SEVERINO CARLOS DA SILVA FELIPE CASADO DE LUCENA

FOR BRAZILIANS

ENGLISH

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Caros Alunos, O compromisso com a educação de todos que compõem a sociedade reflete a prática fiel e cotidiana do exercício da cidadania. Nós, que fazemos a Universidade de Pernambuco, buscamos, em nosso diaa-dia, através da implantação de projetos e de outros procedimentos, honrar esses compromissos com vistas a inserir o homem em seu contexto social, celebrando a sua dignidade, promovendo ações que resultem na construção do homem pelo próprio homem. Respaldada nesses propósitos e fundamentos, a Universidade de Pernambuco, através do Instituto de Apoio à Universidade de Pernambuco – IAUPE, persiste numa caminhada crescente, voltada a ampliar conhecimentos, especificamente nas áreas de línguas estrangeiras e da informática, por estar ciente da relevância que essas assumem na contemporaneidade. Considerado atividade de extensão universitária, o Projeto Línguas e Informática – PROLINFO, em seu terceiro ano de existência, busca, através de seus objetivos e metas, perseverar nas vias da qualidade. A oferta de cursos nas áreas de Inglês, Espanhol e Informática comprova os princípios e a filosofia que permeiam o perfil de uma Universidade visivelmente comprometida com a excelência em todos os segmentos dos quais se julga partícipe. Boa Sorte! Prof. MS. Carlos Silva Coordenador-Geral PROLINFO

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SEVERINO CARLOS DA SILVA FELIPE CASADO DE LUCENA ENGLISH FOR BRAZILIANS 4 EDUPE 2012 3 .

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........................................................... 8 Lesson 2: New York........................... 26 Lesson 5: The Moon Walk ......................................................... 13 Grammar: Passive voice .......................................................... 25 Grammar: Past Perfect ............................... 32 Lesson 6: The White House ....... 19 Numbers ....................................................................................................................................................... 35 Lesson 7: Pablo Picasso ............................................................................ 37 Grammar: Reported Speech.................................................. 7 Grammar: Infinitive/ Gerund ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 33 Grammar: Reflexive Pronouns ................................ 34 Relative Pronouns ............................. 22 Lesson 4: The Red Cross ................................................................................................... 42 5 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 31 Future Perfect Continuous .................................................................CONTENTS Lesson 1: William Shakespeare ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 38 Lesson 8: Christmas ......................................................... 30 Grammar: Future Perfect . 14 Lesson 3: Scotland Yard ....................................................... 42 Grammar: Conditional Sentences ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Grammar: Present Perfect......................................................................... 31 Future Continuous .........................................

.................................................................................................................................... 47 Lesson 2 ...................Exercise Reinforcement .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 63 Lesson 8 ........... 46 Lesson 1 .................................................................................... 55 Lesson 4 .............................................................................................. 66 Song: BEYONCE – If I Were A Boy............................................................................................................................. 56 Lesson 5 .................................................................. 53 Song: U2 – I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For ......................................................................................................... 69 6 ............................. 50 Lesson 3 ................................................................................... 58 Lesson 6 ................................................................................... 60 Lesson 7 ...............................

ORAL QUESTIONS a) b) c) d) Who was William Shakespeare? What was happening in the world when he lived? How many periods are there in his career? Describe the characteristics of each period. Hamlet belongs to this period. England was eager to see her glorious and eventful history on stage so Shakespeare wrote a series of plays. The plays of the second period consist largely of comedies and history. In the beginning he adapted a lot of stories for plays such as Romeo and Juliet. new ideas were rising. He lived at a time when new lands were being discovered. Discussion: Why does the story of Romeo and Juliet interest people even nowadays? 7 . 1 . The last period combines wisdom and a more cheerful outlook on life. and people were anxious to learn all that was to learn.from 1591 to 1611. In the third period Shakespeare begins to question life and death and his plays became sadder and deeply philosophic. There are four periods in his career which covered about twenty years . Neither the plot nor all of the characters were his own. but he put into them such ardor and beauty that they became known as his own. William Shakespeare was an English poet and dramatist born at Stratford-on-Avon.Unit 1 William Shakespeare Listen and practice.

give up. save. a) The gerund can be the subject of a sentence: Smoking costs a lot of money. just add ING: eat + ing = eating c) If there is one vowel and one consonant and the syllable is stressed. resent. Mary suggested going out. avoid.GRAMMAR STRUCTURE GERUND AND INFINITIVE I A gerund is the form of a verb when it acts as a noun. at. keep. The spelling of a gerund depends on the vowels (a. He admitted being wrong. in. SPELLING There are some spelling rules that you need to know in order to form gerunds correctly. can’t help. d) We use gerund after the verbs admit. involve. i. u) and consonants (b. consider. d. delay. Beth apologized for making a mistake. c) The gerund is used after the verb go when it indicates common activities. detest. escape. continue. c. quit. appreciate. suggest. just add ING: drink + ing = drinking b) If there is more than one vowel. deny. b) The gerund is used after prepositions: She is tired of working. imagine. try and understand. enjoy. I’m going camping this morning. a gerund (often known as an -ing word) is a noun formed from a verb by adding -ing. miss. mention. just add ING: study + ing = studying / see + ing = seeing 8 . Some prepositions: of. finish. resist.2 . from. for. Painting is a very good activity. can’t stand. can’t face. risk. about. etc. excuse. with. practice. double the consonant and add ING: put+ ing = putting d) If there are one or more consonants and E.) at the end of the verb: a) If there is more than one consonant. dislike. o. on. e. remove the E and add ING: make + ing = making e) In most other cases. mind. Last week I went swimming. Let’s go shopping. tolerate. confess. f.

..(paint) is a terrific past time..... (hear) from you...... John delayed ................ 9 ..........(wait) for him............... Let me go........ GERUND AND INFINITIVE II Infinitive is the original form of the verb and can be used with or without to........(take) her out for dinner.......... c) After the conjunctions but and except..........3 .. She will cook a meal for dinner... ……………………………………………………………………......... Rewrite the sentences using go + gerund: a) Paul and Tom decided to go for a swim in the river..... She is very fond of ........ a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) The man admitted .. d) Crystal Lake is not a great place to fish. ...........EXERCISES Complete the sentences using the gerund of the verbs............... ………………………………………………………………………..... I have avoided ........... Without to a) After auxiliaries and modals........... I enjoy... They would appreciate .... He finally succeeds in ........ I must go now... c) Peter went for a ride on his bike............(steal) the jewelry................... ………………………………………………………………………....(write) the report until yesterday.....(talk) to him these days.......... I don’t know. You always make me feel happy......... b) I think I‘ll go for a walk after midnight............(spend) a day by the sea.................. ………………………………………………………………………........(swim)...... I can swim. I will do nothing but cry.... b) After the verbs make and let............. I’m tired of .

...... (to talk) to him.here in your house! (stay) I can’t ……………………...... understand... forget...... She is the next to get her passport.......... Complete the sentences with the infinitive of the verbs (with or without to): a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Please......... (answer) We didn’t know how …………………… in front of the teacher.. (agree) They could do nothing but ……………… in silence.. We can’t decide what to eat.. The committee invited all the members ... I don’t know what to do. remember. (visit) 10 .....(to dance). the only.... (study) Marja was the first student …………....... (behave) The students should do nothing except…………………....... Ex: Bernardo agreed to go to the park with me..... 4 ....... shall we? It’s hard ........ (answer) Pamela makes me …………. (be) They decided …………………down and wait some minutes.... (to cry)....... his brother as soon as possible.. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Let’s ... know......... the second...(to participate)..... (to sing) before such a large audience.... the next. I’ll do anything for you but ...to do that......... I can never remember how ………………………. d) We can use verb + question word + infinitive with to with some verbs: ask. It is not my function.. expect... plan... explain.(to study) all day......With to a) After the verbs of saying and thinking agree....... let me………………………........... learn.. I am happy to be here... c) After adjectives.. decide.EXERCISE Use the infinitive with or without to.. There’s nothing for you to do but .. This exercise is difficult to do... hope. (to wash) your car.... the first.......... enough. (feel) Klaus promises……………......... choose.(to spell) her name.... b) After the words: too. (sit) Patty made him ………………. She’s too shy .... decide. promise we use infinitive with to.. His words made her ... comfortable.. learn. the last.the email.. the exercise.......for the test.

smell. Ex: They stopped to talk. ask. c) Some verbs can be followed by the gerund form or the infinitive form without a big change in meaning: begin. [stop doing = to end an action. but with a difference in meaning. [regret to say = to say we are sorry when expressing something unpleasant or giving bad news] 11 . listen to. [remember doing = to first do the action and then remember it later. stop. Ex: They watched the students crossing the road. finish doing something.GERUND AND INFINITIVE III a) Verbs of perception + object + infinitive (without to) or gerund After the verbs see. feel. order and expect we use object + infinitive with to. hate. like. start. love. propose. notice. prefer. [stop to do = to stop so that you can do something. etc) can be followed by gerund or infinitive. regret. tell.] They stopped talking. continue. Ex: I like to play tennis. hear. (or It started raining) e) Verbs followed by gerund or infinitive (different meaning) Some verbs (remember/forget. [regret doing = to feel sorry about something] We regret to say you that your position at the company is being eliminated. [remember to do = to first remember and then do the action] I remember mentioning the meeting yesterday. Ex: My girlfriend advised me to buy new clothes. observe.] Ex: He remembered to turn off the lights before he left. b) Object + infinitive with to After the verbs advise. Infinitive without to with an object to talk about a completed action: Ex: I heard him play the guitar.] Ex: I regretted being late to the interview. intend. watch we use: Gerund with an object to talk about someone doing something. (or I like playing tennis) It started to rain. remind.

..... Bill: Well.......(to look) for the criminal.......... Anyway..... (to write) on the wall........(to be) late................... Diana: I’m afraid of doing this math test........(to sing)......... 7 ......(to study). did you study for the test.... Diana: All I know is that she advised us to study hard... We observed the bird....................... I dislike..CONVERSATION MATH CLASS Listen and practice.........(to make) its nest..5 .... Diana: Sorry for you and me........... but her tests are generally easy..................................... Diana: But I heard the teacher saying it just would be very difficult..... 6 ..... Bill? Bill: Unfortunately........ she loves being a strict teacher....... They started ..........PUZZLE R B X F Q E X G G L G D W G W P U Y E S T U N O A Y K N W B A B N Q B W V I I K R I R G J T Y A N K V P T N M Y I N S I O N W A I G Z T G U T I T V X G H J A L N D U B I G R S M D W N H Z J R G P N N Y W P I U K A I T H X K G A I H N A E K I A I D N P J H N K K H U U V X P Y T A T C G U K T Z D W A H O M I I E G N I K O O C K N Y V N B U N R B J K O G B N L Y Y X W Q Z G X I G A I R H K Q N A F X V D L P D I F A A J N W V U P N I Y D G Z F A I L buying –changing – cooking – going –putting – reading –running –trying – waiting -writing 12 .............EXERCISE Complete these sentences using the gerund form or the infinitive form of the verbs: a) b) c) d) e) f) I heard you... Bill: Take it easy and stop shaking... I haven’t studied...... I saw you ........... He advised us .

describe it. the first name of this city was given by another navigator that worked for the Dutch East Company.ORAL QUESTIONS a) b) c) d) When was New York discovered? What was the first name given to this city? Would you like to visit New York? Why? Even if you haven’t gone to New York yet. Today New York is one of the biggest cities in the world and receives millions of tourists each year. wouldn’t you? 1 . You would like to visit New York. Discussion: City x Country a) Did you grow up in the city or in the country? b) What are some of the advantages of living in a city? c) What are some of the disadvantages of living in a city? d) What are some differences between living in the city and living in the country? e) How can we make our cities safer places to live? 13 . In 1666. called Giovanni da Verrazzano. Both the city and the province were renamed New York. In 1524 an Italian navigator.Unit 2 New York Listen and practice. In fact. the Duke of York. during a war between the English and the Dutch. New Amsterdam was captured by the English and the king Charles II of England gave the colony to his brother. was the first European to arrive at the region that today is called New York. in honor of the Duke.

Present continuous Past continuous Going to Future Future continuous Simple present Simple past Present perfect Past perfect Can Active voice Is writing Was writing Is going to write Will write Will be writing Writes Wrote Has written Had written Can write Passive voice Is being written Was being written Is going to be written Will be written Will be being written Is written Was written Has been written Had been written Can be written Some verbs can have two objects (ask. For example: Somebody offered him an opportunity. but he refused it. who or what is performing the action. Passive verbs are formed from the verb to be (in the adequate time) and the past participle of the verb. but he refused it. tell. show. Jane wrote a letter (active) → A letter was written by Jane (passive) The past participle of regular verbs is done with the ed. we use by: Ex: My brother was bitten by a dog last week Compare active and passive: Ex: Jane writes a letter (active) → A letter is written by Jane (passive) Ex. (Active) object 1 object 2 He was offered an opportunity. pay. (Passive) OR An opportunity was offered to him. Ex: The job will be finished next month.GRAMMAR STRUCTURE PASSIVE VOICE Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. however. but he refused it. (Passive) 14 . teach.2. It is not important or not known. If we want to say who does or what causes the action. offer and give). Ex: My wallet was stolen.

... by us.... (PRESENT SIMPLE) e) Football ………………(play) by two teams of eleven players.........by him every day....... e) They had opened the box............. c) The dog ate the cake...(make) in Japan....................... The box .. g) Bruno rescued three cats.................................by the boys.... 5 – EXERCISE Fill in the gaps with passive verb forms.................(clean) by Debbie............. She .................. Many letters .................. f) We would invite her..... (PAST SIMPLE) i) This notebook .........by them.... was built) by me.. Use the present simple or past simple............... had being opened) by the thieves. (PAST SIMPLE) h) These keys …………………….........(read) by thousands of people.................... (PRESENT SIMPLE) c) These cars ……………………….......(would be invited........EXERCISE Supply the correct form of the verbs in the passive voice.(write) by journalists......................... by the dog..(find) in the library.................................... The cake ................ b) The boys have finished the report.... (PAST SIMPLE) 15 ........... b) The box . (PRESENT SIMPLE) b) English . (PAST SIMPLE) g) The kitchen …………………………............... a) This magazine .(buy) by Andy........................... would be invites) by us if we were the owners...............by her. d) She will read the message......... c) The wardrobe ....... can is carried) by the boy..................... The report ................. 4 – EXERCISE Choose the correct option: a) That church .................................. a) He writes many letters every day....(can be carried.. Three cats………………………by him............................. (PRESENT SIMPLE) d) Newspaper articles .. The message ...(was written..... e) Helen ...... d) Many texts .......(were built..............3 ...........(had been opened................ (PRESENT SIMPLE) f) Yesterday I ..................................... (PAST SIMPLE) j) These books …………………………(leave) in the classroom.(speak) in USA.....(stop) by a policeman... were written) by the students....

Children are visited by Santa Claus on December 6th.. and compare them with Christmas or another popular celebration in your own culture. In the capital city. d) Write about your own cultural traditions using the passive. a) They publish The Times newspaper in London. c) They are destroying the forests in Indonesia. ……………………………………………………………………………….. the pieces of string are pulled by the rollerskaters! 16 . the Christmas tree is seen for the first time by the children. and rewrite these sentences in active voice.6 – EXERCISE Change the sentences from the active to the passive. c) Discuss the traditions. Hungary Fresh fish with rice or potatoes is usually eaten on Christmas Eve. e) They've treated him very well. Reading and writing a) Read the text below and try to match the traditions to the countries. He and his friend Pere Fouettard give sweets to good children and a handful of sticks to bad children. ………………………………………………………………………………. Christmas around the world Belgium St. ………………………………………………………………………………. A sweet bread called cougnou or cougnolle is sometimes eaten on Christmas morning. b) They transport oranges from Valencia to Germany in special crates.. ………………………………………………………………………………. Their shoes are left outside the door or window before they go to bed. French-speaking children are visited by Pere Noel. In the morning they find red bags in them filled with sweets and toys.After this. ………………………………………………………………………………. d) The shark ate the man. Christmas songs are sung and gifts from under the tree are shared.. Nicholas visits on December 4th to find out which children have been good and bad. When he visits again on December 6th good children are given presents and bad children are left twigs in their shoes. it is customary to roller-skate to the church! A piece of string is tied to children's toes before they go to bed. ……………………………………………………………………………….. The other end is hung out the window. f) They haven't cleaned the kitchen yet. b) Highlight the passive. Venezuela An early morning church service called Misa de Aguinaldo is attended daily between December 16th and 24th. The next morning.

6. Anna: And this author was born in New York. 8 – PUZZLE Across 2. I would. The police were______(give) the information 3. And he also tells us in his book the lives of the first navigators to arrive at New York harbor. and it’s really interesting.Syria On Christmas eve. 4. nuts and pastries are eaten for dinner. oranges. it is. The concert has been________(cancel).CONVERSATION Listen and practice. The Christmas story is read by a family member and then the bonfire is lit. I remember being _______(take) to the zoo when I was a child. 3. candles are carried to an unlit bonfire. Robert: Would you know that New York was made by people from all over the world? Anna: Yes. That’s because I know everything about New York’s history. At mass on Christmas day another bonfire is lit and hymns are sung. 7. Something must be ______(do) before it's too late. Chicken. This house was ______(build) in 1985. isn’t it? Robert: Yes. wasn’t he? Robert: Yes. 17 . The room will be _______(clean) later. Down 1. he was born in New York. Have you ever been _______(bite) by a dog? 5. A book was written by a famous author telling about the beginning of this city. Anna: Great! I think I’m going to read this book.

The name Scotland Yard came from a 13th century palace which kings and queens of Scotland used during their state visit to England. In 1890 Scotland Yard moved to a red brick building on the Thames. In the 19th and 20th centuries.Unit 3 Scotland Yard Listen and practice. found inspiration for their novels in the reports of cases solved by the Yard men. Is this true for you? 18 . which in Britain frequently has a Scotland Yard central character. Their writings have helped materially in the development of the cult of the modern detective story. writers such as Sir Arthur Conan. 1.ORAL QUESTIONS a) What’s the origin of the name Scotland Yard? b) Where was it first situated? c) Where did it move to? d) Why did it become famous? e) Who was Sherlock Holmes? Discussion: Books & Reading a) What is your favorite story? b) Who is your favorite author? c) Do you have any ideas for a story for you to write? d) What are some of the books that were recommended to you? e) Do you watch the movie that came from a book? f) Most people say the book is better than the movie. Scotland Yard soon became famous for the difficult cases that it managed to solve. This building was situated near Whitehall and was the first head-quarters of the Metropolitan Police of London. who as the author of Sherlock Holmes stories.

... so far.... We. have started) studying German last year. for... An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present. 19 ..... we use the simple past. has gone) to Miami last week............. We can use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as just...... where......... who.. ever...... Example: He has been to the park twice this week (= and the week isn't over yet..........2..GRAMMAR STRUCTURE PRESENT PERFECT We form the Present Perfect with have/has + the past participle of the main verb..... 3 – EXERCISE Choose the correct alternative: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Paul . never.) 3... up to now.......(started... Example: I have just finished my homework... I.(read. An action that was completed in the very recent past (expressed by 'just')...... They....... She.... has lived) here all her life............. Example: Daniel read 'War and Peace' last week.. (the result of his reading is important) Note: When we want to give or ask details about when. already..... I ........ have visited) Miami many times. An action performed during a period that has not finished yet.. yet.) 2.... Example: We have visited Miami several times..(lived...(visited........................ An action when the time is not important....... He.... have read) that story several times.... A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now. recently... 4.. Example: Daniel has read 'War and Peace'.(had.................. Example: I have lived in Recife since 1998 (= and I still do......(wrote............. The present perfect is used to describe: 1........ have had) dinner an hour ago..... 5. has written) his name in my book. since.......(went.......

.... ever........(finish) my homework....(lose) his car keys. She.. (lose) your bag? What ........ yesterday. He..(tell) you? FOR AND SINCE WITH PRESENT PERFECT We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.........(spend) all our money last night...... last week...................(do) this exercise before...(swim) in the river....... ........ I . she ............ after etc.................... For example: when...PRESENT PERFECT X PAST SIMPLE We use the Past Simple tense to talk about a definite finished time in the past.......EXERCISE Supply the simple past or the present perfect: a) I.............(buy) that old car two years ago........... when I was at school........ She .............. For example: today........(meet) all her friends last week.......(spend) much money.... b) When I was a boy.......... Have you ever smoked a cigarette? I have never been abroad before.... then.. recently..... Examples I haven't seen her today................................ We use the Present Perfect tense with time references that refer to the time up to now..........................(cook) our lunch. We ............... I. Where did we first meet? I didn't study French at school............................... never. c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) John... 4 ...................... already........(send) you a card....... yet etc...... this week......... 20 ..... Examples I finished university three years ago........................... you ..... They............ this month.............. We..

I was a boy..... 5 – EXERCISE Supply since or for: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) We have lived there..... 6 years....5 minutes....Have you done your homework? ....... She has worked in Miami for a long time... With Present Perfect already usually goes after have or has and before the main verb...... We use since to talk about a point in past time ......We've already had our lunch. 2 weeks. .....many weeks... thanks.Not yet............... We have lived there............ Monday..... Examples I have been here for 30 minutes........But I've already done it! ... We haven’t spoken Spanish . She has worked in San Francisco since she left school..three o’clock.Has the pack arrived yet? ...... Eduardo hasn't called for 6 months... Gregory hasn't called since January...... I have been here since 10 o'clock...... We usually put it at the end of a sentence...... It has rained ..9 o'clock. The bell has rung.......last Christmas...When are you going to do your homework? ...Do you want a cup of tea? ... 1st January...We use for to talk about a period of time .last year..... I've already had one..... 21 ........ Examples ...two years.half an hour..............No. Examples .. Nobody has written to me.. YET AND ALREADY WITH PRESENT PERFECT Already means that something happened earlier than we expected.. I haven’t eaten any meat ." Yet means that something that we expected has happened or hasn't happened......

- Haven't you got ready yet? Look at the time! 6- EXERCISE Supply yet or already: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) I’ve........................done my exercises. She hasn’t answered the question .................. They’ve...........................talked to me. Have you.............................invited her? Has she left.......................? We haven’t finished our homework....................... He has .........................been to New York. NUMBERS Listen and repeat. 1234567891011121320304050607080901001,0001,000,000CARDINAL NUMBERS One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Twenty Thirty Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Eighty Ninety One hundred One thousand One million ORDINAL NUMBERS First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth Eleventh Twelfth Thirteenth Twentieth Thirtieth Fortieth Fiftieth Sixtieth Seventieth Eightieth Ninetieth One hundredth One thousandth One millionth

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Separation between hundreds and tens Hundreds and tens are usually separated by 'and' (in American English 'and' is not necessary). 110 - one hundred and ten 1,250 - one thousand, two hundred and fifty 2,001 - two thousand and one Hundreds Use 100 always with 'a' or 'one'. 100 - a hundred / one hundred 'a' can only stand at the beginning of a number. 100 - a hundred / one hundred 2,100 - two thousand, one hundred Thousands and Millions Use 1,000 and 1,000,000 always with 'a' or 'one'. 1,000 - a thousand / one thousand 201,000 - two hundred and one thousand Use commas as a separator. 57,458,302 DATES THE ORDINAL NUMBER + OF + THE MONTH 15/1 = the 15th of January When writing the date as numbers British and American English differ. To write the date 7th of September 2007 a Brit would write dd/mm/yy (07/09/07) and an American would write mm/dd/yy (09/07/07). This often causes great confusion. It's better to write the date in full (7th September 2007 or September 7th 2007). It also looks nicer.
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7- EXERCISE Write the dates below. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) 22/2………………………………………………………………………………….. 3/12………………………………………………………………………………….. 8/11…………………………………………………………………………………. 23/7………………………………………………………………………………….. 19/1………………………………………………………………………………….. 5/8…………………………………………………………………………………… 1/1 …………………………………………………………………………………... 20/9 …………………………………………………………………………………. 30/4………………………………………………………………………………….. 7/5……………………………………………………………………………………

8- READING

TALKING ABOUT THE CLASS

Listen and practice. Brandon: I didn’t like the class today. Louise: Of course not. You slept all the time. Brandon:: These last days, the teacher has only taught boring subjects. Louise: Boring, but important for our lives. Imagine how life would be if men hadn’t discovered the micro-organisms. Brandon: I’m seeing that you’re very interested in Biology. Would you help me giving extra classes? Louise: Yes, I would. But first you’re going to promise me that you’re going to study hard. Brandon: Ok, teacher. I wait you at 7:00 pm in my house.

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Dunant offered the warwounded medical help and established an emergency hospital in the village of Castiglione. Henri Dunant. the symbol adopted by the movement is a red cross on a white background – the reverse of the Swiss flag. who invested all of his fortune in it. Discussion: Health care a) b) c) d) e) f) How is the health care in your country? Is the health care in your country getting better or worse? Is health care in your country free for some people? Do you ever think about health care for when you are old? What is health care like for old and poor people in your country? Is your country’s health care system in need of reform? 25 . and his own experience in the battlefield. In his honor. The International Red Cross was founded by a Swiss. Nowadays the Red Cross operates in several countries and although they work independently. 1. there is an international committee in Switzerland composed by 25 Swiss citizens which can act as a neutral intermediary between conflicting nations. He had two inspirations to found the Red Cross: the brilliant example of the English Nurse Florence Nightingale that helped the war-wounded.ORAL QUESTIONS: a) Why the name red cross? b) Which inspirations did Henri Dunant have? c) Tell us about the Red Cross nowadays.Unit 4 The Red Cross Listen and practice.

26 ." . When we arrived. .EXERCISES Complete the sentences with the past perfect tense: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) I dressed after I……………………………. The past perfect tense is used to express an action that happened before the other one in the past. She lost the key she had bought last year. The boys…………………………………(leave) before I arrived. They were hungry. I didn't know who he was.(wash) the apple before she ate it. We arrived at 9. the train had left."Really? Where had she gone?" 3 . we use Past Perfect.2 . when we look back from a certain time in the past to tell what had happened before. He……………………………………. They………………………………(do) nothing before they met me..15am. I had never seen him before. However. We were sorry that we………………………………(hurt) him.(do). After they ……………………………… (go)."Mary wasn't at home when I arrived.(write) it.(wash). They…………………………………. Examples The train left at 9am.GRAMMAR STRUCTURE THE PAST PERFECT TENSE We form the past perfect tense with the past of the verb TO HAVE + THE PAST PARTICIPLE of the main verb.(clean) the room before I called them. I wasn't hungry. I had just eaten. I thanked him for what he………………………………. She posted the letter after she ……………………………. He told me her name after she………………………………(leave). PAST SIMPLE X PAST PERFECT We use Past Simple if we give past events in the order in which they occured. I sat down and rested. They had not eaten for five hours.

everyone had left.(arrive) before you left? i) ……………….Examples By the time we arrived..(paint) the house after he had bought it. b) Jill_______________ (to phone) Dad at work before she____________ (to leave) for her trip. f) I………………………………. f) Before he _____________(to sing) a song he ________________(to play) the guitar..he……………………(go) to the party before you slept? Put the verbs in brackets into the gaps in the correct tense Past Perfect or Simple Past. The thieves had run away when the police arrived The store had closed when I got there Now complete with the simple past or the past perfect tense: a) She lost the book he……………………………….(write) two letters before the secretary entered the room.(enter) the room. e) After the man _____________ (to come) home he ____________ (to feed) the cat.(give) her. b) He…………………………. a) After Fred ____________(to spend) his holiday in Italy he_____________ (to want) to learn Italian. h) After Eric ________________ (to make) breakfast he ________________ (to phone) his friend. c) Susan ______________ (to turn on) the radio after she_____________ (to wash) the dishes. d) When she ______________(to arrive) the match _____________already ___________(to start)..(see) the film before you talked about it.. i) I _____________(to be) very tired because I __________________(to study) too much. j) They_________________ (to ride) their bikes before they______________ (to meet) their friends.(fall) from the tree.you……………………(have) dinner before he woke up? j) ………………. I…………………………. h) ………………..(wash) the dishes. he had finished the exercises. c) I……………………………. e) When the teacher………………………………. d) After they had had lunch. 27 . g) He told me that he……………………………. g) She _________________ (to watch) a video after the children _____________ (to go) to bed..they ………………….

Generally I don’t remember my dreams. and alligators. this wild animal had chewed all my bones. I remember perfectly what I dreamed. Sometimes. Paulo COUNTRY Japan Italy Spain Germany France USA USA USA Brazil Now fill in the blanks with the corresponding names of the newspapers: NATIONALITY Spanish French German Italian Japanese American Brazilian 28 NEWSPAPER .READING MY LAST DREAM Listen and practice. As soon as I wake up. The last time I dreamed. suddenly I woke up and breathed smoothly: My God. my mind comes to the reality and I forget that I had just finished to sleep for hours. I was eaten by an alligator and before someone helped me. tigers.4. But when I was fighting against this animal. I was saved! 5.FOR YOUR INFORMATION The most important newspapers in the world PUBLICATION Asahi Shimbun Corriere della sera El Pais Frankfurt Allgemeine Zeitung Le Monde The New York times The Wall Street Journal The Washington Post O Estado de S. All this happened because I had entered in a big forest full of lions.

why). The least important information can be found at the bottom of the story. most of the 5 W’s (who. This means all the important information. when. or pyramid. can be found in the lede or lead (the first paragraph of the news).The Inverted Pyramid Most news stories are written in the inverted pyramid style. 29 . what. Information and quotes are added according to their importance. where.

with a lot of craters. After a four-day journey. one giant leap for mankind”. After 2 hours and 21 minutes they entered the lunar module and started their journey back to Earth. and Michael Collins reached the Moon on July 20th. Because of the weaker gravity of the Moon they could jump easily and everything weighted about one-sixth of its normal weight. the three astronauts Neil Armstrong. Edwin Aldrin. Neil Armstrong was the first to leave the module and when his left foot stepped on the surface of the Moon said: “That’s one small step for a man. After nineteen minutes Aldrin joined Armstrong outside the module. The surface of the Moon is empty. 1969. yet Armstrong described it as having a beauty of its own.Unit 5 The Moon Walk Listen and practice. While Michael Collins piloted the command module round the Moon. gray and white. almost flat. 1 – ORAL QUESTIONS: a) b) c) d) When did the astronauts reach the Moon? Which of them piloted the module while the others were landing? What’s the famous sentence of Neil Armstrong? What happened because of the gravity? Discussion: Moon What images spring to mind when you hear the word ‘moon’? 30 . Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin landed in a lunar module at a place called the Sea of Tranquility.

........................... When mother comes...............GRAMMAR STRUCTURE FUTURE PERFECT (will + have + past participle) The future perfect express an action that will be concluded in the future.. I . William won't be coming any time soon........ The last use is to express certainty that an action was completed.............m....... We have to look for another way to get there....EXERCISE Complete these sentences with the future perfect.(clean) my room.............. By midnight they ..... Examples: Before they come..... Examples: In an hour............. FUTURE CONTINUOUS (will + be + verb + ing) We mainly use it to indicate that we will be in the middle of doing something in a specified time in the future.............(be) in this town for two years next June.(complete) your work by April.... You ..........2 . She ... I will have known Barbara for 30 years... I will be sitting in front of my TV. By the next year. but before a point in the future..... (I'm sure the train has left) 3 .. We also use this tense to express situations that will last for a specified period of time at a definite moment in the future.. She. Will you be coming home before or after 10 p..... We .(write) the letter tomorrow morning....? 31 ...(learn) our lessons by tomorrow. we will have cleaned up the room........ They .. The train will have left by now.................. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) The plane .........(land) by 4 o’clock.....(finish) their homework...... He is still at the school.........(meet) her tomorrow at this time.........

By midnight. 3. Joe: Too bad! I think I still will be a handsome guy! Cindy: Oh. so he will be very tired.________________________________________________________________________ 2.________________________________________________________________________ 5. Cindy: Joe. we ______________________(renovate) for over a month. 4 . He ___________________________(work) there for 10 years by 2015.________________________________________________________________________ FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS (will + have + been + verb + ing) We use it to express situations that will last for a specified period of time at a definite moment in the future. By dinner.________________________________________________________________________ 3. 2. Write 5 things that you will be doing tomorrow. Start with 8a. and I’ll probably work at another planet. For example.Imagine that you're a businessman with a busy day tomorrow. Examples: Before my parents come. By next week. what will you do when you grow up? Joe: I will be an astronaut. I’m not Cindy. 5.________________________________________________________________________ 4. at 2050 the men will have gone many times to Mars. By this time. Joe! 32 . Cindy: That’s great! But at this time I will have gotten some rankles on my face. she ______________________(cook) the whole afternoon. By next year. 4." 1.m. he will have been working for 12 hours. I’ve read in magazines and newspapers that soon the men will reach other planets. you ___________________(dance) for 4 hours. Example.EXERCISE Change the verb into the future perfect continuous: 1. I _______________________(study) English for 7 years. we will have been cleaning the apartment for 5 hours. We also use this tense to express certainty about the cause of some future situation. READING WHEN I’LL GROW UP Listen and practice.: "I will be going to a conference tomorrow at 10 a.m. Cindy: Another planet! Are you getting crazy? Joe: No.

which is used for receptions. 1. Discussion: USA a) What are the good things and bad things about the USA? b) What are the differences between the USA and your country? c) Would you like to visit the USA.C. giving the mansion its name. The White House has two floors.. knew this city would become the capital of an important country. is of French 18th century influence.ORAL QUESTIONS: a) Who was Pierre L’Efant and what did he do? b) What happened during the war between the United States and Great Britain? c) Describe the White House. or live there? 33 . The room where Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Act – by which all slaves became free – is still as it used to be. Most of the furniture on the first floor.Unit 6 The White House Listen and practice. During the war between the United States and Great Britain in 1812 the British burned the president’s house leaving only walls standing. So he designed the buildings in a Greek style giving an impression of greatness. D. Pierre L’Enfant. The house was then painted white. The second floor is the president’s private residence. who was the author of the plans for the city of Washington. a French engineer.

... There are eight reflexive pronouns: Singular Plural Reflexive pronoun myself yourself himself..... The old woman likes to live by .. • The Reflexive Pronouns can be used to give emphasis She talked to the President herself (emphasis in the subject) She talked to the President himself (emphasis in the object) 3........ • By + Reflexive Pronouns Idiomatically (sozinho/ sem ajuda) I live by myself....... is responsible for the children.. in the park................................................... during the game.............................. The boys cut ....... I hurt .... herself............. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) He ..... We saw the king ....... We blame ourselves........2... Reflexive pronouns end in "-self" (singular) or "-selves" (plural)..EXERCISE Supply the correct reflexive pronouns.......... Behave .... She .... 34 .GRAMMAR STRUCTURE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS We use a reflexive pronoun when we want to refer back to the subject of the sentence or clause. in the garden.. itself ourselves yourselves themselves • Verb + Reflexive Pronouns Examples: I saw myself in the mirror........... children. He hurt himself in the game.prefers to cook lunch...

. The boy whose bicycle is broken is my friend. My mother knows everything .. you put your shoes cost 300 dollars. car has been stolen.... glitter is not gold. There are five relative pronouns: who.................. Whose is for possession. "who": relates to "person".... he likes............. Examples: A thief is a person who steals things.. Supply all possible relative pronouns. In the above example.RELATIVE PRONOUNS A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause....... which... you had put the flowers..... that. which it modifies. is written in this book.......................... introduces the relative clause "who phoned me last night"...... I broke the vase in .... Here is an example: Example: The person who phoned me last night is my teacher................. Who (subject) and whom (object) are generally only for people... He invented the telephone It cannot be explained a) they were on the wall they stole my car The Police have caught the man_________________________________________ 35 . The table on ..... That can be used for people and things and as subject and object in defining relative clauses (clauses that are essential to the sentence and do not simply add extra information)... The person whom I phoned last night is my teacher........ The man to . It is called a "relative" pronoun because it "relates" to the word that it modifies. whom...... you gave the money has died. There is the lady ........ The car which hit me was yellow............. Complete the sentences.. Which is for things....... Choose the best ending from the box and change it into a relative pronoun... All ........... An airplane is a machine that flies........ whose... a) b) c) d) e) f) g) he was speaking about the books and the writes ..

b) c) d) Alexander Bell was the man____________________________________________ A mistery is something________________________________________________ What happened to the pictures __________________________________________ Combine the sentences using defining relative pronouns. d) I rent a house. She spoke to me yesterday. _____________________________________________________________ . _____________________________________________________________ . e) The car was stolen. READING WHAT A BEAUTIFUL DAY Listen and practice. it can be omitted. b) What's the name of the book? You want me to read it. It is very small. The hotel was very expensive. _____________________________________________________________ . _____________________________________________________________ . milk and honey The family around the table It values more than money We go out through the gardens We can see the butterflies The heat warms our hearts And the peace passes by 36 . a) That's the girl. _____________________________________________________________ . When the relative pronoun is an object. When the sun rises in the mountains I open my window And let him come in I see the beauty of the flowers Like I have never seen I prepare myself some coffee The children wake up themselves Toast. It was a BMW. c) We stayed in a hotel.

Picasso had to paint a picture of a lady who visited the painter’s studio eighty or ninety times while he was painting her picture. they talked about everything in the world that interested them. After some months he returned to the unfinished picture in the corner of the studio and completed the face from memory.Unit 7 Pablo Picasso Listen and practice. “when I look at you I can’t see you anymore”. What great painters should do is give us a view of life through their eyes and every man’s view is different. etc? e) Do you think anyone can be an artist or do you need a special talent? 37 . 1. ceramics. Picasso said. sculpture. Picasso said a camera can make a more exact picture than a painter. When the people complained that the painting didn’t look like her.ORAL QUESTIONS: a) What Picasso had to do in 1906? b) Did the woman like her picture? c) What’s Picasso’s opinion about the art of painting? Discussion: Art a) How great is your interest in art? b) Do you like modern art? c) Do you ever think a lot of art is not really art? d) What kind of art do you like – paintings. One day Picasso eraser the painted head and said. While he painted. Later the lady declared that Picasso’s painting was only a true picture of hers. “Too bad she’ll have to change to look like the picture”. In 1906.

He said 'I may buy a new car.’ He said he had already eaten. He said 'I will give Jack a call'.’ He said 'I can come tonight.' before He said 'I had already eaten.' He said he might buy a new car. The structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a statement. He said 'I have to give Ken a call.2. you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. He said 'I am going to find a new job. He said he had gone to New York the week He said ‘I went to New York last week. but reported (indirect) speech. a) Emily: "Our teacher will go to Leipzig tomorrow. He said 'I have been working on that project for He said he had been working on that project for over two weeks. over two weeks. although it is sometimes not necessary. Therefore. He said 'I should see a doctor.GRAMMAR STRUCTURE REPORTED SPEECH If we report what another person has said." Helen told me that __________________________________________ 38 .' He said he might go to Denver. Direct speech He said 'I live in Paris. He said 'I must give Ken a call. we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech). question or request. He said he had visited London twice. Always change the tense.’ He said he was going to find a new job.’ He said 'I am cooking dinner.' He said he had to give Ken a call.' He said he should see a doctor. He said he would give Jack a call.EXERCISE Finish the sentences using Reported speech. He said he was cooking dinner.' He said 'I have visited London twice.’ He said he could come that night. 3 ." Peter told me that ___________________________________________ Answer: Peter told me that he had cleaned the black shoes the day before." Emily said that _____________________________________________ b) Helen: "I was writing a letter yesterday. He said 'I might go to Denver.' Indirect speech He said he lived in paris. Example: Peter: "I cleaned the black shoes yesterday.' He said he had to give Ken a call.

" Andrew remarked that _______________________________________ i) Alice: "I spent all my pocket money on Monday." Robert told me that _________________________________________ d) Lisa: "Tim went to the stadium an hour ago." Alice complained that ________________________________________ j) David: "John had already gone at six. Your classmate Gareth does not understand her." David said that ______________________________________________ Helen is in front of the class holding a presentation on London. so you have to repeat every sentence to him.c) Robert: "My father flew to Dallas last year. Note the change of pronouns and verbs." Jason and Victoria told me that _______________________________ h) Andrew: "We didn't eat fish two days ago." Patricia said that ___________________________________________ f) Michael: "I am going to read a book this week. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says___________________________________________________________ Helen: I went to London in July. As Helen is rather shy. Helen: I want to tell you something about my holiday in London. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says __________________________________________________________ Helen: London is a multicultural place. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says __________________________________________________________ Helen: We spent three days in London." Lisa said that ______________________________________________ e) Patricia: "My mother will celebrate her birthday next weekend. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says __________________________________________________________ Helen: My parents went with me. Complete the sentences in reported speech. she speaks with a very low voice. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says __________________________________________________________ 39 ." Michael said to me that ______________________________________ g) Jason and Victoria: "We will do our best in the exams tomorrow.

Where did they first meet? ) In the park ) At the Swimming Donut ) At Tim's Brother's house Why was Tim's suggestion funny? ) He was supposedly on a diet.. aren't you?!" They both began to laugh as they had met each other the week before at a party that Jack had given. ) The name of the cafe was strange.. I wasn't watching my step either. Jack's brother. ) He wasn't paying attention. "You're Tim. "I thought you wanted to continue your diet!" They both were still laughing by the time they reached the Swimming Donut cafe. No really. Whose fault was the incident? ) Tim's ) Sheila's ) It's not clear. Sheila responded. 40 . Smiling..Reading and writing Read this short extract about a funny incident in the park." when BOOM! and bumped into another city dweller out for a day's walk in the park." Suddenly they both stopped making excuses and stared at each other. "Don't I know you from somewhere?" inquired Tim while Sheila exclaimed. "I was so caught up in my thoughts I didn't see you!" he managed to stammer. answer the reading comprehension questions and complete the reported speech activity. ) He was writing his thoughts down. Comprehension Questions a) ( ( ( b) ( ( ( c) ( ( ( d) ( ( ( Why did Tim bump into Sheila? ) He was on a diet. he apologized. Tim suggested.. "I'm terribly sorry". "Why don't we have a cup a coffee and donut?" to which Sheila replied. Continue to the next page for answers. Still laughing. Guess Who I Bumped Into? Tim wandered along the path thinking aloud. "If I continue this diet I should lose twenty pounds by the end of. "It's OK. ) They were on a walk and there were no donuts in the park. Once you have finished. Nothing's broken.

I think you should learn to play volleyball. I don’t know how to play soccer. As he was walking down the path Tim said if he ____ ____ diet he ____ lose twenty pounds. But when I grew up I realized that I love soccer. At that moment we recognized each other! He asked me if he ____ ____ from somewhere. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 41 . Now. change the text above into indirect speech. I told him it ____ OK. READING Listen and practice. Jill: Well. I prefer volleyball. Clark: I may go to the beach this weekend. so I added that I ____ my step either. that nothing ____ broken. We had a great time together. you can come with me. He apologized saying he ____ terribly sorry. Jill: Oh really. Clark: My mom used to take me to the volleyball classes when I was a boy. Jill: That’s nice. It must be great to play soccer in the beach. So I hope you’ll be a professional soccer player. Check your answers on the following page. We bumped into each other. can I go with you? Clark: If it’s not raining. He seemed embarrassed. I then remembered that he was Jack's brother. Tim said he ____ so caught up in ____ thoughts that he ____ ____. Fill in the blanks with reported (indirect) speech using the text above. We both had a good laugh and then he invited me to have a cup of coffee and a donut.Later that day Sheila reported the story to her friend Mike.

how I miss the Christmas in my childhood! 1 .Unit 8 Christmas Listen and practice. my mom told me that we were going to spend the Christmas at my grandmother’s house and I was too happy. wine for adults. when there was much snow on the streets and the cold was too intense. Once. we would have a special dinner: turkey. And every December. When I was a child. because I knew the family would be together and certainly. Oh. and some delicious desserts. my dad used to tell me stories about the Christmas.ORAL QUESTIONS: a) What’s the best Christmas you’ve ever had? b) Have your feelings towards Christmas changed since you were a child? c) What do you usually do on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day? d) Is Christmas too commercial nowadays? 42 . I used to open my window hoping that Santa Claus would come and left a Christmas gift for me. Besides. But the thing I liked most in my childhood at Christmas time was the peace and happiness that any child can feel at this time of the year. my grandma always placed a very Beautiful Christmas tree in the middle of the living room.

2. First Conditional: Real Possibility We are talking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition or situation in the future. We are thinking about a particular condition in the future. But there is not a real possibility that this condition will happen. it snowed next July would you be surprised? it snowed next July what would you do? 43 . IF condition past simple If If If If I married Kelly Bob became rich Result WOULD + base verb I would be happy. he will invite her. There is a real possibility that this condition will happen. and the result of this condition. and the result of this condition. she would marry him. their teacher will be sad. will you stay at home? what will you do? If If If If If I see Antony Natalie is free tomorrow they do not pass their exam it rains tomorrow it rains tomorrow Second Conditional: Unreal Possibility or Dream We are still thinking about the future.GRAMMAR STRUCTURE CONDITIONAL SENTENCES These sentences express a condition and generally come linked with the main sentence. IF condition present simple result WILL + base verb I will tell him.

” c) And the cow said. would you have stayed at home? what would you have done? 3 – EXERCISE Complete the conditional sentences. I would give you milk if you ______________(get) me some hay. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. went to the cow.Note: After I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was'.” said the mouse. (Some people think that 'were' is the only 'correct' form but other people think 'was' is equally 'correct' . “Give me back my tail. however. their teacher would have been sad. I _________________(give) you back your tail if you fetched me some milk. “The cat ______________(give / only) me back my tail if I fetch her some milk. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. a) Once upon a time the cat bit the mouse's tail off.) Ex: If I were you. “Well. IF Condition past perfect If If If If If I had seen Sasha Heather had been free yesterday they had not passed their exam it had rained yesterday it had rained yesterday result WOULD HAVE + past participle I would have told her. I would have invited her. I'd look for a new place to live. The third conditional is also like a dream. “Well.” 44 .” b) The mouse. That is why there is no possibility for this condition. but with no possibility of the dream coming true. Third Condition: No Possibility We talk about a condition in the past that did not happen. And the cat said.

Who he/she would call if he/she won the lottery. “Well. to take him to Egypt. Indeed he was born in an old horn in a little town called Nazareth. where He would be kept away from the bad king Herodes. but just about all the Christians have chosen this time of the year to mark Jesus’ birth. When Jesus was born.” e) And the farmer said. And the cow ____________(only / give) me milk if I get her some hay. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. went to the butcher.” f) The mouse. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow __________________(give) me some milk. I would give you meat if you ________________ (make) the baker bake me a bread. however. 5.READING Listen and practice. Jesus didn’t come to the rich. but to the poor people. however.” 4. His parents used a donkey. Where he/she will go if he/she sees his/her best friend tonight. In fact. 45 . And the farmer __________________(only / give) me hay if I get him some meat. we don’t know if Jesus was born in December. Change these statements into questions to ask your partner: What he/she would have done if he/she had seen his/her idol. Three foreign kings from the orient came to visit him and gave him gifts to welcome the king of the kings. “Well.” g) And the butcher said. I would give you hay if you _____________(bring) me some meat. went to the farmer. the world was happy because the king of the kings came to the world to save every soul from the darkness.d) The mouse. And the cow will only give me milk if she ______________ (get) some hay. and not a horse. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow _________________(give) me milk.

ENGLISH FOR BRAZILIANS 4 Exercises Reinforcement 46 .

and rushed to the library. Did you really think I would forget ______________(write) it?" 47 . Yuri intended _____________(do) the assignment. he was alarmed _________________(see) the professor approaching him. i) We insist on ____________________(cook) the dinner ourselves. e) You should give up ___________________(smoke) . studying History. The following week. c) I don't like ___________________(play) cards. looking angry. he suddenly remembered it. and quickly typed it out. you must be very stupid. "Every word is taken from an article I wrote myself five years ago. g) He is interested in ____________________(make) friends. he submitted the paper. Yuri was in his first year at university. Yuri denied _______________(copy) the paper. h) My uncle is afraid of __________________(go) by plane. or did you copy it?" asked the professor. so finally he decided __________________(cheat) and copy his paper from somewhere else. The next day. due in two weeks. his history professor gave out an assignment. He found an old article on the same topic.UNIT 1 1) Complete the sentences with the gerund form of the verbs in parentheses. "Is this your own work. He was rather a lazy student. The night before the assignment was due. "If you expect me _______________(believe) that. The following week. d) They are afraid of ____________________(swim) in the sea. 2) Complete with gerund or infinitive. j) Thank you so much for ____________________ (be) by my side. b) He is crazy about ___________________(sing) . he forgot ______________(do) it. but there wasn't enough time. but he postponed _____________(write) it for a week. f) Sam dreams of ____________________(be) a pop star. a) She is good at __________________(dance) . In the middle of the semester." said the professor. and he tended to avoid ______________(work) whenever he could. but the History professor was known to be very tough on students. He tried _________________(read) as much as possible on the topic. Yuri considered (ask) for more time to do his paper.

________________________________________________ I’m tired. 4) Use the words below to complete the sentences by making suggestions with Let’s: Have a rest – go for a drink – go and see it – go inside – do another exercise – ask someone for help a) b) c) d) e) f) I’m thirsty. (agree) We could do nothing but __________quiet.______________________________________________________ There’s a good film on at the cinema. We hope _________________(be) ready soon. My parents don't allow my sister ________________ (eat) much candy. (study) I cannot _______________ to do that. Let’s___________________________________________________ It’s very hot._________________________________________________________ We’re lost.___________________________________ I need more practice. let me _________________here. We don't permit ___________________(park) outside. (sit) I made him _____________ the letter.3) A gerund or an infinitive? Change the verb in brackets into the correct form (note that in some cases both forms can be correct). a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) My reasons for _______________ (accept) the position are well known. We enjoy ______________(watch) movies. (behave) 48 . The frozen lake is likely _______________ (melt) soon. The opportunity ________________(see) Rome excited her. This teacher doesn't permit students ________________(speak) in class. (be) They told me _______________down. (answer) He didn’t know how ______________ in front of her. The doctor advised ______________(rest) a couple of days.________________________________________________________ 5) Complete the sentences with the infinitive of the verbs in brackets with or without to: a) b) c) d) e) f) Please.

He received the same award from Oxford University in 1907. known as the Innocent Abroad.His wife Olivia died. 1869. 1888. Mark Twain Timeline: 1835.He traveled to Europe and the Middle East.Mark Twain first met Olivia Livy Langdon in 1868. 1857. better known by his pen name Mark Twain. Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30.Mark’s father John Clemens died of pneumonia in 1847.Yale University awarded him an honorary Doctor of Letters degree. 1910.Mark moved to his home in Redding. The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County was first published in the New York Saturday Press and became a bestseller within a short span of time. India and New Zealand. 1868. 1909. 1863. 1904.Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on 30 November 1835.com/profiles/mark-twain-64.Mark wrote the first humorous account of his travel.They moved to Hartford. 1901. New York. 1871. Missouri in the United States and died of a heart attack on 21 April 1910 in Redding in Connecticut and now rests at the Woodlawn Cemetery in Elmira. 1858. 1867. essayist. 1870.His daughter Susy died of meningitis in 1896. 1896. 1847.php 1. Connecticut in 1908. 1907. 1908.He set off on a world tour to Australia.Mark Twain was awarded the Master of Art degree from Yale University. lecturer and humorist who wrote a series of famous books including Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.He traveled to New Orleans and became an apprentice cub river pilot. where his wife and other children were buried.Mark married Olivia in 1870.He earned his license as a pilot.thefamouspeople. was an American author. Have you heard of Mark Twain? ____________________________________________________________________ 2.Mark took a job of typesetter in 1851. 1851. Adapted from: http://www. 1895. What were his remarkable books? ____________________________________________________________________ 3. What did he die of? ____________________________________________________________________ 49 .Mark twain died of a heart attack on 21 April 1910.His daughter Jean died in 1909. Who was he married to? ____________________________________________________________________ 5. Mark's first important work. 1835 in Florida.Mark Twain Samuel Langhorne Clemens.He wrote first travels letters. Canada. When and where was Twain born? ____________________________________________________________________ 4.

______________________________________________________________________ f) The dog bit the old lady. a) She bought four apples. ______________________________________________________________________ 2) Rewrite the given sentences in passive voice. ______________________________________________________________________ h) Oliver taught the children. ______________________________________________________________________ j) Grandmother told good stories. ______________________________________________________________________ i) Victoria rode the brown horse.Simple Present) ____________________________________________________ 50 . ______________________________________________________________________ g) Tom and Max ate five hamburgers. (to explain . Use the verb and the tense given in brackets. a) Julia rescued three cats. ______________________________________________________________________ b) They play handball. ______________________________________________________________________ c) The man stole the blue car. ______________________________________________________________________ d) The police arrested the thieves. ______________________________________________________________________ d) Steven has forgotten the book. ______________________________________________________________________ 3) Put in the correct form of the verb in Passive into the gaps. ______________________________________________________________________ c) The girls had lost the match. ______________________________________________________________________ e) Jack swam the 200 metres. ______________________________________________________________________ b) We won the match. a) The words by the teacher today.UNIT 2 1) Rewrite the sentences using passive voice.

will-future) ____________________________________________________ d) This street because of snow.___________________________________________________ You ought to wash the car. 51 .Present Perfect) ____________________________________________________ e) A new restaurant next week. c) We will give you a discount if you buy 100. e) The president of the company is listening to his proposal.________________________________________________ They need not buy bread. a) Many people begin new projects in January. d) I have improved the presentation. (already/to close . A discount _____________ if you buy 100.b) We a letter the day before yesterday. It's too old. The customers ______________ yesterday afternoon. (to open .______________________________________________ He must fill in the form. The presentation _________________ . a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) I can answer the question.__________________________________________ Will the teacher test our English?_________________________________________ Could Jenny lock the door? _____________________________________________ 5) Please put the correct passive form into the box. New projects _____________ by many people in January.___________________________________________ We might play cards.will-future) ___________________________________________________ 4) Rewrite the sentences in passive voice. ______________________________________________ She would carry the box. b) They called the customers yesterday afternoon.Simple Past) ____________________________________________________ c) This car ._______________________________________________ He could not read the sentence. (not/to steal . (to send . _______________________________________________ You should open the window. His proposal _________________ to by the president of the company.

fashion. but its most famous is “The City of Lights”. One of the most popular convention centers is entitled the Palais des Congrès at Porte Maillot. Germany. The places considered to be the most popular in Paris are the Eiffel Tower and the Louvre.bizaims. a) b) c) d) e) Check True or False: Paris is the biggest city in France. Adapted from: http://www. Paris is also famous for its restaurants that specialize in dishes from all regions of France. 55% come from foreign countries such as: United Kingdom. how is it there? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. at the heart of the Ile-de-France region. and beauty. Would you like to visit Paris? Why (not)? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. Paris has many nicknames. no visit to Paris is complete without a visit to the famous stores that specializes in clothes. The River Seine goes through Paris. Finally. Italy and Japan. In addition the capital of France is extremely popular for housing international conferences as well as various trade shows. Why do you think Paris is the world’s most visited city? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 52 .com/content/paris-worlds-most-visited-city-leisure-and-statistics 1. A number of convention centers can be found in the city. More than half of all Paris’ visitors. It represents world’s number one tourist destination. located northwest of the Arc de Triomphe. Paris is famous for its clothes stores. It is situated on the River Seine.The World’s Most Visited City Paris is the capital city of France. The United States. _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ 2. Have you ever gone to Paris? If so. in northern France. Paris restaurants specialize in international food. You can ride a horse in Centre Pompidou. Visit the city and live the experience for yourself.

They _______________(cook) dinner.(go) g) I can't find my keys. My parents _________________ (visit) my grandparents. (drive) c) We ____________________________this TV set since 1945. Emily _________________(swim) in the sea. Mrs Dean __________________(clean) the house. Sue ________________(study) a lot for the test. I _______________ them.(lose) h) Annette _______________ many books and is writing another one now. William and Sue _________________(play) chess with me. (not/be) 53 . (have) m) We ______________________ great weather this week. (travel) e) I _________________ him last night. (write) i) j) We don't know where he ________________. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) She ____________(buy) a new dress. (have) n) I ________________ to Spain yet. (write) b) Gery _____________________________her sister’s car for 10 years. (visit) l) We _______________________ bad weather last week. (see) f) They __________________to England in 1984. (visit) k) I ____________________ him in hospital three times this month. Vera _________________ (live) in Paris for a long time. and it still works! (own) d) Junko _________________________to Sweden 5 years ago. He _______________ (drink) a glass of milk.UNIT 3 1) Complete the sentences with the verbs in The Present Perfect tense. (go) They __________________ their friends in New Zealand two years ago. a) I _____________________________________ this letter to Mary yesterday. No-one can find him. We _________________(wash) our hair. 2) Simple Past or Present Perfect? Choose the best option and write it down.

f) Molly lives in Dublin. 5) Match the columns. How long _________________(you live) there? 5 years. And how long ________________(you live) there? 2 years. It has rained ___________more than three days. My grandfather ______________(die) 30 years ago. I _____________(never meet) him. _________________(you wash) it? d) John _________________(not be) very well last week. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) 14th 55th 100th 80th 1000th 43rd 20th 22nd 12th 31st ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) hundredth ) twentieth ) fifty-fifth ) thirty-first ) Fourteenth ) twenty-second ) forty-third ) eightieth ) thousandth ) twelfth 54 . 4) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a) I don't know where Amy is. g) _________________(you go) to the cinema last night? h) 8. She _________________(live) there all her life. 3)I have known him __________I was six. c) Your car looks very clean. Lucas has worked in the bank _____________five years. They have been married _____________1999. i) I don't know Carol's husband . a) b) c) d) e) I haven't been to Erika's house ____________May. e) Mr Clark_______________ (work) in a bank for 15 years. _______________(you see) her? b) When I ____________(get) home last night I ____________(be) very tired and _____________(go) straight to bed. Then he gave it up.3) Fill in the gaps with since or for. j) Where do you live? In Boston. Where _______________(you live) before? Chicago.

MUSIC Listen to the music and fill in the blanks. I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For (U2) But I still haven't found what I'm looking for But I still haven't found what I'm looking for I believe in the Kingdom Come Then all the colors will bleed into one Bleed into one But yes I'm still running You broke the bonds And you loosed the chains Carried the cross Of my shame Oh my shame You know I believe it But I still haven't found what I'm looking for But I still haven't found what I'm looking for But I still haven't found what I'm looking for I ________________highest mountains I _________________through the fields Only to be with you Only to be with you I have run I ________________ I ________________these city walls These city walls Only to be with you But I still haven't found what I'm looking for But I still haven't found what I'm looking for I ______________honey lips Felt the healing in her fingertips It burned like a fire This burning desire I ______________with the tongue of angels I _________________the hand of a devil It was warm in the night I was cold as a stone 55 .

a) Mary ________________ (go) into the room. Rob and Chris had left. so they ____________(find) it very impressive. ( ) George left before I arrived. c) The children got up when their father arrived. e) When they heard the news. d) When they heard the news. d) Someone ____________________(pick up) all the oranges. Our friend Thomas _________already ___________ (tell) us that it _________________(be) very difficult to find a place on match days. ( ) The children were up before their father arrived. b) The match already ________________(finish) when we ________________(arrive). ( ) George left after I arrived. Rob and Chris left.UNIT 4 1) Complete with the simple past or the past perfect. George had gone. ( ) The children got up after their father arrived. a) When I got to Mary's. ______________(sit) down and _____________ (discovered ) that someone ________________(smoke) some cigarrettes because the ashtray (be) full . ( ) The children got up after the father arrived. 2) Choose the best option. e) Nobody _____________________ (tell) us the temperatures were going to be so low. b) The children had got up when their father arrived. ( ) The children were already up before the father arrived. so we ___________________________(not bring) warm clothes . 56 . ( ) Rob and Chris heard the news and then left. because the trees _________________ (be) empty. so we ________________(can) find a nice place to park our car. ( ) Rob and Chris left after they heard the news. ( ) Rob and Chris left before they heard the news. c) Those Congolese children ____________ never ______________ (see) the sea.

f) 6. d) 4. e) We ate at a restaurant last night because I _____________(buy / not) anything for dinner.( ) The news came after Rob and Chris left. He __________________(just start) to watch TV when the telephone_______________ (ring). c) 3. After they ________________(install) the file they _______________(can) go on working. i) 9. b) The thief could walk right into the house because you _______________(lock / not) the door. After he _______________(lose) all his money he ________________ (be) poor as a church mouse. g) 7. After he _____________(eat) all the sandwiches he ______________(drink) some orange juice. a) In the shopping centre. b) She _______________ (feed) the dog as soon as she ______________(do) her homework. 3) Past simple or past perfect? a) He ______________(work) in a supermarket before he ______________(work) as a postman. Before she __________________ (go) to bed she _______________(listen) to her favourite CD. e) 5. c) We lost the match because we ________________(practise / not) the days before. We ______________(be) tired because we ______________ (work) all day. 57 . 5) Make the past perfect simple . As I ______________(miss) the bus I _____________(walk) home again. Use the negative form. I met a friend who I ___________________(see / not) for ages.'wh' or 'yes/no' questions a) _________________(you/go) there before we went together? b) _________________(she/see) the film already? c) Why ________________ (he/forget) about the meeting? d) _________________(it/be) cold all week? e) _________________(I/read) the book before the class? . 4) Write the verbs in Past Perfect Simple. j) 10. d) At school. h) 8. My sister _______________ (live) in England before she ____________(move) to Belgium. Jim quickly copied the homework that he ______________(do / not) .

future continuous and future perfect continuous. he _______________________ (sleep) wonderfully. the kids _____________________ (fall) asleep. c) At nine I _____________________(watch) the news. f) He _____________________(not / play) all afternoon. e) They ________________(dance) all night.UNIT 5 1) Change the verb into the correct form (future perfect): a) By this time tomorrow. she _____________________(receive) her promotion. Use the expressions below. e) Robin _______________________(sell) his car by next Sunday. b) By 8 o'clock. d) By next year. Future perfect: a) Next week:______________________________________________ b) By 8 o’clock:____________________________________________ Future continuous: c) By tomorrow:____________________________________________ d) Tonight:________________________________________________ Future perfect continuous: e) For 2 hours:__________________________________________ f) For five years:________________________________________ 3) Put the verbs into the correct form (future continuous). I ______________________(finish) the project. b) This time next week we ____________________(sit) at the beach. d) Tonight we ___________________(cram up) for our English test. g) I_______________________(not / work) all day. a) At midnight we ______________________(sleep) . 2) Create sentences using the future perfect. c) By tomorrow morning. h) _______________________(eat / you) at six? i) ________________________(drive / she) to London? j) ________________________(fight / they) again? 58 .

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Jason: I am leaving! Nurse: If you would please wait. Two clients from Peru ____________________(visit) us next month when Margaret returns. still) problems with her. If I wait another ten minutes. I am sure he _________________________(have. complete the text below with the appropriate tenses: Future continuous or future perfect continuous. We need someone to entertain them while they are here. By the end of the term she ________________________(study) for nine years. 59 . By midnight we ______________________(play) this computer game for 48 hours. She ________________________(talk) on the phone for the last couple of hours. Simona: Margaret is really going to speak Spanish well when she gets back from that language school in Mexico. the doctor will be with you in ten minutes. He ______________________(play) soccer all day long. Simona: She is going to be able to speak Spanish with some of our Latin American clients. The doctor is having some problems with a patient. I __________________________(wait) for more than two hours. Isabelle: Hopefully! She ___________________(take) classes for more than six months.4) Put the verbs into the correct form (future perfect continuous): a) b) c) d) e) f) By the end of this month we ___________________(live) together for six years. They ______________________(look for) me all night long. By the time he's finally ready to see me. Jason: The doctor was having problems with that patient an hour ago. 5) Using the words in parentheses. Isabelle: Good.

Sometimes she even hurts__________ . Mary is a person with lots of problems. Last week he cut ______________with a knife. John spends hours looking at _______________in the mirror. i) The skate__________ I found is black. Frank is the man __________ I met yesterday. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) My sister doesn't like _______________very much. Did you do this all by______________ ? We enjoyed _______________ very much at the party. f) The woman _____________ gave him the money was young. 2) Choose the correct relative pronoun (who. h) Lucas is a boy ________ takes good pictures. b) A boy ____________ sister is in my class was in the bank at that time. e) He came with a friend ______________ waited outside in the car. I don't like them at all. I like Peter. but I wish he didn't spend so much time talking about____________ . which. g) This is the car __________ owner is a doctor. They want everything for _________________ .UNIT 6 1) Fill in each gap with the correct reflexive pronoun. 3) Who or which? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Did you take the chair __________was in the room? Give me the book ________ is on the table. That's the dog __________ barks all the time. d) He wore a mask _______________ made him look like Mickey Mouse. The girl __________ is standing there is Fatou. This is the pen ___________I bought last week. Why are you standing? Find some chairs for _________________ and sit down. c) The man ____________ robbed the bank had two pistols. 60 . A baker is a person ____________makes bread. I answer all my letters ______________. whose). a) This is the bank _______ was robbed yesterday.

i) The computer _______________ I want to buy costs $1. h) People ______________use this site will learn English very quickly. f) The airport _____________is being built will be the largest in the country. g) The woman ________________sang that song is very beautiful. e) We saw the cat ______________ lives in the house next door. c) That's the girl ______________won the race.000. j) The dinner _______________your mother prepared was delicious. write who or that: a) That's the man ________________ stole my purse! b) That's the jacket _______________I want to buy.4) Who or whose? a) _____________book is it ? b) _____________is this boy ? c) _____________car is that ? d) _____________address is this ? e) _____________'s your teacher ? f) _____________’s that girl? g) _____________ notebook is this? h) _____________’s your friend? i) _____________ skate is that? 5) Complete each relative clause with who or that. 61 . If both who or that can be used. d) The students _____________do well on the exam will be allowed to leave early.

In Portuguese. Brazil The statue of Christ the Redeemer is located at the top of Corcovado Mountain. How high is it? _________________________________________________________________________ 3. the span from finger tip to fingertip is 28m and there is a small chapel housed in the base.org/wonders/america/brazil/rio-janeiro/christ-redeemer.4 meter Corcovado Railway that has the capacity to hold 360 passengers every hour.7wonders. this iconic monument is known as Cristo Redentor. Where is the Statue located? _________________________________________________________________________ 2. reaching the statue is possible by escalators and elevators. The entire monument of statue of Christ the Redeemer is 38m high with the statue accounting for 30m and overlooking the city of Rio de Janeiro is one of the tallest statues in the world. The external caps of the idol were constructed in soapstone due to the resistance of this material to the extreme time and also due to its malleability. Christ the Redeemer is one of the tourist attractions that every year attracts to more and more visitors. The statue was built not out of steel but from reinforced concrete as that was considered a more suitable material for the cross shaped statue.aspx 1. When is the best time to visit Statue? Why? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. Adapted from: http://www. The reason why it was built was to show that Christ loves all. The trip by rail is approximately 20 minutes and leaves the base each half hour. For those not wishing to make the arduous trek up the mountain. The best time to visit the Christ the Redeemer statue is late afternoon or evening when you can enjoy the splendour of the setting sun while taking in one of the most important landmarks in the world. The statue of Christ the Redeemer can be accessed by the 2.Christ the Redeemer. Do you think Christ the Redeemer should really be considered one of the 7 World Wonders? Why? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 62 . From the road or the train terminal Christ the Redeemer statue is reached by 222 steps. Christ the Redeemer was designed by a French sculptor by the name of Paul Landowski and a local engineer named Heitor da Silva Costa was chosen to supervise the entire construction.

d) Mother said: "Bill always goes to bed early. ______________________________________________________________________ d) Daniel: "Will it rain tomorrow?" Yesterday Daniel asked me . c) Sue said: "He is sitting on the table. ______________________________________________________________________ e) Jennifer: "Where do you play football today?" Yesterday Jennifer wanted to know ______________________________________________________________________ 3) Change the sentences into reported speech: a) They said: "It will be hot tomorrow. 2) Finish the sentences using Reported speech. ______________________________________________________________________ b) Jason: "Who gave you the laptop?" Yesterday Jason wanted to know ." Sue said (that) _______________________________________________." The Browns said (that) ________________________________________." Mary said (that) _____________________________________________." Mrs Smith said (that) __________________________________________. e) Mrs Smith said: "I often drive to London . b) The Browns said: "We are on time. 63 ." They said (that) _________________________________________________." Mother said (that)_____________________________________________. a)) Mandy: "Are the boys reading the book?" Yesterday Mandy asked me . Always change the tense.UNIT 7 1) Change the sentences into reported speech: a) Mary said: "I like ice cream. ______________________________________________________________________ c) Robert: "Is Tim leaving on Friday?" Yesterday Robert asked me . although it is sometimes not necessary.

b) 'Where do you intend to advertise?' _____________________________________________________. Report the questions: a) 'How much are you planning to spend on advertising?' They asked me_________________________________________." Mother said (that) ________________________________________________. c) She told the police: "I have heard strange noises during the night. 5) Put in reported speech using the verbs given: a) 'I think it is Mary who must pay for the expenses' Antonio said to George." Sandy said (that) _________________________________________________." She told the police (that) __________________________________________ . e) Sandy said: "My father likes sweets. Antonio suggested__________________pay for the expenses. d) 'Why has it taken so long to develop?' _____________________________________________________. I think I'll wait for another three months. they said They suggested__________________to Lisbon. c) 'What discount will you give to your distributors?' _____________________________________________________. 64 . 4) A speaker was asked these questions after a presentation. d) 'OK.b) Mother said: "I am busy." Peter said (that) __________________________________________________. b) 'I'll bring the sandwiches for the party" said Helen Helen offered___________________the sandwiches for the party. c) 'Let's all go to Lisbon and rent a flat there!'..' said Maggie finally Maggie finally agreed___________________ for another three months. d) Peter said: "I go to school by train.

surrounded by 8 siblings. In 1983. His modern influences. he discovers his natural gift to color his life. modern skills.com/files/2011/aussteller/files/Colorfield-Gallery_Britto(Biography). he is selected by Absolut Vodka to design their new bottle. What kind of art inspires him? _____________________________________________________________________ 3. His dreams are still filled with endless inspiration. from old newspapers to cardboard. Many heads of states. Britto chooses Miami. political and show-business personalities celebrate his skills across the world. Romero Britto will take part in several exhibitions. Using all kinds of support. where Pop Art is rapidly expanding. as his next destination. It combines Pop Art with compositions inspired from cubism.art-zurich. Are you into painting? Who is your favorite painter? ______________________________________________________________________ 4. Britto is also a humanitarian activist. Apple. Adapted from: http://www. He claims that "art should reflect the celebration of simple and good things in life". What calls your attention about Romero Britto’s painting? _________________________________________________________________________ 65 . attracting not only young crowds but also long-time art lovers eager to discover his unique.Romero Britto Born in Recife. In 1989. Has Romero Britto always been a rich person? ______________________________________________________________________ 2.pdf 1. Brazil in 1963. Romero Britto permanently redefines art and its role in our lives. Movado repeatedly called for his genius when they needed to reinvent their brands. Britto's art is as diverse as his personal experiences and covers a wide variety of themes. Switzerland. Pepsi. flashy colors and fun work led him to become one of the most recognized artists of his generation. he creates a new form of expression reflecting his optimism and his vision of the world's beauty. he leaves for Europe to gain better knowledge of "Masters' Art". Appointed arts' ambassador at the World Economic Forum in Davos. His audacious character leads him to ignore the traditional system that surrounds him. Romero Britto grew up in a modest family. Loaded with confidence and determination. succeeding some of the most notorious artists such as Andy Warhol. In his early years. During the following years.

she _____________(pass) her driving test. (to be) ( ) was ( ) were ( ) have been b) If I run into her. ___________________________________________ She would have missed the train____________________________________ What would you do______________________________________________ If you stopped drinking.UNIT 8 1) Complete the conditional sentences. e) If you had told me the truth I ____________ (help) you. d) If Charlie ________________ (not stop) eating these green apples he’ll soon feel sick. I ________ her that you're looking for her. (to kiss) ( ) hadn't kissed 66 . (to do) ( ) to do ( ) do ( ) will do d) He would never have asked her out on a date if she ________ him first. a) If Mr Brown ____________(sell) his car last year. I will call the police. _______________________________________________ She would have had time__________________________________________ I will phone him_________________________________________________ If you came for dinner. _______________________________________ If you meet my boss. c) If Mr Jones ______________(watch) the news every evening he would know more about politics. 2) Complete using conditional sentences: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) If I were you. he would have got more money for it. __________________________________________ If I had been offered the job. b) If Susan takes her driving lessons regularly. _____________________________________________ If you won the prize. _____________________________________________ 3) Choose the correct alternative: a) If I ________ you. I would apologize to her right away. (to tell) ( ) would tell ( ) tell ( ) will tell c) If you ________ that again.

I would be very surprised if she _________(refuse). tell him I've got the video he was looking for ( ) This is less likely to happen than if the speaker had said 'If you see him. b) I'm sure Liz will lend you some money. a) If you'd arrived on time.. d) If she sold her car. I'd get in touch with a solicitor ( ) This is about something that is likely to happen in the near future ( ) This is about something now c) If I won the lottery. she _____________ (not / get) much money for it. I'd go on a cruise ( ) This is about the present ( ) This is about the future d) If you should see him. c) Many people would be out of work if that factory _________ (close) down..( ) didn't kiss ( ) will not kiss e) If you were her.. what ________? (to do) ( ) would you do ( ) did you do ( ) do you do 4) Put the verbs into the correct form: a) If the company offered me the job. e) They're expecting us. They would be disappointed if we ___________ (not / come). 5) Choose the correct alternative.' 67 .' ( ) This is as likely to happen as if the speaker had said 'If you see him. none of this would have happened ( ) This sentence is about something that happened in the past ( ) This sentence is about something that is very unlikely to happen b) If I were you. I think I ___________(take) it..

Easter egg hunts are a popular way for local businesses to promote themselves or may even be organized by churches. These can be hard boiled eggs that can be eaten later. What do kids do on Easter? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. lambs and rabbits or hares. for example. Other symbols of Easter include real eggs or eggs manufactured from a range of materials. candy or other materials. Eggs of some form are hidden. It is also common to organize Easter egg hunts. rabbits. What do people do? Many churches hold special services on Easter Sunday. chocolate. People. Many people also decorate eggs. but may also be model eggs made of plastic. Sometimes these symbols are combined. What do you usually do on Easter? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 68 . especially children. Is there any difference between Easter in the USA and in Brazil? What is it? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. It is the first Sunday approximately after the first full moon on or after the March equinox.Easter in the United States The Easter Sunday date varies because it is determined using a calculated lunar calendar. supposedly by a rabbit or hare. Eggs. Adapted from: http://www. the cross that Jesus was crucified on and his resurrection are important symbols of the period around Easter. in candy models of rabbits with nests full of eggs. Symbols For people with strong Christian beliefs. In some areas.timeanddate. What kind of symbols the Christian have to celebrate the Easter? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. hares and young animals are thought to represent the re-birth and return to fertility of nature in the spring. which celebrate the Jesus Christ's resurrection after his crucifixion.com/holidays/us/easter-sunday 1. then search for them. nests.

I'd listen to her Cause I know how it hurts When you lose the one you wanted Cause he's taken you for granted And everything you had got destroyed If I were a boy I would just turn off my phone Tell everyone it's broken 69 . If I Were A Boy (Beyonce) So they think that I was sleeping alone I'd put myself first And make the rules as I go Cause I know that she'd be faithful Waiting for me to come home It's a little too late for you to come back Say it's just a mistake Think I'd forgive you like that If you thought I would wait for you You thought wrong But you're just a boy You don’t understand (Yeah you don’t understand) How it feels to love a girl Someday you wish you were a better man You don't listen to her You don't care how it hurts Until you lose the one you wanted Cause you've taken her for granted And everything you had got destroyed But you're just a boy If I were a boy Even just for a day I'd roll out of bed in the morning And throw on what I wanted and go Drink beer with the guys And chase after girls I'd kick with who I wanted And I'd never get confronted for it Cause they'd stick up for me.MUSIC Listen to the music and underline the conditional sentences. If I were a boy I think I could understand How it feels to love a girl I swear I'd be a better man.

Agamenon Magalhães s/n – Santo Amaro Recife/PE – CEP: 50.500 exemplares EDUPE Av.100-010 – Fone: (81) 3183-3724 70 .Universidade de Pernambuco – UPE – 2012 Copyright Severino Carlos da Silva Este livro não pode ser reproduzido por qualquer meio sem autorização do autor Impresso no Brasil – Tiragem 1.

em Recife-PE. É coordenador do Curso de PósGraduação em Língua e Literaturas de Língua Inglesa da UPE e do Curso de PósGraduação em Ensino de Língua Inglesa do Centro de Ensino Superior do Vale do São Francisco – CESVASF. formação de professores. Atua também na área de Sociolínguística (Variações Linguísticas e Sociointeracionismo). Especialização em Linguística (FAFIRE).UPE desde 1986. Linguística de Corpus (Michael McCarthy). Graduação em Jornalismo (UNICAP) e em Letras Português/Inglês (UNICAP). reflexão sobre a prática pedagógica do professor de língua estrangeira e processo ensino-aprendizagem de língua estrangeira. Vem pesquisando sobre o processo ensino-aprendizagem de língua estrangeira na modalidade a distância desde 2009. Coordena o Programa de Línguas e Informática da UPE – PROLINFO e o Curso de Graduação em Formação Pedagógica no Ensino de Língua Inglesa na Modalidade a Distância da UPE. Perrenoud. considerando a Lexical Approach (Michael Lewis). FELIPE CASADO DE LUCENA Professor do Departamento de Letras da Universidade Católica de Pernambuco (UNICAP). Shön. Atua principalmente nos seguintes temas: seleção.SEVERINO CARLOS DA SILVA Mestre em Letras pela UFPB (Linguagem e Ensino de Língua Estrangeira). Pesquisa desde 2002 sobre o processo ensino-aprendizagem de vocabulário de língua inglesa. 71 . É Diretor didático-Pedagógico do Special English Course. bem como Reflexão sobre a Prática Pedagógica (Dewey. Foi professor de inglês no PROLINFO de 2007 a 2011 e Coordenador de Apoio à área de Língua Inglesa. Possui mestrado em Linguística (UFPE). educação. Paulo Freire. Professor Assistente da Universidade de Pernambuco . Alarcão etc). É doutorando em Linguística Aplicada pela UFPB. Pesquisa também sobre a Abordagem Colaborativa.

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