# Drop Call Rate Formula Analysis in a GSM Network

Document type: Creator: Reviewer: Approver: Date approved: Function: Operating Procedure Carola Bottazzi Emilia De-Rango Paolo Sandron 2001-10-23

1. 2. 3. 4. Purpose ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Scope ........................................................................................................................................ 3 Responsibilities .......................................................................................................................... 3 Drop call rate concept ................................................................................................................ 4 4.1 Period of observation...................................................................................................... 4 4.2 Area of observation ........................................................................................................ 4 DCR Formulas based on Traffic/Handover counters .................................................................. 6 5.1 Numerator: Failure Counters .......................................................................................... 6 5.2 Denominator: Seizure/Assignment Counters .................................................................. 8 5.3 Call Re-establishment impact ......................................................................................... 12 5.4 "GSM" Formula............................................................................................................... 13 5.4.1 CELL BASIS ..................................................................................................... 13 5.4.2 AREA BASIS .................................................................................................... 14 5.5 "1139" Formula............................................................................................................... 15 5.5.1 CELL BASIS ..................................................................................................... 16 5.5.2 AREA BASIS .................................................................................................... 16 5.6 "1148" Formula............................................................................................................... 18 5.6.1 CELL BASIS ..................................................................................................... 19 5.6.2 AREA BASIS .................................................................................................... 19 DCR Formulas based on Serlev counters .................................................................................. 21 6.1 "Serlev" Formula............................................................................................................. 21 6.1.1 NUMERATOR................................................................................................... 22 6.1.2 DENOMINATOR ............................................................................................... 22 6.1.3 CELL BASIS ..................................................................................................... 22 6.1.4 AREA BASIS .................................................................................................... 23 6.1.5 CALL RE-ESTABLISHMENT ............................................................................ 23 6.2 "Conversation" Formula.................................................................................................. 25 6.2.1 NUMERATOR................................................................................................... 25 6.2.2 DENOMINATOR ............................................................................................... 25 6.2.3 CELL BASIS ..................................................................................................... 25 6.2.4 AREA BASIS .................................................................................................... 26 ANALYZED Data ....................................................................................................................... 27 7.1 Measurement counter statistics ...................................................................................... 27 7.2 BSC Clear Code Observation Measurements................................................................. 28
 Nokia Networks Company Confidential
1 (60)

5.

6.

7.

DN01160043 Version 1 english

8.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

7.3 Test bed measurements: ................................................................................................ 28 RESULTS – NORMAL CELLS ................................................................................................... 29 8.1 Comparison of different formulas.................................................................................... 29 8.2 Distribution of failures ..................................................................................................... 33 8.3 Comments on Serlev Formula ........................................................................................ 38 8.4 Comments on 1139 Formula .......................................................................................... 40 8.5 1148 Formula ................................................................................................................. 43 8.6 Cell-BH ........................................................................................................................... 49 results – cells with iuo ................................................................................................................ 51 results – Call Re-establishment.................................................................................................. 54 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................... 55 References ................................................................................................................................ 55 Glossary .................................................................................................................................... 55 Version history ........................................................................................................................... 55 Appendices ................................................................................................................................ 56 15.1 Appendix 1. Call Phases................................................................................................. 56 15.2 Appendix 2. Tests on Serlev Counters............................................................................ 58

DN01160043 Version 1 english

 Nokia Networks Company Confidential

2 (60)

1. PURPOSE Dropped call ratio is one of the most important indicators to monitor the network quality. Purpose of the document is to provide a proposal of new formulas aimed at getting near the subscriber viewpoint as much as possible. Particular attention is therefore given to the several phases of the call and their impact both, on the DCR value and subscriber perception. All counter families are taken into account for the new formula definitions. The formulas proposed take into account the main features activated in a GSM network (Queuing, Directed Retry, TCH/SDCCH handovers, AMH, IUO/IFH, Call Reestablishment) and are defined for all types of cells (Normal, Parent, Child). The formulas use counters that are compatible with S9 BSC SW and with T12 OMC SW version. 2. SCOPE In this document five DCR formulas are discussed. The first formula measures the Dropped Call Ratio from TCH_channel_activation message. The second and the third are new proposals based on Traffic/Handover counters and measure the DCR from Connect_ack and Assignment_complete messages, respectively. The fourth is a new proposal based on Serlev counters and tracks failures from Assignment_complete message up to Disconnect. The fifth and last one formula presented takes into consideration only conversation phase (from Connect_ack up to Disconnect messages) in DCR calculation. All the formulas were tested and compared using statiastical data: different network configurations (features) were taken into account; different analysis approaches (in term of observation periods and observation areas) were also considered. Furthermore some tests have been performed in Nokia Test Bed, in order to verify the trigger points of some counters involved in the formula.

3. RESPONSIBILITIES Consulting Manager is responsible for all the activities related to Drop Call Rate Consultancy.

DN01160043 Version 1 english

 Nokia Networks Company Confidential

3 (60)

the TCH assignments due to incoming handovers need to be taken into account (at the denominator) in order to make the formula suitable for all types of traffic in the cell. as the call is being released anyway.g. from Connect_ack to Disconnect • Phase 4: Release phase. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 4 (60) . In this way the estimated DCR is relative to the real number of users (each user is considered only ones. A failure in phase 15 is perceived as a real drop. where the majority of calls start and ends inside the same cell. thus ignoring the incoming handover contribution to the amount of TCH assignments. the main phases concerning TCH channel type are: • Phase 3: Setup phase. The DCR value for a cell serving a high-speed-traffic-type (e. 4. The DCR is intended as percentage of failures with respect to the total assigned TCH amount in a cell. from Assignment_complete to Connect_ack • Phase 15: Conversation phase. (including new calls and incoming handovers). each phase is perceived in a different way by the end user. Besides. where all the traffic enters the cell by handover procedure. whereas a failure in phase 3 is perceived as an access failure. A failure in phase 2 is also perceived as access failure but it can be more critical since the alert might have already started. The period of observation has mainly impact on the numerator of the formula.4. according to the area where the conversation was started). DROP CALL RATE CONCEPT The formula of the Drop Call Rate is defined as the ratio between the failures occurred during the call in the period of observation and the number of calls occurring in the area of observation. The possibility to distinguish among different phases is essential from a network monitoring point of view. On a generic area level it is convenient to compute the failure rate with respect to the calls that are started in the area. in case of TCH-->TCH handovers occur.1 Period of observation The signaling chart of a mobile (originated/terminated) call can be divided into several phases (see Appendix 1 for a detailed description of call phases). From Assignment_request to Assignment_complete • Phase 2: Setup phase. Different formulas can be developed according to the period of observation and the area of observation. The different approaches are described below. also Handover phases (phases 9-11 for outgoing handovers. Besides. motorway). rather than the total amount of calls starting in the cell. according to customer needs. 4. from Disconnect to Release In addition. In the first case each and every cell is separately monitored.g. A failure in phase 4 is usually not perceived by the end user. since each phase can be affected by different problems.2 Area of observation The DCR can be computed on cell basis or on area basis. is as reliable as the DCR value of a cell serving a stationary-traffic area (e. since all and only those failures triggered inside the monitored period of observation have to be taken into account. shopping centre). phases 12-14 for incoming handovers) need to be considered. Particularly. The idea behind this is to have an estimation of failure rate with respect to the traffic load of the cell.

based on different counter families.If the observation area is quite big. will be presented and different approaches (in terms of time and area observation periods) will be considered. the incoming handover contribution to the traffic load of the area is negligible compared to the total amount of new call assignments: therefore the estimated DCR is also proportional to the traffic load in the area. In the following session different formula proposals. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 5 (60) .

from TCH_channel_activation to Release. In all these proposals the DCR is computed in a similar way. not only failures during the setup/conversation/release phase (phases 2-4.1 Numerator: Failure Counters The numerator must contain all the possible TCH failures leading to a dropped call in the relevant area. Instead.5. failures that occur during incoming handovers (phases 12-14) do not have to be considered. Figure 1 shows all the TCH failure counters together with the relative triggering phases. 5. DCR FORMULAS BASED ON TRAFFIC/HANDOVER COUNTERS Several formula proposals can be made with Traffic/Handover counters. as they do not always mean a drop (the mobile can reverse to the old channel). as ratio between: • number of counters triggering all the TCH failures inside the considered area and time period and • number of counters triggering all the TCH allocations: the triggering point changes according to the time period (call phases) starting point. For this purpose. according to the call phases included in the period of observation (see Appendix 1 for call phases description). 1081 1139 1140 1013/1014 1029/1030 1084/1085 1087/1088 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1070 Figure 1 Failure counters and relative trigger points (Traffic family) Considering the whole period where TCH is active. 15). the possible causes (and relative counters) leading to a drop call are: DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 6 (60) . but also failures that occur during outgoing handovers (phases 9-11) need to be considered.

a forced release is a dropped call. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 7 (60) .tch_bts_fail + a.tch_lapd_fail + a.tch_netw_act.tch_rf_old_ho. This causes an overestimation of the number of drops in setup phase. • Other Failures = 001046 + 001047 + 001048 + 001049 + 001050 = a. from TCH_channel_activation to Connect_ack. as failures during incoming handovers (phases 12-14) do not always mean drop of the calls.tch_abis_fail_old. Failures on A interface = 001087 + 001088 = a.tch_act_fail_call Forced Releases = 001070 = a.forced_releases where a = p_nbsc_traffic.tch_tr_fail + a. Transcoder Failures = 001029 + 001030 = a. can be counted as sum of: • • Radio Failure in setup = 001139 = a. • • Failure on TCH channel activation = 001081 = a. The TCH failures occurring only in the setup phase (phases 2-3). when the failures occur during handover.tch_tr_fail_old. It should be noticed that counters 1139.e.tch_rel_due_bss_fail where a = p_nbsc_traffic.tch_user_act + a.tch_rel_due_radio_fail.tch_bcsu_reset + a.tch_a_if_fail_old. i.• • • • Radio Failures = 001013 + 001014 = a. 1140 are also triggered in phases (9-11 and 12-14). from the subscriber's viewpoint.tch_a_if_fail_call + a. BSS Failure in setup = 001140 = a. Failures on Abis interface = 001084 + 001085 = a. if the HO is started before conversation phase.tch_abis_fail_call + a. Notice that: • forced released calls due to an incoming pre-emption call are considered as failures since.tch_radio_fail + a.

according to the observation area under consideration.succ_tch_seiz_dir_acc where a = p_nbsc_traffic.5. • TCH seizures due to incoming handovers are not taken into consideration since failures on incoming handovers do not have to be considered at the numerator: therefore the incoming DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 8 (60) . Please note that: • Counter 001009 is also triggered in case of Direct Accessto Super TRX: this needs to be taken into account in order to avoid counting twice the Direct Accesscontribution. Different contributions to the TCH allocation (new calls. The following type of seizures might need to be considered: • • • Normal Seizure = 001009 = a. incoming handovers) need to be included.tch_seiz_due_sdcch_cong Direct Accessto Super TRX = 001165 = a.2 Denominator: Seizure/Assignment Counters The expression of the denominator is derived by considering all the allocated TCHs that are still in place at the starting point of the time observation period (call phases) under consideration. 1009 1099 1165 1148 4044 4057 4074 4043 4056 Figure 2 Seizure/Assignment counters and relative trigger points (Traffic/Handover families). Figure 2 shows all the seizure/assignment counters together with the relative triggering points.tch_norm_seiz FACCH Call Setup = 001099 = a.

ms_tch_succ_seiz_ass_compl Directed Retry (external. regular TRX) Direct Access (SDCCH-TCH HO) TO SUPER TRX Cell A (target. Please notice that: • New call TCH allocation contribution is taken into account either by counter 1009 or by counter 1148 according to the time observation period (call phases) under consideration. internal intracell) = 004044 + 004057 + 004074 = b.cell_sdcch_tch Incoming Handover (external. internal intercell.bsc_i_tch_tch where a = p_nbsc_traffic. Cell A (source.msc_i_tch_tch + b. • TCH Assignment to Super TRX contribution is taken into account by counters 4057_ bsc_i_sdcch_tch (child cell) and 4074_ cell_sdcch_tch (regular cell). regular TRX) Normal TCH call request handling Figure 3: intracell Direct Accessprocedure. internal intercell) = 004043 + 004056 = b.handover contribution to the denominator is always considered starting from the Handover_complete. • Direct Accesscontribution is also included in counters 4057_ bsc_i_sdcch_tch (child cell) and 4074_ cell_sdcch_tch (regular cell): this needs to be taken into account since counters 1009 and 1165 also trigger TCH allocation for Direct Access. The detailed procedures of Direct Accessto super TRX and TCH Assignment to Super TRX are described in Figures 3-6.bsc_i_sdcch_tch + b.msc_i_sdcch_tch + b. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 9 (60) . super TRX) TCH REQUESTS 001010 tch_request TCH REQUESTS FOR NEW CALL 001026 tch_call_req TCH SEIZURES FOR NEW CALL 001009 No Congestion Congestion tch_norm_seiz Direct Access Attempt 004077 cell_sdcch_tch_at TCH SEIZURES FOR DIRECT ACCESS 001165 tch_succ_seiz_for_dir_acc Intra Dir Acc SUCC 004074 cell_sdcch_tch DIR ACC TCH REQ REJ DUE LACK 001166 tch_req_dir_acc_rej_due_lack Cell A (source. The following type of assignments might need to be considered: • • • Normal Assignment = 001148 = a. b = p_nbsc_ho.

regular TRX) Direct Access OUT ATT 004068 bsc_o_sdcch_tch_at Direct Access OUT SUCC 004065 bsc_o_sdcch_tch Direct Access (SDCCH-TCH HO) TO SUPER TRX CELL B Cell B (target. super TRX) TCH REQUESTS 001010 tch_request tch_ho_seiz TCH SEIZURES FOR HO (incl. regular TRX) Normal TCH call request handling Figure 4: intercell Direct Accessprocedure. DR in) 001008 DR ATT 004077 cell_sdcch_tch_at Intra DR SUCC 004074 cell_sdcch_tch Figure 5: intracell TCH Assignment to super TRX procedure.Cell A (source. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 10 (60) . regular TRX) TCH REQUESTS FOR NEW CALL 001026 tch_call_req TCH REQUESTS 001010 tch_request TCH congestion DR (SDCCH-TCH HO) TO SUPER TRX Cell A (target. super TRX) TCH REQUESTS 001010 tch_request TCH REQUESTS FOR NEW CALL 001026 tch_call_req DIR ACC TCH REQ REJ DUE LACK 001166 tch_req_dir_acc_rej_due_lack TCH SEIZURES FOR NEW CALL 001009 tch_norm_seiz Direct Access in att 004060 bsc_i_sdcch_tch_at Direct Access in success 004057 bsc_i_sdcch_tch No Congestion Congestion TCH SEIZURES FOR DIRECT ACCESS 001165 tch_succ_seiz_for_dir_acc Cell A (source. Cell A (source.

regular TRX) TCH REQUESTS FOR NEW CALL 001026 tch_call_req DR OUT ATT 004868 bsc_o_sdcch_tch_at DR OUT SUCC 004065 bsc_o_sdcch_tch TCH REQUESTS 001010 tch_request TCH REQUESTS REJ DUE LACK 001011 tch_rej_lack TCH congestion DR (SDCCH-TCH HO) TO SUPER TRX CELL B Cell B (target. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 11 (60) . super TRX) TCH REQUESTS 001010 tch_request tch_ho_seiz TCH SEIZURES FOR HO (incl. DR in) 001008 DR IN ATT 004060 bsc_i_sdcch_tch_at DR IN SUCC 004057 bsc_i_sdcch_tch Figure 6: intercell TCH Assignment to super TRX procedure.Cell A (source.

3 Call Re-establishment impact In case of Call Re-establishment. This problem is not relevant when DCR is computed on area basis. • the actual number of Call Re-establishment in the cell is lower than successful estab_indication message on_SDCCH/TCH due to the failures. which may occur from the Establishment_indication (received from the BTS) to the Assignment_complete (sent to the MSC). 3020/3025 Drop: Drop: failure counter failure counter Figure 7: Call Re-establishment procedure (Traffic/Resource availability counters). No more counters are available to correct that value. the new cell will have one failure less. as far as concerns the network performance this failure is not negligible. this failure doesn’t lead to a dropped call due to the Call Reestablishment procedure. Cell A Drop: Drop: failure counter failure counter Re-establish: Re-establish: 1009. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 12 (60) . 3020/3025 Cell A Cell B Re-establish: Re-establish: 1009. 3020/3025 1009. and one seizure less also: therefore the failure is "cancelled" in the wrong cell. Where a = p_nbsc_res_access. this correction is a bit critical for two reasons: • in case the call is re-established on a different cell. not the seizure for Call Re-establishment is considered.tch_norm_seiz) and in the mean time a failure is recorded at the numerator. The following counters (belonging to Resource Access family) trigger the number of Establish_indications for Call Re-establishment: • • 003020 = a. a new TCH seized is recorded at the denominator (by means of counter 1009_ a. In this document two different approaches will be considered. Still. 3020/3025 1009.successful_estab_indication message on SDCCH. From the end user point of view. Figure 7 shows the Call Re-establishment procedure.5. Nevertheless. then the failure will be normally counted in the old cell. according to whether a drop followed by Call Re-establishment has to be counted or not. The final formula may be corrected by subtracting successful estab_indication message on SDCCH/TCH both from the numerator and the denominator: in this way nor the failure. instead. 003025: successful estab_indication message on TCH (if FACCH is enabled).

tch_seiz_due_sdcch_cong + b. i.1 CELL BASIS The DCR formula on cell basis is as follows (Call Re-establishment correction not taken into account): ( a.cell_sdcch_tch + b.tch_a_if_fail_call + a. • directed retry contribution is considered: 004044 + 004057 + 004074.tch_lapd_fail + + a.5. • The number of seizures for Direct Accessto Super TRX (001165) has to be subtracted from the number of normal seizures (001009).tch_tr_fail + + a.tch_abis_fail_old + + a.tch_norm_seiz + a. • The Call Re-establishment contribution might be considered or not: in the first case counters 3020 + 3025 have to be subtracted both from the numerator and the denominator.tch_abis_fail_call + a.msc_i_tch_tch + b. trigger point: TCH_channel_activation): 001009 + 001099.tch_act_fail_call ) (a. • Incoming handover contribution is considered ONLY if the DCR is computed on cell basis: 004043 + 004056.e. 5.tch_rf_old_ho + a. all TCH call phases are included in DCR computation (see Figure 8). since Direct Accessto Super TRX contribution is already taken into account by Directed Retry counters (004057 + 004074).tch_radio_fail + a.forced_releases + a.tch_tr_fail_old + a. The numerator is therefore simply the sum of all the failure counters with triggering period from TCH_channel_activation to Release (listed above).4 "GSM" Formula The most general DCR formula used in GSM network (thus nominated as "GSM" formula) counts all the TCH failures across the whole period where TCH is active. msc_i_sdcch_tch + b.bsc_i_tch_tch .bsc_i_sdcch_tch + b.e.4. At the denominator: • the number of TCH seizures for normal assignment and FACCH call setup is considered (i.tch_bcsu_reset + + a.tch_user_act + a.tch_bts_fail + a. TCH_ activation GSM Assignment_cmpl Connect_ack Disconnect Release Figure 8: call phases taken into account by "GSM" formula. • TCH assignment to super TRX contribution is taken into account by Directed Retry counters (004057 + 004074).a.tch_netw_act + a.succ_tch_seiz_dir_acc ) DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 13 (60) DCRCELL = .tch_aif_fail_old + a.

tch_seiz_due_sdcch_cong + b. TCH assignment contribution Incoming Handovers contribution Direct access contribution also included in 1009 5. msc_i_sdcch_tch + b.bsc_i_sdcch_tch + b.tch_radio_fail + a.tch_abis_fail_old + + a.tch_netw_act + a.Direct Access.tch_act_fail_call ) DCRAREA = (a.tch_a_if_fail_call + a.tch_lapd_fail + + a.Direct Access.tch_tr_fail + + a.forced_releases + a.tch_abis_fail_call + a.tch_tr_fail_old + a.1165) TCH seizured for normal assignment FACCH call setup contribution Directed Retry.tch_bcsu_reset + + a.4.tch_bts_fail + a.tch_rf_old_ho + a.2 AREA BASIS The DCR formula on area basis is as follows (Call Re-establishment correction not taken into account): ( a.1165) TCH seizured for normal assignment FACCH call setup contribution Directed Retry.cell_sdcch_tch .tch_aif_fail_old + a.TCH Failures from TCH_ch_activation to Release (1013 + 1014 + 1029 + 1030 + 1084 + 1085 + 1087 + 1088 + 1046 + 1047 + 1048 + 1049 + 1050 + 1070 +1081 ) DCRCELL = ( 1009 + 1099 + 4044 + 4057 + 4074 + 4043 + 4056 . TCH assignment contribution Direct access contribution also included in 1009 DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 14 (60) .a.succ_tch_seiz_dir_acc ) TCH Failures from TCH_ch_activation to Release (1013 + 1014 + 1029 + 1030 + 1084 + 1085 + 1087 + 1088 + 1046 + 1047 + 1048 + 1049 + 1050 + 1070 +1081 ) DCRAREA = ( 1009 + 1099 + 4044 + 4057 + 4074 .tch_user_act + a.tch_norm_seiz + a.

from TCH_channel_activation to Connect_ack) from the total amount of TCH failures.e. No more counters are available to correct this value. • Incoming handover contribution is considered ONLY if the DCR is computed on cell basis: 004043 + 004056. • Directed Retry contribution is considered: 004044 + 004057 + 004074. This formula will be referred as "1139" formula. since Direct Accessto Super TRX contribution is already taken into account by Directed Retry counters (004057 + 004074). • Call Re-establishment contribution might be considered or not: in the first case counters 3020 + 3025 have to be subtracted both from the numerator and the denominator.5 "1139" Formula The first DCR formula proposed in this document counts all the TCH failures in conversation (phase 15) and release (phase 4) phases only. Nevertheless this DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 15 (60) • . TCH_ activation Assignment_cmpl Connect_ack 1139 Disconnect Release Figure 9: call phases taken into account by "1139" formula. At the denominator: the number of the number of normal seizures (1009) is lowered by the amount of TCH failures in phase 2+3 (1139 + 1140 + 1081) since the starting point of time observation period has moved from TCH_channel_activation to Connect_ack. i. At the numerator the number of TCH failures in phases 15+4 is obtained by subtracting the number of TCH failures in setup phase 2+3 (i.5. The numerator is therefore equal to: "GSM" formula numerator – (1139 + 1140 + 1081). • FACCH call set up contribution is considered (1099). Please notice that: • FACCH call setup contribution (1009) at the denominator is considered starting from TCH_channel_activation: in fact the real number of TCH assignment for FACCH call setup is less due to TCH failures that might occur between TCH_channel_activation and Assignment_complete. • The number of seizures for Direct Accessto Super TRX (001165) has to be subtracted from the number of normal seizures (001009). the DCR is computed over the period from Connect_ack to Release of the call (see Figure 9).e. • TCH assignment to super TRX contribution is taken into account by Directed Retry counters (004057 + 004074).

tch_rel_due_bss_fail ) DCRCELL = (a.tch_aif_fail_old + a.tch_rel_due_radio_fail .tch_bcsu_reset + + a.a.e.tch_lapd_fail + + a.tch_user_act + a.a.succ_tch_seiz_dir_acc ) DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 16 (60) .tch_rf_old_ho + a. 1140 are also triggered in phases (9-11 and 12-14).5. counters 1139.tch_a_if_fail_call + a.1139 .bsc_i_sdcch_tch + b.bsc_i_sdcch_tch + b.tch_rel_due_bss_fail + a.tch_rf_old_ho + a. This causes an overestimation of the number of drops in setup phase.tch_rel_due_radio_fail + . The impact of incoming handover failures on "1139" formula will be analysed in session 8: RESULTS NORMAL CELLS.a. when the failures occur during handover.tch_act_fail_call . TCH assignment contribution Incoming Handovers Direct access contribution also contribution included in 1009 5.tch_tr_fail + + a.a.cell_sdcch_tch + b.forced_releases .tch_tr_fail_old + a.tch_tr_fail + + a.tch_norm_seiz .tch_seiz_due_sdcch_cong + b.bsc_i_tch_tch . msc_i_sdcch_tch + b.1140 + 1099 + 4044 + 4057 + 4074 + 4043 + 4056 . 5.a.tch_bcsu_reset + + a.tch_netw_act + a.msc_i_tch_tch + b.tch_rel_due_radio_fail + .tch_abis_fail_old + + a.Direct Access.tch_bts_fail + a. msc_i_sdcch_tch + b.2 AREA BASIS The DCR formula on area basis is as follows (Call Re-establishment correction not taken into account): ( a.a.tch_abis_fail_call + a.tch_bts_fail + a.tch_tr_fail_old + a.tch_radio_fail + a.a.tch_netw_act + a.tch_user_act + a.a.tch_act_fail_call .forced_releases .tch_rel_due_radio_fail .cell_sdcch_tch a.a. i.a.1139 .a.succ_tch_seiz_dir_acc ) TCH Failures from TCH_ch_activation to end of call TCH Failures from TCH_ch_activation to conn_ack (1013 + 1014 + 1029 + 1030 + 1084 + 1085 + 1087 + 1088 + 1046 + 1047 + + 1048 + 1049 + 1050 + 1070 DCRCELL = (1009 .tch_abis_fail_call + a.tch_norm_seiz .tch_lapd_fail + + a.5.tch_abis_fail_old + + a.tch_radio_fail + a.1165) TCH assigned for normal assignment FACCH call setup contribution Directed Retry. • As previously underlined.inaccuracy is negligible since the number of FACCH call setup seizures is much lower than the total number of TCH assignments. if the HO is started before conversation phase.tch_seiz_due_sdcch_cong + b.1140) .tch_a_if_fail_call + a. as failures during incoming handovers (phases 12-14) do not always mean drop of the calls.tch_aif_fail_old + a.1081 .tch_rel_due_bss_fail ) DCRAREA = (a.tch_rel_due_bss_fail + a.1 CELL BASIS The DCR formula on cell basis is as follows (Call Re-establishment correction not taken into account): ( a..

TCH Failures from TCH_ch_activation to end of call

TCH Failures from TCH_ch_activation to conn_ack

(1013 + 1014 + 1029 + 1030 + 1084 + 1085 + 1087 + 1088 + 1046 + 1047 + + 1048 + 1049 + 1050 + 1070 DCRAREA =
(1009 - 1081 - 1139 - 1140 + 1099 + 4044 + 4057 + 4074

- 1139 - 1140)

- 1165)

TCH assigned for normal assignment

FACCH call setup contribution

Directed Retry,Direct Access, TCH assignment contribution

Direct access contribution also included in 1009

DN01160043 Version 1 english

 Nokia Networks Company Confidential

17 (60)

5.6 "1148" Formula A second DCR formula proposed in this document counts all the TCH failures in setup phase 2, conversation (phase 15) and release (phase 4) phases, i.e. the DCR is computed over the period from Assignment_complete to Release of the call (see Figure 10). This formula will be referred as "1148" formula.
TCH_ activation

Assignment_cmpl

1148

Connect_ack

Disconnect

Release

Figure 10: call phases taken into account by "1148" formula.

At the numerator the number of TCH failures in phases 2+15+4 is obtained by subtracting the number of TCH failures in setup phase 3 (i.e. from TCH_channel_activation to Assignment_complete) from the total amount of TCH failures. The number of TCH failures in setup phase 3 (i.e. from TCH_channel_activation to Assignment_complete) is obtained as difference between the number of seizures for normal call (1009 - 1165) and the number of TCH normal assignments (1148). The numerator is therefore equal to: "GSM" formula numerator – (1009-1165-1148). At the denominator: the number of normal assignments (1148) is considered instead of the number of normal seizures (1009) since the starting point of time observation period has moved from TCH_channel_activation to Assignment_complete; • FACCH call set up contribution is considered (1099); • Directed Retry contribution is considered: 004044 + 004057 + 004074; • Incoming handover contribution is considered ONLY if the DCR is computed on cell basis: 004043 + 004056; • TCH assignment to Super TRX contribution is taken into account by Directed Retry counters (004057 + 004074); • Direct Accessto Super TRX contribution is taken into account by Directed Retry counters (004057 + 004074); • Call Re-establishment contribution might be considered or not: in the first case counters 3020 + 3025 have to be subtracted both from the numerator and the denominator. Please notice that: • FACCH call setup contribution (1009) at the denominator is considered starting from TCH_channel_activation: in fact the real number of TCH assignment for FACCH call setup is
DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential
18 (60)

less due to TCH failures that might occur between TCH_channel_activation and Assignment_complete. No more counters are available to correct this value. Nevertheless this inaccuracy is negligible since the number of FACCH call setup seizures is much lower than the total number of TCH assignments. • Since in phase 3 (i.e. from TCH_channel_activation to Assignment_complete) both TCH and SDCCH channels are active, the difference between the number of seizures for normal call (1009 - 1165) and the number of TCH normal assignments (1148) is also affected by the failures on SDCCH channel. Therefore the estimation of number of TCH failures in setup phase 3 (i.e. from TCH_channel_activation to Assignment_complete) is accurate as far as the failure on SDCCH in the same phase is negligible compared to TCH failures. No more counters are available to correct this inaccuracy. The impact of SDCCH failures on "1148" formula will be analyzed in session 8: RESULTS -NORMAL CELLS.

5.6.1 CELL BASIS The DCR formula on cell basis is as follows (Call Re-establishment correction not taken into account):
( a.tch_radio_fail + a.tch_rf_old_ho + a.tch_tr_fail +
+ a.tch_tr_fail_old + a.tch_abis_fail_call + a.tch_abis_fail_old + + a.tch_a_if_fail_call + a.tch_aif_fail_old + a.tch_lapd_fail + + a.tch_bts_fail + a.tch_user_act + a.tch_bcsu_reset + + a.tch_netw_act + a.forced_releases (a.tch_norm_seiz - a.succ_tch_seiz_dir_acc - a.ms_tch_succ_seiz_ass_compl)

DCRCELL =
(a.ms_tch_succ_seiz_ass_compl + b.msc_i_sdcch_tch +b.bsc_i_sdcch_tch + b.cell_sdcch_tch + b.msc_i_tch_tch + b.bsc_i_tch_tch )
TCH Failures from TCH_ch_activation to end of call

TCH Failures from TCH_ch_activation to Ass_cmpl

(1013 + 1014 + 1029 + 1030 + 1084 + 1085 + 1087 + 1088 + 1046 + 1047 + + 1048 + 1049 + 1050 + 1070 DCRCELL =
1148 + 4044 + 4057 + 4074 + 4043 + 4056)

- (1009 -1165 - 1148)

TCH assigned for normal assignment contribution

Directed Retry, Direct access to super, TCH assignment contribution

Incoming Handovers contribution

5.6.2 AREA BASIS The DCR formula on area basis is as follows (Call Re-establishment correction not taken into account):

DN01160043 Version 1 english

 Nokia Networks Company Confidential

19 (60)

tch_lapd_fail + + a.a.tch_abis_fail_call + a.ms_tch_succ_seiz_ass_compl) DCRAREA = (a.tch_bcsu_reset + + a.a. TCH assignment contribution DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 20 (60) .cell_sdcch_tch) TCH Failures from TCH_ch_activation to end of call TCH Failures from TCH_ch_activation to Ass_cmpl (1013 + 1014 + 1029 + 1030 + 1084 + 1085 + 1087 + 1088 + 1046 + 1047 + + 1048 + 1049 + 1050 + 1070 DCRAREA = 1148 + 4044 + 4057 + 4074 .tch_user_act + a. Direct access to super.(1009 -1165 .1148) TCH assigned for normal assignment contribution Directed Retry.( a.tch_bts_fail + a.ms_tch_succ_seiz_ass_compl + b.bsc_i_sdcch_tch + b.tch_radio_fail + a.succ_tch_seiz_dir_acc .tch_rf_old_ho + a.tch_abis_fail_old + + a.tch_tr_fail_old + a.tch_a_if_fail_call + a.tch_norm_seiz .msc_i_sdcch_tch +b.tch_tr_fail + + a.tch_aif_fail_old + a.tch_netw_act + a.forced_releases (a.

1 "Serlev" Formula A third DCR formula proposed in this document is based on a different counter family than the others. "Serlev" formula counts all the TCH failures in setup phase 2 and conversation (phase 15) i. the DCR is computed over the period from Assignment_complete to Disconnect (see Figure 11).est 57032 Outgoing Call re-est 57032 SDCCH -->SDCCH ext HO Internal Call re-est Figure 12: Serlev counters involved in "Serlev" formula: updating procedure. This formula will be referred as "Serlev" formula.6. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 21 (60) . TCH_ activation Assignment_cmpl Serlev Connect_ack Disconnect Release Figure 11: call phases taken into account by "Serlev" formula.e. in Norm ass 57033 57033 Intercell HO (int/ext) 57036 Intracell HO 57034 57036 4076 out DR (int/ext) TCH ass (intra/inter) 57033 DA (intra/inter) 57033 Normal release 57035 57037 Drop Incoming HO (int/ext) 57034 Drop Incoming call re. DCR FORMULAS BASED ON SERLEV COUNTERS 6. precisely Serlev Counter family.

1. internal intracell).1 NUMERATOR The number of TCH failures (Numerator) is computed by subtracting the number of normal releases from the number of assignments. The releases to be considered are: • • • Normal call release = 57035 =tch_norm_release. internal intercell. Call Re-establishment = 57032 = tch_re-est_assign Please notice that Direct Accessto Super TRX and TCH assignment to super TRX contribution is also included in counter 57033. notice that the counter 4073 (cell_tch_tch) belonging to Traffic family has to be subtracted from counter 57034(tch_ho_assign) so that only intercell handover contribution is taken at the denominator 6. internal intracell) = 57033 = tch_new_call_assign. TCH channel release due to outgoing handovers (external. Incoming Handover (external.1. Please.1.Figure 12 gives an overview of the counters involved in "Serlev" formula. internal intercell) = 57036 = tch_ho_release. internal intercell) contribution to be considered only when DCR is computed on cell basis Call Re-establishment contribution. The assignments to be considered are: • • • Normal assignment + Directed Retry (external.3 CELL BASIS The DCR formula on cell basis is as follows (Call Re-establishment correction not taken into account): DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 22 (60) . Incoming Handover (external. 6. internal intercell) = 57034 = tch_ho_assign. The main peculiarity with respect to the counters previously considered is that TCH failures do not trigger any failure counter: normal release counters are updated instead. 6.2 DENOMINATOR The denominator is computed by adding the different contributions to the assignments: • • • Normal assignment + Directed Retry (external. internal intercell. notice that in case of successful intracell handover both counters 57036(tch_ho_release) and 57034(tch_ho_assign) are incremented. thus compensating each other at the numerator (no extra correction is needed). Call re-established call release = 57037 = tch_re-est_release. Please.

 Nokia Networks Company Confidential 23 (60) DN01160043 Version 1 english .4 AREA BASIS The DCR formula on area basis is as follows (Call Re-establishment correction not taken into account): ( 57033 (tch_new_call_assign) + 57034 (tch_ho_assign) + 57032 (call_reest_assign) DCRAREA = . Call Re-establishment procedure has different impact on DCR formula according to whether a drop before re-establishment is considered as drop (as it actually is.( 57035 (tch_norm_release) + 57036 (tch_ho_release) + 57037(tch_re-est_release) ) ( 57033 (tch_new_call_assign) + 57032 (call_reest_assign) + ( c57034 (tch_ho_assign) .5 CALL RE-ESTABLISHMENT As already discussed for the Traffic/Handover based formulas. Directed Retry.1.4073 (cell_tch_tch) )) 6. TCH assignment TCH assignment for call reestablishment Outgoing handovers Call re-establishment release ( 57033 (tch_new_call_assign) + 57034 (tch_ho_assign) + 57032 (call_reest_assign) DCRCELL = . Figure 13 describes the Call Re-establishment procedure with Serlev counters.( 57035 (tch_norm_release) + 57036 (tch_ho_release) + 57037(tch_re-est_release) ) ( 57033 (tch_new_call_assign) + 57032 (call_reest_assign)) 6. as far as the network performance is concerned) or ignored (as perceived by the end user).1. Direct Access. Cell A Re-establish: Re-establish: 57032 57032 Assignment Assignment 57033 57033 Release Release 57037 57037 Drop Drop Cell A Assignment Assignment 57033 57033 Cell B Release Release 57037 57037 Drop Drop Re-establish: Re-establish: 57032 57032 Figure 13: Call Re-establishment procedure (Serlev counters).Handover_complete for intra/intercell. internal/external handovers Assignment_complete for normal assignment.

e. This formula may be corrected by eliminating the counter 57032(tch_call_re-est_assign) both from the numerator and the denumerator. Directed Retry. This problem is not relevant when DCR is computed on area basis. i. is as follows: ( 57033 (tch_new_call_assign) + 57034 (tch_ho_assign) + 57036 (tch_ho_release) + 57037(tch_re-est_release) ) . TCH assignment Outgoing handovers Call re-establishment release ( 57033 (tch_new_call_assign) + 57034 (tch_ho_assign) + DCRCELL = . is as follows: Handover_complete for intra/intercell. corrected so that call re-established dropped are not counted.The "Serlev" formula presented above counts every drop regardless if the call is going to be reestablished. whereas the new cell will have 1 assignment less and also 1 drop less. corrected so that call re-established dropped are not counted. The limitation of this correction is that in case the call is re-established on a different cell. For every call re-established. Direct Access. The DCR formula on cell basis. At the denominator the call re-established call is counted only once (1 assignment). internal/external handovers Assignment_complete for normal assignment.( 57035 (tch_norm_release) DCRAREA = 57033 (tch_new_call_assign) DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 24 (60) . then the old cell will have the drop. the failure is "cancelled" in the wrong cell.4073 (cell_tch_tch) )) TCH assignment for intercell HO (internal + external) The DCR formula on cell basis.( 57035 (tch_norm_release) + 57036 (tch_ho_release) + 57037(tch_re-est_release) ) ( 57033 (tch_new_call_assign) + ( c57034 (tch_ho_assign) . there will be 1 seizure less at the numerator and thus also 1 drop less.

b = p_nbsc_ho. • Also notice that Direct Accessto super TRX and TCH Assignment to super TRX contributions are counted twice: this leads to an overestimation of the formula denumerator where the IUO is active. This formula will be referred as "Conversation" formula.2 "Conversation" Formula In addition to the formulas already presented.e.2.2 DENOMINATOR At the denominator the number of TCH still in place at the Connect_ack is computed as sum of: • • • Normal seizures + FACCH call setup + Direct Accessto super + TCH assignment to super + incoming external handovers = 57015 = convers_started. Directed retry contribution = 004044 + 004057 + 004074 = b.cell_sdcch_tch Incoming internal handovers = 4056 = b. the DCR formula used in Conversation network was also taken into consideration during the analysis.bsc_i_tch_tch where a = p_nbsc_traffic.6. Please notice that Directed Retry and incoming internal handover contribution is taken into account by introducing Traffic/Handover counters in the formula as no Serlev counters are available for this target. 6. from Connect_ack up to Disconnect (see Figure 14). 6.3 CELL BASIS The DCR formula on cell basis is as follows: DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 25 (60) . for comparison and completeness.1 NUMERATOR At the numerator the failures are counted by means of the counter 57007 (dropped_calls). TCH_ activation Assignment_cmpl Connect_ack cegetel Disconnect Release Figure 14: call phases taken into account by "Conversation" formula.msc_i_sdcch_tch + b.2. 6. i.bsc_i_sdcch_tch + b.2. The impact of this on the DCR value will be analyzed and discussed in session 9: RESULTS – CELLS WITH IUO. "Conversation" formula is based on Serlev counters and tracks all the failures in conversation phase (phase 15) only.

ext incoming ho Directed Retry. TCH assignment contribution DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 26 (60) . ext outgoing ho 57007 (dropped_calls) DCRAREA = 57015 (convers_started) . Direct Access. Dir Access to super.c57009 (ext_ho_target_success) + 4044 + 4057 + 4074 TCH connect_ack for norm seiz. int outgoing ho. Direct Access. ext incoming ho Succ ext incoming ho (TCH-TCH & SDCCH-SDCCH) Directed Retry. int outgoing ho. TCH ass to super. TCH ass to super. ext outgoing ho 57007 (dropped_calls) DCRCELL = 57015 (convers_started) + 4044 + 4057 + 4074 + 4056 TCH connect_ack for norm seiz. Dir Access to super. FACCH call setup.4 AREA BASIS The DCR formula on area basis is as follows: TCH failures on calls.2. FACCH call setup. TCH assignment contribution Incoming Handovers contribution 6.TCH failures on calls.

SET3: Traffic Measurement Counters. 558 cells analyzed in 2 busy hours. • The collected data were grouped and averaged in several ways in order to test the formulas from several viewpoints. 558 cells analyzed on hour basis. 177 cells analyzed in 2 busy hours. This also allowed to better check the formulas reliability: obtained results were compared for all analyzed cases and from that the homogeneous behavior of the formulas was verified. ANALYZED DATA The formulas presented in the previous paragraphs were tested on live network. Handover Measurement Counters and Serlev Counters statistics. SET3:formulas tested on cell basis. 177 cells analyzed on hour basis. 66 cells analyzed on hour basis. SET3:formulas tested on cell basis. according to the operator needs. 12 cells with highest traffic load analyzed (separately) on hour basis.7. 6 cells with highest traffic load analyzed (separately) on hour basis. SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. so that to verify their reliability and to perform a detailed comparison with the formula actually used in GSM network ("GSM" formula). across a measurement period of 6 days. collected on hour basis for 558 cells. collected on hour basis for 66 cells. 177 cells analyzed on hour basis. No IUO. SET2:formulas tested on area basis. The performed analysis are listed below: • • • • • • • • • • • • SET1:formulas tested on cell basis. SET3:formulas tested on cell basis. No IUO. Notice that "cells with highest traffic load" are cells having an average number of assignment per hour of the order of 300-3000. nor call-re-establishment were active in this group of cells. Handover Measurement Counters and Serlev Counters statistics. across a measurement period of 1 day. Handover Measurement Counters and Serlev Counters statistics.1 Measurement counter statistics The following sets of data from GSM network were collected by GSM and subsequently analyzed by Nokia: • • SET1: Traffic Measurement Counters. SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. SET3:formulas tested on cell basis. SET2:formulas tested on area basis. across a measurement period of 1 day. nor call-re-establishment were active in this group of cells. 177 cells analyzed on daily basis. SET2: Traffic Measurement Counters. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 27 (60) . Two busy hours were taken into consideration: from 12:00-->13:00 and from 19:00-->20:00. 177 cells analyzed on daily basis. No IUO. nor call-re-establishment were active in this group of cells. collected on hour basis for 117 cells serving a contiguous area. 558 cells analyzed on daily basis. SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. SET1:formulas tested on cell basis. 66 cells analyzed on daily basis. 7.

DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 28 (60) . The results of these additional tests are presented and discussed in Appendix2.The following features were randomly active in the analyzed cells: • • • • • • Queuing Directed Retry The main Handover Functionality's (including Ho due to distance) Advanced Multilayer Handling Frequency Hopping SDCCH Handover IUO (IFH) and Call Re-establishment were active only in some set of cells in order to study separately the impact of these two features on the DCR formulas. from 30 ago to 03 sept This gives a total of 28 days distributed over 5 different cells: although this amount of data is not enough to perform statistical analysis. the results from statistics analysis were compared with data from Clear_Code_Observations collected by GSM for the following cells: • • • • • CELL1 CELL2 CELL3 CELL4 CELL5 8 days. from 9-12 july and from 16-19 july 6 days. from 30 ago to 03 sept 5 days. from 9-10 july and from 16-19 july 4 days. 7.2 BSC Clear Code Observation Measurements Where needed. nevertheless it is enough to point out specific problems or behaviors concerning failure counters and/or failure distribution among different call phases. from 11-12 july and from 16-17 july 5 days. 7.3 Test bed measurements: Additionally. some specific tests were performed in Nokia Test bed in order to verify the trigger points of some counters utilized in the "Serlev" formula.

40 1.8.00 1 Area .80 0.00 1.00 0.Day .DCR form GSM form 1139 form serlev form conv 2 3 4 5 6 Figure15:DCR formula (on area basis) comparison.1 Comparison of different formulas Figures 15-21 show the DCR results for the following different formulas as obtained from the analyzed data.60 1. RESULTS – NORMAL CELLS 8. "1139" formula and "Conversation" formula are showed in comparison with GSM actual formula. The DCR are calculated on day basis (6 days all together) for 177 cells SET2) 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1 2 Area_Day: GSM form 1139 form serlev form Conv form 3 4 5 6 Figure16:DCR formula on area basis: numerator comparison.20 1.20 0.80 1. Precisely. 2.60 0. "Serlev" formula. The DCR are calculated on day basis (6 days all together) for 177 cells (SET2) DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 29 (60) .40 0. The remaining proposal "1148" formula will be discussed later on in this chapter.

50 D 2.00 0.50 3.00 C 1.3.00 2. with a number of call/ho seizures from 2000 to 40000 per day. with a number of call/ho seizures from 2000 to 40000 per day DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 30 (60) .00 cell/day DCR formula comparison OGSMform 1139 form serlev form Conv form Figure17:DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison. The DCR are calculated on day basis (6 days all together) for 13 cells (SET2).50 0. The cells have variable traffic load. The cells have variable traffic load. 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 cell/day Numerator comparison form GSM form 1139 form serlev form conv Figure18:DCR formula on cell basis: numerator comparison.50 1. The DCR are calculated on day basis (6 days all together) for 13 cells (SET2).

The cells have variable traffic load. with a number of call/ho seizures from 1000 to 10000 per day nu 400 m 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 numerators form form form form conv cell Figure20:DCR formula on cell basis: numerator comparison. The cells have variable traffic load. The DCR are calculated on day basis (1 day) for 66 cells (SET1). The DCR are calculated on day basis (1 day) for 66 cells (SET1).Figure19:DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison. with a number of call/ho seizures from 1000 to 10000 per day DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 31 (60) .

"Serlev" formula being grater than "1139" means that. on average. as expected.50 1.3.00 2.00 0. These two periods are partially overlapped and therefore the difference between the two formulas depends on the amount of failures in both setup phase 2 (from Assignment_complete to Connect_ack ) and release phase 4 (from Disconnect to Release).50 0. the number of failures in setup phase 2 is grater than the number of failures in release phase 4.50 2.00 cell GSM 1139 serlev conv form DCR formula DCR Figure21:DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison.50 3. "Conversation" formula gives the lowest DCR estimation due to the fact that the TCH failure are counted over the shortest period (from Connect_ack to Disconnect). In general the analyzed data agree with the expected results thus confirming the reliability of the presented formulas. The DCR are calculated on day basis (1 day) for 62 cells (SET3). DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 32 (60) . In particular it can be noticed that: • • • "GSM" formula gives the highest DCR estimation due to the fact that the TCH failures are counted over the biggest period (from TCH_Channel_activation to Release of the call). with "Serlev" formula being on average grater than "1139". The formulas show similar behaviour in all the graphs. In fact "Serlev" formula counts the TCH failures from Assignment_complete to Disconnect. The DCR values predicted by "Serlev" and "1139" formulas lies in between the other 2 formulas. The cells belong to BSC 33207. whereas "1139" formula counts the TCH failures from Connect_ack to Release.00 1. Please notice that graphs and results relative to the remaining analyzed data agree with the shown ones.

SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. This information allows to separately monitor the different call phases thus immediately pointing out which one is the most critical for a given cell. SET2:formulas tested on cell basis.2 Distribution of failures From the comparison of the previously presented formulas. SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. BTS 11 (BSC1) analyzed on hour basis (high load). DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 33 (60) . SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. BTS 30 (BSC1) analyzed on hour basis (high load). 117 cells analyzed on hour basis (6 days). 117 cells analyzed on hour basis (6 days). to the following averaged data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SET1:formulas tested on cell basis. BTS 27 (BSC4) analyzed on hour basis (high load). SET2:formulas tested on area basis. SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. SET3:formulas tested on cell basis. SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. SET3:formulas tested on cell basis. Failure distribution 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% % 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% release phase conversation phase setup phase Figure22:Failure distribution among setup (ph2+3). the distribution of TCH failures among the call phases can be obtained. where the majority of failures occurs. BTS 10 (BSC1) analyzed on hour basis (6 days). i. BTS 12 (BSC1) analyzed on hour basis (high load). The operator can thus immediately focus any further analysis and action on the phase where the mean problem is. 117 cells analyzed on daily basis (6 days). respectively. Figures 22-23 show the TCH failure distribution obtained from the analyzed statistical data. SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. 117 cells analyzed in busy hour from 19:00->20:00 (6 days). 117 cells analyzed on daily basis (6 days). 558 cells analyzed on hour basis (1 day). Each column corresponds. 66 cells analyzed on daily basis (1 day). BTS 10 (BSC4) analyzed on hour basis (6 days). conversation (ph 15) and release (ph 4) phases as obtained from statistical data. 117 cells analyzed in busy hour from 12:00->13:00 (6 days).8.e. SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. 558 cells analyzed on daily basis (1 day). SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. SET2:formulas tested on cell basis. SET2:formulas tested on area basis.

DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 34 (60) .e. In Figure 23 the setup phase is further split into phase 3 (from TCH_Channel_activation to Assignment_complete) and phase 2 (from Assignment_complete to Connect_ack). conversation phase (i.e.Failure distribution in setup phase 60 50 40 % 30 20 10 0 Figure23:Failure distribution between setup phase 3 (from TCH_activation and Assignment_cmpl and setup phase 2 (from Assignment_cmpl to Connect_ack) as obtained from statistical data.e. phase 15. Figure 22 shows the failure distribution between setup phase (i. phase 4. from TCH_Channel_activation to Connect_ack). from Connect_ack to Disconnect) and release phase (i. from Disconnect to Release). Ass_cmpl--> conn_ack TCH_act --> Ass_cmpl Precisely. phase 2 and 3 together.

this result gives reliability to the percentages found.Failure distribution TCH_ activation GSM Assignment_cmpl Serlev Connect_ack 1139 OPI form conv Disconnect Release Figure24: Failure distributions among different call phases as can be obtain by comparison of different formulas. As far as the end user is concerned they are perceived as access failures and have therefore lower impact on the quality of the network. The amount of TCH failures during setup phase takes the 35-40% of the total failures. Therefore "GSM" formula gives a pessimistic estimation of the DCR perceived by the end users. thus confirming the reliability and usefullness of the formula under analysis. only 40-45% of the total TCH failures. conversation and release phases is quite uniform for all the considered cases: since the different columns correspond to data averaged on different basis refer to the data SET presented above. The non-perceived-by-the-end-user failures could be negligible and could be treated separately with different priorities. The failures really perceived by the end user as "dropped call" are. the "real" DCR can be considered on average 10-15% less than the calculated one. Nevertheless. The percentage of failures in the call phases was obtained as follows (also explained in Figure 24): • • • • • Phase 2+3 Phase 15 Phase 4 Phase 3 formula Phase 2+4 (num"GSM" formula – num"1139" formula)/num "GSM" formula num "Conversation" formula /num "GSM" formula (num"1139" formula – num"Conversation" formula)/num "GSM" formula (num"Serlev" formula – num"Conversation" formula)/num "GSM" (num"GSM" formula – num"Serlev" formula)/num "GSM" formula It can be noticed that: • The distribution of failures among setup. It is correct to threat  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 35 (60) • • • DN01160043 Version 1 english . these failures make the traffic load of the cell lower and need therefore to be reduced as much as it is possible. The 10-15% of failures occur during release phase: considering that these failures are totally negligible from the network performance point of view (the call is being terminated anyway). on average.

showing that these percentages reflect the real behavior of the network.• them separately from the conversation failures as usually they are originated by different types of problems. Figures 25-26 show the TCH failure distribution obtained from the Clear Code Observation data: each column corresponds to a given cell in a given day (or couple of days). DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 36 (60) . This result is confirmed by some Clear_Code_observation analysis described below. Failure distribution from CC_Obs 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Ce ll 11 % release phase conversation phase setup phase Ce Ce ll 1 ll 1 Ce ll 2 Ce Ce ll 2 ll 3 Ce ll 3 Ce Ce ll 4 ll 4 Ce ll 5 Figure25:Failure distribution among setup (ph2+3). The distribution of failures before and after Assignment_complete in the setup phase is not perfectly uniform: in some cases phase 2 is more critical. The results are in good agreement with the ones obtained by comparing the formula predictions. whereas in other cases it is the other way around and on average 50% is taken from each phase. conversation (ph 15) and release (ph 4) phases as obtained from Clear Code Observation data.

• cells CELL1. CELL2 and CELL3 are reported with and without half rate: this explains the slightly different behavior of the same cell in different days.CC_Obs 80 70 60 50 % 40 30 20 10 0 Ce Ce Ce Ce Ce Ce Ce Ce Ce Ce ll1 ll1 ll1 ll 2 ll2 ll3 ll3 ll4 ll4 ll5 Ass_cmpl-->connect TCH_act-->Ass_cmpl Figure26:Failure distribution between setup phase 3 (from TCH_activation and Assignment_cmpl and setup phase 2 (from Assignment_cmpl to Connect_ack) as obtained from Clear Code Observation data. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 37 (60) . Please notice that: • cell CELL5 presents a very high number of failures in call setup both on TCH and SDCCH this odd behavior is the reason of the odd failure distribution (compared to the others). the simultaneous usage of all the formulas is recommended in order to get the major benefit from a network monitor and optimization point of view. In conclusion. the results of this analysis confirm the reliability of the presented formulas.Failure distribution in setup phase .

2% with respect to the number of seizures: for 5000 seizures it corresponds to 10 units.50% Table1: "Serlev"formula numerator comparison with "GSM" and "Conversation" formulas as obtained from different data set analysis.2% for day and 5% for hour).50% 6 21% 6 19% 0.50% 1 4.60% 0. it can be noticed that: • • For measurement periods of 1 day. For a measurement period of 1 hour. the same calculation leads to a theoretical accuracy of 5% with respect the number of seizures. every call. In all cases the mismatches are much smaller than the theoretical estimation (0. in only 5% of cases the "Serlev" is greater than "GSM" numerator.20% 0.8.1% of cases the "Serlev" is lower than "Conversation" numerator.70% 2% 0.e. in general the "Serlev" formula is expected to be much more accurate than the above estimations: this is confirmed by the analyzed data. will lower the estimated failure number.3 Comments on Serlev Formula At the numerator of "Serlev" formula the number of TCH failures occurring inside a given measurement period is calculated as difference between all the normal assignments and all the normal releases triggered in the same measurement period. for measurement periods of 1 hour this occurs in 15% of cases.28% 0 0.08% 0 0. The impact of this effect on "Serlev" formula can be estimated as: (total number of seizures inside the measurement period)x(mean holding time)/(measurement period in minutes) For a mean holding time of 3 minutes and a measurement period of 1 day.60% 1% max % difference over seizures 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 66 117 117 558 117 117 117 1 2 2 11 2 2 2 normal normal normal normal normal normal normal cell area cell cell cell cell area day day day day hour hour hour 1 20% 6 0 6 1.09% 0.20% 5% 5% 5% 0 0 0. as discussed below. num serlev < num Conv num serlev > num GSM reference % difference averaged % difference over seizures averaged % difference over seizures 0 0 0.09% 0.20% 0.60% 1. the normal assignment was triggered in the previous measurement period).1 0. every call.12% 0.e. This effect makes the comparison between "Serlev" formula (where the TCH failures are triggered directly) and other formulas quite difficult.50% 6 23. In all cases the mismatches are much smaller than the theoretical estimation.20% 0. period n° BSCs cell type n° days n° cells zone 38 (60) . As a consequence of this implementation.3 18% 21% 29% 0 0 0.5 2% 2. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential max % difference over seizures area/cell basis meas. for measurement periods of 1 day. Notice that. In the same way.60% 0. the normal release will be triggered in the next measurement period). in only 0. Table1 shows the results from the analysed data. some cases were found where "Serlev" formula gives greater DCR than "GSM" formula and other cases where "Serlev" formula gives lower DCR than "Conversation" formula. for measurement periods of 1 hour this occurs in 20% of cases. In fact.40% 0. since the effects of ongoing calls at the starting/ending points of the measurement period compensate each other. which is already in place when the measurement period starts (i.12 3% 3% 2. which again corresponds (for 200 seizures) to 10 units. this gives a theoretical accuracy in failure prediction of 0. will increase the estimated failure number. which is still in place when the measurement period stops (i.1 0.06% 0.20% 0.

When the traffic load is stable the agreement between the formulas is optimum. which is equal to 325 units.g. respectively. This explains the difference between "Serlev" and "GSM" numerators.In case the traffic is increasing/decreasing across the measurement period. The effects just described have negligible impact on longer measurement periods (e. Figure 27 shows a case where this is happening: DCR formulas are plotted for the same group of cells (area basis) for different days.05)= 793.1 day). fGSM form 1139 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 form serlev form convl Area . but the whole trend across the time range is taken into account. then the comparison of "Serlev" and other formulas is more critical. as confirmed from the analyzed data. so that not only one single DCR value. equal to 23562 and 39433. The DCR are calculated on hour basis (24 hours x 6 days all together) for 177 cells (SET2).numerator hours/days Figure 27:DCR formula on area basis: numerator comparison.hour . then the Serlev formula will over/underestimate the DCR. The difference between the number of calls that are ongoing across the border of period 8:00-->9:00 (considering a mean holding time of 3 minutes) is equal to (39. "Serlev" formula gives reliable results for measurement periods of 1 day or longer. In conclusion. considering the measurement periods from 8:00-->9:00 and from 9:00--->10:00: the number of seizures inside the 2 periods is.05 – 23562*0. For a better comparison on hour basis it is strictly recommended to compare several subsequent hours across a big time range. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 39 (60) . whereas where the busy/night hours approach. On hour basis (especially when the traffic load is increasing or decreasing) it is suggested to use this formula always together with the others taking into account the whole trends.433*0. For example.

9 4. To tune these correction factors for each and every cell would be very time consuming and would require continuous updating as the network grows. %difference %diffeence 0. Nevertheless.0 0. One theoretical way to solve this inaccuracy would be introducing two correction factors multiplying the counters TCH_rel_due_radio_fail(1139) and TCH_rel_due_bss_fail(1140) so that only the "right portion" of counted failures is taken into account.0 7.0 6.0 1139 TCH cell1 cell1 cell1 cell1 cell2 cell2 cell2 cell3 cell3 cell4 cell4 cell5 cell5 09-10 jun 11-12 jun 16-17 jun 18-19 jun 09-10 jun 16-17 jun 18-19 jun 11-12 jun 18-19 jun 30 ago 31 ago 30 ago 31 ago 38 45 49 35 51 67 69 91 100 49 41 1 0 38 45 49 35 51 67 69 91 100 49 41 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 64 54 38 61 71 68 100 113 25 13 7 5 45 59 51 36 56 67 66 96 106 19 13 7 5 Table3: percentage of TCH failures occurring during an inc/out HO in setup phase (ph 2+3) as obtained from statistics and Clear Code Observation data.0 0. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 40 (60) 1140 TCH 1139 stat 1140 stat date cell .e. The numerator of the formula would then become: NUM1139 = (1013 + 1014 + 1029 + 1030 + 1084 + 1085 + 1087 + 1088 + 1046 + 1047 + + 1048 + 1049 + 1050 + 1070 .2 24. in case a failure occur on the target channel during handover.6 2. As result.1139*A .8. the formula can sometimes underestimate the real DCR value.6 5.0 0.3 8. a reasonable estimation of the maximum inaccuracy of formula "1139" can be computed as described below. "1139" formula can sometimes overestimate the real number of drops occurring before Connection_acknowledged: (a failure on target during handover does not always mean a drop).8 5. due to the fact that counters TCH_rel_due_radio_fail(1139) and TCH_rel_due_bss_fail(1140) are updated also in phases (1214) i.4 Comments on 1139 Formula As already pointed out in the previous paragraphs. The former information is obtained from Statistical Traffic Measurements. the latter is obtained from Clear Code Observation Measurements for the same cell.2 5.1140*B) The amount of TCH failures occurring during an handover in setup phase can be computed for a given cell by comparing the values of each counter (TCH_rel_due_radio_fail(1139) and TCH_rel_due_bss_fail(1140)) and the total number of TCH failures with the same (Radio/BSS) causes occurring in phases 2+3.

07 0. incoming and outgoing handovers.03 0.04 0. Considering also that: • the above given percentage include both.8 0.04. Figure 28 shows the comparison between "1139" formula with and without the correction factors.8 for TCH_rel_due_bss_fail(1140).8 0.70% 8. period tipo celle n° giorni n° celle n° BSC zona 41 (60) .04 0. • no TCH-TCH handovers can occur in phase 3 since the mobile is still on SDCCH channel: therefore the inaccuracy affects only phase 2 Reasonable "upper values" for the correction factors are: 1 for TCH_rel_due_radio_fail(1139) and 0.04 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 66 117 117 117 117 117 117 558 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 11 normal normal normal normal normal normal normal normal cell area area cell cell cell cell cell day day hour day hour hour hour day 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 1 5.8) area/cell basis meas.04 0.70% 8% 14% 14% 11% 7. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential delta % medio num 1139MOD(1140*0.50% 6. The two formulas were compared for all analyzed data (see Table3) and the resulting absolute shift between the two is around 0. The calculation was performed from Clear Code Observation data for 5 different cells and a total number of 21 days. It can be noticed that: • • Counter TCH_rel_due_radio_fail(1139) has never contribution from handover failures. 6 units). This can be taken as maximum inaccuracy of "1139" formula.02 0.Table3 shows the percentage of TCH failures occurring during an handover in setup phase with respect to the TCH failures in phases 2+3. delta abs medio form 1139MOD(1140*0. Counter TCH_rel_due_bss_fail(1140) has an averaged contribution of 6% from handover failures (both incoming and outgoing): only in one case the impact of handover failures is 24% (i.70% Table3: comparison between "1139" formula with and without the correction factors.e.

"1139" formula is characterized by an intrinsic inaccuracy that varies on cell and traffic basis. The DCR are calculated in Busy Hour (from 12:00-->13:00) for 63 high load cells (SET2).3 2.5 C 1 0. which can be taken as upper reference values.5 2 D 1. "1139" form is compared with "1139_MOD" where correction factors have been introduced. an upper estimation of this inaccuracy is 9% (-0. In conclusion. A part from this shift. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 42 (60) . this formula is quite reliable and useful to obtain an estimation of failure distribution in setup phase.5 0 cell 1139-1139_MOD formula GSM 1139 1139_MOD Figure 28:DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison.04 in DCR absolute value). Its usage is suggested together with "Serlev" and "1148" formulas.

On the other hand. "1148" formula can be therefore used to underline specific SDCCH problems in setup phase. meaning that this is not a critical cell from TCH point of view. thus leading to negative values of the formula. This is the main advantage of this formula.8.5 1148 Formula In the numerator of "1148" formula the number of TCH failures occurring after Assignment_complete is obtained by subtracting the difference TCH_norm_seiz(1009) . the difference between TCH_norm_seiz(1009) . Clear code observations were analyzed for a cell characterized by negative values of "1148" formula: the results of the analysis are summarized in Table4. this might be related to the high amount of failures in call setup.ass complt(1148) also includes the number of SDCCH failure in call setup. This is the reason why sometimes the following relation occurs: TCH_norm_seiz(1009) TCH_rel_due_bss_fail(1140) ass complt(1148) (1) > TCH_rel_due_radio_fail(1139) + Meaning that the cell under analysis is affected by a high number of SDCCH failures in call setup (phase 3). As already pointed out in the previous paragraphs. The traffic load of this cell is also quite low. It was found that the cell under analysis is affected by a huge amount of SDCCH abis failures (dx cause 306 = ass_fail_msg) in phase 3. average seizures 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 300 300 300 300 300 to12182 to12182 to12182 to12182 to12182 to02027 to02027 to02027 to02027 to02027 30 ago 31 ago 01 sett 2 sett 3 sett 30 ago 31 ago 01 sett 2 sett 3 sett 36 21 29 27 32 7 6 6 7 10 3 0 1 2 5 493 429 220 289 860 57 58 60 41 59 4 5 6 7 3 Table4: TCH and SDCCH failures in setup (ph3) and conversation (ph 15) phases as obtained from Clear Code Observation data. the number of TCH failures is very low. The setup phase of a call before Assignment_complete (phase 3) is very critical since both SDCCH and TCH channels are in place and the mobile has to move from one to the other channel. In some cases the SDCCH failures are higher than the total number of TCH failures. The standard SDCCH failure formulas do not make a distinction between this phase and the previous phases were SDCCH is in place.ass complt(1148) from the total number of TCH failures. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential tch fail conv tch fail ph3 sd fail ph3 cell-id data 43 (60) .

Table5 shows the results concerning relation (1). The observed positive shift between the two formulas is expected. as the high SDCCH failures in setup are not a problem that uniformly affects all cells. Table 6 and Figures 29-34 show the comparison between "1148" and "1139" formulas (only cases when relation (1) is not satisfied are considered). period 1 1 1 1 3 66 117 117 117 558 1 2 2 2 11 normal normal normal normal normal cell area area cell cell day day hour day day 1 77% 5 0. delta % medio sui fail num 1148 > 1139 area/cell basis meas. • When relation (1) is satisfied.14 6 98% 10% 44 0.18 6 90% 10% 11 0.07 8% DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential delta abs tipo celle n° giorni n° celle n° BSC zona 44 (60) .04 8% 6 100% 8.ass complt(1148)) and the number of TCH failures in call setup It can be noticed that: • Relation (1) is satisfied in a number of cases that varies with the analyzed cells. In case when relation (1) is not satisfied. whereas "1139" formula counts the TCH failures from Connect_ack to Release."1148" formula was analyzed and compared with the other formulas under study.5 10 delta abs medio form 1139-1148 area/cell basis meas. This is obvious. it is therefore not reliable as DCR formula.50% 1250 0.09 1 89% 6 0. "1148" form shows quite reliable results. 1009-1148 < setup fai averaged % difference over TCH total failures absolute difference 20 0 30 10 4 3. since "1148" formula counts the TCH failures from Assignment_complete to Release. period day day hour day hour hour day n° BSCs cell type n° cells 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 66 117 117 117 117 117 558 1 2 2 2 2 2 11 normal normal normal normal normal normal normal cell area area cell cell cell cell n°days 1 6 6 6 6 6 1 zone 23% 0 2% 10% 5% 6% 11% 26% 0 5% 13% 42% 33% 10% Table5: comparison between the difference (TCH_norm_seiz(1009) . the "1148" formula is optimistic by 5 % to 40 %: in these cases.

50 C 1.DCR 2.40 0.00 1 formGSM form 1139 form 1148 form conv 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 29: DCR formula (on area basis) comparison.00 0.00 D 1.40 1.50 0.00 2.00 cell/day 1139-1148 formula GSM form 1139 form 1148 form Figure 30: DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison.50 2.00 0. The DCR are calculated on day basis (6 days all together) for 13 cells (SET2). with a number of call/ho seizures from 2000 to 40000 per day DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 45 (60) .60 0.20 1.20 0. The cells have variable traffic load.80 1.80 0.Table6: comparison between the difference (TCH_norm_seiz(1009) .Day .00 1.60 1. The DCR are calculated on day basis (6 days all together) for 177 cells (SET2) 3.ass complt(1148)) and the number of TCH failures in call setup Area .

40 0. The DCR are calculated on day basis (1 day) for 38 cells (SET1). with a number of call/ho seizures from 1000 to 10000 per day 3 2.80 D 0. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 46 (60) . The DCR are calculated in busy hour from 12:00-->13:00 for 54 high load cells (SET2).5 C 1 0.5 0 cell formGSM form 1139 form 1148 1139-1148 form Figure 32: DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison.00 0.5 2 D 1.20 1.1.00 cells DCR formula form GSM form 1139 form 1148 Figure31:DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison.60 C 0. The cells have variable traffic load.20 0.

50 3.00 0.ass complt(1148) = SDCCH_Failures(ph3) + TCH_Failures(ph3) Where SDCCH_Failures(ph3) is the total amount of SDCCH failures in phase 3 and TCH_Failures(ph3) is the total amount of TCH failures in phase 3.00 2.5 2 D 1. The DCR are calculated on day basis (1 day) for 40 cells (SET3).00 1.3. Also notice that: DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 47 (60) . The cells belong to BSC 33207. Notice that: TCH_norm_seiz(1009) . The DCR are calculated in busy hour from 12:00-->13:00 for 60 high load cells (SET2).50 2.5 C 1 0. 3 2. Please notice that graphs and results relative to the remaining analyzed data agree with the shown ones.00 cell GSM 1139 1148 DCR formula DCR Figure33:DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison.50 0.50 1.5 0 cell formGSM 1139 1148 1139-1148 form comparison - Figure34:DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison.

(2) + (TCH_Failures_inc_ho(ph2) + TCH_rel_due_radio_fail(1139) + When relation (1) is not satisfied. and SDCCH_Failures(ph3) subtract each other in relation (2): since these 2 terms are totally uncorrelated. the previous relation is grater than zero. This leads to 2 observations: • TCH_Failures_inc_ho(ph2) which is the inaccuracy of "1139" form is less than the difference between the 2 formulas: the difference between the 2 formulas can be taken as "upper limit" for "1139" formula. thus confirming the sensibility of the estimation. meaning that the inaccuracy of "1139" formula can not be grater. • The two terms TCH_Failures_inc_ho(ph2). Therefore the difference between "1148" and "1139" formula numerators: Ass_complt(1148) TCH_norm_seiz(1009) TCH_rel_due_bss_fail(1140) Is equal to: TCH_Failures(ph2) + TCH_Failures:out_ho(ph2) SDCCH_Failures(ph3)).07 between the two formulas): this value is very closed to the "upper inaccuracy estimation" previously found for "1139" formula.TCH_rel_due_radio_fail(1139) + TCH_rel_due_bss_fail(1140)= TCH_Failures(ph3) TCH_Failures(ph2) + TCH_Failures:out_ho(ph2) + TCH_Failures_inc_ho(ph2) + Where TCH_Failures(ph2) is the total amount of TCH failures in phase 2 and TCH_Failures:out_ho(ph2) is the total amount of TCH failures during an outgoing handover in setup phase and TCH_Failures_inc_ho(ph2) is the total amount of TCH failures during an incoming handover in setup phase. The average shift between the two numerator is around 8% (which corresponds to an absolute shift of 0. then on average they compensate each other and therefore the difference between "1148" and "1139" formula numerators is very closed to the number of TCH failures in phase2. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 48 (60) .

8 1.2 0 GSM form 1139 form 1148 form serlev form convl form 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 :0 19 12 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 20 19 19 18 19 12 10 18 12 19 19 19 18 12 19 12 Figure 35: DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison.6 1.6 0.6 0. For clearness "Serlev" formula has been taken away from the graph. The DCR are calculated in cell Busy Hour for 8 cells (SET2).4 1. The cells are high traffic cells (i.4 0.e.8 0.4 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 20 19 19 18 19 12 10 18 12 19 19 19 18 12 19 12 16 19 12 :0 0 GSM form 1139 form 1148 form conv form Figure 36: DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison.8 0.4 1. 2 1. The DCR are calculated in cell Busy Hour for 8 cells (SET2). 2000 to 4000 seizures per hour) and are distributed under two different BSCs.6 Cell-BH The results of different proposals were compared on cell Busy Hour.8. The busy hours are indicated on the x-axis.6 1. 16 :0 0 2 1. For each cell the Busy Hour was selected and the behavior was analyzed over 6 days. the "Serlev" formula gives often unreliable results due to the rapidly changing traffic load in the cell: again. it is recommended to use this formula over a longer observation period or by looking at the trend over few subsequent hours. For this purpose 8 cells from SET2 were selected. As already pointed out.2 1 0. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 49 (60) . The busy hours are indicated on the x-axis.8 1.2 1 0. Figure 35 shows the comparison between all the presented formulas.

8 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 :0 20 19 19 18 19 12 10 18 12 19 19 19 18 12 19 12 16 19 12 :0 0 GSM form 1139 form 1148 form conv form 1139 mod Figure 37: DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison.2 1 0. "1148" and "Conversation" formulas are showed again in Figure 36 for clearness: they confirm what already found in the previous sessions. 2 1.4 0. "1139" formula with correction factors is also showed. In Figure 37 "1139" formula with the Correction Factors is also introduced. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 50 (60) .8 0. "1139".6 0. The busy hours are indicated on the x-axis. The DCR are calculated in cell Busy Hour for 8 cells (SET2). confirming that the possible estimated shift of "1139" is well inside the difference between "1139" and "1148" formulas.The results from "GSM".4 1.6 1.

Precisely 40 cells are regular cells. showing the reliability of the formulas. Figure 38 shows the comparison between all the proposed DCR formulas for the regular cells. Traffic.9. The DCR are calculated on daily basis (6 days all together) for 14 regular cells characterized by a number of handovers for good C/I ratio grater than 500.Formula GSM F1139 1148 sserlev convl Figure38:DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison. 3 cells are child cells and the remaining 111 cells are normal cells.numerator 1139 1148 serlev cell Figure39: DCR formula on cell basis: numerators comparison. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cell IUO cells . RESULTS – CELLS WITH IUO The Intelligent Underlay Overlay impact on DCR formulas was verified by analyzing a set of 152 cells where the feature was active. The trend agrees with the results found for normal cells. Handover. Serlev measurement counters statistics were given on hour basis for a period of 6 days. The DCR are calculated on daily basis (6 days all together) for 14 regular cells characterized by a number of handovers for good C/I ratio grater than 500 DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 51 (60) . 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 IUO cells .

child cells form GSM form 1139 form 1148 form conv Figure40: DCR formula on cell basis comparison. in child cells there are no normal seizures and all the TCH are assigned with the handover procedure. therefore the setup phase of the call is carried on in the parent cell. 0.80 0.Figure 40 shows the comparison between the DCR formulas for the child cells.40 C 0. This specific issue needs to be further analyzed separately from this consultancy activity. The DCR are calculated on daily basis (6 days all together) for 3 child cells.70 0. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 52 (60) . It can be noticed that "GSM" formula and "1148" formula are totally overlapped. In fact.50 D 0.20 0. Please notice that "Serlev" formula is not included in this comparison since.00 cells DCR formula comparison .60 0.10 0. it gives odd-high values. in case of child cells.30 0.

thus leading to an averaged shift of 6.10 0.40 R 0. "Conversation" formula shift is also showed. The DCR are calculated on daily basis (6 days all together) for 3 child cells. Although the cases of Direct Accessare not negligible (more than 1000 per day).70 0.12% on DCR values (which corresponds to an absolute shift of 0. "Conversation" formula denominator double counts the TCH assignment for Direct Accessand TCH assignments to super reuse.50 DC 0. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 53 (60) .20 0.60 0. there were no cases of TCH assignments to super reuse: it is therefore possible to correct the formula by subtracting the number of TCH seizure for Direct Access(counter c1165) from the denominator. The effect of this inaccuracy of "Conversation" form on DCR value is shown in Figure 41 and Table 7.12 6. they are only a small portion of the total number of assignment.30 0. For the examined child cells.02).80 0. 0. % difference between denominators % difference between formulas absolute difference between formulas 6. in particular.02 Table 7: Inaccuracy of "Conversation" formula in case of Direct Accessand TCH assignment are active in the network.00 cells DCR formula comparison form GSM form 1139 form 1148 form conv form conv_MOD Figure41: DCR formula on cell basis comparison.As already discussed in the theoretical part of this report.12 0.

1. call re-est = no drop call re-est = drop DCR DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 54 (60) . Figure 42 shows the comparison between "Serlev" formulas when Call Re-establishment is considered or not.4 0.2 1 0.10. The DCR are calculated on daily basis (6 days all together) for 21 cells characterized by a number of TCH_re-establishment_Assign grater than zero. the two approaches lead to different DCR formulas.3 and 6.05 which corresponds to 13% of averaged percentage shift. RESULTS – CALL RE-ESTABLISHMENT The impact of Call Re-establishment on the DCR formulas was separately evaluated. A set of 53 cells covering a contiguous area was studied over a period of 6 days. As already described in sessions 5.4 1. The averaged absolute shift between DCR values is 0. Call Re-establishment procedure has different impact on DCR formula according to whether a drop before re-establishment is considered as drop (as it actually is. Call Re-establishment = drop means that all the drop are counted regardless if the calls are re-established afterwords. as far as the network performance is concerned) or ignored (as perceived by the end user). Call Re-establishment = no drop means that only those drops that are not re-established are taken into account in DCR computation.6 0.1. Particularly.6 1.2 0 cell/day Figure42:DCR formula (on cell basis) comparison: Call Re-establishment impact.5.8 0.

different observation periods.Chapter 2. CONCLUSIONS A complete analysis of possible DCR formula proposals has been performed.7 Supplementary manual 13. Particular attention was given to the comparison with the Formula actually used in GSM network.1 Functional Description [2] S9 Nokia Electronic Documentation (NED) . GLOSSARY DCR IUO IFH AMH Drop Call Rate Intelligent Underlay Overlay Intelligent Frequency Hopping Advanced Multilayer Handling 14. All the proposals were then tested in live network. Each proposal has been studied from the theoretical viewpoint and involved counters have been investigated. VERSION HISTORY Version 1-0 Date approved 2001-10-23 Version history First version DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 55 (60) . different observation areas and different types of cells.11. 12.Chapter 3. From the comparison peculiarities and limitations of each proposal were underlined. REFERENCES [1] S9 Nokia Electronic Documentation (NED) . The final output is that major benefit can be obtained (from a network optimisation point of view) by taking all the proposals simultaneously in place. taking into account different network configurations.

The dedicated channel can only be a TCH. The dedicated channel can be an SDCCH or a TCH. handover phases: • phase 9 covers the external handover signaling of the source side on an SDCCH and a TCH. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 56 (60) .15. • phase 14 covers the internal inter-cell handover signaling for the target side on an SDCCH or a TCH. The MM signaling is transparent for the BSC occurring on an SDCCH or TCH. phase 4 covers the release on an SDCCH or a TCH. In addition to these. • phase 10 covers the internal intra-cell handover signaling of the source side on an SDCCH and a TCH. phase 3 covers the mobile subscriber assignment signaling from the SDCCH to the TCH by means of the Basic Call Setup.1 Appendix 1. • phase 11 covers the internal inter-cell handover signaling for the source side on an SDCCH or a TCH. there are other signaling phases: • phase 5 covers the FACCH call setup assignment signaling (from Assignment_request to Alert): it is the same as phase 3 where FACCH call setup is active. A complete description of call phases can be found in Ref [1]. • phase 13 covers the internal intra-cell handover signaling for the target side on an SDCCH and a TCH. There are then phases covering SMS establishment: • phase 6 covers the SMS establishment signaling of a TCH. Precisely: • • • • • phase 1 covers the starting signaling of the mobile originating and the mobile terminating call establishment. • phase 12 covers the external handover signaling for the target side on an SDCCH and a TCH. • phase 7 covers SDCCH SMS establishment. phase 15 covers MM signaling between the MS and the MSC during conversation on a TCH. Call Phases Figure 43 shows the main phases of a call. The dedicated channel can only be a TCH. The dedicated channel can be an SDCCH or TCH. APPENDICES 15. The dedicated channel can only be an SDCCH. 8 covers ciphering signaling (from to • phase Chipering_mode_command Chipering_mode_complete): it is a sort of "bracket" inside phase2. phase 2 covers the MM signaling between the mobile subscriber and the MSC.

DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 57 (60) .Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 2 Phase 15 Phase 4 Figure43: main call phases.

3 Intracell HO 2.1 External HO 2. • Test 2. 57033 tch_new_call_assign 1.1 target target source Targe t source Targe t ok Ok ok Ok ok target ok ok ok target target target source target source ok ok ok ok ok target ok ok ok Purpose: Verify counter updating during External Directed Retry procedure. The test has been executed forcing a Directed Retry for MOC. The results show that the tested counters follow the expected behavior according to NED documentation (Ref [2]). The counters 57033(tch_new_call_assign) and 57035(tch_normal_release) were correctly updated on the target cell. the call was subsequently released. • Test 1. The call was subsequently released. The counters 57033(tch_new_call_assign) and 57035(tch_normal_release) were correctly updated on the target cell.1 External DR 1.2 Appendix 2.4 Intracell IUO HO 3. The test has been executed forcing a Directed Retry for MTC. Tests on Serlev Counters Following is the description of tests executed in Nokia test bed in order to verify the correct updating of Serlev counters.1 Intracell TCH assignment to super 3.2 Purpose: Verify counter updating during Internal Intercell Directed Retry procedure.1 Purpose: Verify counter updating during External Handover procedure. The test results are summarized in Table 8. • Test 1.2 Internal Intercell HO 2.15. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 57037 tch_re-est_release 57035 tch_norm_release 57032 tch_re-est_assign 57036 tch_ho_release 57034 tch_ho_assign test n° 58 (60) .2 Internal DR 2. The parameter DISABLEINTERNALHO = Y so that the handover was MSC-controlled.2 Intercell TCH assignment to super 4 Intracell Direct Accessto super 5 Stability test Table 8: List of performed tests.

The call was subsequently released. The test has been executed forcing an Intracell TCH Assignment to super TRX for MOC and MTC. The counters DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 59 (60) . The counters 57033(tch_new_call_assign) and 57036(tch_ho_release) were correctly updated on the source cell.The test has been executed forcing intercell Handover for MOC. The counters 57033(tch_new_call_assign) and 57035 (tch_normal_release) were correctly updated on the cell. 57034(tch_ho_assign) and 57035 (tch_normal_release) were correctly updated on the cell both for MOC and MTC. • Test 2.1 Purpose: Verify counter updating during Intracell TCH Assignment to super TRX procedure. counters 57036(tch_ho_release). The counters 57033(tch_new_call_assign) and 57036(tch_ho_release) were correctly updated on the source cell. • Test 2. The parameter DISABLEINTERNALHO = Y so that the handover was MSC-controlled. • Test 2. the call was subsequently released.3 Purpose: Verify counter updating during Internal Intercell IUO (parent --> child) Handover procedure. 57036(tch_ho_release). The test has been executed forcing an intracell Handover for good C/I ratio from regular layer to super layer and than an handover back from super layer to regular layer (for bad C/I ratio). The call was subsequently released. • Test 3. The call was subsequently released. counters 57034(tch_ho_assign) and 57035 (tch_normal_release) were correctly updated on the target cell (child). The test has been executed forcing intercell Handover for MOC. The call was subsequently released. The call was subsequently released.5 Purpose: Verify counter updating during Intracell IUO Handover procedure. 57034(tch_ho_assign) were correctly updated for both intracell handovers. counters 57034(tch_ho_assign) and 57035 (tch_normal_release) were correctly updated on the target cell.4 Purpose: Verify counter updating during Intracell Handover procedure. The test has been executed forcing intercell Handover for good C/I ratio (from parent ---> child).2 Purpose: Verify counter updating during Internal Intercell Handover procedure. counters 57034(tch_ho_assign) and 57035 (tch_normal_release) were correctly updated on the target cell. The counters 57033(tch_new_call_assign) and 57036(tch_ho_release) were correctly updated on the source cell (parent). The test has been executed forcing intracell Handover for MOC and MTC. • Test 2. The counters 57033(tch_new_call_assign).

• Test 5 Purpose: Verify counter updating during a stability test. • Test 3. the call was subsequently released. the call was subsequently released. The test has been executed forcing an Intercell (parent ---> child) TCH Assignment to super TRX for MOC. Traffic measurements. The counters 57033(tch_new_call_assign) and 57035(tch_normal_release) were correctly updated.57033(tch_new_call_assign) and updated for both MOC and MTC. The total duration of the test was 14 hours. DN01160043 Version 1 english  Nokia Networks Company Confidential 60 (60) . All the counters were correctly updated and no discrepancies between different counter family results were observed.2 57035(tch_normal_release) were correctly Purpose: Verify counter updating during Intercell TCH Assignment to super TRX procedure. The stability test consisted of subsequent ms-ms calls. The counter statistics were recorded and checked with the NMS. The counters 57033(tch_new_call_assign) and 57035(tch_normal_release) were correctly updated on the target cell (child). The test has been executed forcing an Intracell Direct Accessto super TRX for MOC. • Test 4 Purpose: Verify counter updating during Intracell Direct Accessto super TRX procedure. Handover measurements and Serlev counters measurements were active. Intracell handovers were continously forced during each call.

Sign up to vote on this title