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CHAPTER-1

TRANSMISSION LINE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Electrical power is the basic need for the economic development of any country. The
energy consumption is the main index for the overall development and growth of a country.
The process of modernization, increase in productivity in industry and agriculture and the
improvement in the standard of living of the people basically depend on the adequate
supply of electrical energy.
The electrical energy is generated by hydroelectric power plants, thermal power plants and
nuclear power plants. The electrical power is transmitted from these power plants to the
consumers premises by using transmission and distribution systems. The power from the
generating station is transmitted at high voltage (such as 132, 220, 440 kV) over long
distances to the major load centres. The line should have sufficient current carrying
capacity so as to transmit the required power over a given distance without excessive
voltage drop and overheating. The line losses should be small and insulation length should
be adequate to cope with the system voltage.
The transmission system of an area is known as GRID. The different grids are
interconnected through the TIE lines to form a regional grid and the different regional
grids are further interconnected to form a national grid. Each grid operates independently.
Power can be transmitted from one grid to another, over the tie lines under the condition of
sudden loss of generation or increase in load.
A single phase AC circuit requires 2 conductors. A 2-phase AC circuit using same size
conductor as a 1-phase circuit can carry 3 times the power which can be carried by a single
phase circuit and uses 3 conductors of 3-phase and 1-conductor of neutral. Thus a 3-phase
circuit is more economical then a 1-phase circuit in terms of initial cost as well as the
losses. All transmission and distribution systems are, therefore, 3-phase systems. In fact, a
balanced 3-phase circuit does not require the neutral conductor as the instantaneous sum of
the 3 line currents is zero.
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Therefore, the transmission lines and feeders are 3-phase, 3-wire circuit. The distributors
are 3-phase, 4-wire circuit because a neutral wire is necessary to supply the 1-phase load
for domestic and commercial consumers. The standard frequency in India and many other
countries is 50 Hz.
The overhead line conductors are bare and not covered with any insulating covering
coating. The line conductors are, therefore, secured to the supportive structures by means of
insulating fixtures, called the insulators, in order that there is no current leakage to the earth
through the supports. The material most commonly used for overhead line is Porcelain.
But toughened glass, steatite and special composition materials are used to limited extent.
Insulators are required to withstand both electrical and mechanical stresses.
In the present work, we have designed a 3-phase transmission system to transmit a given
power through a given distance. Subjected to the constraints such as efficiency and
regulation for a given power factor of the load. We have also attempted mechanical design
of a transmission line. The mechanical design comprises of selection and number of
insulators, proper sag and minimum distance of the line from the ground and based on this,
we have selected a suitable tower.
1.2 HISTORY OF TRANSMISSION LINE
Before we dig deep into the principles of Transmission Line Losses, let us first review a
brief history of the power transmission line particularly with Overhead Transmission Line.
The first transmission of electrical impulses over an extended distance was demonstrated on
July 14, 1729 by the physicist Stephen Gray, in order to show that one can transfer
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Fig no. 1.1: View of a transmission line.
electricity by that method. The demonstration used damp hemp cords suspended by silk
threads (the low resistance of metallic conductors not being appreciated at the time).
However the first practical use of overhead lines was in the context of telegraphy. By 1837
experimental commercial telegraph systems ran as far as 13 miles (20 km). Electric power
transmission was accomplished in 1882 with the first high voltage transmission between
Munich and Miesbach. 1891 saw the construction of the first three-phase alternating current
overhead line on the occasion of the International Electricity Exhibition in Frankfurt,
between Lauffen and Frankfurt.
In 1912 the first 110 kV-overhead power line entered service followed by the first 220 kV-
overhead power line in 1923. In the 1920s RWE AG built the first overhead line for this
voltage and in 1926 built a Rhine crossing with the pylons of Voerde, two masts 138 meters
high.
In Germany in 1957 the first 380 kV overhead power line was commissioned (between the
transformer station and Rommerskirchen). In the same year the overhead line traversing of
the Strait of Messina went into service in Italy, whose pylons served the Elbe crossing 1.
This was used as the model for the building of the Elbe crossing 2 in the second half of the
1970s which saw the construction of the highest overhead line pylons of the world. Starting
from 1967 in Russia, and also in the USA and Canada, overhead lines for voltage of 765
kV were built. In 1982 overhead power lines were built in Russia between Elektrostal and
the power station at Ekibastusz, this was a three-phase alternating current line at 1150 kV
(Power line Ekibastuz-Kokshetau). In 1999, in Japan the first powerline designed for 1000
kV with 2 circuits were built, the Kita-Iwaki Powerline. In 2003 the building of the highest
overhead line commenced in China, the Yangtze River Crossing.
CHAPTER-2
COMPONENTS OF A TRANSMISSION LINE
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2.1 INTRODUCTION
The transmission lines are like the arteries of the power system. Transmission lines act as
medium for carrying bulk energy from one substation to other. The electric energy
transmission is carried out at High and Extra High Voltages (EHV). Voltage above 220 kV
is usually referred as Extra High Voltage. The transmission lines can be constructed over
head or underground. The overhead lines are bare conductors with proper clearances from
earthed structures and between the phase conductors.
2.2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
Listed below are the typical points to be considered before starting or even operating an
Electrical Power System. These factors can be best categorized into three main points;
Electrical Design, Mechanical Design & Structural Design.
Electrical Design of AC system involves;
power flow requirements
system stability and dynamic performance
selection of voltage level
voltage and reactive power flow control
conductor selection
losses
corona-related performance(radio, audible, and television noise)
electromagnetic field effects
insulation and over voltage design
switching arrangements
circuit-breaker duties
protective relaying.
Mechanical Design includes
Sag and tension calculations
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conductor composition
conductor spacing (minimum spacing to be determined under electrical design)
types of insulators
selection of conductor hardware
Structural Design
selection of the type of structures to be used
mechanical loading calculations
foundations
guys and anchors.
Miscellaneous features
line location
acquisition of right-of-way
profiling
locating structures
inductive coordination (considers line location and electrical calculations)
means of communication
2.3 HARDWARE COMPONENTS OF TRANSMISSION LINE
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The following are the most common overhead transmission line components:
Structures for Support (Poles & Towers)
Wires and Cables (phase conductors & OHGW)
Insulators (ceramics & polymer)
Connectors
Guying for support
Line Arresters
Others (vibration damper, corona ring, spacers, etc.
2.4 CONDUCTORS IN TRANSMISSION LINE
In the past, electric power was transmitted through the use mostly of copper conductors.
Copper is rank among the most ideal metals for transmitting electricity due to its low
resistivity also, of which it is second to silver. However, in the modern days, aluminum
replaced copper as a main material for transmitting electricity simply because of the much
lower cost and lighter weight of an aluminum conductor in contrast to a copper conductor
with the same resistance. Another advantage of an aluminum is when compared to a copper
with the same resistance, aluminum tends to have a larger diameter. It is an advantage
because with a conductor with a relatively larger diameter the lines of electric flux
originating on the conductor will be farther apart at the conductor surface for the same
voltage.
Electrical conductor
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Fig no. 2.1: Picture showing most common components of a transmission line.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is a material which contains movable
electric charges. In metallic conductors such as copper or aluminum, the movable charged
particles are electrons. Positive charges may also be mobile in the form of atoms bound in a
crystal lattice which are missing electrons (known as holes), or in the form of mobile ions,
such as in the electrolyte of a battery, or as mobile protons in proton conductors employed
in fuel cells. In general use, the term "conductor" is interchangeable with "wire."
Physics
All conductors contain electric charges, which will move when an electric potential
difference (measured in volts) is applied across separate points on the material. This flow of
charge (measured in amperes) is what is meant by electric current. In most materials, the
direct current is proportional to the voltage (as determined by Ohm's law), provided the
temperature remains constant and the material remains in the same shape and state.
2.4.1 CONDUCTOR MATERIALS
Copper has a high conductivity. Silver is more conductive, but due to cost it is not practical
in most cases. Because of its ease of connection by soldering or clamping, copper is still the
most common choice for most light-gauge wires. Aluminum has been used as a conductor
in housing applications for cost reasons. It is actually more conductive than copper when
compared by unit weight, but it has technical problems that have led to problems when used
for household and similar wiring, sometimes having led to structural fires:
A tendency to form an electrically resistive surface oxide within connections,
leading to heat cycling of the connection (unless protected by a well-maintained
protective paste);
A tendency to "creep" during thermal cycling, causing connections to become loose
due to a low mechanical yield point of the aluminum; and
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Fig no. 2.2 View of overhead conductors carry electric power.
A coefficient of thermal expansion sufficiently different from the materials used for
connections, accelerating the creep problem and addressed by using only plugs,
switches, and splices rated specifically for aluminum.
These problems do not affect other uses, and aluminum is commonly used for the low
voltage "drop" between a power pole and the household meter. It is also the most common
metal used in high-voltage transmission lines, in combination with steel as structural
reinforcement.
Listed below are some of the known types of aluminium conductors that are used by many
transmission and distribution utility worldwide;
AAC All-Aluminium Conductors
AAAC All-Aluminium-Alloy Conductors
ACSR Aluminium Conductor, Steel Reinforced
ACAR Aluminium Conductor, Alloy Reinforced
Due to the low tensile strength of aluminium, experts created a way to fill this void. They
were able to create a higher tensile strength conductor by incorporating aluminium with
other types of metal. ACSR which consists of a central core of steel strands surrounded by
layers of aluminium strands is now the type of configuration that are popularly used as
conductors for transmission lines.
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Fig. no. 2.3 Aluminium with Steel
The most common conductor materials are hard drawn copper and aluminium. Their
properties are given in table 2.1.
Table 2.1: Properties of Copper and Aluminium conductors
Copper Aluminium
Electrical conductivity (silver = 1.0) 0.975 0.585
Resistivity ( -cm) 1.777 2.826
Specific gravity 8.89 2.70
Tensile strength( ) 3.84 to
430
180 to 234
Coefficient of linear expansion per 17 23
Temperature coefficient of resistance
at 20
0.00393 per 0.004
Ratio of conductivities for equal area 1 0.6
Ratio of diameters for equal
resistance
1 1.29
Ratio of weights for equal resistance 2 1
2.4.2 TYPES OF CONDUCTOR
1. Stranded Hard Drawn Copper. Hard drawn copper has the advantages of very
high conductivity (i.e., very low resistivity), good tensile strength and weather
resisting properties. Many years back it was widely used for construction of
overhead lines. Due to non-availability and high cost involvement, it is generally
not use in India. In other countries, too, it is very rarely used.
2. Aluminium. Aluminium has the advantages of much lower cost and lesser weight
as compared to copper. The fact that an aluminium conductor has a larger diameter
than a copper conductor of the same resistance is also an extra advantage. A large
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Fig. no. 2.4 Different kind of ACSR cables according to composition
diameter. For the same voltage, leads to a lower voltage gradient at the conductor
surface with a tendency of reduced ionisation level of air and corona.
3. Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR). ACSR (Aluminium Conductor
Steel Reinforced) conductor comprises hard drawn aluminium wires stranded
around a core of single or multiple strand galvanised steel wire. Fig. 2.1(b) shows
an ACSR conductor having 7 strands of steel and 30 strands of aluminium.
Aluminium provides the necessary conductivity while steel provides the necessary
mechanical strength. During manufacture, a layer of grease is put between
aluminium and steel to reduce electrolytic action (corrosion) between zinc and
aluminium (The steel strands are galvanised with zinc). All transmission lines and
most of the distribution lines use ACSR conductor. These conductors are
manufactured in a wide variety of sizes from 5 mm to over 40 mm overall diameter.
Aluminum conductor steel reinforced (or ACSR) cable is a specific type of high-
capacity, high-strength stranded cable typically used in overhead power lines. The
outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its excellent conductivity, low weight and
low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight
without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. This gives the cable an overall
high tensile strength.
4. Galvanised Steel. Galvanised steel conductors have been used to advantage for
extremely long spans, or for short line selections exposed to normally high stresses
due to climatic conditions. These conductors are found most suitable for lines
supplying rural areas and operating at voltages of about 11 kV, where cheapness is
the main consideration. Iron or steel wire use is most advantageous for transmission
of small power over a short distance, where the size of copper conductor desirable
from economical consideration comes out to be smaller than SWG, which cannot be
used because of poor mechanical strength. This conductor is not suitable for EHT
lines for the purpose of transmitting large amounts of power over a long distance
due to its following properties:
(i) Poor conductivity, 13% that of copper.
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(ii) High internal reactance.
(iii) It is subjected to eddy current and hysteresis.
5. Cadmium Copper. The conductor being used in certain cases is copper alloyed
with cadmium. Addition of 1 or 2 % of cadmium in copper increase the tensile
strength by about 40% and reduces the conductivity only by 17% below that of pure
copper. However, cadmium copper is costlier than the pure copper. Use of cadmium
copper will be economical for a line with long spans and small cross-section i.e.
where the cost of conductor material is comparatively small in comparison to that of
supports etc. Cadmium-copper conductors are also employed for telephone and
telegraph lines where currents involved are quite small. However, owing to scarcity
of copper, cadmium-copper conductors on communication lines are being replaced
by ACSR conductors.
6. Copper-clad Steel. A composite wire, known as copper-clad or copper-weld steel
wire, is obtained by welding a copper coating on a steel wire core. Line conductors
made of copper-clad steel are preferable stranded, and have a considerably large
tensile strength than the equivalent all-copper conductors. The proportion of copper
and steel is so chosen that the conductivity of composite wire is 30% to 40% of that
of copper conductor of equal diameter. Such material appears to be very suitable for
river-crossings or other places where an extremely long span is involved.
7. Phosphor Bronze. When harmful gases such as ammonia are present in atmosphere
and the spans are extremely long, phosphor bronze is most suitable material for an
overhead line conductor. In this conductor some strands of phosphor bronze are
added to the cadmium copper.
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(a) (b)
2.5 INSULATORS
The overhead line conductors are bare and not covered with any insulating
covering/coating. The line conductors are, therefore, secured to the supporting structures by
means of insulating fixtures, called the insulators, in order that there is no current leakage
to the earth through the supports. Insulators are mounted on the cross-arms and the line
conductors are attached to the insulators so as to provide the conductors proper insulation
and also provide necessary clearances between conductors and metal work. The important
properties that an overhead line insulator must possess are:
1. High mechanical strength so as to bear the load due to the weight of line
conductors, wind force and ice loading if any.
2. High relative permittivity so as to provide high dielectric strength.
3. High insulation resistance in order to prevent leakage of currents to earth.
4. High ratio of rupture strength to flash over voltage.
5. Ability to withstand large temperature variations i.e., it should not crack when
subjected to high temperatures during summer and low temperature during winter.
The dielectric strength should remain unaffected under different conditions of
temperature and pressure.
2.5.1 INSULATOR MATERIALS
A true insulator is a material that does not respond to an electric field and completely
resists the flow of electric charge. In practice, however, perfect insulators do not exist.
Therefore, dielectric materials with high dielectric constants are considered insulators. In
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Fig no. 2.5 Stranded Conductors .
insulating materials valence electrons are tightly bonded to their atoms. These materials are
used in electrical equipment as insulators or insulation. Their function is to support or
separate electrical conductors without allowing current through themselves. The term also
refers to insulating supports that attach electric power transmission wires to utility poles or
pylons.
The material most commonly used for overhead line insulators is porcelain but toughened
glass, steatite and special composition materials are also used to a limited extent.
1. Porcelain. Porcelain is produced by firing at a controlled temperature a mixture of
kaolin, feldspar and quartz. It is mechanically stronger than glass. It gives less
trouble from leakage, and is less susceptible to temperature variations and its
surface is not affected by dirt deposits.
On the other hand, it is not so homogeneous as glass, owing to the fact that each
component shell of a porcelain insulator is glazed during manufacturing process and
its satisfactory performance in service depends to a considerable extent on the
preservation of this glaze which is only of the order of 25 microns in thickness.
Also fault cannot detect easily as it is not transparent. In tension his material is
usually weak and does not withstand tensile stresses exceeding . The
dielectric strength and compressive strength of a mechanically sound porcelain
insulator are about 6.5 kV/mm of its thickness and respectively.
2. Glass. Glass is cheaper than porcelain in the simpler shape and if properly
toughened and annealed gives high resistivity and dielectric strength (14 kV per mm
of thickness of the material). Owing to high dielectric strength, the glass insulators
have simpler design and even one piece design can be used. Glass is quite
homogeneous material and can withstand higher compressive stresses as compared
to porcelain. It has also a lower coefficient of thermal expansion which minimises
the strain due to temperature changes and owing to its transparent nature flaws in
the material can be readily detected by visual examination. The main disadvantage
of the glass is that moisture more readily condenses on its surface and facilitates the
accumulation of dirt deposits, thus giving a high surface leakage. Also in large sizes
the great mass of material combined with the irregular shape, may result in internal
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strains after cooling. Glass insulator however, can be used upto 25 kV under
ordinary atmospheric conditions as well upto 50 kV in dry atmosphere.
3. Steatite. Steatite is a naturally occurring magnesium silicate, usually found
combined with oxides in varying proportions. It has a much higher tensile and
bending stress than porcelain and can advantageously be used at tension towers or
when a transmission line takes a sharp turn.
2.5.2 TYPES OF INSULATORS
Various types of insulators used for overhead transmission and distribution lines are:
1. Pin Type Insulator. A pin insulator is small, simple in construction and cheap. It is
used on lines upto and including 33 kV lines. The conductor is bound into a groove
on the top of the insulator which is cemented on to a galvanised steel pin attached to
the cross arm on the pole or tower. To avoid a direct contact between the porcelain
and the metal pin, a soft metal (generally lead) thimble is used. An adequate length
of leakage path is obtained by providing the insulator with two or three petticoats or
rain sheds. These are so designed that even when the outer surface of these insulator
is wet due to rain, sufficient leakage resistance is still given by the inner dry
surface. In its electrical behaviour, a pin type insulator may be compared to a
complicated series of conductors with resistances in series and shunt. The petticoats
with the inverting air spaces from the condenser system and the leakage paths over
the surface and through the body of the material are represented by the resistances.


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Fig. no. 2.6 Pin Insulators (a) 11 kV (b) 33 kV
Pin type insulators are used only up to about 33 kV because for higher voltages they
tend to be very heavy and more costly than suspension type insulators.
2. Suspension Type Insulators. The cost of a pin insulators increases very rapidly
with increase in line voltages. Therefore, suspension insulators are used for line
above 33 kV. They are also known as disc insulators or string insulators.
Fig. no. 2.7 Picture of a Suspension Insulator
A suspension insulator consists of porcelain disc units mounted above the other.
Each disc consists of a single shed of porcelain grooved on the under surface to
increase the creep age distance. The upper surface of each disc is inclined at a
suitable angle to the horizontal in order to ensure free drainage of water. Each disc
is provided with a metal cap at the top and a metal pin underneath. The cap is
recessed so as to take the pin of another unit and thus a string of any required
number of units can be built up. The most commonly used disc is the cemented cap
type.
3. Post Insulators. These are used for supporting the bus bars, and disconnecting
switches in sub-stations. A post insulators is similar to a pin type insulator but has a
metal base and frequently a metal cap so that more than one unit can be mounted in
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series. In extra high voltage sub-stations (400 kV and above) polycon post
insulators are used. In this insulator the porcelain elements are in the form of cones
smugly fitting one inside the other and bounded by special cement. The puncture
path is through many layers of porcelain cones and the voltage required to puncture
this path is many times the external flash over voltages so that insulator is almost
puncture proof.
Fig. no. 2.8 Picture of a Post Insulator
4. Strain Insulators. These are special mechanically strong suspension insulators and
are used to take the tension of the conductors at the line terminations and at
positions where there is a change in the direction of line. The discs of a strain
insulator are in a vertical plane as compared to the discs of suspension insulator
which are in a horizontal plane. On extra long spans, viz, at river crossings, two or
three strings of strain insulators, arranged in parallel, are often used.
Fig. no. 2.9 Picture of a Strain Insulator
The electrical breakdown of an insulator due to excessive voltage can occur in one of two
ways:
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Puncture voltage is the voltage across the insulator (when installed in its normal
manner) which causes a breakdown and conduction through the interior of the
insulator. The heat resulting from the puncture arc usually damages the insulator
irreparably.
Flashover voltage is the voltage which causes the air around or along the surface of
the insulator to break down and conduct, causing a 'flashover' arc along the outside
of the insulator. They are usually designed to withstand this without damage.
Most high voltage insulators are designed with a lower flashover voltage than puncture
voltage, so they will flash over before they puncture, to avoid damage. Dirt, pollution, salt,
and particularly water on the surface of a high voltage insulator can create a conductive
path across it, causing leakage currents and flashovers. The flashover voltage can be more
than 50% lower when the insulator is wet. High voltage insulators for outdoor use are
shaped to maximize the length of the leakage path along the surface from one end to the
other, called the creepage length, to minimize these leakage currents. To accomplish this
surface is molded into a series of corrugations or concentric disk shapes. These usually
include one or more sheds; downward facing cup-shaped surfaces that act as umbrellas to
ensure that the part of the surface leakage path under the 'cup' stays dry in wet weather.
Minimum creep age distances are 2025 mm/kV, but must be increased in high pollution or
airborne sea-salt areas.
2.6 LINE SUPPORTS
The function of line support is obviously to support the conductors. Line support must be
capable of carrying the load due to insulator and conductors including the ice and wind
loads on the conductor along with the wind load on the support itself.
The main requirements of the line supports are:
1. High mechanical strength to withstand the weight of conductors and wind loads
etc.
2. Light in weight without the loss of mechanical strength.
3. Cheaper in cost.
4. Low maintenance cost.
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5. Longer life.
The choice of line supports for a particular situation depends upon the line span, cross-
sectional area, line voltage, cost and local conditions
Fig. no. 2.10 Picture showing different parameters of a transmission line.
2.6.1 TYPES OF LINE SUPPORTS
The line supports are of various types including wood, steel and reinforced concrete poles
and steel towers either of the rigid or flexible type.
1. Wooden Poles. These supports are cheapest, easily available, provide insulating
properties and therefore, are extensively used for the distribution purposes specially
in rural electrification keeping the cost low. Their use is usually limited to low
pressures (upto 22kV) and for short spans (upto 60 meters). The wooden poles well
impregnated with creosite oil or any preservative have life from 25 to 30 years.
Wooden poles are very elastic and lines employing wooden supports are often
designed throughout for the transverse load. Longitudinal strength at terminals and
for anchor support is provided by means of guys. Double pole structures of A or H
types are often employed for obtaining a higher transverse strength than that could
be economically provided by means of single poles.
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Fig. no. 2.11 Picture of a Wooden Pole.
2. RCC Poles. Poles made of reinforced cement concrete (RCC), usually called the
concrete poles, are extensively used for low voltage distribution lines upto 33 kV.
Their construction should conform to the standard specification for RCC work, but
in low case the dimension shall be less 25 cm 25 cm at the bottom and 13cm
13cm at the top. These poles are of two types in shape. One type is square cross-
section from bottom to top. The other type has rectangular bottom and square top
with rectangular holes in it to facilitate the climbing of poles and reduce the weight
of poles. These give good appearance, require no maintenance, have got insulating
properties and resistance against chemical action, very strong, have longer life and
can be used for longer spans (80-200 m). Such poles are most suitable for water
logged situations where other types will not be at all suitable, as due to standing
water wooden poles will decay very rapidly, and steel construction will be having
deposit of rust. Since these poles are very bulky and heavy, therefore, transportation
cost is heavy and need care in handling and erection.
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Fig. no. 2.12 Picture of a RCC Pole.
3. Steel Poles. The steel poles are of three types (i) tubular poles (ii) rail poles and (iii)
rolled steel joists. The tubular poles are of round cross-sections, the rail poles are of
the shape of track used for railways and rolled steel joists are of I cross-sections.
Such poles possess greater mechanical strength and permit use of longer spans (50-
80 m) but cost is higher. Their life is longer than that of wooden poles and life is
increased by regular painting. These poles are set in concrete muffs at the
foundation in order to protect them from chemical action. The average life of steel
poles is more than 40 years.
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Fig. no. 2.13 Picture of a Steel Pole
4. Lattice Steel Towers: The steel tubular poles and concrete poles are usually used
for distribution in urban area to give good appearance and steel rails or narrow-base,
lattice-steel towers are used for transmission at 11 kV and 33 kV and broad-base
lattice-steel towers are used for transmission purposes at 66 kV and above. The
broad-base, lattice-steel towers are mechanically stronger and have got longer life.
Due to their robust construction long spans (300 m or above) can be used and are
much useful for crossing fields, valleys, railways lines, river etc.
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Fig. no. 2.14 Picture of a Lattice Steel Tower
CHAPTER-3
DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION LINE
3.1 INTRODUCTION
The design of a transmission line involves a number of technical and economical aspects.
The power capacity and distance of transmission are specified. The voltage regulation and
efficiency are also specified. The design details include line voltage, size of phase
conductors, span, spacing and configuration of conductors, number and size of earth wires,
number of insulators, clearances, sag under operating and erection conditions, etc. Once
these design features are available, the voltage regulation and efficiency can be calculated.
3.2 CHOICE OF VOLTAGE
The cost and performance of the line depend, to a great extent, on the line voltage. An
empirical formula for optimum voltage is
V (3.1)
Where V = line voltage in kV
L = distance in km
P = power in kW
A standard voltage nearest to this value should be adopted.
The above formula gives only a preliminary estimate. The choice of the most economical
voltage requires a detailed study of many technical and economical aspects. One a
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preliminary estimate is available a detailed analysis is necessary. This becomes all the more
necessary when the final choice is likely to fall in EHV/UHV range.
System Voltages in Transmission Lines
Table shown is the standard system voltages from ANSI standards C84 and C92.2
According to ANSI standards C84 and C92.2, system voltages are recommend to be within
the table shown below. 345kV, 500kV and 765kV are considered to be in the Extra High
Voltage (EHV) level. The choice of system voltage is in the decision of the utility.
However, some points needs to be considered in choosing such, like voltage economics,
conductors, distances, equipments, etc.
Table no. 3.1 Standard voltages listed in ANSI standards C84 and C92.2
3.3 SELECTION OF CONDUCTOR SIZE
The cost of conductor size is about 30 to 45 percent of the total cost of the line. Moreover
the cost of towers, foundation and line losses also depend on the conductor size. A proper
selection of the size of phase conductors is, therefore, very important.
Overhead transmission lines invariably use ACSR conductors. These conductors are
manufactured in a variety of sizes (Appendix A).
The size of the conductors should be such that it can carry the rated current continuously
without excessive rise in temperature. The temperature affects the sag and the loss of the
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tensile strength (due to annealing) of the conductor. For copper and aluminium, annealing
starts at about and the operating temperature should be well below this value. The
standard practice is to design the line for a conductor temperature of .
The temperature rise of the conductor depends on the conductor heating due to loss and
heat dissipation. In overhead lines heat is dissipated by convection and radiation. A steady
temperature will be reached when
(3.2)
Where = rms value of conductor current, amperes.
= ac resistance of conductors, ohms/meter length.
= heat loss due to convection, watts per surface area.
= heat loss due to radiation, watts per surface area.
= conductor surface area per meter length.
The heat loss due to convection is given by the equation.
(3.3)
Where p = pressure in atmosphere, Ta is the temperature of air in , v is the velocity of air
in m/sec, d is the diameter of the conductor in m and is the difference between the
temperatures of conductor and air. The above formula is valid is v 0.15 m/sec and d
m.
The heat loss due to radiation is proportional to the difference of the fourth power of the
temperature of the conductor and the surroundings. This loss can be found from the
equation
(3.4)
24
The T1 is the conductor temperature in , T2 is the temperature of surroundings and e
is the relative emissivity of the surface (e = 1.0 for black body and about 0.5 for oxidised
copper).
3.4 CHOICE OF SPAN
A longer span means a smaller number of towers but the towers are taller and more costly.
The higher the operating voltages, the greater should be the span to reduce the high cost of
insulators. Moreover the insulators constitute the weakest part of a transmission line and a
reduction in the number of towers per km (by using longer span) increases the reliability of
the line. For every proposed line there is a definite length of span which will give the
minimum cost of the line. From mechanical consideration there is a maximum value of
span for each conductor size. Many a time it happens that the conductor size, as determined
from electrical calculations is very small and it is possible to reduce the cost of line by
using thicker and stronger conductor so that a longer span may be employed. Sometimes it
is not feasible to determine the tower height and span length on the basis of the line cost
alone because lighting hazards increase greatly as the height of conductors above ground is
increased. Modern high voltage lines have spans between 200 to 400 m. For river and
ravine crossings exceptionally long spans up to 800 m or so have been satisfactory
employed.
Specifications
Long span overhead transmission line
Minimum wear
Anti-loose
Well corrosion resistance
Easy installation
Characteristics
25
1. For a single wire material, whether it is damaged or continue, preformed line splicing
section 100% recoverable mechanical strength, and the length of the connecting wire inside
can greatly improve conductivity.
2. For ACSR for repair were not damaged, steel core, wire aluminium wire connecting
section can be restored to 100% strength and 10% of the steel core strength, and the
installation of wires within the article follow, lead performance greatly improved .
3. If the steel core damage, please select the article follow the whole tension.
Table 3.2: The usual spans
With wooden poles 40-50 m
With steel tubular poles 50-80 m
With RCC poles 80-200 m
With steel towers 200-400 m and above
3.5 CHOICE OF CONDUCTORS
Many conductor configurations are used in practice. There is no special advantage in using
symmetrical configuration and in most cases flat horizontal or vertical configuration are
used from mechanical consideration. A flat horizontal configuration means a lesser tower
height but a wider right of way. A vertical configuration means a taller tower and increased
lighting hazards. In spite of these facts, flat horizontal and vertical configuration is used in
many cases. For single circuit lines an L type configuration is quite popular.
A transmission line may be a single circuit line or double circuit line. A double circuit line
has a higher power transfer capability and greater reliability than a single circuit line. Each
circuit of a double circuit line is usually designed for 75% of the line capacity. In India,
both single circuit and double circuit lines exist in the EHV and high voltage class (66 kV,
132 kV, 220 kV and 400 kV). In foreign countries also both single and double circuit line
exist. The number of circuits for a proposed line can be determined from the surge
impedance loading (SIL).
3.6 SPACINGS AND CLEARANCES
26
There must be adequate spacing between conductors so that they do not come within
sparking distance of each other even while swinging due to wind. An empirical formula
commonly used for determining the spacing of aluminium conductor lines is
Spacing = meters (3.5)
Where S = Sag in meters
V = Line voltage in kV
Table 3.3: Some typical values of spacing
Line voltage(kV) 0.4 11 33 66 132 220 400
Spacing (m) 0.2 1.2 2.0 2.5 3.5 6.0 11.5

The Indian Electricity Rules specify the minimum clearance between the ground and the
conductor. These values are:
Table 3.4: Minimum clearance between the ground and the conductor
kV 0.4 11 33 66 132 220
Clearance to ground
(a) Across Street (m) 5.8 5.8 6.1 6.1 6.1 7.0
(b) Along Street (m) 5.5 5.5 5.8 6.1 6.1 7.0
(c) Other Areas (m) 4.6 4.6 5.2 5.5 6.1 7.0
These rules also specify the minimum clearance for power lines from buildings, railway
tracks and telecommunication lines, etc.
3.7 INSULATION DESIGN
The insulation design affects the performance of the line to a great extent. Line insulation
should be sufficient to take care of switching over voltages, temporary over voltages and
atmospheric over voltages.
27
The insulation level of the transmission lines is based on the switching surge expectancy on
the system. The maximum switching surge over voltage to the ground is taken as 2.5 p.u
and the insulation is designed for this voltage. In addition adequate protection against
atmospheric over voltages (direct lighting strokes) is provided. In EHV and UHV lines over
voltages due to switching surge assume a greater importance than atmospheric over
voltages.
Determination of line insulation:
The insulation of line has to be based upon the consideration or lightning and switching
surges and power frequency over voltages.
With the present day knowledge of lightning behaviour it is possible to build lines to a
certain predetermined level of performance. In case of high voltage lines of 132 kV and
above, these can be made particularly lightning proof by (i) efficient sliding, (ii) low tower
footing impedances. Good shielding is obtained when the shielding angel is about 30
0
and
similarly optimum conditions are generally obtained when the tower-footing impedance is
reduced to about 10 ohms.
The line insulation must be sufficient to prevent a flashover from the power frequency
over-voltage and the switching surges, taking into account all the local unfavourable
circumstances which decrease the flash-over voltage (rain, dust, insulator pollution, etc.). it
is usual to adopt the following over-voltage factors:
Table no. 3.5: Over voltage factors
Switching surge flash-over
voltage
Power frequency flash-
over (wet)
For 220 kV 6.5 V
pn
0.3 V
pn
For 400 kV 5.0 V
pn
3.3 V
pn
Where V
pn
is the phase to neutral voltage (rms.)
It is a good practice to make an allowance for one or more insulator discs to take care of the
possibility of an insulator unit in the string becoming defective, and also for hot line
maintenance, over and above those required to withstand the above flash-over values.
28
Accordingly, for lines upto 220kV, one extra disc, and 400 kV lines two extra discs may be
used.
Table no. 3.6 F.O.V. of standard Discs (254146 mm)
No. Of Discs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
25
30
Dry FOV kV rms.
80
155
215
270
325
380
435
485
540
590
640
690
735
785
830
875
920
965
1010
1055
1280
1505
Wet FOV kV rms.
50
90
130
170
215
255
295
335
375
415
455
490
525
565
600
630
660
690
720
750
900
1050
Impulse
FOV(standard full
waves) kV crest
150
255
53
440
525
610
695
780
860
945
1025
1105
1185
1265
1345
1425
1505
1585
1665
1745
2145
2550
29
In the light of the above discussion, the number of isolator discs of 254146 mm size
required to withstand switching surge and the power-frequency over- voltage for 132 kV,
220kV, and 400 kV lines is given below:
Table no. 3.7 Recommended Insulation Level for Lines
Normal
system
voltage(kV
)
V
pn
kV
Switching
over-voltage
kV crest
No.
Of
Disc
s
reqd.
Power freq.
Over-
voltage
(wet) kV
No.
Of
Disc
s
reqd.
No. Of Discs
Recommende
d
Employe
d at
present
132
220
400
76
12
7
23
1
766.5=495
1276.5=82
5
2315=1155
5
9
13
763=228
1273=381
2313.3=76
2
6
10
20
7
11
22
9/10
15/16
24
It can be worked out to see that lines working at voltages 132 kV and above are immune to
lightning provided, of course, if proper shielding and low tower footing resistance are
provided. For example, assuming a value of 50 kA (rms.) for the severest lightning
discharge and a tower footing resistance of about 10 ohm, the required impulse strength of
the insulation should be 25010
3
10 i.e. 700 kV for a line to be immune from lightning
affects. 7discs as recommended in table above for a 132 kV line, would provide impulse
strength of almost (695 kV) the same value (700 kV), still better results in this case can be
obtained by reducing the tower footing resistance. For 132 kV lines the maximum tower
footing resistance kept is 7 ohms.
3.8 SELECTION OF GROUND WIRE
30
The primary function of ground wires is to shield the phase conductors from the lightning
strokes. They are placed above the phase conductors and are grounded at every/alternate
towers. Thus they help in dissipating the lightning currents to the ground.
The selection of the number and configuration of the ground wires is of great importance in
the protection of transmission line against direct strokes. The number of ground wires may
be one or two. A shielding angle of about 30 is considered to be adequate for high voltage
lines. However, for high voltages lines in areas with low lightning hazards, shielding angle
up to 45 have been used. EHV lines are usually provided with two ground wires and the
shielding angle for such lines is kept at about 20 . To prevent back flashover from the
earthed metal to the phase conductors, the tower footing resistance should not exceed 10
ohms. The vertical separation between the ground wires and phase conductors should be
greater at mid span than at the supports, i.e., the ground wire should have lesser sage as
compared to the phase conductors. The material most commonly used for ground wires is
galvanised steel.
A ground wire should be able to carry the maximum expected lightning current, without
undue heating. It should also have sufficient mechanical strength. Experience has shown
that if a ground wire is mechanically strong, it can carry the maximum, it can carry the
maximum lightning current without excessive heating. Therefore, the size of ground wire is
generally decided on the basis of mechanical strength.
3.9 EVALUATION OF LINE PERFORMANCE
The line parameters are used to evaluate the efficiency and regulation. It is sufficiently
accurate to represent the line by a nominal or circuit for the efficiency and regulation
calculations. However, if the line is very long, the calculations should be based on ABCD
constants. If the efficiency and regulations are not within the prescribed values, it may be
necessary to revise the design by selecting a thick conductor cross-section and changing the
conductor configuration. In some cases it may be necessary to use a higher transmission
voltage in the revised design.
31
3.10 HEIGHT OF TOWER
Number of insulation strings = x
Height of one string = h
1
Total height of insulation strings = x h
1
Minimum clearance between the ground and the conductor = h
2
Height of tower above insulation strings up to ground wire = h
3
Total tower height = (xh
1
) + h
2
+ h
3
(3.6)
3.11 LOSSES IN TRANSMISSION LINES
Total transmission line losses can be broken down into three relevant parts namely;
conductor losses, dielectric heating & radiation losses, and coupling & corona losses.
Conductor Losses:
Conductor losses is also popularly known as line heating losses since electric current
that passes through a conductor releases heat. It is known that any metallic materials
possess inherent resistive nature that is why it is inevitable that during electrical flow
through these materials unavoidable power loss occurs. Typical transmission line
conductors consist of resistance that is uniformly distributed throughout the system; as a
result it is safe to say that the total power loss in the line is directly proportional to the
square of the current that passes and the total resistance of the wire. In addition to that,
resistance of the wire is inversely proportional to the diameter of the conductor thus, the
bigger the wire diameter, the lower resistance it can give.
The discussion of transmission lines so far has not directly addressed LINE LOSSES;
actually some line losses occur in all lines. Line losses may be any of three types -
COPPER, DIELECTRIC, and RADIATION or INDUCTION LOSSES.
NOTE: Transmission lines are sometimes referred to as rf lines. In this text the terms are
used interchangeably.
Copper Losses
One type of copper loss is I
2
R LOSS. In rf lines the resistance of the conductors is never
equal to zero. Whenever current flows through one of these conductors, some energy is
32
dissipated in the form of heat. This heat loss is a POWER LOSS. With copper braid, which
has a resistance higher than solid tubing, this power loss is higher.
Another type of copper loss is due to SKIN EFFECT. When dc flows through a conductor,
the movement of electrons through the conductor's cross section is uniform. The situation is
somewhat different when ac is applied. The expanding and collapsing fields about each
electron encircle other electrons. This phenomenon, called SELF INDUCTION, retards the
movement of the encircled electrons. The flux density at the center is so great that electron
movement at this point is reduced. As frequency is increased, the opposition to the flow of
current in the center of the wire increases. Current in the center of the wire becomes smaller
and most of the electron flow is on the wire surface. When the frequency applied is 100
megahertz or higher, the electron movement in the center is so small that the center of the
wire could be removed without any noticeable effect on current. You should be able to see
that the effective cross-sectional area decreases as the frequency increases. Since resistance
is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area, the resistance will increase as the
frequency is increased. Also, since power loss increases as resistance increases, power
losses increase with an increase in frequency because of skin effect.
Dielectric Losses
DIELECTRIC LOSSES result from the heating effect on the dielectric material between the
conductors. Power from the source is used in heating the dielectric. The heat produced is
dissipated into the surrounding medium. When there is no potential difference between two
conductors, the atoms in the dielectric material between them are normal and the orbits of
the electrons are circular. When there is a potential difference between two conductors, the
orbits of the electrons change. The excessive negative charge on one conductor repels
electrons on the dielectric toward the positive conductor and thus distorts the orbits of the
electrons. A change in the path of electrons requires more energy, introducing a power loss.
The atomic structure of rubber is more difficult to distort than the structure of some other
dielectric materials. The atoms of materials, such as polyethylene, distort easily. Therefore,
polyethylene is often used as a dielectric because less power is consumed when its electron
orbits are distorted.
Radiation and Induction Losses
33
RADIATION and INDUCTION LOSSES are similar in that both are caused by the fields
surrounding the conductors. Induction losses occur when the electromagnetic field about a
conductor cuts through any nearby metallic object and a current is induced in that object.
As a result, power is dissipated in the object and is lost.
Radiation losses occur because some magnetic lines of force about a conductor do not
return to the conductor when the cycle alternates. These lines of force are projected into
space as radiation and this results in power losses. That is, power is supplied by the source,
but is not available to the load.
Corona loss
Corona as defined by IEEE standard 539-1990
Power lost due to corona process. On overhead power lines, this loss is expressed in watts
per meter (W/m) or kilowatts per kilometre (kW/km). A luminous discharge due to
ionization of the air surrounding an electrode caused by a voltage gradient exceeding a
certain critical value is called corona.
What is Corona Effect?
One of the phenomena associated with all energized electrical devices, including high-
voltage transmission lines, is corona. The localized electric field near a conductor can be
sufficiently concentrated to ionize air close to the conductors. This can result in a partial
discharge of electrical energy called a corona discharge, or corona.
What is Corona?
Electric transmission lines can generate a small amount of sound energy as a result
of corona.
Corona is a phenomenon associated with all transmission lines. Under certain
conditions, the localized electric field near energized components and conductors
can produce a tiny electric discharge or corona that causes the surrounding air
molecules to ionize, or undergo a slight localized change of electric charge.
Utility companies try to reduce the amount of corona because in addition to the low
levels of noise that result, corona is a power loss, and in extreme cases, it can
damage system components over time.
34
Corona occurs on all types of transmission lines, but it becomes more noticeable at
higher voltages (345 kV and higher). Under fair weather conditions, the audible
noise from corona is minor and rarely noticed.
During wet and humid conditions, water drops collect on the conductors and
increase corona activity. Under these conditions, a crackling or humming sound
may be heard in the immediate vicinity of the line.
Corona results in a power loss. Power losses like corona result in operating
inefficiencies and increase the cost of service for all ratepayers; a major concern in
transmission line design is the reduction of losses.
Source of Corona:
The amount of corona produced by a transmission line is a function of the voltage
of the line, the diameter of the conductors, the locations of the conductors in
relation to each other, the elevation of the line above sea level, the condition of the
conductors and hardware, and the local weather conditions
The electric field gradient is greatest at the surface of the conductor. Large-diameter
conductors have lower electric field gradients at the conductor surface and, hence,
lower corona than smaller conductors, everything else being equal.
Irregularities (such as nicks and scrapes on the conductor surface or sharp edges on
suspension hardware) concentrate the electric field at these locations and thus
increase the electric field gradient and the resulting corona at these spots.
Corona also increases at higher elevations where the density of the atmosphere is
less than at sea level. Audible noise will vary with elevation.
Raindrops, snow, fog, hoarfrost, and condensation accumulated on the conductor
surface are also sources of surface irregularities that can increase corona.
However, during wet weather, the number of these sources increases (for instance
due to rain drops standing on the conductor) and corona effects are therefore
greater.
Corona produced on a transmission line can be reduced by the design of the
transmission line and the selection of hardware and conductors used for the
construction of the line.
Physical Parameters of Corona:
35
Corona is caused by the ionization of the media (air) surrounding the electrode
(conductor)
Corona onset is a function of voltage
Corona onset is a function of relative air density
Corona onset is a function of relative humidity
Methods to reduce Corona Discharge Effect:
1. By minimizing the voltage stress and electric field gradient.: This is
accomplished by using utilizing good high voltage design practices, i.e.,
maximizing the distance between conductors that have large voltage differentials,
using conductors with large radii, and avoiding parts that have sharp points or sharp
edges.
2. Surface Treatments: Corona inception voltage can sometimes be increased by
using a surface treatment, such as a semiconductor layer, high voltage putty or
corona dope.
3. Homogenous Insulators: Use a good, homogeneous insulator. Void free solids,
such as properly prepared silicone and epoxy potting materials work well.
4. If you are limited to using air as your insulator, then you are left with geometry
as the critical parameter. Finally, ensure that steps are taken to reduce or eliminate
unwanted voltage transients, which can cause corona to start.
5. Using Bundled Conductors: on our 345 kV lines, we have installed multiple
conductors per phase. This is a common way of increasing the effective diameter of
the conductor, which in turn results in less resistance, which in turn reduces losses.
6. Elimination of sharp points: electric charges tend to form on sharp points;
therefore when practicable we strive to eliminate sharp points on transmission line
components.
7. Using Corona rings: On certain new 345 kV structures, we are now installing
corona rings. These rings have smooth round surfaces which are designed to
distribute charge across a wider area, thereby reducing the electric field and the
resulting corona discharges.
8. Weather: Corona phenomena much worse in foul weather, high altitude
9. New Conductor: New conductors can lead to poor corona performance for a while.
36
10.By increasing the spacing between the conductors: Corona Discharge Effect can
be reduced by increasing the clearance spacing between the phases of the
transmission lines. However increase in the phases results in heavier metal
supports. Cost and Space requirement increases. s
Corona Detection
Light Ultraviolet radiation: Corona can be visible in the form of light, typically a
purple glow, as corona generally consists of micro arcs. Darkening the environment
can help to visualize the corona.
Sound (hissing, or cracking as caused by explosive gas expansions): You can often
hear corona hissing or cracking Sound.
In addition, you can sometimes smell the presence of ozone that was produced by
the corona.
Salts, sometimes seen as white powder deposits on Conductor.
Mechanical erosion of surfaces by ion bombardment
Heat (although generally very little, and primarily in the insulator)
Carbon deposits, thereby creating a path for severe arcing
The corona discharges in insulation systems result in voltage transients. These
pulses are superimposed on the applied voltage and may be detected, which is
precisely what corona detection equipment looks for.
Power factor
Power Factor is defined in the fundamentals of electrical engineering as the cosine of the
phase angle between the voltage and the current. An inductive circuit is said to have a
lagging power factor, and a capacitive circuit is said to have a leading power factor
indicate, respectively, whether the current is lagging or leading the applied voltage.
(Stevenson Jr.)
37
CHAPTER-4
SAMPLE EXAMPLE
Example:
It is proposed to transmit 80 MW at 0.9 power factor lagging over a distance of 150 km.
The line efficiency and regulation at full load should be better than 95% and 10%
respectively. Work out the following details of the transmission line. Make suitable
assumptions.
(a) Select line voltage and number of circuits.
(b) Choose proper conductor and span for this line.
(c) Select a suitable value of inter-phase spacing and a suitable configuration of conductors.
(d) Calculate line parameters. Estimate the line efficiency regulation for full load condition.
(e) Estimate corona loss.
(f) Find the capacity of shunt compensation equipment to improve the receiving end power
factor to 0.95 lagging.
(g) Estimate line efficiency and regulation for full load at 0.95 power factor lagging.
(h) The line will be erected a temperature of 30C in still air condition. It is desired that a
factor of safety of 2.5 should be maintained under bad weather condition when the
temperature is 5C and wind load is 378 N/m
2
of projected area. Find the sag and tension
under erection condition. Also find the sag under the bad weather conditions.
(i) Select a suitable number and size of ground wires for this time.
38
Solution:-
(a) Using Eq. (3.1) the optimum line voltage is,

2
1
100 6 . 1
5 . 5

,
_

+
P L
V
Where, = Line voltage in kV.
= Distance in km.
= Power in kW.
= kV
= 164.43 kV
The nearest standard line voltage is 220 kV. Therefore it should be a 220 kV line. The
surge impedance of a single circuit line is about 400 ohms.
Surge impedance loading (SIL) =
=
= 121 MW
Since the required power transfer is less than SIL, a single circuit is sufficient.
(b) =
= A
= 233.27 A
Let the ambient temperature be . Therefore, temperature rise of can be allowed.
Referring to Appendix A, a suitable conductor for this current is ACSR 6/1/3.66 mm
conductor .
39
It is necessary to calculate the line losses and the line efficiency to check the suitability of
this conductor. Line losses are approximately equal to where is the total line
resistance per phase .
MINK (ACSR 6/1/3.66 mm) :-
For the ACSR 6/1/3.66 mm conductor the resistance at is 0.4565 /km. To calculate
the resistance at we use Eq.,

=
=
248
303
=
=
= .56 /km
=
L r
75
=0.56
= 84 ohms
Line efficiency =
= .85 or 85%
The efficiency is very poor. Hence this conductor size is not suitable.
TIGER (30/7/2.36 mm):-
40
If we choose the ACSR conductor 30/7/2.36 mm conductor. The resistance of this
conductor at is 0.2220 ohms/km.
75
r
=
248
303
20
r
=
= 0.27 ohms/km
R =
= 40.68 ohms
Line efficiency =
losses r outputpowe
r outputpowe
+
=
= 0.9233
= 92.33%
The efficiency is still poor, that shows Tiger is still not a correct selection.
PANTHER (30/7/3.0mm):-
For the ACSR 30/7/3.0 mm conductor the resistance at is 0.140 ohms/km.
=
= 0.171 ohms/km
R =
= 25.65 ohms
Line efficiency =
( ) ( ) [ ] 65 . 25 27 . 233 3 10 80
10 80
2 6
6
+

= 0.95 or 95%
41
The ACSR conductor 30/7/3.0 mm (PANTHER) has much higher current rating than the
rated current of the purpose line. The line efficiency for this conductor will be higher than
95%
Hence the characteristics of this conductor are:
Number of aluminium strands = 30
Diameter of each Al strand = 3.0 mm.
Number of steel strands = 7
Diameter of each steel strand = 3.0 mm
overall diameter = 21 mm
Weight of conductor = 974 kg/km
Ultimate strength = 89.67 kN
Cross section area of Al = 212.1 sq mm
The conditions governing the selection of span has been discussed in section 3.4.
Hence experience has shown that a Span of 300 m is suitable for a 220 kV line.
Minimum clearance between the ground and the conductor is estimated as 7 m using Table
3.4
Number of insulation strings is calculated as 16 using Table 3.7
Now using Table 3.6 total insulation string length = 0.254 16 = 4 m
Hence, total tower height using eq. 3.6 is calculated as 4 + 7 + 6 = 17 m
(c) As per values given in Table 3.3, an inter-phase spacing of 6 meters is suitable for a 220
kV line. The conductor configuration can be horizontal or L-type. Choose horizontal
configuration and 6 meters spacing between adjacent phases (12 meters between the two
phases).
42
(d) =
= 7.5595 m
D = 21 mm
so, r =
2
21
mm
= 10.5 mm
=
3
10 5 . 10

m
Geometric mean radius (GMR),
= r 7788 . 0
=
3
10 5 . 10 7788 . 0

m
= m
Line inductance = mH/km
= mH/km
= 1.36 mH/km
Impedence Z = R+jL = R+j2f L (where l = length of transmission line)
= ohms/phase
= 25.65+ j64.1 ohms/phase
= 2 . 68 04 . 69 ohms/phase
Line capacitance =

,
_

'
log
02412 . 0
r
D
eq F/km
= F/km
= H/km
43
Y = C
=
= siemens/phase
Since the length of the line is 150 km, a sufficiently accurate results can be obtained by the
nominal or T representation. Let we use nominal representation.
( ) ( ) + +

90 10 66 . 398 2 . 68 04 . 69
2
1
1
2
1
6
ZY
=

( ) ( ) ( )
1
]
1

,
_

+

90 10 66 . 938 2 . 68 04 . 69
4
1
1 90 10 66 . 398
4
1
6 6
ZY
Y
=
=
V
3
1
(V = voltage of transmission line in volts)
=
= 127017 V
=
= 84 . 25 27 . 233 A
Now, using equation

1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
+

1
]
1

r
r
s
s
I
V
ZY ZY
Y
Z
ZY
I
V
2
1
4
1
2
1
=
=
=137745.97 48
44
=
=
= 213.31 27 . 13 A
Sending end power factor =
= 0.951 lagging
Sending power factor =
=
6
10 951 . 0 31 . 213 97 . 137745 3


= 83.83 MW
Line efficiency =
= 95.43%
at no load =
2
1
ZY
V
s
+
=
987 . 0
97 . 137745
= 139560.2533 V
Regulation =
= 100
127017
127017 2533 . 139560

=
(e) Taking = , Pressure(p) = 74 cm of mercury
And usin

273
86 . 3 p

=
50 273
74 86 . 3
+


= 0.884
45
Let, = 0.84
Using equation,

,
_

r
D
m r V
eq
d
ln
2
10 3
6


,
_


3
3
6
10 5 . 10
5595 . 7
ln 84 . 0 884 . 0 10 5 . 10
2
10 3
d
V

5 . 108
d
V
Kv

3
10
5 . 108
127017


d
r
V
V
= 1.17
2 . 1
Using table given in section 6.4
F = 0.08
Corona loss =
=
= 0.166
The corona loss (
c
P
) of less than 0.2 kW/phase/km is considered to be tolerable. Hence the
corona loss for this line is within limits.
Total corona loss = 0.166 150 3
= 74.7 kW
(f) When = lagging
= 0.4843
Receiving end reactive power =
= 38.744 MVar lagging
46
When = lagging
=
Receiving end reactive power = 3287 . 0 80
= 26.296 MVar lagging
Capacity of shunt capacitors to improve the receiving end power factor from 0.9 lagging to
0.95 lagging = 296 . 26 744 . 38
= 12.448 MVar leading
(g) When the receiving end power factor has been improved to 0.95 lagging.
=
=
= 220.99
= A
= 221 20 . 18 A
=
= ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + 2 . 68 04 . 69 20 . 18 221 3 . 0 987 . 0 0 127017
= V

,
_

+ +
,
_

+
2
1
4
1
Y Z
I
Y Z
Y V I
r r s
=( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) +

3 . 0 987 . 0 20 . 18 221 14 . 90 10 11 . 396 0 127017
6
= 208.12 6 . 4 A
Sending end power factor =
= 0.985 lagging
Sending end power =
47
= 83.47

83.5 MW
Line efficiency =
= 95.8 %
at no load =
2
1
Y Z
V
s
+
=
987 . 0
13 . 135734
= 137521.9

137522 V
Regulation = 100
127017
127017 137522

= 8.27 %
(h) d(overall diameter of conductor) = 21 m
d = 2.1
2
10

m
Area A = number of strands
2
r
Where r =
2
strand each of diameter
2
2
1000
1
2
3
37 m A

,
_


= 2.6
4
10

sq. M
Now, Youngs Modulus of elasticity E = 91.4
2 9
/ 10 m N
And co-efficient of linear expansion = 18.44 C per
6
10
(Where E and are constants)
Weight w = 974 kg/km

w
= w
3
10

g
= 974
8 . 9
= 9.54 N/m
48
For bad weather conditions (subscript)
d load wind F
w


2
10 1 . 2 378


= 7.938 N/m
( )
2 2
1
w t
F w F +
=
( ) ( )
2 2
938 . 7 54 . 9 +
= 12.41 N/m
factor safety
strenght ultimate
T
1
= kN
5 . 2
67 . 89
= 35868 N ,
1
= 5 C
For erection condition (subscript 2)

2
T ? , C 30
2

Using equation,
( )
24 24
2 2
2
1
2
1 2 1 2
2
2
2 1
l F E A
T
l F E A
E A T T T
t t

1
1
]
1

'


Where tension are T and T
2 1
in N,
is area in sq m
is co-efficient of linear expansion,
E is Youngs Modulus of elasticity in N/m
2 1
and are temperatures in C
49
2 1
t t
F and F
are forces in N/m
l is the length of span in m
now, A E ( )
24 24
2 2
2
1
2 2
1 2
2 1
l F E A
T
l F E A
t t

( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2 4
2
1
2 2
35868 24
300 41 . 12 4 . 91 10 6 . 2
24
1

T
l F E A
t
= 10645.1613
( ) ( )
24
300 54 . 9 10 4 . 91 10 6 . 2
24
2 2 9 4
2 2
2

l F E A
t
= 8110.5
9
10
[ ]
9 2 2
2
10 5 . 8110 161 . 10645 204 . 10955 35868 + + T T
0 10 5 . 8110 6347 . 14267
9 2
2
3
2
T T
Using hit and trial technique,
N T 26140
2

Sag under erection condition =
m
T
l w
2
2
8
Where l = length of span
26140 8
300 300 54 . 9


S
= .41057

4.11 m
Sag under bad weather condition = m
T
l F
t
1
2
8
1

35868 8
300 300 41 . 12


S
50
= 3.89 m
Vertical sag under bad weather condition
Vertical sag = S cos
tan =
i
w
w w
F
+
where
w
F
= wind load or wind force in N

w
F
= p D
Where p = wind pressure
D = diameter of conductor + diameter of ice coating
Since tan =
i
w
w w
F
+
hence

,
_

i
w
w w
F
1 -
tan
Where w = weight of conductor

i
w
= weight of ice
Since theres no ice hence
=
,
_

w
F
w 1
tan
vertical sag = S cos m
= S
1
]
1

,
_

w
F
w 1
tan cos
= 3.89
1
]
1

,
_


54 . 9
938 . 7
tan cos
1
= 2.99

3 m
51

CHAPTER-5
CONCLUSION
In this project we have designed transmission line which comes to be single circuit line
since the required power transfer through a given length is less than SIL (Surge impedance
loading). As per our design requirement the efficiency and regulation of the line comes
within the stipulated limits.
52