested by presenting a city map without symbols and asking the respondent to mark the location on the map where the symbol used to be. The test items were constructed primarily on the basis of Kosslyn’s theory of visual representation (1980) and Hänggi’s integrative information processing model (1989). Principal areas of application are: performance and aptitude diagnostics.stimulation. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . the actual position of the symbol in question is displayed.75 for Test Form S2 and r=. Scoring The test yields the person parameter and a norm comparison (percentile ranking) with regard to the variable “visual memory performance”. The construct validity of the test derives in part from the fact that the test items are underpinned by a construction rationale derived from psychological theory. F. which is an aspect of a person’s ability to orientate him. Russian and Slovakian! Application This test assesses visual memory performance by measuring how respondents receive and replay visual information (memorizing the position of symbols on a city map). depending on the number of items worked. In this connection extensive use was made of the opportunities which the computer offers for creating new item and reaction formats Norms The test produces a sample-independent person parameter according to Rasch which describes the respondent’s aptitude. in studies in which visual memory is being measured as a control factor). Theoretical background The test items. Testing time The time needed for the test varies between 10 and 15 minutes. NeW Now available in Portuguese. Hornke © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The adaptive presentation provides that every respondent is required to complete just as many tasks as necessary. there is optimal precision of measurement for any level of capability. The increase in measurement precision (= reduction of the error of estimation) of course requires a longer testing time.) are marked by symbols. L. The Precision Form should only be used in special diagnostic situations in which increased measurement precision is particularly important (e. Administration Reliability Neuro & clinical The respondent is initially presented with an on-screen city map on which typical locations (bars. r=. This visual memory is particularly important in the building up of so-called “memory point” knowledge. The reliability is r=. offices.or herself.
Testing time Neuro & clinical Between 8 and 15 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). 10 runs Scoring The following variables are scored: Total mean duration. depending on test form. 10 runs ii S5: Administration with joysticks (inverse direction assignment). Six different test forms are available: ii S1: Administration with joysticks. These authors also found that individuals with a score of PR<33 received a significantly worse assessment of their performance in a standardised driving test. The sample sizes range from N=151 to N=297.Special Ability Tests Two-Hand Coordination 2HAND VISMO G. total mean error duration. one-sided. Theoretical background The test focuses on two components of ability: (1) sensorimotor coordination between eye and hand and (2) coordination between left and right hand. Corresponding training in NeW Now available in Russian! Application Testing of visuomotor coordination (eye-hand and handhand coordination).98. special norms are also available. Administration The task is to make a red dot move along a given track. S2 and S4.50) with an assessment of driving ability. 10 runs Norms Norm samples of adults are available for all test forms. 10 runs ii S2: Administration with joysticks. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . this is done either with two control knobs or two joysticks. Validity Test forms The content validity of the test is given since it has logical validity.and right-hand controlled deviation from the target and to make adjustments accordingly. percent error duration (calculated as the ratio of total error duration to total duration). The greatest difficulty in coordinating both hands arises from the need to make a correct visual assessment of the proportion of left. In some cases norms are also available partitioned by gender. Personnel Reliability Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) lies between r=0. The track consists of three sections that make different demands on the coordination of the left and right hand. The layout of the track makes a comparison of the coordination performance possible for simple and more demanding tasks. 53 . coordination difficulty. The ability to anticipate the direction of movement also plays an important part. ii S6: Administration with joysticks. 4 runs ii S4: Administration with control knobs.85 and r=0. Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The test 2HAND reliably assesses the eye-hand and hand-hand coordination. Depending on the test form used. age and education. For Forms S1. Karner and Neuwirth (2000) showed that performance in the 2HAND correlates significantly (r=0. 4 runs ii S3: Administration with control knobs. The point is moved from right to left.
ii S2: Pauli Test with short-term memory task: The respondent is required to add two numbers that are depicted on top of each other. for “Errors” and “Corrections” they vary between r=. The test can also be applied in a modified way.88. Theoretical background The ALS. This also includes personality traits such as resistance against distractions and disturbance. but also more difficult test forms). The results of the partial times depicted in diagrams show the course of the performance. Reliability: Testing time Test form S1 and S2 20 minutes. “Increase in items answered“ as a measurement for the respondent’s increase or drop in performance. yet providing always a result between 1 and 17. psychic saturation and fatigability in mental tasks under time pressure (continuous arithmetic additions such as in the Pauli Test.95. 54 . For the short-term memory tasks. during which the respondent is required to add as fast as possible two numbers at a time. motivation and willpower. They correlate to a great extent with data from the paper-and-pencil version. as well as the ability to sustain one’s attention during a certain task. This form comprises 20 time sections of one minute each.99. They correlate to a great extent with data from the paper-and-pencil version. The modifications are obtained by varying the difficulty of the arithmetical problems and by including additional shortterm memory tasks. various professions Job seekers N=103 from Austria and Sweden Swedish adults N=199 ii S7 Employees N=2907. interferences. Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Enhanced version of the well-tried Pauli Test.95.68 and r=. test form S7 10 minutes. for “Errors” and “Corrections” they vary between r=. for which test-retest and split-half reliabilities for the variable “Answered” lie above r=. an enhanced version of Kraepelin’s work and the Pauli Test.88. Thus the respondent needs to memorize the lower number before entering the result in order to be able to carry out the next task. Neuro & clinical Our own studies carried out with various samples show for the variables “Answered“ and “Errors” split-half-reliabilities varying between r=. The computer program makes sure that no numbers are chosen that would lead to a negative result. ii S7: Luxembourg form: The respondent is required to add the numbers or distract them from each other. for which test-retest and split-half reliabilities for the variable ”Answered“ lie above r=. including a short-term memory task. Administration The computerized administration of the ALS includes a standardized instruction and a practice phase.91 and r=. ii S1: Pauli Test: The respondent is required to add two numbers that are depicted on top of each other. as well as a test phase of 20 minutes.68 and r=. This form comprises 10 time sections of one minute each. the lower number moves up and is covered each time the respondent enters a result. This is how the test assesses fluid intelligence of the respondent.91 and r=. The respondent enters the results of the arithmetical problems via the keys of the panel. Application Assessment of concentration. various professions Job seekers N=187 from Austria and Sweden Organic disorders N=130 Older persons N=95 ii S2 Job applicants N=105. “Error percent“ and “Corrections“ as a measurement for the respondent’s working accuracy. Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail 3 standard test forms are available. presents a respondent continuously with arithmetic additions in order to assess his/her performance over a period of time: The respondent is required to add to singledigit numbers as fast and error-free as possible for some time. Reliability Our own studies carried out with various samples show for the variables “Answered” and “Errors” split-half-reliabilities varying between r=. various professions Transport: Aviation Scoring Sport Education “Answered“ as a measurement for the working speed. They are displayed on top of each other on the screen. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Test forms Validity In literature the assessment method of the ALS is described as sustained concentration for tasks under time pressure. The test is subdivided into time sections (partial times) allowing the test administrator to evaluate the course of the performance. Norms ii S1 Austrian norms N=310 Job applicants N=662.99. This form includes 20 time sections of one minute each.Special Ability Tests ALs Work Performance Series G.
After seeing each picture. The design of the ATAVT is based on the principles used in the well-established TAVTMB test but builds on these by taking account of recent research findings relating to the perception of scenes and objects. obtained a classification rate of 74. The resulting item bank enables the test to be presented adaptively. after an initial phase the respondent is presented with items whose difficulty is increasingly tailored to match his ability. Slovakian.49. Theoretical background The ATAVT tests observational ability by briefly presenting pictures of traffic situations. The results obtained by Risser et al. validity is provided by various studies of the prediction of global assessments of driving behaviour in standardized driving tests. For example. he is asked to state what was in it. (2004). with the precursor version of the ATAVT that they used contributing a relative relevance of 17. This can be tested before purchase simply by installing the Demo version. theory-led rationale which is based on detailed analysis of the cognitive processes involved in working the test. In addition. using a test battery which included a precursor version of the ATAVT. Sommer et al.Special Ability Tests Adaptive Tachistoscopic Traffic Perception Test ATAVT G.90 between the difficulty parameters of the 1PL Rasch model and the construction rationale.6% and 5. Neuro & clinical Reliability Testing time Note Approx. Person parameters corrected for age are also provided. Test forms There are two test forms: S1 for use in countries in which traffic drives on the right and S2 for countries that drive on the left. 55 . together with the corresponding percentile rank and T-score. the authors demonstrated the incremental validity of the ATAVT alongside ability tests and driving-related personality traits. Administration The respondent is briefly shown pictures of traffic situations.80. (2008) reported classification rates of 80. with all the associated advantages that this brings. The items are constructed using an explicit. reliability in the sense of internal consistency is given. and also of visual orientation ability and speed of perception. Hungarian.8%. Risser et al. choosing from five answer options that he is given. NeW Now available in Czech.7% in the prediction of driving behaviour. French. Romanian and Russian! Application Assessment of visual observational ability and skill in obtaining an overview. Transport: Road Validity Transport: Rail Sommer et al. The program automatically checks the graphics output speed and issues a warning if the requirements are not met. A norm sample consisting of N=1190 individuals is available.5%. (submitted) obtained a multiple correlation of R=0.2% and 86. This corresponds to a reliability of r=0. Turkish. Scoring Norms The person parameter is reported. The pre-defined precision of measurement applies to all respondents at all ability levels. Items are presented adaptively – that is. 10 minutes Personnel Because of the validity of the 1PL Rasch model. (2008). The precision of measurement is set at a critical standard error of measurement of 0. 84 items were drawn up and evaluated using the 1PL Rasch model. (2008) were replicated in a study by Sommer et al. Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH ATAVT uses an established and proven measurement principle to facilitate economical and precise assessment of observational ability and skill in gaining an overview. Evidence of criterion Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .
Furthermore there are also separately recorded reliability coefficients available for the left hand and the right hand. the Double Labyrinth Tests is the only one among various psychomotor tests to form a synthesis of the factors coordination. After a practice phase of 40 seconds.80 for the “Number of mistakes”. Each time a marking touched the side of the track was counted as an error.96 for the “Length of mistakes“ and 0.Special Ability Tests B19 Double Labyrinth Test R. Bonnardel © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The Double Labyrinth Test makes possible a reliable assessment of visuomotor coordination in tasks of a pre-set speed. The course of the track becomes gradually more difficult and requires constantly adjusted movements. Test forms Scoring There is one test form that takes 2 minutes and 45 seconds. Neuro & clinical Validity A validation study for the computerized version of the B19 showed significant correlations between the tests 2HAND and B19. Personnel The following variables are being recorded: Transport: Road Transport: Rail ii Number of mistakes ii Length of mistakes ii Length of mistakes in percent ii Number of mistakes – left hand ii Length of mistakes – left hand ii Length of mistakes in percent – left hand ii Number of mistakes – right hand ii Length of mistakes – right hand ii Length of mistakes in percent – right hand An optional depiction of the course of the test is possible. the respondent has to adjust the position of the circle accordingly with the respective control knob. Testing time About 5 minutes. Transport: Aviation Sport Education 56 . which rotated at a constant speed. taking into account the capacity of visual perception. The respondent is informed to make sure that the circles do not touch the edges of the track. precision in adjusting the movements to the track. If this is the case. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Up to now. and focused attention. The left knob is to steer the left circle. the test phase starts and takes 2 minutes and 45 seconds. Reliability The present reliabilities (internal consistency) amount to 0. Administration The respondent is required to maintain to circles on a track by means of two control knobs. Theoretical background This test is an enhanced version of the test “Le test du double labyrinthe“ by Bonnardel. Thus the test can be considered to provide a convergent validity. NeW Now available in Turkish! Application Assessment of the eye-hand coordination ability in task of pre-determined speed. which is a standard test in the traffic psychology in France. The original test was an instrument made of a cylinder. The test assesses speed and reaction of adjusting the movements to the track. The respondent had to maintain two markings in the middle of the track by means of two levers. Norms Norms of a representative comparative sample (N=567) are available. the right knob for the right circle.
Administration ii Main variables of forms S4-S6: Total “correct reactions”. Swedish adults. S9 and S11 norm samples ranging in size from N=165 to N=1475 are available. S2/S5 and S3/S6 the test forms contain the same stimulus material. S11) and three test forms with a fixed working time of 1. These two forms have a seven-minute time limit. although the three pairs differ with regard to the complexity of the material. A number of studies carried out in the field of traffic psychology also confirm the validity of the test. convergent and discriminant validity. S7-S9. Function: the function of concentration in performing a task. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . It is not possible to omit an item or to go back to a preceding one. Once the answer has been entered the next item follows automati-cally. Can be used with subjects from 4 years of age (depending on test form). In the test forms with unlimited working time the variable “Energy” as defined by Reulecke (1991) is measured by the time taken at a pre-set level of precision and function. unvarying stimulus material. construct validity. Neuro & clinical Norms For the COG forms S1 – S5 and S8. An animated instruction phase and an errorsensitive practice phase lead on to the task itself. ii Main variables of forms S8-S9: Total “reactions” (correct and incorrect reactions). Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Measurement of attention and concentration under validity of the Rasch model. Personnel Transport: Road Testing time Between 5 and 20 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). The Response Panel or computer keyboard is used as the input device.95. schoolchildren. Most of the norms are also available separated according to age and educa-tional level. Scoring ii Main variable of forms S1-S3. Total “incorrect reactions”. form S8 is the more difficult of the two. Precision: the quality of task performance. Validity Test forms There are seven test forms with unlimited working time (S1S3. Theoretical background The Cognitrone is based on the theoretical model of Reulecke (1991). Once the presentation time has expired the next item follows automatically. Numerous validation studies prove the construct and criterion validity. In the test forms with fixed working time a reaction is required only if the figure is identical with the model. Within each of the pairs S1/S4. 57 . 3. the majority of them being over r=0. depending on test form. percentage “incorrect reactions”. In the test forms with flexible working time the respondent’s task is to compare an abstract figure with a model and to decide whether the two are identical. Special norms from among the following are also available for these forms: norms for drivers with conspicuous behaviour. Many studies of different aspects of validity (content validity. job seekers. Reliability The reliabilities are very high. criterion validity) have been carried out.8 seconds per item (S4-S6). S11: Mean time “correct rejection” (sec). all these studies indicate that the test is valid. NeW Now available in Slovenian! Application Assessment of attention and concentration through comparison of figures with regard to their congruence.Special Ability Tests Cognitrone COG G. S8 and S9 contain very simple. Energy: the concentrative state is demanding and consumes energy. 2. Form S7 contains much simpler items: the figure in the task field has to be compared with just one figure in one of the display fields. S7. which sees concentration as a state that can in principle be described by three variables: 1.
a footnote to this effect is included in the results. Corresponding trainings in VISP/CODING NeW Now available in Czech.81 and r=0. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . confirming the fact that they are largely separate systems. The last two measure the immediate block span backwards of adults (S5) and children (S6). It indicates the longest sequence length that has been reproduced correctly at least once. The variable supra-block span operationalises implicit visuospatial learning. After three items the number of blocks increases by one. The respondent is required to tap on the same blocks in the same order. Administration Neuro & clinical Personnel Nine irregularly positioned blocks are shown on the screen. The next two measure the immediate and the supra-block span of adults (S3) and children (S4). Measurement of the memory span identifies an important limiting factor. depending on the test form used.89. The test stops as soon as the respondent reproduces the target sequence correctly. Items are then presented that contain the number of blocks in the immediate block span plus one. S3 and S5 use sequences of between 3 and 8 blocks. Reliability The reliability of the test is between r=0. depending on test form. The test consists of 24 items and contains a sequence that is repeated eight times (the target sequence). while forms S1. Validity The block-tapping test is frequently referred to in the neuropsychological literature as a test of visuo-spatial memory span and is also widely used in a clinical context. Two of these measure the immediate block span forwards of adults (S1) and children (S2). Scoring Sport Education The variable immediate block span operationalises the visuo-spatial memory span. A pointer “taps” on a number of these blocks in turn. These subsystems may be damaged independently of each other by brain injuries. Implicit visuo-spatial learning (supra-block span) is assessed by first measuring the respondent’s immediate block span. 58 . The test stops when the respondent makes an error in three successive items. Testing time Between 10 and 15 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). since the variable can assume only seven different values. The theoretical basis utilises Baddeley’s concept of working memory. If a respondent’s block span lies below the cut-off score. Cut-off scores are therefore calculated instead. Norms Test forms Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Six test forms are available. the capacity of which is limited. S4 and S6 contain sequences of between 2 and 8 blocks. The short-term memory is made up of verbal and visuo-spatial subsystems. The block-tapping test for measuring the “supra-block span” (SBS) goes beyond the assessment of short-term memory: it uses sequences that exceed the respondent’s visual memory span and therefore require the application of learning processes. Theoretical background Tests of memory span involve primarily the short-term memory. Schellig © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Neuropsychological studies prove that the immediate block span can depict deficits that are not assessed by common tests for the registrations of the verbal memory span.Special Ability Tests CORsI Corsi Block-Tapping Test D. Provision of conventional norms is inappropriate. Test forms S2. It indicates the number of attempts made by the respondent before the target sequence was correctly reproduced. The block-tapping test for assessing the “immediate block span” (German abbreviation: UBS) measures the capacity of the visuo-spatial subsystem within the short-term memory. Slovakian and Slovenian! Application Assessment of visual short-term memory capacity and implicit visuo-spatial learning. Studies of brain-damaged patients using the block-tapping test demonstrate that the test assesses a visuo-spatial function of shortterm memory that is independent of the verbal subsystem.
the quantity and quality of concentration and attention. There are two parallel test forms (S1 and S2). Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . NeW Now available in Arabic . Theoretical background DAKT is a non-verbal test for measuring perceptual speed and accuracy. the percentage of errors in the total number of items worked is the measure of accuracy.96 for perceptual speed and r=0. For both test forms norms of an Austrian norm sample of N=436 persons as well as a Swedish norm sample of N=1120 are available. Perceptual speed is defined as the capacity to recognize details rapidly in a distracting perceptual environment and to differentiate them from irrelevant material. Research on mental ability using factor analysis has unambiguously identified a perceptual factor which involves a major component of speed. e. Hagman © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The DAKT enables the reliable and valid measurement of „Perceptual speed” and „Accuracy/ Resistance to error” as basic elements of attention. Each of the subtests can be administered separately. letters and figures). DAKT focuses on this factor. hence the samples can be regarded as parallel. the test is suitable for the diagnosis of perceptual disorders. E. Moreover.85 for accuracy. The results protocol shows raw and standard scores for each subtest and for the test as a whole. Norms Scoring The number of correctly solved items constitutes the measure of perceptual speed. Statistically the overall Austrian norms do not differ from the overall Swedish norms. Test forms The psychological validity of DAKT is evident – the respondents think immediately of “attention and concentration”. Bratfisch. The ratio between the number of errors and the quantitative performance is taken as the measure of accuracy. Russian and Czech! Application DAKT is used primarily to measure perceptual speed and accuracy – that is.Special Ability Tests Differential Attention Test DAKT Onlinetest O. Content validity has been proven through factor analysis. Validity Administration DAKT consists of three subtests containing different material (numbers. The task is to identify and mark critical items as fast and accurately as possible. Add approximately four minutes for instructions and solving the practice items. The testing time for each subtest is three minutes. Logical validity is given by the operational definition of perceptual speed and accuracy. 59 . dyslexia. Neuro & clinical Reliability Testing time The parallel-test reliability coefficients are r=0.g. Prognostic validity has been demonstrated for occupations requiring a high level of perceptual speed and accuracy. Both norm samples are available broken down by age.
Scoring Personnel The following variables are calculated: Sum correct. Vigilance. The possibility that the Sustained Attention Test requires the use of higher cognitive functions can be ruled out.91 (Sum correct) and 0. The norms are also available partitioned according to age and in some cases according to educational level.98 (Mean time correct) and for Form S3 0. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 60 .97 (Mean time correct).98 (Sum correct) and 0. Measurement of sustained attention assesses primarily aspects of general performance ability or performance readiness that are largely independent of intelligence. Mean time correct. Sustained attention is a psychological construct which refers in general terms to a prerequisite of performance that is relatively independent of intelligence and effective over relatively long periods of time. Forms S1 and S2 are recommended for use only with clients whose attentional performance is thought to be impaired. The sustained aspect highlights the fact that attention operations become more difficult when they need to be continuously repeated. differing in the number of triangles and the regularity with which the lines change. on the other hand. Criterion validity is given. can be used from 15 years of age. Testing time Between 20 and 35 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). depending on test form. The test reveals the stability of a person’s long-term attentional performance as an underlying requirement of cognitive abilities under speed conditions. pointing either up or down. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . 295 (S2) and 302 (S3). Sum incorrect and Mean time incorrect. Norms are available for “normal individuals” for sample sizes of N=286 (S1). NeW Now available in Slovenian and Russian! Application Assessment of long-term selective attention and concentration and of general performance and commitment.98 (Mean time correct). Validity Administration Triangles appear in a row on the screen. Reliability Transport: Road For Form S1 the values of Cronbach’s Alpha for the main variables in the total sample are 0. For Form S1 a norm sample of N=369 neurological patients is also available. requires relatively infrequent reactions to stimuli that occur at irregular intervals and in diverse locations.Special Ability Tests DAUF Sustained Attention G.896 (Sum correct) and 0. In contrast to vigilance. Test forms Norms Neuro & clinical Three test forms are available. Theoretical background A basic definition of attention is that it is a selection process: perception and conceptualisation are oriented and focused on a portion of the stimuli with which a person is simultaneously confronted. For Form S2 the corresponding values are 0. Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The simplified but efficient design of the items makes it possible to assess the individual longterm attention without disadvantaging respondents with a weaker performance. sustained attention is operationally defined as selective awareness of stimuli that are either continuously or frequently present. The respondent must press the reaction button whenever a pre-defined number of triangles point downwards.
Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . clients who had been involved in alcohol abuse) and the norm group. the variables Median reaction time. and to select the relevant responses according to the assignment rules laid down in the instructions and/or learned in the course of the test. Validity Administration The respondent is presented with colour stimuli and acoustic signals. some of the norms are also available separated according to age. Other studies carried out in the field of traffic psychology also confirm the validity of the test. Portuguese norms for drivers with conspicuous behaviour.Special Ability Tests Determination Test DT G. response buttons and assignment rules. NeW Now available in Slovenian! Application Measurement of reactive stress tolerance. Number of incorrect reactions. Number of correct reactions (on time.99. The convergent validity of the test was demonstrated by Karner & Biehl (2000). in which the presentation speed adjusts to the respondent’s performance level. Neuro & clinical Scoring Norms Depending on the stimulus/reaction mode. The test requires the respondent to use his cognitive skills to distinguish different colours and sounds. delayed). Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The DT is an especially accurate measurement instrument and applied to assess reactive stress tolerance. length or stimulus material. Test forms S1 (adaptive short). Number of omitted reactions and Number of stimuli are scored. Portuguese norm sample. He/she reacts by pressing the appropriate buttons on the response panel. swift and varying responses to rapidly changing visual and acoustic stimuli. Test forms S7-S15 have been developed primarily for purposes of clinical research. The stimuli are presented in three different ways: (1) in Adaptive Mode. Theoretical background The DT is used to measure reactive stress tolerance and the associated ability to react. The difficulty of the DT arises from the need to sustain continuous. norms of German professional drivers. The test results of the drivers who had committed alcohol-related offences were significantly worse than those of the norm population. 61 . rapid and varying responses to rapidly changing stimuli. who found that it correlated with the construct-related RST3 test. A study by Neuwirth and Dorfer (2000) showed that the Determination Test could distinguish between all the referral groups tested in the course of a traffic-psychological assessment (psychiatric and neurological clients. Special norms from among the following are also available for these forms: norms for drivers with conspicuous behaviour. An extreme-group validation carried out by Karner (2000) found significant differences in the Determination Test between drivers who had committed alcohol-related offences and the norm group. For the DT forms S1 – S6 representative norms are available that vary in size between N=102 and N=1179. attention and reaction speed in situations requiring continuous.98 and r=0. to memorise the relevant characteristics of stimulus configurations. A study by Karner & Neuwirth (2000) showed significant correlations between the result of the DT and a driving test. norms of stroke patients. depending on test form. S3-S6 and S16 are forms that vary in their reaction mode. The use of headphones ensures the exclusion of distracting noises. gender and educational level. Personnel Transport: Road Testing time Transport: Rail Between 6 and 15 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). (2) in Action Mode with no time limit and (3) in Reaction Mode with fixed time limit. S2 (adaptive). Reliability For all test forms the internal consistencies for the main variables lie between r=0.
“on-time reactions”. Neuro & clinical Validity Results for the content validity of the DT are also applicable to the DTKI. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . 274 female) age 6-14. “delayed reactions” and “reactions”. the speed of presentation adapts to the ability level of the child. Theoretical background Since the test is designed to involve fast and accurate responses under conditions of stress. “median reaction time”. the internal consistency for the main variable lies between α=0. Reliability Administration Depending on the age group. “omitted items”.94. As a children’s version of the well-established Determination Test (DT) the DTKI combines a measurement method which has proved its success over many years with an innovative and child-friendly mode of presentation. Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The DTKI combines the proven test concept of the Determination Test with a multi-media mode of presentation which is especially designed for children. The child reacts by pressing the appropriate buttons on the response panel. The test involves the presentation of coloured stimuli and acoustic signals. the DTKI requires a high degree of selective attention and reactive stress tolerance. “incorrect reactions”. The difficulty of the DTKI arises from the need to sustain continuous. Further studies of the validity of the test are currently being undertaken. 7-9 minutes including instruction and practice phase. Scoring The test yields scores for the variables “correct reactions”. Application Measurement of reactive stress tolerance and reaction speed and assessment of attention deficits in situations requiring continuous.86 and α=0. Norms The DTKI has been normed on a sample of 545 schoolchildren (271 male. swift and varying responses to rapidly changing visual and acoustic stimuli. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 62 . rapid and varying responses to rapidly changing stimuli. G. J. “number of stimuli”. The level of difficulty depends primarily not on the stimulus-response pairing but on the speed with which the stimuli change and on the number of different stimuli and responses which the subject has to move between. The use of a USB headset ensures that extraneous sounds do not intrude upon presentation of the acoustic signals. the headset is furthermore essential for the precise measurement of time intervals. Heidinger. The stimuli are presented adaptively – that is.Special Ability Tests DTKI Determination Test for Children C. Häusler. Test forms S1 Adaptive mode Personnel Testing time Approx.
20 ≥ r ≤ 0. Test forms: Two test forms are available: ii S1 with instructions in the respondent’s language ii S2 with instructions in English. grammar and text comprehension.8. designed on a theory-led basis. the individually measured reliabilities are around r=0. 20 mins. In addition. Analysis of the text comprehension test shows that a significant proportion of the difficulty is explained by the item type (25%). rank correlations show a slight to moderate correlation between item difficulty and general text difficulty (r = 0. Using a theory-led approach. the items were designed on the basis of occurrence frequencies (vocabulary. Ortner. Vocabulary: approx.41). The applicability of the dichotomous Rasch model – and hence the test’s fairness – was successfully proved for the test materials used in all three areas. Lick © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH ELST is a demonstrably fair test. Neuro & clinical Testing time Text comprehension: approx. 63 . It is calculated individually for the respondent and quoted in the test results as an aid to interpretation. item selection yields a linear test. T. grammar) and text construction factors that influence text comprehension. which were designed in cooperation with linguists. the subtests are newly compiled annually from a larger item pool.33). 10 mins. NeW Now available in French! Application Testing knowledge of English in the areas of text comprehension. Scoring: Results are reported in the form of a raw score and person parameter for each subtest. Grammar: approx. vocabulary and grammatical knowledge. M. In addition. For all the subtests. have content validity. The item difficulties of the grammar test can be explained in terms of the frequency of the grammatical forms used (44% of variance explained). Janous. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Norms A norm sample is available of N = 2978 Austrian applicants to universities of applied sciences in the years 2007-2008. Personnel Transport: Road Validity The items. for measuring English-language skills in the areas of text comprehension.Special Ability Tests English Language Skills Test eLsT Onlinetest G. reliability in the sense of internal consistency is given. The requirements arising from the test’s use as a foreign-language test were explicitly taken into account in the design process. together with the corresponding norm scores. The theoretically assumed item difficulties in the vocabulary test (based on word frequencies in the British National Corpus taking into account the frequencies of the stimulus and solution words) explain in total 22% of the variance in the empirically observed difficulty parameters. 10 mins. For respondents in the average ability range. Theoretical background ELST measures English-language skills in the areas of vocabulary. E. Reliability Because of the validity of the dichotomous Rasch model. scores on all the subtests correlate at a moderate level with German-¬language verbal comprehension tests (0. Administration The test is presented as a multiple-choice ability test with a time limit for each item. vocabulary and grammar. Construct validity was tested using the underlying construction rationale.
The respondent must place his finger on the panel’s gold rest button. Theoretical background Attention can be defined as a psychophysical state that can vary in intensity and in which the subject is alert to stimuli or signals. The test is concerned exclusively with reaction time as thus defined. the time between the start of the response movement and its completion (= response movement). The five diodes then turn white simultaneously. Scoring The following are provided by default: Administration ii Mean reaction time (the mean of all reaction times) ii Median reaction time (the median of all reaction times) ii Minimum reaction time (the raw value of the shortest reaction time) The test is administered using a peripheral device and the response panel. S2. in forms S1 and S3 the respondent receives feedback on how the speed of his response compares with that of previous reactions. Hackfort © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Formula 1 is a reaction time measurement tool. a fixation on these signals constitutes focusing. In addition. at this point the respondent must lift his finger as quickly as he can from the gold rest button. this signal is intended to activate the respondent’s attention. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . In forms S3 and S4 an acoustic signal sounds before the red diodes are extinguished. ii Maximum reaction time (the raw value of the longest ‘ reaction time) Testing time Approximately 6 minutes (including the instruction and practice phase) for each test form. reaction time is taken to mean motor time – i. constructed for assessing the individual reaction time Application F1 is designed to assess reaction time in combination with attention performance. this feedback is not given in S2 and S4. this is not the case in S1 and S2. Concentration involves a restriction of attention to particular signals. The test can be used with respondents age 14 and upwards. The peripheral device contains five light diodes that light up in turn in red. In the classical definition. In S3 and S4 an acoustic cue is used. S3 and S4. Neuro & clinical Personnel There are four test forms – S1. There are thus four possible combinations: ii S1: no tone plus feedback ii S2: no tone plus no feedback ii S3: tone plus feedback ii S4: tone plus no feedback Test forms Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 64 .Special Ability Tests NEW F1 Formula Uno D. it is based on the requirements that apply at the start of a motor racing event.e.
Application Assessment of the central-nervous activation (arousal) with the help of threshold values.86 (VF) and r=. Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .85 (FF) for senior executives. EEG. Administration In the increasing process the frequency of a flickering light is augmented until a constant light is perceived. Additionally a diagram with the threshold values measured during the individual measurement cycles is displayed as well as the test protocol. They make an estimate possible on how precisely the respondent was able to determine the change from flicker to constant light. The flicker-fusion frequency is regarded. corresponding changes in other performance parameters were found (memory. Parallel to the decrease of the flicker and fusion frequencies. reaction speed etc. that the respondent perceives as constant. when high frequency light is recognized as constant light. next to other criteria (e. 65 . Reliability Special studies with senior executives produced split-half reliability coefficients of r=. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Testing time About 10 minutes. The stability coefficients for test-retest interval of between two and eight hours were of r=. this method revealed biologically relevant differences starting at 0. In the decreasing process the frequency of a higher frequency light. Test forms In pharmacological studies. The respondent has to confirm every change of perception by pressing a key.92 were found. Scoring: Norms In test form S1 (increasing and decreasing measuring modes) norms for the age groups 18-38. The measurement errors of the median values serve as control variables. The median values of the critical frequencies in the increasing or Worth knowing ___________ decreasing mode are threshold Test with peripheral unit. is reduced until it is subjectively perceived as flickering. These comparative values (N=245) were gained from a comparative sample of psychiatric patients and a group of senior executives. For a group of psychiatric patients values of r=. A multitude of studies were conducted in this area. Pharmacological studies are a frequent area of application for the FLIM. attention. which can be interpreted as the expression of cortically modulated attention. The fusion frequency (VF) and flicker frequency (FF) mark the level of activation. SCR) as an indicator for this central-nervous function capacity.91 for the flicker frequency (FF).).86 and r=. Neuro & clinical Personnel The following variables are scored: ii Fusion frequency VF (Hz) ii Flicker frequency FF (Hz) ii Error in measurement of VF (Hz) ii Error in measurement of FF (Hz).Special Ability Tests Flicker/Fusion Frequency FLIM G. Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Objective test for the assessment of the activation level without self-evaluation. Validity There are three standard test forms with five practice and by default eight measurement runs each available: ii S1: Deterines flicker and fusion frequency (increasing and decreasing measuring mode) ii S2: Determines only fusion frequency (increasing measuring mode) ii S3 Determines only flicker frequency (decreasing measuring mode). To be used with adults. The crtitical frequency is then stored. 39-55 and 56-80 are presented for the variables “Flicker frequency (FF)” and “Fusion frequency (VF)”. values and they are called “Fusion frequency (VF)” and “Flicker frei page 13 quency (FF)”. Theoretical background Physiological studies prove that the activation (arousal) of the organism is centrally controlled.92 for the fusion frequency (VF) and of r=.g. A study by Görtelmeyer et al. For example the flicker-fusion frequency is a highly reliable indicator and a valid parameter for the measurement of sedation induced by medical drugs.8 Hz. (1982) found that the flicker-fusion frequency together with EEG-Variables are described by a common factor.
Each test form contains 210 items (105 verbal and 105 nonverbal). There are overall norms and age norms are available.78 and . Sport Education 66 .Special Ability Tests FVW Continuous Visual Recognition Task J. Memory deficits may be sensitive indicators of brain function disorders and are the most frequently cited symptom after brain damage has taken place. The respondent has to decide whether an item is being shown for the first time or is being repeated on screen. Theoretical background Most theories assume that every piece of information (item) in memory has a certain familiarity. The test performance in FVW showed no correlation with the cognitive performance of the respondents in the CPM (Coloured Progressive Matrices) and the DAUF (Continuous Attention). ii Number incorrect positive: number of yes-answers Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation during distractions. Reliability Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) lies between . meaningless syllables. i. The forms S2 to S5 differ in level of difficulty. numbers. objects. Overall norms and age norms from 763 adults of ages 17-91 are available for the clinical short form S6. Results of test form S4 can be compared with comparison values of 78 normal persons of ages 16-89. applicable to people aged 6 years and over. S6 and S7 are short forms with a low level of difficulty. NeW Now available in Czech. words. correctly recognized items. Slovakian and Slovenian! Application: Measurement of memory performance and cerebral deficits (quantification of mnestic deficits) based on the decision whether an item is new or has already been presented. so that familiar items might be evaluated as new and new items as familiar. ii Answer tendency: indicates whether or not a respondent answeres rather conservatively (when in doubt “No”) or liberally (when in doubt “Yes”).e. or difficult-toname items are presented in sequence. Test form S5 was standardized with a sample of 159 normal persons of ages 15-67. Various results of this overlapping area are used to judge the certainty with which the respondent differentiates between familiar and new items. ii Working time Testing time About 15 Minutes. Recognition performance is also considered an indicator for pathological aging. depending on test form and sample. Pietrzyk © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The diverging difficulties of the tasks make the test very suitable to assess the memory performance of each individual respondent. Norms Test forms Neuro & clinical The FVW is available in seven test forms (S2 to S8). Effects of overstrain or under-stimulation can thus be avoided. U. Test form S8 was standardized with a sample of 240 children of ages 6-9. an item which has only been shown once is seen as having been shown twice. ii Mean reaction time hits ii Discrimination ability: distribution-free measurement of the ability of the respondent to differentiate among items presented once or repeatedly (familiarity). Validity Administration Depending on the test form.86. which rises with the number of presentations. Comparison values of 53 normal persons of ages 16-90 are available for test form S3. It is also assumed that this familiarity is respondent to random deviations. Personnel Scoring The following variables are scored: ii Number hits: This variable characterizes the number of Transport: Road Test form S2 was standardized with a sample of 226 normal persons of ages 10-99. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . S8 is a special test form for children. especially for use in the clinical field. Kessler. letter-number combinations.
For each item the respondent has 20 seconds to find the solution. 1949). 67 . and thus serves as a model. reliability can be considered as given since all items measure the same ability dimension. It is not just perception but the entire “mental apparatus” (including cognitions and emotions) that is affected by this dependence on the “field”. The Gestalt Perception Test was drawn up on the basis of the hierarchical model.95. NeW Now available in Russian! Application: Assessment of the cognitive style of field (in)dependence (field articulation) through identification of a specific shape embedded in a pattern. Hörndler © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH A Rasch-homogenous test based on the hierarchic model perception to assess the construct field dependence.66. H. A detailed instruction and practice phase precedes the test phase. This was followed in the second stage of development by the test that is now most commonly used to measure field dependence: the Embedded Figures Test (EFT. The study by Hergovich and Kriechbaum (1996) shows that the correlation between the subtest “Analyze and Synthesize“ of the AID and GESTA is r=0. to varying degrees they have a “good” gestalt or shape. The correlation between EFT and GESTA is at r=0. The aim is to measure the ability to deconstruct structures and reassemble them. Reliability Because of the validity of the Rasch model. The patterns are not just a jumble of lines. Transport: Rail The number of correctly solved items is calculated as the test score. The time required for the text is a maximum of 20 minutes (including the instruction and practice phase). Theoretical background GESTA is based on the concept of field dependence. using a stratified quota sampling plan. social desirability. Cronbach’s Alpha varies in the different samples between r=0. The first tests were based on the theory of Witkin & Asch (1948). the Rod-and-Frame Test (RFT. 1971). Witkin et al. lying between r=0. so that their perception is always influenced by the surrounding “field”. Neuro & clinical Norms Norms are available for a sample of N=443 individuals that is representative of the normal population in terms of age. outside the pattern area of the item. the test can be assumed to have internal consistency. An item is classed as solved if the outline of the house is traced correctly (corners marked in the correct order) within the time limit. The results on convergent validity are also especially important. The split-half reliabilities are also very high. The first phase saw the introduction of the classic test for the assessment of field dependence.89 and r=0. The two tests EFT and GESTA are also found to correlate in similar ways with other variables that were investigated (extraversion.Special Ability Tests Gestalt Perception Test GesTA Onlinetest A. Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .94. The concept of field dependence has developed in four phases. Personnel Transport: Road Test forms Scoring Testing time There is one test form. the explicit goal was to design what modern test theory would define as a unidimensional test that measures the construct of field dependence. The shape that the respondent is looking for (the house) is always shown at the side. Validity Administration The task is to identify a specified shape (in the form of a house) within a pattern and to trace the outline of the house by marking the corners with the mouse. The test consists of 30 items. Hergovich. age and education are also available. During development of the test. From the point of view of probabilistic test theory. Subsamples based on gender.83 and r=0. Field-dependent people are influenced in their perception by surrounding stimuli. Witkin. This typology differentiates between field-dependent and fieldindependent people. all containing different patterns.51. The data was gathered in two collection phases between 2002 and 2008 in the research laboratory of SCHUHFRIED GmbH. intelligence).
Sommer (2002) was also able to show that a test battery that included the LVT correctly predicted 74. S2 (short form with 40 items) and S3 (screening form). and between the LVT and other tests measuring attention and concentration (Wagner. These show that respondents who perform at a below-average level on the test have more accidents or receive a more unfavourable assessment of their driving ability. and Sommer (2002) are currently available. In addition. The test is thus also suited to the assessment of selective visual attention. groups comparisons are available contrasting the normal population with drivers who had alcohol-related offences (Karner. norms for drivers with conspicuous behaviour are available for Form S2 form. If the eight practice items are worked with fewer than three errors. the ART90 (Karner. 2000). It assesses the aspect of visual orientation performance involved in tracking simple visual elements in a relatively complex environment. Neuwirth and Karner (2000). The respondent is presented with an array of lines and must as quickly as possible find the end of a specified line. 2000) and with psychiatric and neurological patients (Neuwirth. Transport: Aviation Sport Education 68 . Personnel Reliability Norms Internal consistency is r=0.92 for the screening form.96 for the long form. ii Score.). the respondent moves on to the test phase items. for use with adults. while being placed under time pressure. The present Visual Pursuit Test is not merely a new edition of an old test. r=0. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . but has been developed from experience and observations gained from many previous versions. Transport: Road Norm samples of size N=407 to N=785 are available for the three forms of the LVT. depending on test form. Most of these tests have been developed in connection with particular issues relevant to experimental psychology or practical situations. Evidence of construct validity is provided by the highly significant correlations between the characteristic values of the LVT and a test based on a similar construct. NeW Now available in Chinese! Application Assessment of visual orientation ability and skill in gaining an overview. The respondent is required to work in a focused way. Validity Administration The test commences with a combined instruction and practice phase. 1999). In addition. Theoretical background Special psychological tests are used to assess the more complex dimensions of perception.92 for the short form and r=0. Testing time Transport: Rail Between 5 and 25 minutes (including instruction and practice phase).7% of global assessments of driving behaviour in a standardised driving test. some norms are also available separated by age and educational level. These studies provide clear evidence of the criterion validity of the LVT. Test forms Neuro & clinical The forms available are S1 (long form with 80 items). Biehl © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH This test measures the visual orientation performance for simple structures in a complex environment and is characterized by a high reliability and numerous criterion-related proofs of validity. 2001).Special Ability Tests LVT Visual Pursuit Test B. Scoring The following variables are scored: Studies by Calé (1992). median time of correct answers (sec. The respondent can work at his own speed. ignoring distractions.
These norms are also available partitioned according to gender and age. A choice reaction or a simple reaction is required. between 0. as are omitted or incomplete reactions. its demands thus resemble those encountered in complex reallife situations such as arise when driving. Form S3 also requires a choice reaction: in this case the coding of the direction of movement to the color keys changes for each new item. For the main variables (the medians of motor time. It thus identifies both a cognitive component (decision time) and a motor component (reaction time).97 for Form S2 and between 0. The test is intended for strong performers. S2 and S3. The tasks require a rapid response and are aimed at strong performers.99 for Form S1. Validity Test forms There are three test forms of varying difficulty. Theoretical background The attentional performance required in the MDT involves detecting direction of movement and responding to this movement as quickly as possible. Hackfort © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The Movement Detection Test (MDT) assesses attentional performance and the speed of cognitive and motor reactions in response to rapidly presented visual movement stimuli. The design of the test means that more is called for than simple yes/no decisions and simple choice reactions. interquartile range. 69 .92 and 0. because the task used directly involves both attention and movement detection.Special Ability Tests Movement Detection Test MDT NEW D. Reactions that are too late or too early are also documented. There is a narrow time window in which this reaction must occur. Form S1 requires a simple reaction as soon as a movement is perceived by the respondent. decision speed and motor reaction speed in response to a succession of rapidly presented visual movement stimuli. The test measures both the time taken to detect movement. detection time and cognitive reaction time) the reliabilities thus measured were between 0.97 for Form S3. Application Measurement of attentional performance. mean. Form S2 requires a choice reaction: a different color key must be pressed depending on the direction of the movement. Reliability Administration The respondent’s task is to react as quickly as possible to the sudden movement of a central visual stimulus on the screen.96 and 0.96 and 0. The reaction required in the MDT must take place within a narrow time window. The MDT has content validity. Neuro & clinical Personnel Norms Norm samples varying in size between N=269 and N=271 are available for each of the test forms S1. Transport: Road Testing time The time required for each of the three test forms is around eight minutes. the separate components of motor time and cognitive reaction time are also reported. The test’s reliability was calculated using split-half reliabilities obtained from the norm samples. standard deviation. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Validation studies in the field of sports psychology are currently in preparation. participating in sport or engaging in motor racing. For each of these times the following are given: median. depending on the test form. maximum and minimum. decide on its direction and select a response and – separately – the subsequent motor reaction time. Scoring In each test form the detection time is measured. The medians are the main variables of the test.
A stylus is attached to Worth knowing ___________ either side of the panel. collected at the research laboratory of the Schuhfried company during the period 2005-09. university students between 18 and 26 years of age (N=100). representative norm sample (N=107).52 and r=. Norms ii Test form S1: sample of school students between 13 and Factor-analytic control studies on clinical groups and a group of healthy persons showed that the six factors of the MLS explain over 85% of the total variance. Results table: Speed and/or accuracy scores are calculated for the right and left hands for one-handed and twohanded performance. 15-20 minutes (for the short form).Martin Luther University. Halle. hand and arm movement. and between the MLS variables and various personality dimensions (e. Education Validity 19 years of age (N=300). left-handed children and adolescents (Hiebsch . N=93). collected at the research laboratory of the Schuhfried company in 2004. N=109). Testing time Approx.35 were found between the variables of the MLS and cognitive criteria. ii Test form S2: sample of patients without neurological symptoms (N=200). W. Schoppe. The MLS assesses the following six aspects of fine motor abilities: ii Aiming (accuracy of movement) ii Hand shake. it contains holes. Tapping (one or both hands).60 to r=. Germany.Special Ability Tests MLs Motor Performance Series IBF Intelligenz-Basis-Funktionen K. Application Corresponding training in VISMO NeW Now available in Czech! Measurement of fine motor abilities through static and dynamic tasks for finger. left-handed people (educational counselling) (left-hander norm of the AHA! educational counselling service. Line tracking (one hand). lus on the right is black. N=29). Halle. Scoring Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Reliability Sport Retest coefficients for the subtest parameters Aiming. extroversion. neuroticism. Comparisons between people with and without disorders of the central motor system revealed significant and highly significant differences in performance. J. This Work Panel measures 300x300x15mm. Administration Test forms Neuro & clinical The following test forms are available: ii S1: Standard form according to Schoppe & Hamster (17 subtests) Personnel ii S2: Short form according to Sturm & Büssing (8 subtests) ii S3: Short form according to Vassella (10 subtests) ii Individual subtests can be selected for administration. The following tasks are carried out using the Work Panel: Steadiness (one or both hands). Inserting pins (one or both hands). sample of left-handed adults and young people between 14 and 66 years of age (N=89). Results table for fine motor abilities aspects: Table of the mathematically estimated Fleishman factors for the right hand. N=352).90 for the left hand.92 for the right hand and r=. The styTest with peripheral unit. Germany. Line tracking and Tapping were calculated (test-retest interval 1 day). it amounted to r=. Aiming (one or both hands). Only slight correla-tions of up to r=. Hamster © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Comprehensive fine motor abilities test battery with special norms for Morbus Parkinson patients. Profile: The normed variables and the Fleishman factors can be displayed in a profile. ii Test form S3: right-handed children and young people (Vassella in Bern. grooves and contact surfaces. Theoretical background The MLS Work Panel is required for the administration of the MLS. such as those measured by the HAWIE. For the subtest Tapping (variable “Hits”) the consistency coefficient (Cronbach’s Alpha) was calculated. This confirms that impairments in fine motor function can be objectified using the MLS. 2 samples of patients with Parkinson’s disease (N=70 and N=114). 70 . CFT and the STROOP test. They varied between r=. applicable from seven years of age. The Motor Performance Series (MLS) is a test battery developed by Schoppe on the basis of Fleishman’s factor analysis of fine motor abilities.g. the one i page 13 on the left is red. sample of adults (N=420). VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . right-handed children and young people (Hiebsch .Martin Luther University. tremor ii Precision of arm-hand movements ii Manual dexterity and finger dexterity ii Rate of arm and hand movements ii Wrist-finger speed. rigidity).94.
which were further divided between professions with technical understanding (N=339) and professions without technical understanding (N=217). r=. which are used in connection with mechanical/technical understanding.47) confirms the selection quality of the MTA. the external validity is deemed to be secure also for them. Application Test that assesses the mechanical/technical understanding using animated items (instruments. ii c) to correctly understand and describe basic technical laws (e.Special Ability Tests Mechanical/Technical Comprehension MTA K. ii b) to recognize the functional importance of the individual parts and to explain their coaction. which does not allow the sequence of movements shown before (in an animation). If all four constructions allow this sequence of movements. then the answer “all constructions are correct” must be selected. with which everybody is acquainted in daily life. Neuro & clinical Norms The norms available are based on a sample of N=205 adults. The task consists of finding the one plan. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . to be used with adolescents and adults. whereas in the second run one correct plan must be found. of moving images and the obvious connection to practical activities makes it work even for those respondents. Personnel Transport: Road Testing time Test phase: 40 minutes at the maximum. who tend to have a negative opinion about tests with a “typically school-like” content. One external validity criterion (positive/negative completed retraining in a technical profession. Als Testwert wird die Anzahl gelöster Items bestimmt. Reliability The reliability in the sense of an inner consistency is given due to the validity of the Rasch model. Since the tasks of the MTA coincide by their content as well as formally with those of other mechanical/technical tests that were checked for their external validity. Pauli & Arnold (1972) limit the definition in the following way: Technical understanding broadly contains the following abilities: ii a) to understand and describe technical drawings or instruments and to describe their usefulness. the effect of the lever).84 and Guttman’s lambda 3 r=0. Validity Administration In the first run 4 plans per instrument are presented. ii d) the personal inner connection with technical problems (eagerness or revulsion). This means that the next item appears automatically after a certain time interval (2 minutes) has elapsed. The test has an “item-related time-limit”. either one of the 4 plans per instrument must be selected as correct or the answer can be “all constructions are incorrect”.” The MTA tries to cover the above-mentioned abilities from points a-c.g. Three additional samples are based on the data of N=556 students from vocational schools. 71 .84.87. Cronbach’s alpha r=0. In psychology there is a multitude of terms like “technical/ constructive” or “practical/technical understanding”. So in the first run one incorrect plan must be discovered among the four plans presented per instrument. Theoretical background Test forms Scoring The defined test score is the number of items solved. The following characteristic values for reliability were calculated: split-half-reliability r=0. In the second run. to which a construction plan must be assigned). Liedl © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The fact that this test consists of a mostly nonverbal task.
87 (children and young people) and for the short form between r=0. 72 . The visual discrimination test takes approximately three minutes. not only for the groups as a whole but also in a high percentage of individual cases. The age range covered by the norms is 6-82 years Testing time Between 9 and 12 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). In addition. Transport: Aviation Sport Education The test records the numbers of correct and incorrect “yes” answers. Neuro & clinical Personnel Meaningless shapes are displayed on the computer screen for 2-3 seconds each. The norms for adults are available both for the sample as a whole and also separated according to educational level. Sturm. They vary for the long form between r=0. During the test. Shiffrin and Baddeley. the NVLT was designed to assess learning ability with regard to non-verbal memory material that is stored in a material-specific long-term memory store. However. This was the case to 78. depending on his or her decision. The memorised material is recalled using the recognition method. since it can be assumed that high-associative items can be encoded verbally as well as pictorially.93 (adults) and between r=0. and five times in the short form.Special Ability Tests NVLT Non-verbal Learning Test W.or lefthemisphere vascular cerebral lesions to test the differential validity of the NVLT and the parallel VLT showed that these two tests can detect material-specific learning disorders in the sense of double dissociations very precisely.3% for the repeated geometric (high-associative) items.3%-73. Scoring Transport: Rail Construct validity was analysed by investigating whether or not the process of learning over the course of the test was as monotonic as possible in terms of the Guttman Scale. An investigation of neurological patients with unilateral right. Czech and Slovakian! Application Non-verbal learning is assessed by presenting for memorisation graphic material that is difficult to verbalise. A lability index is also determined as a measure of the stability of the learning process. K. these have also been normed. Some figures occur repeatedly in the course of the test. In the long form the separate assessment of learning capacity in relation to geometric (high-associative) and irregular (low-associative) makes it possible to test respondents’ ability in the “dual” storing of memory material (Paivio 1971) in verbal and pictorial code. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . as well as on findings from neuropsychological research into amnesia. An analysis of the performance intercorrelations between item blocks showed a structure that supports the inference that only one homogenous characteristic (learning ability) is assessed throughout all the item blocks. two short forms with 120 items and a visual discrimination test with 20 items. the number of deviations from the ideal learning course is very low for both item types. and to 50. If the results are below a percentile rank of 25. the trend of these variables over the seven item blocks is recorded. The median reaction times for correct and incorrect “yes” answers are given and are also quoted separately for high-associative and low-associative items. For Form A (S1+S2) there are also norms for children and young people (N=805). Through separate assessment of learning capacity in relation to geometric (high-associative) and irregular (low-associative) items it is possible to test respondents’ and patients’ ability in the “dual” storing of memory material (Paivio 1971) in verbal and pictorial code. depending on test form. some of the figures are geometric and some are irregular. Theoretical background Based on the memory theories of Atkinson. Reliability Administration Split-half reliability coefficients were calculated for the main variables of the NVLT.84 (children and young people). Willmes © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Homogenous assessment of non-verbal learning to detect material specific learning disorders in comparison with the test VLT. NeW Now available in Turkish. the respondent takes the visual discrimination test to check whether the test result was affected by impaired visual discrimination ability. eight of the presented shapes are repeated seven times in the long form (seven item blocks). For each shape the respondent is required to decide whether he or she has seen it before or whether it is being presented for the first time. as well as the difference between these two parameters per item block and the sum of each type of answer over all the blocks.7%-95.82 and r=0. Validity Test forms Transport: Road Two long forms with 160 items.7% for the irregular (low-associative) shapes. Dual coding is easier for the geometric. The respondent presses one of the two buttons (on the response panel or computer keyboard) assigned to the two possible answers.89 and r=0. high-associative items than for the low-associative ones. Norms For the two test forms of NVLT representative norm samples are available for adults (N=363).71 and r=0. The material consists partly of geometric and partly of irregularly shaped figures.90 (adults) and r=0. In addition raw scores adjusted for age effects are available for the main variables.80 and r=0.
The task consists in pressing with the light pen on the circles. flexibility and adaptability. which follows mental and central nervous processes. that rigidity and inflexibility of cognitive processes result in a greater repetition tendency of certain courses of action. to the tact of the tones. ii Redundancy of the second degree (R2) as the measure for the preference for individual combinations of two circles (the respondent pointed the light pen preferably to circle Y after circle X). After 210 entries the program indicates the end of the test. test results were compared to age-specific subsamples. A number of studies with the pointing experiment showed a significantly higher perseveration for clinical respondent groups in the following ascending order: epileptics. (2001) it is reported. Additionally. In a study by Stoffers et al. The split-half reliability (odd-even) varies between r=. Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Objective test for the assessment of the perseveration tendency. a marked reduction in the capacity to create patterns at random could be found in both groups. Transport: Road Testing time Transport: Rail About 5 minutes. The motor perseveration or “stereotypy” is marked by a high measure of repetitions of certain action sequences. The person taking the test cannot control the 81 combination options consciously anymore. Patients with organic brain damages or patients with psychiatric symptoms display a marked preference for certain sequences of pairs. These results were confirmed when applying the computerized Perseveration Test to patients with cranio-cerebral injuries. Reliability Administration Nine big circles are displayed on the monitor. 73 .e. The following information theoretical values are calculated: ii Redundancy of the first degree (R1) as relative preference of individual circles. Validity Test forms Scoring There is one test form. Since this variable also shows very marked intra-individual variances and high standard deviations for healthy people. As in Mittenenecker’s experiment 64 “beeping sounds” are presented per minute. NeW Now available in Chinese. with a pen. Theoretical background The consensus in scientific literature is that perseveration means an unwarranted repetition in cognitive processes and ways of behavior. The extent of the individual repetition tendency was determined using information-theoretical values. For the variable Redundancy of the second degree the same calculation mode was applied to produce reliabilities between r=. A low percentage rank points to a preference for certain circles. that when comparing two respondent groups with early signs of Morbus Parkinson (of which one groups was treated with medical drugs and the other one not) by the Perseveration Test. there is no preference for specific combinations of pairs.91 for the Redundancy of the first degree. Slovakian and Czech! Application Assessment of the perseveration tendency (stereotypies) can be used as of 6 years of age.81 and r=. Resistance to change and rigidity take the place of variability. i. ii Control variables: “Omitted” and “Multiple reactions” in the interval between two beeping sounds. in which the respondent receives feedback. Mittenecker noted the perseveration tendency in a pointing experiment. The test contains an instruction and a practice phase.Special Ability Tests Perseveration Test PeRseV G.87. Most theories see perseveration as an arousal phenomenon. it should rather be viewed as control variable. In this experiment the respondents have to touch numbers between 1 and 10 in an unsystematic way. neurotics and schizophrenics. Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . respondents with organic brain dysfunctions or damages.86 and r=. the greater the randomness of pointing the various circles. Neuro & clinical Personnel Norms Norms of N=417 healthy persons between the ages of 6 to 95 years are available. depressive patients. The lower the value is for R2. Additionally it is deemed evident.
Traffic-psychological studies have demonstrated that the test has adequate validity. three subsamples consisting of different age groups are available. Over 90% of the information received by a driver is perceived via the visual channel. peripheral visual perception is usually mentioned in connection with three matters: 1. Bauer © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Objective and precise measurement of the visual filed of perception. The PP is designed as a purely behavior-based instrument that meets high methodological standards. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 74 . Estimation of speed (high angular velocities arise in the peripheral visual field) 2. median reaction time left/right. Critical stimuli appear at pre-defined intervals. the respondent reacts to these critical stimuli by depressing the foot pedal. In the literature relating to the visual aspects of driving. NeW Now available in Slovenian. Test forms Neuro & clinical Norms There is one test form.g. able for the variable Field of vision and Tracking deviai page 13 tion. number of hits left/right.such as driving a motor vehicle – in which humans interact with machines. Transport: Road Testing time The time required for the text is approximately 15 minutes (including the instruction and practice phase). the respondent has to react to these as quickly as possible. Critical stimuli are presented in the respondent’s visual field. overtaking cars or vehicles emerging from a side street).Special Ability Tests PP Peripheral Perception G. Logical content validity or high face validity can be assumed. Administration Validity Light-emitting diodes mounted on the apparatus generate light stimuli that move at a pre-set speed (in regular “jumps”). The data was collected in 2008 in Vienna. Schuhfried. A norm of N=351 (173 men. Prieler. At the same time he must keep a moving ball in the cross-hairs on the screen. Monitoring of the motoring environment (detection of events and objects. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . internal consistency for the variable Tracking deviation is r=0. Handling the vehicle (objects at the side of the carriageway move past peripherally) 3. J.98. Chinese and Hindi! Application The test is designed to assess the perception and processing of peripheral visual information. W. e. Scoring Personnel The following variables are scored: Overall field of vision. number of incorrect reactions.. Theoretical background Good visual perception is indispensable for many activities . number of omitted reactions. as for example when driving a car. Reliability Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) for the variable Field of vision is r=0. tracking deviation. Worth knowing ___________ 178 women) adults is availTest with peripheral unit. In addition to the total sample. visual angles left/right.96.
In the test the respondent has to find one or two specific figures while two figures are presented on the monitor at the same time. However. star.Special Ability Tests Reaction Time Analysis RA W. It was shown that varying test requirements which influence the stimulus assessment time (perception phase. in which the measurable reaction time is the sum of the reaction times of all phases. The variation of the phase of cognitive processing is based on the model of visual search by Schneider and Shiffrin (1977). Thus the phase model was basically corroborated. phase of cognitive processing) also result in a prolonged peak time of the late positive complex in ERP (P 300). (Reaction entered with just one finger or with a sequence of three buttons). Pfeifer. The effects caused by the reaction time make it possible to draw conclusions on the reaction time of individual phases. 75 . This causes a variation of the number of necessary steps of comparison. cognitive processing.85 and . Sport Test forms There is a standard test form available. level of education. Furthermore. Th. Neuro & clinical Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail Administration Norms The respondent is guided through the experiment in an interactive way. 1991). it can also be applied to the selection process of personnel and to the examinations of therapeutic developments when observing a therapy (diagnostics of individual cases). cognitive processing and motor response organization. 1984). Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . A variation of the phase of motor organization of responses is achieved by a modification of the complexity of items. The authors showed that visual search processes are realized by serial steps of comparison concluded by the respondent him/herself. On the other hand. the difficulty of discrimination of the figures presented on the monitor (circle. Transport: Aviation Testing time About 25 minutes.99 and can be considered very satisfactory. varying test requirements which are effective after stimulus assessment (this concerns motor sequence for influencing a phase of motor organization of responses) do not result in differences in peak time of P 300. cross. and 16 individual stimuli each in items of visual search. N=162). Prieler © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH With Reaction Time Analysis the slowing down of reactions can be assessed in a differentiated way according to the three stages of activity regulation (perception. This affects the central motor elements of the programming process of responses in the brain (Rosenbaum and Saltzmann. ellipsis) is varied by a grid which partly covers the figures. In order to influence the perception phase. Dormann. square. The aim is to differentiate the general statement about cognitive speed for tasks of the so-called speed-type regarding individual phases of action control. Scoring The test is evaluated regarding the following parameters: ii frequency of errors (types of errors are incorrect positive and incorrect negative). rectangle. findings for a deceleration caused by old age as well as a deceleration of the organic psychosyndrome were corroborated by comparative examinations. U. What varies are the factors which have an influence on the processing time of selective individual phases. It is possible to compare results with a comparative sample categorized into various relevant groups (age. But the RA can also be used as a tool for aptitude diagnostics. Reliability The internal consistencies of all the scales are situated between . J. and motor organization of responses. NeW Now available in Bulgarian and Czech! Application The Reaction Time Analysis (RA) has been developed for the field of clinical psychodiagnostics. The phases concerned are perception. Pfeifer. The experiment includes 14 Subtests to be carried out with 20 individual stimuli each in choice reaction items. ii difference of reaction times of comparable test requirements as an indicator for cognitive speed in individual phases of action control. This shall be especially useful for the representation of the course of illnesses in an advanced age. Theoretical background ii median reaction time categorized according to the respective test requirements and The Reaction Time Analysis goes back to Sternberg’s Model of additive factors (Sternberg 1969). According to him there are serial and independent phases in a process. The items used in the test are choice reaction items as well as items of visual search. Validity The Reaction Time Analysis was carried out while simultaneously deducing event-related brain potentials (ERP)(Dormann. Nickel.
Form S6 is particularly suitable for measuring changes in reaction time over a relatively long period of time under monotonous stimulus conditions (vigilance). VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . gender and educational level. some norms are also available partitioned according to age. Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Due to its clever combination of different test forms. Headphones can be used in group testing situations. so that different stimulus constellations for the measurement of reaction time can be created. having pressed the key. Forms S9-S10 are particularly suitable for assessment situations in which absolute reaction times are important. Light and sound stimulus modalities are available. the RT is ideally suited as a test battery to examine attention. Reliabilities (Cronbach’s alpha) in the norm sample vary between r=0. incorrect reactions are measured in these forms. Norms Norm samples varying in size between N=75 and N=855 are available for the different forms of the RT. depending on test form. By contrast. These two forms therefore do not measure incorrect reactions. with a choice of the colours red. to which the client must react. Means are calculated using a Box-Cox transformation. Reliability Administration Neuro & clinical The Response Panel is used as the input device. Sport Education 76 . this ensures that they provide an optimal representation of the central tendency of the distribution of the reaction times. Adequate convergent validity has also been demonstrated. Forms S1 and S2 involve only one critical stimulus. Content (logical) validity is given for the Reaction Test. Theoretical background Dorsch (1994) defines reaction time as the time that elapses between a signal and the start of the mechanical response movement when the respondent is instructed to react as quickly as possible. Since such response times need to be measured in milliseconds. An animated instruction phase and an error-sensitive practice phase lead on to the task itself. The test involves the presentation of coloured stimuli and/or acoustic signals. Forms S7 and S8 can also be used to measure phasic alertness. NeW Now available in Slovenian! Application Depending on the test form used. The use of a rest key and a reaction key makes it possible to distinguish between reaction and motor time.83 and r=0.98 for reaction time and between r=0. Forms S1-S3 can be used with children as young as six years of age. forms S3 to S5 contain critical stimulus combinations to which the client must react. the test instrument used must be very precise and highly reliable. depending on test form: mean reaction time and mean motor time. Validity Personnel Test forms Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Forms S1-S5 assess reaction time and motor time in response to simple and complex visual or acoustic signals. These can range in the different test forms from individual stimuli to simultaneous or sequentially presented stimulus combinations. For a number of forms special norms are also available for school children and for drivers who have committed motoring offences. The respondent is instructed to press the reaction key only when specific stimuli are presented and.95 for motor time.Special Ability Tests RT Reaction Test G. Scoring The following main variables are calculated. Forms S7-S8 are used to measure alertness. to return his finger immediately to the rest key. difference in mean reaction time with and without cue and difference in mean motor time with and without cue. The presentation of an individual stimulus for one second is such a simple requirement that it can be assumed that nothing other than a reaction to that stimulus occurs. RT can be used to measure reaction time or reaction time and motor time. Testing time Between 5 and 10 minutes (including instruction and practice phase).84 and r=0. yellow or white. Studies of criterion validity in the field of traffic psychology yield significant correlations between the results of the RT and the outcome of a standardised driving test. in these forms response times are not split into reaction time and motor time. With the RT is it possible to measure reaction time for both simple choice and a multiple-choice reactions.
The reaction “signal present” or “signal not present” is viewed not as an issue of sensitivity to differences but as a decision-making problem. this test assesses the visual detailed registration of complex stimuli under time pressure over a longer period of time. Russian and Slovenian! Application Assessment of long-term selective attention. age and education. inverted (black signals on a white background) ii S3: Short signal duration ii S4: Signal balance (neglect assessment) Scoring The main variables calculated are the numbers of correct. depending on the test form and the comparison sample.84. Construct validity can be assumed because the aspects of performance measured constitute the criteria for the construct of signal detection in accordance with signal detection theory. pseudo-randomly some of the dots disappear and others come into view. 77 .85 were obtained. For Form S4 norms are available for N=71 neurological patients. In some cases the norms are also available partitioned by gender. For test forms S1 to S3 norm samples of between N=76 to N=904 are available. It is not concerned only with the visual differentiation of signals of a particular type that are close to the perception threshold.78 and r=0. The test measures the visual differentiation of a relevant signal within irrelevant signals. Norms Test forms ii S1: Standard (white signals on a black background) ii S2: Standard. The respondent is required to detect the critical stimulus constellation and to respond by pressing a button whenever it occurs. Neuro & clinical Testing time Personnel Between 14 and 20 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). This critical stimulus constellation consists of four dots forming a square. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .74 and r=0. Slovakian. Much more generally it addresses the question: under what conditions can a person detect the presence of a weak signal against a background of irrelevant signals or among other signals that could be confused with the relevant signal? There is a close link here with statistical decision theory. Theoretical background Signal discovery theory (synonymous with the signal detection theory of Green and Swets 1966) describes the perception of weak signals against a constantly changing (“noisy”) background. For the median detection time the reliability calculated by the same method was between r=0. Reliability For the variable “number of correct and delayed reactions” split-half reliability coefficients (odd-even method) of between r=0. depending on test form. Studies with extreme groups also yielded very good results. It is suitable for use with individuals from seven years of age. delayed and incorrect reactions as a measure of the reliability of the detection process. Validity Administration Dots are displayed over the entire screen area. NeW Now available in Czech. the testee must decide between two answer alternatives to which different probabilities attach.Special Ability Tests Signal Detection sIGNAL G. and the median detection time as a measure of the speed of the detection process. Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Based on the signal detection theory.
They differ in content (Numbers. Criteria used were “completed occupational education without complications” and “poor performance on the job”. diagnosis and assessment. career counseling. Validity Administration Neuro & clinical SIMKAP consists of five subtests.94 and 0. The norms of the short form are also broken down by level of education and age. Simultaneous Capacity is defined as the performance achieved when simultaneously dealing with routine tasks and tasks demanding cognitive performances (problem solving). Hagman © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH „Simultaneous Capacity” and „Stress Tolerance” are two of the essential requirements for a multitude of professions. The last subtest is the one that measures simultaneous capacity.89 and 0. Content validity has been proven through factor analysis. E.96 for Perceptual Speed (baseline) and 0. The short form (S2) was normed on 285 Austrian adults. Letters. Prognostic validity has been demonstrated for occupations demanding.91 respectively. NeW Now available in Arabic! Application SIMKAP is primarily intended for personnel selection. Testing time ii Long form (S1): approximately 40 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). Bratfisch. Note A soundcard with speakers or headphone is required for administration of SIMKAP. military psychology as well as within clinical settings. The present test provides a reliable way to measure both constructs. The norms are also broken down by level of education and age. Figures). Sport Education 78 . Norms of a sample of 436 Austrian adults are available for the long form (S1). a high degree of Simultaneous Capacity and Stress Tolerance. Stress Tolerance is defined as the extent to which performance differs when dealing with corresponding routine tasks under normal (baseline) and stress conditions. The parallel test reliability coefficients are 0. Scoring Transport: Road The main scoring variables are Simultaneous Capacity and Stress Tolerance. More recently the term multi-tasking has been used to denote this talent. Moreover.97 and between 0. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .84 for Accuracy (also baseline).Special Ability Tests sIMKAP Simultaneous Capacity/Multi-Tasking O. Perceptual Speed and Accuracy under normal (baseline) and stressful conditions are assessed.both routine tasks of Perceptual Speed/Accuracy and tasks involving problem solving have to be dealt with simultaneously. In the short form (S2) perceptual speed and accuracy is measured using only numerical material. The face validity is evident – the respondents think immediately of real situations where several things have to be handled simultaneously. Transport: Rail Reliability Transport: Aviation In the long and short forms the reliability coefficients regarding the total performance for Simultaneous Capacity and Stress Tolerance vary between 0. A further study on prognostic validity carried out by the Swedish Marine showed that the SIMKAP differentiates perfectly among speed boat commanders. amongst other prerequisites. Theoretical background Operationally SIMKAP is based on the definition of Simultaneous Capacity and Stress Tolerance. The logical validity is given by the operational definition of Simultaneous Capacity and Stress Tolerance. ii Short form (S1): approximately 15 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). In the long form (S1) the first three subtests represent the routine tasks and aim at measuring the baseline of Perceptual Speed and Accuracy. It combines the previous requirements . Norms Test forms Personnel There is a long form (S1) and a short form (S2). The fourth subtest of the long form (the second subtest of the short form) involves uncomplicated intellectual tasks (problem-solving). Additional areas of use are traffic psychology (especially railway and aviation psychology).
The circular segment starts moving about the room in unpredictable directions (that remain the same for all respondents). S3: 20 minutes.Special Ability Tests Sensomotor Coordination sMK H. Bauer.90 in all scales. G. 79 . Occurring deviations between target value and actual value are revealed and corrected accordingly (the TOTE principle). The element selected for this test is a geometrical shape (circular segment) that is easy to describe and is hardly influenced by any previous experiences. The joystick helps to assess the sensomotor coordination precisely. All test forms include a preceding instruction and practice phase. The necessary time to coordinate one’s movements is essentially determined by the received and processed feedback information. gender-. S1: 10 minutes. M. unpredictable changes of direction (and size) (ability to anticipate movements). The “Reactive coordination ability“ refers to sensomotor coordination necessary to react adequately to an element’s spontaneous. and education-specific samples (n=189). Neuro & clinical ii S1: Short form (screening. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . and “Vertical deviation “. The results of statistical correlation analyses and intergroup comparisons (including other tests and various external criteria) back up the convergent and discriminant validity of the SMK. Mean and distribution of “Angle deviation“. Test form S4 can be compared to age-. or eye-hand-foot by maneuvering a circular segment that moves on its own about a 3-dimensional room. Scoring The following seven variables are assessed: “Time in ideal range“. S4: 10 minutes. S2: 15 minutes. “Horizontal deviation“. Guttmann. NeW Now available in Czech and Russian! Application This test assesses the coordination of eye-hand. 20 minutes) ii S4: Special form for foot pedals (10 minutes). handhand. Norms Test forms There are four test forms: Test forms S1-S3 are provided with age. Theoretical background The assumption is that movements are controlled through the use of sensor information coming from current activities. Reliability Validity Administration The internal consistency is situated above r=. The screen depicts a room with a target position (green bars forming an upside-down “T”) and a maneuverable element (yellow circular segment). Two completely separate constructs are assessed: the “Anticipative coordination ability“ refers to sensomotor coordination necessary to maneuver an element to a pre-set goal (target is known beforehand). Leodolter © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH An impressive test with a striking elegance and sophistication in pretending 3 dimensions. U. Testing time Personnel Instruction: about 5 minutes. Leodolter. 10 minutes) ii S2: Standard form (15 minutes) ii S3: Long form (higher measurement accuracy. Extensive aviation psychological validations (pilot selection) have been conducted with the Austrian Federal Army.and educationspecific samples (n=239).
Special Ability Tests sTROOP Stroop Interference Test G. Perret. NeW Now available in Spanish. The validity of the test STROOP-Tests is confirmed by numerous comparative examinations with clinical groups and healthy people (extreme group validation).85 und r=. They consist of data from the Schuhfried Company’s research laboratory. Additionally. Beaumont. 1987).99. i. The three test forms vary as regards the input medium and the instructions (the respondent names/does not name the color aloud). and 2. S7 and S10 determine first the “baseline” then the “interference condition”. Education 80 . Transport: Aviation Sport The main variables are reading interference (the difference of the reaction time medians of the ”reading interference condition” and the “reading baseline”) and the naming interference (the difference of the reaction time medians of the “naming interference condition” and the “naming baseline”). in Wittling. Test form S8 differentiates between so-called “congruent” items – color and meaning of the word match . Reliability The split-half reliabilities for the norm sample varied between r=. Test forms Personnel Transport: Road Generally four test forms are available. Test forms S4. as well as by examinations regarding its convergent and divergent validity. Transport: Rail Scoring Testing time About 15 minutes. determination of the reading speed of a color word alone and 2. the following variables are issued for each individual test part: ”Median reaction time“ and the ”Number of incorrect answers“. 1983. the experimental set-up “word interference”. 1974. This paradigm results in two experimental conditions without interference influences: 1. Czech. Validity Administration Neuro & clinical The task is to press the correct respective entry field or color button as fast as possible. reading speed alone with the experimental set-up “color interference”: reading speed of the color word decreases if the word is written in a different color. Bäumler. if color and color-word do not match. The computerized form was designed exactly according to the paradigm of the color-word interference by Stroop. applicable to adults. It proved that patients with cerebral lesions require much more time to do tasks under interference conditions. taking into account further scientific developments (e. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . which are described below: 1.e. There is always a delay in naming the color of this word. if the word is written in a differently colored font.f. and that the test STROOP differentiates reliably between patients and healthy people (c. Russian. This initial performance is used as “baseline” and can be related to the two so-called interference conditions. Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH This test provides a fair and highly reliable assessment of the ability to inhibit overlearned answers to simple tasks. Norms A comparative sample of N=254 normal people is available for form S4. It is based on the assumption that reading speed of a color-word is slower.Word interference paradigm by Stroop (1935). The test protocol shows each single reaction of the respondent with reaction time of the respondent and evaluation of the reaction.g. determination of the color naming speed. French. where naming the color is made more difficult since color-word and color in which the color word is written do not match. Theoretical background The present form of the Stroop Interference Test is the computerized Color. 1985). Slovenian and Slovakian! Application Registration of the color-word interference tendency. A standardization to normal persons (representatively) is available in each case for forms S7 (N=343) and S8 (N=327). impairment of the reading speed or color recognition due to interfering information.and “incongruent” items – color and meaning of the word DO NOT match.
ii S2: In this form the path is not marked out on the screen. ii S2: Austrian norm sample N=271. This form differentiates only among performances that are well below average. but the length of the test is increased to 66 minutes. According to neurophysiological activation theory. Theoretical background Challenges involving vigilance are characterized by the following conditions:. ii S4: Comparison scores of N=114 patients with sleep apnoea are available. As a general principle a maximum of 60 critical stimuli per hour is suggested.93. Significant stimuli appear considerably more frequently than in forms S2 and S4. Number of incorrect. Sometimes the dot makes a double jump. Gradient of correct and Gradient of reaction time correct together with the associated measures of exactitude. this results in psychological exhaustion and hence in a decline in performance efficiency.95. Swedish job-seekers N=245. NeW Now available in Slovakian. ii S4: Identical to S2. Neuro & clinical Personnel Transport: Road Testing time Between 30 and 70 minutes (including instruction and practice phase).87 – r=0. valid and highly reliable. Swedish job-seekers N=490 and Swedish applicants for technical occupations N=367. it is intended primarily for use with patients whose vigilance is thought to be significantly impaired.). Transport: Rail Scoring The following variables are calculated: Number of correct. The respondent must assess whether the white dot has made a double jump (=critical stimulus) or not. Slovenian and Czech! Application Assessment of attention in the form of sustained vigilance in a low-stimulus observation situation. when this happens the respondent must react by pressing a button Criterion validity is given: all the criteria required in the most important theories for the measurement of vigilance are met. Mean value of reaction time correct (sec. The stimuli presented therefore need to be of relatively low intensity and critical events need to occur relatively infrequently. Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .65 – r=0. the signals which need to be attended to appear irregularly and do not automatically attract attention. stimulus poverty leads to the cortex being insufficiently stimulated by the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS).a lengthy test requires uninterrupted vigilance of the subject. Number of incorrect: r=0. Schuhfried © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The assessment of vigilance based on monotonous monitoring tasks is realistic. depending on test form. Tests of extreme group validity found that patients with righthemisphere cerebral lesions obtained significantly worse results than patients with comparable left-hemisphere brain injury. Test forms ii S1: The dots that make up the circular path are shown on the screen as small circles. It is this situation which has given rise to the concept of being “overchallenged by understimulation”. The cerebral cortex therefore fails to receive the wake-up impulse needed to sustain particular activities. suitable for use with individuals aged 6 and over. The decline in performance in vigilance experiments is explained by the lowering of the subject’s activation level and the attendant increase in response latency.69 – r=0.Special Ability Tests Vigilance VIGIL G. the following split-half reliabilities were obtained for the main variables: Number of correct: r=0. Mean value of reaction time correct: r=0. sample of psychiatric patients N=111. Norms ii S1: sample of adults N=292. Validity Administration A white dot moves along a circular path in small jumps. sample of children/young people aged 6 – 17 N=619. Reliability Depending on the test version and the comparison sample. 81 .99. traffic-psychological clients N=143 and neurological patients N=51.
phasic alertness). each of these aspects can in turn be broken down into more specific components. additional dimension. 1984) but is included in more recent taxonomies (Sturm 2005). alertness and vigilance. The stimulus is presented either with or without a warning signal in the same stimulus modality or the contrasting one (intrinsic vs. alertness involves the short. With regard to the selectivity aspect of attention processes the model distinguishes between focused or selective attention and divided attention. enabling dimensions of attention to be assessed under different presentation modalities. WAFA WAFA measures reaction time in response to simple visual or auditory stimulus material. for example as a result of brain damage. It does not form part of the model described above (Posner et al. suitable for respondents from the age of 7. One of the key features of this model is the distinction between the intensity and selectivity aspects of attention. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Both Posner and Raichle (1994) and Fernandez-Duque and Posner (2001) distinguish three types of attention networks: a) Orienting (corresponds to the network of spatial direction of attention). In addition. Application Assessment of sub-functions of attention. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education For each of the WAF tests different test forms are available. Sturm © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH On account of their theory-led construction basis the tests of the WAF battery can be used for the differentiated assessment of almost all the subfunctions of attention which are currently regarded as relevant. since they are based on different cerebral networks (Corbetta & Schulman 2002). while vigilance relates to the sustaining of this arousal. both can interact and both can be selectively impaired. as a test battery. Both attention processes are relevant in everyday life. auditory and crossmodal presentation. In some subtests of the WAF test battery automated and controlled aspects of attention are measured separately. or they become less prominent because their intensity is decreased and cognitively controlled “top down” processes are then required. Personnel Transport: Road ii WAFW ii WAFA ii WAFV ii WAFS ii WAFF ii WAFG ii WAFR neglect – – – – – – – Pre-tests for perception functions Alertness Vigilance / sustained attention Selective attention Focused attention Divided attention Spatial attention and visual field / extinction - WAFW In order to exclude the possibility that perceptual impairments may influence the processing of the stimuli used in WAF. WAFW can be used before the start of an assessment to determine whether the respondent has the perceptual ability necessary for completion of the WAF tests.Special Ability Tests WAF Perception and Attention Functions W. in any desired combination. A special standardisation process enables fatigue or stress parameters to be measured. Dutch and Turkish! WAFR and WAFS now available in Chinese! WAFG now available in Spanish! Administration Neuro & clinical The WAF test battery consists of 6 tests that can be administered independently of each other or. WAFV In WAFV the respondent is presented with visual and auditory stimuli that occasionally diminish somewhat in intensity. Corresponding training in WAFA WAFV WAFS WAFF WAFG WAFR ALERT VIG SELECT FOCUS DIVID SPACE Theoretical background Modern views of the dimensionality of attention can be summarised by the model proposed by van Zomeren and Brouwer (1994). NeW All WAF tests now available in Slovakian. b) Vigilance (corresponds to the intensity dimension) and c) Executive Attention (corresponds roughly to the selectivity dimension). The intensity aspect of attention comprises two elements. There are thus separate sub-tests for visual. when sustained attention is being measured they constitute around 25% of the stimuli while in the case of vigilance they make up some 5% of the stimuli. Czech. 82 . the stimuli either become more prominent because the intensity level is increased (“popping out”). The person’s task is to respond to these occasional cases. 1978. WAFW can be used to make a differential assessment of sensory impairments. The spatial orienting of attention is a separate.and longer-term arousal of attention. thus impeding reliable diagnosis.
88 and r=0. the reliabilities (Cronbach’s alpha) obtained for the WAF tests are very good.depending on the subtest – with relevant visual or auditory stimuli against a background of distracting stimuli. phasic (cross-modal auditory/visual) WAFV: 4 test forms.94 and r=0.0. phasic (crossmodal visual/auditory). WAFG The respondent receives stimuli on two visual channels or on one visual one and one auditory one. It is usually not necessary to administer each test in all stimulus modalities.94) ii WAFF: depending on subtest between r=0. all WAF tests provide raw scores adjusted for age effects for the main variables. for each subtest ii WAFG: approx.0. The task is to monitor both channels to determine whether one of the stimuli changes twice in succession. Norms Test forms / subtests: WAFW: 4 test forms Separate forms for distinguishing brightness. phasic (unimodal visual). In addition. WAFR: 5 subtests Subtests with either 4 or 8 stimulus positions and peripheral or central cues.93 and r=0.92 .96 and r=0. for each subtest ii WAFV: 15 – 30 mins. intrinsic (auditory). the norms relate to N=295 individuals in the age range 16 . vigilance (auditory).96) ii WAFS: depending on subtest between r=0. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Scoring In all WAF tests the reaction times and the various error types are scored. The norms are available both for the sample as a whole and also separated according to educational level. unimodal (auditory). 5 mins.. WAFF: 3 subtests Unimodal (visual). sustained attention (visual).77.Special Ability Tests Perception and Attention Functions WAFR The spatial orienting of attention is measured using either 4 or 8 spatial positions in a task similar to a Posner paradigm. yielding percentile ranks and T scores. It is therefore possible to create batteries of tests for complex assessment purposes without requiring too much of the respondent in terms of time or motivational commitment. crossmodal WAFG: 2 subtests Unimodal (visual). Neuro & clinical Personnel Transport: Road ii WAFW: approx. This must be decided by the user. 5 mins.97 (children and young people 0.96 . For most of the variables a norm comparison is also carried out.99 (children and young people 0. The person’s task is to respond when two predefined changes in relevant stimuli occur consecutively.97 (children and young people 0. for each subtest ii WAFS: approx.94) ii WAFG: depending on subtest between r=0.98 (children and young people 0.97 (children and young people 0. for each pre-test ii WAFA: approx. ii WAFA: depending on subtest between r=0. Testing time The time required to complete the individual WAF tests is relatively short. 83 . 2 short forms (sustained attention 15 minutes) for children and young people Separate forms for vigilance (visual).0.92 . WAFS The respondent receives relevant and irrelevant stimuli in one or both presentation modalities.97 (children and young people 0. crossmodal WAFS: 3 subtests Unimodal (visual). taking into account any information about a patient’s difficulties or disabilities that has already been gathered.93 and r=0.91 . Separate short forms for sustained attention (visual) and sustained attention (auditory). Peripheral (exogenous) and central (endogenous) spatial cues are used. unimodal (auditory).0.93 . 10 mins. phasic (unimodal auditory). WAFF The respondent is presented .17 is also available. for each test form ii WAFF: approx. tonepitch and volume WAFA: 6 subtests Intrinsic (visual). all other stimuli are to be ignored.96) Validity A study of the tests’ construct validity involving a sample of N=256 adult respondents and 270 children and young people provided empirical confirmation of the theoretical model on which the WAF test battery is based and was able to distinguish it from other models. Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . for each subtest Note A standard USB headset is required for administration of the auditory and crossmodal subtests of the WAF tests. 8 mins. sustained attention (auditory). crossmodal For all WAF tests norms representative of the general population are available. this is a particularly efficient method of standardisation for age. the task is to react to changes in the relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones. shape. depending on test form ii WAFR: approx.0. In the neglect test stimuli are presented at various positions in the right or left visual field or simultaneously in equivalent positions in both halves of the field of vision (extinction condition).96 and r=0.97) ii WAFR: depending on test form between r=0. 12 mins. The test results cannot be interpreted with confidence unless the client/patient meets the sensory and motor requirements for satisfactory completion of the test.97) ii WAFV: depending on test form between r=0. In addition a test for visual field / neglect under extinction conditions. 2 mins. WAF Reliability Especially given the short testing time. A norm sample of N=270 children and young people in the age range 7.
Administration A green ball appears on the screen.92 to r=0. G. To measure anticipation of movement. Reliabilities (internal consistency) for anticipation of movement in the long form are as follows: Median direction deviation overall r=0. Norms Personnel Scoring Norm samples varying in size between N=271 are N=433 are available for all forms of the test. and a linear form for time estimation only (S4) with 30 items. Czech . Anticipation of time is measured by instructing the respondent to indicate when the ball will reach the target line. Median direction deviation for complex path r=0. ranging from r=0. Guttmann.72. The respondent receives feedback only during the instruction phase. Validity Test forms Neuro & clinical Validity studies are currently available for a precursor version of the test. This ability is especially relevant in traffic psychology. he does this by pressing a button at what he considers to be the appropriate moment. a linear form (S3) with 8 items. moving slowly. in pixels. Bauer. some norms are also available separated by age and gender.98. particularly for anticipation of time. In both the long form S1 and the short form S2 the tasks vary in difficulty. the ZBA test was developed as part of the Vienna Test System. Leodolter. M. Trimmel. U. depending on test form. Median direction deviation for linear path r=0. One line passes through the point at which the ball has just disappeared. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . the respondent is additionally asked to indicate the point at which the ball will cross the target line. The other is the target line. Theoretical background An important function in many areas of modern life is an individual’s ability to imagine the effect of a movement and correctly estimate the movement of objects in space. aviation psychology and sport this skill is particularly important.62. M. In traffic psychology. Reliability Reliabilities (internal consistency) obtained for the long form.69. The results of an evaluation study involving a driving test show that in real-life traffic situations the overestimation of distance causes more problems than underestimation of distance. Median direction deviation for sinusoidal path r=0. It is calculated only for test forms S1 to S3. Testing time Between 5 and 25 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). a short form (S2) with 12 items. This is done by means of two keys that control an arrow on the screen. Anticipation of movement: the position error is measured as the deviation from the correct position. are very high. Leodolter © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Novel test for the appraisal of the ability to measure speed and movement in space. There is a long form (S1) with 48 items.Special Ability Tests ZBA Time/Movement Anticipation H.76. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 84 . Russian and Slovakian! Application Estimation of speed and movement of objects in space. Transport: Road Anticipation of time: the time error is measured as the time difference (accurate to hundredths of a second). NeW Now available in Polish. no feedback is given during the test phase. At an unpredictable moment the ball disappears and two red lines appear. Since the ability to estimate movement is hard to assess by conventional methods.
two different dichotomizations are conducted: for the first two dimensions. as a contextual relation between the demand of the items and the demand of a reallife situation is visible (context validity). Test forms Scoring The validity of the 4 DPI is given. Reliability The reliability as an internal consistency is given due to the compliance with the Rasch model. The respondent enters his/her answers in a wedge-shaped diagram. After the answer has been chosen. This applies to the 4DPI because the different levels of difficulty of the various test sections can be explained by structural differences (construct validity). retest reliabilities have been calculated: They are situated (for an intervall of three months) between r=. Nevertheless. Raw scores for all scales are calculated. and by an expert rating. The great number of adjectives achieved through the RGT was reduced to 100 by means of the German Monolingual Dictionary “Duden”.Personality Structure Inventories 4-Dimensional Personality Inventory 4DPI S. The comparative values result from a sample of n=1004 adults of the ”Normal population“. whereas for the dimensions 3 and 4 it made sense at 50:50. No item can be corrected afterwards. the test items are presented one after the other. It was aimed at counteracting socially desired answers or the preference of certain answering styles. Personal parameters and norms are indicated as percentile ranks for all subscales. as the author was only interested in behavioral characteristics that indicate the things people have in common or not. the next item appears immediately. This is done by moving a marker to the right (applies more) and to the left (applies less). Norms The following four dimensions are assessed: ii Extroversion ii (In)Compatibility ii Conscientiousness ii Sociability The analogous answering method is dichotomized. where the answers are given in a wedge-shaped diagram. Validity Administration After a general instruction. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . validity is given since the test complies with the theoretical ideas. which helped to comply with the aim to design a merely behavior-related instrument that meets high methodical demands. 85 . and because there is no correlation with tests that assess other aspects (convergent and discriminant validity).84. edition “Words of semantic fields“. which was proven by the item analysis. Moreover. a high correlation with other tets is given that assess the same abilities. Application The 4DPI is a Rasch-homogenous personality structure test. There is one test form available. However.. a dichotomization at 75:25 was conducted. the questionnaire at hand uses the idea of an analogy scale. Theoretical background The items of the 4DPI were not designed according to the well-proven “Dictionary method“ (Allport & Odbert) but following the Repertory-Grid-Technique (RGT). The four Rasch-homogenous scales provide sufficient stability. Neuro & clinical Testing time Personnel About 15-20 minutes. Menghin © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH As an alternative to conventional rating scales.71 and r=.
Personality Structure Inventories NEW BFsI Big-Five Structure Inventory M. Evidence of the scaling fairness and dimensionality of the test has been obtained in various studies using the Partial Credit Model (Masters. In addition. T-scores and percentages are calculated and reported for each test score. Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. Hungarian. Extroversion. Once entered. 1982) applies. modular personality inventory for assessment of the Big Five factors: Emotional Stability. Education Because the Partial Credit Model (Masters. variy between 0. a person parameter is also calculated for that factor on the basis of the results of the confirmatory factor analysis. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . The results of these studies confirm the questionnaire’s theoretically postulated factor structure within each of the language versions and for both versions together. 1982). gender and educational level. 1982) and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. If all the subscales are selected the time required for the test is approximately 18 minutes. Arendasy © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Onlinetest As a decision-oriented assessment tool the questionnaire has been constructed modularly.90. These results hold for both the German and the English versions of BFSI. NeW Now available in Croatian. the author provides evidence that respondents’ test behaviour can be entirely explained by the item characteristics and the individual differences in the latent personality traits that are the object of measurement. Selection of these subscales was based on analysis of various Big Five questionnaires available in German and English and on studies of the predictive validity of the Big Five and its sub-facets in educational and occupational psychology. This enables the user to tailor the assessment process to meet their specific demands and focus on a fair and reliable measurement of decision-relevant personality traits. The available evidence of validity has been complemented by meta-analytical studies of the criterion validity of the Big Five and some selected studies of the criterion validity of the questionnaire described here. As soon as an answer has been entered the next item is presented.80 and 0. The questionnaire was developed using a combined top-down and bottom-up approach in several phases. The reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s Alpha) of the individual subscales 86 . Theoretical background BFSI is a multi-dimensional questionnaire for measuring the Big Five dimensions of Emotional Stability. The program also checks the consistency of the test scores within each of the five higher-level factors. which helped to ensure scaling fairness within and across the different language versions.70 and 0.97. Both norms are also available partitioned according to age. answers cannot be corrected. The reliability coefficients of the higher-level Big Five factors vary between 0. Ppenness. Russian and French! Application Multi-dimensional. Extroversion. If more than one subscale is selected for one of the Big Five factors. Personnel Test forms Scoring There is one test form. depending on the subscale selected. Using a four-point answer scale. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Raw scores and the corresponding person parameters are calculated for the all the subscales presented on the basis of the Partial Credit Model (Masters. Testing time Sport Reliability The administration time depends on the subscales selected. The results are displayed in tabular form and as a profile. Each dimension is measured by means of six subscales. respondents indicate the extent to which the presented adjective or statement applies to them. During the development phase the process of item construction was increasingly influenced by current ideas on automatic item generation. Openness. The results demonstrate that the personality traits measured by BFSI can contribute to prediction of success in work or training. The content validity of the individual subscales is given on account of the theory-based item construction of the individual scales. In addition. using methods of psychometric single-case analysis. Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. Norms Norms are available for N=1000 German-speaking individuals aged between 14 and 79 and for N=520 Englishspeaking individuals aged between 14 and 70. Validity Administration Neuro & clinical After general instructions have been provided the test items are presented one by one. the internal consistency of the 30 subscales is given both within and across the two language versions. Further evidence of validity is provided by factor analysis studies that have investigated the questionnaire’s factor structure.
2000). Jackson © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH This test provides a reliable assessment of the three personality factors extroversion. These findings were replicated by Eysenck. A norm sample of N=222 representative of the general Austrian population is also available. the dimensions have not become superfluous. The raw scores on the three dimensions are calculated from the scales assigned to those dimensions. Costa & McCrae (1995) provide some alternative factor solutions that are of particular interest with regard to the Five Factor theory. Validity Administration After general instructions have been provided the test items are presented one by one. and adventurousness as described by Eysenck. As soon as an answer has been entered the next item appears. Furthermore. In addition. namely extraversion. Norms Test forms The long form S1 consists of 440 items (21 subscales). Wilson & Jackson. 87 . consisting of N=1394 respondents.9% and the extraversion factor 10. the adventure factor 17. Theoretical background The EPP6 is a multi-dimensional questionnaire based on the personality theory of Eysenck. Testing time Between 20 and 55 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). However.2% of the variance. Factor analysis reveals a clear three-factor structure. The norm sample of the paper-and-pencil version of the EPP6 was used.74 (assertiveness) to r=0. Hungarian.56 (tough-mindedness) to r=0.68 (irresponsibility) to r=0. For Form S2 reliabilities range from r=0.89 (unhappiness) for women and from r=0. Barrett. Wilson & Jackson (1992) and Costa & McCrae (1995). Neuro & clinical Personnel Raw scores are given for all the subscales. the intention is that they should be underpinned by these factors. Scoring The norms are quoted in percentile ranks and T-scores for all the subscales and dimensions. In addition. These universal factors enable a more individual perspective to be adopted. C. depending on test form. J. emotionality (neuroticism) and adventurousness (psychoticism) confirm this theory and summarise the scores obtained on the seven subscales. The emotionality factor explains 27. Respondents enter their answers on a three-point scale (“Yes”. emotionality.41 (tough mindedness) to r=0.Personality Structure Inventories Eysenck Personality Profiler V6 ePP6 Onlinetest H. “No”. the factorial validity of the EEP6 has been shown to apply across different cultures and age groups. the honesty scale and the number of “Can’t decide” responses. One of the remarkable features of this test is the highly stable structure of its factors throughout the various cultural backgrounds. On account of the wide bandwidth of the Five Factor Model.85 (inferiority. NeW Now available in Italian. J. the short form S2 consists of 200 items (9 subscales). emotionality. Wilson.1% (cumulatively 55. G. Eysenck’s factors of extraversion. D. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Transport: Road Reliability For Form S1 the reliability scores (internal consistency) range from r=0. It is not possible to correct preceding items. Dutch and Arabic! Application The EPP6 test is a multi-dimensional modular personality inventory for assessing the three dimensions of extraversion.89 (unhappiness) for women. an honesty scale has been added to the questionnaire. highs level of equivalence are found in the factor structures obtained from these different samples (Eysenck.1%). unhappiness) for men and from r=0. and adventurousness according to Eysenck. The three dimensions mentioned in the EPP6. “Can’t decide”). neuroticism and psychoticism can be readily incorporated into the overall classification structure of this model. Eysenck.85 (unhappiness) for men.
Application This test measures four temperament dimensions and three character dimensions (main dimensions) as well as 24 dimensions of a lower order. character refers to self-concepts. Svrakic. The four temperament dimensions measured are novelty seeking. about 30 minutes. The seven scales of higher order can also be selected individually. the intentions.Personality Structure Inventories TCI Onlinetest Temperament and Character Inventory C. There is no obligation to answer. harm avoidance. Wetzel © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Comprehensive questionnaire test battery for the assessment of temperament and character. Sport Education 88 . In addition to the norms generated with the paper-and-pencil version . 1994). which validate the TCI’s results. which influence the freedom of decision. validated by a multitude of genetic studies. These are partly hereditary and they stay relatively stable during one’s entire life. reward dependence and persistence are genetically homogenous (Heath. They showed correlations between novelty seeking and bad behavior in the military (r=0. Theoretical background Temperament is defined as the automatic emotional reactions to an experience.based on a German sample of N=509 healthy volunteers . D. cooperativeness and self-transcendence. and the importance of one’s experiences. There are also very comprehensive studies of the neurocognitive correlates of the temperament dimensions The TCI manual also reports studies of neuro-chemical and neuro-endocrinologic correlates of the temperament dimensions. The most prominent characteristic of this questionnaire is the multitude of clinical and genetic studies. Personnel Norms Scoring Transport: Road The scoring is effectuated for the seven dimensions of higher order as well as for the 24 dimensions of lower order. (1993) found that the existence of some kind of personality disorder was highly determined by low point scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness. G. as well as to individual differences in aims and values. Validity Administration 240 questions that must be answered with „yes“ or „no“ are presented to the respondents. Transport: Aviation The inner consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) varies between r=. Each of these personality aspects is in interaction with the others.1 %) women. The three character dimensions measured are self-directedness. For example complex studies of more than 1400 pairs of twins showed that the four temperament dimensions novelty seeking. Schuhfried GmbH with the computerized version of the test and the sample consists of 208 (44. Transport: Rail Reliability Testing time When all scales are presented. Cloninger. reward dependence and persistence. Przybeck.9 %) men and 255 (55. R. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . The TCI manual reports about studies – some of them using a precursor model of the TCI – that examine the genetic stability and the variability of the character dimensions. T. Madden. harm avoidance. The latter norms were generated in the research laboratory of the Dr. which guarantees adaptation to life’s experiences and which influences the susceptibility to emotional and behavior disorders. Contrary to that. unanswered questions are presented again at the end.54 (persistence) and r=.38).a norm sample of N=463 people is available. The computerized version of the TCI consists of the converted paper-and-pencil version and contains 240 items.35) and type 2 alcoholism (r=0. Socio-cultural learning influences people’s characters differently and constantly changes in the course of life. Test forms: The computerized version of the TCI consists of the converted paper-and-pencil version and contains 240 items. Neuro & clinical Test forms A multitude of validity studies were conducted. Cloninger & Martin. A study by Svrakic et al.83 (novelty seeking) for the norm sample of healthy Germans.
90. 1998). Transport: Road One test form is available. Coping and Stabilisation. with different alternative answers on each occasion. it is administered without a time limit. but in this case the model is applied to the construct of aggressivity. It is not possible to omit an item. The results protocol consists of a results table with the raw and standard scores of all the scales and the working time. This approach has been used previously by Lefevre (1997) in assessing the phenomenon of stress. Each statement is presented to the subject twice. When planning and implementing intervention measures it is particularly important to have information available in all four areas. Theoretical background This procedure makes use of Rost & Schermer’s model (1987) for the differential assessment of performance anxiety. covering an age range of 16 – 91 and separated by gender. Application Inventory for the differential assessment of aggressivity. Separate assessments are made in the four areas of Triggers. as well as a test profile and a test protocol which records the subject’s responses. Personnel Testing time Test forms The time taken to administer the test varies between 20 and 30 minutes. Scoring Administration The raw scores for the different scales are calculated as the sum of their component items.Special Personality Tests Aggression Assessment Method AGDIA Onlinetest E. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Raab-Steiner © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The AGDIA makes it possible to analyse and differentiate type and degree of aggressive behavior.70 and α=0. age and education. After a brief instruction phase an example is given to check that the instructions have been understood. for example. the B-I-T (Career Interest Test) of Irle and Allehoff (1984).56 and α=0. The internal consistency of the qualitative scales lies between α=0. The items are presented in combinations of four in a “forced choice” format like that used in. This format is intended to counteract any attempt to falsify the answers. Neuro & clinical Norms A representative norm sample (n=427) is available. The subject is instructed to mark the statement which applies least to him with a minus sign and the one which is most applicable with a plus sign. In view of the complexity of the phenomenon of aggressivity this multifaceted approach is significantly more appropriate than the simplified uni-dimensional form of assessment employed in most of the currently available inventories. The questionnaire consists of a total of 48 qualitative items and a varying number of quantitative ones. For the dominant aspects of Manifestation and Coping the strength of these traits is then assessed on an analogue scale. Validity Both for people convicted of offences and for a normal sample there are significant medium-strong correlations with scales of the FAF aggressivity questionnaire (Hampel & Selg. 89 . . Reliability The internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) of the quantitative scales lies between α=0. Manifestation.74. The number of quantitative items presented depends on the results of the qualitative items.
it has a clear factor and cluster structure which reflects the intention of the test and has been replicated with various samples. Striving for perfection. Norms Transport: Rail Test forms There is a standard form with 66 items (6 for each dimension) and the short form AVEM-44 with 44 items (4 for each dimension). showing that the traits concerned can vary with changes in environment conditions and over time.87 for the standard form. Proactive problem-solving. In addition. All scales of the AVEM have a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α lies between . All unanswered items are presented again at the end of the test. it is concerned with the way in which people deal with stressful situations and the part they themselves play in shaping the situations of challenge which they encounter. Its main areas of application are in personnel development. It is possible to correct each item once and to omit individual items.79 and . NeW Now available in Hungarian! Application The test is useful primarily for the early identification of health risks and appropriate preventive measures in the form of personal and situational intervention. S (taking it easy). students/trainees and patients. Theoretical background The AVEM is not intended simply to assess symptoms of stress in the form of physical and emotional ailments and complaints. Secondly. Firstly. The norms are based on the data of 31.83 for the short form). Work-related ambition. Experience of social support. each respondent’s similarity (expressed in terms of classification probability) to the four reference patterns G. Distancing ability. Antonovsky. health guidance and clinical psychological counselling. specific occupational groups. a distinction is made between German and Austrian norm samples. A. Its validity is evidenced by findings at several levels. Education 90 . occupational and organisational structuring.g. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . This means that repeated use of the test can identify work-related or intervention-related changes (at both scale and pattern level). there are the norms which relate to the scale scores. There are two types of underlying norms: Firstly. Transport: Aviation Scoring Sport The results comprise a results table with raw and standard scores for all 11 scales and an individual test profile. ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”. The respondent enters his answers on a five-point scale coded in both words and symbols. A and B can be calculated. Inner calm and balance. For both versions (standard and short form) these norms are given for cross-occupational samples. The AVEM is thus both reliable and sensitive to change. S. Tendency to resignation (in the face of failure). Testing time Approximately 12 minutes for the standard form and 8 minutes for the short form. Fischer © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH AVEM is a diagnostic tool which can be used to assess behaviour and experience in relation to work and occupational requirements and from the point of view of health considerations. Satisfaction with life. W. Transport: Road After the instruction phase. It identifies the individual’s characteristic stress pattern. the items are presented in succession on the screen. the stability coefficients are somewhat lower. Reliability Structure and content Neuro & clinical Self-assessments are obtained on 11 dimensions which have a theoretical foundation and have been confirmed by factor analysis: Subjective importance of work. Secondly. 1987). coherent correlations with characteristics measured by other scales have been confirmed for the individual scales. Rather. Thirdly. and this can also be regarded as a norm. Experience of success at work. Willingness to work until exhausted. the relevance of the four behaviour and experience patterns to health has been convincingly demonstrated using a range of internal and external criteria. A (risk of driving oneself too hard) and B (risk of resignation and depression).979 individuals. Schaarschmidt. The relationships between these dimensions are in addition expressed in four patterns of work-related behaviour and experience: G (health).75 and . As would be expected. the extent to which each individual’s profile resembles the four reference profiles (patterns) described above is determined by calculating classification probabilities. and between . In adopting this approach the AVEM draws in particular on resource-oriented theories (see e. This summarises the extent to which the individual’s style of behaviour and experience promotes or endangers health. Validity Personnel Administration The AVEM is a fully validated test.Special Personality Tests AVeM Onlinetest Work-related Behaviour and Experience Patterns U. occupational rehabilitation.
For the short form S2 only the norms of the standard form are available at present. Construct validation is based on the analysis of inter-individual differences in the test results. Administration The standard form S1 of AVIS contains 130 test items. but there is no compulsion to answer. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Testing time Reliability Between 8 and 25 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). for a summary see Herzberg (2001a). NeW Now available in Italian. Validity Test forms ructions Two test forms are available: ii Standard form (S1): standard instructions and stress instii Short form (S2): standard instructions only Scoring In the S2 form and the first part of the S1 form of AVIS. interpretative tests. In addition. For all the variables overall norms from a sample of N=342 individuals are available. Theoretical background The test is based on the assessment of dimensions relevant to aggression that have been derived by a sound theoretical method and confirmed by factor analysis. anger. acting out. driving-related tests and observer ratings. Work on the production of separate norms for the short form S2 is currently in progress. for the stress condition it is r=0. The short form S2 consists of only a single run. There are many studies of the construct and criterion validity of AVIS. separately for normal and stress conditions). depending on test form. Transport: Aviation The internal consistency of the test was calculated as Cronbach’s Alpha. J. Because of the distribution characteristics of the criteria and the associated problems of reliability (Klebelsberg.Special Personality Tests Aggressive Driving Behavior AVIs P. In the S1 form this is immediately followed by the instructions for the stress condition. and it is possible to skip individual items. the items are then presented again. keyboard or a touch screen. as well as age-specific and education-specific norms. the analysis of the correlations between the AVIS scales and the criteria was carried out using structural equation models. Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . the number of accidents in which the subject had been at fault and the number of times the driving licence had been revoked. the degree and frequency of aggressive driving behavior are measured. Dutch and Slovakian! Application The test is used to assess the extent and frequency of aggressive behavior in traffic.96. Guthke © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH With the AVIS a valid test for the self-evaluation of aggressive behavior in road traffic is available. In the standard form S1 the differences between normal and stress conditions on each scale are also calculated. this provides an indicator of the tendency to give socially desirable answers. the total number of accidents. enjoyment of violence. Each item may be corrected once only. studies of the convergent and discriminant validity of AVIS and common factor analyses with tests that have related and divergent validity . mouse. The same 65 items are presented in a second run under stress conditions.these include psychometric personality tests. For the normal condition the internal consistency (mean value of all scales) is r=0. Czech. negativism. the standard form S1 measures the degree of difference between the first and second working of the test. Yorck Herzberg. All unanswered items are presented again at the end of the run. The criteria used were the number of warnings and fines. 91 . Significant statistical correlations between AVIS and all the criteria were found. What is special about this test is that normal situations and stressful ones are compared. Sixtyfive of these are presented in the first run with standardised instructions. social desirability and a total of all the scales excluding social desirability (in the standard form.97. The construct validity of AVIS has been proven. The following variables are measured in both forms: Instrumental aggression. 1982). Answers can be entered using the response panel. the current total of points registered with the Central Index of Traffic Offences in Flensburg and the number of points registered in the last three years. In responding to the items the respondent can choose from eight answer categories (very rarely to very often). Neuro & clinical Personnel Norms Norms are currently available only for the standard form S1.
educational background and age. The norms are also available differentiated by gender and age. emotional/cognitive. low stress – successful coping. K. symptoms of stress. a behaviour-theory model was considered to be the best basis for the construction of a stress questionnaire. NeW Now available in Chinese. instrumental. The norms for S2 were drawn up from a sample of N=606 children and young people (232 boys. internal. depending on how they experience and respond to stress: normal. Reliability Administration All scales of the DSI have a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha between . In addition. ii Stress stabilisation: external. Norms Transport: Road Test forms Transport: Rail There are two test forms (S1 – for employed persons/adults and S2 – for school-age students/young people). Lefèvre. overstressed. Each form contains 124 items relating to four aspects of stress: causes of stress.94). Norms are also available differentiated by gender. The theoretical basis of the construction of the Differential Stress Inventory was the concept of the diagnosis of achievement anxiety put forward by Rost and Schermer (1987). Scoring Transport: Aviation The raw scores on the scales and the response times for each item are measured. Theoretical background The idea of developing the Differential Stress Inventory arose from the need to create a tool which would identify the way in which an individual deals with stress and which would do justice to the multi-dimensionality of the construct. available coping strategies and risks of stress stabilisation. Sport Education 92 .Special Personality Tests DsI Onlinetest Differential Stress Inventory S. classification probabilities are calculated which identify the extent to which an individual’s profile resembles five different reference profiles. Kubinger © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The Differential Stress Inventory makes it possible to analyse and differentiate stress behaviour and allocate to types of stress experience. Output is provided in the form of a results table with raw scores and percentiles for all the scales together with the individual test profile. 374 girls) in Germany in 2007. symptoms of stress. Czech and Italian! Application The Differential Stress Inventory makes it possible to measure and differentiate between stress triggers. D. construct validity as understood in classical test theory can be regarded as given. Personnel After instructions have been given the items are presented sequentially on the screen. Neuro & clinical ii Causes of stress: everyday events. The tool is made up of 9 dimensions which have been obtained by factor analysis and which measure different aspects of the causes and symptoms of stress. coping and stress stabilisation. coping strategies and stress stabilisation. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .70 and . interaction with others. The subject indicates his responses on a four-point verbally-marked scale (from is almost always true to is almost never true). It is also possible to assign subjects to one of five stress types. stress resistant. high stress – successful coping. 15 minutes. ii Coping: palliative. Testing time Approx. Both the extent and the cause of stress are identified. The following normed variables are covered: ii Symptoms of stress: physical. The similarity between anxiety and stress which has often been remarked upon in the literature does indeed make such an approach seem appropriate. Validity Since the scales of the DSI have been obtained by factor analysis. The item immediately preceding the current one can be corrected once. 201 women) in Austria in 2003 and 2004. anxieties about life circumstances. In view of the practical implications for counselling and therapy. Norms for S1 were obtained for a representative sample of n = 378 individuals (177 men. It is not possible to omit items.
Transport: Rail Testing time Scoring Approx. D. Kubinger © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The Differential Stress Inventory HR provides a detailed analysis of stress behaviour and categorizes individuals according to stress type. instrumental. a behaviour-theory model was considered to be the best basis for the construction of a stress questionnaire. K. Both the extent and the cause of stress are identified.Special Personality Tests Differential Stress Inventory HR DsIHR NEW S.70 and . The subject indicates his responses on a four-point verbally-marked scale (from is almost always true to is almost never true). It is also possible to assign subjects to one of five stress types. symptoms of stress. The norms are also available differentiated by gender and age. 15 minutes. ii Symptoms of stress: physical. Neuro & clinical After instructions have been given the items are presented sequentially on the screen. anxieties about life circumstances. overstressed. ii Stress stabilisation: external. classification probabilities are calculated which identify the extent to which an individual’s profile resembles five different reference profiles. Output is provided in the form of a results table with raw scores and percentiles for all the scales together with the individual test profile. educational background and age. In addition. Validity Administration Since the scales of the DSI have been obtained by factor analysis. NeW NEW: Now available in Russian! Onlinetest Application The Differential Stress Inventory makes it possible to measure and differentiate between stress triggers. Transport: Aviation The raw scores on the scales and the response times for each item are measured. It is not possi-ble to omit items. The similarity between anxiety and stress which has often been remarked upon in the literature does indeed make such an approach seem appropriate. internal. 374 girls) in Germany in 2007. stress resistant. 201 women) in Austria in 2003 and 2004. Theoretical background The idea of developing the Differential Stress Inventory arose from the need to create a tool which would identify the way in which an individual deals with stress and which would do justice to the multi-dimensionality of the construct. depending on how they experience and respond to stress: normal. Norms Norms for S1 were obtained for a representative sample of n = 378 individuals (177 men. coping strategies and stress stabilisation. high stress – successful coping. interaction with others. The norms for S2 were drawn up from a sample of N=606 children and young people (232 boys. emotional/cognitive. low stress – successful coping. It is a version of the Differential Stress Inventory DSI containing items that have been specially adapted for use in the field of HR. In view of the practical implications for counselling and therapy. 93 . construct validity as understood in classical test theory can be regarded as given. coping and stress stabilisation. The item immediately preceding the current one can be corrected once. ii Coping: palliative. Norms are also available differentiated by gender. Reliability All scales of the DSI have a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha between . Each form contains 124 items relating to four aspects of stress: causes of stress.94). Personnel Transport: Road Test forms There are two test forms (S1 – for employed persons/adults and S2 – for school-age students/young people). ii Causes of stress: everyday events. symp-toms of stress. Lefèvre. The tool is made up of 9 dimensions which have been obtained by factor analysis and which measure different aspects of the causes and symptoms of stress. available coping strategies and risks of stress stabilisation. The following normed variables are covered: Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . The theoretical basis of the construction of the Differential Stress Inventory was the concept of the diagnosis of achievement anxiety put forward by Rost and Schermer (1987).
Norms Transport: Road Scoring The recovery-strain state varies over time and as a result of specific stresses and recovery activities. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire measures stress and its consequences. These test forms are standardised self-assessment tests that use 12 subscales to measure the frequency of stress and recovery. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .91. The scores are then compared with orientation scores for all subscales. 10 minutes for the standard form and 7 minutes for the two parallel short forms. Kallus © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Use of the EBF to identify an individual’s current recovery-stress state enables appropriate intervention to be put in place. Reliability The internal consistency of the scales of the long form lies between r=0. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire sensitively depicts the effects of stress management training and other measures and enables performance and health in stress situations to be forecast. on which the EBF is based. Respondents enter their answers on a seven-point scale (ranging from “never” to “always”). as measured by the adjective list. Theoretical background The stress-strain concept. Mean scores of 418 working men and women are available for the EBF-72/3. An answer may be corrected once only. were in accordance with the construct. The raw scores for the two variables Strain and Recovery are calculated from the relevant subscales. the items are presented in succession on the screen. The recovery aspect is assessed in terms of the balance between strain and recovery in the last three days. the average recovery-strain balance as depicted by the standard form was in accordance with expectations.Special Personality Tests eBF Onlinetest Recovery-Stress Questionnaire K. Transport: Rail Raw scales are calculated for all subscales. All unanswered items are presented again at the end of the run. Its high reliability means that it can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of intervention measures. Testing time Approx. the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire also covers recovery activities. The two parallel short forms EBF-24A/3 and EBF-24B/3 each contain 24 items. It uses retrospectively gathered information on the frequency of stressful situations and reactions to them and on recovery activities within the last three days. Test forms Personnel The long form EBF-72/3 consists of 72 items.79 and r=0. Transport: Aviation Sport Education 94 . In a study of medical students one day before. Correlations with respondents’ current state of mind. These should be interpreted as orientation scores rather than as norms and should always be considered against the specific situational background. Since strain places demands on resources. and these resources may become exhausted as stress levels rise.97. but there is no compulsion to answer them. Test-retest reliabilities after 24 hours are between r=0. Application The EBF measures an individual’s current level of recovery and stress – his or her “recovery-stress state”. one day after and three weeks after a difficult examination. is closely linked with models developed in psychological stress research. W. Neuro & clinical The intercorrelation structure was found to be largely sample-independent. Stress is viewed as a state of mental strain which may continue for some time after the source of the stress has been removed.80 and r=0. Validity Administration After the instruction phase. It can be used to draw conclusions about the level of strain on the individual.
Last but not least. its internal rules and regulations. Transport: Road One test form with 138 items is available. 95 . Reliability The consistency coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha) of the test’s 10 scales are above 0. The test. salary increase. Theoretical background The conception of this test is based on the idea that management success (also) depends on certain personal attitudes. a test profile and an item analysis protocol of the subject’s entries. and years of work experience serve as external criteria. The norming sample consists of 100 executives (71 department heads and 29 senior department heads and directors). and. Five career features (gross income. if required. The score sheet contains a result table with raw and standard scores for all scales as well as working time. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . however. Attitudes are complex structures. which are influenced by cognitive and affective components as well as the form of organization in an institution. questions are presented consecutively on a screen. the concept of attitude has been chosen for describing personalities because the answers to the questions of the test unveil (the) attitudes of the respective person. There seem to be a number of structural features that are common to all leadership situations. The subject answers with ‘correct’ or ‘incorrect’. the subject. This questionnaire is often regarded as indispensable aid for the new filling of leadership functions. does not have to answer. Norms Administration After an instruction phase. however. age. and is allowed to make one correction and to skip items. NeW Now available in Croatian! Application The Attitude to Leadership test has been developed as an instrument for determining a person’s ability to assume leadership responsibility. job position. All items that are not answered are again presented at the end of the test. A second group of external criteria consists in the description and assessment of the subjects’ leadership behavior by subordinates. may also serve as an orientation guide to those who are considering striving for a senior position – in order to better realize their own development needs.70. and the influence of personal learning and life experience. Neuro & clinical Personnel Test forms Scoring Testing time 15-20 minutes. The raw scores of all scales and the response time for each item are recorded. Validity Highly significant correlations have been found between the scales of the Attitude to Leadership test and the external criteria of career success (5 criteria) and leadership behavior (5 criteria). Schmidt © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The Leadership Ability Test makes a transparent self-evaluation of one’s own leadership behavior possible. and two salary criteria) that take into account a person’s education level. The Attitude to Leadership test allows the selection and targeted development of executives. and that require certain personal attitudes.Special Personality Tests Attitude to Leadership FeT Onlinetest W.
achievement behaviour. After the instructions have been given the items are presented in succession on the screen. Fischer © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH This procedure clearly stands out against other personality questionnaires. AVEM). Schaarschmidt. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 96 . Validity Administration Validity is confirmed by results obtained with different samples and at a number of levels. W. A. For both the scales and the profiles there are clear links. as well as close correlations with self-assessments and observer ratings in relevant types of situation. achievement or recreational activities. Transport: Road Reliability IPS has good to adequate reliabilities in all scales and profiles. Norms Test forms Neuro & clinical There is one test form. and health and recreational behaviour. Norms of two types are available for the IPS. Classification probabilities are calculated. Russian and Hungarian! Application A self-assessment test for identifying likely behaviour and experience in situations involving social communication. indicating how closely the individual’s profile conforms to the reference profiles drawn up for each area. 12-20 minutes. It covers three broad requirement areas involving social and communicative behaviour. The 80 items are grouped into a number of scales within each requirement area. information from 15 separate items and the 3 scales formed from them is used to assess the respondent’s satis-faction with his/her behaviour. this assessment focuses primarily on identifica-tion of any need for intervention. Finally. Theoretical background The IPS test calls for self-assessments of likely behaviour and experience in situations that serve as prototypes of typical demands encountered in everyday life. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Secondly. In addition to the self-assessments of behaviour and experience. Firstly. general for a num-ber of additional samples). The respondent enters his answers on a rating scale. Scoring Personnel The scale scores are first calculated as stanine scores. All items must be answered. Overall there is convincing evidence of validity in the sense of construct validation. Testing time Approx. in line with the claim to validity. these scales provide the basis for the creation of a separate for each area. The profile is then created.Special Personality Tests IPs Onlinetest Inventory for Personality Assessment in Situations U. the reference profiles provided for each requirement area can be viewed as norms. norms for the scale scores are quoted in the usual way (differentiated for a specifically selected calibration sample. with the dimensions of other tests (FPI-R. They serve as a benchmark for the assessment of the patterns of behaviour and experience that are revealed. secondly due to the characteristics in scoring (indication of reference profiles) and thirdly due to the self evaluation concerning the satisfaction/discontent with the evaluated reactions. this is done separately for each of the three areas. estimated scores and satisfaction scores can be compared. firstly due to the strong situational context. NeW Now available in Croatian.
Sommer. Neuroticism. Reliability Reliability in the sense of internal consistency is given on account of the validity of the Rasch model for the individual scales. computer keyboard or touch screen on an answer bar with a sliding marker. Because of the validity of the Rasch model and the theorybased construction of the items (Herle. the construct validity of the individual scales can be assumed. M. is measured by personality traits that Ostendorf (1990) has shown to be the best indicators of this latent personality dimension. Validity Administration The respondent rates the degree to which particular statements about driving. T-scores and percentile ranks. In addition. The choice of this subscale is justified by its significance for safe driving behavior (cf. firstly due to the strong situational context. Self control and Adventurousness and need for excitement. The following variables are measured: Emotional stability. Dutch and Romanian! Application The IVPE is used to measure personality traits relevant in the context of a driving-related psychological assessment: readiness to take risks. 1997). The IVPE also includes the Honesty control scale.health ordinance). NeW Now available in Polish. Wenzl. Social behavior in road traffic situations is viewed as being linked above all to the ability and motivation to conform to rules and norms. (2004) showed that the results on the IVPE of accident-free drivers differed significantly from the results of competent individuals who were referred to a traffic psychological examination center under § 14 (2) FSG-GV (Austrian driving license law . The General Theory of Crime of Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) provides the basis for the construction of the items on the self-control scale. Approximately 15 minutes (including the instruction and practice phase). M. Herle. The response is entered via the Response Panel. leisure and work apply to him/herself. Theoretical background The inventory is a computerized personality test measuring personality traits that are relevant to traffic psychology: sense of social responsibility. Results are provided for all the scales in the form of raw scores. Other validation studies from the field of traffic psychology confirm that the test has adequate validity. sense of social responsibility. emotional stability and readiness to take risks. 97 . mouse. 2004). Sense of responsibility. The analogue scale is divided in different ways for each scale. Portuguese. Sommer et al. Transport: Rail The scoring program recalculates the respondent’s analog answer to produce dichotomous scales. 2004). M. Neuro & clinical Norms Personnel Norms for the IVPE are available for a representative sample of N=489 people. Criterion validity was demonstrated in a study that compared individuals with and without a history of accidents (Herle. It is possible to correct the immediately preceding item. self-control and emotional stability. Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .Special Personality Tests Inventory of Driving-related Personality Traits IVPe Onlinetest M. which is defined as the opposite of emotional stability. Test forms Scoring Testing time Transport: Road There is one test form. It includes an honesty scale for monitoring any tendency to faking. self-control. The construct of sensation-seeking as a measure of readiness to take risks is assessed by a scale based on the “thrill and adventure-seeking” dimension postulated by Zuckermann (1994). secondly due to the characteristics in scoring (indication of reference profiles) and thirdly due to the self evaluation concerning the satisfaction/discontent with the evaluated reactions. Litzenberger © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH This procedure clearly stands out against other personality questionnaires. Jonah. The measurement of sense of social responsibility is based on the three-component model of the attitude to social values of Stahlberg and Frey (1990).
Administration After the instruction phase the items (picture and statements) are presented in succession on the screen. Theoretical background Factor analysis suggests a three-factor constellation: a fear factor (fear of failure. Studies have shown that individuals with achievement motivation perform better on a management training course and individuals with high control motivation benefit more from this kind of training. ii Hope for control (control). The output of results consists of a results table which gives raw and standard scores for all scales. Validity Test forms Scoring There is one test form. Transport: Rail Testing time Approx. a factor representing hopes for success and control and a third factor describing hopes for affiliation. “Fear of failure” was a good predictor for the length of playing time. 18 pictures are presented which provide a well-balanced set of situations linked to performance. while individuals with high “hope for success” particularly enjoyed games in which they could determine the difficulty level themselves. Reliability The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the scales lies between r=. The test profile and an item analysis protocol giving details of the respondent’s answers can also be viewed if required. Russian and Portuguese! The evaluation of motives relating to performance. Norms Computer norms are available for a representative sample of for N=390 individuals aged between 16 and 81 who were tested in the research laboratory of the Schuhfried company. T. Quaeck and Kleinbeck (1996) investigated the influence of motives – measured by the MMG. they function merely as “warmup” items and serve to increase acceptance of the test. Similar to the TAT. Application NeW Now available in Croatian. “Fear of losing control” and “fear of failure” were good predictors of the amount of time the subject spent with the games. Individuals with high “hope for affiliation” had by far the strongest preference for the adventure game.10 minutes. These pictures are accompanied by statements that represent important motivational states. Neuro & clinical Pictures 1-4 are not scored. Transport: Aviation Sport Education 98 . These norms are also available as subsamples separated according to age and gender. control. Schmalt. fear of losing control and fear of rejection). 8 . It is not possible to omit any of the statements. When asked about their general preferences with regard to video games. ii Hope for affiliation (affiliation).78 and r=. an adventure game and a simulated motor cycle race. working time is also noted. K. Raw scales are calculated for all scales. Wegge. individuals with high “hope for affiliation” mentioned the games’ colour and music. affiliation and motivation management. control. The respondent enters his response to each statement on a bipolar (yes/no) scale. ii Fear of failure (achievement). ii Fear of rejection (affiliation). and social acceptance. D. The following six variables are calculated: Personnel Transport: Road ii Hope for success (achievement). ii Fear of loss of control (control). the TAT and a questionnaire (AMS) – on subjects’ video game preferences.90. the selection consisted of a game involving fighting. Langens © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The MMG combines aspects of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with those of classic questionnaires. Subjects were shown three games which they could choose between.Special Personality Tests MMG Onlinetest Multi-Motive Grid H. Sokolowski. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .
Administration Validity After the instructions. Application This questionnaire is designed to measure stress and dissatisfaction at work. Weyer. The print comprises a result table with raw and standard scores for all scales and the working time as well as an optional test profile and an item analysis protocol of respondent entries. questions are presented consecutively on the screen.and health-psychological examinations. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .77 to . One single correction of an item as well as skipping items is allowed. Aside of this norm a representative norm sample is available for N=198 persons aged 18 to 65 years. V. Kirkcaldy © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH This test makes a theoretically grounded and valid assessment of essential aspects of the stress experience and the dissatisfaction in a professional context possible. Norms are based on a sample of 1592 persons.Special Personality Tests Scales for the Assessment of Subjective Occupational Stress and Dissatisfaction sBUsB Onlinetest G. The various examinations carried out to check the validity of the SBUSB have all yielded good results. All questions which have not been answered are presented again at the end of the test. The raw scores for each scale and the response time for each item are recorded. Theoretical background An attempt has been made to measure stress in the workplace in the sense of the theory of Lazarus.90. but chronic experiences of stress. The test respondent answers “correct“ or “incorrect”. The scales for measuring subjective stress in various areas of life attempt to describe (as accurately as possible) different environments in those aspects that are perceived as stressful. age-specific norms of respondents under 29 and over 30 are available here. It is advisable to use it in work. What should be measured are not momentary emotional states (this method could only be applied in work situations). 99 . B. Moreover norms for the following vocational groups are available: Occupational group – psychosocial and medical professions (N=414) Occupational group – administration and clerical work (N=419). Additionally. Hodapp. but there is no compulsion to answer. Occupational group – police (N=572) Occupational group – freelancers and artists (N=187) Neuro & clinical Reliability Testing time 5-10 minutes Personnel The reliabilities (inner consistency) of the scales range from . Norms Test forms Scoring A short form of 55 items is available.
Validity Results for the prognostic and construct validity are currently being examined. empathy. G. One correction per item is allowed. Theoretical background The aim of the development of this test was the creation of a diagnostic tool for the assessment of people’s aptitude and inclination for work in the area of customer orientation by recording their attitudes and fields of interest in that area. G.50 and r=. The printout contains a result table with the raw and standard scores for all scales and the working time. Norms Test forms Transport: Road A short form of 55 items is available. NeW Now available in Croatian. significant correlations were found between the scales of SKASUK and those of MMG (Multi-Motive-Grid). Administration Personnel After the instruction the questions are presented one after the other on the monitor. Testing time About 20 minutes. Transport: Aviation Sport Education 100 . Norms of a representative norm sample of the general population in the size of N=306 are available. which can be linked to 8 scales.H. The scales extraversion.Special Personality Tests sKAsUK Onlinetest Customer Service and Orientation Scales H. and dominance. A standardization has also been carried out with various miscellaneous samples from consulting projects. performance motivation. The respondent answers on a four-level continuum from ”Applies to a great extent“ to ”Does not apply at all“. Neuro & clinical Reliability The consistency coefficients (Cronbach’s Alpha) of the 8 scales vary between r=. Schuhfried Ges. self-monitoring and frustration tolerance measure capacities. Russian and Portuguese! Application Assessment of aptitude and inclination for activities related to customer orientation.b. it must not be forgotten that success in sales or the service industry lies in providing a service for other people. These data were collected in the research laboratory of the Dr. The test consists of 94 items. in the year 2003. Arabic.79. The scales assess motivational as well as competenceoriented concepts as relatively stable personality traits observed over a period of time. Data of 1654 people between the age of 17 and 35 are available. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Skipping items is not possible. which have to be considered prerequisites for customer-oriented behavior. motivation for providing assistance. based on self-evaluations of the respondents. Sonnenberg © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH All efforts to reach demanding levels of performance criteria notwithstanding. through configural models.g. not least because of its extensive calibration sample. as well as the specific role of individual constructs in the prognosis of aptitude and suitability for certain professional functions.m. Well-proven concepts were built. or according to Zimolong & Sonnenberg (1986) as communication. In a sample of 370 bank employees in asset management consulting services. This test is very suited to examine this issue. From an aptitude-diagnostic viewpoint constructs arose that were defined according to classic test theory and checked according to certain quality criteria. The remaining four scales measure primarily the motivational factors: striving for social acceptance. and optionally a test profile and an item analysis protocol of the respondent’s entries. According to Stratemann (1991) and Kumpf (1990) the situation of the person working in service and sales can be modeled as an activity. Scoring Transport: Rail The raw scores of all scales and the response time for each item are recorded. e.
101 . except for “Time of maximum performance”. Frustration tolerance. NeW Now available in Croatian and Russian! Application The subtests of Attitude to Work together comprise an objective test battery that assesses various personality dimensions through the presentation of simple tasks. Performance motivation. Ebenhöh (1994). Kubinger (1995) and Frebort (2003) showed that individual Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Wagner-Menghin (2003) reports the results of a study on the identification of three motivational types.Objective Personality Tests Attitude towards Work AHA Onlinetest K. J. Administration The first subtest “Comparing surfaces“ assesses impulsiveness/reflexivity. 2003. Decisiveness and Impulsiveness/Reflexivity. Respondents are asked to indicate which figure in a row of symbols does not belong. Aspiration level. Hofman & Kubinger. The respondent may chose from three possible answers (right/left/cannot decide) in deciding which of two simultaneously presented areas is larger. Kubinger. 2003). Transport: Rail On account of the theoretically based derivation of the test scores. test scores differentiated significantly between successful and less successful co-workers or trainees. Performance motivation and Frustration tolerance. appears to be a separate factor and is not covered by the “Big Five“. Transport: Road In the view of the authors. calculation of the standard measurement error for the AHA is inappropriate. 1995. The final subtest “Differentiating figures“ yields the test score Performance motivation. this is comprised mainly of students and factory employees and is thus not representative. Testing time Validity Between 35 and 60 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). The assessment of performance motivation is based on the approach of McClelland and Atkinson. Neuro & clinical Personnel Resistance to falsification Reliability Evidence of resistance to falsification has been provided by a number of studies (e. D. Test forms Scoring There is one test form. Percentile ranks and T-scores are reported. different test scores were found to be advantageous in the three studies. content validity can be assumed. The third subtest “Differentiating figures“ measures performance motivation. Cattell) for investigating both the cognitive style Impulsiveness/Reflexivity and the motivational constructs of Aspiration level. performance motivation and frustration tolerance. Norms Three test scores are calculated in the subtest “Comparing surfaces“: Exactitude. Time of maximum performance and Target discrepancy. there is a sample of applicants for jobs with the NOKIA company (N=498). Kubinger. In addition.g. The second subtest “Coding symbols“ measures respondent’s aspiration level and frustration tolerance. An evaluation sample N=314 is also available. Theoretical background The test battery Attitudes to Work provides objective tests (as defined by R. In addition. Respondents are required to assign symbols to abstract shapes in accordance with a specified key. while Frustration tolerance correlates with conscientiousness. feedback is given. on the other hand. Greifes.B. In addition. A representative norm sample N=429 is available. Kubinger & Hofmann (1998) showed in a factor-analytical study that Impulsiveness/Reflexivity correlates with extroversion. 2001. and are then asked to predict their performance on the next task. The subtest “Coding symbols“ yields test scores for Performance level. Benesch. As predicted by the theory. Ebenhöh © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Objective personality test to assess impulsiveness/ reflexivity as well as aspiration level.
34 and 0. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 102 . Cattell that assesses the success of an individual’s strategies for dealing with potential stressors. There is one test form. The test variables that are calculated describe the individual’s test performance and provide information on the aspects of resilience measured in BACO. Administration Neuro & clinical The first subtest “Time pressure” measures resilience under pressure of time. M. Also available are the results of studies of psychophysiological effectiveness.B. together with the findings of a resilience diary study. uses a simulated office situation to measure resilience to unfavourable working conditions. D. Validity Many of the test variables have content validity that arises from the test concept. Application The subtests of the Resilience Assessment Test together comprise an objective test battery for measuring aspects of resilience. faking-resistant personality test for measuring various forms of resilience. Norms Test forms Personnel Norms are available for a sample of N=511. R. The task involves finding one’s way through a changing maze. Schrott. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . The fifth subtest. With regard to correspondence validity.91 were obtained for the variables of the individual subtests. “Unfavorable working conditions”. Litzenberger © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH BACO is an objective. The fourth subtest “Hindrance to planned action” measures resilience in the context of unexpected changes. K. Transport: Road Forty test variables are calculated. “Inadequate feedback”.Objective Personality Tests NEW BACO Resilience Assessment T. factorial validity and prognostic validity in alcohol patients. Reliability Split-half reliabilities between 0. The sixth subtest. The third subtest “Conflict of tasks” measures resilience in situations in which different tasks make simultaneous demands on the respondent’s attention: a main and a secondary task are to be worked in a simulated office environment. The respondent is required to work a coding task for which the time allowed becomes progressively shorter. A. Kubinger. performance and mental state remain unaffected in a stressful situation. The second subtest “Presence of others” measures resilience in the presence of other people.e. Radinger. of which 26 are normed. measures resilience when negative feedback is given in a simulated job application situation. For individual subtests norms are also available for university of applied science students (N=187) and social workers (N=190). Testing time Scoring Between 40 and 100 minutes (including instruction and practice phase) for the administration of all subtests. Theoretical background BACO is an objective test sensu R. M. Kieweg (2004) found that the resilience measured by BACO could not in principle be measured by self-assessment methods. the degree to which his resilience. Ortner. Stylized faces are shown on-screen as the respondent performs calculations. It measures the extent to which an individual is able to withstand stress – i.
71 to r=. There is no time limit for completion of the tests. Reliability For the performance aspect. a shortened form and an eas-ier form which is more discriminating among low achievers. Norms are available for an evaluation sample (n=178) from a normal population. Häusler © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH HKSD allows for the differential measuring of factors of work style with pre-school and primary school pupils. 103 . Suitable for children aged 5 and over. 2004) of up to r=0. In addition – and in contrast to commonly used external assessment questionnaires – the test enables a psychometrically objective screening for work-style related aspects of hyperkinetic syndrome to be carried out. in the absence of adequate cognitive compensation (Barkley. and a reflectivity score as a skill-free measure of working style. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Testing time About 15 minutes (10 minutes for the short form). As well as measuring the child’s ability on the intelligence dimension of speed of percep-tion. The norms are given both for the total sample and for three separate age groups. systematic changes are made to the complexity and level of difficulty of the test items. Validity Administration After the general instructions and two practice examples have been worked through. The data were collected in 2004 at elementary schools in the city of Vienna (Austria) and in connection with children’s holiday activities organised by the city of Vienna. This assumes that there is a genetic predisposition to neuropsychological vulner-ability which. Theoretical background Description of the pathogenesis of the hyperkinetic syndrome is based on the vulnerability model. adaptation to task difficulty and adaptation to feed-back. with its Rasch homogenous. The internal consistencies of the individual scores range from r=. adaptation to difficulty. In relation to the teachers’ assessment “Behavior in school” (n=107). and adaptation to feedback – are also measured. and to the degree of motivation and feedback provided.und Jugendheilkunde des AKH Wien (Universty child and adlolescent hospital at the Vienna general hospital) correlations between variables of the HKSD and subtests of the KITAP (Zimmermann. The HKSD. This provides an objective tool for diagnosing those aspects of hyperkinetic syndrome which are relevant to school performance and other achieve-mentoriented situations.80 were reported.Objective Personality Tests Hyperkinetic Syndrome Assessment Method HKsD J. including a parallel form. leads to the appearance of the syndrome. using material appropriate to this age group. enabling a differential analysis of the causes of problems in school performance.93. but the time taken is noted and incorporated in the evaluation.811. 1998). It is not possible to return to or to correct items which have already been worked on. the HKSD has a va-lidity of 0. sufficient reliability in the sense of internal consistency can be regarded as given on account of the validity of the Rasch model. Scoring The test yields an efficiency score as a work-style free measure of the performance dimen-sion speed of perception. Further studies to determine the criterion validity in relation to completed ICD-10 diagnoses are currently being carried out. tests cognitive competencies which can successfully be used to compensate for hyperkinetic predisposition. Each subtest consists of between 6 and 15 items. dimensions of working style – reflectivity. and the child’s reaction in terms of performance capacity and working style is monitored. The test also assesses motivatability. Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . In a study carried out in 2005 at the Universitätsklinik für Kinder. Neuro & clinical Personnel Norms Test forms Four forms of the test are available. Application The HKSD is a homogenous and objective Rasch personality test which measures the working style of pre-school and elementary school children. Gondan & Fimm. five subtests are administered. child-oriented content. depending on the form of the test being used. motivatability. As the test proceeds.
Test forms Neuro & clinical There is one test form. Sommer. intelligence test performance and various attention evaluation tests). Schmidt-Atzert with the assistance of M. Validity For task-related effort in particular clear indications of validity were found in that there were positive correlations with very different indicators of performance (final grades in the secondary school leaving examination. It provides information about the effort applied when working on tasks under various significant constraints. Each of the three subtests is built around a particular incentive or stimulus that has been shown to be relevant in motivating respondents’ performance: incentives arising from the task itself. If performance is implausibly poor on individual runs the computer can make a correction for invalid reactions. for example. Norms Scoring Age-specific norms are available for a sample of N=630 individuals. Bühner. Reliability Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) is over . VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 104 . and for difficulty level. Information is also provided on performance over the course of the test and on the error percentage. each press of a button causes him to advance by one field. Jurecka © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Objective and personality test for behaviorally assessing achievement motivation under differing basic conditions. Administration The respondent is required to follow as long a route as possible around the screen by pressing two buttons in order to move left or right. to the importance of motivating conditions such as setting specific goals for the respondent. Each “run” lasts for 10 seconds. Testing time The time required for the text is approximately 20 minutes (including the instruction and practice phase). for changes in the respondent’s performance in the face of personal goals and of competition.80 and . The test records how many fields the respondent covers in the 10 seconds.90 for performance scores and between . from setting one’s own goals.Objective Personality Tests OLMT Objective Achievement Motivation-Test L. NeW Now available in Chinese and Russian! Application The Objective Achievement Motivation Test (OLMT) is a computerized test for the behavioural assessment of achievement motivation. Theoretical background This test has been developed to take account of the findings of achievement motivation research (relating.90 for difficulty level. giving performance feedback). educational level. A. and from competition. making the outcome of the test dependent solely on the respondent. Personnel Transport: Road The scoring is computerized and yields values for the effort put into completing the test. M.
Personnel Testing time Approximately 20 minutes. The additional variables measured are ideal radius. Testing carried out with a sample of 214 drivers who had committed alcohol-related offences and twinned subjects from the norm sample resulted in a validity of 0. in the second phase it is fast. with each phase consisting of five runs. efficiency. undergoing unpredictable changes in direction. The aim is to achieve as high a score as possible. Administration A green ball moves about the screen. In addition the test has good criterion validity for the identification of the extreme group of drivers who have committed alcohol-related offences. Schuhfried GmbH.Objective Personality Tests Risk Choice RIsIKO G. Initial analysis of correlation statistics indicates that the RISIKO has both convergent and discriminant validity. 105 . and in the fourth phase the conditions of the first three phases occur apparently at random. The supplementary variable adjustment of circle radius is also available. in the third phase control of the circle is ro-tated anti-clockwise by 90°. Bauer © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH On the basis of its features as an objective personality test the risk choice behavior is considerably more tamper-resistant than a questionnaire test. 232 women. the respondent selects this himself before each run. The test is made up of four test phases. The test is carried out under different conditions in the four phases. and standard deviation of the radius. NeW Now available in Chinese.70. total number of points. The maximum obtainable score depends on the radius of the circle. Theoretical background Based on the Risk Choice model of Atkinson (1957) and psychological research into the selection of levels of challenge. G. In the first phase the green dot moves slowly. The data were collected in 2004 in the research laboratory of the Dr. age range 16-91). H. Russian and Turkish! Application Assessment of general readiness to take risks. Reliability Because of the method of scoring it is not feasible to calculate the internal consistency. Validity Test forms Scoring There is one test form. radius in test 4.658 and a correct classification rate of 77 %. Guttmann. The performance aspect of the RISIKO yields a retest reliability over a period of 6 weeks of 0. the test measures an individual’s overall readiness to incur risk by assessing his or her achievement motivation. and average points in test 4. The respondent is instructed to use the control lever on the response panel to draw a circle which encloses the green ball and to keep the ball “trapped” inside the circle. Norms Neuro & clinical The norm sample consists of N=451 individuals (219 men. The main variables scored are readiness to take risks. Test results are given in the form of raw scores and percen-tile rankings. As long as the ball remains within the circle the respondent scores points. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .
Schuhfried.89. “Need for social security“. if they delay the change of direction. The result of this study underlines the convergent and discriminant validities of this test. In addition. “Need for financial security“. Reliability The internal consistencies are situated between 0. maximize their score. The respondents can decide how much money to put on single numbers or the colors red and black. ”Risk behavior in losing situations“. ”Risk behavior in winning situations“. the relation to other relevant measurement instruments (extraversion tests. Norms Test forms Transport: Road Norms of a norm sample of the “normal population“ consisting of N=163 is available. sensation seeking and other scales that measure the willingness to take risks) was determined in the course of the examination of the convergent/ discriminant validity. the respondents can either minimize the risk to lose points or. the respondent has to steer a ball that moves from one side of the screen to the other. On the one hand. Scoring Testing time About 30 minutes. Validity An extreme-group validation of the WRBTR was realized with N=119 respondents. Sport Education 106 . Administration Neuro & clinical Personnel In the subtest Life goals. G.b. They can maximize their winnings or minimize a possible loss by acting appropriately. Hergovich.m. B. ”Need for thrill“. the respondents have the possibility to participate in a game of dice where they can put money on a selectable number of points. The possible profit is reciprocal to the chance of winning. An increase in collected normative data is under way. 1992). Apart from that. By determining the ball’s change of direction.72 and 0. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . as well as the criterion validity of individual test values. The ball must not touch either side. ”Willingness to take risks in decisive situations“. What all the definitions have in common is the moment of risk as well as the possibility of damage. In the next subtest. and on the other it takes into account the basis of decision and usage-related theories of risk-taking behavior (Yates. the respondent has to assign certain values to seven categories of a scale with respect to the personal importance of these values for him/her.H. There is one test form. Ges. Theoretical background In literature the term “risk“ is not used in a uniform way at all. In the next subtest. Roulette. contains a simplified version of roulette. the Blue ball. age and education level. es well as subsamples according to gender. and ”Willingnes to take financial risks“. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Scale-specific test values are recorded for the different aspects of risk and risky behavior: “Need for physical stimuli“.Objective Personality Tests WRBTR Vienna Risk-Taking Test – revised version A. the operationalization of the construct was also influenced by heuristic considerations. Bognar © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Test battery to assess the willingness to take risks with items using the latest multimedia technology. the respondents are confronted with different winning and losing situations. this test follows the concept of Sensation Seeking by Zuckerman (1979). NeW Now available in Bulgarian and Swedish! Application Assessment of the individual willingness to take risks. In the third subtest Games of chance. ”Blue ball“. in the year 2003. The second subtest Decisions requires the respondents to enter a figure between 0 and 100 as a means to respond to the question of how likely it is that they would do the described action. These data were collected in theresearch laboratoy of the Dr. The last subtest. provided the ball does not touch the sides.
636).32 and 0. All the studies showed that the WRBTV measures the unidimensional personality construct “subjectively accepted level of risk”. Arendasy.23 between an individual’s fastest speed on the motorway or average motorway speed and the variable “willingness to take risks in traffic situations”. M. 1978. Each driving situation is then shown twice. age and education. which corresponds to a correlation coefficient of 0. Sommer © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Objective personality test. adj. 1985) demonstrated the test’s construct validity with reference to the risk homeostasis theory of Wilde (1978. using items with the latest multimedia technology. 2000). defining elements that all the different definitions have in common are the potential danger and the possibility of harm (Schuster. On the first occasion respondents simply observe the situation. Theoretical background This test assesses risk-taking behavior in potentially dangerous driving situations. In the literature the term “risk” is not used in a way that is by any means uniform. for assessing the individual willingness to take risk in traffic situations. Validity Administration Respondents are given full instructions on how to work the test. The relative relevance of the WRBTV was 10. Neuro & clinical Personnel Because of the applicability of the Latency Model (Scheiblechner. 1994). In addition. The dimension measured is the subjectively accepted level of risk. internal consistency is given. 1994). In addition. Hergovich. Correlations with unrelated personality traits and tests measuring mental speed and general intelligence do not differ significantly from zero. However. The first of the 24 driving situations serves as a practice item.92. Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Reliability as measured by Cronbach’s α is 0. studies of convergent and divergent validity show significant correlations between the variable “willingness to take risks in traffic situations” and various tests measuring sensation-seeking and sense of responsibility. M.837. which will be described in words before they are shown on-screen. 1979. Test forms Scoring There is one test form. Transport: Rail Testing time The time required for the text is approximately 15 minutes (including the instruction and practice phase). NeW Now available in Swedish! Application Measurement of the subjectively accepted level of risk in traffic situations in accordance with the theory of risk homeostasis.e. Norms Transport: Road Norms are available for a representative sample (N=895) with an age range of 16 – 91. Evidence for the criterion validity of the test was provided by a study carried out by Sommer.197. 1978. The variable “willingness to take risks in traffic situations“ measures behavior in potentially hazardous driving situations. Arendasy. They are informed that they will view 24 driving situations. On the second occasion the respondent is required to press a key to indicate the distance from the potential hazard at which the driving manoeuvre that has just been described becomes critical or dangerous – i. The theoretical model on which the WRBTV is based is Wilde’s theory of risk homeostasis (Wilde 1978. Vogelsinger (2005) reports correlations of 0. subsamples are also available partitioned according to gender. R² = 0. the point at which the respondent would no longer perform the manoeuvre. resistant to falsification. 1985) for the latency times in the driving situations.Objective Personality Tests Vienna Risk-Taking Test Traffic WRBTV A. 107 . 1979. B. Bognar. Schuhfried & Litzenberger (2005) which showed that a test battery that included WRBTV was able to correctly classify around 89 % of drivers who had either had no accidents or a number of accidents (R=0. Reliability Three independent studies have with the help of the Latency Model (Scheiblechner.81%.
All unanswered items are presented again at the end of the test. Test-retest reliabilities for the individual scales are between r=0. Serbian. The respondent enters his answers on a five-point rating scale. Slovakian. The AISTR measures this congruence between an individual and his or her environment. The concept of congruence means that the test can be used to assign people to occupations on the basis of their different psychological characteristics. Bergmann . The test consists of 60 items. F. social. Transport: Road Norms The norms were obtained from a calibration sample of 2. a report for the test administrator with ii raw and standard scores on the six interest dimensions (with profile) ii Holland code (the three most prominent interest dimensions) and a list of occupations that are congruent with the Holland code (Z-S index) ii differentiation score for the six interest dimensions ii a hexagonal diagram of the interest dimensions Extensive studies of the validity of the AISTR have been carried out and have shown among other things that the test has factorial validity.87. There is one test form with 60 items.75 for an interval of two years. The following are provided: 1.83 and r=0. It is possible to correct each item once and to omit individual items.Attitude and Interest Tests AIsTR General Interest Structure Test – revised version C. convergent validity and criterion validity. Portuguese. four months and one year. It is therefore used primarily in educational and occupational counselling.496 young people aged between 14 and 21 drawn from the most important schools and training centres in Austria. Validity Personnel Scoring The raw scores for all scales and the response times for each item are calculated. it has been adapted for a number of different countries and languages. Dutch. Eder © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The AISTR is frequently used in career or academic counseling.79 and r=0. which measure the following six interest dimensions: practical and technical. the items are presented in succession on the screen. Administration 2. Transport: Rail Testing time Approx. If he succeeds. because the results are easy to interpret and concrete careers are suggested for different education levels. NeW Now available in Croatian. entrepreneurial.96 for a test-retest interval of two days and between r=0. artistic and linguistic. there is complete person/environment congruence. a report for the respondent with ii interest profile ii Holland code and a list of occupations that are congruent with the Holland code (Z-S index) ii differentiation score for the six interest dimensions After the instruction phase. for use from the age of 14 onwards. intellectual and investigative. Theoretical background According to Holland (1985) there are six fundamental personality orientations in our cultural milieu. and respondents can choose whether to answer them or not.60 and r=0. Turkish and Slovenian! Application The AISTR is a differential test for identifying educational or career interests. and organizational and administrational interests. 10 – 15 minutes (including instruction and practice phase). Neuro & clinical Reliability Test forms Studies using the norm sample yielded internal consistencies (Cronbach’s α) for the interest scales of between r=0. Holland also postulates that each person searches for the environment that corresponds to his personality type and hence to his interests. Transport: Aviation Sport Education 108 . Test-retest reliabilities are also available for intervals of three months. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .
2007a.among others . NeW Now available in French and Hungarian! Onlinetest Application Assessment of vocational interests based on the vocational interests theory of Holland (1997). Taken together. MOI operationalises the six interest dimensions in various different ways. MOI subtests were found to be capable of identifying individuals studying different disciplines (restriction: R not represented). Ortner et al. which is widely utilised in both theory and practice (Proyer.64 to 0. Investigative. This kind of information is particularily useful if the respondent chooses not to reveal in his or her vocational interests or exhibits a low level of differentiation and weak vocational identity.clients who have as yet no clear idea of their vocational interests. Additionally. 2007). It can therefore usefully be used with . high levels of vocational identify and of differentiation in the interest profile render the provision of this kind of additional information in the counselling situation unnecessary. Social. Across all the subtests administered. The short form (S2) contains only the two subtests that measure vocational interests explicitly. Reliability Depending on the scales used.92.The composition of the test battery can. the correlations between the different MOI scales and measures of intelligence were in line with those usually reported in the literature. Theoretical background J. objective personality tests and a scale measuring vocational identify. T. the data was collected at different centres in Austria and Switzerland. J. Furthermore. The test battery includes a verbal questionnaire. three objective personality tests (“Distractibility”. also be altered manually. Testing time Test form S1: 40-60 minutes Test form S2: 15-20 minutes Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Higher correlations were found between the verbal and nonverbal questionnaire scales and corresponding scales taken from the General Interest Structure Test. Neuro & clinical Personnel Norms A norm sample of N=452 is available. these results support the construct validity of this measure.L. 109 . However. for use with respondents aged 14 and over. a non-verbal questionnaire. Häusler © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH MOI is a multi-method test battery that combines explicit questionnaires with implicit objective interest tests. Artistic. Enterprising and Conventional interests. Proyer. Drawing on this theory.. The correlation between the self-report measures and the objective personality tests were lower as has been expected on the basis of the current research literature (cf. Transport: Road Scoring For all the subtests specific scores for the six interest dimensions are calculated.89. The reliability coefficients of the objective personality tests range from 0. the long form (S1) includes in addition the subtests for implicit measurement. the reliability coefficients of the questionnaire scales vary between 0. normed total scores are reported for the explicitly measured and implicitly measured interests.Attitude and Interest Tests Multi-method Objective Interests Test Battery MOI NEW R.70 and 0. “Tachistoscope”) and a scale measuring vocational identity.. Validity Administration MOI consists of a verbal and non-verbal interest questionnaire. however. The data can be interpreted with reference either to a total norm or to intra-individual differences in interests. Rayman & Atanasoff. 2006). The main purpose of these objective personality tests is to derive information on vocational interestsfrom observation of the testee’s behaviour in standardized working task situations (for details: Ortner et al. Holland (1997) distinguishes between Realistic. 1999). Proyer & Häusler. Test forms There are two test forms which can be used as pre-defined combinations of the subtests. “Allocation”. 2006.
The test was administered to 345 individuals. The other group (N=165) consisted of drivers who had not committed any drink-driving offences. p=0. p=0.Clinical Tests ATV Identification of Alcohol Risk B. Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 110 . All unanswered items are presented again at the end of the test. in both forms the two variables measure the same trait (Alcohol risk: r=0. Scoring The variables Alcohol risk and Dissimulation are scored. N=100/Honesty: r=0. The consistency of measurement of the individual variables is adequately high. split into two groups (Biehl. working time and an optional item analysis protocol. N=98). Application Assessment of attitudes that may lead to alcohol abuse. Reliability Neuro & clinical Norms Personnel Transport: Road The internal consistency of the test was calculated as Cronbach’s Alpha. The test is not designed primarily to assess manifest alcoholism. 1972). The ATV can thus be regarded as a sufficiently precise diagnostic instrument.99. Validity Test forms There is a long form with 39 items and a Rasch-homogenous short form with 29 items. The norm sample (N=310) is made up of 141 (46%) men and 169 (54%) women. The variables Alcohol risk and Dissimulation were normed. the majority of which are translated from the Manson questionnaire. depending on test form. These individuals cannot be regarded as alcoholics in the clinical sense. that is.076 for the short form. The respondent answers each item by selecting “true” or “false”. The variable Alcohol risk distinguishes between the two groups at a significant level. Theoretical background The present test was derived by Böcher (1965) from the American “Manson Evaluation”. The reliabilities of the two variables Alcohol risk and Dissimulation vary between r=0.73 and r=0. There is no significant difference between the two groups on the Dissimulation scale. Administration After the instruction phase. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . It is possible to correct each item once and to omit individual items. One group (N=180) consisted of drivers who had been apprehended on one or more occasions for drink-driving and referred by the authorities for traffic psychological assessment. the tendency to lie is the same in both groups. The sample is subdivided into two subsamples on the basis of gender for S1 (long form) and S2 (short form). In both the long and the short form the variables Alcohol risk and Dissimulation correlate very strongly with each other. Testing time Between 5 and 10 minutes (including instruction phase).72 and r=. The results are shown in a table giving raw and standard scores for both variables. that is.000. It contains 39 statements.97. and respondents can choose whether to answer them or not.000. it focuses instead on inappropriate attitudes that may lead to increased alcohol consumption. Biehl © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The test ATV is the only questionnaire for sale that assesses the alcohol risk level in a Rasch-homogenous short form.79 for the long form and between r=0. the items are presented in succession on the screen.
41. Experiments with a sample of psychiatric patients showed a split-half coefficient of rtt=. according to the author.55) and the attitude questionnaire of the “Generalized Other” (“experiences of rejection and disdain from others” r=-.89 for the variable “total score”. Personnel The test measures a total score (raw score) and the working time for each item. four groups were formed which differed from each other in terms of expression of suicidal tendencies (suicidal thoughts. “dominance and willingness to lead”: r=-. The items that were skipped over will be presented once again at the end of the test. however. 111 . suicidal intentions. Norms The subjects’ total scores are placed in one of five categories. this test also measures behaviors which the test author classifies as being within the “unconscious suicide field” (e. The evaluation of the subject’s suicidal/depressive condition and the assessment of his/her suicide risk were carried out using the groups’ scores as a basis.g. Stork © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Objective assessment of the suicide potential excluding possible patient-therapist interactions. “strong suicide risk” and “especially strong suicide risk”. Neuro & clinical Test forms Scoring There is one test form consisting of 52 items. comments about committing suicide.85.41. as well in terms of actual suicide attempts. “less than normal”. After analyzing their suicidal behavior.Clinical Tests Suicide Risk Evaluation Questionnaire FBs J. It is possible for the subject to correct his/her answers once and to skip over items. the subject is not required to answer the item. Application The FBS test is used for evaluating the suicidal/depressive aspects of a subject’s personality and is applicable for adolescents aged 17 and older and adults primarily in clinical psychology. Testing time 10-15 minutes. Studies show primarily significant correlations with several scales in the Giessen test (“negatively vs. 52 items are presented on the screen in succession. suicidal intentions. comments about committing suicide and the fear of committing suicide). In the computer version a comparative sample of 266 psychiatric patients serves as the basis for this assessment. Theoretical background This test is used as an aid to evaluate the “conscious suicidal field”. alcohol or drug abuse. establishing a stability coefficient of between rtt = . A sample of over 2. “hypomania vs. Administration Validity After the instruction phase. asocial behavior).81 and rtt = .50. attempted suicide and suicidal tendencies (suicidal thoughts. the fear of committing suicide). In addition to suicide risk.700 subjects was used to construct the final test form of the FBS. which. the subject is then placed into one of five categories: “normal”. depressive irritation” r=. includes suicide. Schmidtke and Schaller (1975) studied retest reliability in samples of adolescents. “positive vs. Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .34).39. The subject enters his/her answers on a bipolar scale (true/false). positively experienced social resonance” r=-. Reliability Relevant information in the literature is lacking. “minimal suicide risk”. Depending on the amount of the total score. “reduction of performance”: r=-. negative attitude towards the social environment” r=-.
Furthermore a norm sample of N=284 persons. norms of N=98 people who were apprehended for bad driving behavior and collected during driving diagnostics of INFAR are available. Sport Education 112 . Schuhfried in the year 2003.Clinical Tests FFT Questionnaire Concerning Functional Driving E. the FFT separates normal drinkers from respondents dependent on alcohol with the utmost certainty. which has to some extent also entered the concepts of recidivism independency. “Exploiting a social context” and 5.87 and r=. calculatory fairness can be deemed as given. An item analysis protocol can be issued that presents the answers to the individual statements.96 Measurement precision is given due to the validity of the Rasch model for all 5 scales. The FFT is one of the few questionnaires that are homogenous in the sense of the Rasch model. In addition. Application The questionnaire assesses the positively felt mental effect and social function of alcohol. The standardization of test forms S1-S3 refers to scores of N=244 alcohol dependent abstinent patients from 12 different in-patient and outpatient treatment centers and N=95 subjects with normal alcohol consumption from the research laboratory of the company Dr G Schuhfried. collected in the research laboratory of Dr. What is specially emphasized is the individual amplifier value of alcohol in case of a lack of alternative strategies. Apart from that profile differences are proved depending on gender. Reliability The reliabilities (Cronbach’s Alpha) for the 5 scales lie between r=. There is a possibility to select individual scales in the test manager window. and recognizes alcoholism by the extent of the positively felt effects of alcohol. This questionnaire is applicable to all respondents who have experiences with alcohol. which estimates a value for the risk of alcohol abuse. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Metzler © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Rasch-homogenous questionnaire that assesses the effects. G. Norms Test forms Personnel There are two long forms with 93 items (present and past) and a standard short form (present without scale 5) with 64 items. Testing time About 15-20 minutes. Even without taking into account scale 5. During the construction the use of questions that can cause denial tendencies in alcoholics (e. with little effort. “symptoms of mental and physical dependency”. is available for test form S3. 2. “Excitatory effect of alcohol”. “psychopharmacological effect of alcohol”. 3.g. P. Additionally a discriminant score is calculated. type of dependency and the degree of chronification. The subject always has to choose one out of four alternative answers on a fixed rating scale. “sociodynamic function of drinking”. Theoretical background The FFT is based on results of social-cognitive and learningtheoretical alcoholism research. Due to the proven unidimensionality of the test. “exploiting a social context”. Validity Administration Neuro & clinical The items of the FFT are presented in sequence on the monitor. Items from 17 different function areas of alcohol can be categorized in 5 scales scaled according to the Rasch model to assess 1. “Sociodynamic function of drinking”. In addition. 4. questions about the amount of alcohol) was avoided deliberately. “Psychopharmacological effect of alcohol”. Transport: Road Scoring Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation The following variables are presented: “Excitatory effect of alcohol”. It gives indications on respondents at risk in a preliminary stage of dependency. “symptoms of mental and physical dependency”. the FFT supplies reliable information on counseling and therapy in individual cases. the functions and the subjectively felt symptoms of alcohol consumption and estimates the risk of alcohol abuse. Belitz-Weihmann. This means that the various groups of people are not systematically put at a disadvantage or favored concerning individual items. age.
ability to use the imagination and self-instruction as determined by experiments. they lie between rtt=. 113 . The scales ii avoidance ii activity and ii social support are based on the theory of effective learning processes in pain. is often a problem. N=325 ii headache patients. Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . Klages © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH Objective and transparent assessment of relevant aspects of pain behavior excluding influencing therapist-patient interactions. Following general instructions on how to complete the test. N=124 Norm values are presented separately for: Neuro & clinical Administration Until the norms of the computer version of this test are available. the FSV test records subskills in dealing with pain. The items (ideas) are then presented one after the other. In addition. which holds that the experience of pain is intensified by negative reinforcement (putting an end to an averse condition by withdrawing) and is eased by positive reinforcement (turning to important persons who share a close relationship with the patient) and eventually can be reduced by confrontation. the norms for the paper-pencil test form will be used. Testing time 3-5 minutes Personnel Transport: Road Test forms Scoring One test form with 29 items is available. Thanks to the test profile (diagrammatic depiction of the scale results as compared to the norm values). Treatment programs are available for patients with chronic pain within the context of approaches in behavioral medicine. Depending on the scale and sample.84. the subjects are given specific test instructions with an example item. Due to its economical handling. Norms/ Comparative Samples ii rheumatism patients. the results are visible at a glance.Clinical Tests Questionnaire on Reaction to Pain FsV U. The subject enters his/her answers according to a five-point rating scale ranging from “does not apply” to “applies to a great extent”. relationships to irrational attitudes. This test was developed for diagnosing patients with chronic pain. In addition an item analysis protocol can be printed out which lists all of the items – classified according to scale – with the corresponding answer. The scale: ii cognitive control refers to relaxation skills. Application: The Questionnaire on Reaction to Pain is a multi-dimensional instrument for evaluating the behavior of persons experiencing pain. Transport: Rail The sum values for the four scales are calculated. to self-communication and to situative physical and emotional reaction tendencies were also established. especially in multi-professional teams. Validity Several studies show statistically significant correlations with pain adjective scales. Theoretical background Reliability The alpha coefficients (internal consistency according to Cronbach) were calculated for the four subtests. the test is also suited for monitoring therapeutic progress. which correspond to building blocks for approaches to treating pain. indications assessment. With four factorbased scales. In practice.68 and rtt=. The results can provide help for the assessment of indications for psychological pain therapy as well as for a treatment plan.
In the “Item analysis protocol”. with analgetics). (A detailed evaluation of the procedure is available in the MSS manual provided by Lehrl et. some medical studies (e.g. Lehrl. the items are presented consecutively on screen. Blaha © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH The MSS enables a client to make a reliable assessment of the quality and intensity of his/her pain. and such) are stated in the manual for MSS-R by Lehrel et al. It is.83 to . Testing time 4-6 minutes. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . The test was started out with a search for a selection of adjectives to describe states of pain according to rational criteria. Theoretical background Outside opinions stated by an examining physician. due to the lack of an objective outer criterion and the impossibility of an outside opinion. Still. From a factor-analytical point of view. Application The multi-dimensional pain scale is a test for qualitative and quantitative pain measurement. R. The results of nine different patient samples (means. still possible to skip items even at this stage. al. Validity Administration After the instruction section. which you will find enclosed with the computer form of the test. Test forms Neuro & clinical There is one single test form with 31 items. The authors therefore intend to present a standardized instrument to measure pain. In progress examinations (often run by different examiners). for example. however. every item is listed according to scale along with the corredsponding answer given by the subject. L. all unanswered items will be presented on screen once again with the instruction to really give an answer. Scoring As a rule it is relatively difficult to provide proofs of validity for subjective experiences of pain.93. if possible. Experts then eliminated those adjectives which are too unspecific or colloquial. 1980). The questionnaire was constructed as a self-assessment scale with a five-step rating scheme –originally meant to objectively assess analgetic effects. Scale raw scores are issued for pain intensity: Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail ii rhythmical pains ii shooting pains ii sudden pains ii pains in general ii spread-out pains ii annoying pains ii persistent pains ii electric pains ii chemical pains ii thermal pains The working time is also recorded. we can assume content-logical validity. 1980. or rather unusual to describe the way pain is experienced. are prone to a high degree of subjectivity of the person giving the opinion.Clinical Tests Mss Multi-Dimensional Pain Scale S. The remaining list comprised 45 terms. In case the subject skips items. along with invasive interventions go in the same direction. as the MSS registers exactly the area of validity which is meaningful to describe subjective pain in a qualitative way. Reliability Examinations on internal consistency and on re-test reliability of the scales based on various comparative samples resulted in coefficients between .. Cziske. Transport: Aviation Sport Education 114 . we can assume a satisfactory degree of scale independence. distribution. and was reduced to 29 words based on the data of an analysis sample in line with statistical item selection procedures. Besides. verbal communication between a medical expert and a patient has proven to be inaccurate and not very reliable. Norms Norming as is usually practiced with questions on subjective (current) experiences of pain does not seem to make much sense to the authors of the test.
The test results can be issued in the form of result tables. Power tests This test category has the following characteristics: ii Every test item has a correct solution which the respondent has to find. b. ii The program automatically switches to the next item after the respondent has entered an answer. evaluation and working time). Neither the knowledge of a programming language nor of technological details is necessary. the respondent can switch to the next item without entering a response for the current one). This program enables you to adjust the Vienna Test System easily and effectively to your own requirements. ii Items can also be omitted (i. ii The only answer model available is multiple-choice. The button „Next“ has to be clicked to call up the next item. ii Items which have already been answered can be called up again any number of times (possibly within a specified time limit) in order to complete or correct them. ii The header always shows the items which were not yet answered. Variables are calculated by counting out items that have been assigned via a scoring key or via sum or mean calculations from other test variables. 115 .e. ii All items have to be answered. You can determine the desired response model during test creation. It is not possible to switch to the next item unless a respondent has answered the current item. In personality tests every answer given by the respondent can also be assigned to several test variables. it is also possible to switch to any test item desired after the last test item is answered.Test Creation Programs Test Generator for Questionnaire Tests TQ Onlinetest © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH This complex but easy to use program assists you in the creation of your own questionnaire tests. ii The previous item can only be corrected once. The Test Generator provides two test models for creating questionnaire tests: a. Personality tests This test category has the following characteristics: ii There are generally no correct or incorrect answers. Neuro & clinical Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . profiles and test protocols (answer. ii If a time limit is specified and the test does not contain more than 46 items. Test creation Scoring The number of test variables and their names for scoring can be defined freely by the user. This ensures a reliable evaluation. ii The subject can select the answer in a multiple-choice procedure or enter it as a number via a (virtual) numerical keypad.
the interval between 1 and 99. evaluation and working time). This program enables you to adjust the Vienna Test System easily and effectively to your own requirements. Neuro & clinical Personnel Transport: Road Transport: Rail Transport: Aviation Sport Education 116 . The test results can be issued in the form of result tables. profiles and test protocols (answer. The following parameters have been defined for every item: ii Image file for the tachistoscopic picture ii Duration of picture display ii Interval duration ii Item text (contains the question and response alternatives) ii Correct answer or correct answer range Scoring During scoring the program calculates the number of correctly and incorrectly answered questions.95 seconds in increments of 50 milliseconds. mean and standard deviation of the answer times are also calculated. pictures or series of pictures are displayed for a relatively short time. If no question is asked between two picture presentations. In order to minimize the percentage of inaccuracy.95 seconds can be set in 50-millisecond increments. Neither the knowledge of a programming language nor of technological details is necessary.. the actual presentation time can only be a multiple of the refresh rate.. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . The subject can be asked questions regarding an individual picture or a series of pictures. the lowest possible refresh rate is limited to 100 milliseconds. It is thus subject to a certain degree of inaccuracy (about 8.Test Creation Programs TT Test Generator for Tachistoscopic Tests © sCHUHFRIeD GmbH This complex but easy to use program assists you in the creation of your own questionnaire tests. The sum.16 milliseconds. depending on refresh rate). The picture presentation time can be set to anywhere between 100 milliseconds and 99. For technical reasons. Test creation In tachistoscopic tests.
sYsTeM ReQUIReMeNTs as at: october 2010 .
by heavy CPU usage or onscreen presentations) are installed on the computer! PP ii A serial interface to connect the peripheral device PeriphePASAT ii Microphone and headphones. Some tests require additional or better system components. 2008/R2 (x32 or x64) Please ensure that no programs which can interfere with the test presentation (e. EMC Standards for Medical Devices (EN 60601).Vienna Test System system requirements The following specifications refer to a typical Test System configuration. ii Windows NT4 can not be used. ii Windows NT4 can not be used. Vista. A USB headset is recommended. RT. (requires USB response panel). TAVTMB. SIGNAL. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . 2008. PVSAT ii Microphone. MONITOR 15” to 19” CRT or LCD color monitor A refresh frequency of at least 75 Hz has to be set for CRT monitors. The test software automatically verifies the system performance and reports a corresponding message in case the specification is not met by the computer. Products of the SCHUHFRIED Company are developed and in accordance with the requirements of the European Union guideline 93/42/EWG. XP. product specific regulations and the underlying quality management system are adhered to.g. Please contact us before acquiring new equipment so that we may give you the best possible advice. (requires USB response panel). e. Athlon). ATAVT.g. ii Windows NT4 can not be used. The CE mark proves that safetyrelevant regulations. black and white or color If the Vienna Test System is used in health care facilities the use of the following devices may be mandatory: ii Isolating transformer for medical equipment according to EN 60601 ii Galvanic (medical) network isolation according to EN 60601 (if the computer is connected to a data network) Please inquire with your company’s safety representative. DT. A device with a built in touch screen can be used instead. Please contact us for advice regarding suitable devices. the monitor used should be calibrated with an optical sensor (requires USB response panel). ii PC or laptop with Pentium CPU (or compatible. Please contact us for advice regarding suitable equipment. TT ii A powerful enough display adapter / CPU to display an image within 10 milliseconds (ms). COG. Please contact us for advice regarding suitable devices. A USB headset is recommended.g. DTAIR. RA. ii For an accurate and comparable test result only USB audio equipment approved by us must be used. VIGIL ii In order to ensure a percentile rank exact validity of the presented confidence intervals the monitor used should be calibrated with an optical sensor (requires USB response panel). WAFF. ii For an accurate and comparable test result for test forms or subtests which output acoustic signals only USB audio equipment approved by us must be used. PRINTeR Laser or inkjet printer. DTKI ii In order to ensure a percentile rank exact validity of the presented confidence intervals the monitor used should be calibrated with an optical sensor. INSBAT ii In order to ensure a percentile rank exact validity of the presented confidence intervals for the subtests inspection time and decision quality and speed. STROOP. The installation of the demo version is sufficient in order to test the hardware before the purchase. 118 . ii Windows NT4 can not be used. ii For technical reasons a light pen can not be used with a flat panel LCD monitor. DAUF. ii DVD drive. Please contact us for advice regarding suitable equipment. keyboard ii USB ports for license dongle and peripheral hardware (in case all USB ports on the PC are used up a USB hub with external power supply is required) ii Serial or parallel interfaces (only if older VTS hardware is used) ii Network connection (e. at least 1 Ghz COMPUTeR The following tests require additional or special system components: ral Perception ii At least 256 megabytes (MB) of RAM ii Display adapter with 24 or 32-bit color depth (16 million colors) ii USB headset. Please contact us for advice about suitable equipment. WAFG. for the installation of a Vienna Test System Network) ii Windows 2000. ii Windows NT4 can not be used. WAFS. HKSD. Please contact us for advice regarding suitable equipment. hard disk. With flat panel LCD monitors the following has to be considered: ii We recommend using flat panel LCD monitors with a resolution of at least 1280x960 pixels. 7 or Windows Server 2003. sAFeTY DeVICes WAFA. WAFV ii In order to ensure a percentile rank exact validity of the presented confidence intervals the monitor used should be calibrated with an optical sensor. Biocompatibility Evaluation of Medical Devices (EN30993). mouse.
FIND IT FAsT VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . 119 .
.................... ii94 ELST..... ii46 MSS.................................... ii36 2HAND ......................... ii32 INSBAT ............................................................................................. ii64 FBS ................................................................................... ii113 FVW ......................................................... ii33 INSSV ........................... ii96 IVPE ..................................................... ii61 DTKI ................................................................... ii35 IPS ............ ii40 APM ......... ii56 BACO ...................................... ii48 RA .......................................... ii47 NVLT .......................................................................................................... ii69 MIP...................................................... ii105 RT ..... ii86 COG ......................................... ii37 4DPI .................. ii52 WAF ........................................................................................................................................... ii73 PP ............. ii68 MDT ............................... ii44 HKSD ....................... ii63 EPP6 .................................................................................................... ii67 HCTA............... ii112 FLIM ........... ii99 SIGNAL ................................................................. ii74 PST .................................... ii114 MTA ......... ii85 A3DW ............................. ii49 SPMPLS .......................... ii45 MLS........................ ii106 WRBTV ........ ii92 DSIHR ................ ii116 VIGIL ........................................ ii72 OLMT ............... ii111 FOLO.. ii42 DAKT ....... ii43 FSV .............................................. ii51 STROOP........................ ii65 120 ........ VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .............. ii39 ANF ...................................................... ii77 SIMKAP ........................................ ii58 CPM ...... ii75 RIS .................................... ii59 DAUF ........ ii93 DT .. ii60 DSI ...... ii80 TCI ..................... ii88 TQ ............................................................... ii91 B19 ............................................................................................... ii97 LVT ........................... ii87 F1................ ii81 VISGED .......................................................... ii57 CORSI .... ii109 MR ....... ii110 AVEM ..................................................................................................... ii50 FET . ii95 FFT ... ii89 AHA........................................... ii70 MMG .................. ii71 NTA ........................... ii98 MOI ........... ii108 ALS ...... ii41 ATAVT ............................ ii84 RISIKO ........................... ii107 ZBA . ii104 PERSEV ................................ ii38 AGDIA ... ii62 EBF .............................. ii78 SKASUK ........................... ii82 WRBTR .............................. ii55 ATV......... ii53 3D ..... ii54 AMT .............................................................................. ii103 IBF ............. ii100 SMK ........................................................................ ii76 SBUSB .................. ii101 AISTR....................................... ii66 GESTA .................................... ii90 AVIS ... ii102 BFSI ........................................................................................................Find it fast All tests from A-Z Find it fast 2D ...................... ii79 SPM ...................................................... ii115 TT .....
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Category Intelligence test batteries Principal dimensions Test
IBF INSBAT INSSV
ii32 ii33 ii35 ii54 ii57 ii59 ii60 ii77 ii81 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii58 ii66 ii72 ii52 ii53 ii56 ii70 ii79 ii40 ii45 ii47 ii36 ii37 ii38 ii46 ii48
Special ability tests
ALS COG DAKT DAUF SIGNAL VIGIL WAFA WAFF WAFG WAFR WAFS WAFV WAFW
CORSI FVW NVLT VISGED
2HAND B19 MLS SMK
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2D 3D A3DW MR PST
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ii61 ii62 ii69 ii75 ii76 ii39 ii41 ii42 ii43 ii49 ii50 ii51 ii65 ii44 ii63 ii67 ii103 ii80 ii78 ii68 ii74 ii73 ii71 ii55 ii84 ii86 ii87 ii96 ii88 ii89 ii91 ii90 ii102 ii92 ii93 ii94 ii99
AMT APM CPM FOLO RIS SPM SPMPLS
Activation Critical thinking Knowledge of English Field independence Hyperkinetic syndrome Interference tendency Multi-tasking Orientation Peripheral perception Perseveration tendency Technical comprehension Obtaining an overview Anticipation of time and movement
FLIM HCTA ELST GESTA HKSD STROOP SIMKAP LVT PP PERSEV MTA ATAVT ZBA BFSI EPP6 IPS TCI
Personality structure inventories
Special personality tests
Resilience & coping with stress
AVEM BACO DSI DSIHR EBF SBUSB
122 . VIENNA TEST SYSTEM
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FET SKASUK AHA MMG OLMT
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Readiness to take risks
RISIKO WRBTR WRBTV
IVPE AISTR MOI
Attitude & interest tests Clinical tests
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VIENNA TEST SYSTEM
Find it fast All tests by languages Chinese traditional (CHT) Chinese simplified (CHS) English (ENU. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . ENG) Portuguese (PTG) Hungarian (HUN) Romanian (ROM) Bulgarian (BUL) Slovakian (SKY) Slovenian (SLO) Croatian (CRO) Swedish (SVE) Russian (RUS) German (DEU) Spanish (ESP) Serbian (SER) WINWTS 2D 2HAND 3D 4DPI A3DW AGDIA AHA AISTR ALS AMT ANF APM ATAVT ATV AVEM AVIS B19 BACO BFSI COG CORSI CPM DAKT DAUF DSI DSIHR DT DTKI EBF ELST EPP6 F1 FBS FET FFT FLIM FOLO FSV FVW GESTA HCTA HKSD IBF INSBAT INSSV IPS IVPE Turkish (TRK) French (FRA) Finnish (FIN) Arabic (ARA) Dutch (NLD) Polish (PLK) Czech (CSY) Italian (ITA) Greek (ELL) Hindi (HIN) = basic software ii36 ii53 ii37 ii85 ii38 ii89 ii101 ii108 ii54 ii39 ii40 ii41 ii55 ii110 ii90 ii91 ii56 ii102 ii86 ii57 ii58 ii42 ii59 ii60 ii92 ii93 ii61 ii62 ii94 ii63 ii87 ii64 ii111 ii95 ii112 ii65 ii43 ii113 ii66 ii67 ii44 ii103 ii32 ii33 ii35 ii96 ii97 124 .
ENG) Portuguese (PTG) Hungarian (HUN) Romanian (ROM) Bulgarian (BUL) Slovakian (SKY) Slovenian (SLO) Croatian (CRO) Swedish (SVE) Russian (RUS) German (DEU) Spanish (ESP) Serbian (SER) LVT MDT MIP MLS MMG MOI MR MSS MTA NTA NVLT OLMT PERSEV PP PST RA RIS RISIKO RT SBUSB SIGNAL SIMKAP SKASUK SMK SPM SPMPLS STROOP TCI TQ TT VIGIL VISGED WAFA WAFF WAFG WAFR WAFS WAFV WAFW WRBTR WRBTV ZBA Turkish (TRK) French (FRA) Finnish (FIN) Arabic (ARA) Dutch (NLD) Polish (PLK) Czech (CSY) Italian (ITA) Greek (ELL) Hindi (HIN) ii68 ii69 ii45 ii70 ii98 ii109 ii46 ii114 ii71 ii47 ii72 ii104 ii73 ii74 ii48 ii75 ii49 ii105 ii76 ii99 ii77 ii78 ii100 ii79 ii50 ii51 ii80 ii88 ii115 ii116 ii81 ii52 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii106 ii107 ii84 If you are missing a test in a certain language. please contact us or one of our distributors. 125 . We translate tests constantly to various languages. VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .Find it fast All tests by languages Chinese traditional (CHT) Chinese simplified (CHS) English (ENU.
VIENNA TEST SYSTEM .Find it fast All tests by areas of use Clinical and health psychology Clinical and health psychology Educational psychology 2D 2HAND 3D 4DPI A3DW AGDIA AHA AISTR ALS AMT ANF APM ATAVT ATV AVEM AVIS B19 BACO BFSI COG CORSI CPM DAKT DAUF DSI DSIHR DT DTKI EBF ELST EPP6 F1 FBS FET ii36 ii53 ii37 ii85 ii38 ii89 ii101 ii108 ii54 ii39 ii40 ii41 ii55 ii110 ii90 ii91 ii56 ii102 ii86 ii57 ii58 ii42 ii59 ii60 ii92 ii93 ii61 ii62 ii94 ii63 ii87 ii64 ii111 ii95 FFT FLIM FOLO FSV FVW GESTA HCTA HKSD IBF INSBAT INSSV IPS IVPE LVT MDT MIP MLS MMG MOI MR MSS MTA NTA NVLT OLMT PERSEV PP PST RA RIS RISIKO RT SBUSB SIGNAL Educational psychology Personnel psychology Personnel psychology Aviation psychology Aviation psychology Traffic psychology Traffic psychology Neuropsychology Neuropsychology Sport psychology Sport psychology ii112 ii65 ii43 ii113 ii66 ii67 ii44 ii103 ii32 ii33 ii35 ii96 ii97 ii68 ii69 ii45 ii70 ii98 ii109 ii46 ii114 ii71 ii47 ii72 ii104 ii73 ii74 ii48 ii75 ii49 ii105 ii76 ii99 ii77 126 .
Find it fast All tests by areas of use Clinical and health psychology SIMKAP SKASUK SMK SPM SPMPLS STROOP TCI VIGIL VISGED WAFA WAFF WAFG WAFR WAFS WAFV WAFW WRBTR WRBTV ZBA Educational psychology Personnel psychology Aviation psychology Traffic psychology Neuropsychology Sport psychology ii78 ii100 ii79 ii50 ii51 ii80 ii88 ii81 ii52 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii82 ii106 ii107 ii84 VIENNA TEST SYSTEM . 127 .
Realistic and motivating design 5. 7 reasons to choose CogniPlus 1.at E-Mail info@schuhfried. Motivating. easy-to-operate software Modular design of software and hardware Transfer of readings via wireless technology (Bluetooth®) by means of small. Embedded in a context of scientiﬁc theory 4. Based on a deﬁcit-oriented intervention approach 3. Multimedia.Other quality products from SCHUHFRIED Cognitive training Multimedia system CogniPlus. lightweight modules worn directly on the body Complete freedom of movement during measurement Highly sensitive sensors with high stability against artefacts Order your free copy now! COGNIPLUS Catalog Order your free copy now! BIOFEEDBACK 2000 x-pert Catalog E-Mail info@schuhfried. Adapts automatically to the client‘s ability 6. Efficient. The key features of BIOFEEDBACK 2000 x-pert User-friendly. is used to train cognitive functions. It can be used for relaxation. Buy only the modules that you need.at Quality by competence since 1947 . Training at all ability levels 7. rehabilitation and assessment. Developed by prominent scientists 2. BIOFEEDBACK 2000 x-pert is the innovative wireless biofeedback system from SCHUHFRIED. which is available in a wide range of languages. Recommended by respected institutions You too can proﬁ t from a state-of-the-art program that covers all the areas of cognitive training and comes with user-friendly management software.
schuhfried. SCHUHFRIED GmbH Hyrtlstrasse 45 2340 Moedling Austria Tel: +43 2236 42315 Fax: +43 2236 46597 E-mail email@example.com .schuhfried.Psychological assessment VIENNA TEST SYSTEM Cognitive training Multimedia system mpany! st the no.com @ For an immediate free callback go to www. 1 co Tru pu ter ize t lea de r in com is wo rld ma rke SC HU HF RIE D al d ps ych olo gic as se ssm en t.at Order our newsletter at www.
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